Today in History - March 11

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222        Mar 11, Varius A. Bassianus (18), Syrian emperor of Rome (218-22), was murdered.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

537        Mar 11, The Goths lay siege to Rome.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

638        Mar 11, Sophronius of Jerusalem, saint, patriarch of Jerusalem, died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1302        Mar 11, Romeo and Juliet were married on this day, according to Shakespeare.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)

1513        Mar 11, Giovanni de' Medici became Pope Leo X. The Medici Pope Leo X led the Catholic Church until 1521.
    (OG)(MC, 3/12/02)

1544        Mar 11, Torquato Tasso, Italian Renaissance poet (Aminta, Apologia), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1566      Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1649        Mar 11, The peace of Rueil was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1665        Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1669        Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily erupted  killing 15,000. [see Mar 25]
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1702        Mar 11, The Daily Courant, the first regular English newspaper was published.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1731        Mar 11, Robert Treat Paine, Declaration of Independence signer, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1791        Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1795        Mar 11, Battle at Kurdla,  India: Mahratten beat Moguls.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1801        Mar 11, Paul I (46), Czar of Russia (1796-1801), was strangled in his bedroom in St. Petersburg ending 4 years of insane rule. His son Alexander I Pavlovich (23) succeeded him.
    (PCh, 1992, p.360)(SS, 3/23/02)

1810        Mar 11, Emperor Napoleon of France was married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)

1811        Mar 11, Urbain Jean Joseph le Verrier, co-discoverer (Neptune), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1811        Mar 11, Ned Ludd led a group of workers in a wild protest against mechanization. Members of the organized bands of craftsmen who rioted against automation in 19th century England were known as Luddites and also "Ludds." The movement, reputedly named after Ned Ludd, began near Nottingham as craftsman destroyed textile machinery that was eliminating their jobs. By the following year, Luddites were active in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Leicestershire. Although the Luddites opposed violence towards people (a position which allowed for a modicum of public support), government crackdowns included mass shootings, hangings and deportation to the colonies. It took 14,000 British soldiers to quell the rebellion. The movement effectively died in 1813 apart from a brief resurgence of Luddite sentiment in 1816 following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
    (HN, 3/11/01)(HNQ, 5/14/01)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1812        Mar 11, Citizenship was granted to Prussian Jews.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1824        Mar 11, The U.S. War Department created the Bureau of Indian Affairs. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white man's world at large. He went on to become the first Indian to lead the Bureau.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1832        Mar 11, Franz Melde, German physicist (Melde test), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1845        Mar 11, Seven hundred Maoris led by their chief, Hone-Heke, burned the small town of Kororareka in protest at the settlement of Maoriland by Europeans, in breach with the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.
    (http://homeoint.org/cazalet/histo/pennsylvfem.htm)

1860        Mar 11, Thomas Hastings, architect of the New York Public Library, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1861        Mar 11, The Confederate convention in Montgomery, Ala., adopted a constitution. Representatives from the 7 Confederate states ratified the constitution of the Confederate states of America.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(Econ, 12/1/12, p.34)

1862        Mar 11, Pres. Lincoln suspended General George McClellan from command of all the Union armies so that McClellan could concentrate on the Army of the Potomac and Richmond.
    (www.civilwarhome.com/macbio.htm)

1863        Mar 11, A naval engagement occurred between the CSS Alabama and the USS Hatteras.
    (HN, 3/11/98)
1863        Mar 11, Union troops under General Ulysses S. Grant gave up their preparations to take Vicksburg after failing to pass Fort Pemberton, north of Vicksburg.
    (HN, 3/11/99)
1863          Mar 11, A Lithuanian ruling group replaced a committee for the lead in an uprising.
    (LHC,3/11/03)

1865        Mar 11, General Sherman and his forces occupied Fayetteville, N.C. Union General William Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, "a hell of a damn fool." At Monroe's Cross Roads, N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman's point.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1867        Mar 11, Great Mauna Loa volcano eruption in Hawaii.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1869        Mar 11, Vladimir Odoevsky, Russian prince, senator, scientist writer and critic, died. A collection of his short stories was translated to English in 2012.
    (NYT, 9/27/12, p.7)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Odoevsky)

1874        Mar 11, Charles Sumner (63), a white civil rights leader, died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1884        Mar 11, Gen. Gordon learned that the telegraph cable to Cairo had been cut. Khartoum soldiers killed 5 Mahdists at Halfaya. Mahdist insurgents in return massacred 150 men from the Khartoum garrison as they were cutting wood.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)

1885        Mar 11, Sir Michael Campbell, the first motorist to exceed 300 mph, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1888        Mar 11-14, The famous "Blizzard of ‘88" struck the northeastern United States, resulting in some 400 deaths. New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington were cut off for days.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.A7)

1890        Mar 11, Vannevar Bush was born. He developed the 1st electronic analogue computer.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1892        Mar 11, Raoul Walsh, director (Thief of Baghdad, Battle Cry), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1899        Mar 11, Frederick IX, King of Denmark, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1900        Mar 11, British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury rejected the peace overtures offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1905        Mar 11, The Parisian subway was officially inaugurated.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1906        Mar 11, The Simplified Spelling Board was announced with Andrew Carnegie funding the organization, to be headquartered in New York City. In August Pres. Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order mandating simplified spelling in all government administrative documents.
    (Econ, 8/30/08, p.19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplified_Spelling_Board)

1907        Mar 11, President Roosevelt induced California to revoke its anti-Japanese legislation.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1908        Mar 11, Lawrence Welk, orchestra leader, was born in Strasburg, ND.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1911        Mar 11, The Cadillac Division of General Motors demonstrated the first electric self starter, enabling women to drive alone. Charles Kettering created the first successful electric self-starter for Cadillac. It was introduced in the 1912 model. The perfection of the self-starter by inventor Charles Kettering enormously expanded the market for the automobile. Kettering, born in Londonville, Ohio, in 1876, had invented an electric cash register motor while at the National Cash Register Company in 1906. In 1909 he organized the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, later known as Delco, and soon made notable improvements in automobile ignition and lighting systems. His self-starter was introduced in the 1912 Cadillac. He founded the Charles F. Kettering Foundation dedicated to natural science research and was co-founder of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.  Kettering died in 1958.
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)(F, 10/7/96, p.67)(HNQ, 3/3/99)

1917        Mar 11, British troops occupied Baghdad.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1919        Mar 11, A general strike in Germany was crushed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1926        Mar 11, Ralph David Abernathy, civil rights leader, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1927        Mar 11, The 1st armored commercial car hold-up in US took place in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1929        Mar 11, Major Seagrave broke the auto speed record in Daytona Beach. He reached an average of 223.2 mph in a 450 horse powered Golden Arrow.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1930        Mar 11, Former President and Chief Justice Taft was the first U.S. president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, Va.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(AP, 3/11/02)
1930        Mar 11, Silvio Gesell (b.1862), German merchant and theoretical economist, died. He was an ethical vegetarian, considered himself a world citizen and believed Earth should belong to all people, regardless of race, gender, class, wealth, religion. Based on his theories the Bavarian coalmining village of Schwanenkirchen created an alternative currency in 1931 called the wara, which obligated its holder to pay a tax. This encouraged all users of the currency to get rid of it as soon as possible.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silvio_Gesell)(Econ, 1/24/09, p.81)

1931        Mar 11, Rupert Murdoch, media baron, was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (WSJ, 6/5/07, p.A20)(www.filmreference.com/film/22/Rupert-Murdoch.html)
1931        Mar 11, The USSR banned the sale or importation of Bibles.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1941        Mar 11, President Roosevelt authorized the Lend-Lease Act and signed into law the Lend-Lease Bill, providing war supplies to countries fighting the Axis.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)

1942        Mar 11, As Japanese forces continued to advance in the Pacific during World War II Gen. Douglas MacArthur left Corregidor in the Philippines for Australia. MacArthur, who subsequently vowed, "I shall return," kept that promise more than 2 1/2 years later. MacArthur relinquished command in the Philippines to Gen’l. Jonathon Wainwright.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 3/11/98)(http://tinyurl.com/736ws)
1942        Mar 11, 1st deportation train left Paris for the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1942        Mar 11, Japanese troops landed on North Sumatra.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 11, 1,000 allied bombers harassed Essen with 4,662 tons of bombs.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 11, Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1948        Mar 11, Reginald Weit became the 1st black to play in the US Tennis Open.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1948        Mar 11, Jewish Agency of Jerusalem was bombed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1950        Mar 11, Jerry Zucker, film director and TV producer, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0958387/)

1952        Mar 11, Douglas Adams, British writer, (The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy), was born.
    (HN, 3/11/01)

1953        Mar 11, F.M. Adams became the 1st US commissioned woman army doctor.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1953        Mar 11, An American B-47 accidentally dropped a nuclear bomb on South Carolina, however the bomb did not go off due to 6 safety catches.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)

1954        Mar 11, The U.S. Army charged that Wisconsin Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy and his subcommittee's chief counsel, Roy Cohn, had exerted pressure to obtain favored treatment for Pvt. G. David Schine, a former consultant to the subcommittee. The confrontation culminated in the famous Senate Army-McCarthy hearings.
    (AP, 3/11/04)

1955        Mar 11, Alexander Fleming (73), English bacteriologist (penicillin), died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1956        Mar 11, Curtis L. Brown Jr., astronaut (STS 47, STS 66, 77, 85, sk:95), was born in NC.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1957        Mar 11, Charles Van Doren's 14-week run on the rigged NBC game show "Twenty-One" ended as he was "defeated" by attorney Vivienne Nearing; Van Doren's take was $129,000.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
1957        Mar 11, American explorer Richard E. Byrd died in Boston at age 68.
    (AP, 3/11/07)

1958        Mar 11, A B-47 out of Hunter AFB in Savannah, Georgia, had just leveled off at 15,000 feet, when a bomb lock failed and dropped a nuclear bomb on the suburban neighborhood of Florence, South Carolina. The bomb's high explosives exploded on impact, wrecking a house and injuring several people on the ground. The extent of radioactive contamination was never revealed. The device had fallen after Captain Bruce Kulka accidentally grabbed a lever opening the bomb bay -- almost falling out himself. It was not fully armed with a fissile core.
    (www.willthomasonline.net/willthomasonline/Broken_Arrows.html)(AFP, 12/10/14)

1959        Mar 11, The Lorraine Hansberry drama "A Raisin in the Sun" opened at New York City's Ethel Barrymore Theater.
    (AP, 3/11/98)

1960        Mar 11, Pioneer 5 was launched into solar orbit between Earth & Venus.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1965        Mar 11, "I Lost It at the Movies," a collection of film criticism by Pauline Kael, was first published by Little, Brown and Co.
    (AP, 3/11/05)
1965        Mar 11, The American navy began inspecting Vietnamese junks in hopes of ending arms smuggling to  South Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/11/99)
1965        Mar 11, The Rev. James J. Reeb (65), a white minister from Boston, died after whites beat him during civil rights disturbances in Selma, Ala.
    (AP, 3/11/98)

1966        Mar 11, Three men were convicted of the murder of Malcolm X.
    (HN, 3/11/98)
1966        Mar 11, In Indonesia army generals held guns to the head of Pres. Sukarno and forced him to sign a document transferring power to Gen. Suharto.
    (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A18)

1967        Mar 11, British psychedelic group Pink Floyd released “Arnold Layne," their 1st single song.
    (http://pinkfloydhyperbase.dk/albums/arnold.htm)(SFC, 9/26/06, p.D6)

1969        Mar 11, Levi-Strauss started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1970        Mar 11, Richard L. Spencer, tenor saxophonist and lead singer for the Winstons, was awarded a Grammy for “color Him Father." The DC-based band had released the song a year earlier. The B-side of the song featured an instrumental called “Amen, Brother." This featured a 4-bar solo by drummer Gregory Coleman that was copied in 1986 for the first volume of “Ultimate Breaks and Beats." In 1988 the break was featured on the “king of Beats," a 6-minute collage of hip-hop beats and other samples released by Mantronix.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.145)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rIb1-EEWt0)
1970        Mar 11, Iraq’s Ba’ath Party agreed to an autonomy accord with the Kurd nation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraqi_Kurdistan)

1971        Mar 11, Federal Communications Commission stated that television networks ABC, NBC and CBS must have a limited three-hour nightly program service now called 'Prime Time'.  Prime Time began in September of 1971.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1971        Mar 11, Philo T. Farnsworth (b.1906), inventor of television, died in Salt Lake City, Utah. Later Prof. Donald Godfrey authored "Philo T. Farnsworth: The Father of Television" and Evan I. Schwartz authored "The Last Lone Inventor."
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.D1)(www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/farnsworth.cfm)

1973        Mar 11, An FBI agent was shot at Wounded Knee in South Dakota.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1974        Mar 11, Iraq's "Law for Autonomy in the Area of Kurdistan" was promulgated. It stipulated that: "The Kurdish language shall be the official language of education for Kurds ... Kurdish shall be the official language of education for the Kurds."
    (www.jafi.org.il/education/actual/iraq/4.html)

1977        Mar 11, More than 130 hostages held in Washington, D.C., by Hanafi Muslims were freed after ambassadors from three Islamic nations joined the negotiations.
    (AP, 3/11/98)

1978        Mar 11, Palestinian Arab terrorists led by Dalal Mughrabi killed 37 people in an attack along the Tel Aviv coastal highway. The terrorists were identified as belonging to Fatah; 9 were killed and two captured.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_terrorism_1970s.php)

1980        Mar 11, Marilyn McIntyre (18) was beaten, stabbed and strangled to death at her home in Columbus, Wis. In 2009 Curtis Forbes, a friend of her husband, was charged with 1st degree murder based on DNA evidence.
    (SFC, 3/31/09, p.A6)(www.nbc15.com/home/headlines/11251061.html)
1980        Mar 11, In Laos US Air Force Chief Master Sgt. Richard L. "Dick" Etchberger (35) used an M-16 and a radio to call in air strikes and single-handedly held off the attackers until helicopters arrived at Lima site 85. After climbing into the chopper behind the others, Etchberger was fatally wounded when enemy fire struck the aircraft. The others in the helicopter made it to safety. In 2010 President Barack Obama posthumously recognized Etchberger for service "beyond the call of duty" by giving him the nation's highest military award, the Medal of Honor.
    (AP, 9/22/10)
1980        Mar 11, Julius Chan (b.1939) succeeded Michael Somare as PM of Papua New Guinea.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Somare)

1982        Mar 11, Protesting his innocence, Sen. Harrison A. Williams Jr., D-N.J., resigned after 23 years in the Senate, rather than face expulsion in the wake of his ABSCAM conviction.
    (AP, 3/11/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrison_A._Williams)

1985        Mar 11, The Soviet Union announced the March 10 death of its leader, Konstantin U. Chernenko. Politburo member Mikhail S. Gorbachev was chosen to succeed him and became general-secretary of the Communist party and the Premier of the Soviet Union.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)(SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)
1985          Mar 11, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/11/03)

1986        Mar 11, The state of Georgia pardoned Leo Frank, a Jewish businessman who had been lynched in 1915 for the murder of 13-year-old Mary Phagan.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

1988        Mar 11, Pres. Reagan directed that actions be taken to suspend trade preferences available to Panama under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and the Caribbean Basin Initiative.
    (www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1988/031188a.htm)
1988        Mar 11, Saying, "The people have decided," Gary Hart withdrew a second time from the race for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination. Gary Hart, former US Senator from Colorado campaigned for the democratic nomination for president until a photograph of himself with a woman named Donna Rice, not his wife, appeared. She sat on his lap aboard a boat named Monkey Business. In 1996 Hart wrote a book using Machiavelli’s "The Prince" format. It was titled: "The Patriot: An Exhortation to Liberate America From the Barbarians."
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(AP, 3/11/98)

1989        Mar 11, Former World Bank head John J. McCloy, who had advised several presidents, died in Stamford, Conn., at age 93.
    (AP, 3/11/99)

1990        Mar 11, Chile’s General Augusto Pinochet gave up power after 16 years of rule, but remained commander of the army.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1990        Mar 11, The Lithuanian parliament voted to break away from the Soviet Union and restore its independence. The Supreme Council promulgated the historic document: "On the Re-establishment of the Independent State of Lithuania." Validity of the 1938 Constitution was briefly reinstated and the provisional Fundamental Law was adopted. Vytautas Landsbergis was elected president of Lithuania under the party Sajudis. Landsbergis was elected Chairman of the Council with Bronislovas Juozas Kuzmickas, Kazimieras Motieka and Ceslovas Stankevicius as Vice Chairmen, with Liuvikas Sabutis as Secretary. Four governments were formed under tenure of the Council. They were led by Kazimiera Danute Prunskiene, Albertas Simenas, Gediminas Vagnorius and Aleksandras Algirdas Abisala. Moscow responded with an economic blockade that brought industry and transportation to a standstill. In June the Lithuanians agreed to suspend independence.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(CSOE)(HN, 3/11/98)(AP, 3/11/00)

1991        Mar 11, Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third visited Israel, where he met with Foreign Minister David Levy to discuss prospects for Middle East peace.
    (AP, 3/11/01)

1992        Mar 11, Members of the U.N. Security Council accused Iraq of playing a game of “cheat and retreat" from its promises to disarm and respect its people's human rights; Iraqi deputy prime minister Tariq Aziz lashed back, saying his country was complying with Gulf War cease-fire resolutions.
    (AP, 3/11/02)
1992        Mar 11, Manuel De Dios Unanue (48), US anti-drug journalist and former editor of El Diario-La Prensa, was murdered by two bullets to the head in a restaurant in the Jackson Heights section of the borough of Queens, New York City. His death was linked to his writing critically about the Colombian Drug Cartel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2f3c4x)

1993        Mar 11, Janet Reno was unanimously confirmed by the Senate to be attorney general.
    (AP, 3/11/98)
1993        Mar 11, Dino Bravo (b.1948), wrestler (WWF), was shot to death in Laval, Quebec, Canada. Bravo, born as Adolfo Bresciano, was known as the “World’s Strongest Man." 
    (www.garywill.com/wrestling/canada/bravo.htm)
1993        Mar 11, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in a harsh rebuff of Western demands to open suspected nuclear weapons development sites for inspection. It later suspended its withdrawal.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(AP, 4/24/03)

1994        Mar 11, Secretary of State Warren Christopher arrived in Beijing, the mood of his trip already soured by a fresh government crackdown on Chinese dissidents.
    (AP, 3/11/99)
1994        Mar 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) began office as president of Chile.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduardo_Frei_Ruiz-Tagle)

1995        Mar 11, President Clinton nominated Deputy Defense Secretary John Deutch to be CIA director.
    (AP, 3/11/00)
1995        Mar 11, Gerry Adams, leader of the IRA-allied Sinn Fein party, arrived in the United States for a St. Patrick's Day visit.
    (AP, 3/11/00)

1996        Mar 11, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average rose 110.55 to end the day at 5581 following a 171.24-point plunge the Friday before.
    (AP, 3/11/01)
1996        Mar 11, Charles William Oatley (92), electrical engineer, died. He perfected the scanning electron microscope.
    (www.tecsoc.org/pubs/history/2002/mar11.htm)

1997        Mar 11, In a startling turnaround, Senate Republicans agreed to a broader investigation of campaign financing that would include a look at huge "soft money" donations.
    (AP, 3/11/98)
1997        Mar 11, Senate confirmation hearings for CIA Director-designate Anthony Lake began.
    (AP, 3/11/98)
1997        Mar 11, Scientists from observatories in Chile and Australia were to announce the discovery of a star in the Southern Hemisphere constellation of Dorado that measured some 370 times the size of the Sun. Stars of this size are believed to be doomed to collapse and explode as supernovas.
    (SFC, 3/11/97, p.A3)
1997        Mar 11, Rock star Paul McCartney was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
    (AP, 3/11/98)
1997        Mar 11, A gunman, Allen Griffin, in Detroit killed 3 and wounded 2 before being killed by police after staging an robbery at the Comerica Bank on the East Side.
    (SFC, 3/12/97, p.A3)
1997        Mar 11, A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant experienced 2 fires and an explosion 70 miles northeast of Tokyo. There were no injuries. The chief investigator destroyed photographs of the accident. Debris was also removed and then replaced.
    (SFC, 3/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/1/97, p.A13)
1997        Mar 11, In Russia Pres. Yeltsin reorganized the government and only kept Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and top economic deputy Chubais.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A16)

1998        Mar 11, It was announced that the David and Lucille Packard Foundation would give $175 million over 5 years to protect the California landscape from over-development.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A13)
1998        Mar 11, A Florida appeals court restored Joe Carollo as mayor of Miami after charges of voter fraud on absentee ballots.
    (AP, 3/11/99)
1998        Mar 11, The International Astronomical Union issued an alert, saying a mile-wide asteroid could zip very close to Earth on Oct. 26, 2028, possibly colliding with it. But the next day, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory said there was no chance the asteroid will hit Earth.
    (AP, 3/11/99)
1998        Mar 11, In Los Angeles Efren Saldivar, a respiratory care therapist, claimed to have killed as many as 50 terminally ill patients from 1989 to 1997 at the Glendale Adventist medical Center. He later recanted his confession. Exhumations to verify the claims began Apr 30. In 2001 Saldivar was arrested for the murder of 6 patients whose remains indicated that they were murdered. In 2002 Saldivar pleaded guilty to murdering 6 patients. In 2002 Saldivar was sentenced to 6 life terms in prison plus 15 years to life for attempted murder.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.C7)(SFC, 1/10/01, p.A5)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A7)(USAT, 4/18/02, p.3A)
1998        Mar 11, In Chile Gen’l. Pinochet could not be removed as head of the army until this date. His successor would be chosen by Pres. Eduardo Frei from 5 generals proposed by Pinochet.
    (SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)
1998        Mar 11, In Japan the Tokyo Public Prosecutor’s Office raided the offices of the Bank of Japan. Yasayuki Yoshizawa, director of the capital markets division, was arrested on suspicion of leaking market moving information.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B2)
1998        Mar 11, In Moscow Marino Yarovov (43) was boiled to death when she fell into a sinkhole of muddy, boiling water, created from leaking underground hot water pipes run by Mosenergo. A 10-year old boy died similarly 6 weeks previously. His father, who tried to rescue him, died 11 days later from severe burns.
    (SFC, 4/8/98, p.A14)

1999        Mar 11, The House voted 219-191 to conditionally support President Clinton's plan to send U.S. troops to Kosovo if a peace agreement was reached. 
    (AP, 3/11/00)
1999        Mar 11, Defense Sec. William Cohen announced $3.2 billion in subsidized arms sales to Egypt.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A16)
1999        Mar 11, The US Rodman naval base in Panama was transferred to Panama.
    (WSJ, 3/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 11, Pope John Paul II met with Mohammad Khatami of Iran.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)
1999        Mar 11, In Germany Oskar Lafontaine, the finance minister, resigned following an apparent power struggle with Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder. Hans Eichel. Governor of Hesse, was expected to succeed him.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 11, In Ecuador Pres. Mahuad announced tax increases and other harsh measures to fight the economic crises.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)
1999        Mar 11, In northern Italy an avalanche killed 3 German skiers.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A15)
1999        Mar 11, In Kosovo fighting spread as Yugoslav forces shelled villages near Prizren.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)
1999        Mar 11, Norway approved a $57.7 million package to compensate the nation's Jews for suffering during WW II.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A15)
1999        Mar 11, In Palestine at least 85 people were injured in a 2nd day of clashes in the Gaza Strip.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A15)

2000        Mar 11, Storms in the US south were blamed for at least 5 deaths.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.A2)
2000        Mar 11, From Argentina it was reported that researchers had unearthed a pack of large predatory dinosaurs in Patagonia that dated back to about 100 million years BP.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A1)
2000        Mar 11, In Chile Pres. Ricardo Lagos took power as the 1st socialist president since Salvadore Allende.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.A19)
2000        Mar 11, in Ukraine a methane gas explosion at the Barakova mine on the eastern border killed at least 80 workers.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.A17)

2001        Mar 11, Lawrence Summers, former Clinton Treasury Secretary, was named as the 27th president of Harvard. Neil Rudenstine planned to step down in June.
    (WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A1)
2001        Mar 11, In England 25 new cases of hoof-and-mouth disease were reported with outbreaks in Scotland, Wales, Devonshire and Kent.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A15)
2001        Mar 11, In Indonesia anti-Wahid students rallied in Jakarta. A plunging currency added to the unrest on the streets.
    (WSJ, 3/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Mar 11, In Malaysia ethnic violence between Malays and ethnic Indians continued for a 4th day. Five people were killed in the last 4 days.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A15)
2001        Mar 11, In Mexico some 75,000-100,000 supporters filled the square of Mexico City as the Zapatista rebels arrived. “We are here to shout for and to demand democracy, liberty and justice." Masked Zapatista rebels urged passage of an Indian rights bill.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A1)(AP, 3/11/02)
2001        Mar 11, In Spain over 100,000 people protested in Madrid against a $23 billion plan to divert water from the Ebro river to areas in the south.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A14)

2002        Mar 11, At the White House Pres. Bush outlined a “second stage of the war on terror" in an address that marked the 6-months since the Sep 11 terrorist attacks. Bush also unveiled a commemorative stamp to raise money to help Sept. 11 victims "get their lives back in order."
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A1)(AP, 3/11/07)
2002        Mar 11, Two columns of light soared skyward from ground zero in New York as a temporary memorial to the victims of the Sept. 11 attacks.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2002        Mar 11, It was reported that the US CIA and State Dept. was interviewing former Iraqi generals for a possible overthrow of Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A12)
2002        Mar 11, The National Book Critics Circle (f.1974) awarded top honors to W.G. Sebald (d.2001) for his novel “Austerlitz." Nicholson Baker won the nonfiction category for “Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper."  Martin Amis won the criticism category for “The War Against Cliché." Albert Goldbarth won the poetry category for “Saving Lives." Adam Sisman won the biography category for “Boswell’s Presumptuous Task: The Making of the Life of Dr. Johnson."
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A2)
2002        Mar 11, James Tobin (b.1918), a key Kennedy advisor and economics Nobelist (portfolio theory, 1981), died in New Haven, Conn. He developed the ideas of Keynesian economics, and advocated government intervention to stabilize output and avoid recessions. Outside of academia, Tobin was widely known for his suggestion of a tax on foreign exchange transactions, later known as the "Tobin tax."
    (WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Tobin)
2002        Mar 11, Israeli forces swept into the Jabaliya camp in Gaza and 23 residents were killed in heavy fighting. PM Sharon announced that Arafat was free to resume traveling about the West Bank and Gaza.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 11, In Pakistan Shakeel Anwar, head of the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi extremist group, was killed in a gun battle with police. He was wanted in the slaying of 38 people including a former foreign minister.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A10)
2002        Mar 11, In Zimbabwe the polls closed. A request for a 4th day of voting was denied.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A70)

2003          Mar 11, Striking Broadway musicians settled a contract dispute with theater producers to end a walkout that shut had down 18 musicals since Mar 7, agreeing to a smaller number of musicians in the largest theaters.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, California scientists reported that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a family of flame retardants, were found in elevated amounts in the breasts of Bay Area women.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A4)
2003          Mar 11, Benetton, an Italian retailer, said it planned to attach salt-grain sized microchip transmitters to clothing at its 5,000 stores.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.B1)
2003          Mar 11, A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed in Fort Drum, NY, and 11 of 13 soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A5)
2003          Mar 11, Kofi Annan said military action against Iraq without support of the UN security council would be out of conformity with the UN charter. The US and Britain considered a short extension past March 17, but rejected a 45-day deadline backed by 6 council members.
    (SFC, 3/11/03, p.A1)(SFC, 3/12/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 11, The 18-judge world court was inaugurated at the Hague. It had been approved Jul 17, 1998, by the Rome Treaty.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 11, A top Australian intelligence adviser resigned to protest the government's hard-line policy on Iraq. Andrew Wilkie, one of its senior intelligence analysts argued that, based on U.S. and other intelligence information he has seen, there is currently no justification for a war on Iraq.
    (IPS, 3/12/03)
2003          Mar 11, Talks to unify the divided Mediterranean island of Cyprus collapsed after rival Greek and Turkish leaders failed to agree on a UN power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Iraq destroyed more Al Samoud 2 missiles raising the total destroyed to 52 of some 100.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Israeli troops fired a tank shell at a 3-story apartment building, then razed it, killing a Palestinian gunman who several hours earlier had attacked an Israeli army patrol.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin bolstered the clout of the Federal Security Service (FSB) by giving it control over the country's border guards and government communications.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003        Mar 11, In Turkey Recep Erdogan was confirmed as the prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2003          Mar 11, Striking Broadway musicians settled a contract dispute with theater producers to end a walkout that shut had down 18 musicals since Mar 7, agreeing to a smaller number of musicians in the largest theaters.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003        Mar 11, The DJIA fell 44 to 7524, the lowest level of the year, on war concerns and bad corporate news.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R8)
2003          Mar 11, California scientists reported that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a family of flame retardants, were found in elevated amounts in the breasts of Bay Area women.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A4)
2003          Mar 11, Benetton, an Italian retailer, said it planned to attach salt-grain sized microchip transmitters to clothing at its 5,000 stores.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.B1)
2003          Mar 11, A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed in Fort Drum, NY, and 11 of 13 soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A5)
2003          Mar 11, Kofi Annan said military action against Iraq without support of the UN security council would be out of conformity with the UN charter. The US and Britain considered a short extension past March 17, but rejected a 45-day deadline backed by 6 council members.
    (SFC, 3/11/03, p.A1)(SFC, 3/12/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 11, The 18-judge world court was inaugurated at the Hague. It had been approved Jul 17, 1998, by the Rome Treaty.
    (SFC, 3/12/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 11, A top Australian intelligence adviser resigned to protest the government's hard-line policy on Iraq. Andrew Wilkie, one of its senior intelligence analysts argued that, based on U.S. and other intelligence information he has seen, there is currently no justification for a war on Iraq.
    (IPS, 3/12/03)
2003          Mar 11, Talks to unify the divided Mediterranean island of Cyprus collapsed after rival Greek and Turkish leaders failed to agree on a UN power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Iraq destroyed more Al Samoud 2 missiles raising the total destroyed to 52 of some 100.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Israeli troops fired a tank shell at a 3-story apartment building, then razed it, killing a Palestinian gunman who several hours earlier had attacked an Israeli army patrol.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003          Mar 11, Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin bolstered the clout of the Federal Security Service (FSB) by giving it control over the country's border guards and government communications.
    (AP, 3/11/03)
2003        Mar 11, In Turkey Recep Erdogan was confirmed as the prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.A1)

2004        Mar 11, The California Supreme Court halted gay weddings in San Francisco for at least a few months while it decides whether they are legal. SF responded by suing the state in Superior Court contending that the state ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.
    (AP, 3/12/04)(SFC, 3/12/04, p.A1)(SFC, 6/27/15, p.A12)
2004        Mar 11, The California Office of Environmental Health Hazzard Assessment raised the action level for reporting perchlorate pollution in drinking water from 4 to 6 ppb.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A8)
2004        Mar 11, In San Diego 4 Marines were killed when their small UC-35 jet crashed on landing at Air Station Miramar.
    (SFC, 3/12/04, p.B3)
2004        Mar 11, Canadian officials said a "very sophisticated criminal scheme" bilked the Defense Department of tens of millions of dollars in computer contracts over 10 years. Public Works Minister Stephen Owen said the government is going after computer giant Hewlett Packard, the prime contractor in $160-million worth of military computer hardware and support services.
    (AP, 3/11/04)
2004        Mar 11, In Iraq 2 American soldiers were killed when the Humvee they were riding in struck a homemade bomb.
    (AP, 3/12/04)
2004        Mar 11, In Madrid, Spain, a series of 10 bombs hidden in backpacks exploded in quick succession at 3 stations, blowing apart four commuter trains. 191 people were killed and over 1,450 wounded. Spanish leaders were quick to accuse Basque terrorists but a shadowy group claimed responsibility in the name of al-Qaeda. On October 31, 2007, 3 lead defendants were convicted of murder. Four other top suspects were acquitted of murder but convicted of lesser charges. In all 21 of the 28 defendants were convicted. On July 17, 2008, a Spanish court cleared four of the 21 people charged for crimes related to the train bombings. In 2009 7 people were indicted for helping the bombers flee.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/13/04)(SFC, 3/13/04, p.A1)(SFC, 3/19/04, p.A3)(AP, 3/23/08)(AP, 10/31/07)(Reuters, 7/17/08)(AP, 11/2/09)

2005        Mar 11, Pres. Bush picked  Johns Hopkins physicist Michael Griffin to lead NASA.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.A8)
2005        Mar 11, The US Commerce Dept. reported the US trade deficit for January hit $58.3 billion. It was just below the all-time high set in Nov, 2004.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.C1)
2005        Mar 11, Maurice Greenberg, president and CEO of AIG Int’l. Group, transferred 1.4 million shares of AIG stock, valued at $2.68 billion, to his wife. He resigned March 14 amid probes of the company’s accounting.
    (SFC, 4/14/05, p.A1)
2005        Mar 11, Crude oil futures prices climbed over $54 a barrel after the Int’l. Energy Agency estimated global petroleum demand would grow faster than previously expected in 2005.
    (AP, 3/13/05)
2005        Mar 11, In Georgia Brian Nichols (33), on trial for rape, shot and killed Superior Court Judge Rowland Barnes, court reporter Julie Ann Brandau and Deputy Hoyt Teasley at the Fulton County Courthouse. He then killed deferral agent David Wilhelm in Atlanta’s posh Buckhead neighborhood. Nichols was captured the next day. In 2008 Nichols pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity. On Nov 7, 2008, Nichols was convicted of murder. On Dec 13 he was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
    (AP, 3/12/05)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 9/23/08, p.A4)(SFC, 11/7/08, p.A5)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A6)
2005        Mar 11, Canada’s Jetsgo announced in the dead of night that it was going out of business and grounding all flights immediately as thousands of passengers prepared to jet away for March break, one of the busiest travel periods of the year.
    (AP, 3/11/05)
2005        Mar 11, Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, co-founder of the Cali drug cartel, was sent in handcuffs on a plane to the US to face trial for drug trafficking and related charges. The cartel at its peak ruled the world's cocaine industry.
    (AP, 3/11/05)
2005        Mar 11, Germany’s parliament tightened laws against neo-Nazi demonstrations.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.A3)
2005        Mar 11, In India separatist rebels threw three grenades in the troubled state of Assam, killing three people.
    (Reuters, 3/11/05)
2005        Mar 11, Moldova arrested Valeriu Pasat, former defense minister, on suspicion of pocketing $10 million during the 1997 sale of 21 MiG-29 fighter jets to the US.
    (WSJ, 3/14/05, p.A1)
2005        Mar 11, Nepal freed sacked PM Sher Bahadur Deuba from house arrest, amid mounting international pressure on the country's king to relinquish power and restore democracy.
    (Reuters, 3/11/05)
2005        Mar 11, Pakistan's highest Islamic court threw out the acquittal of five men convicted of raping Mukhtar Mai in 2002 on orders from a village council, saying a lower appeals court had no jurisdiction to rule on the case.
    (AP, 3/11/05)
2005        Mar 11, Garry Kasparov, Russian chess master ranked No. 1 since 1984, announced his retirement. His future plans included writing and political action, which included a lead role in Committee 2008: Free Choice, a group formed by liberal opposition leaders.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.A10)
2005        Mar 11, South Africa’s Pres. Mbeki nominated Pius Langa to become chief justice when incumbent Arthur Chaskalson retires in May. Langa would be the 1st black to hold the office.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.54)
2005        Mar 11, The last Syrian troops left northern Lebanon but left behind intelligence officers in nine offices. The UN Mideast envoy said Syria needs to produce a timetable for a full withdrawal from the rest of Lebanon. Since 1976 some 15,000 Syrian troops were killed in the Lebanese civil war. Lebanese protests following the Feb 14 assassination of Rafik Hariri, later dubbed the “cedar revolution," forced Pres. Assad to withdraw his army after a 30-year stay.
    (AP, 3/11/05)(Econ, 4/2/05, p.41)(Econ, 7/25/09, SR p.11)
2005        Mar 11, Turkey’s state institution over religious life issued a sermon to be preached at some 75,000 officially registered mosques on the dangers posed to national unity by Christian missionaries.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.49)

2006        Mar 11, Investors began to recoil from almost any asset class that looked risky.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.74)
2006        Mar 11, Rural house fires in Tennessee and Indiana killed 15 members of two families, and most of the victims were children.
    (AP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, In Afghanistan’s Helmand province the bodies of 2 policemen, kidnapped from their homes a day earlier, were found beheaded and dumped in the desert. A roadside bomb hit a police patrol in Helmand's Nad Ali district, killing a policeman and wounding five others.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, Authorities in Central African Republic accused exiled former President Ange-Felix Patasse of forming a rebel movement and recruiting fighters to overthrow the government.
    (AP, 3/13/06)
2006        Mar 11, Michelle Bachelet, a Socialist pediatrician who suffered prison, torture and exile under Chile's military dictatorship, was sworn in as the nation's first female president.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, A Chinese activist who documented villagers' claims of forced abortions and sterilizations was detained while trying to report the beating of his cousin. Chen Guangcheng, his older brother and his cousin were taken away in a police van and other vehicles from their home village of Dongshigu in Shandong, as they were on their way to file a police report.
    (AP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, Police stormed France's famed Sorbonne University to dislodge students occupying the building in protest of a new national employment measure, hours after the demonstrators hurled furniture and ladders from the landmark's windows.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, Iran threatened to use oil as a weapon if the UN Security Council imposes sanctions over its nuclear program.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, In Iraq at least six people including Amjad Hameed (45), director of Iraq’s public TV channel and a human rights activist, were killed in drive-by shootings.
    (AP, 3/11/06)(SSFC, 3/12/06, p.A10)
2006        Mar 11, Premier Silvio Berlusconi denounced Italy's judiciary as a danger to democracy and promised changes to the system as he tries to hold on to the premiership in next month's election.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, In Jordan 2 militants were executed by hanging for the killing in Amman of a US diplomat.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, Nepalese officials said a 15-year-old boy, whose followers believe he is the reincarnation of Buddha, has disappeared after 10 months of meditation in the jungle.
    (AP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, In the Netherlands former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic (b.1941), the so-called "butcher of the Balkans" being tried for war crimes after orchestrating a decade of bloodshed during his country's breakup, was found dead in his prison cell. Milosevic spent nearly five years at a UN detention facility in Scheveningen, a suburb of The Hague. An autopsy showed that he died of a heart attack. A Dutch toxicologist said he took unprescribed pills that neutralized heart medication.
    (SFC, 3/13/06, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.83)
2006        Mar 11, In Lahore, Pakistan, hundreds of kites filled the skies on the opening day of a traditional spring festival, despite a ban that followed the deaths of seven people killed by glass-coated or wire kite strings.
    (AP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, In Sudan 5 members of the main opposition group in eastern Sudan were arrested or detained, in a move party officials said hindered any chance to start long-delayed peace talks.
    (Reuters, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals gathered under tight security for a major 2-day conference in Istanbul to discuss a peaceful resolution to the 22-year-old Kurdish conflict.
    (AP, 3/11/06)
2006        Mar 11, In Zimbabwe lawmaker Giles Mutseyekwa of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and seven others were formally charged with violating security laws. The eight were rounded up on Mar 7-8 after security agents had arrested one of the suspects identified as Mike Peter Hitschmann over an arms cache found at his home in Mutare.
    (AFP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, Zimbabwe’s Central Statistical Office said inflation was 782 percent for the 12 months that ended in February. Moffat Nyoni, acting director of the government-run Statistical Office, said prices of food and nonalcoholic beverages rose 824 percent during that time.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2007        Mar 11, The US national debt was reported to be approaching $9 trillion. Some $240 billion would be spent this year paying interest on the half that’s held by public creditors, of which China and Japan are the largest.
    (SSFC, 3/11/07, p.D1)
2007        Mar 11, Most of the US switched to daylight saving time a few weeks earlier than usual.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Halliburton CEO Dave Lesar announced that his oil services company will soon shift its corporate headquarters from Houston to the Mideast financial powerhouse of Dubai.
    (AP, 3/13/07)
2007        Mar 11, In Hawaii a tour helicopter crashed on Kauai and one person was killed. This was the 2nd fatal copter crash on the island in 4 days.
    (SFC, 3/12/07, p.A3)
2007        Mar 11, Betty Hutton (b.1921), film star, died in Palm Springs. Her films included “Annie Get Your Gun" (1950) and “Somebody Loves Me" (1952).
    (SFC, 3/14/07, p.A2)
2007        Mar 11, In Bolivia Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez called for a socialist counterattack against the American "empire," taking his campaign to upstage President Bush's Latin American tour to a packed gymnasium in a poor, indigenous Bolivian city.
    (AP, 3/12/07)
2007        Mar 11, In northeast China 22 miners were confirmed dead and the lives of seven others were feared lost in a coal mine flood on the previous day. The flood occurred in a pit belonging to the state-owned Fushun Mining Group in the province of Liaoning.
    (AFP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, In Colombia about 150 protesters attacked riot police with rocks and metal barriers and ripped down lampposts Bogota, just moments after President Bush landed for a six-hour visit. Bush put fighting poverty at the top of his agenda in Colombia and promised more aid and a trade deal for Pres. Uribe.
    (AP, 3/11/07)(WSJ, 3/12/07, p.A1)
2007        Mar 11, Health Ministry and World Health Organization officials said a 4-year-old Egyptian boy has contracted the deadly bird flu virus, bringing to 24 the number of Egyptians who have tested positive for the disease.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Jacques Chirac, admired and scorned during 12 years as France's president, announced he will not seek a third term in elections this spring, a widely expected move given his low popularity, his age and a conservative rival who has siphoned off his political base. His popularity had shrunk to 29% as unemployment stood at 8.6%.
    (AP, 3/11/07)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.27)
2007        Mar 11, Iranian TV quoted government spokesman Gholam Hossein Elham as saying Ahmadinejad "intends to attend a UN Security Council meeting to be held on Iran's nuclear case in order to defend the rights of the Iranian nation in exploiting peaceful nuclear energy."
    (AP, 3/12/07)
2007        Mar 11, At least 58 people were killed in a spate of attacks across Iraq, including 31 Shiite pilgrims who died in a car bombing as they returned from a religious festival.
    (AFP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Voters in Mauritania went to the polls with hopes that whoever wins the first presidential election since a coup two years ago will not plunge the country back into totalitarian rule.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, In Morocco a man with explosives hidden under his clothes had a dispute with the owner of an Internet café in Casablanca and a blast occurred as the two men were coming to blows. Another man at the scene who attempted to flee was arrested by police and found to be carrying explosives.
    (Reuters, 3/12/07)
2007        Mar 11, Palestinian gunmen from Hamas and Fatah exchanged fire in the Gaza Strip, killing a local militia leader and wounding seven people.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Russians voted in scattered regional ballots marred by complaints that opposition forces are being frozen out of the country's politics.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, In Somalia a 13-year-old boy and a woman were killed by stray bullets and five others were injured as Ethiopian troops protecting government installations battled with insurgents in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 3/12/07)
2007        Mar 11, Spain unveiled a towering monument to those killed three years ago in the bombings that ripped apart rush-hour commuter trains, a glass oval containing messages of condolence written in the aftermath of Europe's worst Islamic terror attack.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Sri Lanka's president chided his top police officers over a new wave of "execution-style" killings and demanded immediate action to end a climate of terror.
    (AFP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was arrested as riot police thwarted a planned mass demonstration in Harare against President Robert Mugabe's government. Top opposition leaders were assaulted and tortured by police who broke up a prayer meeting planned to protest government policies. Tsvangirai suffered head injuries while in police custody. Opposition militant Gift Tandare was killed as police disbanded the prayer meeting. President Robert Mugabe (83) said in an interview that he intends to stand in the country's next presidential elections if they are held as scheduled in 2008.
    (AFP, 3/11/07)(Reuters, 3/12/07)(AP, 3/19/07)

2008        Mar 11, The US Federal Reserve and other central banks said they will pump $200 billion into the financial markets, using the Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF), to help ease the strain from the credit crisis. Wall Street rebounded with its biggest rally since 2002 at the DJIA rose 416.66 to 12,156.81. Gas prices rose to a record national level of $3.2272 per gallon.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(SFC, 3/12/08, p.B1,B3)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.89)
2008        Mar 11, Sen. Barack Obama picked up five more delegates than Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton in Mississippi's Democratic primary.
    (AP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said 26% of US teen girls are infected with at least one sexually transmitted disease. The rate was highest among blacks.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Mar 11, The SF Board of Supervisors passed a law requiring chain restaurants to post nutrition information on their menus.
    (SFC, 3/12/08, p.C1)
2008        Mar 11, The Pacific Fishery Management Council said it would have to ban all salmon fishing, due to depleted spawning, unless a request is made for an emergency exception.
    (SFC, 3/13/08, p.A1)
2008        Mar 11, The US space shuttle Endeavour blasted off from a seaside Florida launch pad to deliver part of a long-awaited Japanese space laboratory and a Canadian-built robotic system to the International Space Station.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, In western Afghanistan police backed by NATO-led troops killed four suspected criminals after a spate of kidnappings and robberies. The ministry said an Afghan soldier was killed in Kapisa province, just north of Kabul. Taliban militants attacked a district administrative compound in southern Zabul province, and the ensuing one-hour gunbattle left one Taliban dead and three wounded. 5 militants set fire to the generator, fuel tank and antenna of the tower in the Obe district of Herat province. The tower belonged to the Areeba company. Afghan and US-led coalition forces killed nearly a dozen suspected militants in Helmand during a clash in Garmsir district.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(AP, 3/12/08)(AP, 3/13/08)
2008        Mar 11, Bangladesh's military-backed government backed down from a policy to ensure equal property rights to women amid angry protests by Muslim clerics that the move would override Islamic law.
    (AFP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, The Belgian government and banks agreed to pay $170 million to Holocaust survivors, families of victims and the Jewish community for their material losses during Word War II.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, The Bank of England said it would inject a further 10 billion pounds into money markets amid the ongoing credit crunch.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, Some 600,000 poor Chileans will receive monthly pensions starting in July under a law signed by President Michelle Bachelet that plugs gaps in Chile's widely copied private pension system.
    (AP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, China unveiled plans to revamp bureaucratic government ministries and create new agencies to help it tackle pressing issues such as nuclear energy, food and drug safety, environmental protection and the Internet.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, Thousands of Chinese security personnel fired tear gas to try to disperse more than 600 monks taking part in a second day of rare street protests in Tibet.
    (Reuters, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, Three generals regarded as national heroes in Croatia went on trial at the Hague, accused of orchestrating the killing of at least 150 Serbs in a 1995 military campaign that unleashed widespread murder and pillage.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, EU regulators cleared Google's $3.1 billion bid for online ad tracker DoubleClick, saying the acquisition won't curb competition for online ads.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, At least 42 people were killed across Iraq. A roadside bomb hit a bus traveling in southern Iraq, killing at least 16 civilians, while gunmen opened fire on another bus in the capital, leaving one person dead. The Pentagon said up to 90% of the foreign fighters in Iraq cross from Syria.
    (AFP, 3/11/08)(AP, 3/12/08)(WSJ, 3/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Mar 11, In Japan authorities arrested in Osaka arrested Hatsue Shimizu (64) and Yoshiko Ishii (55), two sisters, for allegedly hiding millions of dollars worth of cash in their garage to evade inheritance taxes. Their father, who was in the real-estate lease business, died in 2004, leaving $72.9 million to his family.
    (AP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, Top leaders Malaysia's opposition-ruled states will no longer follow a longtime affirmative action program that benefits the majority Malays, in the wake of an election upheaval that clipped the ruling coalition's powers.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, Mexico's federal attorney general's office announced an investigation into allegations of corruption against Interior Secretary Juan Camilo Mourino, a confidant of the president who holds the government's second highest profile job.
    (AP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, State media said Mozambique's President Armando Guebuza has sacked three senior members of his government, including his foreign minister.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, Nigerian soldiers hunting Niger Delta gang leader Ateke Tom said they had found a huge cache of arms and ammunition, along with an illegal pipeline used to tap stolen oil, in a raid on one of his bases.
    (AFP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, In Lahore, Pakistan, massive suicide bombs ripped through a seven-story police headquarters and a business, killing 27 people and wounding more than 200 others in attacks that deepened the security crisis. The wounded included 32 girls who were hit by flying debris at a school near the police building.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(AP, 3/12/08)
2008        Mar 11, Palestinian militants in Gaza launched a rocket at the Israeli city of Ashkelon, causing no injuries but threatening to upset a recent period of calm.
    (AP, 3/11/08)
2008        Mar 11, In Peru a helicopter ferrying passengers from the La Granja copper mine owned by the Rio Tinto Group crashed in the Andes with 10 people aboard. The wreckage was found the next day.
    (AP, 3/13/08)
2008        Mar 11, Serbia and Russia demanded that the UN administration in Kosovo halt the transfer of authority to the European Union, calling a handover illegal and declaring they will never recognize the independence of the Serb province.
    (AP, 3/12/08)

2009        Mar 11, Pres. Obama signed a $410 billion US spending bill, stuffed with earmarks, to fund the operations of all but 3 Cabinet departments. He called it a departure point and unveiled new rules to restrict earmarks.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A8)(WSJ, 3/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Mar 11, Pres. Obama signed a bill rolling back the Bush administration restrictions on Cuban Americans visiting relatives in Cuba.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A8)
2009        Mar 11, VP Biden announced that Pres. Obama has chosen Seattle police chief Gil Kerlikowske as the nation’s new drug czar.
    (WSJ, 3/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Mar 11, US authorities deported 60 Nigerians accused of theft, credit card scams and drug-related offences.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)
2009        Mar 11, A California state study said global warming is expected to cause a rise of nearly 5 feet along the coastline and severely threatening SF Bay by 2100. The rising waters could cost the state $14 billion of more to safeguard the coast.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Mar 11, Forbes magazine released its list of 793 of the world’s richest people. Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman, a suspected drug lord and Mexico's most-wanted fugitive, made the list of billionaires with a fortune described as "self made." He was No. 701 on the list. The list included 5 Indonesians.
    (AP, 3/11/09)(SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A4)
2009        Mar 11, In eastern Algeria suspected Islamist extremists shot and killed a police officer and wounded another in a shoot-out near Batna city. 3 armed Islamists were killed by the security forces in Souk El-Thenine town.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)
2009        Mar 11, Australia said it would provide funding to Zimbabwe's new unity government, the first Western power to announce direct support to the new administration.
    (Reuters, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, More than 30 shipping containers of ammonium nitrate fell off a ship in stormy seas off Australia, damaging the ship's hull and leaking up to 30 tons of oil [see Mar 13]. Swire Shipping's cargo liner Pacific Adventurer released about 200,000 liters (53,000 US gallons) of heavy fuel oil off the coast of Queensland state as it travelled through cyclonic weather. Australia later sought more than 18 million US dollars in compensation from a Hong Kong-based shipping company. In August the Hong Kong-based Swire Shipping company said it will pay Australia 25 million dollars (21 million US) in compensation for the oil spill.
    (AP, 3/11/09)(AFP, 5/6/09)(AFP, 8/8/09)
2009        Mar 11, Brazil’s Central Bank cut its benchmark Selic rate by 1.5% to 11.25%. further cuts were expected.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.44)
2009        Mar 11, In Brazil a prosecutor charged rancher Regivaldo Galvao, accused of murdering US nun Dorothy Strang, with trying to fraudulently obtain a plot of the rain forest that Strang had worked to protect.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A2)
2009        Mar 11, In eastern China 11 people were killed and 20 were injured after a blast led to the collapse of a former factory that was housing railway workers. Preliminary investigations revealed the collapse was triggered when leftover aluminium powder in the building in Danyang city, Jiangsu province ignited and exploded just after midnight.
    (AFP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, French Pres. Sarkozy announced that France will return as full-fledged member of the 26-naqtion NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A2)
2009        Mar 11, German prosecutors said they have charged retired Ohio auto worker John Demjanjuk (88) with more than 29,000 counts of accessory to murder for his time as a guard at the Nazis' Sobibor death camp, and will seek his extradition from the US.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, In southwestern Germany Tim Kretschmer (17) dressed in black opened fire at his former high school in Winnenden, killing 12 people. He fled the scene and killed a 56-year-old janitor of a nearby psychiatric hospital in a park. He then fled in a hijacked car, and killed 2 more people before apparently shooting himself to death. Kretschmer graduated last year from the school of about 1,000 students. In 2011 Stuttgart state court gave Kretschmer’s father a 21-month suspended sentence for not securing his 9mm Beretta pistol.
    (AP, 3/11/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Kretschmer#Perpetrator)(AP, 3/12/09)(AP, 2/10/11)
2009        Mar 11, In Iraq Tariq Aziz, Saddam Hussein's former foreign minister, was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 15 years in prison for the 1992 execution of 42 merchants accused of price gouging while Iraq was under UN sanctions.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, Italy's highest court sided with the government and threw out key evidence in an alleged CIA kidnapping of an Egyptian terrorism suspect in Italy, dealing a blow to the trial of 26 Americans charged in the case.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, Prosecutors in Kyrgyzstan charged a prominent opposition leader with murder in a case that government critics say is politically motivated. Alikbek Jekshenkulov was accused of involvement in the shooting of a Turkish citizen in late 2007 and illegal possession of a weapon. Jekshenkulov was foreign minister until February 2007.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, In Madagascar Col. Andre Ndrianarijaona, the leader of a group of mutinous soldiers, declared himself head of the army, raising questions about the president's hold on power on this impoverished Indian Ocean island.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, Officials in Namibia said at least 92 people had drowned in its northern regions since the start of rainy season in Dec.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A4)
2009        Mar 11, Pakistan arrested hundreds of opposition activists and banned protests in two regions ahead of a planned rally outside the parliament that could weaken the already shaky rule of the country's US-allied government.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, Saudi Arabia hosted the leaders of Egypt and Syria in an effort to persuade Damascus to move away from Iran and join with US-allied Arab countries in working to blunt Tehran's influence.
    (AP, 3/11/09)
2009        Mar 11, The African Union extended by three months the mandate of its peacekeeping mission in Somalia, and called on the UN to lift its arms embargo there.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)
2009        Mar 11, Sri Lanka’s military killed Sabaratnam Selvathurai, a senior rebel leader, in fighting in Puthukkudiyiruppu, the last town held by the rebels.
    (AP, 3/12/09)
2009        Mar 11, In Sudan armed men abducted three international aid workers and two Sudanese guards in the Darfur region, a week after the government ordered aid groups expelled in response to an international arrest warrant for Sudan's president on war crimes charges. The abducted workers were from the Belgian branch of Doctors Without Borders and they were seized from their offices in the Saraf Umra area.
    (AP, 3/12/09)

2010        Mar 11, US Republican senators sent a letter to the head of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America board of governors seeking detailed financial information about executive compensation, travel and lobbying expenses, and how the national charity awards grants to local clubs. The four senators said they were concerned that the chief executive of a charity that has been closing local clubs for lack of funding was compensated nearly $1 million in 2008.
    (AP, 3/12/10)
2010        Mar 11, A US court-appointed examiner report investigating the failure of Lehman Bros. was unsealed. It said Lehman executives had manipulated balance sheets to temporarily remove $50 billion of troubled assets. Lehman’s bankruptcy in September, 2008, helped spread fear throughout the global financial system.
    (SFC, 3/13/10, p.D1)
2010        Mar 11, In NYC lawyers representing construction companies, and rescue and recovery workers agreed to a settlement that could pay as much as $657.5 million to responders sickened by dust from the destroyed World Trade Center. On March 19 a federal judge rejected the ground zero settlement saying it was insufficient and that too much of it would go to legal fees. In June a $712 million settlement was reached.
    (SFC, 3/12/10, p.A8)(SFC, 3/20/10, p.A5)(SFC, 6/11/10, p.A6)
2010        Mar 11, Afghan President Hamid Karzai, during a visit to Pakistan, said Afghanistan does not want a proxy war between Pakistan and India or anybody else fought on its soil. Five Afghan civilians, four of them children, were killed in an explosion in Kapisa province. A gunmen shot dead a South African construction contractor and his Afghan colleague in a separate attack in Khost province. One member of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was killed in an explosion in the south of the country.
    (Reuters, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, Brazilian television network SBT broadcast a tape of Luiz Marques Barbosa (83) in bed with a 19-year-old that was widely distributed on the Internet. The station said the video was secretly filmed in January 2009 and sent anonymously to the network. Barbosa was detained in April out of fear he would flee the country.
    (AP, 4/20/10)(http://tinyurl.com/y7vwfnz)
2010        Mar 11, British bank HSBC said  information on 24,000 customers with Swiss accounts has been stolen, potentially exposing large numbers of international clients to prosecution by tax authorities in their home countries.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Chile Sebastian Pinera began serving as president, succeeding Michele Bachelet, who went off to New York to head the UN organization for women. She resigned from the UN in 2013 and returned home to campaign.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.46)
2010        Mar 11, In Greece clashes between some 200 masked youths and riot police broke out as some 20,000 striking workers protested in central Athens against government austerity measures.
    (SFC, 3/12/10, p.A2)
2010        Mar 11, In Honduras David Meza (51), a radio journalist whose career spanned three decades, was ambushed and killed in La Ceiba as he arrived home in his car.
    (AP, 3/15/10)
2010        Mar 11, Preliminary election results released by Iraq's electoral commission showed PM Nouri al-Maliki leading in Babil province by nearly 14,000 votes and in Najaf by 7,000, two Shiite provinces in southern Iraq. Manaf Abdul al-Rawi, alleged Baghdad leader of Al-Qaida in Iraq, was arrested. He soon gave investigators information that eventually led to the April 18 strike that killed Abu Omar al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri.
    (AP, 3/11/10)(SFC, 4/23/10, p.A2)(AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Kazakhstan a dam at the Kyzyl-Agash reservoir in the eastern Almaty region ruptured, pouring water into several nearby villages and affecting 3,000 residents. A 2nd dam was washed away in the nearby Karatalsky district. Emergency officials said heavy rain and melting snow have caused severe floods across a region of Kazakhstan neighboring China, flooding villages and claiming at least 35 lives.
    (AP, 3/12/10)(AFP, 3/12/10)(AP, 3/13/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Mexico 2 glowing brides in matching white gowns and four other same-sex couples made history in Mexico City as they wed under Latin America's first law that explicitly approves gay marriage.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Mexico gunmen burst into a home in the border city of Ciudad Juarez and opened fire, killing 5 young men and wounding 5 others, including a 10-year-old girl, during a wake being held for a young man shot to death in his car earlier in the week. The death toll rose to 6 the next day after a woman died of wounds suffered in the attack.
    (AP, 3/12/10)(AP, 3/13/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Pakistan a homemade bomb exploded on the outskirts of the northwestern city of Peshawar, killing four people, including one child.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Somalia heavy fighting between insurgents and pro-government troops has killed at least 43 people over two days, as African Union peacekeepers used tanks to help the beleaguered government beat back an insurgent attack.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, Sweden's parliament narrowly approved a resolution recognizing the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey as genocide, prompting the Turkish government to recall its ambassador in protest.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, Ukrainian lawmakers formed a new majority coalition around President Viktor Yanukovych. Before forming the new governing coalition, Yanukovych signed a new law allowing individual deputies to break away from their parliamentary factions, which allowed his coalition to eventually control 235 of the chamber's 450 seats. Mykola Azarov, who served as Yanukovych's campaign strategist in this year's presidential elections, was chosen as premier.
    (AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Mar 11, In Yemen 3 southern independence activists were killed and five wounded as demonstrations in southern towns sparked clashes with police and sympathy rallies in the north against the crackdown. Yemeni authorities confiscated Al-Jazeera television broadcasting equipment from the station's San'a offices after complaining of its coverage of the country's restive southern region.
    (AP, 3/11/10)(AP, 3/12/10)
2010        Mar 11, The Zimbabwe Red Cross said at least 2.17 million Zimbabweans need food aid and the figures are set to rise because of an expected poor harvest this year.
    (AFP, 3/11/10)

2011        Mar 11, Jeffrey Tesler (62), a former British lawyer accused of helping a former Halliburton Co. subsidiary illegally bribe Nigerian officials to win over $6 billion in construction contracts, pleaded guilty in Houston to federal charges of conspiracy and violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A9)
2011        Mar 11, San Francisco police began issuing warnings to homeless people enforcing an ordinance that bans sitting or lying on sidewalks during daytime hours.
    (Reuters, 3/19/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Santa Cruz, Ca., a tsunami from the earthquake off Japan caused at least $17.1 million in damage to the harbor, and another $4 million to private boats. Gov. Jerry Brown issued an emergency declaration for the harbor. A series of powerful surges generated by the quake arrived about 7:30 a.m. and pounded the Crescent City harbor in northern California. Eight boats were believed sunk and dozens of others damaged.
    (AP, 3/13/11)
2011        Mar 11, Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker signed a bill taking away the collective bargaining rights of the state’s government workers.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A9)
2011        Mar 11, Amazon.com notified its Illinois partners that it will stop doing business with them on April 15 because of a new state law requiring the online store to collect sales taxes.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.D2)
2011        Mar 11, Apple’s iPad2 tablet computer arrived in stores.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.D1)
2011        Mar 11, The African Union reaffirmed Alassane Ouattara as the legal president of Ivory Coast, but his future remained uncertain as an aide warned of death threats and the country's strongman refused to budge from the presidential mansion.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Bahrain security forces backed by pro-government vigilantes battled protesters near the offices and compounds of the ruling family.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, NATO defense ministers in Brussels endorsed a list of the first cities and provinces where Afghan police and soldiers will take control of security, a key element in the West's exit strategy from the decade-old war.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In China a gas explosion from a coal mine in the southwest killed 19 miners in Guizhou province's Liupanshui city.
    (AP, 3/12/11)
2011        Mar 11, One of Cuba's leading dissidents, Oscar Elias Biscet (49), was freed from prison. He vowed to keep protesting against the government that had just released him. He was one of 52 who had been jailed since a 2003 government crackdown on opponents known as Cuba's "Black Spring" that strained the communist-led island's international relations.
    (Reuters, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, Egyptian officials said 4 top security officials have been jailed for ordering police to shoot and kill protesters during the country’s 18-day uprising.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A3)
2011        Mar 11, Euro-zone leaders began a 2-day summit to launch the “pact for the euro," a pledge to align members’ economic policies and enhance their competitiveness.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.62)
2011        Mar 11, Guyana police said they have arrested a man (22) who had taken over a high school in a rural community, where he beat students with a cane and leather belts and arbitrarily changed school hours. The man, posing as a government official, pulled off his ruse for two weeks until suspicious teachers finally called the Ministry of Education.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Iraq protesters gathered in Baghdad's Tahrir Square, one of at least four demonstrations in major Iraqi cities. The largest rally was in northern Kurdish city of Sulaimaniyah, with an estimated turnout of 4,000. Some protesters accused security forces of detaining and beating them for taking part in demonstrations calling for better services and a corruption-free government.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, An Israeli family of five, Ehud and Ruthy Fogel, their two young children and a baby, were knifed to death as they slept at the Itamar West Bank settlement. In September Hakim Awwad (18) was sentenced to five consecutive life sentences for the slayings. On Oct 4 an army statement said Amjad Awwad (19), a cousin of Hakim Awwad, has confessed to involvement in the slayings.
    (AP, 3/12/11)(AFP, 10/4/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Jamaica gunmen invaded Spanish Town Hospital and robbed staff of money, phones and jewelry. There were no immediate reports of any injuries.
    (AP, 3/12/11)
2011        Mar 11, A ferocious tsunami spawned by an 8.9 earthquake, one of the largest ever recorded, slammed Japan's eastern coast, killing hundreds of people as it swept away boats, cars and homes while widespread fires burned out of control. At least 574 people were killed including 74 elementary school students and 10 teachers at the Okawa primary school. Estimates put the toll as high as 1300. At least 10,000 people were missing. Japan declared states of emergency for five nuclear reactors at two power plants after the units lost cooling ability in the aftermath of the earthquake. The quake (the fourth-largest recorded since 1900) was caused when the Pacific tectonic plate dove under the North American plate, which shifted Eastern Japan towards North America by about 13 feet. The disaster, which became known as 3/11, killed 180 villagers at Ukedo. It killed 15,856 people and left another 2,643 missing.
    (AP, 3/11/11)(AP, 3/12/11)(http://tinyurl.com/5sphrbr)(SFC, 1/25/12, p.A3)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.35)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.81)
2011        Mar 11, Jordanians demanding democratic reforms protested in the capital for the 10th street week following Muslim prayers, defying an edict by the kingdom's religious leaders not to demonstrate.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, Libyan security forces used tear gas and fired in the air on Friday to disperse worshippers near a mosque in the capital before they could protest against Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels said that an air strike by forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi hit storage tanks of Libya's state-owned Ras Lanuf Oil and Gas Processing Company (RASCO). Rebels appealed for arms as they battled with Moamer Kadhafi's advancing forces.
    (Reuters, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, Mexico's attorney general's office said it has extradited Esteban Rodriguez Olivera to the United States, where he will face charges in New York and Washington, D.C. federal courts for trafficking cocaine and money-laundering.
    (AP, 3/12/11)
2011        Mar 11, A sign threatening Ciudad Juarez Public Security Director Julian Leyzaola Perez was left beside a man who was found tortured but alive and wrapped in a blanket. Leyzaola had assumed the post a day earlier. Soldiers raided a drug gang's camp in the northeast and killed eight gunmen in a shootout. 9 other people were detained in the raid, including a woman, who claimed she had been kidnapped.
    (AP, 3/12/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Mexico masses of sardines, anchovies, stripped bass and mackerel surged close to shore on one beach in the resort city of Acapulco, packed so tightly near the surface they looked like an oil slick from above. Fishermen attributed the phenomenon to the unusual currents unleashed by tsunami that followed the earthquake in Japan. Experts couldn't be sure.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Moldova US Vice President Joe Biden urged the government to fight corruption and implement pro-Western democratic reforms, saying that Washington would offer support to Europe's poorest country as it seeks to move closer to the EU.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In the Netherlands the war crimes trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor, once among West Africa's most powerful figures, ended with judges expected to take months to reach a verdict on whether he can be linked to murders and amputations during Sierra Leone's civil war.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, Norway rejected oil drilling in ecologically sensitive waters just above the Arctic circle, partly because of worries over a disaster like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Pakistan a pair of US missile strikes killed five suspected militants in a tribal region along the border with Afghanistan. The second strike apparently hit militants retrieving bodies from the first.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In the southern Philippines a gold miner was killed and five others dug up alive by fellow miners after their hut got buried by a landslide in Pantukan town.
    (AP, 3/13/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of police deployed in the capital and prevented protests calling for democratic reforms inspired by the wave of unrest sweeping the Arab world.
    (AP, 3/11/11)
2011        Mar 11, In Tunisia a new eruption of violence between police and protesters killed 2 and injured 20.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A3)
2011        Mar 11, Yemeni security forces opened fire on demonstrators taking part in protests throughout Yemen in what appears to be the biggest turnout in a month of unrest to demand regime change.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2012        Mar 11, F. Sherwood Rowland (b.1927), 1995 Nobel prize winner in chemistry, died in Orange County , Ca. He had warned of Earth’s thinning ozone layer and crusaded against the use of man-made chemicals that harmed the atmospheric blanket.
    (SFC, 3/13/12, p.A6)
2012        Mar 11, In Afghanistan an American soldier opened fire on villagers near his base and killed 16 civilians. 9 children and 3 women were among the dead in Kandahar province. A US service member was detained at a NATO base as the alleged shooter. The soldier was transferred to Kuwait on March 14 and on to the US on March 16. On March 16 the soldier was identified as Staff Sergeant Robert Bales (38) of Lake Tapps, Wa.
    (AP, 3/11/12)(AP, 3/16/12)(Reuters, 3/16/12)
2012        Mar 11, El Salvador held mid-term elections. The leftist party led by Pres. Mauricio Funes lost four seats, leaving the conservatives as the biggest bloc in the legislature.
    (AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 11, An Egyptian military tribunal acquitted an army doctor of a charge of public obscenity filed by a protester who claimed she was forced to undergo a virginity test while in detention.
    (AP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, In France a non-commissioned officer, dressed in civilian clothes, was shot dead in the street in Toulouse at point blank range.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Honduras Fausto Hernandez Arteaga (54) of Radio Alegre de Colon was killed in Saba, Colon province. He was director of the station's "Voice of the News" program. 19 journalists have been killed over the last two years in Honduras.
    (AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 11, India reversed its ban on cotton exports in a swift U-turn just six days after the policy announcement was greeted with outrage from farmers.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Iraq gun and bomb attacks north of Baghdad killed eight people, including Adnan Hezbar, the bodyguard of the mayor of Tarmiyah, along with four of Hezbar’s female relatives. In Baquba a roadside bomb set off in front of a popular cafe killed two civilians and wounded another. A bomb attached to a motorcycle also exploded near an Iraqi army patrol in Saadiyah, killing one soldier.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, Israeli war planes carried out four strikes, killing three people, including a school boy and a 60-year-old man who medics said was a civilian. Israeli Defense ministry figures said that militants had fired 124 rockets at Israel since March 9, including 68 Qassams and 44 longer-range Grads. In response the air force carried out 26 air raids, 15 of which targeted militants who were in the act of firing on Israel.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Mali Tuareg rebels seized control of the Tessalit military base while the army said they had only made a strategic retreat.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Nigeria a suicide bomber blew himself up outside St Finbar’s Catholic church in Jos, killing 7 attending mass. 4 suicide bombers, including two that drove the car and two on a motorcycle that escorted the car, were also reported killed. Soldiers opened fire to disperse a crowd of onlookers killing at least 3 more people. Gunmen later in the day shot dead three Christians in Jos.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)(AFP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Pakistan a suicide bomber blew himself up at a funeral near the northwestern city of Peshawar, killing at least 13 people and wounding more than 30 others. The blast went off after mourners had offered prayers for a local woman.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, In the Philippines Daily Tribune reporter Fernan Angeles (41) was beaten and shot six times with a pistol by unidentified men near his home in Pasig city, a suburb of Manila. He appeared to have been suspected of leaking information about a drug syndicate's operation to authorities.
    (AP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Russia a law took effect in St. Petersburg which, in part prohibits "the propaganda of homosexuality and pedophilia among minors. Gay rights activists said it would criminalize even reading, writing or speaking about gay, lesbian, or transgender people. Violations carry hefty fines up to $16,700.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7pwa2zk)
2012        Mar 11, Senegal's opposition joined forces in a mass rally to block 85-year-old President Abdoulaye Wade from landing a third term in office and back challenger Macky Sall.
    (AP, 3/12/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Spain hundreds of thousands of people across the country took part in demonstrations called by trade unions to protest the government’s tough new labor reforms.
    (SFC, 3/12/12, p.A2)
2012        Mar 11, In Syria international peace envoy Kofi Annan said he handed over a set of "concrete proposals" aimed at defusing the Syrian crisis during a second round of talks with President Bashar al-Assad. 20 bodies were discovered in the Dbeit district in Idlib. A massacre in Homs left 26 children and 21 women, some with their throats slit and others bearing stab wounds in the Karm el-Zaytoun and Al-Adawiyeh neighborhoods of Homs. Four civilians were killed in government shelling and 10 soldiers were killed when their checkpoint was attacked by defectors in Idlib province.
     (AFP, 3/11/12)(AFP, 3/12/12)(AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 11, In Taiwan thousands of protesters took to the streets calling on the government to shut down the island's nuclear power plants, citing the painful lesson of Japan's 9.0-magnitude earthquake one year ago.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)
2012        Mar 11, Hackers claiming to belong to the Anonymous Internet freedom group posted video messages on Facebook pages of Tunisian Islamists, threatening reprisals over their efforts to introduce Salafist laws.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)

2013        Mar 11, The Clinton Foundation announced that grants for over $700,000 will go toward efforts in Haiti to plant trees, build a coffee farm and train farmers. Heineken NV announced that it would invest $40 million to expand a brewery and help farmers who supply it with sorghum.
    (AP, 3/12/13)
2013        Mar 11, Detroit jurors convicted former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (42) on corruption charges, capping a five-month trial that exposed a brazen pay-to-play culture during his years in office while the distressed city lost jobs and people and veered toward insolvency.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg vowed to appeal a judge's ruling that struck down his pioneering ban on large sugary drinks sold by the city's restaurants, movie theaters and other food service businesses just a day before it was to take effect.
    (Reuters, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, A US Naval A-6B Prowler crashed into a farm filed some miles outside of Spokane, Washington. All 3 crew members were killed.
    (SFC, 3/12/13, p.A4)
2013        Mar 11, In eastern Afghanistan a police officer opened fire on US and Afghan forces at a police headquarters, sparking a firefight that killed two US troops and two other Afghan policemen in Wardak province. The attacker was also killed in the shootout. In a second incident, outside Kabul, US troops fired on a truck approaching their military convoy, killing two Afghan men inside. A helicopter crash outside Kandahar city killed five American service members.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(AP, 3/12/13)
2013        Mar 11, In Bahrain Yousef al-Muhafedha, acting president of the Bahrain Human Rights Center, was found not guilty of posting inaccurate news on Twitter about some anti-government protests.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, The British government launched a campaign to promote London as a center for Islamic finance, seeking to counter growing competition from rising centers such as Dubai and Kuala Lumpur.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Sally Davies, Britain's top health official, said antibiotic resistance poses a catastrophic threat to medicine and could mean patients having minor surgery risk dying from infections that can no longer be treated.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, CAR rebels who signed a peace deal with the government two months ago, seized control of two towns in the southeast of Central African Republic, threatening to undo the country's fragile peace.
    (AP, 3/13/13)
2013        Mar 11, In China Shanghai officials said the number of dumped adult and piglet carcasses retrieved in tributaries of the Huangpu river had reached 2,813. The city government, citing monitoring authorities, said the drinking water quality has not been affected. Authorities have been pulling out swollen and rotting pigs since March 8. By March 21 the dead pig count reached over 16,000.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(SFC, 3/23/13, p.A2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.70)
2013        Mar 11, Residents of the Falkland Islands voted almost unanimously to stay under British rule in a referendum. The official count showed 99.8 percent of islanders voted in favor of remaining a British Overseas Territory in the two-day poll.
    (AP, 3/12/13)
2013        Mar 11, Hungary’s parliament voted to amnend the constitution, despite pleas from the European Commission that the amendments conflict with EU law.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.53)
2013        Mar 11, In India  Ram Singh, who was accused of driving the bus during a  December rape attack, was in a cell with three other inmates at Tihar Jail in New Delhi when he hanged himself either with his own clothes or a bed sheet.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, In northern Iraq a suicide attacker drove his explosives-laden car into a police station, killing five people in Dibis near Kirkuk. Attacks elsewhere in the country killed six more Iraqis.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, The Int’l. Criminal Court (ICC) dropped charges of crimes against humanity against Francis Muthaura, Kenya’s former public service chief, after a key witness recanted..
    (SFC, 3/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 11, At least 10 former senior Malawian government officials, including Cabinet ministers, were arrested for allegedly plotting a coup to prevent then-Vice President Joyce Banda from assuming power following the death of the former president in April last year.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Mexico’s President Enrique Pena Nieto moved to overhaul and strengthen the weak and chaotic regulations that have allowed Carlos slim, the world's richest man, and its largest Spanish-language media empire to exert near-total control of Mexico's lucrative telephone and television markets.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, The Zocalo newspaper in Mexico’s Coahuila state said it will no longer cover information related to drug cartels due to safety concerns for its workers and families.
    (SFC, 3/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 11, North Korea’s main newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, reported that the 60-year-old armistice that ended the Korean War was nullified today as Pyongyang had earlier announced it would.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, The presidents of Iran and Pakistan marked the start of construction in Pakistan on a pipeline to bring Iranian natural gas to Pakistan.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.43)
2013        Mar 11, In Pakistan a roadside bomb killed three Pakistani soldiers in  in Dogar village in the Kurram tribal area near the Afghan border.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Russian scientists said a new form of microbial life has been found in water samples taken from Lake Vostok, a giant freshwater lake hidden under kilometers of Antarctic ice.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Syrian forces fired heavy machine guns and launched at least one airstrike on a neighborhood in the central city of Homs. The UN Human Rights Council released a report that said neither government forces nor rebels were doing enough to protect civilians. Mortar shells struck a soccer stadium in a predominantly Christian neighborhood of Damascus killing 6 civilians.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(SFC, 3/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 11, CITES conservationists in Bangkok voted to regulate the trade of shark species threatened because their fins are used for expensive delicacies in Asia.
    (SFC, 2/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 11, In Venezuela owners of Globovision, the last remaining television station critical of the government, announced that it is being sold to an insurance company owner who is apparently friendly with the ruling socialists, following an unrelenting official campaign to financially strangle the broadcaster through regulatory pressure.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2014        Mar 11, Sen. Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., the head of the Senate Intelligence Committee, said the CIA improperly searched a stand-alone computer network established for Congress in its investigation of allegations of CIA abuse in a Bush-era detention and interrogation program. She said the CIA's own inspector general has referred the matter to the Justice Department.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Eric Toth, a former Washington private school teacher, was sentenced to 25 years in prison in a child pornography case. He was captured in Nicaragua in 2013 after a year on the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted" fugitives list.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Jos. A. Bank of Hampstead, Md., and Men’s Wearhouse of Fremont, Ca., announced that Men’s Wearhouse will acquire Jos. A. Bank for $65/share or about $1.8 billion.
    (SFC, 3/12/14, p.C1)
2014        Mar 11, In Afghanistan Swedish journalist Nils Horner (51) was shot to death while he was talking to a translator on a street in Kabul.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Albanian authorities arrested seven Muslims, including two imams, for allegedly recruiting men to enlist with rebel groups fighting in Syria. About two-thirds of Albania's 3.2 million inhabitants are Muslims.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 12, Austria arrested Ukrainian businessman Dmytro Firtash at the request of the USA which has been investigating him since 2006. He was suspected of violating laws on bribery and forming a criminal organization in the course of foreign business deals. On March 21 Firtash was released on 125 million-euro ($172.5 million) bail.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)(AP, 3/21/14)
2014        Mar 11, Bank of England governor Mark Carney said the alleged manipulation of foreign exchange markets is "as serious as" the Libor rate rigging scandal that rocked the financial sector. Global regulators were investigating a number of firms linked to the suspected rigging of foreign exchange trading.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Michelle Bachelet took over the presidency of Chile for the second time. She planned to spend $15 billion on ambitious reforms aimed at redressing steep income inequality.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, China’s banking regulators approved a pilot scheme to allow privately owned banks in various parts of the country. The China Banking Regulatory Commission said ten companies, including Internet giants Alibaba and Tencent, have been picked to invest in China's first five privately owned banks.
    (AP, 3/11/14)(Econ, 3/15/14, p.70)
2014        Mar 11, In CongoDRC a ground assault by government forces in Makoyoya followed UN helicopter attacks and killed 22 rebels.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.47)
2014        Mar 11, In Croatia a court convicted former PM Ivo Sanader (2004-2009) of siphoning millions in state money while in power, and sentenced him to nine years in prison as part of efforts to root out corruption. Sanader was sentenced separately to 10 years in prison for bribery in 2012.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Egyptian authorities decided to take control of independent mosques in a move aimed at curbing Islamist dissent. In January, the Religious Endowments Ministry decided to set a theme topic sent to preachers around the country for Friday sermons. In late 2013 the ministry dismissed 55,000 imams (prayer leaders) who did not graduate from Cairo's Al-Azhar University, the most prestigious institution in Sunni Islam.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, In Egypt Freij (aka Abu Abdullah), one of the founders of Ansar Beit al-Maqdis (Champions of Jerusalem), was killed when a bomb he was carrying was set off by a car accident.
    (AP, 3/15/14)
2014        Mar 11, The European Commission agreed to extend nearly 500 million euros worth of trade benefits to Ukraine, removing duties on a wide range of agricultural goods, textiles and other imports in an effort to support the Ukrainian economy.  G7 leaders called on Russia to stop all efforts to "annex" Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)(Reuters, 3/12/14)
2014        Mar 11, France returned three paintings stolen by the Nazis during WWII to their rightful owners. This brought the number of looted paintings returned by France to their rightful owners to 10 in less than a year.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, In eastern India Maoist rebels ambushed police and killed 16 involved in a mine clearing operation in a remote part of Chhattisgarh state, demonstrating their strength ahead of a general election next month.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Israel’s PM Benjamin Netanyahu ruled out any deal with the Palestinians unless they recognize Israel as the Jewish state and give up their refugees' right of return.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Israel expressed its regret over the death of Jordanian judge Raed Zeiter (38) while he was making his way to the occupied West Bank. He was shot a day earlier by Israeli soldiers after an altercation at the Allenby Bridge crossing.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, An Israeli air strike killed 3 militants of the Al-Quds Brigades in the southern Gaza Strip. The air strike came just hours after an unmanned aircraft of the sort Israel uses for surveillance and missile strikes crashed in the same area, just east of Khan Yunis.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, In northern Nigeria gunmen on motorbikes began attacking Marabar Kindo village in Katsina state. Fulani herders were blamed for the attacks on Hausa farmers that left over 100 dead.
    (SFC, 3/14/14, p.A2)
2014        Mar 11, Two Russian cosmonauts and an American astronaut landed back on Earth in Kazakhstan after a stay aboard the International Space Station (ISS) of over half a year.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, In Libya angry MPs ousted PM Ali Zeidan after the North Korean-flagged Morning Glory, a tanker laden with oil from a rebel-held terminal, broke through a naval blockade and escaped to sea. Zeidan flew to Malta on a Libyan state plane, but then switched to a private jet after a brief stopover before departing for Germany. Libyan commander Ibrahim Jedran, whose militia took over vital oil terminals in the country's east, said he is seeking help from the United States in a standoff with the government over the seizure.
    (AP, 3/11/14)(AP, 3/12/14)(AFP, 3/12/14)
2014        Mar 11, Romania's lower house of parliament overwhelmingly voted to block an investigation by state prosecutors of former Finance Minister Daniel Chitoiu who they suspect abused his power to further the interests of a private insurance company. Romania ranks only behind Greece and Bulgaria in terms of corruption in the 28-nation EU, according to Transparency International.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Russia signed a preliminary agreement to build at least two more nuclear power plants in the Iranian port city of Bushehr.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)
2014        Mar 11, In northeastern Syria 3 suicide bombers detonated their explosives belts in a local administration building in a Kurdish town, killing at least 5 people.
    (AP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, In Turkey police and protesters clashed in Ankara and Istanbul following the death of Berkin Elvan, a 15-year-old boy who suffered a head injury during anti-government demonstrations last summer. Elvan was the sixth person to die in violence surrounding nationwide protests in late May and June over Erdogan's plans to tear down a park in central Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, Ukraine's interim leaders established a new National Guard and appealed to the United States and Britain for assistance against what they called Russian aggression in Crimea under a post-Cold War treaty.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, The parliament of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula voted for full independence from Ukraine in preparation for a referendum to join Russia. France threatened sanctions against Moscow as early as this week. Gunmen took over air traffic control of the airport in the regional capital Simferopol and refused landing rights to a flight from the Ukrainian capital.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said it is sending a new team to observe military developments in tense regions of Ukraine and that the new team's mandate has been extended beyond Crimea to eastern Ukraine. Pro-Russian forces rebuffed previous attempts to monitor Crimea.
    (AP, 3/11/14)

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