Swallows' Day. The swallows return to Capistrano California.
(HFA, '96, p.26)(HT, 3/97, p.58)
1524 Mar 19, Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.
Mar 19, The Peace of Amboise granted Rights for Huguenots.
1571 Mar 19, Spanish troops occupied Manila. [see May
1589 Mar 19, William Bradford, governor of Plymouth colony for 30 years, was born (baptized).
(HN, 3/19/98)(MC, 3/19/02)
1593 Mar 19, Georges de la Tour (d.1652), French painter, was born. His night painting "The Penitent Magdelene" features a seated woman contemplating a flame with one hand resting on a
(NH, 10/96, p.39)(MC, 3/19/02)
1601 Mar 19, Alonzo Cano, Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was
1628 Mar 19, Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen.
1629 Mar 19, Aleksei M. Romanov, 1st Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
1661 Mar 19, English occupied St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal Adventurers in Africa Company.
1687 Mar 19, French explorer Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by mutineers while searching for the mouth of the
Mississippi, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
Mar 19, War was declared between Russia and Turkey.
1721 Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and
physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
(HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)
1748 Mar 19, English Naturalization Act was passed granting Jews right
to colonize US.
1775 Mar 19, In Italy 4 people were buried by avalanche for 37 days and 3 survived. [not clear if this was the date of the avalanche or
the recovery date.]
1775 Mar 19, Portuguese fleet was repulsed in attack on Montevideo, Uruguay.
1785 Mar 19, Pierre-Joseph-Guillaume Zimmermann, composer, was born.
1796 Mar 19, Stephen Storace (33), composer, died.
Mar 19, Joseph Haydn’s "Die Schopfung," premiered in Vienna.
1799 Mar 19, Napoleon Bonaparte began the siege of Acre ( later Akko, Israel), which was defended by
1803 Mar 19, Johann von Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina," premiered in Weimar.
1808 Mar 19, Spain's King Charles IV abdicated.
1812 Mar 19, Spanish Cortes passed a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch.
1813 Mar 19, David Livingston, explorer found by Stanley in Africa, was born in Scotland.
Mar 19, Sir Richard Burton (d.1890), English explorer, was born.
1822 Mar 19, Boston was incorporated as a city.
1831 Mar 19, The first recorded US bank robbery occurred at the City Bank, in New York. Some $245,000 is stolen.
1848 Mar 19, Wyatt Earp (Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp), later U.S. Marshal, was born the son of a Sheriff in Illinois. He fought at the Gunfight at the OK
Corral and Paula Mitchell Marks later wrote "And Die in the West," an account of the incident.
(HN, 3/19/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)(CHA, 1/2001)
1849 Mar 19, Alfred
von Tirpitz, Prussian admiral, was born. He commanded the German fleet in early World War I.
1859 Mar 19, The opera "Faust" by Charles Gounod
premiered in Paris.
1860 Mar 19, William Jennings Bryan, orator, statesman, known as "The Great Communicator," was
1861 Mar 19, Maori War in New Zealand ended.
1862 Mar 19, F. Wilhelm von Schadow (73), German painter (Modern Vasari), died.
1864 Mar 19, Montana vigilantes lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing It” (1872). In 2008 Dan Rottenberg authored “Death of a Gunfighter: The Quest for Jack Slade, the West’s Most Elusive
(WSJ, 11/11/08, p.A15)(www.twainquotes.com/Slade.html)
1864 Mar 19, Charles Gounod's opera "Mireille" premiered in Paris.
1864 Mar 19, Alexandre Calame (b.1810), Swiss painter, died in Menton, France.
1865 Mar 19, Battle of Bentonville: Confederates retreated from Greenville, NC. [see Mar 20-21]
1866 Mar 19, The immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sank in Liverpool; 738 died.
19, The opera "Guarany," premiered in Milan.
1872 Mar 19, Sergei Diaghilev, ballet director, was born in Gruzino Novgorod, Russia. [see Mar
1873 Mar 19, Max Reger, composer, pianist, prof. (Leipzig Univ), was born in Brand, Bavaria.
1875 Mar 19, Tiburcio Vasquez (b.1835), a cultured robber, was hanged in San Jose, Ca., after being found guilty of robbery and murder In 2010 John Boessenecker authored “Bandido,” an account of
(SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A2)
1879 Mar 19, Jim Currie opened fire on the actors Maurice Barrymore and Ben Porter near Marshall, Texas. His shots wounded
Barrymore and killed Porter.
1882 Mar 19, Gaston Lachaise (d.1935), Franco-American sculptor (Standing Woman), was
(SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)(MC, 3/19/02)
1883 Mar 19, Joseph W. Stilwell, US general (China), was born.
1883 Mar 19, Jan Matzeliger invented the 1st machine to manufacture entire shoes.
1884 Mar 19, Alfonse Charles Renaud de Vilback (54), composer, died.
Mar 19, Sarah Gertrude Millina, South African writer (The Dark River, God's Stepchildren), was born.
1891 Mar 19, Earl
Warren, governor of California, was born. He was appointed 14th Supreme Court Chief Justice (1953-1969) and led the commission that investigated the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. "I always turn to the sports page first. The sports page records people’s accomplishments; the front page nothing but man’s failure."
(HN, 3/19/99)(AP, 7/19/00)
1894 Mar 19, Jackie "Moms" Mabley, comedienne (Merv Griffin Show), was born in Brevard, SC.
1895 Mar 19, Los Angeles Railway was established to provide streetcar service.
1900 Mar 19, [Jean] Frederic Joliot-Curie, French physicist (Nobel 1935), was born.
Mar 19, President McKinley asserted the need for free trade with Puerto Rico.
1901 Mar 19, Jo Mielziner, set designer (Carousel, Death of a Salesman),
was born in Paris.
1903 Mar 19, The U.S. Senate ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and Bahia Honda.
1904 Mar 19, John J. Sirica, U.S. Federal Judge, ruled on Watergate issues, was born.
1905 Mar 19, Albert Speer, German architect, minister of Armament (NSDAP), was born.
1906 Mar 19, Adolf Eichman, Nazi Gestapo officer, was born. He was captured in Argentina and put on trial in Israel.
1906 Mar 19, Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari's "Quattro Rusteghi," premiered in Munich.
1908 Mar 19, Maryland banned Christian Scientists from practicing medicine unless they had a medical diploma.
Mar 19, Adolf Galland, German Luftwaffe pilot and youngest German General at the age of 33, was born.
1916 Mar 19,
Irving Wallace, author (People's Almanac, The Man), was born.
1916 Mar 19, The First Aerosquadron took off from Columbus, NM, to join Gen. John J. Pershing and his Punitive Expedition for Pancho
Villa in Mexico.
1917 Mar 19, Dino Lipatti, composer, pianist, was born.
1917 Mar 19, The U.S. Supreme Court, in Wilson v. New, upheld the Adamson Act, the eight hour work day for railroad workers.
(HN, 3/19/98)(AP, 3/19/08)
1917 Mar 19, A German submarine in the Mediterranean Sea sunk the French battleship Danton. In 2009 the Danton was discovered on the seabed southwest of Sardinia.
1918 Mar 19, US Congress authorized time zones and approved Daylight Saving Time.
3/19/97)(www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/usstat.html)(SSFC, 3/27/05, Par p.15)
1919 Mar 19, A typhoid epidemic raged in Petrograd, Russia, killing 200 daily.
1920 Mar 19, The U.S. Senate rejected for the second time the Treaty of Versailles by a vote of 49-35, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed for approval.
(AP, 3/19/97)(HN, 3/19/98)
1924 Mar 19, U.S. troops were rushed to Tegucigalpa as the Honduran capital was taken by rebel forces.
1924 Mar 19, Charles Villiers Stanford (71), Irish composer, author, died.
1925 Mar 19, Brent Scrowcroft, Lt. Gen. (USAF), National Security Advisor to President George Bush, was born.
1925 Mar 19, Angelo G.
Roncalli (Pope John XXIII) became a bishop.
1927 Mar 19, Bloody battles between Communists & Nazis took place in
1928 Mar 19, Patrick McGoohan, actor (#6-Prisoner, Secret Agent), was born in Astoria, NY.
1928 Mar 19, "Amos & Andy" debuted on radio with the NBC Blue Network, WMAQ Chicago.
1930 Mar 19, Ornette Coleman was born in Fort Worth, Texas, and was an early proponent of ‘free form jazz.‘ Having taught himself to play the saxophone and read music by age 14, Coleman moved to Los Angeles and met like-minded musicians in the early ‘50s. His debut album in 1959, Something
Else! introduced his atonal interpretation of jazz, one free of traditional tonal structure, which he terms ‘harmolodic.‘ Many listeners and critics have termed it ‘anarchy.‘ Coleman has continued to be an influential if controversial figure in jazz, now producing albums under his own label (Harmolodic, Inc.) as well as soundtracks for films. [see Mar
1930 Mar 19, Arthur J. Balfour (81), British theologist, premier (1902-05), died.
1931 Mar 19, Nevada legalized gambling a 2nd time to raise tax revenues and stabilize the state’s economy. Gov. Fred B. Balzar signed a measure legalizing casino gambling. The Northern Club on 15 E. Fremont was soon issued the 1st
(HN, 3/19/98)(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(AP, 3/19/07)
1932 Mar 19, Sydney Harbor Bridge, Australia, officially
1933 Mar 19, Phillip Roth, American novelist and short-story writer (Portnoy's Complaint), was
1933 Mar 19, Italy's dictator Benito Mussolini proposed a pact with Britain, France and Germany.
1935 Mar 19, Renee Taylor, actress (Jack Paar Show, Mary Hartman, Nanny), was born in NYC.
1935 Mar 19, The British fired on 20,000 Muslims in India, killing 27.
1936 Mar 19, The USSR signed a pact of assistance with Mongolia against Japan.
Mar 19, Lithuania accepted a Polish peace ultimatum and established diplomatic ties.
(HN, 3/19/98)(LHC, 3/19/03)
Mar 19, Jimmy Dorsey and Orchestra recorded "Green Eyes" and "Maria Elena" for Decca Records.
1942 Mar 19, FDR ordered
men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
1943 Mar 19, Airship Canadian Star was torpedoed and
1944 Mar 19, The German 352nd Infantry Division deployed along the coast of France.
1944 Mar 19, Nazi German soldiers occupied Hungary.
Mar 19, At Cisterna, Italy, Germans, increasingly worried about resistance, rounded up the entire town and marched them north. Many ended in labor camps and farms as far north as Tuscany.
1945 Mar 19, US Task Force 58 attacked ships near Kobe and Kure.
1945 Mar 19, Kamikaze
planes attacked the US carrier Franklin off Japan killing 724 people; the ship, however, was saved.
1945 Mar 19, Adolf Hitler issued his so-called "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German
facilities that could fall into Allied hands. Hitler ordered a scorched-earth policy. Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuhrer's order.
(AP, 3/19/97)(HN, 3/19/98)
1947 Mar 19, Glenn Close, actress (The Big Chill, Fatal Attraction), was born in Greenwich, Ct.
Mar 19, Chiang Kai-shek's government forces took control of Yenan, the former headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party.
Mar 19, The 1st museum devoted exclusively to atomic energy opened at Oak Ridge, Ten.
1949 Mar 19, The Soviet People's Council signed the constitution of the German
Democratic Republic, and declared that the North Atlantic Treaty was merely a war weapon.
1950 Mar 19, Edgar Rice Burroughs (74), sci-fi author and
the creator of Tarzan, died. He wrote 24 Tarzan novels and 50 other thrillers. In 1999 John Taliaferro authored the biography "Tarzan Forever."
(SFEC, 5/9/99, Par p.8)(http://deadpool.rotten.com/occupations/author.html)
1951 Mar 19, Herman Wouk’s war novel "The Caine Mutiny" was first published.
1953 Mar 19,
Tennessee Williams' "Camino Real," premiered in NYC.
1953 Mar 19, The Academy Awards ceremony was televised for the first time; "The Greatest Show on Earth" was named best picture of 1952. Gary
Cooper & Shirley Booth won for best actor and actress.
1954 Mar 19, The 1st rocket-driven sled on rails was tested in Alamogordo,
1957 Mar 19, Pete Seibert (1924-2002) climbed to a summit in the Colorado Rockies with Earl Eaton, a uranium prospector, and beheld the area that
he later turned into the Vail ski resort.
(SFC, 7/29/02, p.B5)
1958 Mar 19, The film "South Pacific," adapted from the Rodgers and Hammerstein stage musical, was
1959 Mar 19, The Broadway show “First Impressions,” a musical version of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, premiered at the Alvin Theater.
It featured the theater debut of film star Farley Granger. The show continued for 84 performances.
(www.janeausten.co.uk/magazine/page.ihtml?pid=426&step=4)(SFC, 3/30/11, p.C4)
Mar 19, "Redhead" closed at 46th St Theater in NYC after 455 performances.
1962 Mar 19, Relative calm returned to
Algeria after cease-fire, ending 7 years of warfare between French and Algerian Nationalists.
1963 Mar 19, In Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and
six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
1963 Mar 19, Algeria demanded that France negotiate on ending nuclear testing in Algerian
1965 Mar 19, Indonesia nationalized all foreign oil companies.
1965 Mar 19, In Romania State Council Pres. Gheorghiu-Dej (b.1901) died. Gheorghe Apostol was defeated in a contest for Communist Party leader by Ceausescu, who ended up ruling Romania with an iron fist for 25 years.
1966 Mar 19, Texas Western College under coach Don Haskins won the NCAA basketball tournament becoming the 1st team to win with an all African American team. In 2006 the
film “Glory Road” depicted the story of the winning team.
(SFC, 1/24/06, p.B1)
1968 Mar 19, Howard University students in Washington DC staged rallies, protests and
a 5-day sit-in, laying siege to the administration building, shutting down the university in protest over its ROTC program, and demanding a more Afrocentric curriculum.
Mar 19, In southern California Elizabeth Ernstein (14) disappeared while walking home from school in Mentone, San Bernadino County. Her remains were found in 1969 in a shallow grave near Wrightwood, but were not identified until 2012 through DNA testing.
(SFC, 9/7/12, p.C8)
1970 Mar 19, Willy Brandt and Willi Stoph met for the first East-West Germany summit in Berlin.
1971 Mar 19, At least 160 people perished in landslides north of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Mar 19, India and Bangladesh signed a friendship treaty.
1972 Mar 19, The illegal Soviet-era journal "Chronicle of the Lithuanian Catholic Church" was
1st published. 5 issues were published up to 1987.
1976 Mar 19, Buckingham Palace announced the separation of Princess Margaret and her husband, the
Earl of Snowdon, after 16 years of marriage.
1978 Mar 19, Israeli army took control of almost all of Lebanon south of Litani
1978 Mar 19, The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 425 demanding that Israel withdraw from Lebanon.
1979 Mar 19, The U.S. House of Representatives began televising its day-to-day business. Brian Lamb launched C-Span, a TV public service broadcasting medium that focused on public affairs without comment or analysis. He came up
with the idea while working the Washington bureau chief for Cablevision magazine.
(AP, 3/19/97)(SSFC, 3/27/05, Par p.14)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.34)
1980 Mar 19, The US
appealed to the International Court of Justice on hostages in Iran.
1981 Mar 19, One technician was killed and two others were injured
during a routine test on space shuttle Columbia.
1984 Mar 19, The TV show "Kate & Allie"
1984 Mar 19, The SS Mobil Oil spilled 200,000 gallons of oil into the Columbia River near Longview.
1985 Mar 19, In a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile.
1985 Mar 19, "Spin Magazine" began publishing.
1987 Mar 19, President Reagan, in a news conference, repudiated his policy of selling arms to Iran, saying, "I would not go down that road again."
1987 Mar 19, Televangelist Jim Bakker resigned as chairman of his PTL ministry organization amid a sex and money scandal involving Jessica Hahn, a former church secretary from Oklahoma. Some $265,000 in ministry funds had been used to keep Hahn quiet about a one-time sexual
encounter in 1980.
(AP, 3/19/97)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.B7)
1988 Mar 19, Two British soldiers were shot to death after they were dragged from a car and beaten by mourners
attending an Irish Republican Army funeral in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
1989 Mar 19, Alfredo Cristiani of the right-wing ARENA party was elected
president of El Salvador, defeating Fidel Chavez Mena of the Christian Democratic Party.
1989 Mar 19, Muslim gunners fire rockets into Christian areas of
1990 Mar 19, Latvia's political opposition claimed victory in the republic's first free elections in 50 years, and reformers also claimed
victories in crucial runoffs held in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine.
1990 Mar 19, Kremlin warned Lithuania against taking over factories, putting up border
1991 Mar 19, The US Labor Department reported that consumer prices, benefiting from a big monthly decline in gasoline prices, had edged upward
only two-tenths of a percentage point the previous month.
1991 Mar 19, Ending several days of ominous silence, the Yugoslav army declares it will not permit Yugoslavia to dissolve into civil
1992 Mar 19, Democrat Paul Tsongas pulled out of the presidential race, leaving Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton the favorite to capture their party's
nomination. Tsongas had won the New Hampshire Democratic presidential primary.
(AP, 3/19/97)(SFEM,11/2/97, p.12)
1992 Mar 19, British Prince Andrew and Princess Sarah Ferguson announced
1992 Mar 19, Soviet Commonwealth leaders open their 4th summit with hopes of solving military disputes and
stopping ethnic fighting.
1993 Mar 19, US Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White announced plans to retire. His departure paved the way for Ruth Bader
Ginsburg to become the court's second female justice.
1993 Mar 19, Georgia shot down a Russian warplane over the separatist Abkhazia region, killing its pilot and heightening
1994 Mar 19, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton promised to tell people "all across America about our health reform plan and what
it really means."
1994 Mar 19, Cambodian government seizes control of Pailin, the Khmer Rouge main stronghold.
1994 Mar 19, Giuseppe Diana, Italian anti-mafia priest, was murdered.
Mar 19, Talks between North Korea and South Korea collapsed, imperiling a U.S.-brokered deal to resolve the North Korean nuclear dispute.
Mar 19, After giving up an attempt to become a major league baseball player, Michael Jordan returned to pro basketball with his former team, the Chicago Bulls.
19, Finnish voters throw out the center-right coalition government and give the opposition Social Democratic Party its biggest election victory since World War II.
1995 Mar 19, Palestinian gunmen
opened fire on a bus carrying Jewish settlers, killing two people.
1996 Mar 19, President Clinton rolled out a $1.64 trillion election-year budget,
promising it would invigorate the economy, erase federal deficits and cut taxes.
1996 Mar 19, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole wrapped up the Republican presidential nomination with solid primary
victories in four Midwestern states.
1996 Mar 19, William Hutchinson Murray (83), mountaineer, author, died.
1996 Mar 19, A fire at a Quezon City nightclub in the Philippines killed at least 149 young people celebrating the end of their school year.
(WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-1)
1996 Mar 19, In El Salvador an Emergency Anti-Crime Law was approved by President Armando Calderon. Its language called for all Salvadorans charged with crimes abroad to be locked up and re-educated.
1996 Mar 19, Nelson Mandela divorced Winnie Mandela after 38 years of marriage.
1996 Mar 19, Riots in Indonesia killed five people during demonstrations protesting the death of a jailed rebel leader.
(WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-1)
1997 Mar 19, Following the withdrawal of Anthony Lake, President Clinton nominated acting CIA Director George Tenet to head the nation's spy agency. President Clinton departed Washington for a summit in Helsinki, Finland, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
1997 Mar 19, The US Supreme Court heard arguments on Internet indecency.
Mar 19, Willem de Kooning (b.1904), Dutch-born abstract painter, considered to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters, died in East Hampton, N.Y. He had arrived in America as a stowaway in 1926. In 2004 Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan authored “de Kooning: An American Master.”
3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(AP, 3/19/98)(WSJ, 11/23/04, p.D11)
1997 Mar 19, "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell" by Deborah Solomon was reviewed. The artist was known for his surreal boxes and as a forerunner of the junk-into-art
(WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)
1997 Mar 19, It was reported that purple grape juice slows the activity of blood platelets by about 75% and thus reduces the risk of heart attacks. Red wine and aspirin slowed
platelet activity by about 45%.
(SFC, 3/19/97, p.A10)
1997 Mar 19, Bre-X geologist Michael de Guzman, husband to four wives, was reported to have jumped to his death from a helicopter enroute to Busang, Indonesia,
the site of a major gold discovery. Bre-X held a 45% stake in the Busang site.
(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A10)
1997 Mar 19, In Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, police fired tear gas and warning shots at more than 2,000
civilians protesting the government’s $27 million contract with Sandline Int’l. to quell rebels on Bougainville.
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A12)(AP, 3/29/03)
1998 Mar 19,
Pres. Clinton eased US restrictions on humanitarian aid and travel to Cuba. Cuban-American households would be allowed to send back $1,200 a year.
(WSJ, 3/20/98, p.A1)
1998 Mar 19, Completing baseball's
transformation from family ownership to corporate control, Rupert Murdoch's Fox Group won approval to buy the Los Angeles Dodgers for a record $350 million. News Corporation later sold the Dodgers to Boston real estate developer Frank McCourt.
1998 Mar 19, A new product was approved by the FDA to reduce salmonella in chickens. Preempt or CF-3 was a mixture of beneficial microbes that would be sprayed onto newly hatched chicks, and then ingested by the chicks to prevent salmonella growth.
1998 Mar 19, In Vermont a bomb exploded in a teenager’s bedroom. Christopher Marquis (17) was killed and his mother was injured. A package bomb was suspected.
1998 Mar 19, Two small planes collided over Riverside Ct. in California and 3 people were killed.
(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A3)
Mar 19, In Afghanistan a Boeing 727 operated by Ariana state airline crashed 12 miles south of Kabul and killed all 22 people on board.
(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A16)
1998 Mar 19, In Italy
suspected mafia member Giuseppe Magaddino was shot and killed. Sicilian Mafia member Claudio Adriano Giusto was later charged with killing Magaddino using a 7.65 mm firearm and then taking his wallet. Giusto was arrested in Spain in 2011 after 13 years on the run.
1998 Mar 19, Russian security officials reported that 2 young US Mormon missionaries were kidnapped in the Volga region of Saratov. The missionaries were released after 3 days with no ransom paid.
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.A12)(SFC, 3/23/98, p.A9)
1998 Mar 19, In Serbia Pres. Milosevic agreed to pull back special police in Kosovo under a deadline by world powers.
1998 Mar 19, In South Africa hundreds of black demonstrators clashed with police as they marched on the Vryburg High School. Some 2,500 residents of Huhudi township marched in support of the students who said they no longer feel safe at school. A later investigation revealed that the
140 black students were isolated from the 750 white students in classrooms and facilities.
(SFC, 3/20/98, p.A18)(SFC, 3/26/98, p.B3)
1999 Mar 19, At a White House
news conference, President Clinton prepared the nation for airstrikes against Serbian targets following the collapse of Kosovo peace talks in Paris.
1999 Mar 19, Balloonists Bertrand Piccard and
Brian Jones were expected to complete their circumnavigation of the globe and planned to land in Egypt.
(SFC, 3/20/99, p.A3)
1999 Mar 19, In Colombia Marxist rebels were reported to have abducted over 90 people in
3 provinces. 25 people were taken in Hormiga, over 50 were taken in northern Cesar province, and 19 were seized in Cauca.
(SFC, 3/20/99, p.A11)
1999 Mar 19, In Russia at least 56 people were killed in an explosion
in Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, at an outdoor bazaar. This was 2 days following a blast in neighboring Ingushetia that destroyed 2 homes. The Federal Security Service put the death toll at 63 with 104 injured.
(SFC, 3/20/99, p.A3)(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A20)(AP, 3/19/02)
1999 Mar 19, Saudi Arabia permitted some 18,000 destitute Iraqis to cross the border for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.
(SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)
2000 Mar 19, President Clinton arrived near New Delhi on the first presidential visit to India in 22 years as he opened a six-day trip through troubled South Asia.
(WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)(AP, 3/19/01)
2000 Mar 19, In Nevada 5 youths on a juvenile offenders cleanup crew were killed by a speeding minivan on I-15 in Las Vegas.
(SFC, 3/20/00, p.A11)
Mar 19, A mob stormed Nationalist Party's headquarters in Taiwan, forcing Taiwanese President Lee Teng-hui to quit as party leader.
2001 Mar 19, Pres.
Bush met with Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori. They did not come up with any specific measures to revive economic growth.
(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A10)
2001 Mar 18, An accident that injured 17 shut down several
heavily traveled highways around Washington DC for several hours. The Virginia crash involved a Quebec tour bus, a truck and two cars.
2001 Mar 19, California officials declared a power alert,
ordering the first of two days of rolling blackouts, alternative power generators shut down due to nonpayment by PG&E and Southern California Edison.
(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A1)(AP, 3/19/02)
2001 Mar 19, In
Guyana elections were held for the presidency and 65-seat National Assembly. Bharrat Jagdeo (37) and the People’s Progressive Party won a 3rd consecutive term against Desmond Hoyte (72) of the People’s National Congress. Some black voters raised accusation of fraud.
(SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A11)(SFC,
2001 Mar 19, In Japan Masaru Hayami, the Gov. of the Bank of Japan, said that a key interest rate will fall virtually to zero and stay there until consumer prices stop falling.
2001 Mar 19, Nato asked for additional troops in Kosovo to help stop Albanian guerrillas from crossing into Macedonia. Macedonia moved tanks and troops into Tetovo.
(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/20/01,
2001 Mar 19, In Turkey the Cabinet approved a detailed program of political, economic and legal reforms to secure entry to the EU.
(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A12)
2001 Mar 19, A Zimbabwe delegation wrapped up 2 days of meetings with South Africa to find ways to restore the economy. South Africa feared a flood of Zimbabweans due to fuel and food shortages there.
2002 Mar 19, US intelligence analyst Ana Belen Montes pleaded guilty in federal court to spying for Cuba; she was later sentenced to 25 years in prison.
2002 Mar 19, Former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega's appeal for parole was turned down, despite his attorney's argument that he should be released because of his longtime service to the U.S. government while in power and as a paid CIA
2002 Mar 19, Carly Fiorina, head of Hewlett-Packard, claimed victory by a slim margin in a proxy battle to buy Compaq Computer. Some $180 million was reportedly spent in the effort
to win votes.
(SFC, 3/20/02, p.A1,21)
2002 Mar 19, Scientists reported that the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica, covering some 1,250 square miles, had collapsed into small icebergs over the last 35
(SFC, 3/20/02, p.A1)
2002 Mar 19, A 5th body was found in New Melones Lake near Sonora, Ca. Meyer Muscatel (58), a Sherman Oaks contractor, was found last October. A Russian crime gang was suspected.
Alexander Umansky (35) and George Safiev (37), found Mar 17, were suspected to be among the 4 dead. The body of Nick Kharabadze (29), was found Mar 18. 4 men were already indicted in connection with their disappearance: Iouri Mikhel, Jurijus Kadamovas, Petro Krylov and Ainar Altmanis. Altmanis, a Latvian citizen, later admitted orchestrating the plot to kidnap wealthy businessmen. In 2004
Aleksejus Markovskis pleaded guilty to conspiracy and was later sentenced to 15 years in prison. In 2007 Jurijus Kadamovas and Iouri Mikhel were convicted of orchestrating the kidnapping-for-ransom scheme and sentenced to death. Petro Krylov was convicted April 26 and sentenced to life in prison.
p.A3)(SFC, 3/22/02, p.A3)(SFC, 6/7/02, p.A9)(SFC, 1/18/07, p.B10)(SFC, 4/27/07, p.B5)(SFC, 1/18/08, p.B4)
2002 Mar 19, In Britain the House of Lords voted for restrictions on hunting with hounds (366-59).
2002 Mar 19, In Burundi fighting between the Tutsi dominated army and Hutu rebels forced over 16,000 people from their homes over the last 2 days.
2002 Mar 19, Marco Biagi (b.1950), Italian jurist, was assassinated due to his role as an economic advisor to Roberto Maroni, a minister in Silvio Berlusconi's government. Biagi had devised legislation for a temporary labor contract.
(Econ, 6/11/11, SR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Biagi_%28jurist%29)
2002 Mar 19, Zimbabwe was suspended by the 54-nation Commonwealth for one year as punishment for Pres. Mugabe’s conduct during the
(SFC, 3/20/02, p.A11)
2003 Mar 19, President Bush ordered the start of war against Iraq. Because of the time difference, it was early March 20 in Iraq.
Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few US targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein, targeting him personally with a barrage of cruise missiles and bombs as a prelude to invasion. Iraq responded hours later, firing missiles toward American troops positioned just across its border with Kuwait. The codename for the invasion of Iraq was Cobra II. In 2006 Michael Gordon and Bernard Trainor
authored “Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq.
(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.W12)(AP, 3/19/04)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.82)
2003 Mar 19, Tobacco farmer Dwight Ware Watson, who'd claimed to be carrying
bombs in a tractor and trailer that he'd driven into a pond on Washington's National Mall, surrendered after disrupting traffic for two days; there were no explosives.
2003 Mar 19, Holmes Rolston III
(70), philosopher, clergyman and scientist, was awarded the Templeton Prize for his work on faith-based environmental ethics.
(SFC, 3/20/03, p.A11)
2003 Mar 19, The SEC filed a civil suit claiming that HealthSouth
Corp. and its chairman Richard M. Scrushy had committed massive accounting fraud to overstate earnings by some $1.4 billion since 1999. Weston Smith, the former finance chief, later pleaded guilty to 4 charges. HealthSouth fired Scrushy as chairman and CEO. He was indicted in November.
p.A1)(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.A8)
2003 Mar 19, A Cuban airliner was hijacked to Key West. 6 hijackers took control of the plane without telling the 25 passengers and six crew members about their asylum plans. The six were later convicted of federal hijacking
(SFC, 3/20/03, p.A15)(AP, 3/19/04)
2003 Mar 19, Mudslides in a city in Colombia's mountainous coffee-growing region left at least 11 people dead and destroyed dozens of
2003 Mar 19, In northeastern Congo 22 people were hacked to death.
2003 Mar 19, Doctors in Hong Kong reportedly identified the deadly pneumonia virus as belonging to the paramyxoviridae family. The severe acute respiratory illness (SARS) had killed at least 11 people and left hundreds ill. The outbreak is believed to have began in southern China
in November. Later reports held that it could be a coronavirus, part of a group that cause the common cold. Many people treated with corticosteroids later developed an irreversible bone disease called avascular necrosis. By July 12, 2003, SARS killed 812 people worldwide.
(SFC, 3/15/03, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A4)(WSJ,
4/3/03, p.B1)(WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A1)
2003 Mar 19, It was reported that Iraq had some 10 million land mines.
(WSJ, 3/19/03, p.A1)
Mar 19, Boatloads of Nigerian troops headed into the oil-rich Niger Delta on to put down days of ethnic violence that has left dozens dead and disrupted multinational oil operations.
(AP, 3/20/03)(SFC, 3/21/03, p.A9)
2003 Mar 19, EU officials found electronic bugs in a building in Brussels where a summit was set to open the next day. Belgian police suspected the US.
(WSJ, 3/20/03, p.A1)
Mar 19, In Palestine Mahmoud Abbas accepted the new post of prime minister.
(SFC, 3/20/03, p.A13)
2003 Mar 19, Serbian lawmakers forced 35 judges into retirement for failing to
prosecute underworld bosses.
(SFC, 3/20/03, p.A15)
2003 Mar 19, PM Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey was preparing to open its airspace to US warplanes but would not allow them access to
2004 Mar 19, President Bush, on the first anniversary of the Iraq war, urged unity in the war against
2004 Mar 19, The US Justice Dept. issued a draft opinion that authorized the agency to transfer detainees out of Iraq for interrogation.
(SSFC, 10/24/04, p.A1)
2004 Mar 19, The Army dropped all charges against Capt. James Yee, a military chaplain at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, who had been accused of mishandling classified information.
2004 Mar 19, Scientists reported that Earth may be in the middle its 6th big extinction event, which began some 50,000 years ago. A recent survey indicated population extinctions in all the main ecosystems of
(SFC, 3/19/04, p.A5)
2004 Mar 19, Harrison McCain (76), a New Brunswick farm boy who became a world-scale industrialist and the king of the frozen french fry, died in a Boston hospital after a long period
of failing health. McCain Foods (f.1956) is the world's undisputed french fry king. The company, which is still based in Florenceville, NB, produces one-third of the planet's frozen french fries.
Mar 19, Edward G. Zubler (79), GE research chemist and developer of the halogen lamp (1959), died in Cleveland.
(SFC, 3/24/04, p.B7)
2004 Mar 19, In central Afghanistan U.S.
warplanes and ground forces killed five suspected Taliban fighters at a compound in Uruzgan province.
2004 Mar 19, An Argentine federal judge declared unconstitutional a presidential decree that
pardoned several high-ranking military officers accused of human rights abuses during Argentina's Dirty War.
2004 Mar 19, In southwest Colombia soldiers searching for rebels accidentally ambushed a
police unit, killing seven police officers and four civilian prisoners. Investigators looked into all possibilities, including whether the platoon, the police unit, or both, were involved in criminal activities
(AP, 3/21/04)(AP, 4/9/04)
Mar 19, In southern Finland a bus crashed into a truck in icy conditions, killing 24 people and injuring 15.
2004 Mar 19, Georgia's authorities lifted sanctions against
the defiant Adzharia region, carrying out a new agreement aimed to avert tensions.
2004 Mar 19, In Iraq a reporter for Arab satellite television station Al-Arabiya died from his wounds after U.S.
soldiers shot him hours earlier along with a cameraman, who died at the scene.
(AP, 3/19/04)(SFC, 3/30/04, p.A1)
2004 Mar 19, A Mexican police raid led to the arrests of 42 immigration agents and other government
employees accused of running a network that smuggled migrants into the US.
(AP, 3/23/04)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.A1)
2004 Mar 19, In Nicaragua police officers kicked down the door and led convicted former Pres. Arnoldo
Aleman (58) from house arrest at his ranch to a special cell at a federal prison. Aleman was sentenced to 20 years in prison and fined $10 million for illegally diverting some $100 million in government funds to his party's election campaigns during his tenure in office, which ended in January 2002.
2004 Mar 19, Thousands of Pakistani army reinforcements joined a major offensive in tribal border villages where al-Qaeda's No. 2 leader, Ayman al-Zawahri and hundreds of other militants are believed surrounded.
2004 Mar 19, A senior U.N. official said that fighting in western Sudan has intensified in recent weeks, accusing Arab militia of systematically attacking villages and raping women.
2004 Mar 19, Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian and his vice president were shot and slightly wounded in an assassination attempt as they rode in an open vehicle while campaigning a day before an
2004 Mar 19, Yemen security forces captured the nation's most wanted man and another militant who escaped from prison last year after being detained for the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole.
Jamal Badawi and Fahd al-Quso were arrested in the mountains of southern Abyan province.
2005 Mar 19, In Florida the body of missing Jessica Lunsford
(9) was found, a day after officials said John Evander Couey (46), a registered sex offender, confessed to kidnapping and killing the girl. [see Feb 23] On June 30, 2006, a judge ruled that John Couey's taped confession is inadmissible in court and will not be heard by members of the jury. The decision was based on the fact that, at the time the confession was recorded, police had not granted
Couey's repeated requests for access to a lawyer. It was ruled that all evidence collected after Couey's confession, including the recovery of Lunsford's body, will be allowed in court, as will incriminating statements made by Couey to investigators and a jail guard. The Jessica Lunsford Act was named after her. It requires tighter restrictions on sex offenders (such as wearing electronic
tracking devices) and increases prison sentences for some convicted sex offenders. Jessica's Law refers to similar reform acts initiated by the states. In 2007 a jury decided that Couey should get the death penalty. On Aug 24 a judge sentenced Couey to death.
3/19/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jessica_Lunsford)(SFC, 8/25/07, p.A3)
2005 Mar 19, The 42-room Redstone Castle in the mountains near Aspen was auctioned for $4 million, two years after the IRS seized the century-old mansion in a fraud investigation. It was completed in 1902 by coal
baron John Cleveland Osgood, who died in the castle he named Cleveholm Manor.
2005 Mar 19, In Colorado an explosion at the Electric Mountain Lodge, 230 miles SW of Denver, left 3 children dead.
Propane gas was suspected.
(SFC, 3/21/05, p.A3)
2005 Mar 19, It was reported that Agence France-Presse has sued Google Inc. for copyright infringement, alleging that the Internet search engine included AFP
headlines, news summaries and photographs published without permission.
2005 Mar 19, John Z. DeLorean (80), developer of the gull-winged sports car, died in Michigan. He quit GM in 1973 to launch
the DeLorean Motor Car Co. in Northern Ireland. Eight years later, the DeLorean DMC-12 hit the streets. 8,900 cars were built.
(AP, 3/21/05)(SFC, 3/21/05, p.A2)
2005 Mar 19, A blast at the Xishui Colliery in
Shuozhou, in a major coal-mining area in Shanxi province, left at least 60 miners dead.
2005 Mar 19, Congo soldiers arrested Thomas Lubanga, a warlord accused of years of atrocities in eastern Congo,
where UN officials say rival militias have created the world's worst ongoing humanitarian crisis.
2005 Mar 19, Tens of thousands of anti-war protesters demonstrated across Europe to mark the second
anniversary of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, with 45,000 marching from London's Hyde Park past the American Embassy.
2005 Mar 19, Hindu nationalists set fire to a PepsiCo warehouse in western India
to protest the US denial of a visa for a top state official due to his role in religious riots in 2002.
2005 Mar 19, In Iraq attackers gunned down a police officer in Kirkuk, then bombed a funeral
procession carrying his corpse, killing three other policemen and wounding two.
2005 Mar 19, In Iraq a previously unknown militant group posted a video on the Internet on purporting to show 2
Egyptian engineers kidnapped for allegedly supporting US forces.
2005 Mar 19, Jordan, under pressure from other Arab countries, accepted amendments to its contentious proposal that was designed to
revise Arab demands on Israel in return for normal relations.
2005 Mar 19, In Pakistan’s Baluchistan province a bomb exploded as minority Shiite Muslims congregated at a shrine in a remote town,
killing at least 39 people and wounding 16.
2005 Mar 19, In Qatar a suicide car bomb attack on a Doha theater killed one Briton. The next day Qatar blamed an Egyptian for the
2005 Mar 19, Irina Slutskaya won the gold medal for the second time at the World Figure Skating Championships, held in Moscow; Sasha Cohen of the United States won the silver medal for the
second straight year.
2006 Mar 19, President Bush marked the anniversary of the Iraq war by touting efforts to build democracy there, without ever
mentioning the word "war." Thousands of anti-war protesters around the world demanded coalition troops leave Iraq, but demonstrations in many countries were far smaller than anticipated on the third anniversary of the US-led invasion.
(AP, 3/19/06)(AP, 3/19/07)
2006 Mar 19, Tennessee's Candace Parker became the first woman to dunk in an NCAA tournament game, jamming one-handed on a breakaway just 6:12 into the Lady Vols' 102-54 victory against Army.
2006 Mar 19, Boxer Kevin Payne, 34, died one day after winning an eight-round welterweight bout in Evansville, Ind.
2006 Mar 19,
Australian Prime Minister John Howard's Liberal Party was defeated at the weekend in two state elections where Labor governments held on to power.
2006 Mar 19, In southern Afghanistan a suicide car
bomber was killed when he rammed his vehicle into a coalition convoy.
2006 Mar 19, In Belarus exit poll results gave hard-line incumbent Alexander Lukashenko an overwhelming lead in the presidential
vote. The opposition candidate said he would not recognize the results. In 2009 Lukashenko said in an interview that he took 93% of the vote in the polls, but had the number reduced for "psychological" reasons.
(AP, 3/19/06)(AFP, 8/27/09)
Mar 19, Newmont Mining suspended exploration on Indonesia's Sumbawa Island after unidentified people torched a camp for its workers. A local subsidiary said the "unlawful and violent action" by around 50 people had forced it close the Elang camp and suspend exploration activities in the area.
2006 Mar 19, In northwestern Pakistan suspected Islamic militants detonated a roadside bomb near a police van, killing seven people and wounding four others.
2006 Mar 19, In Seville, Spain, Muslim and Jewish leaders met in a rare face-to-face forum and appealed to their faithful not to view each other as enemies and keep religion from being hijacked by extremists. The 4-day meeting, called the Second World Congress of Imams and Rabbis
for Peace, was sponsored by Hommes de Parole, a peace foundation based in Paris.
2007 Mar 19, President Bush marked the fourth anniversary of the start
of the Iraq war with a plea for patience to let his revised battle plan work; Congress' new Democratic leaders retorted that no patience remained.
2007 Mar 19, US officials said that the United
States and North Korea have resolved a dispute over $25 million in frozen North Korean funds, clearing the way for progress in dismantling the North's nuclear programs.
2007 Mar 19, The Airbus A380
made its first flight to North America to show off the superjumbo to potential US buyers and to the airports they hope will be flight bases for the double-decker jet. As a test a day earlier, Frankfurt air show organizers boarded more than 500 people onto the aircraft using two jetways with an impressive time of less than 20 minutes.
2007 Mar 19, Calvert DeForest (85), American TV character actor, died. He played Larry “Bud” Melman on the “Late Night With David Letterman” in the 1980s.
2007 Mar 19, Luther Ingram (69), rhythm-and-blues singer-songwriter, died.
Mar 19, In Afghanistan Italian reporter Daniele Mastrogiacomo (52), kidnapped on March 5, was freed by the Taliban. His translator also was kidnapped and officials hope he will be released. However, their driver, Sayed Agha, was beheaded by the captors. The next day the Afghan government admitted to exchanging 5 Taliban prisoners for the Italian hostage as the UN
and US led criticism of any negotiations with "terrorists." A suicide car bomber attacked a three-vehicle US Embassy convoy on a dangerous road in Kabul, killing an Afghan teenager and wounding 5 security personnel.
(AP, 3/19/07)(AP, 3/20/07)(AFP, 3/22/07)
2007 Mar 19, In Azerbaijan 2 journalists accused of inciting religious hatred with an article that criticized Islam went on trial, both accusing authorities of waging a politically motivated prosecution.
2007 Mar 19, Brazil's airlines were trying to make up for lengthy flight delays after its troubled air traffic control system failed over the weekend.
2007 Mar 19, A Cambodian court official said that Prince Norodom Ranariddh has been charged with adultery for having a mistress while still being legally married to his wife.
2007 Mar 19, Jim Flaherty, Canada’s finance minister, announced the 10th successive annual fiscal surplus.
(Econ, 3/24/07, p.44)
2007 Mar 19, Egypt's parliament approved a controversial set of amendments to the constitution that the opposition has denounced as a blow to democracy. Critics said the amendments are meant to ease the succession of Pres. Mubarak’s son.
2007 Mar 19, In Guinea a bridge collapsed under the weight of a lorry overloaded with passengers and goods leaving 65 people dead.
2007 Mar 19, In Indonesia an official announced that bird flu has killed a 21-year-old man, taking the death toll in the nation worst hit by the disease to 66. In Bali the Hindu majority marked the start of the Muslim year 1386 with the new year holiday called Nyepi, a day of silence,
rest and reflection.
(AP, 3/19/07)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.49)
2007 Mar 19, An explosion at a Shiite mosque in Baghdad killed at least eight worshippers, the fourth anniversary of the start of the war. About an hour
later, four blasts occurred in a 35-minute period in different areas of Kirkuk killing at least 15 people and wounding more than 30. Khalaf Ghargan, the mayor of the small Shiite village of Dijelah was kidnapped on his way to work, and his bullet-riddled body was later found along a highway. Gunmen also attacked a police checkpoint northwest of Samarra killing one policeman and wounding three
others. Iraqi and US troops engaged in a major operation as part of a security crackdown in the volatile Hurriyah neighborhood in northern Baghdad. The state-run Iraqiya network said six civilians were killed.
(AP, 3/19/07)(AP, 3/20/07)
Mar 19, The Macau Monetary Authority said it would release 25 million dollars in North Korean funds frozen at a bank under US financial sanctions.
2007 Mar 19, In
northwestern Pakistan pro-government tribesman and Uzbek militants clashed, leaving about 30 dead in fighting that began after an Arab was found shot to death in the area.
2007 Mar 19, In northern
Lebanon rival Palestinian factions clashed in a refugee camp, shaking the camp with explosions and wounding at least two gunmen.
2007 Mar 19, Hamas militants claimed responsibility for a shooting
that wounded an Israeli civilian near the border with the Gaza Strip.
2007 Mar 19, A methane gas explosion ripped through a Siberian coal mine, killing 110 miners in the country's worst mining
disaster in more than a decade.
(WSJ, 3/21/07, p.A1)(AP, 3/19/08)
2007 Mar 19, In South Africa waves reaching up to eight meters (26 feet) high pounded Durban, smashing windows and flooding
2007 Mar 19, Sudan's Pres. Bashir denied his government was involved in widespread human rights abuses in Darfur, where an estimated 200,000 people have been killed in what the US says
is the first genocide of this century. Amnesty International said 2 Sudanese women have been sentenced to death by stoning for adultery after a trial in which they had no lawyer and which used Arabic, not their first language. Sadia Idriss Fadul was sentenced on Feb 13 and Amouna Abdallah Daldoum on March 6 and their sentences could be carried out at any
(Reuters, 3/19/07)(Reuters, 3/20/07)
2007 Mar 19, In Thailand suspected Muslim separatists shot and killed three Buddhist women involved with a project for victims of the
2007 Mar 19, A Yemen military official said government forces seized a number of bases belonging to Shiite rebels in northern Yemen following fighting that drove some 2,500 civilians from
their homes. Military officials said that 144 Yemeni troops have been killed since January.
2008 Mar 19, Antiwar protests were held in cities across
the US on the 5th anniversary of the war in Iraq. In SF some 150 people were arrested.
(SFC, 3/20/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.A1)
2008 Mar 19, In Oakland, Ca., police shot and killed Jose Luis Buenrostro (15) who
allegedly aimed a sawed-off shotgun at them.
(SFC, 3/20/08, p.B2)
2008 Mar 19, VISA opened for trading on the NYSE after setting an IPO price of $44 per share, the largest public offering in US history. Visa
shares closed at $56.60.
(SFC, 3/19/08, p.C1)(SFC, 3/20/08, p.C1)
2008 Mar 19, Flooding forced hundreds of people to flee their homes and closed scores of roads across a wide swath of the US midsection as a huge
storm system poured as much as 10 inches of rain on the region. Flooding was reported in parts of Arkansas, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, Missouri and Kentucky with over a dozen deaths.
(AP, 3/19/08)(AP, 3/20/08)
Mar 19, Colorado health officials told residents of Alamosa to stop drinking and cooking with tap water, after tap water samples tested positive for salmonella contamination. By March 22 over 200 cases were reported.
2008 Mar 19, Osama bin Laden accused Pope Benedict XVI of helping in a "new Crusade" against Islam and warned of a "severe" reaction to European publications of cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad that insulted many Muslims.
2008 Mar 19, US forces searching for bomb makers raided Afghan homes near the border with Pakistan, exchanging gunfire with militants. Six people were killed, including two children and a woman.
2008 Mar 19, Philip Jones Griffiths (72), Welsh-born photojournalist, died. He spent years traveling across Vietnam to capture the effects of the war on its people.
2008 Mar 19, Paul Scofield (b.1922), towering British stage actor, died. He won international fame and an Academy Award for the film "A Man for All Seasons," in which he played Sir Thomas More.
2008 Mar 19, Arthur C. Clarke (b.1917), English-born science fiction writer, died in Sri Lanka. Clarke wrote or collaborated on close to 100 books and had moved to Sri Lanka in 1956. He had just finished his last novel, co-authored with Frederik Pohl, titled “The Last
(AP, 3/19/08)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.A2)(SSFC, 8/10/08, Books p.7)
2008 Mar 19, China called the Dalai Lama a "wolf in monk's robes" and said it was locked in a "life-and-death battle" with his supporters after
protests marking the biggest challenge to Chinese rule in Tibet in almost two decades. Lhasa prosecutors announced the arrest of 24 suspects on charges of endangering state security.
(AP, 3/19/08)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.A1)
Mar 19, Conservationists said Honore Mashagiro, a ranger in Congo's Virunga National Park, has been arrested for allegedly masterminding the massacre last summer of 10 endangered mountain gorillas.
2008 Mar 19, Chantal Sebire (52), who suffered from a painful facial tumor and had drawn headlines across France with her quest for doctor-assisted suicide, was found dead. On Mar 17 a court in the city of Dijon rejected her request to be allowed to receive a lethal dose of barbiturates under a doctor's
2008 Mar 19, In Iraq a female suicide bomber detonated an explosives vest packed with ball bearings near a bus terminal northeast of Baghdad, killing at least three people. US troops
accidentally killed three Iraqi policemen and wounded another, the latest in a series of friendly fire incidents.
2008 Mar 19, In Japan Masaaki Takahashi (61) of Tokyo was found fatally stabbed in
his cab in Yokosuka, about a half-mile from a US naval base. US and Japanese authorities soon began searching for a US sailor for questioning in the killing of the Japanese taxi driver. On April 2 US sailor Olatunbosun Ugbogu (22), a Nigerian national, admitted during police questioning that he had killed the man. On July 30, 2009, Ugbogu was sentenced to life in
(AP, 3/21/08)(AFP, 4/2/08)(AP, 7/30/09)
2008 Mar 19, Kosovo independence was recognized by Bulgaria, Croatia and Hungary.
2008 Mar 19, Kuwait’s ruled dissolved Parliament and set elections for May 17 after a political standoff delayed reforms.
(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.A1)
2008 Mar 19, In southern Nepal masked gunmen shot and killed Kamal Prasad Adhikari, a candidate from a small communist party contesting upcoming elections.
Mar 19, Legislators elected Pakistan's first female speaker of parliament, seating Fehmida Mirza, a follower and lookalike of assassinated former PM Benazir Bhutto.
Mar 19, In the Russian region of Chechnya 9 people were been killed in an hour-long clash between police and unidentified gunmen.
2008 Mar 19, Uganda said that Lord's
Resistance Army rebel leader Joseph Kony has left his base in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and moved to the Central African Republic.
Mar 19, Pres. Obama appeared on The Tonight Show With Jay Leno” and captured some 11.2% of TV households in 56 US markets.
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A4)
2009 Mar 19, A report issued by the US Interior Department
said one-third of the nation's endangered birds are in Hawaii. 31 Hawaiian bird species were listed as endangered, more than anywhere else in the country. The native birds were threatened by the destruction of their habitats by invasive plant species and feral animals like pigs, goats and sheep, habitat loss and insect born diseases. The report also said energy production of all types — wind,
ethanol and mountaintop coal mining — was contributing to steep drops in bird populations.
2009 Mar 19, In New York Hank Morris, a political advisor, and David J. Loglisci were indicted on
allegations of extracting improper fees in exchange for investments from New York state’s pension fund.
(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.C1)(http://tinyurl.com/crt5kx)
2009 Mar 19, In NYC Henry Morris (55), political adviser to
former New York comptroller Alan Hevesi, and David J. Loglisci (38), former New York Deputy Comptroller, were arrested on charged in a 123-count indictment that included money laundering, corruption and bribery charges. Some $30 million was allegedly paid to Mr. Morris in a pay-to-play scheme.
2009 Mar 19, Josias Kumpf (83), a former Nazi concentration-camp guard, was deported from Wisconsin to Austria, despite objections from his lawyer that the guard was simply present at the Trawniki Labor Camp in Poland but committed no acts of persecution [see Nov 3,
2009 Mar 19, South Dakota Gov. Mike rounds signed legislation banning smoking from all indoor public places.
2009 Mar 19, Howard Feldman (67), an American psychiatrist, was arrested in the Philippines on charges of tricking an upstate New York couple into wiring him $70,000 for a bogus liver transplant, that the husband died waiting for. Feldman has been on the run since
(SFC, 3/20/09, p.A8)
2009 Mar 19, Cisco Systems said it will pay around $590 million to acquire Pure Digital Technology, a maker of pocket sized camcorders.
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.B5)
2009 Mar 19, In Afghanistan Helmand MP Dad Mohammad Khan, a key anti-Taliban lawmaker, was killed with four other men when a bomb tore through their vehicle. Australia’s defense chief said a bomb disposal expert was killed trying to defuse
a device in Afghanistan, announcing the country's 10th combat death there.
(AFP, 3/19/09)(AP, 3/19/09)
2009 Mar 19, Al-Qaida's chief Osama bin Laden urged Somali militants to overthrow the country's new president
in a new Web audiotape, trying to torpedo a new push for peace in a lawless African nation where many fear al-Qaida is gaining a foothold.
2009 Mar 19, Brazil's Supreme Court sided with Amazonian
Indians in a land dispute that some have called critical for determining the future of the rainforest that sprawls the size of Western Europe. The court ruling upheld the Raposa Serra do Sol reservation for 18,000 Indians who lay claim to their ancestral land, despite a handful of large-scale farmers who also occupy the territory in the northernmost reaches of Amazon jungle bordering
2009 Mar 19, In Quito, Ecuador, a small army plane crashed into an apartment building, killing seven people and sending a fireball into the evening sky. The dead included 3 soldiers, the
pilot’s wife and son and 2 people on the ground.
2009 Mar 19, In France hundreds of thousands of people began protests expected to draw at least a million demonstrators to the streets to denounce
President Nicolas Sarkozy's handling of the economic crisis.
2009 Mar 19, A US airstrike on a militant hideout south of Balad Ruz in Diyala province killed at least 11 insurgents. A US soldier
died from non-combat causes.
2009 Mar 19, Former Israeli President Moshe Katsav was indicted on rape and other sexual offense charges, after calling off a plea deal that would have allowed him to
escape jail time.
2009 Mar 19, Southern African nations declared they will not recognize Madagascar's new leader, an army-backed politician who ousted an elected president. The US said it would
reconsider aid to the island nation.
2009 Mar 19, In Mexico new tariffs on 89 products took effect in retaliation for a US decision last week to cancel a cross-border program that gave Mexican
truckers access to their northern neighbor's highways.
2009 Mar 19, In Pakistan suspected Taliban militants fired a rocket that killed 8 people on a supply rout to
(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A1)
2009 Mar 19, Pirates off the coast of Somalia seized the St. Vincent-flagged Titan, with 24 crew members on board, including a Greek captain and 3 Greek crew members. A Turkish
warship foiled a pirate attack on a Turkish commercial ship in the Gulf of Aden.
2009 Mar 19, A Thailand army spokesman said a roadside bomb had killed four paramilitary rangers on an
intelligence-gathering operation in southern Pattani province.
2010 Mar 19, A panel of the US Second Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the Federal
Reserve must reveal documents identifying financial companies that received Fed loans to survive the financial crisis.
(SFC, 3/20/10, p.D2)
2010 Mar 19, In Las Vegas a fire at the private Gilcrease Nature
Sanctuary killed over 250 exotic birds and a dog.
(SFC, 3/20/10, p.A5)
2010 Mar 19, Australia's Hollywood A-listers, prime minister and top tycoons launched a new campaign for Aboriginal jobs with a spectacular
light show at Sydney's iconic Opera House.
2010 Mar 19, In London last-ditch talks aimed at preventing a strike by some 12,000 British Airways (BA) cabin crew collapsed, leaving thousands of
passengers facing chaos within hours.
2010 Mar 19, Cambodia’s foreign ministry said Cambodia has temporarily suspended marriages between South Koreans and its citizens to curb human trafficking.
The latest ban came after the March 3 conviction of a Cambodian matchmaker who arranged marriages between Korean men and 25 Cambodian brides.
2010 Mar 19, In Colombia Clodomiro Castilla (50), a
reporter and announcer at La Voz de Monteria radio, was gunned down on his front porch. Castilla, a father of four, had reported on far-right drug-funded militias known as paramilitaries and their friendly ties to the area's business elite.
2010 Mar 19, The US condemned Ethiopia's blocking of Voice of America broadcasts, calling the country's accusations of the US radio service "baseless and inflammatory."
2010 Mar 19, In Haiti one of the heaviest rainfalls since the Jan. 12 earthquake swamped homeless camps, sweeping screaming residents into eddies of water, overflowing latrines and panicking thousands.
2010 Mar 19, In Iraq a roadside bomb and a gun attack killed four people and wounded seven others in Baghdad.
2010 Mar 19, Japan said it will boost its aid to quake-hit Haiti to 100 million dollars as the country's foreign minister prepared to visit the impoverished Caribbean nation this weekend.
2010 Mar 19, In Mexico a shootout between soldiers and gunmen in the northern city of Monterrey killed two bystanders, graduate students studying engineering at Monterrey Tech University. Suspected gang members also blocked roads in the city for the second day, in a bold attempt to impede security patrols. The navy announced the capture
of Alberto "Bad Boy" Mendoza, suspected of being a chief cartel operator linked to the Beltran Leyva gang and others in Monterrey.
(AP, 3/20/10)(AP, 3/22/10)
2010 Mar 19, It was reported that February storms in
Michoacan, Mexico, killed some 50-60% of the wintering monarch butterfly population.
(SFC, 3/19/10, p.A10)
2010 Mar 19, A Nigerian armed rebel group claimed to have blown up an oil facility in the restive
oil-producing Niger Delta region and threatened to step up attacks in coming days.
2010 Mar 19, Palestinians in east Jerusalem and the West Bank lobbed rocks at Israeli security
forces, set garbage bins and tires ablaze and torched an Israeli flag in a new outbreak of violence over contested Jerusalem building plans and unsubstantiated rumors about threats to the city's holiest shrine. Israeli aircraft fired five missiles at Gaza's defunct airport and nearby border tunnels, wounding at least 12 people.
2010 Mar 19, A Krakow court ruled that allegations in the 2009 biography "Lech Walesa: The Idea and History" by Pawel Zyzak that Walesa served as a communist informant were slanderous. A 2000 special court already cleared Walesa of collaboration
2010 Mar 19, Polish authorities said a herd of some 300 bison in southeastern Poland is at risk from tuberculosis after one recently died of the
2010 Mar 19, In Russia the international Quartet for the Middle East met in Moscow in a bid to revive the peace process despite tensions after Israel's announcement of new settler homes and
a deadly rocket attack.
2010 Mar 19, In Somalia at least three masked men armed with pistols shot Sheikh Daud Ali Hasan, a senior commander of the insurgent group al-Shabab, several times in the
head and chest as he was coming out of a mosque in Kismayo.
2010 Mar 19, Spanish ministers approved a wide-ranging 10-year reform plan designed to wean the economy off its dependence on construction
and create broader, more sustainable growth as the country fights to climb out of recession.
2010 Mar 19, Thai anti-government protesters announced plans to snarl up the capital with a travelling
rally in a bid to win support after rejecting a conditional offer of talks by PM Abhisit Vejjajiva.
2010 Mar 19, Turkish authorities indicted 33 people in an alleged secularist plot to
destabilize Turkey and overthrow the government. The suspects included three retired or active-duty admirals and dozens of other military officers.
2010 Mar 19, Venezuelan prosecutors charged a
government opponent with conspiracy and other crimes after he said on a television program that the country has become a haven for drug trafficking.
2010 Mar 19, Yemen's Pres. Ali Abdullah
Saleh declared the country's six-year war with northern rebels over, saying the Shiite militants are living up to a cease-fire agreement signed last month.
Mar 19, President Barack Obama landed in Brasilia, the highland capital of Brazil, for the start of a three-country, five-day tour of Latin America to promote greater economic ties and improved regional security.
2011 Mar 19, Pres. Obama authorized limited military action against Libya. Operation Odyssey Dawn became the US code name for the international military operation in Libya enforcing United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. The Pentagon said 112 cruise missiles were launched from US and UK ships and subs, hitting 20
2011 Mar 19, The US ambassador to Mexico, Carlos Pascual, resigned amid furor over a leaked diplomatic cable in which he
complained about inefficiency and infighting among Mexican security forces in the campaign against drug cartels.
2011 Mar 19, In Sandusky, Ohio, police officer Andrew Dunn (30) died after exchanging
gunshots with bicyclist Kevin Randleman (50).
(SSFC, 3/20/11, p.A10)
2011 Mar 19, Bahrain's king pledged to bring reforms and another demonstrator was confirmed to have died in a crackdown on pro-democracy
protesters, as international calls mounted for restraint.
2011 Mar 19, British office worker Sian O'Callaghan (22) went missing. She has not been seen since leaving Suju nightclub in Swindon. Her
mobile phone was active in the Savernake Forest, near Malborough, just 34 minutes after she left the nightclub.
2011 Mar 19, Six Danish F-16 fighter jets landed at the US air base in Sigonella,
Sicily, and a half-dozen US aircraft arrived elsewhere as the military buildup mounted in Italy for possible action against Libya.
2011 Mar 19, Egyptians lined up by the hundreds to vote on
constitutional amendments sponsored by the ruling military. Voters overwhelmingly approved changes in the constitution, opening the way for parliamentary and presidential elections within months. Over 14 million voted yes versus some 4 million voting no. The turnout was about 41% of eligible voters.
3/19/11)(AP, 3/21/11)(Econ, 3/26/11, p.55)
2011 Mar 19, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that French warplanes are already targeting Gadhafi's forces. 22 participants at a summit in Paris "agreed to put in place all the means necessary, in particular military" to make Gadhafi respect a
March 17 UN Security Council resolution to protect civilian areas. Libyan government tanks and troops reached the edges of Benghazi in fierce fighting that killed more than 120. Gibreil Hewadi, a member of the rebel health committee, said the dead included rebel fighters and civilians, among them women and children.
(AP, 3/19/11)(AP, 3/20/11)
2011 Mar 19, In Germany Knut, a four-year-old celebrity bear, died in front of hundreds of visitors, taking keepers, animal experts and fans by surprise. Experts later said he drowned after swelling of his brain caused him to collapse and fall into his enclosure's
(AP, 3/20/11)(AP, 4/1/11)
2011 Mar 19, In northeastern India a fire raged through a refugee camp in Nifingpara camp in Tripura state, killing 21 people and injuring about 100. The camp was home to some 5,000
families from the minority Bru ethnic group, which in 1997 fled alleged persecution in neighboring Mizoram state.
2011 Mar 19, An Iranian plane bound for Syria landed in Turkey’s southeastern city
of Diyarbakir for a search of its cargo. The plane carried light weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket launchers and mortars, which were seized. The plane returned to Iran March 22 without the seized cargo.
Mar 19, One of Japan's six tsunami-crippled nuclear reactors appeared to stabilize but the country suffered another blow after discovering traces of radiation in food and water from near the stricken power plant. Crews fighting to cool reactors managed to connect a power line. Japan halted sales of food products near Fukushima because of contamination by a
radioactive element which can pose a short-term health risk. Japan's police agency said 7,348 are dead and 10,947 are missing after last week's earthquake and tsunami.
(AP, 3/19/11)(AFP, 3/19/11)(Reuters, 3/19/11)
Mar 19, Libya’s Moammar Gadhafi took advantage of international indecision to attack the heart of the 5-week-old uprising, sending troops, tanks and warplanes to swarm the first city seized by the rebels. Fighting raged around Benghazi, with air strikes, tank fire and shelling rocking the Mediterranean city as a rebel warplane went down in
(AP, 3/19/11)(AFP, 3/19/11)
2011 Mar 19, Libyan officials detained the crew of an Italian ship docked in Tripoli and prevented the vessel from leaving port. The "Asso 22" tug of the Naples-based shipping
company Augusta Offshore SrL had 8 Italian, 2 Indian and a Ukrainian crew member aboard. Agence France-Presse journalists Dave Clark and Roberto Schmidt went missing while working in the eastern Tobruk region.
(AP, 3/20/11)(AFP, 3/20/11)
Mar 19, Libyan military detained journalists Dave Clark (38), photographer Roberto Schmidt (45), of AFP; and Joe Raedle (45), a photographer for Getty Images.
19, In Libya Mohammed Nabbous (b.1983), a information technologist, blogger, businessperson and civilian journalist, was killed while reporting on attempts by government forces to fight revolutionaries and attack civilians in Benghazi. He had set up camera feeds to a video streaming site.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Nabbous)(Econ, 1/14/12, p.58)
2011 Mar 19, In Mexico gunmen opened fire in a bar in Acapulco killing 10 people.
2011 Mar 19, In Mexico Arturo Jose Iniguez (26), a Texas Cameron County Assistant District Attorney, was found dead in Matamoros. Autopsy results later showed he had killed himself by ingesting poison.
2011 Mar 19, Palestinian militants in Gaza fired 54 rockets into Israel, the heaviest barrage in two years. A Hamas official was killed and four civilians were wounded when Israel hit back with tank fire and air strikes. The Israeli army opened fire on two men who were
spotted moving suspiciously toward a frontier "no-go" zone. The bodies of Salah Abu Attwa and Imad Faraj, both 17, were found the next day.
(AP, 3/19/11)(AFP, 3/20/11)
2011 Mar 19, In the southern Philippines
suspected communist rebels stormed the main police station in Panabo city, killing an officer and wounding four others in a daring attack on a government center that was repulsed by outnumbered police officers.
Mar 19, In Senegal a sit-in at Dakar's Place de l'Independance drew between 1,000 and 2,000 demonstrators, primarily young men.
2011 Mar 19, In Serbia thousands of
anti-government protesters rallied in the central town of Cacak to demand the government call early elections over the deep economic crisis.
2011 Mar 19, In Spain six
firefighters died when their helicopter crashed in a remote region in the northeastern province of Aragon as they flew to try and put out a wildfire. A seventh crew member survived the accident.
Mar 19, In Yemen a brutal crackdown failed to stop massive protests against the US-backed president, who attacked a protest camp in the south's main city but couldn't halt demonstrations there or in the capital.
2011 Mar 19, Zimbabwe police banned a rally planned by PM Tsvangirai. Some of his supporters were beaten as they approached the event site, plunging the country's fragile coalition government deeper into crisis.
2012 Mar 19, Apple Corp. said it will reinstate a dividend, absent since 1995, and begin a $10 billion share buyback program. Shares closed at $601.10.
(SFC, 3/20/12, p.D1)
2012 Mar 19, UPS under Scott Davis announced that it would buy TNT Express, a Dutch company, for $6.8 billion.
(Econ, 3/24/12, p.67)
2012 Mar 19, Australia’s parliament passed a mining tax on profits from coal and iron ore.
(Econ, 3/24/12, p.41)
2012 Mar 19, Cambodia's UN-backed war
crimes court was rocked by the second resignation of an international judge in recent months. Laurent Kasper-Ansermet of Switzerland said in a statement his authority to investigate possible third and fourth cases at the tribunal had been constantly blocked by his Cambodian counterpart.
2012 Mar 19, In China Lobsang Tsultrim (20), a Tibetan Buddhist monk, died in detention. He set himself on fire on March 16 in Aba town, a flashpoint for such protests.
2012 Mar 19, An Egyptian military court acquitted Mohammed al-Zawahiri, the brother of Al-Qaeda's leader Ayman, overturning a death sentence in a new trial. The trial also acquitted several other former militants including Sayyed Imam Fadl, once the spiritual leader of the Egyptian
Islamic Jihad and mentor of Ayman al-Zawahiri.
2012 Mar 19, EU nations backed a complete ban on removing shark’s fins before throwing them into the sea to die. 75 million sharks were said to be
killed annually for their fins, with the EU being the biggest exporter.
(SFC, 3/20/12, p.A3)
2012 Mar 19, In France a gunman burst into a Jewish school in Toulouse, shooting dead a teacher, his two sons and
another child in the third such deadly attack in a week by a man on a motorbike. The next day police identified Mohamed Merah (b.1988), a French petty criminal of Algerian origin, as the killer and special forces had him cornered in a building. He had spent time in Pakistan and Afghanistan and claimed to be an Al-Qaeda operative.
(AP, 3/19/12)(AFP, 3/21/12)
2012 Mar 19, In southern India police arrested nearly 200 activists who were protesting the start of work at a long-stalled nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu's Koodankulam region. Engineers resumed working the next day on one of two
1,000-megawatt nuclear reactors after the local government gave the green light for the resumption of the Russia-backed project.
2012 Mar 19, In India G.D. Agrawal (80), a former professor of
environmental engineering who is also known as Swami Gyan Swaroopanand, was hospitalized in Varanasi during a hunger strike to protest against pollution and dams in the holy Ganges river. He has refused food and water since March 8.
2012 Mar 19, Israeli passed a new law that bans the showing overly thin models from local advertising in an attempt to fight the spread of eating disorders.
Mar 19, Myanmar released the senior leader of the ethnic Karen National Union rebel group, Mahn Nyein Maung, from Yangon's Insein prison under a presidential pardon. He was arrested last year by Chinese authorities, who deported him to Myanmar, where he was sentenced last week to 20 years in jail.
2012 Mar 19, In Norway an avalanche killed 5 people and one person was dug out alive after Swiss and French skiers were buried on Sorbmegaisa mountain.
2012 Mar 19, Pakistani military assaulted suspected militant hide outs outside Miranshah, but the attack left three civilians dead and 15 wounded.
2012 Mar 19, In Somalia several mortars hit houses as families slept in Mogadishu. A father, mother and two children were killed in one house. Another round killed two other civilians. An additional 12 people were wounded.
2012 Mar 19, Somalia's national theatre reopened in the war-ravaged capital Mogadishu for the first time in 20 years with the president voicing hope it would mark a watershed in the long quest for
2012 Mar 19, South African officials said 135 endangered rhinoceros have been killed by poachers so far this year, about a third of the number killed during all of
2012 Mar 19, In Syria rare gunbattles between security forces and rebels broke out in an upscale Damascus neighborhood where embassies are located and senior officials live. It was one of the
most serious confrontations in the tightly controlled capital since the anti-government uprising began a year ago. At least 4 people were killed.
2012 Mar 19, A UN report said Israeli settlers have
taken over dozens of natural springs in the West Bank, limiting or preventing Palestinian access to much-needed water sources.
2012 Mar 19, Six Zimbabwean activists, arrested a year ago at a meeting
to discuss the Arab Spring uprisings, were convicted of inciting public violence. They faced up to 10 years in prison. They were among 45 activists arrested in February 2011 while watching a video of the protests that toppled Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. On March 21 the court decided not to imprison the 6 activists, and sentenced them instead to 420 hours of community service and a fine of
(AFP, 3/19/12)(SFC, 3/22/12, p.A2)