Today in History - March 31

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1084        Mar 31, Anti-pope Clemens crowned German emperor Hendrik IV.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1282        Mar 31, The great massacre of the French in Sicily, "The Sicilian Vespers," came to an end. [see Aug 31,1303]
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1389        Mar 31, Everhard Tserclaes, sheriff of Brussels, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
   
1492        Mar 31, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued an edict expelling Jews from Spanish soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity. In 2002 Claudia Roden authored “The Ornament of the World," a collection of stories of Sephardic Jews in Spain from 750 to 1492. A Jewish text later known as the Sarajevo Haggadah was carried by a refugee to Italy and later to Bosnia. [see Mar 30]
    (AP, 3/30/97)(WSJ, 4/26/02, p.W12)(SSFC, 12/8/02, p.F9)

1499        Mar 31, Pius IV (Gianangelo de' Medici), Italian lawyer, pope (1559-65), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1547        Mar 31, Francis I, King of France (1515-1547), died and was succeeded by his son Henry II, who was dominated by his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, during his 12 year reign.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 3/31/99)

1578        Mar 31, Juan de Escobedo, secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1596        Mar 31, Rene Descartes (d.1650), French philosopher, was born in La Haye, France. He proposed a numerical index that represented fundamental notions. He made consciousness the defining feature of the self. Descartes died in Sweden. In 1997 Paul Strathern published: “Descartes in 90 Minutes," and Keith Devlin published “Goodbye Descartes: The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind." In 1998 the French biography by Genevieve Rodis-Lewis was translated to English: “Descartes: His Life and Thought."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.203)(Wired, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)(AP, 3/30/97) (WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1621        Mar 31, Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1631        Mar 31, John Donne (b.1572), British metaphysical poet, died in London. In 2006 John Stubbs authored “Donne: The Reformed Soul."
    (www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/donnebio.htm)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.79)

1657        Mar 31, English Humble Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1732        Mar 31, Joseph Haydn (d.1809), Austrian composer who helped develop the classical style, was born. In his career he composed 104 symphonies, 82 string quartets and 60 piano sonatas. He also wrote some 175 baritone pieces for his patron, the Hungarian prince Nickolaus Esterhazy, who played the complex stringed instrument. The Canadian scholar David Schroeder wrote: "Haydn and the Enlightenment."
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.42)(WUD, 1994, p.651)(WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)(HN, 3/31/98)

1745        Mar 31, Jews were expelled from Prague.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1747        Mar 31, Johann Abraham Peter Schulz, German composer (Moon has Risen), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1776        Mar 31, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were "determined to foment a rebellion" if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1776        Mar 31, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and a crew that included such names as Castro, Peralta, Bernal, Moraga, Alviso and Berryessa, among others, arrived at the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay on a 5-day expedition to explore the area.
    (SFC, 12/5/11, p.A1)

1777        Mar 31, A young Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government. She wrote to her husband on March 31, 1777, while he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention: “I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous to them than were your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of husbands.  Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey any laws in which we have no voice or representation." Twenty years later her husband was a candidate in America’s first real election.
    (HNPD, 3/30/00)

1779        Mar 31, Russia and Turkey signed a treaty by which they promised to take no military action in the Crimea.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1790        Mar 31, In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1796        Mar 31, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1808        Mar 31, French created the Kingdom of Westphalia and ordered Jews to adopt family names.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1809        Mar 31, Edward Fitzgerald, American writer, was born. He is famous for writing "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam."
    (HN, 3/31/99)
1809        Mar 31, Nikolai V. Gogol (d.1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, was born (NS) in Sorochyntsi, Poltava Governorate (later Ukraine). Some sources give April 1 as his birthday. His work included the play “The Inspector General" (1836) and the novels  “Taras Bulba" (1835) and “Dead Souls" (1842).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)(WSJ, 4/14/09, p.D7)
1809        Mar 31, Otto Jonas Lindblad, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1809        May 31, Composer Franz Joseph Haydn died in Vienna, Austria on his 77th birthday. When Napoleon’s armies marched into Vienna, the commanding general posted guards in front of Haydn’s house to protect Haydn from trouble, and a young officer was sent to sing for the old man.
    (AP, 5/31/97)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1811        Mar 31, Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen, German inventor of the Bunsen burner, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1814        Mar 31, Forces allied against Napoleon captured Paris.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1831        Mar 31, Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1831        Mar 31, Quebec and Montreal were incorporated.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1836        Mar 31, The first monthly installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens was published in London.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1837        Mar 31, John Constable (60), English painter, water colors painter, died. His work included some 100 studies of the sky done between 1821-1822. In 2009 Martin Gayford authored “Constable in Love: Love, Landscape, Money and the Making of a Great Painter."
    (WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Constable)

1841        Mar 31, 1st performance of Robert Schumann's 1st Symphony in B.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1847        Mar 31, Jarolslaw Zielinski, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1850        Mar 31, The US population hit 23,191,876, with the Black population at 3,638,808 (15.7%).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1850        Mar 31, John Calhoun (b.1782), US vice-president (1825-1832), died while a senator from South Carolina. He was elected vice president under two presidents, John Quincy Adams in 1824 and Andrew Jackson in 1828.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(HNQ, 8/19/99)(MC, 3/31/02)

1854        Mar 31, Sir Dugald Clerk, inventor of the two-stroke motorcycle engine, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1854        Mar 31, Chief Shogun Iyesada, following negotiations with Commodore Perry, approved the Treaty of Kanagawa on behalf of Emperor Osahito. This forced Japan to open its ports to foreign trade.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(ON, 11/04, p.12)

1855        Mar 31, Charlotte Bronte (b.1816), English author (Jane Eyre), died. In 1994 Lyndall Gordon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Passionate Life." In 2015 Clare Harmon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Life."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Bront%C3%AB)(Econ, 10/31/15, p.78)

1858        Mar 31, Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen launched the SS New York, a passenger cargo vessel. It was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool in 1874 and later wrecked near Staten Island. In 1994 Edwin Drechsel (1914-2006) later authored a 2-volume history of the North German shipping line.
    (www.clydesite.co.uk/clydebuilt/viewship.asp?id=15185)

1862        Mar 31, Skirmishing between Rebels and Union forces took place at Island 10 on the Mississippi River.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1863        Mar 31, Battle of Grand Gulf, MS & Dinwiddie Court House, VA.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1865        Mar 31, Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1865        Mar 31, Gen. Pickett moved to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Petersburg.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1872        Mar 31, Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev, dance master (Imperial Ballet), was born in Russia. [see Mar 19]
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1878        Mar 31, Jack Johnson, first Africa-American boxer to become the world heavyweight champion (1908-1915), was born.
    (HN, 3/31/99)(MC, 3/31/02)

1880        Mar 31, Wabash, Ind., became the first town completely illuminated by electrical lighting.
    (AP, 3/31/97)(HN, 3/31/98)
1880        Mar 31, Henryk Wieniawski (44), Polish violist, composer, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1883        Mar 31, 1st performance of Cesar Franck's "Le Chasseur Maudit."
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1885        Mar 31, Madame Blavatsky was hoisted in an invalid chair onto a steamer in the Madras harbor of India and departed for London. In England she wrote “The Secret Doctrine" and had as guests to her salon William Butler Yeats, Annie Besant and the young Mohandas K. Gandhi.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.127)
1885        Mar 31, Franz Wilhelm Abt (65), German composer, choir conductor, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1886        Mar 31, Giovanni Rossi (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1887        Mar 31, John Godfrey Saxe (b.1816), American poet, died. In 1969 he was quoted saying: “Laws, like sausages, cease to inspire respect in proportion as we know how they are made." His poems included “The Blind Men and the Elephant" (1862).
    (http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/John_Godfrey_Saxe)

1889        Mar 31, French engineer Gustave Eiffel unfurled the French tricolor from atop the Eiffel Tower, officially marking its completion. Constructed of 7,000 tons of iron and steel, the 984-foot structure was designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel for the Paris Exhibition of 1889, commemorating the centennial of the French Revolution. The price for the Eiffel Tower was more than $1 million, but fees for the year 1889 alone nearly recouped the cost. Fifty-five years later, plans by Hitler to leave the tower and much of Paris a smoking ruin were foiled by an unlikely hero. After the Paris World Fair a church designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was dismantled and shipped to Santa Rosalia in Baja, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.23)(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T11)(HNPD, 3/31/99)(AP, 3/31/08)

1891        Mar 31, Erich Walter Sternberg, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1893        Mar 31, Clemens Krauss, conductor (Berlin State Orch-1937), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1895        Mar 31, Vardis A. Fisher, US author (Darkness & Deep), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1895        Mar 31, John Jay McCloy, lawyer, banker (Sec of War 1941-45, High Commissioner for Germany, pres Chase Manhattan), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1903        Mar 31, New Zealand aviator Richard Pearse flew a self-made, bamboo-framed, mono-winged airplane in Waitohi.
    (NW, 3/17/03, p.20)

1906        Mar 31, G.B. Shaw's German version of "Caesar and Cleopatra," premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1907        Mar 31, Romanian Army put down a Moldavian farmers' revolt.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1909        Mar 31, Gustav Mahler conducted the NY Philharmonic for 1st time.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1913        Mar 31, John Pierpont Morgan (b.1837), US banker, CEO (US Steel Corp), died in Rome, Italy. His art collection was valued at $60m. In 1999 Jean Strouse authored “Morgan."
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/ct_jpm.htm)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.86)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)

1914        Mar 31, Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and Nobel Prize-winning writer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1915        Mar 31, Henry Morgan, comedian, radio performer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1916        Mar 31, General Pershing and his army routed Pancho Villa's army in Mexico.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1917        Mar 31, The United States took possession of the Virgin Islands. The purchase from Denmark for $25 million had been set up in 1916.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Virgin_Islands)

1918        Mar 31, Daylight Savings Time went into effect throughout the U.S. for the first time.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1920        Mar 31, British parliament accepted Irish "Home Rule" law.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1921        Mar 31, Great Britain declared a state of emergency because of the thousands of coal miners on strike.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1922        Mar 31, Richard Kiley, actor (Man of La Mancha, Endless Love), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1923        Mar 31, The first U.S. dance marathon, held in New York City, ended. Alma Cummings (32) set a world record of 27 hours on her feet. 6 younger male partners helped her.
    (AP, 3/31/98)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.B1)
1923        Mar 31, French soldiers fired on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1924        Mar 31, Leo Buscaglia, "Dr. Hug", psychologist (Love), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1926        Mar 31, Sydney Chaplin, son of Charlie, actor (Adding Machine, Psycho Sisters), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1926        Mar 31, John Fowles (d.2005), English novelist, was born. His work included “The Collector" (1963) and “The French Lieutenant's Woman" (1969).
    (HN, 3/31/01)(SFC, 11/8/05, p.B5)

1927        Mar 31, Cesar Chavez (d.1993), California union leader of agricultural workers (United Farm Workers), was born in Yuma, Az.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.C3)(SFC, 3/29/00, p.A3)(MC, 3/31/02)
1927        Mar 31, William Daniels, actor (Dr Mark Craig-St Elsewhere, 1776), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1928        Mar 31, Gordie Howe, NHL right wing (Detroit Redwings), was born in Floral, Sask., Canada.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1931        Mar 31, Knute Rockne (43), football player, coach, died in a plane crash.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1932        Mar 31, Ford Motor Co. publicly unveiled its V-8 engine.
    (AP, 3/31/97)
1932        Mar 31, 150 wild swans died in Niagara waterfall.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1933        Mar 31, Shirley Jones, actress (Partridge Family, Elmer Gantry), was born in Smithton, Pa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1933        Mar 31, Congress approved, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed, the Emergency Conservation Work Act (Reforestation Relief Act), which created the Civilian Conservation Corps. The US unemployment rate reached 25%. In its nine years of existence, the New Deal’s Civilian Conservation Corps had a total of 2.9 million men aged 18 to 25 enrolled. The program was designed to provide jobs for young men in the national forests, conservation programs and national road construction. Enacted as one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s first New Deal programs, it lasted until World War II. At its high point in September 1935, the CCC had 2,514 work camps across the U.S. with 502,000 men enrolled.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.1)(HNQ, 7/23/99)(AP, 3/31/08)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)
1933        Mar 31, German Republic gave dictatorial power to Hitler.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1935        Mar 31, Herb Alpert, bandleader, trumpeter (Tijuana Brass), CEO (A & M), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1936        Mar 31, Marge Piercy, poet and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1939        Mar 31, Britain and France agreed to support Poland if Germany threatened to invade. Seven French islands were annexed by Japan.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1940        Mar 31, The New York Municipal Airport, opened in October, 1939, was renamed La Guardia airport, after the mayor, who had been a bomber pilot in World War I and whose interest in aviation lasted throughout his lifetime, barely a month after it opened.
    (www.arcadiapublishing.com/news_article.html?id=1816)

1941        Mar 31, Germany began a counter offensive in North Africa.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1943        Mar 31, The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical "Oklahoma!" opened at the St. James Theatre on Broadway. Celeste Holm sang the show-stopping number “I Cain’t Say No." Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein hired Agnes de Mille for the choreography. The original is only on documentary videotape and the 1954 film was a "bloated mess."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1943)(WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-16)(AP, 3/30/97)(SFC, 7/16/12, p.C4)
1943        Mar 31, US Army Air Force bombers attacked harbor facilities in the west of Rotterdam. A combination of strong wind and overcast conditions also caused great damage to the nearby residential areas, especially in the Bospolder-Tussendijken District. The death toll rose to 401 casualties and around 16,500 people lost their homes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6rmgrp6)

1944        Mar 31, Hungary ordered all Jews to wear yellow stars.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1945        Mar 31, The Tennessee Williams play "The Glass Menagerie" premiered on Broadway.
    (AP, 3/31/97)
1945        Mar 31, The U.S. and Britain barred a Soviet supported provisional regime in Warsaw from entering the U.N. meeting in San Francisco.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1945        Mar 31, US artillery landed on Keise Shima and began firing on Okinawa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1945        Mar 31, Sicherheitsdienst murdered 10 political prisoners in Zutphen.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1948        Mar 31, David Eisenhower, Eisenhower's grandson (married Julie Nixon), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, Al Gore, Vice President to President William J. Clinton (1993-2001), was born.
    (HN, 3/31/99)
1948        Mar 31, Rhea Perlman, actress (Zena-Taxi, Carla-Cheers), was born in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, Congress passed a $6.2 billion foreign aid bill, the Marshall Aid Act, to rehabilitate war-torn Europe.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, The Soviet Union in Germany began controlling the Western trains headed toward Berlin.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1949        Mar 31, Newfoundland, later called Newfoundland and Labrador, entered confederation as Canada's 10th province. In 1999 Wayne Johnston authored “The Colony of Unrequited Dreams," a novel about postconfederation Newfoundland and its 1st premier, Joe Smallwood. In 2000 Johnston authored “Baltimore’s Mansion," a personal memoir of Newfoundland.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)(AP, 3/31/08)
1949        Mar 31, Churchill declared that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the USSR from taking over Europe.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1953        Mar 31, Stanley Kubrick's first feature film, a war drama titled "Fear and Desire," premiered in New York.
    (AP, 3/31/03)
1953        Mar 31, Department of Health, Education and Welfare was established.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1953        Mar 31, UN Security Council nominated Dag Hammarskjold secretary-general.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1954        Mar 31, Moscow offered to join NATO on the condition that the West join the Soviet European security treaty.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1954        Mar 31, The siege of Dien Bien Phu, the last French outpost in Vietnam, began after the Viet Minh realized it could not be taken by direct assault.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1955        Mar 31, US Assay Office in Seattle, Washington, closed.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1957        Mar 31, The original version of Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Cinderella," starring Julie Andrews, aired live in color on CBS.
    (AP, 3/31/07)

1958        Mar 31, US Navy formed the atomic sub division.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1958        Mar 31, Moscow declared a halt on all atomic tests and asked other nations to follow.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1960        Mar 31, The South African government declared a state of emergency after demonstrations led to the deaths of more than 50 Africans.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1960        Mar 31, Joseph Haas (81), German opera composer (Totenmesse), died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1962        Mar 31, Cesar Chavez (d.1993) founded the United Farm Workers Union on his birthday.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A14)

1963        Mar 31, LA ended streetcar service after 90 years.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1966        Mar 31, An estimated 200,000 anti-war demonstrators marched in New York City. 25,000 anti war demonstrators marched in NYC.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A28)(MC, 3/31/02)
1966        Mar 31, Labour Party won British parliamentary election.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1967        Mar 31, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.
    (http://travel.state.gov/law/legal/treaty/treaty_1508.html)

1968        Mar 31, Pres. Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election and declared a partial bombing halt in Vietnam. The stock market soared. Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(TMC, 1994, p.1968)(SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.4)(AP, 3/31/97)(MC, 3/31/02)

1970        Mar 31, The U.S. forces in Vietnam downed a MIG-21, the first since September 1968.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1970        Mar 31, Semjon Timoshenko (75), Russian marshal, inspector-general (WW II), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semyon_Timoshenko)\

1971        Mar 31, US Lt. William Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre.
    (www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1808937/posts)

1975        Mar 31, The TV show Gunsmoke, which premiered in 1955, aired its last original episode. The show was canceled in September.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0047736/episodes)(www.episodeworld.com/show/Gunsmoke)
1975        Mar 31, In Tajikistan the first pouring of aluminum took place at the new state-run aluminum smelting plant at Tursunzadeh. By 2013 TALCO produced hundreds of millions of dollars in profits that were routed to a shell company in the British Virgin Islands".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajik_Aluminium_Company)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.36)

1976        Mar 31, The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of the respirator that assisted Karen Ann Quinlan, who had been comatose since Apr 15, 1975. Quinlan, who remained comatose, died Jul 11, 1985.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)(AP, 3/30/97)

1979        Mar 31, The Arab League suspended Egypt following its treaty with Israel.
    (www.safarix.com/0131900048/ch08)

1980        Mar 31, Pres. Carter signed the Depository Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act, which deregulated interest rates.
    (WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(www.bos.frb.org/about/pubs/deposito.pdf)
1980        Mar 31, In Spain the first session of the Basque parliament was held in Guernica.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_Parliament)

1981        Mar 31, In the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Can't Stop the Music" won as worst film of 1980.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_Golden_Raspberry_Awards)
1981        Mar 31, In the 53rd Academy Awards "Ordinary People," R. De Niro and Sissy Spacek won, one day after the attempted assassination of Pres. Reagan. The Awards were held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion.
    (SFC, 3/21/02, p.D1)(www.ropeofsilicon.com/awards/oscarhistory.php?y=1981)

1982        Mar 31, In California an avalanche at the Alpine Meadows ski resort killed 7 people. In 2009 Jennifer Woodlief authored “A Wall of White: The True Story of Heroism and Survival in the Face of a Deadly Avalanche."
    (http://tinyurl.com/7gjkf)(SFC, 2/27/09, p.F4)
1982        Mar 31, In South Africa Nelson Mandela and 3 others were transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland. Mandela had spent 18 years on Robben Island.
    (www.sabcnews.com/features/walter_sisulu/timeline.html)

1983        Mar 31, A 5.4 earthquake hit the region of Popoyan, Colombia. It killed about 250 people and left some 1,500 injured.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T10)(http://tinyurl.com/2pmrpn)

1986        Mar 31, English Hampton Court palace was destroyed by fire and 1 person died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l6fxl)
1986        Mar 31, 167 people died when a Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashed in a remote mountainous region of Mexico.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1987        Mar 31, Indiana Univ. won the NCAA basketball finals with a last-second, corner shot by Keith Smart.
    (WSJ, 4/4/03, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/rcskk)
1987        Mar 31, The judge in the "Baby M" case in Hackensack, N.J., awarded custody of the girl born under a surrogate-motherhood contract to her father, William Stern, instead of the surrogate, Mary Beth Whitehead.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1988        Mar 31, The novel "Beloved" by Toni Morrison was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, while the Charlotte (N.C) Observer won the prize for public service for its coverage of the Praise The Lord scandal.
    (AP, 3/31/98)

1989        Mar 31, The FBI announced it would conduct a criminal investigation into the massive oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
    (AP, 3/31/99)

1990        Mar 31, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev warned the defiant Baltic republic of Lithuania to annul its declaration of independence or face "grave consequences."
    (AP, 3/31/00)
1990        Mar 31, Hundreds of people were injured in rioting in London over Britain's so-called "poll tax." The poll-tax disturbances helped to bring down PM Margaret Thatcher.
    (AP, 3/31/00)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.66)

1991        Mar 31, Albania offered a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years. The Labor Party won over 67 percent of votes, while the Democratic Party won around 30 percent. Communists won Albania’s first multiparty elections, but democratic opponents scored victories in major cities.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(www, Albania, 1998)(AP, 3/31/01)
1991        Mar 31, Voters in the Soviet republic of Georgia overwhelmingly endorsed independence.
    (AP, 3/31/01)
1991        Mar 31, The Warsaw Pact spent the last day of its existence as a military alliance.
    (AP, 3/31/01)

1992        Mar 31, The Battleship USS Missouri was decommissioned. This was the ship on which Japan signed its WWII surrender. In 1996 Paul Stillwell authored “Battleship Missouri: An Illustrated History."
    (www.battleship.org/html/Articles/Features/stillwell.htm)
1992        Mar 31, The U.N. Security Council voted to ban flights and arms sales to Libya, branding it a terrorist state for shielding six men accused of blowing up Pan Am Flight 103 and a French airliner.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1993        Mar 31, Actor Brandon Lee (28) was killed during the filming of a movie in Wilmington, N.C., by a prop gun that fired part of a dummy bullet instead of a blank.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1993        Mar 31, "Star Dust" lyricist Mitchell Parish died in New York City at age 92.
    (AP, 3/31/98)
1993        Mar 31, The U.N. Security Council increased international pressure on Bosnian Serbs, authorizing NATO warplanes to shoot down aircraft that violated a ban on flights over Bosnia.
    (AP, 3/31/98)

1994        Mar 31, The PLO and Israel agreed to resume talks on Palestinian autonomy, more than a month after the Hebron mosque massacre.
    (AP, 3/31/99)

1995        Mar 31, US baseball players agreed to end their 232-day strike after a judge granted a preliminary injunction against club owners.
    (AP, 3/31/00)
1995        Mar 31, President Clinton briefly visited Haiti, where he declared the U.S. mission to restore democracy there a "remarkable success."
    (AP, 3/31/00)
1995        Mar 31, Mexican-American singer Selena, 23, was shot to death in Corpus Christi, Texas, by the founder of her fan club. Yolanda Saldivar was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 3/31/97)
1995        Mar 31, Fred Cuny (b.1944), American disaster relief specialist, disappeared in Chechnya and was never found. He used his training in engineering to do humanitarian work and worked in countries such as Biafra, Guatemala, Ethiopia, Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia. Cuny (50), an envoy for George Soros' Open Society Institute, was shot and killed by Chechen gunmen. In 1999 Scott Anderson published "The Man Who Tried to Save the World: The Dangerous Life and Mysterious Disappearance of Fred Cuny."
    (http://www.onlineethics.org/cms/14193.aspx)(SFEC, 6/6/99, BR p.1)

1996        Mar 31, Pres. Clinton and Monica Lewinsky resumed their sexual relationship.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Mar 31 Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced a halt to combat operations in Chechnya, limited troop withdrawals and a willingness to hold indirect talks with the rebels' leader.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1997        Mar 31, In the US men’s NCAA Basketball finals Arizona beat Kentucky 84-79 in overtime.
    (SFC, 4/1/97, p.A1)
1997        Mar 31, The Supreme Court ruled that the government can force cable television systems to carry local broadcast stations.
    (AP, 3/31/98)
1997        Mar 31, Jury selection began in Denver in the trial of accused Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.
    (AP, 3/31/98)
1997        Mar 31, It was reported from Los Angeles that Yasuyoshi Kato was caught after having embezzled 85-95 [$62 mil] million from Day-Lee Foods, a Japanese firm for which he worked as an accountant [chief financial officer]. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.A15)(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1997        Mar 31, Scientists announced the first artificial human chromosomes that work properly inside living cells.
    (SFC, 4/1/97, p.A1)
1997        Mar 31, In Spain a passenger train north of Pamplona derailed and killed at least 22 and injured some 87 people.
    (WSJ, 4/1/97, p.A1)

1998        Mar 31, For the first time in history, the Clinton administration released a detailed financial statement for the federal government showing its assets and liabilities.
    (AP, 3/31/99)
1998        Mar 31, Hon-Ming Chen, Taiwanese leader of a spiritual sect in Garland, Texas, was to meet God at 10 AM.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.A3)
1998        Mar 31, Starcraft, a military science fiction real-time strategy video game, was released in South Korea. It was developed by Blizzard Entertainment, a California-based company.
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/StarCraft)
1998        Mar 31, Former New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug died at age 77.
    (AP, 3/31/99)
1998        Mar 31, In Egypt a sweeping press ban forbade publishing houses from printing in tax-free zones. This amounted to a temporary de facto ban for over 50 publications that printed in the Nasser City tax-free zone outside of Cairo.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A10)
1998        Mar 31, The EU set this date for membership talks with Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Estonia and Cyprus. Preliminary talks were also set with Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A12)
1998        Mar 31, In Lille, France, an 18-year-old boy was shot dead by a fellow student in front of his classmates and teacher.
    (SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)
1998        Mar 31, The UN Security Council imposed a new arms embargo on Yugoslavia to press Milosevic to grant ethnic Albanians concessions in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A8)(AP, 3/31/99)
1998        Mar 31, In Cambodia government soldiers made a major offensive to destroy the remnants of the Khmer Rouge guerrillas, which was disintegrating due to defections and internal fighting.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A8)
1998        Mar 31, In Lebanon a roadside bomb in the Israeli security zone killed 6 construction workers in their pickup truck near Kaoukaba.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Mar 31, It was reported that in Thailand’s Mae Hong Son province, women of the Padaung tribe of Burma were attracting tourists with their necks elongated by wearing brass coils. They began fleeing Burma’s Kayah state over a decade ago
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B4)

1999        Mar 31, A federal judge was expected to approve a settlement by black United Parcel Service (UPS) workers for over $8 million for racial discrimination.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D2)
1999        Mar 31, Four New York City police officers were charged with murder for killing Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African immigrant, in a hail of bullets. They were acquitted in Feb 2000.
    (AP, 3/31/04)
1999        Mar 31, Three peacekeeping US soldiers were captured by Serb forces near the Yugoslav-Macedonia border. Sgt. James Stone (25), Spec. Steven Gonzales (21) and Sgt. Andrew Ramirez (24) were shown on Serbian TV and were released more than a month later. Azen Syla, founder of the KLA, said that his guerrilla supply lines from Albania were cut off when the bombing began. Yugoslav soldiers herded ethnic Albanians onto trains bound for the Macedonian border as NATO bombing continued for the 8th day.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A1,12)(SFC, 4/2/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/31/00)
1999        Mar 31, NATO bombs destroyed the Sloboda household utilities plant in Cacak, Serbia. It had employed some 5,000 people. Allied leaders said they would bomb government buildings in Belgrade.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 31, In the village of Dzakovo, Kosovo, a witness reported the Serbian paramilitary forces invade a mosque during morning prayers and killed some 80 people.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.A8)
1999        Mar 31, On Serbian TV Ibrahim Rugova appealed for an end to NATO bombings. He had recently been quoted by a German magazine that chaos would result if NATO does not send in ground troops immediately. Serbs put Rugova under house arrest and ordered him to appear on TV.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A15)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A9)
1999        Mar 31, In England the House of Lords passed a bill that stripped aristocrats with inherited seats from voting in the upper chamber of Parliament.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.C2)
1999        Mar 31, In Zambia the high court declared former leader Kenneth Kaunda, born to Malawian missionaries, a non-citizen.
    (WSJ, 4/1/99, p.A1)

2000        Mar 31, The UN Security Council decided to let Iraq spend more money to repair its oil industry, an investment intended to boost the amount of food and medicine Baghdad could buy through the UN humanitarian program.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A12)(AP, 3/31/01)
2000        Mar 31, In Russia Pres. Putin called for a quick ratification of the START II nuclear arms reduction treaty and deeper cuts in nuclear missiles.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A12)
2000        Mar 31, In Uganda police revised the number of deaths linked to the doomsday cult to 924.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A1)

2001        Mar 31, Pres. Blaise Compaore asked for forgiveness for abuses over his 13-year rule as part of Burkina Faso’s 1st “National Pardon Day."
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C10)
2001        Mar 31, In Macedonia rebels engaged government troops in a firefight.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C5)
2001        Mar 31, In the Netherlands legislation enacted in 2000 to legalize gay marriages went into effect at midnight. This made Netherlands the first country to legalize same-sex marriages.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A10)(SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A2)
2001        Mar 31, In Pakistan a stampede at a shrine in Pakbattan Sharif left 40 dead as thousands rushed for the “paradise door."
    (WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A1)
2001        Mar 31, In Russia some 20,000 people gathered in Pushkin Square to defend the NTV network from the government’s 10-month financial and legal campaign against it.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C2)
2001        Mar 31, In Serbia commandos stormed the residence of Slobodan Milosevic and attempted to arrest him as the US deadline for cooperation with the UN War Crimes tribunal approached. But a defiant Milosevic rejected a warrant, reportedly telling police he wouldn't "go to jail alive." He was taken into custody the next day.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A1)(AP, 3/31/02)
2001        Mar 31, In Taiwan the Dalai Lama arrived for a spiritual visit.
    (SFC, 4/2/01, p.A9)
2001        Mar 31, In Turkey thousands rallied in major cities to protest a government economic recovery plan backed by the IMF.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.C10)

2002        Mar 31, Connecticut beat Oklahoma 82-70 to conclude its second unbeaten season with a third women's national championship.
    (AP, 3/31/03)
2002        Mar 31, Barry Took (73), British comedian and comic writer, died. He helped produce “Monty Python’s Flying Circus." His autobiography was titled “A Point of View."
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.B5)
2002        Mar 31, On Australia’s Norfolk Island Glenn McNeill (24) of New Zealand hit Janelle Patton (29) with his car and later stabbed her "just to make sure she was dead." McNeill was arrested in 2006 based on DNA evidence. Patton suffered 64 separate injuries including a fractured skull and numerous stab wounds in the attack In 2007 McNeill told police he had been smoking cannabis when he hit Patton. On Mar 9 a jury convicted McNeill of murder. On July 25 he was sentenced to 24 years in jail.
    (AP, 8/12/02)(Econ, 7/10/04, p.38)(Reuters, 3/9/07)(AFP, 7/25/07)
2002        Mar 31, Men in the Czech Republic chased female relatives and friends for the traditional Easter leg thwacking.
    (WSJ, 3/28/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 31, In France an arson attacked destroyed Marseille’s Or Aviv temple. It was the 3rd synagogue attack over the Passover weekend.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A8)
2002        Mar 31, Israeli forces entered Qalqilya and Bethlehem. 2 Palestinians were killed after they fired on Israeli soldiers. Some 40 European and American peace activists joined Yasser Arafat. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon vowed to smash Palestinian militants in a broadcast speech that came the same day as a suicide bombing in Haifa that killed 15 Israelis. In 2009 Shimon Shiran died of wounds suffered in the bombing that also killed his daughter Adi (17). 
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A1,10)(AP, 3/31/07)(AP, 4/12/09)
2002        cMar 31, In Madagascar a bridge linking the capital to a southern port was blown up.
    (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 31, Serbia’s government, faced with a midnight suspension of US aid, issued arrest warrants against 4 former Milosevic associates.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A6)
2002        Mar 31, In Taiwan a 6.8-7.1 earthquake hit and 5 construction workers were killed in Taipei when 2 construction cranes fell from the 60th floor of a new building projected to be the tallest in the city. Taipei 101 reached 1,679 feet on completion and claimed to be have the highest structural top, tallest roof and highest occupied floor.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/8/04, p.A22)
2002        Mar 31, In Ukraine elections the pro-Western Our Ukraine led by former PM Viktor Yuschenko led with 23%. The Communist Party had 20%.  Pres. Kuchma’s United Ukraine had 13% and expected 119 seats in parliament. The parties provide half the 450 sets of the parliament, known as the Verkhovna Rada. Direct elections decide the other half.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A6)(SFC, 4/2/02, p.A6)(SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)
2002        Mar 31, Pope John Paul II used his Easter message to call for an end to violence in the Holy Land.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

2003        Mar 31, In the 13th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US-led troops fought pitched battles with Saddam Hussein's Republican Guard within 50 miles of the capital. B-1, B-2 and B-52 bombers struck communication and command centers in Baghdad, and cruise missiles set Iraq's Information Ministry ablaze. Casualties from the war to date US total: 40 dead, 7 captured, 18 missing; British total: 25 dead. Of 8,000 precision bombs dropped since the war began, 3,000 fell in the last 3 days. Port operations at Umm Qasr looked to be delayed for weeks.
    (AP, 3/31/03)(WSJ, 4/1/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 31, US troops between Karbala and Najaf shot and killed 10 Iraqi civilians including women and children, when the driver of a van failed to stop at a checkpoint. The Pentagon reported 7 killed.
    (AP, 4/1/03)(SFC, 4/1/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 31, NBC said it severed its relations with reporter Peter Arnett after he told Iraqi television that the US war plan against Saddam Hussein had failed. Arnett was quickly hired by London's Daily Mirror.
    (AP, 3/31/03)(WSJ, 4/1/03, p.B1)
2003        Mar 31, The DJIA fell 153 to 7992.
    (SFC, 4/1/03, p.C1)
2003        Mar 31, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter (b.1907), British-born mathematician, died. He pioneered the study of higher-dimensional shapes called polytopes. In 2006 Siobhan Roberts authored “King of Infinite Space."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Scott_MacDonald_Coxeter)
2003        Mar 31, Britain and the US signed a new Extradition Treaty.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hbdpj)(http://eurealitshome.com/blog/?p=1086)
2003        Mar 31, In Bolivia rescue officials struggled to reach victims buried by a landslide that roared through Chima, a gold-mining town in Bolivia's tropical lowlands, killing an estimated 300-400 people.
    (AP, 4/1/03)(SFC, 4/1/03, p.A8)(AP, 4/2/03)
2003        Mar 31, Hong Kong authorities quarantined more than 200 other residents in an apartment block in an effort to contain the SARS virus.
    (AP, 3/31/03)
2003        Mar 31, In eastern Indonesia mudslides triggered by flash floods on Flores Island killed 48 people with 28 reported missing.
    (AP, 4/2/03)(AP, 4/5/03)
2003        Mar 31, In Tehran, Iran, a pickup truck with extra fuel crashed into the British Embassy in an apparent suicide attack. Police called it an accident.
    (SFC, 4/1/03, p.A3)
2003        Mar 31, In Macedonia the EU began its first military operation by taking over peacekeeping duties from NATO.
    (AP, 3/31/03)
2003        Mar 31, In southern Pakistan gunmen in paramilitary uniforms shot dead 12 people and wounded 26 others in an attack linked to a tribal feud.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

2004        Mar 31, Air America Radio went live in 3 of largest US markets with a left-leaning, round-the-clock, talk format featuring Al Franken and Janeane Garofalo. Air America was conceived by Anita and Sheldon Drobny of Chicago. The idea was purchased by Guam entrepreneurs Evan M. Cohen and Rex Sorensen, who resigned May 5.
     (SFC, 3/31/04, p.C1)(WSJ, 6/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Mar 31, The US Navy closed Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, its last base in Puerto Rico. It was transferred to a special naval agency that will coordinate the closing process. The base had been used for 6 decades to keep watch over the Caribbean.
    (AP, 1/6/04)(AP, 4/2/04)
2004        Mar 31, In Fallujah, Iraq, jubilant residents dragged the charred corpses of 4 American private security guards, from Blackwater Security Consulting, through the streets and hanged them from a bridge spanning the Euphrates River. 5 American soldiers died in a roadside bombing nearby.
    (AP, 3/31/04)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.A1)(SFC, 4/2/04, p.A16)
2004        Mar 31, Lithuania's highest court ruled that President Rolandas Paksas violated the constitution by arranging citizenship for a businessman with alleged mob ties, a verdict that will likely set the stage for an impeachment vote.
    (AP, 3/31/04)
2004        Mar 31, The International Court of Justice ruled that the United States violated the rights of 51 Mexicans on death row and ordered their cases be reviewed.
    (AP, 3/31/04)
2004        Mar 31, OPEC voted to cut oil production by 4.1%.
    (SFC, 4/1/04, p.C1)
2004        Mar 31, The US suspended $26 million in aid to Serbia for refusal to give up war crimes fugitives.
    (WSJ, 4/1/04, p.A1)
2004        Mar 31, In Sudan security police detained Hassan Turabi, the leading Islamic opposition leader, 3 days after members of his party were accused of conspiring to topple the government.
    (AP, 3/31/04)

2005        Mar 31, A US presidential commission reported that US intelligence agencies were dead wrong in their prewar assessment of Iraq’s nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
    (SFC, 4/1/05, p.A1)
2005        Mar 31, A US Commerce Dept. study on Internet traffic, ordered in 1998, was published under the title “Signposts in Cyberspace."
    (SFC, 4/1/05, p.C3)
2005        Mar 31, The World Bank confirmed Paul Wolfowitz as its new president.
    (WSJ, 4/1/05, p.A1)
2005        Mar 31, South Carolina defeated Saint Joseph's, 60-57, in the NIT championship game.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2005        Mar 31, Terri Schiavo (41), the severely brain-damaged woman who spent 15 years connected to a feeding tube in an epic legal and medical battle that went all the way to the White House and Congress, died in Florida, 13 days after the tube was removed.
    (AP, 3/31/05)(SFC, 4/1/05, p.A1)
2005        Mar 31, Frank Perdue, businessman, died in Salisbury, Maryland. He transformed his father’s backyard egg business into one of the nation's largest poultry processors using the folksy slogan, "It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken."
    (AP, 4/1/05)(SFC, 4/2/05, p.B5)
2005        Mar 31, A US C-130 airplane crashed near the remote village of Rovie and all 9 Americans onboard were killed in mountainous southern Albania during a joint exercise.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Mar 31, It was reported that Shirin Gul (39), an Afghan housewife, stood accused with her lover and son (18) of murdering 27 men over the last 4 years in order to sell their cars across the border in Pakistan.
    (SFC, 3/31/05, p.A3)
2005        Mar 31, In Brazil a massacre in Nova Iguacu, outside of Rio, left 29 people dead. The next day state officials said they might have been carried out by police incensed by investigations of brutality and corruption by "bad" cops. In 2006 a court convicted Carlos Jorge Carvalho (32) a state police officer, of taking part in the Baixada massacre. In 2009 ex-officer Julio Cesar de Paula was sentenced to 480 years in prison and ex-officer Marcos Siqueira Costa to 543 years for homicide and belonging to a criminal organization. The length of the sentences was largely symbolic because under Brazilian law no one can serve more than 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/1/05)(SFC, 6/24/05, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/06)(AP, 9/16/09)
2005        Mar 31, Alberta repaid the last of its debt and became Canada’s only borrowing-free province.
    (www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm?Page=852)(www.td.com/economics/budgets/ab05.jsp)
2005        Mar 31, The president of Ecuador's Supreme Court annulled corruption charges against former President Abdala Bucaram, paving the way for his possible return from political asylum in Panama.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Mar 31, The EU head office said it will seek to impose additional sanctions of up to 15 percent on US products to punish Washington for failing to repeal an antidumping law ruled illegal by the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 3/31/05)
2005        Mar 31, Guyana police found American missionaries Richard Hicks (42) and his wife Charlene Hicks (58) slain at a farm they rented in southwestern Guyana near the border with Brazil. In 2008 Guyana police issued arrest warrants for two Brazilians accused of the killings. Peter Marare and Aleiman Cassiano Eligenio, who were ranch hands on the couple's farm, faced one count of murder each.
    (AP, 4/1/05)(AP, 8/6/08)
2005        Mar 31, India's PM said India and Mauritius are moving toward a free trade agreement to boost the island's threatened trade portfolio and help India tap into African markets.
    (AP, 3/31/05)
2005        Mar 31, A suicide bomber blew up his car south of Kirkuk, killing two Iraqi army soldiers and three bystanders. A second car bomber attacked a joint U.S.-Iraqi patrol in the center of Samarra, killing three people and injuring more than a dozen others. Bombings and ambushes across Iraq left at least a dozen Iraqis and one US soldier dead.
    (AP, 3/31/05)(SFC, 4/1/05, p.A3)
2005        Mar 31, Rho on the outskirts of Milan, Italy, inaugurated a trade fair over the site of a polluted refinery closed in 1992. The site featured a new structure by Massimilian Fuksas.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.61)
2005        Mar 31, The World Bank approved financing support for the controversial $1.2 billion Nam Theun 2 dam in Laos.
    (WSJ, 4/1/05, p.A8)
2005        Mar 31, Two Lithuanian illusionists have begun an attempt to break the record for staying inside a giant ice cube, set by US magician David Blaine in 2000 when he spent nearly 62 hours inside a block of ice.
    (AFP, 4/1/05)
2005        Mar 31, In Palestine Mahmoud Abbas ordered a crackdown on Ramallah militants after a group of gunmen fired at his compound in a sign of escalating tensions.
    (AP, 3/31/05)
2005        Mar 31, A Rwandan Hutu militia group, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, denounced the Hutu-orchestrated 1994 genocide in the African country and announced it was stopping its fighting in the region.
    (AP, 3/31/05)
2005        Mar 31, Zimbabweans waited in long lines to vote in parliamentary elections that President Robert Mugabe hopes will prove the legitimacy of a regime.
    (AP, 3/31/05)
2005        Mar 31, After weeks of often bitter negotiations, the UN Security Council approved a resolution to refer Sudanese war crimes suspects to the International Criminal Court, agreeing to major concessions demanded by United States.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2006        Mar 31, President Bush, closing a three-nation NAFTA summit, defended requiring secure documents from border-crossing Canadians and pushed Mexico to prevent more of its people from illegally entering America.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Auto parts maker Delphi Corp. moved to void its U.S. labor contracts, cut up to 8,500 salaried workers and close or sell a third of its plants globally as it attempts to slash costs and restructure in order to exit bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, A provincial governor said Afghan authorities have detained a border police commander from the Achakzai tribe accused in the killings of 17 Pakistanis on March 21. Taliban insurgents raided several police posts in Helmand province and six of the attackers were killed. A suicide car-bomber was killed when he blew himself up as he tried to ram his vehicle into an Afghan army convoy in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(Reuters, 3/31/06)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A18)
2006        Mar 31, Australian police arrested and charged three men with alleged links with a terrorist organization after counter-terrorism teams swooped on Melbourne's northern suburbs.
    (Reuters, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, In Austria Gertraud Arzberger (33), who stuffed the bodies of two of her four newborn infants in a freezer and entombed two others in plastic buckets filled with cement, was convicted of three counts of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Her live-in companion, Johannes Genser (39), was convicted as an accessory and was sentenced to 15 years.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, A lucky Belgian won the jackpot of 75,753,123 euros (53 million pounds) in the European lottery EuroMillions.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)
2006        Mar 31, Military and police forces took control of Bolivia's major airports, one day after hundreds of striking airline workers blocked runways and disrupted flights to three airports.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, A plane carrying 19 people crashed in a mountainous region outside Rio de Janeiro, killing all aboard. A small LET 410 twin-engine plane belonging to the local Team airline went missing about 20 minutes after leaving the city of Macae.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Mar 31, In China Hu Jia, a prominent AIDS activist, said he would sue the government for improperly detaining him. Jia, released on March 28, accused Chinese security forces of abducting and holding him for 41 days.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Mar 31, French President Jacques Chirac offered to soften a labor law that makes it easier to fire young workers, but the student and labor leaders who have organized nationwide strikes rejected his compromise and repeated calls for the measure's repeal.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Indonesia said it has confirmed its 23rd bird flu fatality by tests carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). Local tests showed another patient is infected.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, The air force chief of the elite Revolutionary Guards said Iran successfully test-fired a new missile, the Fajir-3, with the ability to avoid radar and hit several targets simultaneously.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(SFC, 4/3/06, p.A3)
2006        Mar 31, In western Iran 3 strong earthquakes and several aftershocks reduced villages to rubble, killing 70 people and injuring about 1,200 others.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(AP, 3/31/07)
2006        Mar 31, In Iraq a mortar round slammed into a street in northeastern Baghdad, killing three women when shrapnel hit their home, and soldiers discovered the bullet-riddled bodies of six men wearing handcuffs in western Baghdad. Gunmen attacked a minibus carrying Shiites northeast of Baghdad, killing six men and wounding one woman. At least 18 other people were killed elsewhere, including three ice cream vendors and a butcher, many in drive-by shootings.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Mar 31, Japan's opposition party suffered a fresh humiliation when its leadership resigned en masse over a fake e-mail scandal, handing PM Junichiro Koizumi an uncontested grip on power in his last six months in office.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Jordanian health officials announced the kingdom's first human case of the bird flu in a worker (31) believed to have contracted the deadly strain in his home village in Egypt.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Abu Yousef Abu Quka, a top commander of a small militant Palestinian group, was killed when his car mysteriously exploded in flames. A shootout between rival Palestinian factions erupted shortly after the blast.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, A Portuguese court convicted 96 people, including 81 police officers, in a corruption case involving bribes for dismissed traffic fines.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Prosecutors in Warsaw filed charges against Poland's last communist leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, in connection with his imposition of martial law in 1981 as the Soviet-backed regime tried to crush the Solidarity pro-democracy movement.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, The EU gave Serbia an extra month to hand over genocide suspect Ratko Mladic or face suspension of its talks on closer EU ties, after being reassured of progress in the manhunt.
    (AFP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, In Sri Lanka the ruling coalition won an overwhelming victory in local elections, according to results released by the government, a result seen as an endorsement of the president's negotiations with Tamil Tiger rebels.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, Swiss prosecutors said they have filed charges against 19 former top executives and board members of the defunct Swissair for their part in the national airline's 2001 bankruptcy.
    (AP, 3/31/06)
2006        Mar 31, In Tonga Dr. Fred Sevele agreed to serve as PM, making him the first commoner to lead the government in living memory.
    (www.taimiotonga.com/Taimi/News.asp?db=1&N_ID=448)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.47)
2006        Mar 31, In Turkey a bomb hidden in a garbage can exploded near an Istanbul bus stop, killing a street vendor and injuring 13 people. Fighting between Turkish soldiers and Kurdish guerrillas killed a 3-year-old boy and brought to 7 the number of fatalities in the 4th day of clashes.
    (AP, 3/31/06)(SFC, 4/1/06, p.A5)

2007        Mar 31, President Bush again came to the defense of Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, under criticism for his role in the firing of federal prosecutors, calling him "honorable and honest."
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2007        Mar 31, President Bush called for the release of 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran, calling their capture by Tehran "inexcusable behavior." The crew members were released on April 4.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2007        Mar 31, Nestle Purina PetCare Co. said it was recalling all sizes and varieties of its Alpo Prime Cuts in Gravy wet dog food with specific date codes. Purina said a limited amount of the food contained a contaminated wheat gluten from China.
    (AP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, Berkeley Iceland closed in Berkeley, Ca., after 66 years of operation.
    (SSFC, 4/1/07, p.D1)
2007        Mar 31, Paul Watzlawick (b.1921), Austrian-born pioneering psychotherapist, died in Palo Alto, Ca. He held that people created their own misery by trying to force self-defeating solutions to trivial problems of the ego. His 22 books included “The Situation Is Hopeless but not Serious: The Pursuit of Unhappiness" (1993).
    (SFC, 4/4/07, p.B7)
2007        Mar 31, Luanda, Angola, built for half a million people was now home for at least 4 million, many of whom fled there during the civil war.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.58)
2007        Mar 31, It was reported that Antarctica held about 90% of the world’s ice.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.85)
2007        Mar 31, In Argentina authorities said rising rivers due to 5 days of rain in three provinces have forced some 38,000 people to flee their homes. The floodwaters have claimed 7 lives.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Mar 31, At least 22 Islamists were arrested in overnight raids as Bangladesh strengthened security nationwide.
    (AFP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, In Brazil air traffic controllers protesting working conditions ended their one-day strike after the government agreed to their demands.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Mar 31, Janjaweed militiamen killed up to 400 people in the volatile eastern border region near Sudan, leaving an "apocalyptic" scene of mass graves and destruction. Chadian officials initially said 65 people had died, but added that the toll was sure to rise.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Mar 31, In Eritrea a ban on female circumcision went into effect. A health survey by Eritrea's government in 2002 found 62 percent of circumcised women in the Red Sea state had the procedure done before their first birthday. Less than one percent had been performed by trained health professionals.
    (Reuters, 4/5/07)
2007        Mar 31, EU foreign ministers backed an Arab peace initiative and agreed to engage with ministers of the new Palestinian national unity government who are not members of the Islamist Hamas movement.
    (AP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, A parked car exploded near a hospital in Baghdad's main Shiite district, the deadliest in a series of bombings that killed at least nine people and wounded dozens in Iraq.
    (AP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, A report said Malaysia's top anti-corruption official, who is facing a police investigation into graft allegations against him, will not have his contract renewed.
    (AP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, In southern Nigeria gunmen kidnapped a British oil worker from an offshore oil rig.
    (AP, 3/31/07)
2007        Mar 31, Pakistan successfully tested a short-range, nuclear-capable missile. Avalanches struck two villages in a remote part of northwest Pakistan, killing at least 29 people and leaving 14 others missing.
    (AP, 3/31/07)(AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Mar 31, In Somalia artillery fire and mortar shells rained down on Mogadishu as government troops and their Ethiopian allies continued a major offensive to quash a growing insurgency by Islamic militants. A Ugandan soldier was killed by artillery fire in Mogadishu, marking the first death among African Union peacekeepers deployed here.
    (AP, 3/31/07)(AFP, 4/1/07)
2007        Mar 31, In western Sudan at least 62 people were killed and 21 wounded in an attack on an Arab tribe in the Darfur region.
    (AFP, 4/1/07)
2007        Mar 31, In Zimbabwe the body of Edward Chikombo, an independent journalist, was found. He had been missing since March 29. A lawyer for another reporter arrested under sweeping media laws said he was assaulted and tortured in custody. Chikombo had conveyed the picture of Morgan Tsvangirai’s battered head (see March 24) to the wider world. On April 6 Zimbabwe police opened a murder investigation into his death.
    (AP, 4/6/07)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.36)

2008        Mar 31, The Bush administration proposed the most far-ranging overhaul of the financial regulatory system since the stock market crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression. Alphonso Jackson, the Bush administration's top housing official, under criminal investigation and intense pressure from Democratic critics, announced he is quitting.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Gregg Bergersen (51), a Pentagon weapons analyst, pleaded guilty to giving classified information about US and Taiwanese military communications systems to Tai Kuo, a New Orleans furniture salesman working with the Chinese government.
    (WSJ, 4/1/08, p.A2)
2008        Mar 31, The US investment banking company Lehman Brothers sued the Japanese trading company Marubeni, seeking to recover $350 million in financing it says was obtained fraudulently.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, American director Jules Dassin (96), whose Greek wife Melina Mercouri starred in his hit movie "Never on Sunday" and six more of his films, died at an Athens hospital.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, A clash in southern Afghanistan killed a Danish soldier and wounded two others. A separate attack on a NATO patrol killed two British troops. an airstrike killed three men irrigating land close to a road in Kandahar province. The men may have been mistaken for militants planting roadside bombs. In Helmand province police arrested Mullah Naqibullah, a senior Taliban commander who has escaped twice from Afghan prisons. Naqibullah was nabbed during a clash that left three insurgents dead.
    (AP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Mar 31, Some of England's most sacred soil was disturbed for the first time in more than four decades as archaeologists worked to solve the enduring riddle of Stonehenge: When and why was the prehistoric monument built?
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Chad's state radio announced that the president has pardoned six French aid workers convicted of kidnapping 103 children.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Chinese President Hu Jintao presided over the re-lighting of the Olympic torch in Beijing, signaling the start of an around-the-world torch relay that already has become a magnet for protesters.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Chinese authorities arrested suspects in four arson and murder cases stemming from anti-government riots that engulfed the Tibetan capital in mid-March.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, New President Raul Castro's government has lifted a ban on Cubans staying at hotels previously reserved for foreigners, ending another restriction that had been especially irksome to citizens.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, In Iraq the fortified Green Zone came under fresh attack, less than 24 hours after anti-American Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr told his fighters to stand down following a week of clashes with government forces. Near Buhriz unknown gunmen in a car attacked a checkpoint manned by US-backed Sunni fighters. Four of the fighters were killed.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Jerusalem's city hall has announced a plan to construct 600 new apartments in the Pisgat Zeev neighborhood of east Jerusalem.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Scientists in Japan reported that they have designed artificial molecules that when used with rats successfully reversed liver cirrhosis, a serious chronic disease in humans that until now can only be cured by transplants.
    (Reuters, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Malaysia's Islamic opposition party delivered a protest note to the Netherlands' embassy over the release of an anti-Islam movie by a maverick Dutch lawmaker, while hard-line Muslims in neighboring Indonesia demanded the death of the filmmaker.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, In Mexico Juana Barraza (50), a former female wrestler who terrorized Mexico City as the "Little Old Lady Killer," was sentenced to 759 years in jail for killing 16 elderly women.
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, Turkey's top court decided to put the Islamist-rooted ruling party on trial for alleged anti-secular activity, in a case that could threaten national stability and Ankara's bid to join the EU. Clashes between Turkish troops and Kurdish rebels left nine rebels and three soldiers dead in Turkey's southeast.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Mar 31, Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change and President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF were on level-pegging, as the results trickled in from a weekend general election. The MDC's own tally of votes in 128 of the 210 parliamentary seats showed that its leader Tsvangirai had secured 60 percent of votes against 30 for Mugabe in the presidential race.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)

2009        Mar 31, The US Government Accountability Office released a report saying 4 countries designated a terrorism sponsors received $55 million from a US supported program promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy under the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation program. Between 1997 and 2007 Iran received over $15 million, $14 million went to Syria, while Sudan and Cuba received over $11 million each.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.A3)
2009        Mar 31, The US State Department said the United States will seek election to the UN Human Rights Council this year, announcing the Obama administration's latest reversal of former President George W. Bush's foreign policies.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, The US Congress passed the Edward Kennedy Serve America Act, a sweeping overhaul of the 1993 national service program. It tripled the size of AmeriCorps from 75,000 positions to 250,000.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.30)
2009        Mar 31, Fritz Henderson, GM's new chief executive said that more of the automaker's plants could close and bankruptcy is "more probable" as it works to meet new, tougher requirements for government aid. In his first news conference as CEO, Henderson said he expects the company would "need to take further measures" beyond the 5 plants the company said it would shutter when it submitted a restructuring plan to the government last month.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Sun-Times Media Group, the publisher of the Chicago Sun Times, filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy, becoming the 5th newspaper company to file for protection since December.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.B4)
2009        Mar 31, At the Hague Afghan President Hamid Karzai and US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton offered an olive branch to Taliban fighters who reject al-Qaida and pressed an international conference for help in strengthening Afghanistan's security forces.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In southern Afghanistan foreign and Afghan troops killed 30 Taliban fighters and wounded 17 others during a series of overnight clashes, while a roadside bomb killed the mayor of eastern Khost city. A member of the Kandahar provincial council of religious clerics was shot dead while going home after prayers. A suicide bomber tried to attack a police post on the border with Iran but blew himself up prematurely when police warned him to stop.
    (AP, 3/31/09)(AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Raul Alfonsin (b.1927), former Argentine president (1983-1989), died. He guided his country's return to democracy following a military dictatorship that left thousands missing.
    (AP, 4/1/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raul_Alfons%C3%ADn)
2009        Mar 31, In Brazil the state government of Rio de Janeiro said it will build 7 miles of concrete walls around some of its biggest slums in an effort to halt deforestation of the jungle surrounding the metropolis.
    (SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)
2009        Mar 31, Sir Sacheverell Reresby Sitwell (81) died in London. He restored the stately home of his famously eccentric family to its former glory. In 1965 Reresby Sitwell inherited Renishaw Hall in Derbyshire, the family seat since 1625. Sitwell was the elder son of Sacheverell Sitwell, who with his brother Osbert and sister Edith were famed for their literary talent and their quirks.
    (AP, 4/2/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Cambodia Kaing Guek Eav (aka Duch), the chief Khmer Rouge torturer, formally apologized for the deaths of more than 14,000 people at S-21 prison, the first Pol Pot cadre to accept blame for crimes committed by the regime 30 years ago.
    (Reuters, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In China and official said police have arrested nine people and revoked the license of a livestock market owner in a case involving pork tainted with a chemical that made 70 people sick in Guangzhou, southern China's biggest city. Investigators determined the pork was tainted with clenbuterol and ractopamine, banned chemicals used to make animals develop more muscle and less fat.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Twelve Egyptian laborers headed for jobs in Jordan were killed and 35 others injured when their bus overturned in the Sinai peninsula.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Angry French workers facing layoffs at a Caterpillar factory briefly detained four of their bosses at the US manufacturer's plant in the Alps to protest job cuts.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Germany's top security official banned the Homeland-Faithful German Youth (HDJ), a far-right group, on the ground that it organizes seemingly harmless activities to promote racist and Nazi ideology among children and young people.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Honduras assailants stopped journalist Rafael Munguia (36) as he was driving night in the city of San Pedro Sula, dragged him from his vehicle and shot him at least eight times. Munguia had recently been reporting on the country's violent crime wave.
    (AP, 4/2/09)
2009        Mar 31, Volkswagen opened a new plant in western India, pledging to make further inroads into the country's growing auto market.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Iraq a suicide truck bomber plowed through a sandbag barrier to strike a police station in the northern city of Mosul, killing at least eight people and wounding 12. The British military transferred over coalition command of the oil-rich southern province of Basra to the US. A US Marine died as the result of a non-combat incident in Anbar province. A US soldier died in a "noncombat-related incident" in Salahuddin province.
    (AP, 3/31/09)(AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Israel’s parliament approved Benjamin Netanyahu as prime minister. His Cabinet of 29 ministers was among the largest in Israel’s history. Israeli forces attacked a group of Palestinian militants along the Gaza-Israel border, killing two gunmen and wounding three others in one of the worst flare-ups of violence since Israel ended its offensive in the territory more than two months ago.
    (SFC, 4/1/09, p.A5)(AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Italian police said they have arrested Mario Chiesa for his alleged role in a scam involving garbage disposal in Milan and elsewhere in northern Italy. He was one of eight people apprehended, with two others being placed under house arrest. Chiesa was arrested in 1992 and convicted for his involvement in the Clean Hands corruption scandals. He served his sentences doing socially useful work and was freed in 2000.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Bernardo De Bernardinis, deputy chief of Italy’s Civil Protection Department, told the people in the L'Aquila region that recent tremors over the last 4 months posed no danger. He and 6 others were later indicted following the April 6 earthquake that left 308 people dead. Their trial began in 2011. On Nov 10, 2014, an appeals court cleared the seven defendants in the case. Dr. De Bernardinis received a two-year suspended sentence for the deaths of some of the victims.
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.86)(SFC, 11/11/14, p.A2)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.82)
2009        Mar 31, Madagascar's neighbors suspended the impoverished nation from their regional development and democracy club, and threatened to take further steps if the Indian Ocean island's ousted president is not restored to power.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Mexico’s Pres. Calderon revealed that his country had secured a $47 billion line of credit from the IMF. It was the 1st country to be approved for the new Flexible Credit Line, which does not require a country to make policy changes.
    (WSJ, 4/2/09, p.A6)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.76)
2009        Mar 31, Mexican authorities said police in northern Mexico caught a gang that allegedly stole oil from state-owned pipelines and smuggled it across the border to sell it to US refineries.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Pakistan's Supreme Court restored the provincial government of a main opposition leader in the Punjab, easing political turmoil. The decision by a five-member bench returned Shahbaz Sharif to his post as chief minister of Punjab, but it did not end court reviews of a case questioning the eligibility of Sharif and his brother Nawaz for office.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Baitullah Mehsud, the commander of the Pakistani Taliban, claimed responsibility for the March 30 deadly assault on a Pakistani police academy and said the group was planning a terrorist attack on the White House that would "amaze" the world. A spokesman from Fedayeen al-Islam, a little-known militant group linked to the Pakistani Taliban, also claimed credit for the attack and a similar ambush-style attack against the Sri Lankan cricket team earlier this month in Lahore.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Peru’s President Alan Garcia reversed course and accepted a donation from Germany for a museum honoring those killed in Peru's 20-year armed conflict with Maoist Shining Path guerrillas.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Qatar Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez sought Arab support for a proposed oil-backed currency to challenge the US dollar in his latest swipe at Washington's dominance in global financial affairs.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Russia prominent human rights activist Lev Ponomaryov (67) was beaten outside his Moscow home by unknown attackers. His daughter, Yelena Liptser, said she believed Ponomaryov, the head of the All-Russia Movement for Human Rights, was attacked because of his rights work and his strident criticism of the Kremlin.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Moscow, Russia, the hatch slammed shut behind six volunteers from Europe and Russia who will spend three months isolated in a capsule to simulate conditions for a manned mission to Mars.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, Sri Lanka's Tamil Tiger rebels appealed again for a halt to fighting in their war against the government, though they denied they were on the brink of defeat despite being backed into an ever-shrinking pocket of land.
    (AP, 3/31/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Yemen Jan and Heleen Janszen, a Dutch couple, were kidnapped in a suburb of Sanaa and taken to a mountainous area near the capital. They were released on April 14 after Yemen's government paid more than a quarter million dollars in ransom.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)(SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)(AP, 4/14/09)

2010        Mar 31, President Barack Obama announced an expansive new policy that could put oil and natural gas platforms in waters along the southern Atlantic coastline, the eastern Gulf of Mexico and part of Alaska.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, The US federal government and environmental groups reached an agreement that will end the ghost fleet of retired ships in Suisun Bay, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/1/10, p.A1)
2010        Mar 31, The CalNeva casino on the north shore of Lake Tahoe closed due to declining gambling revenues.
    (SFC, 4/1/10, p.C5)
2010        Mar 31, Flooding across the US Northeast forced hundreds of residents from their homes, knocked out sewage plants, and snarled traffic on major East Coast routes as roads. Rhode Island endured the most severe damage as the Pawtuxet reached 20.8 feet unleashing the worst flooding in over 200 years.
    (AP, 3/31/10)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.32)
2010        Mar 31, US Navy Lt. Steven Zilberman's E-2C Hawkeye went down in the North Arabian Sea after it "experienced mechanical malfunctions." Three other crew members survived the crash without significant injuries.
    (AP, 4/3/10)
2010        Mar 31, In southern Afghanistan a bomb concealed on a bicycle killed 13 people, as the Pentagon's top military officer said NATO forces hope to reverse the Taliban's momentum in the south with an upcoming offensive in Kandahar.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Antigua a judge ruled Wednesday that PM Baldwin Spencer and two other lawmakers were improperly elected last year, a decision potentially threatening the governing party's narrow hold on power in this Caribbean country. Earlier this month, Spencer's government announced that the International Monetary Fund agreed to lend the country $124 million over three years.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Belgium a parliamentary committee unanimously voted to ban the wearing of face-covering veils in public, a major step in the legislative process that could make Belgium the first European country to impose such a religious prohibition.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, US envoy Stephen Rapp said the US has pledged $5 million to Cambodia's Khmer Rouge tribunal amid the troubled court's attempts to address corruption allegations.
    (AFP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In central China a gas explosion at a mine killed 12 workers and trapped 32 underground at the privately owned Guomin Mining Co. coal pit in Yichuan County, Luoyang City.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Dagestan 2 suicide bombers struck near the border with Chechnya, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 4/3/10)
2010        Mar 31, Nearly 50 donors pledged $9.9 billion in reconstruction aid for Haiti at a UN donor conference, but leaders and businessmen stressed private investment would be the key to improving the lot of the hemisphere's poorest nation.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, Six major world powers agreed to begin putting together proposed new sanctions on Iran over its suspect nuclear program after China dropped its opposition.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Iraq gunmen fatally shot Mohammed Chillab, a health ministry official, at his home in Baghdad in the latest slaying apparently targeting government employees. A mobile phone shop owner was gunned down and killed as he was closing his store for the night.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Kashmir 4 Indian soldiers and 10 separatist guerrillas were killed in clashes, the highest number of people killed in firefights in 24 hours in recent months.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Mexico authorities in the Gulf coast state of Tabasco announced that Roberto Rivero Arana, the nephew of reputed Zetas gang leader Heriberto Lazcano, was captured together with Daniel Perez, an acting police chief of Ciudad del Carmen, accused of protecting the Zetas. 4 severed human heads were found in Apatzingan, a town in the western state of Michoacan. In Morelia, the Michoacan state capital, police reported finding the bodies of 3 young men who had been shot to death. Police in the border city of Nogales reported finding the bullet-ridden bodies of 3 men, including a city transport official, on a rural road along with three burned-out vehicles.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, Niger's police director said police have arrested more than 600 people in an effort to crackdown on recent crime and insecurity in the capital.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, Nigerian gunmen kidnapped Chris Nnaji. a local employee of French oil group Total, on his way to work in the country's oil hub of Port Harcourt.
    (AFP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Pakistan US missiles and fighting in the mountains killed up to 36 militants and six Pakistani soldiers as violence swept the northwest tribal belt bordering Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In southern Russia 2 suicide bombers, including one impersonating a police officer, killed 12 people in Dagestan. PM Vladimir Putin said the blasts may have been organized by the same militants who attacked the Moscow subway. Russian police broke up anti-Kremlin protests in Moscow and St. Petersburg, detaining dozens of demonstrators who had defied bans in holding the rallies.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, Scotland and Northern Ireland were battered by snow, gale force winds and torrential rain, leaving thousands of people without power and causing havoc on roads.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Spain flight attendant Adriana Ricardo said attendants owed up to nine months' wages by a grounded Spanish airline have posed nude for a calendar to draw attention to their plight. Air Comet, run by the embattled chairman of Spain's main employers' association CEOE, Gerardo Ferran, filed for administration in December after a British court impounded nine of its aircraft at the request of German bank HSH Nordbank.
    (Reuters, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, Southern Sudan's main political party withdrew its candidate from the country's upcoming presidential election and said it will not contest parliamentary and local polls in Darfur, a move that erodes the credibility of Sudan's first multiparty election in decades.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, Swiss authorities said they could not reopen a money-laundering case against the Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari as long as he enjoys legal immunity.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, Taiwan officials lost contact with the 79-ton Jih-chun Tsai 68 fishing trawler and the government feared the boat may have been hijacked by pirates off the Somali coast.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, Google Inc. says malicious software has been used to spy on Vietnamese computer users opposed to a controversial bauxite mine in the Southeast Asian country. Computer security firm McAfee said the perpetrators may be linked to the communist government.
    (AP, 3/31/10)

2011        Mar 31, It was reported that the World Trade Organization has ruled that some US government aid to aircraft maker Boeing Co. is illegal. The WTO's report detailed findings first issued in private to the EU and US in January.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, SF Giants fan Bryan Stow was beaten and left in a coma following a game outside Dodger Stadium. LA police on May 22 arrested suspect Giovanni Ramirez (31). On June 20 Ramirez was given a 10-month prison sentence for alleged gun possession. On July 21 police arrested two new suspects in the case, Louis Alex Sanchez (29) and Marvin Eugene Norwood (30). Stow spent two years in hospitals and rehabilitation. On Feb 20, 2014, Louie Sanchez (31) and Marvin Norwood (33) pleaded guilty in LA to felony charges in the attack on Stow.
    (SFC, 5/23/11, p.A1)(SFC, 6/21/11, p.C2)(SFC, 7/22/11, p.A1)(SFC, 7/23/11, p.A8)(SFC, 2/21/14, p.A1)
2011        Mar 31, In Afghanistan NATO soldiers killed two civilians after opening fire on a car which the force said had tried to attack a patrol in Kandahar city. A local official said an ISAF soldier opened fire after a civilian car hit one of their vehicles in a traffic accident.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, In Argentina a court sentenced former Army Gen. Eduardo Cabanillas to life in prison and three ex-state agents to 20 or 25 years for crimes against humanity committed at Automotores Orletti, the notorious torture center of Operation Condor in 1976.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Mar 31, Britain’s former Labor Party MP Jim Devine was sentenced to 16 months in prison. He had been convicted of two charges of false accounting for filing bogus invoices for cleaning and printing work totaling more than 8,000 pounds ($13,000).
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, The British government said in a human rights report published about 1,000 people are believed to have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Britain refused to offer Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa immunity from prosecution after his apparent defection.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Britain's Prince Charles met with Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero for talks centering on the environment and sustainable development.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Canadian Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, the new commander of international military operations in Libya, warned that anyone attacking civilians would be "ill-advised" to continue, and said he would look into a report by a Vatican envoy that air strikes had killed 40 innocent people.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, In China French President Nicolas Sarkozy and US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner called for more flexible exchange rate regimes as G20 nations met on global monetary reform in Nanjing.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Guatemala police said some 400 people marched in support of Juan Alberto Ortiz Lopez, a reputed top drug trafficker captured by the government and the US Drug Enforcement Administration. Participant Juan Pablo Mendez said the Ortiz did what the government doesn't, create jobs and support families.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Mar 31, In India provisional census figures said the population jumped to 1.21 billion in 2011 from 1.02 billion in 2001, making it more populous than Indonesia, the United States, Brazil, Pakistan and Bangladesh combined. The nation's cultural preference for male children continued to shape the population as child sex ratio in the country declined to 914 females to 1,000 males, the lowest figures since 1947.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Indonesia arrested 43 Afghans who were trying to reach Australia illegally.
    (AP, 3/31/11) 
2011        Mar 31, Iranian security forces arrested at least seven people at the funeral of the father of reformist opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, The Israeli military released a map detailing what it says are nearly 1,000 underground bunkers, weapons storage facilities and monitoring sites built by the militant Hezbollah guerrillas in southern Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Italy shipped more than 2,000 migrants to detention camps on its mainland, relieving pressure on Lampedusa, a tiny island off Sicily which has been overwhelmed by a relentless stream of boats full of illegal arrivals from North African shores.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Japan said that its crisis-hit nuclear plant must be scrapped, but currently had no plans to evacuate more people, despite calls for a larger exclusion zone around the crippled facility.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Kuwait's Cabinet resigned over regional turmoil. The resignation appeared to be an attempt by three Cabinet ministers, members of the ruling Al Sabah family, to avoid being questioned over why Kuwait did not contribute troops to the Saudi-led Gulf force that was sent to Bahrain. Kuwait announced it is to expel a number of Iranian diplomats for alleged spying.
    (AP, 3/31/11)(AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Libyan rebels fought for control of the eastern oil town of Brega. Opponents took heart in the defection of Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa, one of the autocrat's closest confidants.
    (Reuters, 3/31/11)(AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon accepted the resignation of Arturo Chavez Chavez, an attorney general known mainly for his weak image in a country fighting a drug war, and nominated Marisela Morales, his top organized crime prosecutor as a successor, the first woman to hold the post if she is approved. In Ciudad Juarez 5 people were killed at a bar called La Barritas. Gunmen assaulted another bar called El Castillo. The death toll from the attack rose to 10 after two more people died the next day from their wounds.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/3/11)
2011        Mar 31, In northwestern Pakistan a suicide bomber struck a convoy carrying Maulana Fazlur Rehman, a prominent hardline Islamist leader, killing 13 people in Charsadda town. This was the second attack that targeted the politician in as many days.
    (AP, 3/31/11)(AFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Mar 31, South Korea's Constitutional Court upheld a military law banning homosexual behavior, saying the need to maintain discipline takes precedence over individual sexual freedom.
    (AFP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, In Switzerland a letter bomb exploded at an office of the Swiss nuclear power industry in the northern city of Olten, injuring two people.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Syria's Pres. Bashar Assad, facing a massive protest movement demanding reform, set up committees to look into the deaths of civilians during nearly two weeks of unrest and replacing decades-old emergency laws.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Thailand's navy used helicopters and an aircraft carrier to rescue more than 800 tourists stranded by heavy rains on the country's picturesque southern islands.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, A report by Human Rights Watch said Vietnam has increased repression of indigenous minority Christians in the Central Highlands. Hill tribe minorities, known as Montagnards, converted to Christianity in large numbers over the past half century.
    (SFC, 4/1/11, p.A2)

2012        Mar 31, Bahraini security forces fired tear gas during clashes with protesters who gathered after authorities acknowledged that gunfire earlier in the day killed Ahmed Ismail (22) during anti-government demonstrations.
    (AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, China’s official Xinhua news agency said authorities have closed 16 websites for spreading rumors of "military vehicles entering Beijing and something wrong going on there. China made a string of arrests and punished two popular microblogs after rumors of a coup linked to a major scandal that brought down a top politician.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, China opened the record breaking 4,000-ft-long Aizhai Bridge in Hunan province. Construction began in October 2007. It is the world's highest and longest tunnel-to-tunnel bridge.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aizhai_Bridge)
2012        Mar 31, Cuba said it will honor an appeal by Pope Benedict XVI and declared next week's Good Friday a holiday for the first time since the early days following the island's 1959 Revolution, though a decision on whether the move will be permanent will have to wait.
    (AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, Five Egyptian Copts, including two teenage girls, were crushed to death at the tomb of their spiritual leader Pope Shenuda III who died last week. Monastery officials had allowed visitors to visit Shenuda's tomb, prompting a rush to the desert monastery.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, In Iraq unknown gunmen shot dead a member of the Sahwa anti-Qaeda militia forces along with his wife and son north of Baghdad in Diyala province.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, Amnesty International urged Jordan to free six political activists charged with insulting King Abdullah II, saying that at least three of them were beaten during interrogation. The men were arrested and charged by military prosecutors in mid-March after a demonstration in the southern city of Tafileh. Jordanian security forces arrested 12 activists for insulting the country's King Abdullah II in a rally in Amman.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)(AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, Libya's transitional government head Abdel Rahim al-Kib announced that a ceasefire deal has been struck between tribes at Sabha. At least 16 people were killed in tribal clashes in the southern desert oasis of Sabha. Toubou fighters, who had been pushed back several km south of Sabha, launched a counter-attack early today in a bid to re-enter the city. The toll reached 147 dead and 395 wounded in six days.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)(AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, The Libyan ministry of defense enlisted more than 8,000 former rebels who will be trained in the protection of borders and strategic sites including the nation's vital oil installations.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, The IMF again pressured impoverished Malawi to devalue its currency, which is trading on the black market at nearly double the official exchange rate.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, In Mali Tuareg rebels attacked the strategic northern city of Gao, a day after they took the provincial capital of Kidal. Junta head Captain Amadou Sanogo ordered the army "not to prolong the fighting" in Gao, a move that left the main northern town open to the rampant rebels.
    (AP, 3/31/12)(AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, In Nicaragua businessman Henry Farinas and six others were accused of trafficking, money laundering and ties to organized crime. Farinas was the apparent target of an attack that claimed the life of Argentine folk singer Facundo Cabral last year.
    (AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, Nigerian troops clashed with suspected members of Islamist group Boko Haram in a raid on an alleged hideout, leaving 11 dead, including a soldier and policeman in the Okene district of Kogi state. Suspected members of Islamist group Boko Haram attacked three police stations in Yobe state, burning two of them.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Mar 31, In southern Thailand suspected Muslim insurgents staged the most deadly attack in years, killing 14 people and wounding 340 with car bombs that targeted shoppers just before lunchtime in Yala city. Five people were killed and dozens injured in a fire at a hotel in Hat Yai, the largest city in southern Thailand.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)(AP, 4/1/12)
2012        Mar 31, Tunisia's Religious Affairs Minister Nourredine al-Khademi said the country will take stock of the hundreds of mosques now in the hands of ultra-conservatives. He estimated that about 400 of more than 5,000 mosques had fallen under the sway of Salafist extremists.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez traveled to Cuba for another round of cancer treatment.
    (AP, 3/31/12)
2012        Mar 31, In Yemen Al-Qaida-linked militants staged a surprise attack on a government army base in al-Mallah town in southern Lahij province, setting off clashes that left 28 soldiers and 12 militants dead before air strikes forced the militants to retreat.
    (AP, 3/31/12)(AFP, 4/3/12)

2013        Mar 31, An Alaska State Trooper helicopter crashed overnight during a mission to rescue a stranded snowmobiler. All three onboard were believed killed.
    (SFC, 4/1/13, p.A5)
2013        Mar 31, Tesla reported that it had scored the first quarterly profit in its history after selling more luxury electric cars than forecast.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.D1)
2013        Mar 31, Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai met with the emir of Qatar in Doha to discuss the possible opening of a Taliban office in Qatar.
    (SFC, 4/1/13, p.A4)
2013        Mar 31, In Brazil a French man and US woman studying Portuguese were held for hours while the woman was sexually assaulted aboard a public transport van they boarded in Rio de Janeiro's Copacabana beach neighborhood. Three men, ages 20 to 22, were soon taken into custody and a third was being sought in connection with the attack. Police later detained a 14-year-old suspected of participating in the attack. On Aug 14 three men were convicted of grand theft, rape and extortion.
    (AP, 4/2/13)(SFC, 4/3/13, p.A3)(SFC, 4/9/13, p.A2)(Reuters, 8/15/13)
2013        Mar 31, Chinese officials confirmed that three recent cases of influenza were due to a new strain called H7N9.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.83)
2013        Mar 31, A study by the New Delhi-based Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry said the number of foreigners traveling to India has dropped by 25 percent due to sex attacks. The number of women tourists has dropped by 35 percent.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Mar 31, Israel began receiving natural gas from the Tamar reservoir in the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Ashdod.
    (SFC, 4/1/13, p.A4)
2013        Mar 31, In Kuwait a lower court sentenced online activist Hamed al-Khaledi to two years in jail for insulting the country's emir.
    (AP, 3/31/13)
2013        Mar 31, In Morocco several thousand members of the country’s two largest labor unions marched through Rabat to protest the Islamist-led governments planned economic and labor reforms and its failure to stem unemployment and inflation.
    (SFC, 4/1/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 31, Nigeria's military said soldiers have attacked a home in Kano believed to harbor Islamic extremists. The assault killed 14 people. At least 19 people were reported killed after gunmen, believed to be nomadic Muslim cattle herders, raided Ataka village in Kaduna state.
    (AP, 3/31/13)(AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Mar 31, In Pakistan Taliban militants attacked with a roadside bomb the election motorcade of Malik Adnan Wazir, a secularist-backed politician, wounding him and killing two of his supporters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
    (AP, 3/31/13)
2013        Mar 31, Syria's state news said rebels have set fire to 3 oil wells. SANA said that the fires would cause a daily loss of 4,670 barrels of oil and 52 cubic meters of natural gas. SANA said rebels have set fire to a total of nine wells in recent months.
    (AP, 3/31/13)
2013        Mar 31, Pope Francis delivered a plea for peace in his first Easter Sunday message to the world.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2014        Mar 31, In Connecticut The Rev. Paul Gotta was arrested on seven sexual assault charges. Police say the assaults took place over the span of a year beginning in January 2012. He was arrested by federal authorities last year on charges including illegally transferring a gun, ammunition and explosive material to a juvenile.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Mar 31, Charles Keating (b.1923), moral crusader and former Arizona land developer, died in Phoenix. He had bilked some 23,000 investors out of their savings in Lincoln Savings, a savings and loan association based in Irvine, Ca., that went bust in 1989.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.94)
2014        Mar 31, In Afghanistan insurgent attacks across the country killed 18 people. In the north Taliban gunmen overnight abducted Hussain Nazari, a candidate running for a seat in a provincial council and seven members of his entourage.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Chinese prosecutors brought corruption charges against a top general. A military prosecutor charged Lt. Gen. Gu Junshan with embezzlement, bribery, misuse of state funds and abuse of power. Liu Han, a mining tycoon, his brother and 34 associates stood trial on allegations of running a vast criminal gang in Sichuan province that gunned down rivals, maintained fleets of Ferraris and bribed police to avoid prosecution.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, A Croatian court sentenced the country's former army chief retired general Mladen Kruljac to 18 months in prison, saying he and five others had manipulated real estate prices in deals that eventually cost Croatia 61.2 million kuna ($11 million).
    (Reuters, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, An Egyptian court in Alexandria sentenced 33 supporters of ousted Islamist President Mohammed Morsi to six years in prison each over clashes with opponents last December. Each defendant was also fined 50,000 Egyptian pounds (about $7,100).
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, German authorities arrested three people in raids against suspected supporters of a hardline Islamic group in Syria, a move meant to curb risks posed by extremists returning from Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Germany's Lufthansa said it will cancel some 3,800 flights because of a three-day strike by the pilots' union later this week (April 2-4), hitting more than 425,000 passengers.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, In Germany workers at Amazon’s logistics center in Leipzig staged the short-term warning strike to try to get management to return to the negotiating table over wages.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Doctors Without Borders warned that health authorities in Guinea faced an "unprecedented epidemic" of Ebola, as the death toll from the disease that causes severe bleeding reached 78.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, An Israeli court convicted former PM Ehud Olmert (68) in a wide-ranging bribery case. Olmert was charged for acts committed while he was mayor of Jerusalem and minister of industry and trade.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, The International Court of Justice ordered a temporary halt to Japan's Antarctic whaling program, ruling that it is not for scientific purposes as the Japanese government had claimed.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, In Kenya three almost simultaneous blasts in Eastleigh, the main Somali district of Nairobi, left at least 6 people dead.
    (AFP, 4/1/14)
2014        Mar 31, The Libyan Investment Authority, a sovereign wealth fund set up in 2006, said it is suing French bank Societe Generale in a British court for $1.5 billion (1.1 billion euros) for allegedly channeling bribes to allies of the son of slain dictator Moamer Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, A Nigerian court ruled that lawmakers who defected to the main opposition coalition in December must vacate their seats. This was a victory for President Goodluck Jonathan ahead of what will be a closely fought election in February 2015.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Mar 31, North and South Korea exchanged artillery fire in disputed waters in an apparent new round of saber-rattling by Pyongyang during annual US-South Korean military exercises.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, A special Pakistani court indicted former military ruler Pervez Musharraf on five counts of high treason, a charge that potentially carries the death penalty. The development is the first time that an acting or former army chief has been indicted for treason in Pakistan.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Russia’s PM Medvedev said Crimea will be made a special economic zone offering tax breaks and reduced bureaucracy to attract investors.
    (Reuters, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Switzerland's competition regulator named eight global banks it is investigating for possible manipulation of foreign exchange rates. It cited the two largest Swiss banks, UBS and Credit Suisse, along with Zurich Cantonal Bank, Julius Baer and JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup, Barclays Bank and Royal Bank of Scotland Group.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Syrian army troops recaptured a key position in coastal Latakia province. Observatory 45 is a strategic hilltop that overlooks several areas inhabited by residents from the Alawite community.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Two Tunisian police officers were convicted of raping a young woman in September 2012, and sentenced to seven years in prison in a case that drew widespread protests after the victim was initially accused of immoral behavior.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Mar 31, Key Ugandan opposition leader and mayor of the capital Erias Lukwago resumed office five months after being ousted in a power struggle with the ruling party. A court ruling last week said his removal had been illegal.
    (AFP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Ukraine reported a gradual withdrawal of Russian troops from its border that may be linked to Washington's latest push for a diplomatic solution to the worst East-West standoff since the Cold War.
    (AFP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, In Ukraine a Right Sector member shot and wounded three people outside a restaurant adjacent to Kiev's main Independence Square, including a deputy city mayor, triggering a standoff that lasted overnight.
    (AP, 4/1/14)

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