Today in History - April 1

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  All Fool's Day.
 (HFA, '96, p.28)

527        Apr 1, Emp. Justin named Justinianus co-emperor of Byzantium. [see Apr 4]
    (OTD)(PC, 1992 ed, p.54)

1204        Apr 1, Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died in Poitiers. In 1950 Amy Kelly authored “Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1504        Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1548        Apr 1, Sigismund I, the Elder (81), King of Poland, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 4/1/02)

1572        Apr 1, The Sea Beggars under Guillaume de la Marck landed in Holland and captured the small town of Briel.
    (HN, 4/1/99)(OTD)

1578        Apr 1, William Harvey England (d.1657), discoverer of blood circulation, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/99)(WUD, 1994, p.648)

1611        Apr 1, Gillis van Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1621        Apr 1, The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.
    (OTD)

1647        Apr 1, John Wilmot (d.1680) Second Earl of Rochester, poet (A Satyr Upon Mankinde), scandalous pornographer and bawdy playwright, was born. He married Elizabeth Malet, and carried on an affair with the actress Elizabeth Barry. His friend, playwright George Etherege modeled the character Dorimont after him in "Man of Mode." A 1994 play by Stephen Jeffrey titled "The Libertine," is based on Wilmot’s life.
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)

1683        Apr 1, Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger Williams.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1697        Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1724        Apr 1, Jonathan Swift published Drapier's letters.
    (OTD)

1734        Apr 1, Louis Lully (69), French composer, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1748        Apr 1, The ruins of Pompeii were found.
    (OTD)

1755        Apr 1, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer (Fisiologia del Gusto), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1776        Apr 1, Friedrich von Klinger's "Sturm und Drang," premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1778        Apr 1, Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the "$" symbol.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1789        Apr 1, The U.S. House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House Speaker.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1792        Apr 1, Gronings feminist Etta Palm demanded women's right to divorce.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1793        Apr 1, The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.
    (OTD)

1799        Apr 1, Narciso Casanovas (52), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1815        Apr 1, Otto von Bismarck (d.1898), German statesman, was born. He founded the German Empire and was the chancellor of Germany, the Second Reich, from 1866-90 [1971-1990]. The Iron Chancellor created the modern social insurance state when he introduced transfer payments to appease worker insecurities. “History is simply a piece of paper covered with print; the main thing is still to make history, not to write it.” "Every man had his basic worth - from which must be subtracted his vanity.
    (WUD, 1994, p.151)(AP, 11/6/97)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A14)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.8)(HN, 4/1/99)

1823        Apr 1, Simon Bolivar Buckner (d.1914), Lt. Gen. (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1826        Apr 1, Samuel Mory patented the internal combustion engine.
    (OTD)

1834        Apr 1, Isidore Edouard Legouix, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1850        Apr 1, The San Francisco County government was established.
    (www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1852        Apr 1, Edward Austin Abbey, US, painter (Quest of the Holy Grail), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1853        Apr 1, Cincinnati, Ohio, established a fire department made up of paid city employees.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

1862        Apr 1, Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, VA.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1863        Apr 1, First wartime conscription law went into effect in the U.S.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1864        Apr 1, The first travel accident policy was issued to James Batterson by the Travelers Insurance Company.
    (OTD)

1865        Apr 1, At the Battle of Five Forks in Petersburg, Va., Gen. Robert E. Lee began his final offensive.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1865        Apr 1-9, Battle at Blakely, Alabama.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1866        Apr 1, Ferruccio D.M.B. Busoni, pianist, composer, conductor (Arlecchino), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1866        Apr 1, US Congress rejected presidential veto and gave all equal rights.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1867        Apr 1, Blacks voted in the municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
    (OTD)
1867               Apr 1, The International Exhibition, Exposition Universelle, opened in Paris.
    (OTD)(ON, 9/06, p.11)
1867                   Apr 1, Singapore, Penang & Malakka became British crown colonies.
    (OTD)

1868        Apr 1, Edmond Rostand, French dramatist (Cyrano de Bergerac), was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)
1868        Apr 1, The Hampton Institute was founded in Hampton, Va.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1872              Apr 1, The first edition of The Standard was published.
    (OTD)

1873                   Apr 1, M. Namik Kemal’s play “Vatan yahut Silistre " premiered in Constantinople.
    (OTD)
1873        Apr 1, Composer Sergei Rachmaninoff (d.1943) was born in Novgorod Province, Russia. [see Mar 20]
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1873        Apr 1, The British White Star steamship Atlantic, enroute to NYC from Liverpool with 811 passengers under Capt. James Agnew Williams (33), sank off Nova Scotia killing 565 people, mostly women and children. A court of inquiry suspended Williams for 2 years.
    (ON, 4/03, p.7)

1875        Apr 1, Edgar Wallace, novelist, playwright, journalist (Terror), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1876        Apr 1, The first official NL baseball game took place. Boston beat Philadelphia 6-5.
    (OTD)

1878        Apr 1, The 1st large-scale Easter Monday egg roll was held on White House lawn under President Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife Lucy. The egg roll has been held every year since except during the war years of WWI and WWII until 1953 when Pres. Eisenhower re-established the egg roll tradition.
    (AH, 4/07, p.14)(http://tinyurl.com/ygrbvwq)

1878        Apr 1, Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion, Tabula Rasa), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1878        Apr 1, The city of Berkeley, home to UC Berkeley, was incorporated.
    (SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)
1878        Apr 1, In Lincoln, N.M., the Regulators, including Billy the Kid, ambushed and killed Sheriff William Brady, a James Dolan partisan, along with a deputy.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T8,9)(SFC, 2/2/01, p.A14)

1881               Apr 1, Anti-Jewish riots took place in Jerusalem.
    (OTD)
1881               Apr 1, Kingdom post office in Netherlands opened.
    (OTD)

1883        Apr 1, Aleksander V. Aleksandrov, Russian composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1883        Apr 1, Lon Chaney, actor know as "man of a thousand faces," (High Noon, Phantom of Opera), was born.
    (HN, 4/1/98)
1889              Apr 1, The first dishwashing machine was marketed (in Chicago).
    (OTD)

1891              Apr 1, The London-Paris telephone connection opened.
    (OTD)
1891        Apr 1, Painter Gauguin left Marseille for Tahiti.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1894        Apr 1, The manufacture and sale of Kinetoscopes and films were assigned to the Edison Manufacturing Company, thus moving them out of the experimental laboratory. The Kinetograph Department, a new division in the Edison Company, was launched.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edmvhist1.html)

1895        Apr 1, Alberta Hunter, blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)

1905        Apr 1, US Leather was removed from the Dow Jones. It was succeeded by Central Leather Co. It was one of the nation’s largest shoemakers in the first decades of this century.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45)
1905        Apr 1, Berlin and Paris were linked by telephone.
    (HN, 4/1/98)
1905                Apr 1, The British East African Protectorate became the colony of Kenya.
    (OTD)

1909        Apr 1, A US federal opium law went into effect. In SF Internal Revenue agents prepared for the law by seizing and destroying all the opium cans they find in the Chinese quarter.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, DB p.50)
1909        Apr 1, Eddie Duchin, society pianist, bandleader (Eddie Duchin Orch), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1909        Apr 1, The ornate Italian style embassy building at 2600 16th St. in Washington DC was completed. It was designed by George Oakley Totten Jr. under the direction of Mrs. Henderson, wife of Sen. John B. Henderson. It was constructed by the George A. Fuller Co. In 1924 it was sold to the Lithuanians and became their foreign embassy.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)

1911        Apr 1, Gunther Rennert, opera director, producer, was born in Essen, Germany.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1913        Apr 1, In San Francisco Lee Quon Sing, an aged rag picker, was shot and killed by two members of the Bing Kong tong, a society at war with the Suey Sing tong. Police captured Yee Lick, one of the shooters. Lee Quon Sing was the 8th victim in the war that began three weeks ago over a slave girl.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, DB p.42)

1916               Apr 1, The first US national women's swimming championships was held.
    (OTD)

1917        Apr 1, In Baltimore some 4,000 pro-war demonstrators stormed a meeting of the American League Against Militarism and threatened to hang the participants that included Stanford Univ. Chancellor David Starr Jordan.
    (Ind, 4/12/03, 5A)
1917        Apr 1, Scott Joplin (b.1868), ragtime composer (Sting), died of syphilis in a NY mental hospital. His work included the opera "Treemonisha."
    (MC, 4/1/02)(SFC, 6/21/03, p.D3)

1918        Apr 1, In England the Royal Flying Corps was replaced by the Royal Air Force.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1918        Apr 1, Isaac Rosenberg (b.1890), British WWI war poet, died near Arras, France, during Ludendorff’s big spring offensive. In 2008 Jean Moorcroft Wilson authored “Isaac Rosenberg: The Making of a Great War Poet.”
    (WSJ, 4/3/09, p.W6)

1919        Apr 1, Joseph E. Murray, transplant physician, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)

1920        Apr 1, Toshiro Mifune, writer, actor (Shogun), was born in Tsing-tao, China.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1920        Apr 1, Germany's Workers Party changed its name to Nationalist Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazis).
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1922        Apr 1, William Manchester, historian (Death of a President), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1922        Apr 1, Karl I (b.1887), leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, died. Also known in the West as Charles I, he took the throne in 1916 and worked for peace, abdicating at the end of World War I, a few years before his death. In 2004 he was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/KarlI/)

1924        Apr 1, Adolf Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison for "Beer Hall Putsch." Gen Ludendorff was acquitted for leading the botched Nazi's "Beer Hall Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria
    (HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)
1924               Apr 1, Imperial Airways was formed in Britain.
    (OTD)

1927               Apr 1, The first automatic record changer was introduced by His Master's Voice.
    (OTD)

1928        Apr 1, China's Chiang Kai-shek began attacks on communists as his army crossed Yang-tse.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)

1929        Apr 1, Milan Kundera, Czech writer (The Farewell Party), was born. His novel, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being,” was translated from the Czech in 1984 and was made into a film in 1988.
    (HN, 4/1/01)
1929               Apr 1, Louie Marx introduced the Yo-Yo in the US.
    (OTD)(HN, 4/1/01)

1930        Apr 1, The film “Blue Angel” with Marlene Dietrich and Emil Jannings, premiered in the US. It was directed by Josef von Sternberg.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.3)(MC, 4/1/02)
1930            Apr 1, Leo Hartnett (Gabby Hartnett) of the Chicago Cubs broke the altitude record for a catch by catching a baseball dropped from the Goodyear blimp 800 feet over Los Angeles, CA. He caught the ball cleanly, saying, "Eeeeooooww!" His injuries included a broken jaw.
    (OTD)(SFC, 10/23/99, p.B7)(MC, 4/1/02)
1930        Apr 1, The US National Census was taken. Records were made available Apr 1, 2002, according to 1952 regulations.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A3)
1930        Apr 1, Cosima Liszt (92), wife of Austrian composer Richard Wagner, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1931        Apr 1, Rolf Hochhuth, German playwright (Deputy), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1931            Apr 1, Jackie Mitchell became the first female in professional baseball when she signed with the Chattanooga Baseball Club.
    (OTD)
1931        Apr 1, In NYC the Empire State Building opened a month ahead of schedule. A dirigible mast established the height at 1,250 feet above street level.
    (ON, 12/08, p.12)
1931                 Apr 1, An Earthquake devastated Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.
    (OTD)

1933        Apr 1, Nazi Germany began persecuting Jews with a boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. [see Mar 28]
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1933        Apr 1, Heinrich Himmler became Police Commander of Germany (Reichsfuhrer-SS).
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1934        Apr 1, Two Texas Highway Patrol officers, E.B. Wheeler (26) and H.D. Murphy (24), were killed by Henry Methvin, a gang member of Bonnie and Clyde, as they approached the gang’s car near Grapevine, Texas.
    (ON, 7/02, p.2)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 1/26/08, p.A13)

1935        Apr 1, The first radio tube to be made of metal was announced in Schenectady, NY.
    (OTD)

1937               Apr 1, Aden became a British colony.
    (OTD)

1939        Apr 1, The United States recognized the Franco government in Spain following the end of the Spanish civil war. A Spanish official later said that without American petroleum and American trucks and American credit we could never have won the civil war.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.97)

1941        Apr 1, Lillian Hellman's "Watch on the Rhine," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1941        Apr 1, The US Navy took over San Francisco Bay’s Treasure Island.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.A28)
1941                  Apr 1, The first contract for advertising on a commercial FM radio station began on W71NY in New York City.
    (OTD)
1941        Apr 1, Nazi's forbade Jews access to cafes in Paris.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1942        Apr 1, The U.S. Navy began a partial convoy system in the Atlantic.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1944        Apr 1, Japanese troops conquered Jessami, East-India.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1945        Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed. A book was published in 1995 by Col. Hiromishi Yahara, chief Japanese strategist of Okinawa titled “The Battle for Okinawa.” A counterpoint to the colonel's account is a collection of first hand accounts from US soldiers in Gerold Astor's “Operation Iceberg.”
    (WSJ, 8/29/95, p.A-12) (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)
1945        Apr 1, Canadian troop freed Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo & Eibergen.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1946               Apr 1, Weight Watchers was formed.
    (OTD)
1946        Apr 1, A U.S. mine worker strike idled 400,000 miners.
    (HN, 4/1/98)
1946        Apr 1, Two large earthquakes shook the Scotch Cap Lighthouse on Unimak Island, Alaska. A resulting tsunami washed away the lighthouse. The Aleutian Islands earthquake also triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami that killed 165 people and caused over $26 million in damages. Tidal waves struck the Hawaiian islands, resulting in more than 170 deaths. 91 people were killed in Hilo.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(Ind, 6/8/02, 5A)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C14)(SFC, 4/1/09, p.D8)

1947        Apr 1, David Eisenhower, grandson of Pres. Dwight Eisenhower, was born. He later married Julie Nixon.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1947        Apr 1, The 1st Jewish immigrants to Israel disembarked at Port of Eilat.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1947        Apr 1, Greece's King George II died.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1949               Apr 1, "Happy Pappy" premiered. It was the first all-black-cast variety show.
    (OTD)

1950        Apr 1, The SF population was 775,357. The census later said 4 of 10 people in SF owned their own homes with a median value of $11,930. The average SF adult completed 11.7 years of school and over 19% went on to college.
    (SFC, 12/28/01, WB p.G7)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.E4)
1950        Apr 1, Charles R. Drew (45), surgeon, developer of blood bank concept, died.
    (http://wa.essortment.com/whoischarlesr_rkbb.htm)

1951        Apr 1, U.N. forces again crossed the 38th Parallel in Korea.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1952               Apr 1, The Big Bang theory was proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe & Gamow.
    (OTD)

1953        Apr 1, Barry Sonnenfeld, director (When Harry Met Sally, Big), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1954        Apr 1, U.S. Air Force Academy was founded in Colorado. President Dwight Eisenhower signed a bill authorizing the establishment of an Air Force Academy, similar to West Point and Annapolis. On July 11, 1955, the first class was sworn in at Lowry Air Force Base. The academy moved to a permanent site near Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 1958.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(HNQ, 2/22/99)(MC, 4/1/02)

1955               Apr 1, "One Man’s Family" was seen on TV for the final time after a six-years on NBC-TV.
    (OTD)
1955        Apr 1, EOKA-bomb attacks took place against British government buildings in Cyprus.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1956        Apr 1, Libby Riddles, dogsled racer: 1st woman to win Iditarod (1985), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1956        Apr 1, 10th Tony Awards: Diary of Anne Frank and Damn Yankees won.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1958        Apr 1, President Eisenhower signed a $1.85 billion emergency housing measure.
    (AP, 4/1/08)

1960        Apr 1, The first weather satellite, TIROS 1, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1960        Apr 1, U Nu was elected premier of Burma.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1960               Apr 1, France exploded a 2nd atom bomb in the Sahara Desert. Gerboise Blanche (“white gerboa”) was a surface shot fired in a seven meter deep pit, which accounted for the strange, Christmas tree-like shape of the fireball. General Ailleret once again personally initiated the firing of the device.
    (www.sonicbomb.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=112)

1961        Apr 1, Jim Bakker, TV evangelist, married Tammy Faye.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1963        Apr 1, The daytime television drama "General Hospital" and "Doctors" premiered on ABC.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1963                 Apr 1, Most of New York City's daily newspapers resumed publishing after settlement was reached in a 114-day strike.  Workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after began on December 8, 1962.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(OTD)

1965        Apr 1, King Hussein bin Talal of Jordanian appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne.  This required a change to the Jordan constitution to allow for fraternal succession.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1965        Apr 1, Henry D.G. Crerar (b.1888), Canadian general and the country's "leading field commander" in World War II, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Crerar)
1965        Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein (89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Rubinstein)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)

1967        Apr 1, Sir Edward Compton, who had been appointed as Ombudsman-designate in September 1966, began work as Britain’s Parliamentary Ombudsman.
    (www.ombudsman.org.uk/about_us/our_history/timeline.html)

1968        Apr 1, The U.S. Army launched Operation Pegasus to reopen a land route to the besieged Khe Sanh Marine base.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1969        Apr 1, Lin Biao (1907-1971) was named Mao's constitutional successor. Chinese historical accounts later said Biao showed his true nature two years later as a murderous opportunist obsessed with seizing power.
    (AP, 7/16/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lin_Biao)

1970        Apr 1, President Nixon signed a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect after Jan. 1, 1971.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1970        Apr 1, The US Army charged Captain Ernest Medina in the Vietnam My Lai massacre.
    (HN, 4/1/98)
1970        Apr 1, American Motors Corp. (AMC) introduced the compact Gremlin for $1879. It was designed by Richard Teague on the back of a Northwest Airlines sickness bag. The last Gremlin was made in 1978.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)

1971        Apr 1, President Richard M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Calley)

1972        Apr 1, A US baseball strike began and lasted to April 13.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Major_League_Baseball_strike)

1976        Apr 1, Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs founded Apple Computer. They incorporated Jan 3, 1977.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Computer)
1976        Apr 1, Max Ernst (b.1891), German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, died in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Ernst)
1976        Apr 1, Pakistan’s PM Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto appointed Zia-ul-Haq as Chief of Army Staff, ahead of a number of more senior officers.
    (www.elections.com.pk/candidatedetails.php?id=6887)

1977        Apr 1, The U.S. Senate followed the example of the House by adopting a stringent code of ethics requiring full financial disclosure and limits on outside income.
    (AP, 4/1/02)
1977        Apr 1, Richard Booth proclaimed Hay-on-Wye, Wales, an independent kingdom with himself as king and his horse as prime minister. The Oxford graduate had purchased the 80-year-old Hay Castle and opened a 2nd hand bookstore in the town in 1961.
    (SSFC, 5/25/03, p.C8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)(SFC, 5/10/07, p.E3)

1979        Apr 1, San Francisco’s first annual St. Stupid’s Day Parade, founded by Ed Holmes, was held in the Financial district to mock greed.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.B2)(SFC, 4/2/08, p.B1)
1979        Apr 1, Assadullah Sarwari (b.1941), former air force commander under Pres. Khan, became head of Afghan secret police (AGSA). He was later arrested for involvement in the arbitrary arrest, torture and mass killing of hundreds of opponents and spent 13 years in jail before his trial began on Dec 26, 2005.
    (www.trial-ch.org/en/trial-watch/profile/db/facts/assadullah_sarwari_452.html)
1979                 Apr 1, Iran proclaimed to be an Islamic Republic after the fall of the Shah.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran)

1980                 Apr 1, The pro-Iranian Dawah Party claims responsibility for an attack on Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister, Tariq Aziz (b.1936), at Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/737483.stm)
1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.
    (www.sadc.int/index/browse/page/52)

1981        Apr 1, Jack Welch began his term as the head of General Electric.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.B10)

1982        Apr 1, The U.S. transferred the Canal Zone to Panama.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1983        Apr 1, Tens of thousands of anti-nuke demonstrators linked arms in 14-mile human chain spanning three defense installations in rural England, including the Greenham Common US Air Base.
    (AP, 4/1/03)

1984        Apr 1, Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant launched the Well (Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) in Sausalito. In La Jolla, Ca., Larry Brilliant, physician and head of Network Technologies Int’l. in Michigan, pitched the idea for a public computer conferencing system to Stewart Brand, publisher of the Whole Earth Catalog. Their meeting led to the 1985 founding of “The Well” online service that operated as a collection of conferences. It used the PicoSpan conferencing software. In 2001 Katie Hafner authored “The Well: A Story of Love, Death and Real Life in the Seminal Online Community.”
    (Wired, 5/97, p.100)(SSFC, 5/27/01, DB p.69)
1984        Apr 1, Marvin P. Gay Sr. (d.1998 at 84) shot and killed his son, Motown singer Marvin Gaye during an argument in Los Angeles. It was one day before the singer’s 45th birthday. Gaye’s hit songs included “I Heard It Through the Grapevine,” “What’s Going On,” and “Let’s Get It On.” Mr. Gay pleaded voluntary manslaughter and was sentenced to 5 years probation.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B6)

1986        Apr 1, Crude oil prices fell below $11 a barrel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/g94fj)

1987        Apr 1, In his first major speech on the AIDS epidemic, President Reagan told doctors in Philadelphia, "We've declared AIDS public health enemy number one."
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1987               Apr 1, Steve Newman became the first man to walk around the world.
    (www.bluffton.edu/about/news/NewsReleases.asp?Show=120105_01)

1988        Apr 1, Independent US counsel James C. McKay found insufficient evidence to warrant a criminal indictment of Attorney General Edwin Meese III in connection with the Iraq-Jordan pipeline plan or his investment in telephone company stock.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1988        Apr 1, Jim Jordan (91), old-time radio's "Fibber McGee," died in Beverly Hills, Calif.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1989        Apr 1, Alaska Gov. Steve Cowper announced that a "strike force" of state officials and local fishermen were taking over some of the cleanup operations following the massive Exxon Valdez oil spill.
    (AP, 4/1/99)
1989        Apr 1, In Canada the Oka conflict began when some 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve marched though the town of Oka protesting plans to expand the village's nine-hole golf course to 18 holes, saying expansion encroaches on their burial ground. A 78-day standoff began on July 11, 1990 and ended Sep 26, 1990. The Oka Crisis cost the Quebec government an estimated $180 million not including the cost of the army. 
    (http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-99-500/conflict_war/oka/clip1)
1989        Apr 1, A Japanese 3% consumption, or sales tax, took effect. It earned Sadanori Yamanaka (d.2004) the nickname "Mr. Consumption Tax." In 1997 it rose to 5%. Yamanaka led the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's tax commission for eight years, beginning in 1979.
    (AP, 2/20/04)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.43)

1990        Apr 1, The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.80 an hour.
    (www.dol.gov/esa/minwage/chart.htm)
1990        Apr 1, CBS fired sportscaster Brent Musburger (b.1939).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brent_Musburger)
1990        Apr 1, More Soviet military vehicles rolled through the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius, a day after Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev warned the Baltic republic to annul its declaration of independence.
    (AP, 4/1/00)

1991        Apr 1, Duke defeated the University of Kansas 72-to-65 to win the NCAA college basketball championship.
    (AP, 4/1/01)
1991        Apr 1, The US Supreme Court ruled, 7-to-2, that trial prosecutors violate the Constitution if they bar prospective jurors for racial reasons—even when the defendant and the excluded jurors are of different races.
    (AP, 4/1/01)
1991        Apr 1, Martha Graham (96), modern dance pioneer, died. Her 1st solo concert as a dancer and choreographer was in 1926.
    (AP, 4/1/01)(WSJ, 6/4/02, p.D7)
1991        Apr 1, Argentina maintained a currency board regime this day through January 6, 2002, under which the Argentine peso was pegged one for one to the U.S. dollar.
    (http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2002/el2002-25.html)
1991        Apr 1, Chilean Senator Jaime Guzman was assassinated. Sergio Galvarino Apablaza, head of the left-wing Manuel Rodrizuez Patriotic Front. He was later accused of the murder and an arrest warrant was issued 2004. In 2005 an Argentine judge refuse to extradite Apablaza.
    (WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A11)(http://tinyurl.com/76olz)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.55)
1991        Apr 1, Iran released British hostage Roger Cooper after 5 years.
    (OTD)
1991        Apr 1, The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved.
    (OTD)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Pact)

1992        Apr 1,    President Bush pledged the United States would help finance a $24 billion international aid fund for the former Soviet Union.
    (AP, 4/1/97)
1992        Apr 1, The House ethics committee publicly identified 22 current and former lawmakers as the worst offenders in the House bank overdraft controversy.
    (AP, 4/1/97)
1992        Apr 1, Battleship USS Missouri (on which, Japan surrendered) was decommissioned.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1992        Apr 1, NHL players began the first strike in the 75-year history of the NHL.
    (OTD)

1993        Apr 1, In an impassioned plea for Russian aid, President Clinton told newspaper editors in Annapolis, Md., that America should help "not out of charity" but as a crucial investment in peace and prosperity.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1994        Apr 1, The US government reported the nation's unemployment rate for March remained unchanged from February, at 6.5 percent.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
1994        Apr 1, Leon Degrelle (b.1906), Belgium-born founder of the fascist Rexist party, died in Malaga, Spain. He was a Walloon Belgian politician, who founded Rexism and later joined the Nazi German Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent). After World War II, he was a prominent figure in the neo-Nazi and Holocaust denial movements.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_Degrelle)
1994        Apr 1, In Guatemala Judge Gonzalez Dubon was assassinated. He had recently signed an order to extradite to the US former Army Lt. Col. Carlos Ochoa Ruiz on drug trafficking charges.
    (WSJ, 8/13/99, p.A11)

1995        Apr 1, Aaron, a computer-driven robot began painting a new 25 sq. ft canvas on a daily basis. It was designed and programmed by Harold Cohen, a San Diego computer scientist. The event was scheduled to start in Boston at 300 Congress St. and go to May 29.   
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)
1995        Apr 1, More than 1,500 mourners attended a vigil for Mexican-American singer Selena in Corpus Christi, Texas, where she had been shot to death the day before.
    (AP, 4/1/00)
1995        Apr 1, U.N. peacekeepers officially took over from the U.S.-led multinational force in Haiti.
    (AP, 4/1/00)
1995        Apr 1, In Spain infantry brigadier Mariano de Juan Santamaria was shot in the head in the northern city of San Sebastian. In 2014 ETA member Juan Ramon Carasatorre Aldaz (52) was sentenced to 29 years for the killing. Two others were already sentenced for taking part in the same crime.
    (AP, 6/16/14)
1995        Apr 1, With U.S. Defense Secretary William Perry looking on, Ukraine began the process of dismantling its nuclear missiles.
    (AP, 4/1/00)

1996        Apr 1, In a case that sparked an uproar reminiscent of the Rodney King case, two Riverside County, California, a news helicopter videotaped sheriff’s deputies repeatedly clubbing a Mexican man and woman after a 70-mile highway chase involving a pickup truck suspected of sneaking across the border.
    (AP, 4/1/01)(WSJ, 4/3/96, p.A-1)
1996        Apr 1, The Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, Ca., was decommissioned.
    (SFC, 3/10/08, p.A16)
1996        Apr 1, In Spokane, Wa., a US Bank branch was robbed and bombed. In 1997 three members of an anti-government militia were convicted for this and another robbery and 3 bombings.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.C3)
1996        Apr 1, The average price for a home in the US was $141,000 in the first quarter of this year.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, p.E3)
1996        Apr 1, FBI officials in Jordan, Montana continued to guard a stronghold of Freemen, an anti-government group that does not recognize the legitimacy of US laws.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-12)
1996        Apr 1, Baseball umpire John McSherry died after collapsing during a season opener between the Cincinnati Reds and Montreal Expos.
    (AP, 4/1/97)
1996        Apr 1, Muslim and Croat officials signed an accord to jointly collect customs duties and agreed on a flag.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-1)

1997        Apr 1, The US Library of Congress began its Today in History web site @ http://www.loc.gov.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, Par p.8)
1997        Apr 1, Federal authorities cautioned that thousands of schoolchildren across the nation might have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus by eating frozen strawberries imported from Mexico and processed in the U.S.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1997        Apr 1, In Russia Yeltsin signed an agreement with Belarus for limited economic, military and political integration.
    (WSJ, 4/1/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr 1, In Zaire Etienne Tshisekedi was appointed prime minister. The next day he annulled the constitution, dissolved parliament and offered 6 Cabinet seats to the rebels. He planned a new transitional parliament and new multiparty elections.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.A16)

1998        Apr 1, Judge Susan Webber threw out the sexual harassment suit filed by Paula Jones against Pres. Clinton saying her claims of sexual harassment fell "far short" of being worthy of trial. Clinton later settled with Jones without apology or admission of guilt.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 4/1/08)
1998        Apr 1, The Bolivian Workers’ Confederation called an open-ended strike for wage increases and an end to the coca eradication program. Violent clashes over 4 days had left 3 dead and dozens injured in Chapare. Pres. Hugo Banzer said his government would continue to wipe out cocaine trafficking during his 5-year term.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A12)
1998        Apr 1, A boat enroute to Gabon with 300 passengers sank in the Bight of Bonny off Nigeria’s Akwa Ibom state. 280 were missing and feared dead.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A23)
1998        Apr 1, In Brazil rains extinguished more than 95% of the extensive fires in the northern Amazon.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 1, In China a new law requiring motorists in Beijing to install pollution-reduction devices went into effect.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)
1998        Apr 1, China agreed to release and put into exile Wang Dan, the noted dissident and student leader of Tiananmen Square, for medical reasons.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.)
1998        Apr 1, Israel accepted the 1978 UN Resolution 425 for withdrawal from the south of Lebanon.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A12)
1998        Apr 1, In Japan the 3-year Big Bang process was begun to create more efficient investment markets.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B1)
1998        Apr 1, In Russia Pres. Yeltsin authorized the publication of classified documents relating to Josef Stalin.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)
1998        Apr 1, In Serbia the local currency was devalued 45%.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A1)

1999        Apr 1, The United States branded as an illegal abduction the capture of three U.S. Army soldiers near the Macedonian-Yugoslav border; President Clinton demanded their immediate release.
    (AP, 4/1/00)
1999        Apr 1, A New Jersey man was arrested and charged with originating the "Melissa" e-mail virus. David L. Smith later pleaded guilty to various state and federal charges.
    (AP, 4/1/00)
1999        Apr 1, A heavy snowstorm hit the US northern plains.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A3)
1999        Apr 1, In Kittrell, N.C., William Harvey Bawcum Jr., (46), was shot to death from a .38 caliber pistol by his 11-year-old twins, who also wounded their mother and sister in a squabble over a hunting rifle. A trial was avoided after the boys admitted to the shooting. The brothers were sentenced to 6 years in a state reformatory.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.A5)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A3)(SFC, 11/24/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 1, In Albania Pres. Rexhep Meidani said NATO should help Kosovo seize independence.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)
1999        Apr 1, An oil pipeline from Baku, Azerbaijan, to the Georgian Black Sea port of Supsa was to begin operating.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B5)
1999        Apr 1, Britain’s pay rate for workers aged 22 or over was set at ₤3.60 per hour. Workers 18-21 had a lower rate set at ₤3.00. In 2006 the minimum wage rose to ₤5.35 an hour.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.65)
1999         April 1, In recognition of Inuit land claims, 770,000 sq. mls. of the Canadian Northwest Territories' Central Keewatin and Baffin Region became Nunavut Territory. Nominations for naming the western half were solicited. The territory would be governed by a 19-member legislature.
    (CAM, Nov. Dec. '95, p.28)(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.B1)(SFC, 3/30/99, p.F3)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.T5)
1999        Apr 1, In Mexico effective on this day the midday break, siesta, for government was eliminated. Electricity savings were estimated to be $192 million.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.C2)
1999        Apr 1, In Montenegro Yugoslav Gen'l. Radoslav Martinovic was recalled by Pres. Milosevic and replaced by nationalist Gen'l. Milorad Obradovic. A coup was feared to be imminent. The Yugoslav military demanded control of Montenegro's state-run TV, but the demand was rejected.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 4/5/99, p.A17)
1999        Apr 1, In Belfast, Northern Ireland, Bertie Ahern and Tony Blair called for the rival paramilitary groups to surrender their weapons on a new all-Ireland holiday, a "day of reconciliation" devoted to peace.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.D2)
1999        Apr 1, In Mexico Rene Juarez was sworn into office as governor in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, while thousands protested that he won by fraud.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.D2)
1999        Apr 1, In Nigeria the NV George, a wooden vessel, capsized on the St. Bartholomew River several dozen people were presumed drowned. The death toll was raised past 100 after 50 bodies were found in a sunken hull.
    (SFC, 4/3/99, p.A4)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)
1999        Apr 1, Serbia planned to start criminal proceedings against the 3 US soldiers captured on the Macedonian border. Allied planes bombed the Danube bridge at Novi Sad.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 1, Serbian radio and TV reported that Pres. Milosevic met with Dr. Ibrahim Rugova, leader of the ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, and "came to a joint stand on resolving problems… through political means."
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 1, In Zhytomyr, Ukraine, Anatoly Onoprienko was sentenced to death for the deaths of 52 men, women and children between 1989 and 1996. 43 of the killings occurred in a 6 month period.
    (OTD)

2000        Apr 1, Michelle Kwan won her third World Figure Skating title.
    (AP, 4/1/01)
2000        Apr 1, President Clinton, speaking at a fund-raiser for his wife’s Senate campaign, accused New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani of enlisting a “right-wing venom machine” against Hillary Rodham Clinton.
    (AP, 4/1/01)
2000        Apr 1, Smith & Wesson, a US gun maker, agreed to introduce a series of safety measures.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A1)
2000        Apr 1, In Chechnya Russian soldiers found 33 of their missing comrades. 32 were dead and booby-trapped from the Mar 30 rebel attack.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A20)
2000        Apr 1, In Nanjing, China, 4 unemployed youths broke into the home of Jurgen Hermann Pfrang (50), an executive for DaimlerChrysler, and stabbed him to death along with his wife and 2 children. The 4 were found guilty of murder and robbery on 7/14/00 and sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A13)
2000        Apr 1, In Colombia leftist rebels stormed the Modelo jail in Cucuta and freed 74 prisoners.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.A9)

2001        Apr 1, The Pritzker Prize for Architecture was awarded to Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Mueron of Basel, Switzerland.
    (SFC, 4/2/01, p.D1)
2001        Apr 1, Notre Dame won its first national championship in women's basketball, defeating Purdue, 66-64.
    (AP, 4/1/02)
2001        Apr 1, A US Navy EP-3 surveillance plane with 24 aboard collided with a Chinese fighter jet over the South China Sea and was forced to land on China's Hainan island. The fighter jet crashed. Chinese pilot Wang Wei parachuted out of his F-8 jet but had not been found. Zhao Yu, a 2nd pilot, later blamed the US plane banked and hit Wei’s plane. None of the 24 crew members was hurt, but they were held prisoner by the Chinese for a tense 11 days.
    (SFC, 4/2/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/4/01, p.A13)(SFC, 4/7/01, p.A13)(AP, 4/1/02)
2001        Apr 1, In Columbia weekend fighting between leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary groups left at least 35 people dead.
    (WSJ, 4/3/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 1, In Kenya a bus rammed a vehicle on a bridge and both plunged into the Sabaki River. At least 35 people were killed.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.A10)
2001        Apr 1, In Serbia Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic was arrested on corruption charges after a 26-hour armed standoff with the police at his Belgrade villa.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/1/02)
2001        cApr 1, In Sri Lanka bombings at a concert set off a stampede that left 11 dead and 150 injured at Kurunegala.
    (WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A1)

2002        Apr 1, Maryland won its first NCAA men's basketball championship with a 64-52 victory over Indiana.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.C1)(AP, 4/1/03)
2002        Apr 1, Pres. Bush said he would sell Governor’s Island in NY Harbor to NY state and NYC for a nominal charge.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 1, The US National Archives opened the 1930 census records.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 1, A SF Court of Appeals ordered the US government to pay out millions of dollars in retroactive disability benefits to Vietnam veterans with prostate cancer, who were exposed to Agent Orange.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 1, The 1897 Michigan law against swearing in front of women and children was declared unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 1, The American Rivers environmental group listed the most endangered US rivers and included the Missouri, Big Sunflower (Mississippi), and Klamath (California) in the top 11.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 1, In Algeria Islamic militants killed 21 government soldiers in Moulay Larbi, 280 miles SW of the capital.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)
2002        Apr 1, Israeli forces expanded their hunt for militants and terrorists to included ranking officials of Arafat’s Palestinian Authority. Israeli tanks and bulldozers rumbled into more Palestinian towns and massed on the edge of Bethlehem in an expansion of a West Bank offensive. A sniper killed an Israeli in Har Homa. A bomber blew up in his car in West Jerusalem and killed the Israeli police officer who stopped him.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A1)(AP, 4/1/07)
2002        Apr 1, The body of Russian journalist Sergei Kalinovsky was found outside Smolensk. He was known for his exposes on government corruption and had gone missing in December, 2001.
    (SSFC, 5/12/02, p.A3)

2003        Apr 1, In the 14th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom American soldiers on the road to Baghdad fought bloody street-to-street battles with militants loyal to Saddam Hussein. The US opened the assault on Karbala. US cluster bombs reportedly killed 11 civilians in Hilla.
    (AP, 4/1/03)(WSJ, 4/2/03, p.A1)(SFC, 4/3/03, p.W1)
2003        Apr 1, Pfc. Jessica Lynch (19), part of the 507th Maintenance Company captured on Mar 23, was rescued in a U.S. commando raid on an Iraqi hospital in Nasiriyah. 11 bodies were also recovered and 8 were identified as US personnel. It was later reported that Iraqi troops had already left the hospital. Later in the year Rick Bragg authored "I Am A Soldier, Too," an account of the Lynch story. About the same time Mohammed Odeh al-Rehaief and Jeff Coplon authored "Because Each Life Is Precious." Rehaief, a former Iraqi lawyer, disclosed Lynch's location to US forces and provided detailed information prior to her rescue.
    (AP, 4/2/03)(SFC, 5/29/03, p.A3)(WSJ, 11/14/03, p.W8-9)
2003        Apr 1, In the second hijacking of a Cuban plane in as many weeks, a hijacker claiming to have two grenades surrendered an hour after forcing the aircraft to land in Florida with 32 people aboard. Adermis Wilson Gonzalez was convicted of air piracy and sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/2/03)(AP, 3/24/14)
2003        Apr 1, A cloned Javan banteng was born by a beef cow in Iowa. Only 3-5,000 cattle-like bantengs remained worldwide.
    (SFC, 4/8/03, p.A3)
2003        Apr 1, Air Canada filed for bankruptcy protection.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R9)
2003        Apr 1, Congo's government agreed to a power-sharing deal with rebel groups.
    (AP, 4/2/03)
2003        Apr 1, Seven EU nations, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and Belgium, said they oppose a proposal by larger countries for a new permanent European Union presidency.
    (AP, 4/2/03)
2003        Apr 1, In Hong Kong Leslie Cheung, Chinese pop singer and movie star, jumped to his death at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel.
    (NW, 3/17/03, p.58)
2003        Apr 1, In India members of the Hmar Peoples Convention attacked a cluster of villages in southern Assam state's Cachar district, burning huts and took 28 villagers as hostages. 22 farmers were later found shot dead.
    (AP, 4/4/03)
2003        Apr 1, In Jordan authorities said they had foiled two recent Iraqi terror plots, including one by Iraqi diplomats allegedly planning to contaminate water supplies to Jordanian and US troops on Jordan's desert border with Iraq.
    (AP, 4/1/03)
2003        Apr 1, In Nigeria the 12-day rampage by Ijaw extremists has cut the normal oil output of 2 million barrels a day by 40 percent. Nigeria is the fifth-biggest supplier of US oil imports.
    (AP, 4/1/03)

2004        Apr 1, Pres. Bush signed the "Laci Peterson" bill giving new protections for the unborn that for the first time made it a separate federal crime to harm a fetus during an assault on the mother.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.A1)(AP, 4/1/05)
2004        Apr 1, The DJIA removed AT&T, Kodak and Int'l. Paper and added American Int'l. Group, Pfizer and Verizon Comm.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)
2004        Apr 1, Scientists reported that the genetic code of the common laboratory rat has been deciphered.
    (SFC, 4/1/04, p.A4)
2004        Apr 1, Google introduce Gmail, a Web based e-mail service with one gigabyte of free storage per user. In 2007 the storage was expanded to “free unlimited.” Google’s index passed 8 billion pages this year.
    (WSJ, 6/13/07, p.B1)(SFC, 2/2/08, p.C1)
2004        Apr 1, Paul Atkinson (58), guitarist in the British group Zombies, died in LA. The group's songs included "She's Not There" (1964).
    (SFC, 4/7/04, p.B6)
2004        Apr 1, Carrie Snodgress (57), actress, died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2004        Apr 1, Afghanistan and its neighbors agreed to cooperate in stemming the country's drug exports after donors pledged $8.2 billion in new reconstruction aid.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
2004        Apr 1, In Canada the largest strike in Newfoundland history began as thousands of upbeat workers took to picket lines while the premier said he has no plans to end the walkout with legislation.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
2004        Apr 1, A Colombian man, Carlos Gamarra-Murillo (53), was arrested for allegedly trying to buy $4 million in machine guns, grenade launchers and other weapons for a leftist rebel group. The suspect wanted to pay in cocaine and cash.
    (AP, 4/2/04)
2004        Apr 1, In Colombia gunmen riding a motorcycle killed Carlos Bernal, a regional leader of Colombia's main left-leaning political party.
    (AP, 4/2/04)
2004        Apr 1, Pres. Oscar Berger said Guatemala will cut its army in half and slash the military budget to comply with peace accords that ended a 36-year civil war.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
2004        Apr 1, India began distributing AIDS drugs to 100,000 people. An estimated 4.6 million were infected.
    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.A15)
2004        Apr 1, In Iraq insurgents attacked a U.S. military convoy and a Humvee was burned near Fallujah, a day after the grisly killing and mutilation of four American contract workers in the city.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
2004        Apr 1, A gas explosion ripped through a refinery in Iraq while it was being inspected by Czech engineers, killing one and injuring two others.
    (AP, 4/5/04)
2004        Apr 1, Italy, Turkey, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands arrested 41 militants in a coordinated crackdown on a Turkish Marxist group. Police in Istanbul arrested 25 suspects of the Marxist Revolutionary People's Liberation Army/Front, or DHKP-C, while security forces in the other countries detained 16 others.
    (AP, 4/1/04)
2004        Apr 1, In Uzbekistan a woman blew herself up in the central Bukhara region, killing a man and critically injuring herself.
    (AP, 4/1/04)

2005        Apr 1, President Clinton's former national security adviser, Sandy Berger, pleaded guilty to sneaking classified documents out of the National Archives; he was later sentenced to two years' probation.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2005        Apr 1, Oil prices closed on Nymex at a record $57.27 per barrel sending the DJIA down 99 points to 10,404.
    (SFC, 4/2/05, p.A1)
2005        Apr 1, It was reported that scientific evidence from Brookhaven National Laboratory indicated the creation of a quark-gluon plasma, a form of matter that last existed moments after the big bang.
    (WSJ, 4/1/05, p.B1)
2005        Apr 1, Suspected Taliban gunmen ambushed a convoy of civilian trucks carrying vehicles to the US military in southern Afghanistan, killing three drivers. A bomb planted on a tractor trolley killed two people and injured five in the northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif while a roadside bomb blast in southern Kandahar province killed two teenagers.
    (AP, 4/2/05)
2005        Apr 1, Australia and NATO signed an agreement to cooperate in the fight against international terrorism, weapons proliferation and other global military threats.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Apr 1, UN officials said a cholera epidemic has killed at least 4 and infected dozens in a squalid camp for displaced people in northeastern Congo, and it threatens to spread across the entire region.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Apr 1, Influential Sunni scholars encouraged Iraqis to join the country's security forces and protect the country, issuing an edict that departed sharply from earlier warnings against participating in the fledgling police and army.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Apr 1, Nepal's royal government freed a popular former prime minister and 258 other detainees, the biggest prisoner release since King Gyanendra seized full power 2 months ago.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Apr 1, In Pakistan motorcycle-riding gunmen shot dead a Shiite scholar and injured two people including his daughter in a suspected sectarian attack in Lahore.
    (AP, 4/1/05)
2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index reached a record 10853, up 28% for the year this far.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)
2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia beheaded 3 men in public in the northern city of al-Jawf where in 2003 they killed a deputy governor, a religious court judge and a police lieutenant.
    (AP, 4/3/05)
2005        Apr 1, The Vatican reported that Pope John Paul II was near death, his breathing shallow and his heart and kidneys failing.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2005        Apr 1, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai dismissed the previous day's elections as "massive fraud" and accused President Robert Mugabe of treating his country like "his private property."
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2006        Apr 1, Former hostage Jill Carroll arrived in Germany, where she strongly disavowed statements she had made during captivity in Iraq and shortly after her release, saying she had been repeatedly threatened.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2006        Apr 1, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb wounded five US troops when it hit their vehicle. A suicide attack on a US-led coalition convoy in the country's south killed the bomber but hurt no one else. In southern Afghanistan a Taliban rebel posing as a traveler shot dead four policemen at a remote checkpoint after eating dinner with them and sleeping in their quarters. A fifth officer shot the rebel dead.
    (AP, 4/1/06)(AP, 4/2/06)
2006        Apr 1, Cracking down on visitors who come to Brazil for sex, police raided clubs in Natal known for using call girls and strippers, detaining 118 foreigners to discourage what authorities called "sexual tourism."
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in Australia for a visit aimed at finalizing a uranium supply deal and speeding up free trade negotiations between the two nations.
    (AFP, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, In eastern China a blast at an explosives plant killed at least 20 workers and injured two. Nine workers were missing.
    (AP, 4/2/06)
2006        Apr 1, Calls emerged within the Shiite alliance Saturday for PM Ibrahim al-Jaafari to step aside as the bloc's nominee for another term as pressure mounted against him from Sunni Arab and Kurdish politicians.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, A US Apache helicopter crashed southwest of Baghdad. It was believed to have been shot down and the two crew members were presumed dead. Iraqi police reported that at least 39 bodies were found in several neighborhoods of Baghdad. Joint US-Iraqi troops killed four insurgents and wounded another after two failed attacks near Balad, 50 miles north of Baghdad. Two American soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb while on patrol in central Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/2/06)
2006        Apr 1, In northwestern Pakistan suspected Islamic militants attacked a military base in a tribal region, killing one soldier and injuring four others.
    (AP, 4/2/06)
2006        Apr 1, A Soyuz capsule docked with the international space station (ISS), bringing Brazil's first astronaut, a new Russian-American crew and a fresh load of supplies, equipment and experiments.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, Three explorers from Britain and New Zealand claimed to be the first to have traveled the Nile from its mouth to its "true source" deep in Rwanda's lush Nyungwe rainforest.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, Karl Bushby was briefly detained after walking from Alaska across the icy Bering Straits into Russian territory, a treacherous crossing for which he was joined by Dmitri Kieffer, a French-born US citizen who videotaped the adventure. Authorities confiscated the two men's passports and other belongings, effectively making it impossible for them to move. Bushby was on a quest to trek around the world. Bushby set out on foot from southern Chile on November 1, 1998 with the intention of walking back to his home in the northern English city of Hull, a 36,000-mile (58,000-kilometer) odyssey that he was scheduled to complete by 2010. On April 14 a Russian court ordered the deportation of the British adventurer for illegally crossing into Russia, dealing a potentially fatal blow to his dream of walking around the world.
    (AFP, 4/6/06)(AFP, 4/14/06)
2006        Apr 1, Tens of thousands of people gathered at a rally in the northern city of Bilbao to call for greater Basque self-determination and negotiations between the Spanish government and separatists.
    (AP, 4/1/06)
2006        Apr 1, Fresh clashes between Kurdish protesters and police in southeast Turkey killed one protester and injured 10.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)

2007        Apr 1, Tommy Thompson, former Wisconsin governor (GOP), announced that he is running for president.
    (SFC, 4/2/07, p.A4)
2007        Apr 1, Brooklyn's borough president launched the Coney Island amusement park's last season ahead of a major redevelopment that will raze much of the lovably seedy boardwalk area.
    (Reuters, 4/1/07)
2007        Apr 1, Morgan Pressel became the youngest major champion in LPGA Tour history with a game well beyond her 18 years, closing with a 3-under-par 69 at the Kraft Nabisco Championship.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2007        Apr 1, In Charlotte, North Carolina, 2 police officers shot during a struggle with a suspect outside an apartment complex died, and a suspect was charged with murder.
    (AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, In southern Afghanistan the Taliban executed three men accused of spying for NATO and government forces. A NATO airstrike targeted a compound housing Taliban militants in Shahjoy district of Zabul province, killing seven suspected militants inside. NATO-led troops and police clashed with suspected Taliban militants in Kandahar's Zhari district, leaving six militants dead. In eastern Afghanistan flash floods caused by torrential rains killed at least 16 people and destroyed dozens of houses near the Hindu Kush mountain range.
    (AP, 4/1/07)(AFP, 4/1/07)(AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, Cambodia held local commune elections. The Cambodian People’s Party won control in 1,592 of 1,621 communes amid opposition claims of fraud.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.38)
2007        Apr 1, In Canada Nelly Furtado stole the show at the Junos, playing the roles of both host and big winner at the 2007 edition of the nation's top music awards.
    (Reuters, 4/1/07)
2007        Apr 1, A knife-wielding Chinese tour guide injured 20 people in a stabbing-and-slashing spree at a southwestern resort following an argument over kickbacks on souvenir sales. Xu Mingchao (25) from the province of Heilongjiang, was arrested following the incident.
    (AP, 4/3/07)
2007        Apr 1, Danish researchers reported that they have isolated bacterial enzymes that effectively remove sugar molecules from red blood cells that provoke an immune reactions. This would allow conversion of the A, B, and AB blood types into Type O, the universal donor type that can be given to anyone.
    (SFC, 4/2/07, p.A2)
2007        Apr 1, Hans Filbinger (93), a former governor of Germany's Baden-Wuerttemberg state (1966-1978), died. He had resigned amid revelations about his past as a Nazi-era naval judge.
    (AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, Laurie Baker (90), a British-born architect, died in India. He spent more than 60 years in India building homes that were ecologically sound and affordable for the poor.
    (AP, 4/8/07)
2007        Apr 1, In Iran about 200 students threw rocks and firecrackers at the British Embassy, calling for the expulsion of the country's ambassador because of the standoff over Iran's capture of 15 British sailors and marines. Britain examined options for new dialogue with Tehran over the seized crew of 15 sailors and marines, as a poll suggested most Britons back the government's goal of resolving the standoff through diplomacy. Iran's state television aired new video showing two of the 15 captured British sailors pointing to a spot on a map of the Persian Gulf where they were seized and saying it was in Iranian territorial waters; Britain's Foreign Office immediately denounced the video.
    (AP, 4/1/07)(AP, 4/1/08)
2007        Apr 1, An Iraqi military spokesman said that militants fleeing a security crackdown in Baghdad have made areas outside the capital "breeding grounds for violence," spreading deadly bombings and sectarian attacks to areas once relatively untouched. A bomb struck a popular market in Tuz Khormato, 130 miles north of Baghdad, killing three people and wounding four. More than 600 Iraqis were killed in sectarian violence last week alone. 6 US soldiers were killed in roadside bombings over the weekend southwest of Baghdad.   
    (AP, 4/1/07)(AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, Israeli PM Ehud Olmert invited Arab leaders to attend a peace conference to discuss their ideas for reaching Mideast peace. The Israeli army sealed off the West Bank ahead of the weeklong Passover holiday, restricting the movement of Palestinians into Israel. In her first Mideast trip as EU president, German Chancellor Angela Merkel offered Europe's help in bringing Israel and the Palestinians back to the negotiating table, trying to build on a new burst of international efforts to restart peace talks.
    (AP, 4/1/07)(AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, In Monterrey, Mexico, a tractor-trailer lost its brakes and killed nine people as it plowed through a residential area. The driver of a tractor-trailer was charged with homicide after testing positive for drugs.
    (AP, 4/2/07)(AP, 4/4/07)
2007        Apr 1, Nepal's communist rebels joined an interim government as part of a landmark peace deal that ended their decade-long insurgency, pledging to ensure development in the Himalayan nation and hold credible elections.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Apr 1, Palestinian journalists announced a three-day strike in protest at what they called their government's inadequate response to the suspected kidnap of a British journalist.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Apr 1, Mogadishu's dominant clan said it has brokered a truce with Ethiopian military officials who are supporting Somalia's government, even as mortar shells continued slamming into the capital for a fourth day.
    (AP, 4/1/07)
2007        Apr 1, In South Korea taxi driver Huh Se-uk (53) drove through heavy security into the driveway of a Seoul hotel where trade talks with the US were taking place. He sprayed himself with flammable fluid and lit a fire, suffering third-degree burns. Se-uk died from his wounds on April 15.
    (Reuters, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 1, In Sri Lanka 12 Tamil Tigers were killed in clashes in the northwestern district of Mannar.
    (AFP, 4/3/07)
2007        Apr 1, Unidentified gunmen killed five African Union soldiers guarding a "water point" near the Sudan’s border with Chad in the deadliest attack on the peacekeepers since their deployment in 2004. The attackers fled the scene after AU troops killed three of them in an exchange of fire.
    (AP, 4/2/07)
2007        Apr 1, In Syria US House members meeting with President Bashar Assad said they believed there was an opportunity for dialogue.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

2008        Apr 1, A top US immigration official said Washington has started deportation proceedings against thousands of Vietnamese living illegally in the US under a pact between the two countries.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, The US EPA took over cleanup of an oil spill in Santa Barbara, Ca., after failed efforts by Greka Oil & Gas to clean up a spill. 2 spills since last summer had left some 29,000 gallons of crude oil and toxin-laden water in a creek in Los Olivos.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.B6)
2008        Apr 1, Virginia’s Gov. Timothy Kaine ordered a moratorium on executions until the US Supreme Court decides whether lethal injections are constitutional.
    (SFC, 4/3/08, p.A6)
2008        Apr 1, A California state Senate committee declined to act on a bill by Senator Leland Yee to declare the Cow Palace in Daly City to be surplus property.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 1, In southwestern Afghanistan a suicide bomber hit a police compound, killing two officers and wounding five others in Nimroz province. A mine struck a civilian vehicle in southwestern Nimroz province, killing the driver and wounding two civilians.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, Argentina’s President Cristina Fernandez blasted striking farmers at a rally of 20,000 supporters, comparing their nearly three-week-old protest to a 1976 strike that sowed chaos one month before a military coup.
    (AP, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 1, An Australian court charged a Vietnam Airlines pilot with smuggling millions of dollars in drug profits out of the country. Quoc Viet Lai (58,) faced 40 counts of money laundering after allegedly taking 3.7 million dollars (3.4 million US) out of Australia between June 2005 and June 2006.
    (AFP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Bangladesh an official said Tareque Rahman, the son of detained former Bangladesh premier Khaleda Zia, has been formally charged with corruption as part of the military-backed government's anti-graft drive.
    (AFP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, Bolivian officials said Tristan Jay Amero (26), a California man convicted of hotel bombings that killed two people in Bolivia's capital, had died in prison. He was serving a 30-year sentence.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Botswana Seretse Ian Khama (b.1953), the half-white son of Botswana’s first president, was sworn in as president. Festus Mogae retired after 10 years in office.
    (www.voanews.com/english/2008-04-01-voa55.cfm?rss=politics)
2008        Apr 1, In Brazil Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia, a reputed Colombian drug lord whose cartel is accused of having shipped hundreds of tons of cocaine, was sentenced to more than 30 years in prison in Brazil for crimes committed in that country.
    (AP, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Brazil protesters burned a bridge after police arrested Paulo Cesar Quartiero, president of Roraima rice growers association, for blocking a federal highway. Quartiero was later released on bail. A second bridge was set alight the next day. Police planned to begin clearing the remaining non-Indian settlers from the 4.2-million-acre Raposa Serra do Sol Indian reservation next week.
    (AP, 4/3/08)
2008        Apr 1, Britain’s border agency (UKBA) was formed following the dismemberment 2007 of the Home Office.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_Border_Agency)
2008        Apr 1, In France the stockmarket watchdog Autorite des Marches Financiers (AMF) filed a formal complaint against the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company, the parent company of Airbus, and more than a dozen current and former executives. It confirmed evidence of massive insider trading in shares of EADS in late 2005 and early 2006 in the knowledge that the A380 airbus program was in deep trouble.
    (Econ, 6/21/08, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/3kd8vh)
2008        Apr 1, Hungary’s coalition partner pulled out of the government leaving the Socialists without a parliamentary majority.
    (WSJ, 4/2/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 1, India scrapped import duties on cooking oils and maize and extended a ban on pulse exports, escalating its fight against surging inflation driven by rises in global commodity prices.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki said in a statement that his office will recruit 10,000 more police and army forces and will move to enhance public services Basra. His comments came after a peace deal between radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr and the Iraqi government brought a tense calm following a week of clashes. Interior Ministry spokesman, Maj. Gen. Abdul-Karim Khalaf, said that 200 people had been killed, 600 wounded and 170 suspects detained during operations in Basra. Britain froze plans to withdraw about 1,500 soldiers from its 4,000-strong military force this spring and hand over more security responsibility to the Iraqis.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(AP, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Kenya police tear gassed about 100 protesters who demonstrated in Nairobi against plans to increase the number of Cabinet posts.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, A woman's severed head was found on a Scottish beach. She was later identified as Jolanta Bledaite (35) from Alytus, Lithuania. On April 4 police arrested two Lithuanian men in connection with the murder.
    (AP, 4/4/08)
2008        Apr 1, Strong fighting broke out in northern Sri Lanka as government troops launched a fresh offensive against Tiger rebels. The heavy fighting left 42 rebels and a soldier dead.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(AP, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Switzerland UBS AG's chairman abruptly resigned as the Swiss bank reported a first-quarter loss of $12.1 billion and said it would seek $15.1 billion in new capital.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, Poor countries at a UN conference in Thailand said they won't sign a global warming pact unless industrialized nations guarantee them billions of dollars needed to adapt to the impact of climate change.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Ukraine President Bush said he is putting his full weight behind the desire by Ukraine and Georgia to join NATO even though Russia is opposed and the alliance is split.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, Tanks took to the streets of southern Yemen cities to discourage rioting by disaffected youths and retired military officers over unfulfilled government promises to enlist them in the army.
    (AP, 4/1/08)
2008        Apr 1, In Zimbabwe an independent African monitor said top members of President Robert Mugabe's party worried the government may have lost weekend elections, even as a tediously slow release of results fueled fears of rigging. A ruling party projection said opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai will beat President Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe's crucial election, but be forced into a runoff vote in three weeks.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(Reuters, 4/1/08)

2009        Apr 1, Top spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said Taliban insurgents reject a US offer of "honorable reconciliation," calling it a "lunatic idea" and saying the only way to end the war was to withdraw foreign troops. Suicide attackers stormed provincial council offices in Kandahar city, killing 13 people including 2 provincial officials. The attackers, who wore Afghan military uniforms, were also killed, two in suicide bombings and two shot dead by security forces. Afghan and US coalition troops battled a large group of militants in southern Afghanistan before calling in an airstrike that killed 20 insurgents.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)(AFP, 4/1/09)(AP, 4/2/09)
2009        Apr 1, Albania and Croatia became NATO’s newest members.
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 1, In London Presidents Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama said Russia and the United States will pursue a new deal to cut nuclear warheads, making good on a pledge to rebuild relations from a post-Cold War low. The US and China agreed to establish a "strategic and economic dialogue" group that would first meet in Washington later this year.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, G20 protesters clashed with riot police in downtown London, breaking into the heavily guarded Royal Bank of Scotland and smashing its windows. Earlier, they tried to storm the Bank of England and pelted police with eggs and fruit. Ian Tomlinson (47) was filmed being hit by an officer with a baton shortly before collapsing in the City of London financial district. He had not been taking part in the protests and died of a hemorrhage. In 2012 Dr Freddy Patel was found guilty of misconduct by the Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service (MPTS) in relation to his handling of the examination of Ian Tomlinson's body. The pathologist had concluded that Tomlinson died from a heart attack.
    (AP, 4/1/09)(AFP, 4/17/09)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2009        Apr 1, A helicopter returning to Aberdeen with 16 people from an oil platform crashed in the North Sea. The Bond Super Puma helicopter went down off the northeast coast of Scotland. 8 bodies were recovered and the others were presumed dead. 7 bodies were later found inside the wreckage of the helicopter.
    (AFP, 4/1/09)(AP, 4/2/09)(AP, 4/5/09)
2009        Apr 1, Honduras Pres. Manuel Zelaya's government announced a series of measures to crack down on crime, including allowing the state telephone company to obtain court orders to record cellular phone conversations and read e-mails sent from computers at Internet cafes or hotels.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, Avigdor Lieberman, Israel’s new foreign minister, said Israel will not abide by commitments made to pursue Palestinian statehood at the 2007 Annapolis Peace Summit.
    (WSJ, 4/2/09, p.A1)
2009        Apr 1, In Malaysia Mas Selamat Kastari, an Islamic militant suspected of plotting a Sept. 11-style air attack, was arrested in Johor state, more than a year after his dramatic escape from a high-security jail in Singapore. He was arrested by Malaysian authorities with the cooperation of Singaporean and Indonesian intelligence agencies.
    (AP, 5/8/09)
2009        Apr 1, Mexico detained Vicente Carrillo Leyva (32), one of its most wanted drug suspects. He allegedly was the second in command of the powerful Juarez cartel. Leyva is the son of drug kingpin Amado Carrillo Fuentes, who was one of Mexico's most important drug traffickers before he died during plastic surgery to change his appearance in 1997.
    (AP, 4/2/09)
2009        Apr 1, In Pakistan a suspected US drone fired two missiles at an alleged hide-out connected to a Taliban leader who has threatened to attack Washington, killing 14 people and wounding several others in a remote area of the Orakzai tribal region. Militants fired rockets and guns at a police van, killing five officers and wounding two in Upper Dir, on the Afghan border.
    (AP, 4/1/09)(SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 1, Puerto Rican actor Miguelangel Suarez (69) died. His career included minor roles in last year's epic "Che" and Woody Allen's "Bananas."
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, A tourist yacht and its crew of seven was hijacked by Somali pirates near the Seychelles islands off Africa's east coast.
    (AP, 4/2/09)
2009        Apr 1, Sri Lanka’s government said more than 23,000 civilians escaped last month from the northern war zone, where the military appeared close to crushing the separatist rebels.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir arrived in Saudi Arabia for a brief pilgrimage, his latest trip abroad in defiance of an international arrest warrant against him.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, Sweden’s Parliament adopted a new law giving same sex couples the same marriage rights as heterosexuals, becoming the 5th European country to allow gay marriage.
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 1, In Sweden a new law cracking down on online copyright violation went into force leading to a sharp drop in internet traffic.
    (AP, 4/3/09)(http://tinyurl.com/c96saw)
2009        Apr 1, In Thailand thousands of demonstrators defied a court order to clear a road they have blocked to the prime minister's office, vowing to continue ringing the compound until the government resigns.
    (AP, 4/1/09)

2010        Apr 1, US President Barack Obama called on Chinese President Hu Jintao to join forces on the Iranian nuclear standoff as he stepped up efforts to block Tehran's atomic program.
    (AFP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, The US national board for ACORN, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, closed its California state affiliate field offices. The group, formed in 1970, was under pressure due to videotapes in 2009 of ACORN allegedly assisting a proposed prostitution ring. In 2013 the makers of the secretly filmed video agreed to pay $100,000 to settle a lawsuit with Juan Carlos Vera, who said he was just trying to get information from James O’Keefe and Hannah Giles, the makers of the video.
    (http://tinyurl.com/54o77a)(SFC, 4/2/10, p.c2)(SFC, 2/9/13, p.A5)
2010        Apr 1, In Fremont, Ca., the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. plant (NUMMI) produced its last Toyota Corolla after 25 years of operations building cars the Toyota Way.
    (SFC, 4/2/10, p.A1)
2010        Apr 1, Massachusetts regulators issued their first batch of health care price controls, rejecting the vast majority of small business health premium increases sought this year by the state's major insurers. Insurers said caps on their charges are justified only if there are similar caps on the costs that health care providers, such as doctors and hospital networks, charge them. That is the subject of pending legislation.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, A US federal judge struck down a Wisconsin law that prohibits transgender inmates from receiving taxpayer funded hormone therapy to alter their appearance.
    (SFC, 4/2/10, p.A7)
2010        Apr 1, John Forsythe (b.1918), TV and movie actor, died at his home in Santa Ynez, Ca. His films included “The Trouble with Harry” (1955) and “Topaz” (1969). His TV roles included “Bachelor Father” (1957-1962), “Charlie’s Angels (1976-1981), and “Dynasty” (1981-1989).
    (SFC, 4/3/10, p.C2)
2010        Apr 1, Dr. Henry Edward Roberts (b.1941), American engineer and medical doctor, died in Georgia. In 1975 he developed and introduced the MITS Altair 8800. His Micro Instrumentation & Telemetry Systems of Albuquerque, N.M., sold the build-it-yourself kit by mail-order and Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed the first software program for it.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Roberts_%28computers%29)(SFC, 4/2/10, p.C7)
2010        Apr 1, Afghan President Hamid Karzai accused foreign powers of orchestrating enormous fraud in elections that returned him to power last year. Kosuke Tsuneoka, a Japanese freelance journalist and veteran of war zones, went missing after traveling to a Taliban controlled area in the north. Tsuneoka was released on Sep 4 in good health and was at the Japanese Embassy in Kabul.
    (AFP, 4/2/10)(AP, 9/5/10)
2010        Apr 1, In Brazil Pedro Alcantara de Souza, who headed a union of landless farmers in Para, was shot in the head five times by two men on motorcycles on the outskirts of Redencao.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, Britain said it will create the world's largest marine reserve by banning fishing around the Chagos Islands, a U.K.-owned archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The cluster of 55 islands is spread across about a quarter of a million square miles of ocean.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, Colombia's largest rebel group, FARC, turned over the remains of police Maj. Julian Guevara, who died while being held captive. This was the guerrillas' latest gesture aimed at prodding the government into negotiating a prisoner exchange. Guevara was captured by the FARC in November 1998 and he died in January 2006 while still a prisoner.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, In Cuba some small state-run barber shops and beauty salons were turned over to employees on a trial basis, a significant step toward loosening strict controls on the state-run retail sector.
    (SFC, 4/14/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 1, An explosion near Dagestan's border with Chechnya killed two suspected militants.
    (AP, 4/3/10)
2010        Apr 1, Former Greek PM Tzannis Tzannetakis (b.1927) died. He led a short-lived coalition government in 1989 while the country was rocked by corruption scandals and political turmoil. His former career in the Greek navy ended abruptly when he resigned from the military in opposition to a 1967-74 dictatorship led by a group of ultra-right army colonels. He was jailed and sent into exile. Tzannetakis began a 30-year career in politics after the military regime collapsed.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, In Guinea-Bissau renegade soldiers seized the head of the armed forces and briefly detained PM Carlos Gomes Jr. in an apparent coup attempt in the tiny, coup-plagued African nation where the president was assassinated last year. Hours later, the mutinous soldiers released the prime minister, but the head of the armed forces Zamora Induta remained under guard at a military base while Antonio Ndjai, his No. 2, appeared to be in control.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, India began a yearlong census of its billion-plus population in which it plans to photograph and fingerprint every citizen over the age of 15 to create a national database and then issue its first national identity cards.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, An Israeli military judge ordered the release of 10 Palestinians, including a senior Fatah official, detained at a March 27 protest march through a West Bank checkpoint.
    (AFP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, Kenya's parliament unanimously passed a draft constitution that is one of several key reforms experts say are needed to avoid a repeat of political violence that shook the country after the disputed 2007 election. This set the stage for Kenya to go to a referendum on the draft charter within 90 days, marking the final steps in a decades-long process to rewrite the constitution.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, The International Criminal Court announced that it will investigate members of Kenya's two ruling parties on charges that they instigated violence that killed more than 1,000 people after the disputed 2007 presidential election.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, Nigerian authorities charged 20 people over their roles in sectarian clashes that killed hundreds in central Plateau state last month, and some could face the death penalty.
    (Reuters, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, A North Korea a senior economist said private markets closed temporarily due to a delay in setting prices after a currency redenomination, but the economy has stabilized and markets reopened.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, Pakistani troops stormed militant positions and helicopters destroyed vehicles carrying insurgents near the Afghan border, killing 28 suspected militants and forcing thousands of civilians to flee.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, In northeastern Peru a mudslide killed five people in the town of Cancejos.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 1, Suspected Somali pirates fired on a US Navy warship off East Africa in what appeared to be a ransom-seeking attack on an American guided missile frigate. The USS Nicholas returned fire on the pirate skiff, sinking it and confiscating a nearby mothership. The Navy took five pirates into custody.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, In Thailand 6 people were shot dead by suspected militants and 10 police officers were wounded by a roadside bomb in the latest attacks in Thailand's restive south.
    (AFP, 4/1/10)
2010        Apr 1, In Uganda a presidential adviser said more than 5,000 people whose lips and ears were cut off by rebels waging a more than 20-year insurgency in northern Uganda will receive compensation from the government.
    (AP, 4/1/10) 
2010        Apr 1, In Yemen about 40 southern separatists reportedly escaped from a prison after a guard lobbed a hand grenade to disperse an inmates' protest at the facility in Daleh. Yemen's interior ministry denied the police report. Police shot dead one protester and wounded five others in Radfan as they opened fire to disperse a demonstration led by southern separatists.
    (AP, 4/1/10)(AFP, 4/1/10)

2011        Apr 1, Southwest Airlines Flight 812 lost cabin pressure following a fuselage rupture just after takeoff from Phoenix. The Boeing 737-300 landed safely in Yuma with no injuries. Inspectors later found small cracks in 3 more Southwest planes. Some 300 flights were cancelled over the next 2 days as Southwest examined 79 similar planes.
    (SFC, 4/4/11, p.A6)
2011        Apr 1, In Mississippi a school bus collided with a tractor trailer near Shaw. A girl (10) was killed and at least 10 people were injured.
    (SFC, 4/2/11, p.A5)
2011        Apr 1, In Afghanistan 7 foreigners including 4 Nepalese guards were killed after demonstrators protesting a reported burning of the Muslim holy book stormed a UN office in Mazar-e-Sharif, opening fire on guards and setting fires inside the compound. Those killed included Nepalese guards who were working for the UN and other foreigners employed at the complex, as well as Joakim Dungel (33), a Swede who worked on human rights; Lt. Col. Siri Skare (53), a female pilot from Norway who was an adviser; and Filaret Motco (43), a Romanian who worked in the political section of the UN Five Afghan protesters were also killed and others wounded.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(Reuters, 4/2/11)(SFC, 4/2/11, p.A4)(AP, 4/3/11)
2011        Apr 1, Bahrain human rights organization and opposition groups said at least 20 people have been killed in total, since protests began February 14 and hundreds of activists have been either detained or questioned since martial law went into effect in mid-March.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Cambodian PM Hun Sen declared his personal assets to the country's new anti-corruption unit and urged officials to follow his lead in a bid to tackle rampant graft.
    (AFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In Egypt thousands of people filled Tahrir Square to call for Egypt's military government to harshly punish members of ex-President Hosni Mubarak's former administration.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Greek authorities said an Italian radical anarchist group, the Informal Anarchist Federation, has claimed responsibility for three mail bomb attacks on a Greek prison, an office of the Swiss nuclear power industry and an Italian military barracks.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(SFC, 4/1/11, p.A2) 
2011        Apr 1, In Iraq a suicide bomber disguised as a street cleaner walked up to soldiers outside a mosque and blew himself up, killing two of the troops and a worshipper in Fallujah, a city that was once an al-Qaida hotbed. Hundreds of anti-government protesters rallied in Baghdad's Tahrir Square and in Sulaimaniyah, one of the three provinces of autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq's north, demanding better government services, an end to corruption and more jobs.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Israel asked the United Nations to help prevent activists sailing to Gaza on the first anniversary of the bloody Israeli seizure of a Turkish ship that tried to reach the blockaded Palestinian enclave.
    (Reuters, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In Ivory Coast heavy fighting raged near the presidential palace and mansion and the state TV broadcaster in Abidjan as armed forces loyal to the elected leader tried to install him to power and oust the country's strongman.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Jordanian police moved in to separate hundreds of government supporters and pro-reform activists who were holding rival rallies outside the municipal offices in Amman.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, A Libyan opposition leader said rebels will agree to a cease-fire if Moammar Gadhafi pulls his military forces out of cities and allows peaceful protests against his regime, as rebels showed signs that their front-line organization is improving. Gaddafi's forces stormed the western rebel outpost of Misrata with tanks and artillery. Sustained gunfire rang out near Gaddafi's heavily fortified compound in Tripoli and residents said they saw snipers on rooftops and pools of blood on the streets. A coalition air raid reportedly killed 13 people, four of them civilians, some 15 km east of the battleground town of Brega.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(Reuters, 4/1/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)
2011        Apr 1, A Libyan rebel official said a plan to sell rebel-held oil to buy weapons and other supplies has been reached with Qatar.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In Mexico gunmen opened fire on a burrito truck in the border city of Ciudad Juarez, killing the vendor, his 10-year-old son and 3 other people. A 17-year-old boy was among seven people killed in three shootings around Monterrey. In the western state of Michoacan, four bullet-ridden bodies were found in different towns.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)
2011        Apr 1, Nigeria tightened security and shut its land borders ahead of the start of a landmark election period to choose a new legislature, president and state governors over three successive weekends.
    (AGFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In central Nigeria a fuel tanker overturned at an army checkpoint, sparking an inferno in which 17 vehicles were engulfed in flames. Some 50 people were killed.
    (AFP, 4/2/11)
2011        Apr 1, Norway announced an oil find some 120 miles north of its mainland in the Barents Sea. The Skrugard find was believed to contain some 500 million barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 5/2/11, p.D2)(http://tinyurl.com/44ljesw)
2011        Apr 1, In northwestern Pakistan Islamist militants attacked a terminal used by trucks carrying supplies for NATO troops in Afghanistan, killing three Pakistani guards at the site. A suicide bomber killed a boy (12) and wounded five other people after he was identified and shot at market in Darra Adam Khel, also in the northwest.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In the southern Philippines gunmen linked to a criminal gang kidnapped 16 people, most of them teachers, from an elementary school graduation ceremony in Prosperidad town. At least four small-scale miners were buried alive in a landslide in the mountainous Tampakan area.
    (AP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)
2011        Apr 1, Debt-stressed Portugal got some respite from its financial troubles when it managed to borrow euro1.645 billion ($2.3 billion) in a bond auction.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, A Spanish court issued an international arrest warrant seeking the extradition of Jorge Sosa Orantes (53), a former Guatemalan soldier for his alleged part in the massacre in the village of Dos Erres in 1982 in which more than 100 people died. Sosa has been in custody in Canada since January on US charges of lying about his role in Guatemala's war when he applied for American citizenship in 2008.
    (AP, 4/4/11)
2011        Apr 1, In Switzerland 3 people were killed and one was injured on after seven ski hikers from Germany were swept away by a giant avalanche high in the southwestern Swiss Alps.
    (AFP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Thousands of Syrians shouting "We want freedom!" marched in Daraa city, which has become the epicenter of an extraordinary protest movement as security forces deployed across the country. At least 10 people were killed as security forces cracked down on demonstrations in Douma.
    (AP, 4/1/11)(AP, 4/2/11)(SFC, 4/4/11, p.A3)
2011        Apr 1, In southern Thailand heavy rains finally eased, where flooding and mudslides over the past week killed 25 people.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, The UAR-owned MV Arrilah-1 came under attack in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Oman while sailing from Australia to Dubai. Emirati special forces, with support from the US Navy's 5th Fleet, launched a mission to rescue the vessel while 21 crew members kept safe by locking themselves in a secure room during the hijacking. 10 pirates were captured and handed over to Abu Dhabi.
    (AFP, 4/2/11)(AP, 4/6/11)
2011        Apr 1, The United Nations' highest court threw out Georgia's complaint accusing Russia and separatist militias of years of ethnic cleansing in two breakaway Georgian provinces. The court said it had no jurisdiction in the case because Russia and Georgia had never attempted to negotiate a settlement to the dispute before Georgia brought it to the court.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, In Yemen hundreds of thousands packed a square in the capital and marched in villages and cities across the nation in what appeared to be the largest demonstrations in more than a month of demands the country's longtime ruler step down.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, African leaders delivered a thinly veiled rebuke to Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe, after a security summit sharply demanded an end to political violence ahead of expected polls.
    (AFP, 4/1/11)

2012        Apr 1, Comic actor Adam Sandler and his movie "Jack and Jill" swept the annual Razzies, winning a record-breaking 10 awards for the worst film and performances of 2011. This year the Golden Raspberry Foundation handed out its rewards on April Fool's Day in a change of tradition that for years saw the Razzies announced on the eve of the Oscars.
    (Reuters, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Occupy SF activists took over an unoccupied building at 888 Turk Street, owned by the Archdiocese of San Francisco, following a peaceful rally and march earlier in the day.
    (SFC, 4/2/12, p.A1)
2012        Apr 1, Jamaa Fanaka (b.1942), a black activist filmmaker, was found dead at his Los Angeles apartment. His films included “Penitentiary” (1979).
    (SFC, 4/5/12, p.C4)
2012        Apr 1, In Denver Jimma Reat (26), an immigrant from Sudan, reluctantly followed a 911 dispatcher's order to return to the scene of a road rage crime, where he was fatally shot while waiting for police.
    (ABC News, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Florida thousands of protesters gathered in a downtown bayfront park in Miami demanding the arrest of the neighborhood watch volunteer who shot and killed an unarmed black teenager, Trayvon Martin. Today’s protest came a day after one of the largest demonstrations yet in Sanford, the central Florida town where Martin was killed.
    (Reuters, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Missouri a converted tractor trailer crashed near Williamsburg killing 5 Minnesota family members and injuring 13 survivors including driver Adam Kerber (17).
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A9)
2012        Apr 1, In Afghanistan Toor Jan, an officer in charge of several checkpoints in Uruzgan province's capital Tarin Kot, died along with one of his bodyguards when their vehicle passed through an area where explosives had been planted.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Britain’s Sunday Telegraph newspaper reported that security services have uncovered a plot to assassinate exiled Chechen separatist Akhmed Zakayev in London. The paper said it has seen documents outlining the MI5 security agency's fears that Ramzan Kadyrov, the Kremlin-backed head of Russia's volatile Chechen republic, wanted former rebel commander Zakayev killed.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Ethiopia African Union mediators redoubled their efforts to kickstart crisis talks between Sudan and South Sudan after fresh fighting that Khartoum accuses Juba of backing.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Hong Kong some 15 thousand people noisily protested against the city's incoming leader, Leung Chun-ying, and decried Beijing's alleged interference in the election that propelled him to office.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Fugitive Iraqi Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi traveled to Qatar on what the gulf nation called an “official visit.”
    (SFC, 4/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 1, In Kenya at least one person was killed and 18 were wounded in attacks on a restaurant in Mombasa city and a church gathering in the nearby town of Mtwapa.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Mali Tuaregs attacked Timbuktu in their fight to create a homeland for the Sahara's blue-turbaned nomads. Capt. Sanogo, who overthrew the democratically elected leader earlier this month and dissolved the nation's constitution, made a public U-turn, declaring amid enormous international pressure that he was reinstating the 1992 constitution and planning to hold elections.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Miguel de la Madrid (b.1934), former president of Mexico (1982-1988), died. He led the country during an economic crisis and a devastating earthquake (1985). He was the first in a string of presidents who pulled Mexico away from a state-dominated economy and toward free trade.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Myanmar held landmark elections. The by-election was called to fill just 45 vacant seats in Myanmar's 664-seat national Parliament. Supporters of the opposition icon Aung San Suu Kyi erupted in euphoric cheers after her party said she won a parliamentary seat in a landmark election. Her National League for Democracy stormed to victory in 43 of the 44 constituencies where it fielded candidates.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 1, In northern Nigeria a petrol tanker crashed then later exploded and caught fire, killing at least 12 people who had rushed to the scene to scoop fuel from the damaged vehicle.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)
2012        Apr 1, Nigerian Aliko Dangote, Africa's richest man, donated 500,000 dollars to victims of last month's munitions blasts in Brazzaville, Congo, which killed at least 282 people.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 1, Three Palestinian children were found dead in a fire in their room caused by a candle being used due to lack of electricity in Gaza.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, The top Palestinian envoy to the US awarded longtime American journalist Helen Thomas for taking a stand against the Israeli occupation. Her May 2010 comments against the Israeli occupation forced her into retirement and were denounced by the White House and her press corps colleagues.
    (AP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 1, Russian police detained about 55 protesters outside the gates to Red Square, which was unexpectedly closed to all visitors and tourists to prevent an anti-Kremlin demonstration.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In Serbia a fire at the Contrast nightclub in Novi Sad left six people dead. The owner of a nightclub, Alojz G., was detained by police.
    (AP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People” meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)
2012        Apr 1, Taiwan said it will double its quota of independent Chinese tourists to allow up to 1,000 visitors a day, effective April 28, less than a year after lifting a ban on solo travel from the mainland.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)
2012        Apr 1, In southern Yemen Al-Qaida-linked militants staged a pre-dawn surprise attack on an army base, killing seven soldiers in Hadramout province. Yemen's army shelled Al-Qaeda hideouts in the southern city of Zinjibar, one of the jihadists' major strongholds, killing six militants. A Somali group leader named Abu Bilal" was said to be among those killed.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/2/12)

2013        Apr 1, Arkansas legislators passed a law requiring voters to show photo ID at the polls, overriding Gov. Mike Beebe’s veto. In 2014 a judge struck down the voter ID law, but the state Supreme Court stayed the judge’s ruling pending an appeal.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.A6)(SFC, 5/15/14, p.A6)
2013        Apr 1, In California a US federal judge granted Stockton’s request for bankruptcy, making it the largest city in US history to go bankrupt.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.C1)
2013        Apr 1, Facebook lost a bid to end a trademark-infringement lawsuit over its use of “timeline” and related terms. Timelines Inc. started a website in 2009 that lets users create chronologies tracing historical events. It sued Facebook in September 2011, a week af FB announced it was adding a “timeline” feature to its user pages.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.D3)
2013        Apr 1, Central African Republic's coup leader, Michel Djotodia, further solidified his hold on the government after announcing that he will serve as both president and defense minister, while other top posts are going to his fellow rebels.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, In Egypt an outbreak of food poisoning at al-Azhar University forced the hospitalization of 479 students. It occurred after a meal served at the university dormitories in Cairo's Nasr City district. The outbreak led to student protests.
    (AP, 4/2/13)
2013        Apr 1, India’s Supreme Court rejected a patent application by Novartis for Gleevec, a major cancer drug. The ruling allows Indian makers of generic drugs to continue making copycat versions of the drug. The wholesale of the brand-name version was about $77,000 for a year’s supply.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.A2)(SFC, 4/15/13, p.A8)
2013        Apr 1, In Iraq a suicide bomber drove a fuel-laden truck into a police station in Tikrit, killing 7 policemen. Gunmen attacked workers at a remote gas field near the Syria border, killing two men and kidnapping one. Gunmen broke into the offices of four independent newspapers in Baghdad and stabbed and beat five employees there.
    (AP, 4/1/13)(AP, 4/2/13)
2013        Apr 1, In Liberia Moses Blah, the man who served as president for two months after Charles Taylor stepped down, died in Monrovia.
    (AP, 4/2/13)
2013        Apr 1, Pop diva Modanna arrived in Malawi to tour the 10 school wings she has helped to build.
    (AP, 4/3/13)
2013        Apr 1, In Myanmar 4 privately run daily newspapers hit newsstands for the first time in 50 years.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, North Korea's parliament approved the appointment of Pak Pong Ju as the new premier. A day earlier the economic technocrat was made a full member of the Politburo. He was the North's premier in 2003-2007, and was seen by outside experts as an economic reformer.
    (AP, 4/1/13)(SFC, 4/2/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 1, Pakistani housewife Badam Zari (40) made history by becoming the first woman to run for parliament from the country's northwest tribal region.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, Palestinian militant group Hamas re-elected longtime leader Khaled Mashaal (56) in a vote held in Cairo. He ran unopposed in the vote, winning the support of a majority in Hamas' Shura Council which has about 60 members.
    (AP, 4/2/13)
2013        Apr 1, Gaza's Hamas-controlled parliament announced a new law requiring separate classes for boys and girls in public and private schools from the fourth grade rather than the current 7th grade. The education law also bars male teachers from teaching in girls' schools. It will go effect at the start of the new school year in September.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, Barbara Piasecka Johnson (b.1937), the Polish widow of J. Seward Johnson Sr. (d.1983), heir to millions made from bandages, baby oil and pharmaceutical products, died. She had inherited much of the Johnson & Johnson fortune after a sensational court battle with her six stepchildren.
    (AP, 4/4/13)
2013        Apr 1, A Saudi newspaper said the kingdom's religious police are now allowing women to ride motorbikes and bicycles but only in restricted, recreational areas. They also have to be accompanied by a male relative and dressed in the full Islamic head-to-toe abaya.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, South Korea said it will strike back quickly if the North stages any attack.
    (AP, 4/1/13)
2013        Apr 1, Sudan’s Pres. Omar al-Bashir declared that he would release all political prisoners. 7 political prisoners, including a female politician, were released at midnight from Kober prison in Khartoum, after they were held there for over two months without trial.
    (AP, 4/2/13)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.57)

2014        Apr 1, A drug-smuggling tunnel with rail systems stretching hundreds of yards across the US-Mexico border was discovered by law enforcement officials. Glennys Rodriguez (73) from the San Diego suburb of Chula Vista was charged the next day with helping run the operation. A 2nd tunnel was found on April 3.
    (AP, 4/4/14)
2014        Apr 1, California’s PG&E was indicted on 12 federal counts related to the 2010 gas pipeline explosion that leveled a San Bruno neighborhood and killed 8 people.
    (SFC, 4/2/14, p.A1)
2014        Apr 1, In downtown San Francisco the First Church of the Last Laugh hosted the 36th annual St. Stupid’s Day Parade.
    (SFC, 4/2/14, p.A1)
2014        Apr 1, Chin Long Chiang (b.1914), UC professor and biostatistics pioneer, died at his home in Berkeley, Ca. He had begun applying statistical methods to the world of health care and the study of diseases in the 1950s.
    (SFC, 4/25/14, p.D3)
2014        Apr 1, Sen. Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat, opened a hearing on Caterpillar Inc.’s avoidance of some $2.4 billion in taxes by shifting profits to a wholly-controlled affiliate in Switzerland.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Britain said PM David Cameron has ordered an investigation into the Muslim Brotherhood over concerns that the group is planning radical activities from a base in London.
    (AFP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, A magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck off the coast of northern Chile near the copper exporting port of Iquique, killing 7 and triggering a tsunami that pounded the shore with 2m (7-foot) waves. The quake allowed some 300 inmates to escape from the Iquique women’s prison.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)(SSFC, 4/6/14, p.A4)
2014        Apr 1, China's Defense Ministry said inspectors have uncovered widespread irregularities and suspected corruption among military units based around Beijing, a sign that a widening anti-graft campaign that is turning to the sprawling 2.3 million-member People's Liberation Army.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In China protests against a proposed chemical plant in Maoming city, Guangdong province, spread to Guangzhou, the provincial capital, even as authorities signaled they may back down on construction plans in attempt to head off more unrest.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, China's foreign ministry expressed anger after Ilham Tohti, a prominent detained Uighur academic, won a human rights award in the United States, saying that he was a suspected criminal.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Human Rights Watch said China has pressured Nepal to impose tough controls on thousands of Tibetan refugees, including arbitrary detention, excessive use of force and intrusive surveillance.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Egypt violent clashes erupted in Cairo and three other cities between police and university students loyal to the ousted Islamist president.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Wissam Tarif, a Lebanese national who works for Avaaz, an online activism network, arrived in Egypt in the morning and was deported in the evening. He had come to present officials with a petition bearing over a million signatures asking for the lifting of death sentences against 529 supporters of ousted Islamist Pres. Morsi.
    (AP, 4/4/14)
2014        Apr 1, The EU’s economy chief Olli Rehn's said the EU will make a swift payment of financial aid to Ukraine and dismissed the possibility of economic sanctions against Russia unless it takes more action.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In France Manuel Valls took up the post of President Francois Hollande's prime minister, replacing Jean-Marc Ayrault who resigned in the wake of the ruling Socialists' rout in local elections at the weekend.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Greece eight Nigrita Prison guards were charged with torturing to death an Albanian convict accused of fatally stabbing a guard in another jail after being refused temporary release to visit his critically ill mother. Ilie Kareli (42) was found fatally injured in his cell last week after a severe beating.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Iraq a national election campaign officially kicked off ahead of the April 30 vote. A series of attacks north of Baghdad killed 8 soldiers.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Japan eased its weapons export restrictions in the first major overhaul of arms transfer policy in nearly half a century.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Japan raised its sales tax to 8% from 5%, moving to stabilize government finances and reduce soaring debt, but at the risk of undermining a shaky economic recovery.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, People in Japan began their first homecomings in three years to a small area evacuated after the Fukushima disaster.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Japan’s government-funded Riken Center said data in a widely heralded stem-cell research paper was falsified. Haruko Obokata, the lead researcher accused of the malpractice, denied any wrongdoing.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Kenya unknown attackers in Mombasa shot dead Abubakar Shariff Ahmed, more commonly known as Makaburi (meaning graveyard in Swahili). He was accused by the US and the UN Security Council of supporting Somali militants.
    (Reuters, 4/4/14)(SFC, 4/3/14, p.A2)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.42)
2014        Apr 1, Lebanon's parliament approved a much-anticipated law that protects women against domestic violence after a years-long campaign by women's rights activists and the recent slaying of four women.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In northern Myanmar illegal Chinese logging and demand for monkey bones threatened the rare snub-nosed monkey according to British-based Fauna & Flora International. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) estimated that only 260 to 330 survive in the wild.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, NATO foreign ministers agreed to suspend all practical cooperation with Russia, draft measures to strengthen defenses and reassure nervous eastern European countries in the worst East-West crisis since the Cold War ended in 1991.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 1, A Nigerian Shariah court freed two men accused of gay sex and belonging to a homosexual club, saying the prosecution failed to prove its case. The two were among 12 detained in northern Bauchi state in January.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Philippine officials said government prosecutors will file plunder cases in an anti-graft court against three senators for misuse of congressional funds worth billions of pesos. Juan Ponce Enrile, former movie actor Ramon Revilla Jr and Jose "Jinggoy" Estrada, son of former president and Manila Mayor Joseph Estada - were found to have amassed 172 million pesos, 242 million pesos and 183 million pesos, respectively, from illegal kickbacks.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, Russia warned Ukraine against integration with NATO, saying Kiev's previous attempts to move closer to the bloc had strained ties with Russia and caused problems between Moscow and the defense alliance. Russia sharply hiked the price for natural gas to Ukraine and threatened to reclaim billions previous discounts. Ukrainian police moved to disarm members of a radical nationalist group after a shooting spree in the capital.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)(AP, 4/1/14)   
2014        Apr 1, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 150,000 people have been killed in Syria's three-year-old civil war, a third of them civilians.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Thailand gunmen killed one person and wounded four others in an attack on anti-government protesters in central Bangkok.
    (AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In Turkey riot police fired water cannon in Ankara to disperse thousands of people protesting outside the Supreme Electoral Council (YSK) against local election results which saw the ruling party dominate the electoral map. Election results in Ankara were particularly close.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, The UN said it was trying to evacuate 19,000 Muslims urgently from Bangui and other parts of Central African Republic who are surrounded by anti-balaka Christian militia threatening their lives.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, In western Yemen clashes left dead 3 soldiers and 2 al-Qaida militants.
    (AP, 4/1/14)

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