Today in History - April 9

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193        Apr 9, The distinguished Roman soldier Lucius Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by the army at Carnuntum (Austria).
    (www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm)

715        Apr 9, Constantine I, Greek-Syrian Catholic Pope (708-15), died.
    (HN, 4/9/98)(MC, 4/9/02)

1204        Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.
    (www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/fathers/pears-constantinople-1204.asp)

1241        Apr 9, In the Battle of Liegnitz, Silesia, Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans. The Mongols defeated the Germans and invaded Poland and Hungary. The death of their leader Ughetai (Ogedei) forced them to withdraw from Europe.
    (HN, 4/9/98)(TOH)

1454        Apr 9, The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence signed a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1483        Apr 9, Edward IV (b.1442), King of England (1461-70, 71-83) died. His young sons, Edward and Richard, were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He housed them in the Tower of London where they were probably murdered on his orders.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/edward_iv_king.shtml)

1588        Apr 9, Paolo Veronese (b.1528), Italian painter, died in Venice. His paintings included “The Choice Between Virtue and Vice." He was the son of sculptor Gabriele Caliari.
    (WSJ, 6/15/06, p.D7)(http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/veronese/veronese_bio.htm)

1609        Apr 9, Spain’s King Philip III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos, descendants of the Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of exile from Ferdinand and Isabella in 1502.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.44)

1649        Apr 9, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate son of Charles II of England and pretender to the throne of James II
    (HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)

1667        Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1682        Apr 9, The French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that touched it for France.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)

1730        Apr 9, The 1st Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, "Sherith Israel, NYC."
    (www.ou.org/orthodoxunion/unionstory/chapter1.htm)

1747        Apr 9, Simon Fraser, 12th baron Lovat (Jacobite), became the last man to be officially beheaded in England.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1770        Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1821        Apr 9, Charles Baudelaire (d.1867), French poet, was born. His works were censored and he was considered a pathetic psychopath; he also became the most acute critic of his age in France. He was photographed by Felix Nadar in 1855.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HN, 4/9/01)

1826        Apr 9, Chatham Roberdeau Wheat was born in Alexandria, Va. He studied law at the University of Nashville and then served in the 1st Tennessee Cavalry as a lieutenant during the Mexican War. He became a Confederate commander of the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War, also known as Wheat's Tigers.
    (HN, 4/9/00)

1830        Apr 9, Edward Muybridge, pioneered study of motion, photography, was born in England. In 2002 Rebecca Solnit authored “River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West."
    (MC, 4/9/02)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M1)

1833        Apr 9,    The nation's first tax-supported public library was founded in Peterborough, N.H.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1859        Apr 9, Realizing that France had encouraged the Piedmontese forces to mobilize for invading Italy, Austria began mobilizing its army.
    (HN, 4/9/00)

1864        Apr 9, The Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1865        Apr 9, Erich Ludendorff, German general during World War I, was born.
    (HN, 4/9/99)
1865        Apr 9, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and ended the Civil War. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Seneca Indian Ely Parker was at his general’s side at the surrender at Appomattox. The Union 20th Maine Infantry Unit was designated as one of the regiments to receive the surrender of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. One in four Southern men of military age died vs. one in ten for the Yankees. In 1998 Bevin Alexander published “Robert E. Lee’s Civil War." In 2001 Jay Winik authored “April 1865: the Month That Saved America."
    (A&IP, p.92)(AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)(HN, 4/9/98)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A20)
1865        Apr 9, Federals captured Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1866        Apr 9, A Civil Rights Bill passed over Pres Andrew Johnson's veto to secure for former slaves all the rights of citizenship intended by the 13th Amendment. The president was empowered to use the Army to enforce the law. This formed the basis for the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
    (MC, 4/9/02)(PC, 1992, p.502)

1869        Apr 9, The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1870        Apr 9, The American Anti-Slavery Society dissolved.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1870        Apr 9, Heinrich Schliemann, German archeologist, with neither a permit nor the consent of the Turkish landowners, had his hired men sink trenches on the summit of the mound of Hissarlik, the spur of a limestone plateau on the northwest coast, where he suspected that the ancient ruins of Troy lay buried. Schliemann was hired by Frank Calvert (1828-1908), US Consular Agent at the Dardanelles, to excavate at Thymbra. In 1999 Susan Heuck Allen authored “Finding the Wall of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik."
    (www.lib.duke.edu/lilly/artlibry/dah/schliemannh.htm)(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)(Arch, 11/04, p.8)

1872        Apr 9, Samuel R. Percy patented dried milk.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1879        Apr 9, W.C. Fields (Claude William Dukinfield), comedian, was born.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1898        Apr 9, Paul Robeson (d.1976), black athlete, actor and singer, was born. He is best remembered for his role in Othello. Lloyd L. Brown later wrote the biography “The Young Paul Robeson: On My Journey Now."
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A26)(HN, 4/9/99)

1900        Apr 9, British forces routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1903        Apr 9, Gregory Pincus, inventor of the birth control pill, was born.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1905        Apr 9, J. William Fulbright, U.S. senator from Arkansas, was born. He opposed the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1906        Apr 9, The third modern Olympic games opened in Athens and marked the 10th anniversary of the modern Olympics.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1914        Apr 9, The 1st full color film: "World, Flesh & Devil" was shown in London.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1914        Apr 9, In the Tampico incident a US ship crew was arrested in Mexico.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1916        Apr 9, The German army launched its third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1917        Apr 9, Battle of Arras began as Canadian troops launched a massive assault on Vimy Ridge in France. The assault brought four Canadian divisions fought together for the first time and cost 10,600 lives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_%281917%29)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)
1917        Apr 9, Edward Thomas (b.1878), British writer and poet, was killed in action during the Battle of Arras. His travel books included “The Icknield Way." In 2012 Matthew Hollis authored “Now All Roads Lead to France: The Last Years of Edward Thomas."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Thomas_%28poet%29)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.94)

1921        Apr 9, Russo-Polish conflict ended with the signing of the Riga Treaty.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1926        Apr 9, Hugh Hefner, publisher of Playboy Magazine, was born in Chicago.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Hefner)

1927        Apr 9, In SF the new Princess Apartments at Turk and Hyde offered a Kelvinator electric refrigerator in every apartment. They were run from a central unit in the basement.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.G2)

1928        Apr 9, Mae West's NYC debut in a daring new play "Diamond Lil."
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1932        Apr 9, Paul Krassner, founder and editor of The Realist, cartoonist (MAD mag.), was born.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1938        Apr 9, In Tunisia French troops cracked down on nationalist-inspired rioting in Tunis. 122 Tunisians were killed by French troops. Tunisians remembered this as Martyr’s Day.
    (http://articles.latimes.com/2000/apr/07/local/me-17142)

1939        Apr 9, On Easter Sunday Marion Anderson, at the invitation of Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, sang a triumphant outdoor concert at the Lincoln Memorial before a crowd of 75,000 and a radio audience of millions. In early 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution denied the internationally famed contralto the opportunity to sing at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., because of her race. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was so dismayed by the injustice that she resigned her own D.A.R. membership in protest.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11)(HNPD, 4/9/99)

1940        Apr 9, The Nazi army invaded and occupied Denmark and Norway. German forces landed along the Norwegian coast and made a paratrooper assault on Oslo and Stavanger.
    (WSJ, 4/29/96, p.C-1)(SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)(AP, 4/9/97)(ON, 11/05, p.3)

1941        Apr 9, The PGA established a Golf Hall of Fame.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1941        Apr 9, In Czestochowa, Poland, a ghetto for Jews was created. By the end of WW II some 45,000 of Czestochowa's Jews were murdered by the Germans, almost the entire Jewish community living there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1942        Apr 9, In the Battle of Bataan, some 70,000 soldiers gathered at the bottom of the Bataan peninsula during World War II. American and Philippine defenders on Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by the notorious 55-mile “Bataan Death March" which claimed nearly 10,000 lives. 12,000 American soldiers surrendered to the Japanese and some 1000 died on the march. [see Apr 10]
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, Par p.4)

1945        Apr 9, The Red Army was repulsed at the Seelow Heights on the outskirts of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/9/00)
1945        Apr 9, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (b.1906), a German Lutheran theologian and antifascist, was hanged by the Nazis at Flossenburg prison. He had participated in the failed July 20, 1944, plot to assassinate Hitler. A TV documentary on Bonhoeffer was aired in 2006.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/3/06, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietrich_Bonhoeffer)
1945        Apr 9, Hans Oster, German major-general, spy and participant in the "July 20th plot", was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Hans von Dohnanyi, "July 20th plotter", hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Wilhelm Canaris, Admiral, headed Germany Abwehr, was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1947        Apr 9, The US Atomic Energy Commission was confirmed.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1947        Apr 9, A series of tornadoes struck Kansas, West Texas and Oklahoma. 181 were killed and some 1,300 injured. The Woodward tornado ranked as the deadliest ever to hit Oklahoma.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(AH, 4/07, p.55)

1948        Apr 9, Chaim Weizmann, head of the World Zionist Organization, wrote to Pres. Truman saying: “The choice for our people, Mr. President, is between statehood and extermination."
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.53)
1948        Apr 9, In Colombia politician Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Ayala (b.1903) was assassinated during his 2nd presidential campaign.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jorge_Eli%C3%A9cer_Gait%C3%A1n_Ayala)
1948        Apr 9, In Deir Yassin about one-third of 750 Palestinians were killed by Jewish fighters of the National Military Organization, an underground group better known as the Irgun, and a splinter group called Lehi. The event is called Al-Nakbah (catastrophe) by the Palestinians. 30 similar massacres happened on other Palestinian villages. The death toll was said to be inflated by Jewish forces to invoke fear and cause maximum flight.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/25/98, p.A1,11)

1950        Apr 9, Bob Hope made his first television appearance. Hope began his career on an NBC television special after years on radio. “I’d better get into television before Milton Berle used up my material."
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.D5)(HN, 4/9/98)

1952        Apr 9, A popular uprising in Bolivia broke the grip by three families on the rich silver and tin lodes of Oruto and Potosi in the altiplano. This led to the state owned Minera de Bolivia known as Camibol. Hernan Siles Zuazo led the revolution that brought far-reaching social and economic reforms. Feudalism was replaced with universal suffrage. Every business of note was passed into the hands of the state.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)(WSJ, 8/15/95, p. A-6)(MC, 4/9/02)

1954        Apr 9, Dennis Quaid, actor (Big Easy, Dreamscape, Right Stuff), was born in Houston, TX.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1958        Apr 9, A Cuban general strike was called but failed. Urban militias in Havana and Santiago were put down by the police.
    (WSJ, 7/10/02, p.D8)

1959        Apr 9,    NASA announced the selection of America's first seven astronauts for the US first orbital flight in 1962 under the Mercury program: Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard and Donald Slayton.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A16)(AP, 4/9/97)
1959        Apr 9, Frank Lloyd Wright (b.1869), American architect (Guggenheim Museum, NYC), died in Arizona. In 1998 Ken Burns produced his video documentary "Frank Lloyd Wright." An earlier British documentary of Wright was made c1983. In 1987 Brendan Gill authored the Wright biography: "Many Masks." In 2004 Ada Louise Huxtabel authored “Frank Lloyd Wright."
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)(SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.48)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T10)(WSJ, 11/9/04, p.D12)

1961        Apr 9, Zog I (65), [Ahmed Zogu], King of Albania (1925-39), died in exile in France. His son, Leka Zogu, was sworn in as king by the government in exile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(MC, 4/9/02)

1962        Apr 9, In the 34th Academy Awards "West Side Story," Sophia Loren and Maximilian Schell won.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1962        Apr 9, JFK threw out the 1st ball at Washington's new DC Stadium.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1963        Apr 9, British statesman Winston Churchill was made an honorary U.S. citizen.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)

1965        Apr 9, The newly built Houston Astrodome featured its first baseball game, an exhibition between the Astros and the New York Yankees. Mickey Mantle hit the 1st indoor homerun, but the Astros won, 2-1 in 12 innings.
    (WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B8)(AP, 4/9/09)
1965        Apr 9, India and Pakistan engaged in a border fight.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1966        Apr 9, The statue of Winston Churchill (d.1965) was dedicated at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1967        Apr 9, The 1st Boeing 737-100 made its maiden flight.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_737)

1969        Apr 9, Students and police clashed at Harvard Univ. In 1997 the incident was described by Roger Rosenblatt in his book: “Coming Apart."
    (WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A16)
1969        Apr 9, The 1st flight of Concorde 002 was from Filton to Bristol.
    (www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects/aeronautics/1977-45.aspx)

1970        Apr 9, Paul McCartney announced the official split of the Beatles.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1976        Apr 9, Phil Ochs (b.1940), American protest singer and musician, committed suicide.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Ochs)
1976        Apr 9, Vega Ceballos had been detained in Buenos Aires, along with his pregnant Argentine wife Laura Gladis Romero. His body was ashore later in the year off the coast of Uruguay, but was not identified until 2012. Her body has never been found. Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo later believed she was among hundreds of dissidents killed after giving birth in captivity, and whose babies were raised by military or police families.
    (A7P, 9/7/12)

1978        Apr 9, David Leslie Murtishaw (24) murdered three film students, James Lee Henderson (24), Martha Bernice Soto (22) and Ingrid M. Etayo (22), in the Mohave Desert. Murtishaw was convicted and sentenced to death in 1979. He died in 2011 while on death row at San Quentin.
    (SFC, 11/24/11, p.C3)(http://tinyurl.com/7kb9mrx)
1978        Apr 9,    In Somalia a coup attempt failed.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1979        Apr 9, In the 51st Academy Awards "Deer Hunter," Jon Voight and Jane Fonda won.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/51st_Academy_Awards)

1981        Apr 9, The submarine USS George Washington ran into the Japanese freighter Nisso Maru. 2 Japanese crewmen were killed.
    (www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,164904,00.html)

1982        Apr 9, Robert H.G. Havemann (b.1910), East German chemist and dissident, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Havemann)

1983        Apr 9,    The space shuttle Challenger ended its first mission with a safe landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1987        Apr 9,    Responding to charges of bugging at the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow, Soviet officials displayed microphones and other gadgets they said were found in Soviet missions in the United States.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1988        Apr 9, Pro-Iranian Shiite Muslims who had seized a Kuwait Airways jetliner on April 5 killed one hostage as the hijacked plane sat on the ground in Larnaca, Cyprus.
    (AP, 4/9/98)

1989        Apr 9, Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Washington, D.C, demanding continued access to safe and legal abortion.
    (AP, 4/9/99)
1989        Apr 9, Boxer Mike Tyson struck a parking attendant when asked to move his car.
    (http://boxing.about.com/od/records/a/tyson_timeline_2.htm)
1989        Apr 9, Troops under Gen’l Lebed killed 18 protestors, including 16 women and children, in Tbilisi, Georgia. Colonel Gen’l. Igor Rodionov ordered troops to break up anti-Kremlin protests in Tbilisi.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)

1990        Apr 9, The baseball season opened a week late because of a labor dispute.
    (AP, 4/9/00)
1990        Apr 9, Humorist John Henry Faulk, who challenged his blacklisting in the entertainment industry in the 1950s, died in Austin, Texas, at age 76.
    (AP, 4/9/00)

1991        Apr 9, The 1991 Pulitzer Prize for fiction was awarded to John Updike for “Rabbit at Rest"; the drama prize went to Neil Simon for “Lost in Yonkers." In journalism, The Des Moines Register received the gold medal for public service for its series about rape victim Nancy Ziegenmeyer, who’d allowed her name and pictures to be used.
    (AP, 4/9/01)
1991        Apr 9, Georgia SSR declared independence from the USSR.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_(country))

1992        Apr 9,    Former Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega was convicted in Miami of eight drug and racketeering charges; he is serving a 30-year prison sentence.
    (AP, 4/9/02)
1992        Apr 9, Barbara Muszalski disappeared from her Livermore, Ca., goat ranch. Her slashed body was found 2 days later at the SF airport parking garage. Benjamin Pedro Gonzales, who had stayed at the ranch for odd jobs, was arrested in San Diego for the murder. He was also accused of the murder of a Los Angeles college student and a New York stripper.
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.A15,19)
1992            Apr 9, Britain's Conservatives came from behind to become the first British political party to win four straight elections this century. John Major (C) was elected PM of England.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1993        Apr 9, Four U.S. warplanes fired at artillery in northern Iraq; the Baghdad government denied provoking the attack with artillery fire at the planes.
    (AP, 4/9/98)
1993        Apr 9, The Rev. Benjamin Chavis was chosen to head the NAACP, succeeding Benjamin Hooks.
    (AP, 4/9/98)

1994        Apr 9, The space shuttle Endeavour blasted off on an 11-day mission that included mapping the Earth's surface in three dimensions.
    (AP, 4/9/99)
1994        cApr 9, The Bosnian Serbs had mounted an aggressive assault on Gorazde and pounded its 65,000 citizens with heavy artillery.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A10)
1994        Apr 9, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali ordered U.N. troops to use "all available means" to roll back Serb military gains in the Muslim enclave of Gorazde.
    (AP, 4/9/99)
1994        Apr 9, In Kigali, Rwanda, a crowd of neighbors tossed grenades and poured gasoline on the home of the home of Thetime Nkaka and his pregnant wife Jeanette Mukantwali (23). Matata Godefroid, a Hutu soldier, was later identified as the ringleader. He was sentenced to life in prison in Jan 23, 2001.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.A6)

1995        Apr 9, Women’s rights supporters rallied near the U.S. Capitol to protest violence against women.
    (AP, 4/9/00)
1995        Apr 9, Two Palestinians blew themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and killed seven Israeli soldiers and an American, Alisa Flatow (20). The Islamic Jihad and Hamas took responsibility. In 1998 a US district court judge ordered the government of Iran to pay $247 million in damages to the family of Flatow.
    (WSJ, 3/6/96, p. A-15)(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A8)
1995        Apr 9, Alberto Fujimori was re-elected president of Peru in a landslide victory.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)(AP, 4/9/00)

1996        Apr 9,    In a dramatic shift of purse-string power, President Clinton signed a line-item veto bill into law. However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the veto as unconstitutional in 1998.
    (WSJ, 4/10/96, p.A-1)(AP, 4/9/02)
1996        Apr 9, Former representative Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill.), the once-powerful House Ways and Means chairman, pleaded guilty to two mail fraud charges in a deal that brought with it a 17-month prison term. He was to pay his own way at an average rate of $21,352/year. Rostenkowski served 15 months, and was pardoned by President Clinton in 2000.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A4)(AP, 4/9/06)
1996        Apr 9, Sandy Becker (74), NYC Kiddie TV Show host (Sandy Becker Show), died.
    (www.inthe90s.com/generated/obit1996.shtml)
1996        Apr 9,    Yugoslavia and Macedonia established diplomatic relations.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)
1996        Apr 9,    Turkish troops killed 90 Kurdish rebels in a 3-day offensive. 27 of its own soldiers died. Rebels had declared a cease-fire in Nov., but the government refused to abide.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1997        Apr 9, Amid privacy concerns, Social Security officials pulled the plug on an Internet site that provided records of individual earnings and retirements.
    (AP, 4/9/98)
1997        Apr 9, The CIA announced that its own errors may have led to demolition of an Iraqi ammunition bunker filled with chemical weapons at Kamisiyah in 1991. The CIA apologized to Gulf War veterans for failing to do a better job in supplying information to U.S. troops who blew up an Iraqi bunker later found to contain chemical weapons.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/9/98)
1997        Apr 9, New images of Jupiter’s moon Europa confirmed the 1996 revealed surface of massive icebergs floating on an ocean more than 50 miles deep.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr 9, UNICEF, The WHO, and the UN Population Fund called for a global ban on female genital mutilation.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)
1997        Apr 9, In Ecuador the Supreme Court ordered the arrest of former president Abdala Bucaram and his aide Marco Albuja on charges of misusing presidential funds.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)
1997        Apr 9, In Hong Kong the future government unveiled plans to restrict political ties with foreigners, require police approval for protests, allow political parties to be banned and prohibit political groups from forming links with foreign organizations.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1997        Apr 9, A War-era bomb exploded on the grounds of a school in central Vietnam and killed 7 children. A teacher and 33 other children were wounded.
    (WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A12)
1997        Apr 9, In Zaire Mobuto dismissed prime minister Etienne Tshisekedo and installed a military commander as prime minister.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)

1998        Apr 9, At Andersonville, Ga., the National Prisoner of War Museum opened at the site of the Civil War prison.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A7)(AP, 4/9/99)
1998        Apr 9, In Columbia a Catholic priest and a lay worker died from a toxic cocktail of wine mixed with cyanide. At least 10 Easter baskets with poisoned wine were delivered to priests in the provinces of Meta and Cundinamarca.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A14)
1998        Apr 9, UN Sec. Kofi Annan suspended the investigation in Congo of alleged massacres after a team member was seized by local authorities.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A18)
1998        Apr 9, In Northern Ireland this day was set as a deadline for peace talks. The talks continued past the deadline.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B3)(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 9, Japan abandoned austerity policies and Prime Minister Hashimoto announced a $30 billion temporary cut in taxes to encourage consumer spending. Pressure to change was exerted by the US, int’l. investors and elite Japanese business leaders.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)
1998        Apr 9, Some 1 million workers across Russia protested against the government and called for the resignation of Pres. Yeltsin. Unpaid wages and pensions were an admitted major problem of the government.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)
1998        Apr 9, In Rwanda attackers thought to be Hutu rebels killed 28 people and wounded 36 in a refugee camp. Soldiers intervened and killed 20 rebels. The UN Security Council voted this same day to investigate illegal arms sales to Rwanda.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A17)
1998        Apr 9, In Saudi Arabia it was reported that 2.3 million Muslims made the pilgrimage, hajj, to Mecca this year. Over 150 pilgrims died at the "stoning of the devil" ritual during a stampede that occurred on the last day of the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)(AP, 4/9/08)

1999        Apr 9, A US judge ordered the federal government to pay $909 million to Glendale Federal Bank in California for breach of contract. The ruling stemmed from a 1996 Supreme Court decision that said the government broke its contract with Glendale and two other thrifts when it changed the rules on how they must count their assets.
    (AP, 4/9/00)
1999        Apr 9, A $250 million Air Force satellite, intended to warn of missile launches, went into a useless orbit after being launched aboard a Titan IV.
    (WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 9, A tornado hit the Cincinnati area and 7 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 9, The Clinton administration set $191.4 million worth of European products on a sanction list. The figure was the estimated amount of lost sales by American banana companies due to European import restrictions as ruled by the WTO.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A2)
1999        Apr 9, NATO forces made air strikes across Yugoslavia on Orthodox Good Friday. Military industrial plants, fuel depots and communications facilities were hit. Reports of the rape and murder of 20 ethnic Albanian women at an army training camp near Djakovica was reported. The car and small arms factory at Kragujevac was bombed and 100 workers were reported injured. The Zastava plant in Kragujevac, where the Yugo car was made, was hit by 20 missiles over 2 days and 36,000 workers were put out of work. 
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A1,13)(SFC, 4/20/99, p.A7)(SFC, 5/20/99, p.A12)
1999        Apr 9, In Kacanik Yugoslav troops massacred a number of ethnic Albanians. When NATO troops arrive in June they found new graves with 81 markers.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.A12)
1999        Apr 9, China's Premier Zhu Rongji said that he would trade China's $57 billion surplus, which he called exaggerated, for technology for a cleaner environment.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A10)
1999        Apr 9, It was reported that the US planned to give $10 million in emergency aid to Montenegro.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.A10)
1999        Apr 9, The Larson B and Wilkins ice shelves were reported to have lost 1,100 sq. miles due to melting over the last year.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.A16)
1999        Apr 9, In Lesotho Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili announced that South Africa and Botswana would soon pull their forces out of Lesotho following a 7 month peacekeeping operation.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.C14)
1999        Apr 9, In Namibia some 13.6 tons of elephant tusks were sold at auction to Japanese buyers at the first legal sale since a 1989 int'l. ban on the sale of ivory.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.C14)
1999        Apr 9, In Niger Pres. Ibrahim Bare Mainassara (49) was shot to death by his own presidential bodyguards at Niamey Airport.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.C14)(AP, 4/9/00)(AFP, 10/23/15)
1999        Apr 9, Russia threatened to take military action against NATO and considered an offer by Serbia to form an alliance. Gennady Seleznyov, speaker of parliament, said that a proposal was discussed to aim Russia's nuclear weapons at NATO countries.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A1)(SFC, 4/10/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 9, In Sri Lanka investigators found 16 human skeletons buried in the Durayappa Stadium in Jaffna where it was alleged that hundreds of ethnic Tamils were buried.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.C14)

2000        Apr 9, Vijay Singh of Fiji won the Masters Golf Tournament closing with a 3-under 69 for a three-stroke victory over Ernie Els.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A24)(AP, 4/9/01)
2000        Apr 9, Some 10-30 thousand protesters began gathering in Washington DC for the meeting of the WTO. They planned to target the World Bank and the IMF. The World Bank’s 181 members accessed some $30 billion annually in loans through 5 institutions: The Int’l. Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the Int’l. Development Assoc. (IDA), the Int’l. Finance Corp. (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the Int’l. Center for settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.A12)
2000        Apr 9, In Bolivia thousands of Aymara Indian farmers clashed with soldiers in Achacachi and Batallas. The clashes over economic problems left 3 soldiers and 2 farmers dead.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A16)
2000        Apr 9, In Bosnia the moderate Social Democratic party claimed victory in 20 cities of the Muslim-Croat Federation. In the Serb Republic the Serbian Democratic Party won 56.5% of the vote.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A14)
2000        Apr 9, In Georgia Pres. Eduard Shevardnadze won re-election with some 82% of the vote. Dzhumber Patiashvili, ex-Communist leader, trailed with 17% and charged that there was widespread vote rigging.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A16)
2000        Apr 9, In Greece Premier Costas Simitis declared a narrow victory over the New Democracy opposition, 43.68-43.03%.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A14)
2000        Apr 9, North and South Korea agreed to a summit meeting in June.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A1)
2000        Apr 9, In Peru Pres. Fujimori led Alejandro Toledo with 48% of the vote and a runoff was planned.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A1)

2001        Apr 9, President George W. Bush sent Congress details of his $1.96 trillion budget for fiscal 2002, in which he targeted scores of federal programs to make room for his 10-year, $1.6 trillion tax cut.
    (AP, 4/9/02)
2001        Apr 9, The WSJ noted that his was the 10th time since WW II that the S&P 500 dropped by 20% or more. 9 of the previous occasions showed an average gain of 18% a year later. In 1973, however, stocks fell an additional 35%.
    (WSJ, 4/9/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 9, The Nasdaq 4,880 stocks completed pricings to dollars and cents instead of fractions.
    (WSJ, 4/9/01, p.C9)
2001        Apr 9, American Airlines completed the acquisition of bankrupt Trans World Airlines (TWA) and became the world’s largest air carrier.
    (SFC, 4/10/01, p.C4)(AP, 4/9/02)
2001        Apr 9, Willie Stargell (b.1940), baseball Hall-of-Famer (1987) died in Wilmington, N.C., at age 61.
    (AP, 4/9/02)(NW, 12/31/01, p.108)
2001        Apr 9, In Burundi villagers were caught in crossfire fighting between the army and Hutu rebels. 11-30 people were killed and thousands were forced to flee their homes.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C2)
2001        Apr 9, In Kosovo a British helicopter crashed near the Macedonia border and 2 people were killed with 5 injured.
    (SFC, 4/10/01, p.A11)
2001        Apr 9, In Pakistan hundreds of thousands of radical Muslims, followers of the Deoband Dar-ul-Uloom brand of Islam, gathered for a rally in Peshawar.
    (SFC, 4/10/01, p.A12)
2001        Apr 9, In Zimbabwe riot police clashed with university students and one was killed with 30 injured. The students protested “sugar daddies" who pursued impoverished female students.
    (WSJ, 4/10/01, p.A1)

2002        Apr 9, Sec. of State Colin Powell met with Pres. Mubarek in Egypt and stated that he would meet with Yasser Arafat. Some 10,000 demonstrated in Alexandria and one protester was killed by police.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A18)(SFC, 4/17/02, p.A14)
2002        Apr 9, Former Arthur Andersen auditor David B. Duncan pleaded guilty in federal court in Houston to ordering the shredding of Enron documents, and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors. Duncan later withdrew his plea.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2002        Apr 9, Lynne Stewart, lawyer for Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman (in prison for seditious conspiracy), and 3 of Rahman’s followers were indicted for violating federal restrictions and passing covert messages. [see 1995]
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 9, Figure skater Michelle Kwan won the 2001 Sullivan Award as the nation’s top amateur athlete.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2002        Apr 9, The WSJ redesigned the front page for the 1st time since 1942.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 9, In Dover Township, New Jersey, Edward Lutes, a former police officer, killed 5 of his neighbors and wounded 2 others. He wounded his boss in Barnegat Township and then shot and killed himself.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A5)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A5)
2002        Apr 9, Amnesty Int’l. reported that at least 3,048 people were executed in 31 countries in 2001. China accounted for at least 1,781. 90% of the executed were from China, Iran, Saudi Arabia and the US.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A12)
2002        Apr 9, In Afghanistan some 20 thousand refugees, attempting to return from Pakistan refugee camps, were blocked by poppy growers. Rival warlords hindered the return of another 2 million.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A9)
2002        Apr 9, In Colombia a bomb killed 2 policemen near Bogota.
    (WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 9, The 12 day Israeli offensive continued and dozens of Palestinians were reported dead in the fiercest fighting to date. An explosion in the Jenin refugee camp killed 13 Israeli soldiers. PM Sharon declared Israel to be in a struggle for survival.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 9, In Mexico the Senate voted 71-41 to deny Pres. Fox permission to travel to the US and Canada next week. They wanted him to spend more time on domestic concerns.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A14)
2002        Apr 9, The 1-million member Workers Confederation planned a strike to support protesting oil executives of Petroleos de Venezuela, who were protesting tightening controls by Pres. Chavez. Later reports indicated US cash was used to support strike plans.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A9)

2003        Apr 9, In the 22nd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US commanders declared Saddam Hussein's rule over Baghdad over and jubilant crowds swarmed into the streets here, dancing, looting, cheering and bringing down images of the Iraqi leader. No more than 150 Iraqis gathered in Farbus Square to watch American Marines, not Iraqis, pull down a statue of Hussein.
    (AP, 4/9/03)(SFC, 4/10/03, p.A1)(AP, 4/16/03)
2003        Apr 9, The US said it will move its main military base in South Korea out of the capital as soon as possible.
    (AP, 4/9/03)
2003        Apr 9, James Smith (59), a senior FBI counterintelligence agent, was arrested in LA along with Katrina Leung (49), prominent venture capitalist, for the alleged theft and transfer of a classified defense document to the Chinese government. In 2004 Smith pleaded guilty failing to disclose his 2-year sexual relationship with Leung.
    (SFC, 4/10/03, p.A9)(NW, 4/21/03, p.6)(SFC, 5/13/04, p.A3)
2003        Apr 9, A large shipment of African rodents, including Gambian rats, dormice and sun squirrels, arrived in Dallas aboard a commercial flight from Ghana. An "unusually large number of sick and dead animals." Some of the larger animals had consumed the smaller ones. African rodents imported as pets caused a monkeypox outbreak in the Midwest that sickened dozens of adults and children with a virus related to smallpox.
    (AP, 11/29/06)
2003        Apr 9, China closed the People's Armed Police Hospital in Beijing due to SARS.
    (SFC, 4/26/03, A3)
2003        Apr 9, The European Union's parliament ratified a historic expansion, making it nearly certain that 10 mostly eastern European countries will join the bloc next year.
    (AP, 4/9/03)
2003        Apr 9, Israeli forces in the Gaza Strip killed 5 Palestinians following rocket fire on Sederot.
    (SFC, 4/10/03, p.A10)
2003        Apr 9, In Geneva inventions from around the planet were presented during the world's largest inventions fair.
    (AP, 4/10/03)(SFC, 4/10/03, p.A2)
2003        Apr 9, Abraham Zabludovsky (78), Polish-born Mexican architect, died. His projects included the Rufino Tamayo Museum in Mexico City.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.A28)

2004        Apr 9, Sein Lwin (81), who served briefly as Myanmar's president in 1988, died.
    (AP, 4/10/04)   
2004        Apr 9, US forces partially reoccupied Kut, the southern city seized by a rebellious Shiite militia, but an American-declared halt in Fallujah was undercut by bursts of gunfire on the first anniversary of the fall of Baghdad. 2 soldiers and a Marine died in separate incidents. Rebels attacked a convoy near Baghdad's airport and kidnapped 2 US soldiers and 7 construction employees of Halliburton subsidiary KBR. 4 bodies were found in the area a few days later. The body of civilian truck driver William Bradley was found in January 2005; Thomas Hamill escaped his captors in May 2004; Timothy Bell remains unaccounted for. Army reservist Staff Sgt. Matt Maupin (20) of Batavia, Ohio, was captured when his fuel convoy, part of the 724th Transportation Co., was ambushed west of Baghdad. Maupin's remains were found in March on the outskirts of Baghdad, about 12 miles from where the convoy was ambushed.
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.A22)(SFC, 4/13/04, p.A1)(SFC, 4/14/04, p.A15)(AP, 4/9/05)(AP, 6/17/06)(WSJ, 4/28/08, p.A2)
2004        Apr 9, In Nepal police detained more than a thousand protesters for defying a ban on public rallies, as an estimated 25,000 demonstrators flooded the streets of the Katmandu to demand that the king restore democracy.
    (AP, 4/9/04)
2004        Apr 9, Rival Tamil Tiger guerrilla factions fought with mortars and guns, in a battle that killed at least nine people, wounded 20.
    (AP, 4/9/04)
2004        Apr 9, Investigators in the Ukraine reported that the bodies of at least 50 people believed to have been killed by Nazi troops have been unearthed from a mass grave in the Crimean peninsula, 550 miles southeast of Kiev.
    (AP, 4/10/04)

2005        Apr 9, Andrea Dworkin (58), feminist author, died in Washington.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2005        Apr 9, The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecast the Bangladesh economy would grow at a modest 5.2 percent in the 2004-2005 financial year despite floods and high oil and commodity prices.
    (AFP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, Chinese PM Wen Jiabao arrived in Bangalore on the last leg of a 4 nation South Asia tour for talks with Indian leaders expected to boost trade and narrow differences.
    (AFP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, Czech PM Stanislav Gross said he would resign and make way for a new coalition government because of a scandal surrounding the financing of his luxury apartment.
    (AP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles were married in a modest civil ceremony at the 17th century Guildhall, and the second marriage for each was blessed by the Church of England.
    (AP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, Haitian police shot and killed Remissainthe Ravix, a prominent rebel leader, who helped force former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide into exile last year.
    (AP, 4/10/05)
2005        Apr 9-2005 Apr 10, In India at least 58 Hindu pilgrims were drowned overnight during a ritual bathing when the gates of a dam several kilometers upriver were opened by officials unaware of the religious festival on the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh state.
    (AP, 4/11/05)
2005        Apr 9, Tens of thousands of Shiites marked the anniversary of the fall of Baghdad with a protest against the American military presence at the square where Iraqis and U.S. troops toppled a statue of Saddam Hussein two years ago.
    (AP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, Militants in Iraq kidnapped Malik Mohammed Javed, a Pakistani diplomat, on his way to a mosque for prayers. The Omar bin Khattab group, a previously unknown group, claimed responsibility for the abduction.
    (AP, 4/10/05)
2005        Apr 9, Israeli border troops shot and killed 3 Palestinian youths in a southern Gaza Strip refugee camp in violence that ended weeks of calm.
    (AP, 4/9/05)(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.A5)
2005        Apr 9, In Nepal 2 Russian tourists were injured, two Nepali citizens were killed and 13 others wounded in separate bombings by Maoist rebels.
    (Reuters, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, In South Africa the federal council of the New National Party, the successor to the National Party that led apartheid, overwhelmingly approved the party's dissolution at a meeting in Johannesburg. The National Party, which came to power in 1948, presided over 48 years of systematic and often brutal oppression of the country's black majority, who were denied the right to vote or to mix with whites.
    (AP, 4/9/05)
2005        Apr 9, A day after the funeral for Pope John Paul II, cardinals began an intense period of silence and prayer before their conclave to choose the next pope.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

2006        Apr 9, The White House sought to dampen the idea of a military strike on Iran, saying the United States was conducting “normal defense and intelligence planning" in response to Tehran’s nuclear ambitions.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2006        Apr 9, More than half a million people in 10 US states rallied for immigrant rights.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2006        Apr 9, In Afghan 2 bombs exploded within minutes of each other in Kandahar, wounding 11 people.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, In Austria a gathering of Imams and Islamic leaders urged European governments to launch affirmative action-style programs and streamline citizenship paths to help ease integration for the continent's 33 million Muslims.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, Paulo Mendes da Rocha, Brazilian architect, was named winner of the 2006 Pritzker Architecture Prize. His work included the Brazilian Sculpture Museum in Sao Paulo.
    (SFC, 4/10/06, p.A2)
2006        Apr 9, Croatia’s Pres. Stjepan Mesic visited the SF Bay Area, home to some 50,000 Croatians, for economic support. Croatia’s population stood at about 4.5 million people.
    (SFC, 4/10/06, p.A2)
2006        Apr 9, Hungary's ruling Socialists appeared to hold a narrow lead in the first round of parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, A Beauty pageant was held in a Baghdad social club and the initial winner, Tamar Goregian, gave back the crown four days later. Silva Shahakian, an Iraqi Christian, received the title of Miss Iraq when the initial winner stepped down after receiving death threats and two other runners-up also bowed out. Shahakian soon went into hiding.
    (AP, 4/12/06)
2006        Apr 9, Five roadside bombs killed at least three people in Iraq, the three-year anniversary of the Baghdad's fall to US forces. American troops killed eight suspected insurgents during a raid north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, Israel's security Cabinet recommended that the government cut all ties with the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority, including Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, and declare it a "hostile entity." Israeli artillery fire killed a Palestinian police officer and wounded 16 people in Gaza, as Israel escalated its retaliation for militant rocket strikes and put pressure on the new Hamas-led government that refuses to stop the attacks.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9-2006 Apr 10, Italy held parliamentary elections. Conservative Premier Silvio Berlusconi faced a strong challenge from his center-left opponent Romano Prodi in a bitter campaign marked by disenchantment over Italy's stagnant economy.
    (AP, 4/9/06)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.28)
2006        Apr 9, A capsule carrying a Russian, American and Brazilian landed in Kazakhstan following a weeklong trip to the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SSFC, 4/9/06, p.A3)
2006        Apr 9, In Nepal security forces fired at anti-monarchy demonstrators in eastern Nepal, killing at least one man.
    (AP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, In Pakistan provincial police chief Chaudhry Mohammad Yaqub said "The federal government has declared Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA) as terrorist organization over its involvement in sabotage and subversive activities."
    (AFP, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, In Pakistan at least 29 women and children were suffocated or crushed to death in a stampede at a religious gathering in southern Pakistan. More than 70 people were injured.
    (Reuters, 4/9/06)
2006        Apr 9, Peruvians faced a close, three-way presidential contest that put their Andean nation on a leftist track akin to Venezuela and Bolivia. Ollanta Humala (43), a former army officer, won with only 31% of the vote.
    (AP, 4/9/06)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.42)
2006        Apr 9, A Swiss investigator has issued an international arrest warrant for Iran's former intelligence chief in the killing of an exiled Iranian opposition leader. It demands the arrest of Ali Fallahian, intelligence minister from 1989-1997, on grounds he "decided and ordered the execution of Kazem Rajavi." Rajavi was shot to death in Geneva in 1990.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

2007        Apr 9, President Bush visited the US-Mexico border to tout a guest worker program for immigrants.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2007        Apr 9, Don Imus, nationally syndicated shock jock, was suspended for 2 weeks by CBS Radio and MSNBC due to his calling members of the Rutgers Univ. women’s basketball team “nappy-headed ho’s." On April 11 NBC News decided to fire him; CBS followed the next day.
    (SFC, 4/10/07, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 9, Suspected Taliban militants ambushed an Afghan army convoy with rocket propelled grenades in southern Afghanistan, killing two soldiers and wounding up to 14. Suspected Taliban attacked a police vehicle north of Kandahar city, leaving a policeman dead.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, Thousands of teachers walked out of public schools across Argentina in a daylong strike to demand higher pay and justice for a slain colleague.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, Britain's government beat a hasty retreat under withering criticism for allowing sailors and marines to be paid large sums for their stories about captivity in Iran.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, East Timor held elections. A Nobel laureate squared off with two rivals in presidential elections that could test East Timor's fragile calm a year after one of the world's youngest and poorest nations reached the brink of civil war.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, An Ethiopian judge freed 25 journalists charged in a treason trial involving more than 100 opposition figures that has drawn international criticism as being politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, State press reported that China's farmland is becoming increasingly polluted, with coal-dependent factories and polluted waterways causing billions of dollars in damages.
    (AFP, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, China urged Sudan to be more flexible on a plan put forward by former UN chief Kofi Annan to bolster peacekeeping operations in the war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3,000 centrifuges, dramatically expanding a program that the UN has demanded it halt. An Iranian Revolutionary Guard general visited Russia despite a UN travel ban over Tehran nuclear defiance. Russia denied any violation.
    (AP, 4/9/07)(WSJ, 4/10/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 9, Tens of thousands draped themselves in Iraqi flags and marched peacefully through the streets from Kufa to Najaf to mark the fourth anniversary of Baghdad's fall. Demonstrators were flanked by two cordons of police as they called for US forces to leave, shouting "Get out, get out occupier!" In southern Baghdad, a sniper killed a civilian and a policeman, and a mortar round killed one person and wounded two others. A total of 25 people were killed or found dead across Iraq. 4 US soldiers were killed, 3 by a roadside bomb and a secondary explosion in southeastern Baghdad and another in combat in western Anbar province.
    (AP, 4/9/07)(AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, Japan lent some 850 million dollars to PM Nuri al-Maliki's government as the oil-hungry Asian power looked to boost output from the war-torn country. Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki met with Japan's Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, starting off a four-day visit that was delayed after Iran refused to allow his plane to fly over its airspace.
    (AP, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, Pakistan’s army announced that the Talibs had cleared foreigners from South Waziristan.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.43)
2007        Apr 9, Puerto Rico seven inmates, convicted of homicides, escaped from prison using ventilation ducts.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, Two Russian cosmonauts and US billionaire Charles Simony bringing a gourmet meal arrived at the international space station, to a warm welcome from current crewmen.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, Officials said the yearly salaries of Singapore's well-paid government ministers are headed higher, by 60 percent to more than $1.25 million by the end of 2008. Premier Lee Hsein Lloong will now make $2.1 million a year.
    (AP, 4/9/07)(WSJ, 4/10/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 9, A Sudanese army spokesman said 17 Sudanese soldiers were killed in clashes with Chadian troops inside Sudanese territory.
    (Reuters, 4/9/07)
2007        Apr 9, In an Easter message pinned to church bulletin boards around the country, Zimbabwe's Roman Catholic bishops called on President Robert Mugabe to leave office or face "open revolt" from those suffering under his government.
    (AP, 4/9/07)

2008        Apr 9, In Washington US commander Gen. David Petraeus called for an open-ended suspension of US troop withdrawals this summer because of concern over the renewed fighting.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, The California Supreme Court rejected San Francisco’s appeal of a lower court ruling that limited its ability regulate handguns as approved by voters in 2005.
    (SFC, 4/10/08, p.B1)
2008        Apr 9, In SF officials rerouted the rout of the Beijing Olympic torch at the last minute avoiding most protestors and spectators.
    (SFC, 4/10/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 9, In Afghanistan international forces' warplanes dropped bombs on a group of Taliban militants traveling by motorcycle overnight, killing 3 insurgents in Zabul province.
    (AFP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, State media said China will ban smoking on school campuses as part of an effort to cut down on tobacco use before the Olympics.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, In Haiti a desperate appeal from Pres. Preval failed to restore order to Port-au-Prince, and bands of looters sacked stores, warehouses and government offices.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines cancelled all flights and went into liquidation as a result of high fuel costs.
    (SFC, 4/10/08, p.C4)
2008        Apr 9, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki told Pres. Bush during a 20-minute telephone conversation that Iraqi security forces are capable of carrying out their duties and US troops should be pulled out as the situation permits. 23 people, including 3 children, died in Baghdad's Sadr City as clashes between security forces and Shiite militiamen continued on the fifth anniversary of the fall of Baghdad. 2 US soldiers died from non-combat related injuries. 3 US soldiers died in a roadside bombings in Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(AP, 4/10/08)(SFC, 4/10/08, p.A3)
2008        Apr 9, Japanese lawmakers approved Masaaki Shirakawa as the new central bank chief, ending a power vacuum that had left the nation's top economic job vacant for weeks with global markets in disarray.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, Nepal was hit by fresh violence, the eve of a landmark vote to decide the impoverished country's political destiny and scrap the monarchy.
    (AFP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, In Pakistan a street fight between pro- and anti-government attorneys broke out in Karachi leaving 7 people dead.
    (SFC, 4/10/08, p.A9)
2008        Apr 9, Palestinian militants crossed into southern Israel and killed two Israeli civilians in a surprise attack before fleeing back to the Gaza Strip. At least one of the militants who attacked the Israeli terminal delivering fuel to the Gaza Strip was killed. Israel sent tanks, troops and aircraft into the Palestinian territory after the raid, killing at least 8 Palestinians, including 3 civilians, and warned that more reprisals could be coming.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(AP, 4/10/08)
2008        Apr 9, In Peru 5 French tourists visiting the Nazca lines were killed when their small plane crashed after becoming tangled in power lines.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, Singapore's Media Development Authority, which regulates and censors media and the arts, said it fined StarHub S$10,000 (3,675 pounds) for airing a commercial for a song that featured "romanticized scenes" of lesbians kissing and portrayed the relationship as "acceptable."
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, The conservative party of South Korea's new president won an overall majority in parliamentary elections, according to TV exit polls, giving him the power to push through sweeping economic reforms. The GNP won 153 seats in the 299-member legislature.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.50)
2008        Apr 9, Spanish astronomers announced the discovery of "GJ 436T," the smallest planet discovered to date outside the solar system, located 30 light years from earth.
    (AFP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, In Sudan gunmen attacked police from the African Union and UN peacekeeping force (UNAMID) in Darfur for the first time, pistol whipping one officer in the back of the neck. UNAMID police do not carry weapons and this particular patrol was on duty without protection.
    (AFP, 4/10/08)
2008        Apr 9, Thai police dropped charges against Viktor Bout (41), a Russian man accused of being one of the world's most prolific black market arms dealers, saying they will proceed with hearings to extradite him to the United States.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, President Hugo Chavez's government said it will nationalize Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker, bringing one more key industry under state control in its drive toward a socialist economy.
    (AP, 4/9/08)
2008        Apr 9, President Hugo Chavez's government said it will nationalize Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker and a unit of Ternium SA, bringing one more key industry under state control in its drive toward a socialist economy. Ternium, based in Luxembourg, was controlled by Argentine owners.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(SFC, 4/10/08, p.A9)
2008        Apr 9, International calls for Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe to release long-delayed results from a presidential vote mounted as ruling party militants continued to overrun white-owned farms and the opposition accused the government of waging a campaign of violence.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2009        Apr 9, Pres. Obama submitted an $83.4 billion funding request to Congress, including $80 million to close Guantanamo, as lawmakers were on break over the Easter holidays.
    (AP, 4/22/09)
2009        Apr 9, FBI hostage negotiators joined US Navy efforts to free an American ship captain held captive on a lifeboat by Somali pirates. A US destroyer and a spy plane kept close watch in the high-seas standoff near the Horn of Africa. Capt. Richard Phillips made a desperate escape attempt but was recaptured.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 4/10/09)
2009        Apr 9, The SEC charged Atlanta attorney Robert P. Copeland (48) for running a Ponzi scheme from about 2004-2009. He was alleged to have raised over $35 million from at least 140 investors and owed over $28 million to the victims.
    (WSJ, 4/10/09, p.C3)(www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2009/lr20994.htm)
2009        Apr 9, Vandals in the San Jose, and San Carlos, Ca., chopped fiber optic cables disrupting service for hundreds of thousands of people in Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and San Benito counties.
    (SFC, 4/10/09, p.A1)
2009        Apr 9, In Mena, Arkansas, a tornado struck a "direct hit" on this mountain community, killing at least three people, injuring at least 30 others and flattening homes and businesses.
    (AP, 4/10/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Fullerton, Ca., Los Angeles Angels pitcher Nick Adenhart (22) was killed along with 2 others in a car accident with a suspected drunk driver.
    (SFC, 4/10/09, p.C1)
2009        Apr 9, Dave Arneson (61), co-creator of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy game (1974) and a pioneer of role-playing entertainment, died after a two-year battle with cancer.
    (AP, 4/10/09)(SFC, 4/11/09, p.B3)
2009        Apr 9, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber attacked a police drug eradication unit, killing five people and wounding 17 others. The Taliban claimed responsibility. Four people were shot dead in the raid overnight in eastern Khost province. The US military later admitted that they were not "armed combatants" as first announced. A nine-months pregnant woman had survived the shooting that killed her unborn child. US soldiers working with Afghan forces killed 15 militants in southern Afghanistan. Afghan and coalition forces killed five "combatants" in Kandahar province's Maywand district. A dozen more insurgents were killed in adjoining Uruzgan province after another attack on an Afghan and coalition patrol.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 4/10/09)(AFP, 4/10/09)
2009        Apr 9, Algerians voted in a presidential election that is expected to give the incumbent Abdelaziz Bouteflika another five years to try to quell terrorism and reform the North African country's lackluster economy, which is heavily dependent on oil and gas. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika won 90.24% of the vote.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(Reuters, 4/10/09)
2009        Apr 9, Amnesty International said immigrants and ethnic minorities living in Austria are more likely to be suspected of crimes than whites and are regularly denied their right to equal treatment by the country's police and judicial system.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, In southern Bangladesh 2 speeding passenger buses crashed into each other, killing at least 11 people and injuring another 50.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Bob Quick, Scotland Yard's Assistant Commissioner and Britain's most senior counter-terrorism officer, quit after his security blunder forced police to bring forward a major operation to thwart a suspected al Qaeda plot involving Pakistani nationals.
    (Reuters, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, A Chinese court executed two men from a Muslim minority group for killing 17 police in an attack in China's far west that the government portrayed as an attempt to sabotage the Beijing Olympics.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, A top human rights group said in a report that at least 90 women have been raped and 180 villagers killed over the past two months by rebels as well as government forces in volatile eastern Congo.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Czech Pres. Vaclav Klaus appointed nonpartisan Jan Fischer (58) as prime minister. He will replace Mirek Topolanek on May 9.
    (WSJ, 4/10/09, p.A8)
2009        Apr 9, A court in coup-plagued Fiji declared the military government illegal and said the president should immediately appoint an interim leader to oversee a return to democracy.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, French lawmakers rejected a tough new Internet piracy bill that would cut off illegal downloaders, in a surprise setback for President Nicolas Sarkozy's government.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Georgia tens of thousands of protesters thronged the streets in front of the parliament, calling on Pres. Mikhail Saakashvili to step down in the largest opposition demonstration since last year's war with Russia.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Guatemala banned more than one person from riding on motorcycles in a policy aimed at stamping out attacks by cycle-mounted hit men.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, A prominent Indian comedian took aim at the country's notoriously corrupt political elite by starting up his own party with promises to bribe as many voters as possible. Jaspal Bhatti, known for his biting satire on Indian TV shows, unveiled his new party and field of candidates, saying he hoped to give the big parties a run for their dirty money.
    (AFP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Indonesians flooded polling stations across the sprawling island nation, capping a decade of democracy in a parliamentary election that boosted the reform-minded president's chances of re-election. Pres. Yudhoyono’s party won 20.8% of the popular vote. Nine parties appeared to have passed the 2.5% threshold to win seats in the 560-member parliament.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(SFC, 4/10/09, p.A2)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.44)(AP, 5/10/09)
2009        Apr 9, Iran's president inaugurated a new facility producing uranium fuel for a planned heavy-water nuclear reactor. Pres. Ahmadinejad was attending celebrations in Isfahan for Iran's National Day of Nuclear Technology, which marks the day in 2006 when Iran enriched uranium for the first time. Iran has been building the 40-megawatt hard-water reactor in the central town of Arak for the past four years.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Iraq tens of thousands of supporters of an anti-US Shiite cleric demanded an end to the US military presence and burned effigy of ex-President George W. Bush in a rally marking the sixth anniversary of the fall of Baghdad to American forces. Police raided a cartoon exhibition in the Shiite city of Karbala and seized a drawing depicting PM Nouri al-Maliki with a long nose trying to repair a car labeled "sectarian distribution of jobs." On Apr 12 a parliamentary committee criticized police for raiding the exhibition.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 4/12/09)
2009        Apr 9, Mexico City turned off the tap to millions of residents because water reserves have reached historic lows. The two-day shutdown of a main pipeline affected at least 5 million of the 20 million people in the Mexico City valley.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Mexico a former Guatemalan soldier, who allegedly procured weapons for a drug cartel, was killed in a gunfight with federal police. Israel Nava and two other gunmen were killed in northern Zacatecas state. Eight police were wounded. Nava was a former member of the "kaibiles," Guatemalan soldiers trained in counterinsurgency. Mexico first warned in 2005 that the Zetas were recruiting kaibiles.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, A Niger government minister said Tuareg rebels have agreed to lay down their arms and join a peace process in the desert West African nation.
    (AP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Nigeria's Central Bank cut its benchmark lending rate to 8% from 9.75% and announced measures aimed at boosting liquidity in the market.
    (AFP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, Kim Jong Il laid to rest speculation about his health with a triumphant return to parliament for his appointment to a third term as North Korea's supreme leader. Legislators unanimously adopted a law "on revising and supplementing the Socialist Constitution of the DPRK (North Korea)" but gave no details.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AFP, 4/9/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Pakistan the remains 3 politicians were discovered in Baluchistan province, six days after they were reportedly abducted by armed men. They were identified as the head of the Baluchistan National Party (BNP), Ghulam Mohammad Baloch, his deputy Lala Munir Baloch, and Sher Mohammad, deputy secretary general of the Baluchistan Republican Party (BRP). Baloch played "an active role" in seeking the April 4 release of John Solecki, the UN refugee agency staffer. Rioting students set fire to two banks in another southwestern town. One policeman was killed and several others injured during the violent protests.
    (AP, 4/10/09)(AFP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 9, In Peru suspected guerrillas killed 13 Peruvian soldiers in ambushes on two patrols in the Apurimac-Ene river valley, a jungle region known for coca production and lingering rebel activity. The body of a 14th soldier was recovered on April 12.
    (AP, 4/11/09)(SFC, 4/14/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 9, In South Africa an armed mob invaded a major land reform project in the eastern Mpumalanga province. The invaders were unhappy with the progress of the project, despite warnings that it would take up to three years before a return from what had been badly neglected farms.
    (Reuters, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 9, Sri Lanka’s defense ministry said at least 10 Tiger rebels were killed in overnight fighting in Mullaittivu district, and accused the rebels of positioning their heavy weapons near civilian shelters. The pro-Tamil Tiger website Tamilnet.com said heavy shelling by the Sri Lankan army of a designated safe area had left 129 civilians dead and 282 wounded.
    (AFP, 4/9/09)

2010        Apr 9, US Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens said he will step down when the court finishes its work for the summer in late June or early July.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, Meinhardt Raabe (94), who played the Munchkin coroner in "The Wizard of Oz" (1938) and proclaimed in the movie that the Wicked Witch of the East was "really most sincerely dead," died in Florida. He was about 3 1/2 feet tall when the movie was made but eventually grew to about 4 1/2 feet. He toured the country for 30 years in the Oscar Mayer Weinermobile, promoting hot dogs as "Little Oscar, the World's Smallest Chef."
    (AP, 4/10/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb struck a small bus in the Kushki Kuhna district of the western province of Herat, killing three civilians and wounding five. An international patrol discovered 2,500 pounds (1,130 kg) of marijuana seeds in a vacant residential compound in Helmand's Reg district. NATO said the seeds would be destroyed as part of efforts to cut funding for insurgents from the drug trade.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, Australia suspended refugee applications from Afghans for 6 months and 3 months for Sri Lankans, citing improved conditions in those countries. Human rights advocates expressed concern about the move and an immigrant group condemned it.
    (AP, 4/9/10)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.47)
2010        Apr 9, Antanas Mockus, Colombian presidential candidate and popular former mayor of Bogota, revealed that he has been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Mockus said he is in the earlier stages of the degenerative disease and it would not affect his ability to be president.
    (AP, 4/10/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Congo 7 Congolese and one Swiss national, staff members of the Red Cross, were seized near the town of Fizi in South Kivu province by the Mai Mai Yakutumba rebels. The workers were released on April 16.
    (AP, 4/13/10)(AP, 4/16/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Ethiopia Communications Minister Bereket Simon announced that leaders of the United Western Somali Liberation Front (UWSLF), a rebel group in the southeastern Somali region, has agreed to lay down arms after decades of guerrilla war.
    (AFP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Germany delegates from 175 countries began a 3-day meeting in Bonn on a new global warming agreement.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, France and Italy agreed to cooperate more closely to increase nuclear power generation and vowed to come to the aid of debt-laden Greece in order to defend the euro.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Ingushetia a female suicide bomber killed herself after shooting dead a policeman in Ekazhevo. 3 other militants were killed in Ekazhevo in gunfights with police.
    (Reuters, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, Iran unveiled a third generation of domestically built centrifuges as the country pushes ahead with plans to accelerate a uranium enrichment program that has alarmed world powers fearful of the nuclear program's aims.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, In central Mexico police found the bodies of two men hanging from a bridge in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos state, along with a message claiming that federal authorities are protecting an alleged drug kingpin. A late night attacker threw an explosive device over the wall around the US consulate in the border city of Nuevo Laredo, breaking windows and startling employees inside but causing no injuries.
    (AP, 4/10/10)
2010        Apr 9, In the Netherlands the Political Reformed Party, known by its Dutch acronym SGP, a fundamentalist Christian political party led entirely by men, was told by the Netherlands' Supreme Court that it must accept women in leadership roles.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, Nigerian gunmen kidnapped three Syrian expatriates and one Lebanese worker near the oil hub Port Harcourt. A police officer attached to the construction firm was killed when gunmen launched the attack. The 4 kidnapped men were released on April 12.
    (AP, 4/9/10)(AFP, 4/14/10)
2010        Apr 9, Pakistani security forces killed 29 militants in two troubled tribal regions near Afghanistan, as troops pressed on with operations aimed at flushing out insurgents who have threatened the state.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, In Somalia witnesses said Islamists were seizing radio transmitters that let the local population hear news programs from the British Broadcasting Corporation. Al-Shabab said the BBC broadcasts anti-Islamic propaganda.
    (AP, 4/9/10)
2010        Apr 9, Thai anti-government protesters stormed into a telecom company compound where authorities had shut down their vital TV channel, as soldiers and riot police failed to hold them back with tear gas and water cannons.
    (AP, 4/9/10)

2011        Apr 9, American film director Sidney Lumet (86) died of Lymphoma. His films included “12 Angry Men" (1957), “Serpico" (1973), and “Before the Devil Knows You’re Dead" (2007).
    (SFC, 4/15/11, p.E2)
2011        Apr 9, In Las Vegas Elena Caro (42) died after a botched buttocks enhancement surgery in the back room of a tile business. Two Colombia nationals, Ruben Dario Matallana-Galvas (55) and Carmen Olfidia Torres-Sanchez (47), were soon arrested as they tried to board a plane to return home.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A4)
2011        Apr 9, In Bahrain 2 supporters of the anti-government movement died in police custody. Human rights blogger Zakariya al-Asheri died under police custody. He was detained in March after authorities imposed martial law to quell Shiite-led protests against Sunni rulers. On Jan 11, 2012, two police officers were charged with beating the blogger with a water hose. Three others were charged with hiding the beatings from prison authorities.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A4)(AP, 1/11/12)(http://tinyurl.com/7pr4qbw)
2011        Apr 9, Egypt’s military stormed Tahrir Square to disperse some 2000 protesters. At least one demonstrator was shot dead and 71 others injured.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A7)
2011        Apr 9, Honduras' defense minister said that the country's armed forces will join the police for the first time in the fight against drug trafficking.
    (AP, 4/9/11)
2011        Apr 9, Icelanders voted in a referendum on whether the nation will repay Britain and the Netherlands in full for compensating their citizens who had deposits in Icesave, a failed online bank. Voters rejected the government-backed deal, sending the dispute to an int’l. court.
    (SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)(SFC, 4/11/11, p.A2)
2011        Apr 9, In northern Iraq an American soldier died in a non-hostile incident.
    (AP, 4/10/11)
2011        Apr 9, In Libya rebels captured 15 Algerian mercenaries and killed another three during fierce fighting in Ajdabiya. At least 12 rebels were killed in and around Ajdabiya.
    (AP, 4/10/11)
2011        Apr 9, In the Netherlands Tristan van der Vlis (24), opened fire at the Ridderhof mall in Alphen aan den Rijn with an automatic rifle killing 6 people and wounded least 17 others. He fired more than 100 rounds in a few minutes and ended the rampage by shooting himself fatally in the head.
    (AP, 4/10/11)(AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 9, Nigeria held parliamentary elections. The ruling party lost key parliament seats in the first of three crucial elections this month.
    (AFP, 4/10/11)
2011        Apr 9, In Northern Ireland a 500-pound van bomb was diffused near the border town of Newry.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A4)
2011        Apr 9, Syrian security forces fired on a funeral for protesters in Daraa. Some 37 people were killed around the country with most of the deaths in Daraa as the death toll in 3 weeks of protests climbed to over 170.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.A7) 
2011        Apr 9, In the UAR activist, Fahad Salem al-Shehhy was detained in Ajman, a federation emirate north of Dubai.
    (AP, 4/10/11)
2011        Apr 9, In Yemen security forces shot and wounded 30 people in Sanaa, while 80 others suffered injuries from beatings with batons. At least one anti-regime protester died following clashes, while three other people were killed, including an intelligence officer and a soldier, in violence in Abyan province. An intelligence officer was killed in a drive-by shooting outside his home in the Loder area of Abyan. A soldier and a militant were killed in a clash between security forces and suspected Al-Qaeda fighters in Jaar, also in Abyan.
    (AFP, 4/10/11)

2012        Apr 9, Pres. Obama met with Brazil’s Pres. Dilma Rouseff. She called on the US to invest more in the world’s 6th biggest economy. Obama confirmed that the US would recognize cachaca, a sugarcane spirit, as a distinct product, no longer calling it Brazilian rum.
    (SFC, 4/10/12, p.A5)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.48)
2012        Apr 9, In Minnesota a mother who had dropped her toddler at a day care center in Brooklyn Park, soon returned and found 3 adults shot dead inside. Her child was not hurt.
    (SFC, 4/10/12, p.A7)
2012        Apr 9, In Pennsylvania 2 firefighters were killed while battling a massive blaze in an abandoned warehouse in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 4/10/12, p.A7)
2012        Apr 9, Best Buy CEO Brian Dunn resigned. It was soon reported that he had misused company funds while carrying out a relationship with a female subordinate. The 28-year company veteran had been head of Best Buy, the nation's largest consumer electronics chain, since 2009. Co-founder and board chairman Richard M. Schulze resigned on May 14 after it was disclosed that he had been aware of Dunn’s affair and did not report it to the board.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7ut6549)(SFC, 5/15/12, p.D3)
2012        Apr 9, In Bahrain jailed activist Abdulhadi al-Khawaja was feared to have died after Bahraini authorities turned down repeated requests to contact him. A blast injured seven policemen and led to reprisals by Sunni mobs.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 9, Bruno Iksil, a London-based JP Morgan Chase & Co trader of derivatives linked to the financial health of corporations, was reported to have amassed positions so large that he was driving price moves in the $10-trillion market. Iksil lost the bank about $6 billion. In 2013 JP Morgan Chase was fined around $1 billion by various authorities for failures related to trades by Iksil (aka the “London Whale"). 
    (http://tinyurl.com/cdgofmx)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.84)
2012        Apr 9, China’s Supreme People's Court clarified and tightened rules governing forced land expropriations in a bid to "protect the public interest and guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of expropriated home owners."
    (AFP, 4/10/12)
2012        Apr 9, An Indian court convicted 23 people over the “Ode massacre" of nearly two-dozen Muslims during religious rioting in Gujarat state on March 1, 2002. Another 23 people were acquitted for lack of evidence in the case. Rioting at the time left more than 2,000 dead. On April 12 the court sentenced 18 of the men to life imprisonment. Five other men were handed seven-year jail terms.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)
2012        Apr 9, Indonesia's only province ruled by Islamic law went to the polls to elect its powerful governor, testing a fragile peace following a 30-year war by separatist rebels. Irwandi Yusuf (51), the incumbent who was elected in December 2006, sought a second five-year term as governor of Aceh. Challenger Zaini Abdullah (71) of the powerful Aceh Party won 55% of the vote. Yusuf took 29%.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.51)
2012        Apr 9, Japan’s Nikkei business daily reported that Sony will cut 10,000 jobs worldwide this year as it attempts to carry out sweeping reforms aimed at reviving the iconic but loss-making Japanese electronics giant.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, Kyrgyzstan authorities began testing members of the new anti-corruption agency on live television in a bid to display an unusual level of transparency in this corruption-riddled Central Asian nation.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, Libya's official LANA news agency reported that interim authorities have stopped paying bonuses to former rebels due to widespread fraud costing millions of Libyan dinars.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, In Nigeria Boko Haram gunmen killed a policeman, a civilian and a local politician in coordinated attacks in Dikwa, Borno state. Three Boko Haram terrorists were reportedly killed as others escaped with bullet wounds. In the northeastern city of Potiskum, gunmen opened fire on a policeman and his family, killing the policeman's 6-year-old daughter.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, In Pakistan gunmen on a motorcycle opened fire on Shiite Muslims in Quetta killing 6 people in an apparent sectarian attack.
    (SFC, 4/10/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 9, In Peru suspected Shining Path gunmen seized 30 Skanska workers overnight but soon freed 23 at the Kepashiato in the Camisea gas fields. The Swedish construction company was building a natural gas plant in the Amazon jungle. A rescue attempt soon left after left 8 soldiers and police dead by rebels under the Quispe Palomino brothers, who led some 500 combatants.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(SFC, 5/30/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 9, Russia's top investigative body said it has dropped charges against a doctor suspected of negligence in the case of Sergei Magnitsky, a prominent lawyer who reported official corruption in Russia, then died in custody in November, 2009, while suffering from untreated pancreatitis.
    (AP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, In Somalia a blast rocked a vegetable market in Baidoa, the country’s third-largest city, killing at least twelve people and wounding at least 30.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, In Spain four people died in a fire that destroyed a makeshift hut in which they were living in the northeastern city of Barcelona. Spanish National Radio cited police at the scene as saying they were Romanians.
    (AP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, Airlines cancelled flights from Sudan to the newly independent South, after new rules treating the route as international took effect.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, Syrian forces fired across the border into a refugee camp in Turkey, wounding at least five people. Lebanese journalist Ali Shaaban, who works as a cameraman for Al Jadeed TV station, was shot and killed as he was filming in the northern Wadi Khaled area on the Lebanese side of the border. 12 members of the Syrian security forces were killed as clashes ensued in several regions. Human Rights Watch said it has documented the killings by Syrian forces of 85 civilians, including women and children, and the summary executions of at least 16 wounded or captured opposition fighters. The Syrian rebel army said it is ready to respect an April 10 truce brokered by UN-Arab League envoy Kofi Annan if the regime of President Bashar al-Assad abides by the peace deal.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, Tunisian police fired tear gas to disperse a rally on Bourguiba Avenue in central Tunis where demonstrations are banned. Hundreds of demonstrators, marking Martyrs' Day (1938) and protesting against the ban imposed on March 28, sought shelter in neighboring streets and shops. At least 15 civilians and eight policemen were hurt. The journalists' union called on its members to boycott Interior Minister Ali Larayedh for a week over the crackdown.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/10/12)
2012        Apr 9, Turkey's PM Erdogan oversaw the signing of two nuclear agreements with China on a trip to the Asian nation that also saw him make an unprecedented stop in ethnically-tense Xinjiang. The two agreements paved the way for deeper nuclear cooperation between the two countries, but few concrete details were made available.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)
2012        Apr 9, In Yemen Al-Qaida-linked militants staged a dawn attack on a government army post in the south setting off clashes. At least 78 people were killed in Lawder, Abyan province.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/10/12)

2013        Apr 9, Spelling whizzes across the US learned that they will have to know the definitions of some of the those tough words they've been memorizing in the dictionary. For the first time, multiple-choice vocabulary tests will be added to the annual Scripps National Spelling Bee.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, The San Francisco Housing Authority commission voted unanimously to terminate the contract of its chief, Henry Alvarez.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A1)
2013        Apr 9, In Illinois former state Rep. Robin Kelly (D) won the special election for Jesse Jackson Jr.’s vacated congressional seat.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A4)
2013        Apr 9, In Maine Christopher Knight (47), who lived like a hermit for decades in a makeshift camp in the woods and may be responsible for more than 1,000 burglaries for food and other staples, was caught in a surveillance trap at a camp for people with special needs, which he treated as a "Walmart."
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 9, In Texas Dylan Quick (20), a student at the Cypress campus of Lone Star College, went on a stabbing spree wounding at least 14 people before being subdued and arrested.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A4)
2013        Apr 9, In eastern Afghanistan a NATO helicopter crashed in a field, killing two American service members in Nangarhar province.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, Albania pledged to hold a historic referendum on whether to scrap waste imports, a money-making program strongly opposed by environmentalists who say the poor Balkan country is already buried under its own trash.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, Australia’s PM Julia Gillard capped a 6-day trip to China with the formation of a “strategic partnershnip," a commitment to hold annual talks between their leaders.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.44)
2013        Apr 9, Bahrain arrested four suspects after homemade firebombs were hurled the previous evening at the foreign ministry in a possible escalation of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, Britain’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) announced sweeping changes in financial regulation, telling banks they can no longer blame customers when products go wrong and promising to study how consumers behave to make sure they can make the right decisions.
    (Reuters, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 9, British supermarket chain Asda said very low levels of the horse pain-killing drug phenylbutazone, also known as bute, had been found in horsemeat discovered in tins of corned beef. This was the first such case in Britain.
    (Reuters, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, In Colombia tens of thousands marched in Bogota to show their supoort for peace talks with FARC guerrillas.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.42)
2013        Apr 9, Iran announced two key nuclear-related projects that expand the country's ability to extract and process uranium, which can be enriched for reactor fuel but also potentially for atomic weapons.
    (AP, 4/9/13)   
2013        Apr 9, In Iran a 6.1 magnitude earthquake killed at least 37 people in a sparsely populated area in the country's south.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, An Israeli court sentenced  Milad Khatib (26), an Arab citizen of Israel, to seven years in prison for spying for the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, A judge in Tuscany fined Italian cruise line Costa Crociere SpA 1 million euros in administrative sanctions for the 2012 wreckage of the Concordia cruise ship that killed 32 people.
    (AP, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 9, Uhuru Kenyatta was sworn in as the Kenya's 4th president in a stadium filled with tens of thousands and a dozen African leaders.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, A Libyan lawmaker said parliament has approved a law that criminalizes torture and abduction.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 9, Mozambican authorities say they have made some arrests after recent attacks and fighting between police and alleged members of an opposition group killed at least seven people and wounded 13 people in the violence in Sofala province.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, Nigerian authorities arrested 251 suspected illegal immigrants at a busy market. Authorities were launching new immigration raids in the country as it faced threats from Islamic extremists.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 9, North Korea urged all foreign companies and tourists in South Korea to evacuate because it says the rival Koreas are on the eve of a nuclear war.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, In Serbia veteran Ljubisa Bogdanovic (60) gunned down 13 people in a pre-dawn, house-to-house rampage in Velika Ivanca, killing his mother, his son and a cousin (2) before shooting himself and his wife. Bogdanovic died the next day. His wife remained hospitalized.
    (AP, 4/9/13)(AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 9, South African officials said they have detected bird flu on an ostrich farm near Oudtshoorn, but that it is unrelated to the strain that has killed 8 people in China. The EU imposed a ban on imports of South African ostrich meat after a 2011 outbreak of the H5N2 strain.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 9, In South Sudan armed rebels that South Sudan believes are backed by Sudan opened fire on a UN convoy, killing five UN peacekeepers from India and at least seven civilians.
    (AP, 4/9/13)
2013        Apr 9, The United Nations reopened food distribution centers in Gaza that closed last week following a violent protest at a UN compound.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2014        Apr 9, It was reported that a virus, never before seen in the US, has killed millions of baby pigs since porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) first showed up in May, 2013.
    (SFC, 4/9/14, p.A5)
2014        Apr 9, Stuart Parkin (58) won the Finnish 1 million-euro ($1.3 million) Millennium Technology Prize for discoveries leading to a thousand-fold increase in digital data storage on magnetic disks. The British-American physicist directed the IBM-Stanford spintronic science center in California.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, An Alabama prosecutor said Jose Manuel Martinez (51), arrested a year ago in Arizona, has confessed to carrying out up to 40 slayings since 1980 as an enforcer for a drug cartel. Martinez was charged a day earlier with murdering 9 people in Central California.
    (SFC, 4/10/14, p.A9)
2014        Apr 9, In Florida the driver of an SUV caused a car to crash into a day care center killing a girl (4) and injuring 14 others. Robert Alex Corchado (28) surrendered to police the next day.
    (SFC, 4/11/14, p.A6)
2014        Apr 9, In Pennsylvania Alex Hribal (16) stabbed and slashed 21 fellow students and a security guard at the Franklin Regional High School in Murrysville.
    (SFC, 4/10/14, p.A7)
2014        Apr 9, In Texas Ramiro Hernandez-Llanas (44) was executed for the 1997 slaying of Glen Lich (49) a former Baylor Univ. history professor.
    (SFC, 4/10/14, p.A6)
2014        Apr 9, In Vienna, Austria, Iran and six major powers discussed all important issues on curbing Tehran's nuclear program and planned to begin a new round of negotiations in Vienna on May 13.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Belgian authorities destroyed over 1,500 kilos (3,300 pounds) of ivory that had been seized by customs over the past three decades to serve as a warning to international smugglers who kill elephants daily for their tusks.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, British Culture Secretary Maria Miller, who was in charge of legislation on press regulation and gay marriage, resigned after an embarrassing row over her parliamentary expense account.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Colombia Alejandro Correa (22) died after an unidentified person threw acid over 90% of his body. More than 900 such attacks have been documented in Colombia since 2004.
    (SSFC, 4/13/14, p.A4)
2014        Apr 9, Egypt state news said security forces have arrested a man who worked for Qatar's Al Jazeera television network and accused him of inciting and taking part in violence. Abdel Rahman Shaheen was described as a Muslim Brotherhood member.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, The EU published new rules on green energy designed to replace subsidies with market-based schemes. The rules take effect from July 1 this year and from 2017 all member states will have to hold tenders to support new green power facilities following a pilot phase from 2015-16.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, A French court blocked the extradition of exiled Kazakh oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov, an opposition figure wanted on embezzlement charges. Russia alleges Ablyazov embezzled $5 billion (3.6 billion euros). Ukraine accuses him of pilfering another $400 million.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, German prosecutors released more than 1,000 artworks found at the Munich apartment of reclusive collector Cornelius Gurlitt, days after he agreed to cooperate with authorities in determining which pieces were seized by the Nazis. At least 458 works owned by the collector that are being checked for a Nazi-era past remained in government hands.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Greece announced it was returning to international bond markets for the first time in four years. Thousands of striking Greeks marched to parliament on to protest against job cuts and austerity measures imposed by the country's foreign creditors.
    (AP, 4/9/14)(Reuters, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Indonesia held parliamentary elections. 190 million citizens were eligible to vote. Exit polls gave the opposition PDI-P 19% of the vote.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.33)
2014        Apr 9, Iran and Azerbaijan signed deals to build a hydroelectric plant and boost environmental and athletic cooperation as Azerbaijan's President Ilham Aliyev visited Iran.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Iraq car bombs hit several mostly Shiite neighborhoods of Baghdad and Numaniyah south of the capital, killing at least 34 people and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 4/9/14)(SFC, 4/10/14, p.A4)
2014        Apr 9, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. said it is recalling 6.39 million vehicles globally for a variety of problems spanning nearly 30 models in Japan, the US, Europe and other places.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Kenya expelled over 80 Somalis as security forces maintained a major crackdown on suspected Islamists that has seen thousands rounded up in the capital.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)(SFC, 4/10/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 9, Kuwait said three of its citizens have been kidnapped in Syria and it has asked Turkey for help in trying to secure their release. Kidnappers asked for a ransom of 1 million euros ($1.38 million).
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, Libya’s army announced it has taken control of Al-Hariga and Zueitina ports under a deal to end a crippling nine-month blockade by rebels seeking autonomy in the country's east.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Libya air force officer Abdel-Hamid al-Fetori died when a bomb attached to his car exploded, seriously injuring his wife and toddler. In response protesters took to the streets of Benghazi, burning tires and chanting anti-militia slogans.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Malaysia awarded a manufacturing license to a $618 million venture that will assemble fuel-efficient SUVs for China's Great Wall Motor Co. Privately owned Go Automobile Manufacturing will invest 2 billion ringgit ($618 million) over the next four years to expand its manufacturing plant in northern Kedah state.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, The Dutch government scrapped a trade mission to Russia that was intended to forge closer ties between the two countries' energy sectors, blaming developments in eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, In North Korea Kim Jong-Un was "re-elected" as leader. The new parliament also elected members of the powerful National Defense Commission (NDC), appointing Kim's close confidante Choi Ryong-Hae as one of three vice chairmen of the top military decision-making body.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Pakistan a bomb tore through a bustling fruit and vegetable market in Islamabad, killing at least 22 people. The attack came as the government tried to negotiate an end to the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan's (TTP) seven-year campaign of violence.
    (AFP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Pakistan's Election Commission awarded a parliamentary seat to the leader of a banned sectarian group that activists blame for the deaths of hundreds of people. Ahmed Ludhianvi will represent the city of Jhang, in Punjab province.
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, Radu Mazare, the mayor of Romania's Black Sea port city of Constanta, was charged with taking a bribe of 175,000 euros ($241,400) in 2011 in return for awarding a company the tender to build 900 low-cost apartments for socially deprived residents. Businessman Avraham Morgenstern was also charged in the 10 million euro project.
    (AP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, Saudi health authorities said that 11 people in the western city of Jiddah have contracted the Middle East respiratory syndrome, resulting in two recent deaths, bringing to at least 66 the number of people who have died of MERS in the kingdom.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Two Saudi border guards were killed by unidentified gunmen who fired shots from inside Yemen.
    (AP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 9, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad recaptured the rebel-held border town of Rankous. Two car bombs in Homs killed at least 25 people.
    (Reuters, 4/9/14)(SFC, 4/10/14, p.A4)
2014        Apr 9, Thai police arrested Englishman Michael Alan France (53), whom French police accuse of masterminding a gang that sought to smuggle cocaine and heroin through France into England six years ago.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Ukrainian authorities warned that they are prepared to use force to clear several government buildings seized by pro-Russian separatists in the east of the country. 56 hostages were allowed to leave the Luhansk security services building overnight.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

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