Today in History - April 11

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1034        Apr 11, Romanus III Argyrus, Byzantine emperor (1028-34), was assassinated by his wife.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1240        Apr 11, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth the Great, monarch of Wales (1194-1240), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1370        Apr 11, Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1471        Apr 11, King Edward IV of England captured London from Henry VI in the War of the Roses.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1500        Apr 11, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1512        Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
    (HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)

1567        Apr 11, Dutch Prince William of Orange fled from Antwerp to Breda.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1586        Apr 11, Pietro Della Valle, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1602        Apr 11, Johann Neukrantz, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1648        Apr 11, Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern (53), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1681        Apr 11, Anne Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1682        Apr 11, Jean-Joseph Mouret, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1689        Apr 11, (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. "We thankfully accept what you have offered us," William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(www.bessel.org/billrts.htm)

1713        Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)
1713        Apr 11, Spain ceded Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)

1722        Apr 11, Christopher Smart, English journalist and poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)(MC, 4/11/02)

1741        Apr 11, A Russian commission found regent Count Biron guilty of treason and sentenced him to death by quartering. The sentence was commuted to banishment for life in Siberia.
    (PCh, 1992, p.294)

1755        Apr 11, James Parkinson, English physician, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1770        Apr 11, George Canning, British prime minister (1827), was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1772        Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1783        Apr 11, After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on 13 March, Congress proclaimed a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1794        Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1801        Apr 11, Johann von Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans (The Maid of Orleans)," premieres in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1814        Apr 11, Napoleon Bonaparte (45) abdicated at Fontainebleau a 2nd time and was banished to the island of Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean, retaining the title of emperor and 400 volunteers to act as his guard. He was granted sovereignty over Elba and a pension from the French government. [see Apr 6]
    (www.napoleonseries.org/reference/political/legislation/restoration.cfm)

1839        Apr 11, John Galt (59), Scottish writer (Last of the Lairds), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1853        Apr 11, A steam line burst on SF Bay ferry Jenny Lind as it made its way from Alviso to San Francisco. 31 passengers were killed.
    (SFC, 4/13/13, p.A1)

1856        Apr 11, Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beat William Walker's invading Nicaraguans.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1859        Apr 11, Basil Harwood, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1861        Apr 11, Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard ordered the Federals under the command of Major Robert Anderson to surrender Fort Sumter, but Anderson refused. Anticipating war between North and South, Confederate President Jefferson Davis had ordered Beauregard to clear the harbor forts in Charleston, South Carolina, of Union troops. For three long months, Anderson and his besieged troops had waited for reinforcements at Fort Sumter. Back in Washington, Union naval officer Gustavus Fox raced against time to organize just such a mission.
    (HNPD, 4/12/99)

1862        Apr 11, Charles Evans Hughs, 11th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1930-41), was born. He resisted President Franklin Roosevelt’s attempts to “pack" the Supreme Court with judges favorable to the New Deal.
    (HN, 4/11/99)
1862        Apr 11, Rebels surrendered Ft Pulaski, Georgia.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1863        Apr 11, Battle of Suffolk, VA (Norfleet House).
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1865        Apr 11, Lincoln urged a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1865        Apr 11, Battle of Mobile, AL., evacuated by Confederates.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1871        Apr 11, James Burns (1808-1871), Scottish publisher and author, died. He had founded The Englishman’s Library in the 1840s, a series that went up to 31 volumes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Burns_%28publisher%29)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.86)

1875        Apr 11, Heinrich Schwabe, discoverer of the 11-year sunspot cycle, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1876        Apr 11, General Sir Charles ("Chinese") Gordon ended religious tolerance in Sudan.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1881        Apr 11, River ferry "Princess Victoria" sank in Thames River, Ontario, and 180 died. [see May 24]
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1886        Apr 11, General Nelson A. Miles arrived at Fort Bowie, Ariz., to begin his assignment to subjugate or destroy a band of Apaches led by Geronimo.
    (ON, 10/06, p.1)

1889        Apr 11, Nick La Rocca, US cornetist, composer (Tiger Rag), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1890        Apr 11, Ellis Island was designated as an immigration station.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1891        Apr 11, A Jewish tailor's daughter (8) disappeared in Greece. A rumor spread that she was a Christian girl ritually killed by Jews.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1893        Apr 11, Dean G. Acheson, U.S. secretary of state (1949-53), was born. He helped create NATO.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1895        Apr 11, Anaheim, Ca., completed its new electric light system.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1898        Apr 11, American President McKinley asked Congress to authorize military intervention in Cuba. The war was fomented by New York newspapers in their own battle for circulation.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A20)

1899        Apr 11, Percy L. Julian, chemist (drugs for treatment of arthritis), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1899        Apr 11, The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect. Spain ceded Puerto Rico to US. [see Apr 12, 1898]
    (AP, 4/11/97)(MC, 4/11/02)

1900        Apr 11, US Navy's 1st submarine made its debut.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1901        Apr 11, Adriano Olivetti, Italian engineer, manufacturer (typewriter), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1901        Apr 11, Glenway Wescott, writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1902        Apr 11, Wade Hampton (1818), Confederate Civil War general and post-war governor of South Carolina (1877-1879), died. In 2008 Rod Andrew Jr. authored Wade Hampton: Confederate Warrior, Conservative Statesman."
    (WSJ, 6/7/08, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wade_Hampton_III)

1906        Apr 11, Einstein introduced his Theory of Relativity. [see 1905]
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1906        Apr 11, James A. Bailey (58), circus showman (Barnum & Bailey), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1908        Apr 11, Karel Ancerl, Czech conductor (Prague, Toronto), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1908        Apr 11, Leo Rosten, writer, humorist, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1909        Apr 11, Tel Aviv began as a suburb of Jaffa. While Palestine was still under Ottoman rule, sixty-six Jewish families took possession of lots in Karm al-Jabali, on the northern outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa near the Mediterranean coast amidst dunes, vineyards, and orchards. There they established a “garden suburb" called Ahuzat Bayit (“Homestead"), which in 2010 was renamed Tel Aviv, or Hill of Spring.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Aviv)(http://tinyurl.com/l8ymtod)(Econ, 2/7/15, p.78)

1914        Apr 11, George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion," premiered.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1916        Apr 11, Alberto E. Ginastera, composer (Panambi), was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1917        Apr 11, Babe Ruth beat NY Yanks, pitching to a 3-hit, 10-3 win for Red Sox.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1921        Apr 11, Iowa became the first state to impose a cigarette tax.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1924        Apr 11, WLS-AM in Chicago IL began radio transmissions.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1925        Apr 11, Ethel Kennedy, wife of assassinated Senator Robert F. Kennedy, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1926        Apr 11, Gervase de Peyer, clarinetist, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1932        Apr 11, Joel Grey (Joe Katz), actor, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1933        Apr 11, Hermann Goering became premier of Prussia.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1934        Apr 11, Richard A. Garland, artist, photographer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1934        Apr 11, Mark Strand (b.1934), Canadian poet, was born. He became the fourth national poet laureate in 1990, and received dozens of angry letters when he announced that he would not write any poems for national public figures, even if the president's dog died. "Poetry is about slowing down. You sit and you read something, you read it again, and it reveals a little bit more, and things come to light you never could have predicted."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Strand)

1936        Apr 11, Rodgers' & Hammerstein's musical "On Your Toes," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1939        Apr 11, SS Van Dine (50), [William Huntingdon Wright], detective writer, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1941        Apr 11, Ellen Goodman, Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)
1941        Apr 11, Germany bombers blitzed Coventry, England.
    (HN, 4/11/98)
1941        Apr 11, The Jewish Weekly newspaper was taken control by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1942        Apr 11, Detachment 101 of the OSS, a guerrilla force, was activated in Burma.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1943        Apr 11, Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flew his 1st (single-rotor) craft.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1945        Apr 11, The Americans liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. Some 250,000 prisoners passed through the camp and 50,000 are known to have died there. From 1945 to 1950, occupying Soviet forces used the camp to hold political prisoners.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.B1)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/09)
1945        Apr 11, U.S. troops reached the Elbe River in Germany.
    (HN, 4/11/98)
1945        Apr 11, The US battleship Missouri was struck by a kamikaze pilot while it was operating off the coast of Okinawa.
    (www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-m/bb63-l.htm)
1945        Apr 11, After two frustrating days of being repulsed and absorbing tremendous casualties, the Red Army took the Seelow Heights north of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/11/00)
1945        Apr 11, The Nazi SS burned and shot 1,100 at Gardelegen.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1947        Apr 11, Jackie Robinson played in an exhibition between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Yankees, the first Negro to play in Major league baseball. Jackie Robinson became the first black to play major league baseball as he took the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Jackie Robinson officially broke baseball's color barrier when he put on Dodgers uniform No. 42 in April 1947. When Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers, talented black athletes toiled in relative obscurity in the Negro leagues despite the exciting caliber of their play. Brooklyn Dodgers' general manager Branch Rickey first approached Jackie Robinson in August 1945 to participate in the "great experiment" of integrating the major leagues.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1947)(AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/10/98)(HNPD, 4/10/99)

1950        Apr 11, Bill Irwin, actor and choreographer, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1951        Apr 11, President Truman relieved Gen. Douglas MacArthur of his commands in the Far East. President Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/11/98)

1953        Apr 11, Oveta Culp Hobby became the first Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1955        Apr 11, Just before the Bandung conference, an apparent attempt to kill China's then-Premier Zhou Enlai resulted in the deadly crash of a chartered Air India plane. Declassified Chinese documents have suggested that Taiwanese agents placed the bomb in the mistaken belief that Zhou was on board. The device detonated as the Lockheed Constellation, named Kashmiri Princess, was descending north of Jakarta. It caused a fire that forced the pilots to ditch the airliner. The co-pilot, flight engineer and navigator managed to swim to safety, but 16 other passengers and crew members drowned. They included six journalists and Air India's chief pilot, Capt. D.K. Jatar.
    (AP, 4/24/05)(www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=236591)

1956        Apr 11, Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" went gold.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A1)
1956        Apr 11, French government sent 200,000 reservists to Algeria.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1957        Apr 11, The Ryan X-13 Vertijet became the 1st jet to take-off and land vertically.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1959        Apr 11, "Jamaica" closed at Imperial Theater in NYC after 558 performances.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1961        Apr 11, Folk singer Bob Dylan performed in New York City for the first time, opening for John Lee Hooker. [see Sep 26]
    (HN, 4/11/01)
1961        Apr 11, Israel began the trial of Adolf Eichman in Jerusalem. He was accused of World War II war crimes.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(HN, 4/11/98)

1963        Apr 11, John XXIII put forth his encyclical “On peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty."
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1964        Apr 11, The Bangladesh Observer (East Pakistan) reported that as many as 500 people may have died as a tornado destroyed villages in the Narail and Magura regions of Jessore.
    (www.tornadoproject.com/alltorns/bangladesh.htm)

1965        Apr 11, The Elementary and Secondary Education Act became US law. It was passed as a part of the "War on Poverty" and has been the most far-reaching Federal legislation affecting education ever passed by Congress.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_and_Secondary_Education_Act)
1965        Apr 11, A series of tornados left 256 people dead in the US Midwest.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1967        Apr 11, Tom Stoppard's "Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead," was performed by the Royal National Theater at London’s Old Vic Theater. It had premiered on Aug 26, 1966, in Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosencrantz_and_Guildenstern_Are_Dead)
1967        Apr 11, Harlem, NYC, voters defied Congress and reelected Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-1972). In January, 1967, the House Democratic Caucus had stripped Powell of his committee chairmanship following allegations that Powell had misappropriated Committee funds for his personal use and other charges. In June, 1969, the Supreme Court ruled that the House had acted unconstitutionally when it excluded Powell, a duly elected member. He returned to the House, but without his seniority.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Clayton_Powell_Jr.)
1967        Apr 11, In the Vietnam War, US planes bombed two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam.
    (www.pownetwork.org/bios/e/e031.htm)

1968        Apr 11, President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. This included a Fair Housing Act and the Indian Civil Rights Act, which limited sentences that tribes could hand down on any charge to six months. In 1968 Congress increased the maximum to one year. The Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae - FNMA), established by the government in 1938, became a private, shareholder-owned company as part of the Fair Housing Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2o3p2q)(AP, 4/11/98)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A23)(http://tinyurl.com/ldx765)
1968        Apr 11, Riots erupted in West Berlin after the shooting of student leader Rudi Dutschke (1940-1979). He survived the assassination attempt by a right-wing extremist, living for another twelve years until related health problems caused his death.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudi_Dutschke)

1970        Apr 11, The Beatles' "Let It Be" single was released in the US and quickly went to #1.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Let_It_Be_(song))
1970        Apr 11, Apollo 13 blasted off on a mission to the moon, commanded by Jim Lovell, that was disrupted on April 13, when an explosion crippled the spacecraft. The astronauts managed to return safely on April 17.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.79)(TMC, 1994, p.1970)
1970        Apr 11, John H. O'Hara (b.1905), US journalist and novelist (Pal Joey, Rage to Live), died. In 2003 Geoffrey Wolff authored "The Art of Burning Bridges: The Life of John O'Hara."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_O%27Hara)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M2)

1974        Apr 11, The US House Judiciary Committee votes 33-3 to issue a subpoena ordering Nixon to turn over all tape recordings and related materials on 42 conversations.
    (http://calvert.wustl.edu/PolSci3103.fall02/watergate/chronlgy.htm)
1974        Apr 11, United Mine Workers president W. A. “Tony" Boyle was found guilty of first-degree murder, for ordering the assassination of union reformer Joseph A. “Jock" Yablonski in 1969. Yablonski, his wife and daughter were murdered on December 30, 1969. Boyle had defeated Yablonski in the UMW election earlier in the year-an election marred by intimidation and vote fraud. In 1972 the election was set aside by a federal court after Boyle had been convicted of illegal use of UMW funds in the federal elections of 1968. In a new election held in December, 1972, Boyle was defeated by rank and file reformist Arnold Miller. Soon after the election Boyle was put on trial for murdering the Yablonskis and was sentenced to three consecutive life terms in prison.   
    (HNQ, 11/8/99)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1976        Apr 11, In Cambodia Khmer Rouge leader Khieu Samphan (b.1931) succeeded Prince Sihanouk as premier. In 1979 he was succeeded by Heng Samrin.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khieu_Samphan)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.52)

1977        Apr 11, Jacques Prevert (b.1900), French poet (La puil et le beau), died.
    (http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Pr%C3%A9vert)

1979        Apr 11, Chinese diplomats of Cambodia crossed into Thailand after a 15-day, 125-mile escape from the Vietnamese Army. In 1992 "Chinese Diplomats in International Crisis Situations" was authored by Yun Shui. An English translation came out in 2003.
    (AP, 1/13/03)
1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1980        Apr 11, Mother Jones magazine won the 1980 national Magazine Award for Reporting Excellence for a Nov. 1979 article by Mark Dowie on the export of hazardous products banned from the US.
    (SFC, 4/8/05, p.F2)
1980        Apr 11, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
    (AP, 4/11/97)
1980        Apr 11, NASA’s Viking 2 Mars Lander ended communications.
    (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html)

1981        Apr 11, President Reagan returned to the White House from the hospital, 12 days after John W. Hinckley Jr. shot him in an assassination attempt.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/11/98)
1981        Apr 11, A race riot erupted in London area of Brixton. More than 300 people were injured and 28 buildings were set ablaze. Lord Scarman (1911-2004) was later appointed to investigate and report his findings.
    (www.urban75.org/brixton/history/riot1.html)

1982        Apr 11, Ronald Allen (32), a member of Your Black Muslim Bakery in Oakland, Ca., was found shot to death on Easter morning near the Berkeley dump. A day earlier the father of 5 had gone out for a meal with his bakery brethren.
    (SFC, 12/24/07, p.A1)
1982        Apr 11, In Israel Alan Goodman opened fire on Palestinians praying at the Temple Mount, the site of Islam’s third-holiest shrine. He killed 2 and was sentenced to life in prison. He was released to the US in 1997 after agreeing to spend the next 8 years in the US.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.A9)

1983        Apr 11, In the 3rd Golden Raspberry Awards: Inchon! won.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982_Golden_Raspberry_Awards)
1983        Apr 11, In the 55th Academy Awards "Gandhi," Ben Kingsley and Meryl Streep won.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/55th_Academy_Awards)

1984        Apr 11, Konstantin U. Chernenko (1911-1985) was named Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstantin_Chernenko)

1985        Apr 11, Enver Hoxha (b.1908), Albania’s Stalinist dictator, died. He was succeeded by Ramiz Alia (b.1925).
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enver_Hoxha)

1986        Apr 11, Dodge Morgan (1932-2010), American businessman, landed at St. George, Bermuda, completing a 27,000 solo nonstop sail around the world in 150 days. This broke a 292-day record set in 1971 by British sailor Chay Blyth.
    (http://outdoors.mainetoday.com/news/050410dodge.shtml)(SFC, 9/20/10, p.C4)
1986        Apr 11, In San Francisco Jack Spiegelman (47) opened fire on accused killed Daniel David Morgan in a Hall of Justice courtroom. Morgan (39) was on trial for the 1983 murder of Spiegelman’s daughter, Sarah (17), who was shot to death in Golden Gate Park.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, DB p.46)
1986        Apr 11, Halley's Comet made its closest approach to Earth this trip at 63 M km.
    (www.astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/01/01.html)

1987        Apr 11, Invoking emergency powers, the government of South Africa outlawed any action, word or written document protesting the practice of detention without trials or calling for the release of detainees.
    (AP, 4/11/97)
1987        Apr 11, Erskine Caldwell (83), Georgia-born novelist (Tobacco Road), died.
    (www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-497)
1987        Apr 11, Primo Levi (b.1920), Italian chemist, Auschwitz survivor and writer, died in Italy. In 2002 Carole Angier authored: "Primo Levi: A Biography." His books included the 1947 memoir "If This Is a Man" and "The Periodic Table." In 2002 Carole Angier authored the biography "The Double Bond."
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.M1)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primo_Levi)

1988        Apr 11, "The Last Emperor" won best picture at the 60th annual Academy Awards ceremony; Cher won best actress for "Moonstruck," Michael Douglas best actor for "Wall Street."
    (AP, 4/11/98)
1988        Apr 11, Hijackers of a Kuwait Airways jetliner killed a second hostage, dumping his body onto the ground in Larnaca, Cyprus.
    (AP, 4/11/98)
1988        Apr 11, In Amsterdam the Royal Concert building (Concertgebouw) reopened.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Concertgebouw_Orchestra)

1989        Apr 11, Mexican officials unearthed the remains of 12 of 13 victims of a drug-trafficking cult near Matamoros. The dead included University of Texas student Mark Kilroy, who had disappeared while on spring break.
    (AP, 4/11/99)

1990        Apr 11, Funeral services were held in Indianapolis for AIDS patient Ryan White, who had died three days earlier at age 18. Among the 1,500 mourners were first lady Barbara Bush and singers Elton John and Michael Jackson.
    (AP, 4/11/00)
1990        Apr 11, Constantine Mitsotakis (b.1918) of the New Democracy party became prime minister of Greece with one vote from an independently elected member of the parliament. He held office to October 13, 1993.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_Mitsotakis)

1991        Apr 11, The musical “Miss Saigon," denounced by detractors as racist and sexist, opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 4/11/01)
1991        Apr 11, The space shuttle “Atlantis" landed safely after an extended, 93-orbit mission that included deployment of an observatory.
    (AP, 4/11/01)
1991        Apr 11, U.N. Security Council issued a formal cease fire with Iraq to end the Gulf War.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(HN, 4/11/98)

1992        Apr 11, The Russian Congress of People's Deputies rejected an appeal by President Boris Yeltsin for another six months to carry out his reforms, ordering him to select a new Cabinet by July; a compromise was worked out a few days later.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1993        Apr 11, A deadly riot erupted at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio; one guard and nine inmates were killed during the 11-day siege.
    (AP, 4/11/98)

1994        Apr 11, The White House disclosed that President and Mrs. Clinton had failed to report $6,498 in income that the first lady made in commodities trading in 1980; the couple wrote checks totaling $14,615 in back taxes and interest.
    (AP, 4/11/99)

1995        Apr 11, Pres. Clinton expressed sympathy for Pakistan's anger over the blocked sale of American fighter jets, telling visiting PM Benazir Bhutto that it was "not right" for the United States to keep the planes and refuse to give the money back. Pakistan received jets in 2005
    (AP, 4/11/00)(Reuters, 3/26/05)

1996        Apr 11, The Shell Oil Mars platform was to be towed to the Gulf of Mexico. Its construction began in Italy in Oct, 1993 and it will stand over 320 stories from ocean floor to the top of the rigging. Its cost was $650 mil. and it weighs 73 mil. lbs. Another $450 mil. will be spent to drill 26 wells and will begin pumping oil this summer at a rate of 100,000 barrels a day. The oil deposits lie as much as 14,000 feet under the ocean floor, which is another half-mile below the surface.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-6)
1996        Apr 11, Chlorine spilled from a train and caused the people of Alberton, Montana, to flee for a day.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, B-9)
1996        Apr 11, The St. Charles Baptist Church in Paintcourtville, La., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)
1996        Apr 11, Jessica Dubroff (7) was killed with her father and flight instructor when their Cessna Cardinal 177B crashed during bad weather in Cheyenne, Wyoming. She was attempting to become the youngest person to fly across the US.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-1,11)(AP, 4/11/97)
1996        Apr 11, Daniel Wolf (80), journalist, died. In 1955 he launched The Village Voice with novelist Norman Mailer and Ed Fancher, a truck driver-turned-psychologist.
    (www.utne.com/pub/1999_77/)
1996        Apr 11, Forty-three African nations signed the African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty.
    (HN, 4/11/99)
1996        Apr 11, Israeli aircraft attacked a Hezbollah command center in Beirut in retaliation for recent rocket attacks on northern Israel.
     (WSJ, 4/12/96, p.A-1)

1997        Apr 11, The Air Force announced that that despite an intensive nine-day search, it couldn't find a bomb-laden A-10 warplane that had disappeared with its pilot during a training mission over Arizona. Wreckage was later found on a Colorado mountainside.
    (AP, 4/11/02)
1997        Apr 11, Some 25,000 people marched in Watsonville, Ca., to support the UFW drive to organize farm workers. Their focus was to begin with the state’s $576 million strawberry industry.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A11)
1997        Apr 11, In Angola a national reconciliation governing body was formed that united the MPLA under president Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA under Jonas Savimbi.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A12)
1997        Apr 11, The EU postponed for 6 months a WTO case that charged the US with unfair trade practices.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr 11, Parliament rejected Prime Minister H.D. Devegowda, head of the 10-month-old coalition government by a vote of 292 to 158 in the 545-seat lower house, the Lok Sabha. He was rejected after the Congress Party withdrew it support. The Congress Party, which has ruled for 45 of the 50 years since independence, complained that Gowda failed to halt gains by the BJP (Bharatriya Janata Party).
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A10)(SFC, 11/29/97, p.A12)
1997        Apr 11, In Italy, fire damaged the 500-year-old San Giovanni Cathedral, home of the Shroud of Turin, which some consider Christ's burial cloth.
    (AP, 4/11/98)
1997        Apr 11, In Serbia minister Radovan Stojicic (aka Badza or “Big Man" in Serbian) was shot and killed by a masked assailant at a Belgrade restaurant. He was the commander of Milosevic’s security police and was expected to take over the Interior Ministry.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.A10)

1998         Apr 11, In Benoni, South Africa, Nicholas Steyn (42), a white farmer, shot Francina Diamina (11) and her 6-month old cousin, Angelina, for trespassing. The baby was hit in the head and killed and Francina was wounded in the back. Steyn was convicted of culpable homicide in 1999. Steyn was given a suspended sentence in 1999 and freed.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A8)(SFC, 3/6/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)
1998        Apr 11, The executive committee of the Ulster Union Party voted 55-23 to support the Northern Ireland peace accord and its leader, David Trimble, who had outmaneuvered rebels in his ranks.
    (AP, 4/11/99)

1999        Apr 11, Jose Maria Olazabal won the Masters by two shots over Davis Love III.
    (AP, 4/11/00)
1999        Apr 11, In Los Angeles British architect Sir Norman Foster was named the winner of the 1999 Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A4)
1999        Apr 11, The Justice Department reported that more than one-third of the women in state prisons and jails said they were physically or sexually abused as children.
    (AP, 4/11/00)
1999        Apr 11, In Yonkers, NY, some 400 Americans prepared to fly to Albania to fight as volunteers with the KLA.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A14)
1999        Apr 11, NATO restrained bombing over the Orthodox Easter but struck at least 50 targets in Kosovo alone. 3 Serbian civilians were reported killed.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 11, Albania decided to hand over control of its airspace, ports and military infrastructure to NATO and to accept more NATO troops.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A17)
1999        Apr 11, Hungary turned back a Russian aid convoy headed for Belgrade.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A12)
1999        Apr 11, India tested a new missile with a 1,250 mile range.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A12)
1999        Apr 11, Israel warplanes fired at least 10 missiles in 2 raids on suspected guerrilla bases in southern Lebanon.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 11, In Japan a gubernatorial election in Tokyo showed conservative author Shintaro Isihara (66) in the lead. Ishihara won with 29.6% of the total vote.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A10)(SFC, 4/12/99, p.A12)
1999        Apr 11, In Niger Daouda Malam Wanke, head of the guard unit that witnesses said assassinated Pres. Bare., was named president and head of the National Council for Reconciliation, which would run for a 9 month transition period. The Supreme Court and National Assembly were dissolved.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 11, In Belgrade, Serbia, Slavko Curuvija, the owner of a prominent opposition newspaper, Dnevni Telegraf (Daily Telegraph), was shot and killed by 2 gunmen.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A14)

2000        Apr 11, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak met with President Clinton at the White House in what a senior US official described as a good, productive, serious discussion.
    (AP, 4/11/01)
2000        Apr 11, In Bolivia some anti-government protests continued but in Cochabamba tensions eased after the government canceled a contract with Aguas del Tunari, a Bechtel subsidiary, that threatened increased water prices.  In 2002 Bechtel demanded $25 million for suspension of the 40-year lease.
    (SFC, 4/12/00, p.A17)(SFC, 2/2/02, p.A1)
2000        Apr 11, In Bosnia 3 children were killed after they wandered into a mine field near Serajevo.
    (WSJ, 4/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Apr 11, A British judge branded historian David Irving an anti-Semite racist and an apologist for Adolf Hitler, ruling that an American scholar was justified in calling him a Holocaust denier.
    (AP, 4/11/01)
2000        Apr 11, In Gambia students set fire to government buildings across the country to protest the killing of 12 people at a demonstration.
    (SFC, 4/12/00, p.A17)
2000        Apr 11, In Peru the vote count reached 49.79% for Pres. Fujimori and tensions mounted under suspected irregularities.
    (WSJ, 4/12/00, p.A1)

2001        Apr 11, Ending a tense 11-day standoff, China released the 24 US spy plane crew members detained since April 1. US text was released with the words “sincerely regret" and translated to “chengzhi yihan." In China the text was translated to "shenbiao qianyi" meaning “deeply sorry." Beijing kept the spy plane pending an investigation and more talks.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.A1,14)(WSJ, 4/12/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/11/02)
2001        Apr 11, In northern India 8 Islamic separatists and 2 government soldiers were killed in gun battles in Jammu and Kashmir.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C2)
2001        Apr 11, Israel sent tanks and bulldozers into the Khan Yunis refugee camp and demolished over 2 dozen homes. 2 Palestinians were killed and 25 injured in ground fighting.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 11, In South Africa 43 people were killed in a stampede at a soccer game in Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg. Over 150 were injured.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.A12)
2001        Apr 11, In Turkey as many as 130,000 protesters in several cities fought with police and called for the resignation of PM Ecevit due to the economic crises.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C2)

2002        Apr 11, US Sec. of State Colin Powell arrived in Israel to push for peace talks. Israel sent tanks and troops into 2 more Palestinian villages. A Palestinian suicide bomber died when his explosives blew up prematurely.
    (SFC, 4/11/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 11, In Ohio Rep. James A Traficant Jr. (60), Democrat from Youngstown, was convicted on 10 felony counts of racketeering and corruption. Traficant was later expelled from Congress and sentenced to eight years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A3)(AP, 4/11/03)
2002        Apr 11, The US House responded to the Enron collapse by voting to add more worker protections to pension laws.
    (AP, 4/11/03)
2002        Apr 11, It was reported that astronomers had identified 2 stars, RXJ-1856 and 3C58, that were possibly composed of quarks, the building blocks of protons and neutrons, proposed by Murray Gell-Mann in 1963.
    (SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)
2002        Apr 11, China reported that some 850,000 people were infected with AIDS at the end of 2001.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)
2002        Apr 11, In Colombia rebels kidnapped 13 lawmakers in Cali. A legislator and 4 aides were rescued and 1 police officer was killed. Sigifredo Lopez, one of the abducted legislators, survived a mistaken rebel attack in 2007 that left his 11 colleagues dead. He was released by the FARC in 2009.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)(AP, 9/13/12)
2002        Apr 11, In the Philippines the ferry MV Carmela with 240 passengers caught fire and at least 15 people were killed.
    (SFC, 4/11/02, p.A8)
2002        Apr 11, In South Africa a white judge acquitted Dr. Wouter Basson (“Dr. Death"), former head of the chemical and biological weapons program, of 46 counts murder, fraud and drug dealing following a 2 ½ year trial.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)
2002        Apr 11, In Tunisia a gas tanker truck crashed into the wall of the El Ghriba synagogue on the island of Djerba and killed 14 Germans, 6 Tunisians and a Frenchman. The government at first called it an accident. Later evidence indicated that it was an act of terrorism. Nizar Nawar (24), a Tunisian citizen who had studied in Canada, was the driver. Al Qaeda later claimed responsibility. In 2006 a Spanish court sentenced two men to a total of 10 years in prison for their part in a suicide bombing. In 2006 Nawar’s uncle, Belgacem Nawar (44), was convicted in Tunis and sentenced to years in prison for aiding in the attack.
    (SFC, 4/17/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/24/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 5/2/02, p.A13)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A1)(AP, 5/10/06)(SFC, 6/8/06, p.A3)
2002        Apr 11, The UN sponsored Int’l. Criminal Court was ratified without US approval. Temporary headquarters will be in the Hague, Netherlands.
    (SFC, 4/11/02, p.A10)(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)
2002        Apr 11, Venezuela’s military removed Pres. Chavez from power after 19 demonstrators were killed, many by snipers, as some 150-200k marched on the presidential palace in Caracas. A tape, later released, contained the voice of Pres. Chavez ordering the activation of "Plan Avila," an emergency state security plan. In 2009 a Venezuelan court sentenced nine former police officials to as long as 30 years in prison for the killings of demonstrators during street protests that led up to the failed 2002 coup against President Hugo Chavez. In 2009 Brian A. Nelson authored “The Silence and the Scorpion: The Coup Against Chavez and the Making of Modern Venezuela."
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A1,8)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A12)(AP, 4/12/08)(AP, 4/4/09)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.87)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.24)
2002        Apr 11, Vlajko Stojilkovic (65), former Serb interior minister, shot himself in the head on the steps of the Yugoslav parliament following passage of a law easing the transfer of war crimes suspects to the Hague. Stojilkovic died Apr 13.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 4/14/02, p.A14)

2003        Apr 11, US Congress approved a $2.2 trillion budget with Vice pres. Cheney casting the tie-breaking vote. It limited a tax cut to half of what Pres. Bush proposed.
    (SFC, 4/12/03, p.A3)
2003        Apr 11, In the 24th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the northern city of Mosul fell into US and Kurdish hands after an entire corps of the Iraqi army surrendered. The Pentagon said no major military forces remain in the country. Defense Sec. Rumsfeld called Iraqi looting and chaos a natural “untidiness" that accompanies the transition from tyranny to freedom. The US military issued a most-wanted list in the form of a deck of 55 cards.
    (AP, 4/11/03)(SFC, 4/12/03, p.A10)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.C3)
2003        Apr 11, Amnesty International said at least 1,526 people were executed worldwide last year, with 80 percent of all known executions carried out in China (1,060), Iran (113) and the United States (71).
    (Reuters, 4/11/03)
2003        Apr 11, NATO-led peacekeepers in Bosnia arrested Naser Oric (35), a Bosnian Muslim wanted by the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal and flew him to The Hague. He was the wartime army commander in the eastern Bosnian town of Srebrenica. In 2006 Oric was acquitted of direct involvement in the murder of prisoners in the early years of the 1992-95 Bosnia war. But the court found he had closed his eyes to their mistreatment and failed to punish their killers. He was sentenced to 2 years and then ordered to be released since he has been in jail for more than three years.
    (AP, 4/11/03)(AP, 6/30/06)
2003        Apr 11, Cambodia and Thailand agreed to resume full diplomatic relations, which were suspended after anti-Thai riots shook Cambodia's capital in January.
    (AP, 4/11/03)
2003        Apr 11, Fidel Castro's government executed three men who hijacked a ferry by firing squad in a chilling message to anyone else who tries to commandeer a boat or plane to the United States.
    (AP, 4/12/03)
2003        Apr 11, Israeli troops critically wounded Thomas Hurndall (21), a British peace activist, as he tried to remove 2 children from a line of fire outside the Rafah refugee camp. Hurndall died after 9 months in a vegetative state. In 2005 an Israeli military court convicted an Israeli soldier of manslaughter in the killing Hurndall.
    (SFC, 4/12/03, p.A6)(AP, 1/14/04)(AP, 6/27/05)
2003        Apr 11, In southern Japan an explosion ripped through a fireworks factory, killing seven people and injuring four others.
    (AP, 4/11/03)   
2003        Apr 11, The leaders of Russia, France and Germany gathered for a summit that was expected to push for the United Nations to play the leading role after the end of hostilities in Iraq.
    (AP, 4/11/03)
2003        Apr 11, In Uganda hundreds of Pokot tribesmen from Kenya attacked villages in eastern Uganda, killing more than 30 people. Victims were members of the Sabiny tribe.
    (AP, 4/12/03)
2003        Apr 11, In Yemen 10 suspects in the bombing of the US destroyer Cole escaped from prison.
    (SFC, 4/12/03, p.A3)
2003        Apr 11, The Venezuela government of Hugo Chavez and his opponents agreed to a plan for a referendum on his presidency, and the chief of state pledged to leave office if he loses.
    (AP, 4/11/03)

2004        Apr 11, Pres. Bush defended his response to a briefing memo from August 2001 about possible terrorist plots against the US, saying he was "satisfied that some of the matters were being looked into" and that there were no specific threats against New York and Washington.
    (AP, 4/11/05)
2004        Apr 11, Sikhs celebrated Vaisakhi, their New Year and commemoration of 17th century Guru Gobind Singh. They claimed about 20 million followers worldwide.
    (AP, 4/11/04)(SFC, 4/12/04, p.B5)
2004        Apr 11, The British Sunday Times reported that an Indian steel tycoon paid $128 million for a mansion in London, breaking the world record for the most expensive house purchase.
    (AP, 4/12/04)
2004        Apr 11, China’s People’s Bank, in an effort to slow the growth in money supply, raised bank reserve requirements from 7 to 7.5%, the 3rd increase in 8 months.
    (Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)
2004        Apr 11, Thousands of Hong Kong residents demanded full democracy and called on their unpopular leader to quit as they marched past Beijing's representative office.
    (AP, 4/11/04)
2004        Apr 11, Paul Eduardovich Goldman, 39, a naturalized U.S. citizen, killed himself afternoon in a prison in the suburbs of Grenoble, France. He was expected to be extradited to Pennsylvania to face first-degree murder charges in the fatal stabbing of Faina Zonis, 42, a Philadelphia mortgage processor found dead in her office on Dec. 29.
    (AP, 4/13/04)
2004        Apr 11, Gunmen shot down a U.S. attack helicopter during fighting in western Baghdad, killing its two crew members. The bloodied bodies of two men, purportedly Americans killed during fighting in Fallujah, were shown on Arab TV. US forces and insurgents agreed to a cease-fire in Fallujah.
    (AP, 4/11/04)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.A23)
2004        Apr 11, Henrik Frandsen, a 35-year-old plumber from Copenhagen, was reported missing in Iraq. Iraqi police found his body the next day.
    (AP, 4/21/04)
2004        Apr 11, Arjan Erkel, A Dutch aid worker who headed the North Caucasus mission of Medecins Sans Frontieres and was kidnapped in Russia nearly two years ago, was freed in a police operation in Dagestan.
    (AP, 4/11/04)
2004        Apr 11, Syrian Kurdish parties issued a statement saying the Assad regime had arrested hundreds and tortured some to death following the unrest in March.
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 11, Pope John Paul II celebrated Easter Mass with calls for world leaders to resolve conflicts in Iraq, the Holy Land and Africa.
    (AP, 4/11/05)

2005        Apr 11, During a meeting at his Texas ranch, President Bush told Israeli PM Ariel Sharon he could not allow further West Bank settlement growth and said Israeli and Palestinian doubts about each other were hampering peace prospects.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2005        Apr 11, Chelsea Cooley, the reigning Miss North Carolina, was crowned Miss USA in the 54th annual pageant.
    (AP, 4/12/05)
2005        Apr 11, Officials said UC Berkeley will lead a 5-year, $19 million project, funded by the NSF, to prevent a hacker threat from decimating US computer networks.
    (SFC, 4/12/05, p.B1)(WSJ, 4/12/05, p.B3)
2005        Apr 11, Some 12,000 Wisconsin citizens took part in an advisory poll on shooting free-roaming domestic cats. 57% voted to allow shooting them. An advisory committee dropped the issue May 13 following an outcry from animal rights groups.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.27)(SFC, 5/14/05, p.A2)
2005        Apr 11, Andrea Dworkin (58), feminist writer, died in Washington DC. Her books included “Woman Hating" (1974).
    (SFC, 4/12/05, p.B4)
2005        Apr 11, Maurice Hilleman (85), US pioneer vaccine research scientist, died of cancer in New Jersey. He helped develop vaccines for mumps, measles, chicken pox and other childhood scourges.
    (SFC, 4/12/05, p.B5)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.83)
2005        Apr 11, In Afghanistan at least 12 suspected Taliban rebels were killed and two American soldiers wounded in a battle that began with a botched rebel attack.
    (AP, 4/12/05)
2005        Apr 11, In central Argentina a riot broke out in a crowded prison after a fight between rival gangs, killing 13 people.
    (AP, 4/13/05)
2005        Apr 11, In Bangladesh a nine-story building toppled when a boiler exploded, killing at least 30 people and trapping 200. The death toll soon rose to 57. Up to another 100 bodies remain under the mountain of bricks and concrete slabs.
    (AP, 4/12/05)(Reuters, 4/15/05)
2005        Apr 11, Britain imposed a year-long ban on delivering first-time visas to Nigerians aged 18 to 30, citing a backlog of applications, most of which are rejected.
    (AP, 4/11/05)
2005        Apr 11, China reported rioting in Dongyang after 2 older women were killed in a clash with police during a pollution protest.
    (WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A1)
2005        Apr 11, In Germany thousands of public sector workers staged warning strikes aimed at forcing German states to agree to a deal that would introduce performance-rated pay.
    (AP, 4/11/05)
2005        Apr 11, India and China agreed to form a strategic partnership to end a border dispute and boost trade in a deal marking a major shift in relations between the Asian giants.
    (AP, 4/11/05)
2005        Apr 11, Indonesia sentenced Aceh Gov. Abdullah Puteh to 10 years in prison plus a fine ($52,631) for padding the price of a helicopter, purchased with state funds in 2002, and keeping the extra money for himself.
    (WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A18)(Econ, 4/30/05, p.40)
2005        Apr 11, In Iraq people were killed in Samarra when a bomb went off near a passing US convoy. Jeffrey Ake (47), a contract worker from LaPorte, Ind., was abducted in Iraq.
    (WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A1)(AP, 4/11/06)
2005        Apr 11, The Kyrgyz parliament accepted the resignation of ousted Pres. Askar Akayev.
    (AP, 4/11/05)

2006        Apr 11, In New Jersey a jury awarded $9 million in punitive damages to a man who blamed his heart attack on Vioxx, finding that manufacturer Merck & Co. failed to warn about the risks of its arthritis drug and misrepresented the risks to physicians.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, In Michigan Proof (Deshaun Holton), a member of rap group D12 and a close friend of Eminem, was shot to death early today at a Detroit nightclub along Eight Mile Road. Keith Bender, shot by rapper Proof (32), just before Proof himself was killed, died of his wounds on April 18.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(AP, 4/18/06)
2006        Apr 11, June Pointer (52), the youngest of the Pointer Sisters, died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2006        Apr 11, In eastern Afghanistan a rocket slammed into a packed school yard near a US-led coalition base, killing seven children and wounding 34 other people. Police blamed Taliban militants for the explosion at the Salabagh School in Asadabad, Kunar province.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, Colombia’s attorney general said the bodies of more than 30 people had been found in a series of mass graves in a violent area of Northern Santander province, home to drug traffickers, far-right paramilitaries and leftist guerrillas. Most of the villagers blamed a bloc of far-right paramilitaries that operated there until its demobilization in 2004.
    (AP, 4/12/06)
2006        Apr 11, A European spacecraft went into orbit around Venus on a mission to explore the mysterious atmosphere of Earth's nearest planetary neighbor.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, Former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani said that Iran has enriched uranium using 164 centrifuges, a major development in nuclear fuel cycle technology.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.47)
2006        Apr 11, In Iraq a bomb exploded on a minibus in a Shiite area, killing three people. 5 US soldiers were killed including 3 from an IED north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(WSJ, 4/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Apr 11, Israel's Cabinet declared PM Ariel Sharon permanently incapacitated, officially ending his five-year tenure.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2006        Apr 11, Center-left challenger Romano Prodi claimed an outright electoral victory over Premier Silvio Berlusconi before official results were in, but the slim margin could return Italy to political paralysis and instability.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, Bernardo Provenzano (73), Italy's reputed No. 1 Mafia boss, was arrested at a farmhouse in Sicily after frustrating investigators' efforts to catch him during more than 40 years on the run.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(SFC, 4/12/06, p.A7)
2006        Apr 11, In Karachi, Pakistan, a bomb exploded during evening prayers at a park, killing at least 50 people and injuring over 100. The bombing killed the entire leadership of Sunni Tehreek, a moderate Muslim group.
    (SFC, 4/12/06, p.A13)(AP, 4/14/06)
2006        Apr 11, In Peru with 80% of the votes counted Ollanta Humala led with 30.3%. Former president Alan Garcia (56) held a narrow lead over pro-business former Congresswoman Lourdes Flores (46) in the race to face Ollanta Humala (43) in a presidential runoff vote.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(AP, 4/12/06)
2006        Apr 11, In Spain a judge handed down the first indictments in the Madrid train bombings, charging 29 people with murder, terrorism or other crimes after a two-year investigation.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, In northeast Sri Lanka a mine exploded and killed 10 sailors in a military bus.
    (SFC, 4/12/06, p.A3)
2006        Apr 11, The UN said it has ended its policy of unrestricted political contacts with the Palestinians and will now assess every request for political talks with the new Hamas-run government.
    (AP, 4/11/06)
2006        Apr 11, The UN Security Council demanded that the Sudanese government and rebels reach agreement by April 30 to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/11/06)

2007        Apr 11, The US Pentagon extended Iraq and Afghan tours of duty for all troops from 12 months to 15 months.
    (WSJ, 4/1207, p.A1)
2007        Apr 11, A federal grand jury in Columbus, Ohio, indicted Christopher Paul (43), a US citizen, on charges of joining al-Qaida in the 1990s and conspiring to bomb European tourist resorts and US government facilities and military bases overseas. Paul, born as Paul Kenyatta Laws, changed his name to Abdulmalek Kenyatta in 1989, then to Christopher Paul in 1994.
    (AP, 4/12/07)
2007        Apr 11, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo said he will announce a settlement with a "significant" student lender as a probe into a college loan scandal continued to broaden.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Joe Francis (b.1973), the creator of the “Girls Gone Wild" video series, was indicted in Reno, Nevada, on federal tax charges. In September 2009, Francis pleaded guilty to filing false tax returns and bribing Nevada jail workers. On November 5, 2009, US District Judge S. James Otero accepted Francis’ deal on the grounds that a key witness withheld information from prosecutors.
    (SFC, 1/29/10, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Francis)
2007        Apr 11, North Carolina's top prosecutor dropped all charges against three former Duke University lacrosse players accused of sexually assaulting a stripper at a party, saying the athletes were innocent victims of a "tragic rush to accuse."
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2007        Apr 11, MSNBC announced it was dropping its simulcast of the "Imus in the Morning" radio program, responding to growing outrage about host Don Imus' racial slur against the Rutgers women's basketball team. CBS Radio followed suit the next day.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2007        Apr 11, Citigroup Inc., the nation's largest financial institution, said it will eliminate about 17,000 jobs as part of a companywide restructuring to reduce costs and improve profit.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, The Evelyn and Walter Haas Jr. Fund announced a $15 million donation for renovations at the Presidio. Plans included 24 new trails.
    (SFC, 4/11/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 11, Roscoe Lee Browne (b.1925), stage, film and TV actor, died in Los Angeles. In 1966 he made his directorial stage debut with “A Hand is on the Gate: An Evening of Negro Poetry and Folk Music."
    (SFC, 4/14/07, p.B5)
2007        Apr 11, Kurt Vonnegut (b.1922), regarded by many critics as a key influence in shaping 20th-century American literature, died in NYC. He mixed the bitter and funny with a touch of the profound in books such as "Slaughterhouse-Five," "Cat's Cradle," and "Hocus Pocus." In 2009 Loree Rackstraw, a former student, authored “Love as Always, Kurt: Vonnegut As I Knew Him." In 2011 Charles J. Shields authored “And So It Goes: Kurt Vonnegut: A Life."
    (AP, 4/12/07)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.98)(WSJ, 3/16/09, p.A17)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.F1)
2007        Apr 11, In southern Afghanistan a suicide car bomber struck a NATO convoy, wounding seven civilians, while a US-led coalition airstrike killed 13 suspected militants. Another bomb blast in the south killed two Canadian soldiers and wounded three others.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(AP, 4/12/07)
2007        Apr 11, In Algeria bombs heavily damaged the prime minister's office in Algiers and a police station. Three bomb attacks killed 20 people and wounded 222.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(AP, 4/12/07)(AFP, 3/13/12)
2007        Apr 11, Bangladesh police said main opposition leader Sheikh Hasina Wajed, former prime minister and head of the Awami League, has been charged over the murder of four people during political violence which racked the nation's capital last October.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.46)
2007        Apr 11, In Brazil Gov. Sergio Cabral Filho formally requested that the army intervene to contain the violence that has been spiraling out of control in Rio de Janeiro.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, PM Tony Blair urged Britain's black communities to speak out against gang culture and called again for tougher laws against gangs amid a spate of gun and knife murders.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Canadian National Railway faced picket lines, but the union said it does not plan this new job action to be as disruptive as the strike that hamstrung Canada's largest railway in February.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Three candidates battled for a spot in East Timor's presidential runoff after none got enough votes to win outright.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Officials said Ecuador’s former President Gustavo Noboa will face charges for allegedly mishandling foreign debt negotiations during his three-year term (2000-2003).
    (AP, 4/12/07)
2007        Apr 11, Guyana's Pres. Bharrat Jagdeo said former NYC police commissioner Bernard Kerik has withdrawn from contracts to advise two Caribbean governments on security because of unresolved legal troubles in the United States.
    (AP, 4/12/07)
2007        Apr 11, The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) issued a new report titled "Civilians Without Protection: The Ever-worsening Humanitarian Crisis in Iraq." Maj. Gen. William Caldwell, the US military spokesman, said Iranian intelligence operatives have been training Iraqi fighters inside Iran on how to use and assemble deadly roadside bombs known as EFPs.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, The Ivory Coast government and rebels signed an agreement with foreign peacekeepers to dismantle a buffer zone dividing the west African nation since 2002. The deal required the head of the UN mission to sign off on election results.
    (AFP, 4/11/07)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.60)
2007        Apr 11, Japanese and Chinese leaders heralded a new era of closer ties between the two Asian powers, moving to repair relations damaged by a harsh dispute over history and signing accords on energy and environmental protection.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, In Kyrgyzstan thousands of opposition supporters gathered in the main square of Bishkek to press President Kurmanbek Bakiyev to resign. Bakiyev had sought to head off the opposition protest by signing constitutional amendments curtailing his power a day earlier, but the opposition rejected his move and showed up in full force.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, A Mexican court ordered the reinstatement of ousted mineworkers union leader Napoleon Gomez Urrutia, more than a year after the government turned him out of office based on complaints of corruption.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Morocco presented its plan to grant self-rule to the disputed Western Sahara territory to United Nations chief Ban Ki-moon.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, In Nigeria 5 people, including a senior police officer, were killed in clashes between rival cult gangs in the southern oil-rich state of Rivers.
    (AFP, 4/13/07)
2007        Apr 11, North Korea replaced its prime minister during a session of its rubber-stamp parliament. US envoys entered South Korea from North Korea in a rare border crossing after securing the remains of six American soldiers from the Korean War and pushing for action on the North's nuclear disarmament.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, More than 50 Philippine military officers pleaded guilty to violating military order and discipline in a plea bargain, escaping lengthy jail terms for a failed mutiny in Manila nearly four years ago.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, Royal Dutch Shell PLC and its partners ceded a controlling stake in the Sakhalin-2 gas project to Russia’s state owned OAO Gazprom. The deal also entitled Gazprom a percentage of profits from oil and gas and increased managerial control.
    (WSJ, 4/26/07, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/39c2yh)
2007        Apr 11, In Somalia Ethiopian-backed government troops and Islamic insurgents exchanged gunfire in northern Mogadishu, killing three people and ending more than a week of relative calm.
    (AP, 4/11/07)
2007        Apr 11, At least 40 civilians were killed and 25 wounded in an attack believed to have be carried out by the Janjaweed militia in the war-torn Darfur region.
    (AFP, 4/16/07)

2008        Apr 11, G7 finance officials endorsed a plan to prevent financial crises and reiterated its demand that Beijing allow the yuan to rise. They also issued a warning to financial markets that they won’t sit by and watch the dollar continue to slide.
    (SFC, 4/12/08, p.C2)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A3)
2008        Apr 11, Crystle Stewart (26), of Missouri City, Texas, was named Miss USA, besting 50 other beauty queens for the coveted crown in Las Vegas.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 11, In SF the directors of the Haight Ashbury Food Program closed their soup kitchen at 1525 Waller St. due to reduced grants and donations. It had served as many as 450 people a day for some 25 years.
    (SFC, 4/12/08, p.B3)
2008        Apr 11, American Airlines cancelled 570 flights to inspect and repair wiring bundles in its MDF-80 aircraft. The cancellations were expected to continue for one more day. Over 3,000 flights were cancelled during the week leaving hundreds of thousands of passengers stranded.
    (SFC, 4/11/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 11, Afghan and foreign troops clashed with and called airstrikes on militants in southern Afghanistan, leaving 24 dead and eight wounded.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 11, Runners surrounded by rows of security carried the Olympic flame past thousands of jubilant Argentines in the most trouble-free torch relay in nearly a week.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Sabeel Ahmed (26), a doctor originally from Bangalore in India, pleaded guilty to withholding information from police about the June 29, 2007, attack at Glasgow airport. His brother died after a failed suicide car bombing at the airport.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, An indignant China said the US "seriously hurt the feelings of the Chinese people" when Congress passed a resolution calling on Beijing to stop cracking down on Tibetan dissent and talk to the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Chen Liangyu, the former Communist Party chief of China's financial capital, was sentenced to 18 years in prison for his role in a massive corruption scandal involving the city's pension fund and state-owned companies.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, In Cuba new regulations allowed thousands of Cubans to get title to state-owned homes, a step that might lay the groundwork for broader housing reform.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 11, In Cyprus Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat crossed over to the Greek Cypriot part of the island's ethnically divided capital, the first head of the Turkish Cypriot north to do so in more than three decades.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner said France will boost its contribution to NATO forces fighting al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan to some 3,000 troops, around double the present level.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, French officials said pirates have freed the 30 crew from Le Ponant, a French luxury sailing ship, which was seized off Somalia on April 4, and had been tailed by the French Navy. Helicopter-borne French troops seized 6 of the dozen hostage takers, after the hostages were freed, and recovered sacks of money, apparently ransom paid by the ship’s owners.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)(SFC, 4/12/08, p.A9)
2008        Apr 11, In India Rajiv Agarwal, a senior official of Uttar Pradesh state, said state authorities have banned the sale of a cheap variety of hair dye after debt-ridden farmers were found to be drinking it to end their lives.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Riyadh al-Nouri, a senior aide to radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr was assassinated in Najaf. A roadside bomb destroyed an armored vehicle in eastern Baghdad, killing an Iraqi. An unmanned drone fired on a group of gunmen carrying grenades and mortars overnight in Sadr City, killing six of them. A helicopter hit a group of gunmen in the Hayaniyah district of central Basra overnight, killing six of them.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Israeli forces launched air strikes and a ground raid in the Gaza Strip, trading fire with gunmen in clashes that killed 8 Palestinians including a 12-year-old boy.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, In Moldova a Sudanese-owned transport plane laden with fuel crashed shortly after takeoff from an airport near the capital and burst into flames, killing all 8 people on board.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 11, In Rwanda a grenade thrown by an unknown attacker killed a policeman guarding the Gisozi genocide museum in Kigali, in a rare attack in the central African nation still mourning the 1994 ethnic slaughter.
    (Reuters, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Soldiers destroyed two Tamil Tiger rebel bunkers in northern Sri Lanka while fighting in the region left 11 separatists dead and eight soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 4/12/08)
2008        Apr 11, In Taiwan Liu Chao-shiuan (65), who heads Taipei's prestigious Soochow University, said President-elect Ma Ying-jeou asked him to head the Cabinet.
    (AP, 4/11/08)
2008        Apr 11, Zimbabwe state radio said President Robert Mugabe will snub a regional summit at the weekend that was expected to pressure him to release delayed election results. Police said all political rallies had been banned because officers were too busy guarding ballot boxes or deployed to prevent post-election violence.
    (Reuters, 4/11/08)

2009        Apr 11, In Louisiana gunmen kicked down an apartment door and opened fire killing 2 children and a woman in Terrytown.
    (SSFC, 4/12/09, p.A6)
2009        Apr 11, Rebels ambushed Afghan and foreign forces in Zabul province, sparking an exchange of gunfire that left 22 rebels dead.
    (AFP, 4/12/09)
2009        Apr 11, Egypt's Coptic Orthodox Church for the first time issued a certificate of conversion to a Muslim-born Christian. It was only the second time that such a request has been formally made in a country where converting to Christianity, while not illegal, is practically impossible. Egypt's Copts, the largest Christian community in the Middle East, account for an estimated six to 10% of the country's 80 million inhabitants.
    (AFP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, In Iraq a suicide bomber walked into a crowd of US-allied Sunni paramilitaries and detonated his explosives belt, killing nine and wounding 30 others waiting in line for their salaries in Jbala.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, Sajad Lone (41), an outspoken Kashmiri separatist and head of the People's Conference, said he would run in India's elections starting next week, marking a radical departure for the movement which has until now boycotted polls.
    (AFP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, Morocco blamed Algeria for a "serious and blatant" violation by the Polisario Front of an 18-year-long ceasefire in the disputed Western Sahara and urged the UN to intervene.
    (Reuters, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, In southwestern Pakistan gunmen shot dead 8 people in separate incidents in the province of Baluchistan, amid protests over the killing of 3 local leaders this week, police.
    (AFP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, In Moscow Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki met with Russian business leaders to encourage them to take an active part in rebuilding Iraq's economy.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, A Saudi man convicted of rape and robbery was beheaded, becoming the 22nd prisoner to be executed by sword this year in the kingdom. An Interior Ministry statement says the man committed the crimes after drinking alcohol.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, Somali pirates hijacked the Italian-flagged tugboat Buccaneer, an American-owned tugboat, with 16 crew in the Gulf of Aden. The pirates abandoned the ship on August 9 and all crew members were freed. No random was paid.
    (AP, 4/11/09)(AP, 4/26/09)(AP, 8/10/09)
2009        Apr 11, Corin Tellado (81), a well-known Spanish author of more than 4,000 romance novels, died while celebrating the Easter holidays with her family.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, In Thailand anti-government protesters stormed a convention center in Pattaya where leaders of Asian nations planned to meet, smashing doors and searching room by room for the prime minister. Thailand canceled the summit and airlifted the leaders out by helicopter.
    (AP, 4/11/09)
2009        Apr 11, Turkey’s agriculture ministry said 11 people have died in Turkey over the past three weeks, including three young Germans, after drinking bootleg spirits.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2010        Apr 11, In Texas more than 20,000 people gathered at tailgate parties and other spots to watch fireworks go off one last time over Texas Stadium before a ton of dynamite lit up the Dallas Cowboys' longtime home and brought it to the ground. The Cowboys played 38 seasons in Texas Stadium, winning five Super Bowls during that time.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, Afghan President Hamid Karzai urged Taliban insurgents to lay down their arms and air their grievances while visiting a violent northern province, adding that foreign forces would not leave the country as long as fighting continued.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, In Honduras a shootout between rival street gangs battling for control of the drug trade killed nine people overnight on the outskirts of Tegucigalpa.
    (AP, 4/12/10)
2010        Apr 11, Hungarians voted in a general election that looked likely to bring the right-wing Fidesz party back to power, while giving the far-right Jobbik its first ticket into parliament. The National Election Office said the party led by former PM Viktor Orban got 52.8 percent of the votes in the first round, followed by the governing Socialist Party with 19.3 percent. Jobbik, a far-right party with anti-Gypsy and extreme nationalist agenda got 16.7 percent, over three times as much as any other far-right party since the country's return to democracy from communism in 1990.
    (AFP, 4/11/10)(AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, In India’s Manipur state Naga tribes people began a blockade to the rest of India to protest Manipur’s announcement of local elections in Naga-inhabited areas in June.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.46)
2010        Apr 11, In Indonesia police arrested 6 terror suspects including Abu Musa (35), a suspect in the 2004 attack on the Australian Embassy in Jakarta, and Yusuf Arifin (25), who is said to have received militant training in the southern Philippines. The other four were wanted in connection with a failed plot to assassinate Indonesia's president last year.
    (AP, 4/12/10)
2010        Apr 11, In Iran Sharq, a prominent pro-reform daily, reappeared on newsstands after a three-year ban. Sharq was closed by the Press Supervisory Board, run by the Culture and Islamic Guidance Ministry, in 2007 for publishing an interview with a "counter-revolutionary" poet abroad.
    (Reuters, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki's political party said its investigation into the March 7 parliamentary election has thrown into question some 750,000 votes, enough to change the results of the nationwide poll.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, Israel's military issued new orders that human rights groups warned could lead to the expulsion of tens of thousands of Palestinians from the West Bank. The orders have been posted on the Web site of the military prosecutor and are to go into effect April 13.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, In Nigeria suspected Muslim ethnic Fulani attackers burned homes in a Christian village near the city of Jos, which has been at the centre of tit-for-tat attacks this year which have left hundreds dead.
    (AFP, 4/12/10)
2010        Apr 11, North Korea informed South Korea that it will begin quitting a joint tourism project in the communist country this week, in another setback to relations between the countries.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, In Pakistan fighter jets pounded militant hide-outs in the northwest, killing 10 suspected insurgents as part of a military operation that has eliminated more than 300 fighters in the last three weeks.
    (AP, 4/11/10)
2010        Apr 11, Somali pirates hijacked the St. Vincent and Grenadines-flagged Rak Afrikana cargo ship west of the island nation of the Seychelles. The ship and 25 crew members were released on March 9, 2011.
    (AP, 4/11/10)(AP, 3/10/11)
2010        Apr 11, The Sudanese people began voting in a 3-day election that will decide whether President Omar al-Bashir wins another term despite his indictment on charges he committed international war crimes in Darfur. Voters were left with few alternatives after al-Bashir's main challengers boycotted the race, claiming it was not fair. In addition to the president, the country was also electing a national parliament, local governors and parliaments and president of the semiautonomous government of South Sudan. 4 peacekeepers with the joint UN-African Union force (UNAMID) in the western Sudanese region of Darfur went missing. The 4 peacekeepers were released on April 26.
    (AP, 4/11/10)(AFP, 4/12/10)(AFP, 4/26/10)
2010        Apr 11, In Thailand anti-government protesters dug into their encampments around Bangkok and rejected talk of negotiations after a monthlong standoff escalated into clashes that have left 21 people dead in the country’s worst political violence in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 4/11/10)

2011        Apr 11, US federal prosecutors said 10 people, including two former basketball players and a former assistant coach at the University of San Diego, have been indicted in connection with a scheme to fix games since 2008.
    (Reuters, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental prize was awarded 6 people from around the world. The winners included Hilton Kelly for his efforts to cut pollution in Port Arthur, Texas; Francisco Pineda for resisting mining in El Salvador; Ursula Sladek of Germany for creating for reducing her community’s reliance on nuclear power; Prigi Arisandi for her efforts to protect Indonesia’s Surabaya River; Dmitry Lisitsyn for his efforts to protect the Russia’s Sakhalin island; and Raoul du Toit for defending wildlife in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A12)
2011        Apr 11, Reno photographer Joseph Naso (77) was arrested in South Lake Tahoe in connection with the killings of four women in Northern California between 1997 and 1994.
    (SFC, 4/13/11, p.C2)
2011        Apr 11, New York police found human remains at two more locations at Jones Beach State Park on Long Island, bringing to 10 the number of potential victims of a possible serial killer.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A4)
2011        Apr 11, Afghanistan's Pres. Karzai strongly rebuked his international backers, saying Western financial advisers may be tried for contributing to the country's banking crisis and he would now dictate the terms of any future US presence. Ghulam Dastageer, a district council member in Helmand province, was killed by insurgents while he was praying in a mosque.
    (AP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/12/11)
2011        Apr 11, Australia fined Japan Airlines (JAL) Aus$5.5 million (US$5.8 million) after the carrier admitted its role in a long-running cargo cartel case involving 15 airlines. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) said JAL admitted to "making and giving effect to illegal price-fixing understandings with other international airlines" on fuel, insurance and security surcharges.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Belarus a subway bombing in Minsk left 11 dead and more than 200 wounded. 4 others died soon after. Authorities soon detained several people in what they are calling a terrorist attack. Suspects Dmitry Konovalov (25) and Vladislav Kovalyov (25) went on trial in September. On Nov 30 both men were convicted of terrorism and sentenced to death.
    (AP, 4/12/11)(AP, 4/25/11)(AP, 9/15/11)(AP, 11/30/11)
2011        Apr 11, Britain’s Independent Commission on Banking, led by Sir John Vickers, published its initial report.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.62)
2011        Apr 11, In Egypt A few hundred protesters defied an army demand to quit Cairo's Tahrir Square, vowing to stay until the ruling military council heeds their demand for civilian rule and a deeper purge of corrupt officials. A military court jailed blogger Maikel Nabil Sanad (26) to three years in prison for criticizing the armed forces. Safwat al-Sherif, head of Egypt's former ruling party and a longtime stalwart of the regime of ousted Pres. Mubarak, was detained on charges of corruption.
    (Reuters, 4/11/11)(AFP, 4/11/11)(AFP, 4/12/11)(SFC, 4/12/11, p.A2)
2011        Apr 11, The European Union agreed to impose sanctions on 32 Iranian officials for human rights abuses.
    (AP, 4/12/11)
2011        Apr 11, In France a law went into effect banning women from wearing full-face veils in public places. Several women appeared veiled in front of Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral and two were detained for taking part in an unauthorized protest. The $214 burqa fine also included mandatory lessons on being French.
    (SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)(AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Indonesian lawmaker Arifinto (50), a member of the staunchly Islamic Prosperous Justice Party who helped pass a tough anti-pornography law, resigned after he got caught watching sexually explicit videos on his computer during a parliamentary debate.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Ivory Coast forces backing rival presidential claimant Alassane Ouattara arrested incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Iran’s Central Bank Gov. Mahmoud Bahmani said Iran plans to slash 4 zeros from its national currency in "one to two years", seeking parity between its rial and the US dollar.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In central Iraqi bombings in two cities killed at least 10 people, with twin blasts near a school and market in a former insurgent stronghold leaving six dead.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Iraq’s government voted to shut down a camp of Iranian dissidents and move them out of the country by year’s end, but not back to Iran.
    (SFC, 4/12/11, p.A2)
2011        Apr 11, Israel’s PM Benjamin Netanyahu asked a government panel to put off final approval of 2,500 new apartments in east Jerusalem.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi made a rare appearance in open court but left after about 2 1/2 hours, saying the hearing at his tax fraud trial was a waste of time and accusing prosecutors of having no case against him.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Japan a strong 7.0 earthquake rattled the northeast as the government urged more people living near a tsunami-crippled nuclear plant to leave, citing concerns about long-term health risks from radiation.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Jordan released four jailed members of a radical Islamist group that had threatened to stage a mass demonstration over their detentions.
    (AP, 4/12/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Lebanon a police intelligence officer and a main suspect in the kidnapping of Estonian cyclists were killed in a shootout in the border village of Majdal Anjar.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Libya a delegation of African heads of state met rebel leaders in their stronghold of Benghazi to try to sell a peace plan already accepted by Muammar Gaddafi's regime. Forces loyal to Gaddafi shelled the besieged town of Misrata.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(Reuters, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Mexico’s defense ministry announced that at least 16 more dead bodies have been found over the past two days in various parts of Tamaulipas state. The number of bodies found in the country over the past week soon grew to 127. 4 armed men rushed into a newsroom in Villahermosa, then gagged and beat up reporters and photographers and stole computers, cameras and money.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/13/11)
2011        Apr 11, Mexican police in Tijuana arrested a man suspected of killing a US Border Patrol agent Robert Rosas near San Diego on July 23, 2009, nearly one year after another person was sentenced to prison for his role in the ambush. Marcos Manuel Rodriguez Perez (26) was taken into custody as he was driving through Tijuana.
    (AP, 4/12/11)
2011        Apr 11, A group of 39 Pakistani prisoners held in India returned home, the second high-profile prisoner release in days that underscores an easing of tensions between the two rivals.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Puerto Rico Hilton Cordero Rosario, the police commissioner of San Juan, was charged with sexually assaulting a minor and producing child pornography in a case that emerged after his teenage daughter accused him of molesting her. In December he was indicted on 22 charges of child pornography.
    (AP, 4/11/11)(SFC, 12/8/11, p.A9)
2011        Apr 11, A spokesman for the Swaziland Solidarity Network, said in a statement that four people were arrested as they returned from South Africa to their homeland after a weekend planning meeting.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Syrian troops encircled the flashpoint coastal town of Banias, where weekend shootings left 13 dead and scores wounded. An activist in Damascus said security forces have beat up and arrested several at the university's science faculty. Hundreds of students had been shouting for freedoms and unity among Syrians. Activists said security forces killed a student during the protest at Damascus University.
    (AFP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/11/11)(AP, 4/12/11)
2011        Apr 11, Tajikistan state religious affairs committee head Abdurakhim Kholikov said that sending text messages with the "triple talaq," a Muslim ritual whereby a husband can end a marriage by reciting the term for divorce three times, breaches Islamic law.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Turkey said it is willing to consider the idea of hosting a political office for Taliban militants from Afghanistan in order to promote talks to end the war there, and an Afghan official said Turkish planning is already in progress.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, In Uganda Kizza Besigye, the top opposition politician was arrested, along with several members of parliament, during a march to protest high fuel and food prices. The police called it an illegal demonstration.
    (AP, 4/14/11)
2011        Apr 11, Venezuela deported two suspected Colombian rebels, sending a positive message to other nations that want President Hugo Chavez to ensure suspected terrorists do not find haven in Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/11/11)
2011        Apr 11, Yemen's Pres. Saleh welcomed a proposal by GCC Gulf Arab nations for him to step down to end the country's political crisis, but indicated he would do so only when his term ends in 2013. Protesters had already rejected this, calling for his immediate exit.
    (AP, 4/11/11)

2012        Apr 11, In southern California Chinese USC graduate students Qu Ming and Wu Ying, both 23, were shot and killed during a suspected bungled carjacking. On Oct 27, 2014, Javier Bolden (22) was convicted of 1st degree murder.
    (http://newscontent.cctv.com/news.jsp?fileId=138035)(SFC, 10/28/14, p.A7)
2012        Apr 11, The Nebraska Legislature approved a bill that would provide support for an expected new route for TransCanada Corp's Canada-to-Texas Keystone XL crude oil pipeline that would bypass an environmentally sensitive region in the state. Governor Dave Heineman has said he will sign.
    (Reuters, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Shell Oil reported a 10-square-mile oil slick between two major production sites in the Gulf of Mexico, 130 miles southeast of New Orleans. A response vessel was sent.
    (SFC, 4/12/12, p.A6)
2012        Apr 11, In Afghanistan 2 bomb explosions and an insurgent attack killed two NATO service members and a local Afghan government in different parts of the country.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, In Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella (95), the country’s first post-independence president (1963-1965), died. He was hailed as an anti-colonialist hero and the father of the nation.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)
2012        Apr 11, In Bahrain mobs with iron rods and sticks ransacked a supermarket belonging to a major Shiite-owned business group, as part of a spike in violence in the Gulf nation in retaliation for a bomb attack on police.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Police in northeastern Brazil arrested 3 people for allegedly killing at least 2 women and eating parts of their flesh. The next day enraged neighbors burned their house to the ground.
    (SSFC, 4/15/12, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/7t7853v)
2012        Apr 11, The Central African Republic freed former rebel chief Jean-Jacques Demafouth and two other leading opposition figures after a three-month detention. Demafouth has headed the People's Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD) since 2008.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, CongoDRC’s President Joseph Kabila said he would not order the arrest of war crimes suspect Bosco Ntaganda "under pressure" from the international community. He said Ntaganda should be arrested and face a military tribunal in Congo. Kabila said the military doesn't need to hand Ntaganda over to the ICC.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)(AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, The Danish navy stopped a pirate ship off the Somali coast, rescuing 12 Iranian and Pakistani hostages and arresting their 16 captors.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)
2012        Apr 11, In Egypt Salafist politician Hazem Abu Ismail looked set to rejoin the presidential race after a court ruled that his mother was not a US citizen.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, A global tax group added its voice to protests against an Indian plan to retroactively tax business deals, saying it could deter foreign investment in Asia's third-largest economy. New Delhi's planned change to the Income Tax Act announced in last month's budget would be retroactive to 1962 and would oblige domestic and foreign firms alike to pay tax on any transaction involving an Indian asset.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Indonesian carrier Garuda International and European plane manufacturer Airbus signed a $2.5 billion deal in Jakarta, as British PM David Cameron visited Southeast Asia's biggest economy.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, A huge earthquake struck beneath the Indian Ocean and triggered a burst of large quakes around the world. At least 4 faults ruptured within 100 seconds to create a giant quake with a combined magnitude of 8.7 off the island of Sumatra.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)(SFC, 9/27/12, p.A1)
2012        Apr 11, In Morocco 2 US Marines were killed and two severely injured in the crash of an MV-22 Osprey.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, In Russia a large opposition faction stormed out of parliament to protest Vladimir Putin's refusal to look into claims of vote-rigging in a mayoral election that has sparked nationwide anger. Oleg Shein, a member of the Just Russia party who ran for mayor in the southern city of Astrakhan, has been on a hunger strike for 27 days to protest the results of the March 4 poll that he and other opposition figures said was marred by rampant fraud in favor of a Kremlin-backed candidate.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Serbian police over the last 24 hours detained nine people accused of setting fire to the US Embassy in Belgrade in 2008 during riots against Kosovo's independence and were searching for at least five more suspects.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Somalia’s PM Abdiweli Mohamed Ali said that al-Shabab is in "tatters" and that its high-ranking leaders are now moving to the Galgala Mountains.
    (AP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Sudan and South Sudan ordered mass civilian mobilizations for defense as their armies battled along their contested border, raising the specter of a return to all-out war.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Syrian troops took control of large parts of villages and towns near the border with Turkey. The state-run news agency SANA said gunmen shot and killed army Brig. Gen. Jamal Khaled in the Damascus suburb of Aqraba. It added that Khaled's driver, a soldier, was also killed in the attack. 2 people were reported killed and dozens wounded when government troops stormed and shelled Barada valley. 2 more people were reported killed in the eastern town of Qoriah during raids by regime force. The military unleashed a lethal offensive against protest centers, killing 25 civilians today.
    (AP, 4/11/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)
2012        Apr 11, Yemeni government troops battled al-Qaida militants in heavy fighting that left 51 people dead on the outskirts of Lawder. The militants killed included two senior members of the terror network in the area, identified as Imad al-Manshaby and Ahmed Mohammed Taher.
    (AP, 4/11/12)(AFP, 4/12/12)

2013        Apr 11, California became the latest state to place restrictions on the chemical known as Bisphenol-A (BPA) and declare it a reproductive toxicant.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A14)
2013        Apr 11, In northern California a 40-foot section of the Skunk Train Tunnel No. 1 collapsed near Fort Bragg blocking access to 36 miles of track to Willits. Service out of Willits resumed on July 31.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/n7uwhlu)(SSFC, 8/18/13, p.C4)
2013        Apr 11, Jonathan Winters (b.1925), comedian, died at his home in Santa Barbara County, Ca. His films included “Eight on the Lam" (1967).
    (SFC, 4/13/13, p.A6)
2013        Apr 11, American ballerina Maria Tallchief (b.1925), the daughter of an Oklahoma oil family, died in Chicago. She was once married to George Balanchine and became famous in his productions of “Firebird," “Swan Lake" and “Nutcracker."
    (SSFC, 4/14/13, p.C14)
2013        Apr 11, A spring storm left 3 people dead in the Midwest US, one following a tornado in Kemper Ct., Mississippi, and another in blinding snow in Nebraska.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A7)(SFC, 4/13/13, p.A6)
2013        Apr 11, In southern Afghanistan two separate roadside bombings killed four people, including an Uruzgan province district police chief.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, Bangladesh authorities in Dhaka arrested Mahmudur Rahman, the acting editor of a pro-opposition newspaper, on charges of sedition and other crimes.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 11, In Chile an estimated 100,000 students marched in Santiago demanding free education.
    (SSFC, 4/14/13, p.A4)
2013        Apr 11, China reported its 10th death from H7N9 bird flu.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 11, Egypt's Islamist-dominated legislature approved a revised version of the law organizing the country's parliamentary elections, after a court ruled an earlier version was invalid and delayed the vote.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, Israeli police detained five women at a Jerusalem holy site for e for wearing prayer shawls and performing religious rituals that ultra-Orthodox Jews say are reserved for men. An ultra-Orthodox man was also detained for burning a prayer book in protest and was still in custody.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, Four Japanese automakers, including Toyota Motor Corp, and Nissan Motor Co., announced a recall of 3.4 million vehicles sold around the world because airbags supplied by Takata Corp are at risk of catching fire or injuring passengers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, In Morocco soccer hooligans rampaged through Casablanca, mugging pedestrians and smashing up carriages of the city's new tram system, cars and public buses. 193 people were arrested.
    (AP, 4/13/13)
2013        Apr 11, The Dutch Cabinet brokered a deal with unions that scraps planned salary freezes for government and healthcare workers.
    (AP, 4/12/13)
2013        Apr 11, Netherlands-based  Royal Philips NV said it has developed a working prototype of an LED lamp that will confine the fluorescent bulb to the recycling bin of history.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, In northeast Nigeria suspected Islamic extremists attacked a police station, killing four officers in a gun battle in Babangida, Yobe state.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, North Korea delivered a fresh round of rhetoric with claims it had "powerful striking means" on standby for a missile launch. G-8 foreign, meeting London, condemned North Korea's aggressive rhetoric and the development of its nuclear missile programs, saying that Pyongyang's recent actions threaten international security.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, In Pakistan Taliban assailants on a motorcycle gunned down a candidate running in upcoming elections. Fakhurl Islam, whose party has spoken out strongly against the militant group, was killed near his home in Hyderabad city in southern Sindh province.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, Palestinians laid the groundstone in the West Bank town of Birzeit of what organizers say will be the world's largest museum devoted to their history.
    (AP, 4/11/13)
2013        Apr 11, Human Rights Watch condemned Gaza's Hamas rulers for failing to investigate the public slayings (Nov 20,2012) of seven Palestinian men accused of collaborating with Israel.
    (AP, 4/11/13)   
2013        Apr 11, Syrian government forces launched a counteroffensive in the south, capturing Sanamein and killing at least 45 people including women and children. Human Rights Watch, a US-based rights group, accused Syria of committing war crimes by indiscriminate and sometimes deliberate airstrikes against civilians, killing at least 4,300 people since last summer. Rebels shot down a helicopter carrying food and supplies to the Wadi Deif military base, killing the pilot and 3 other soldiers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)(AP, 4/13/13)
2013        Apr 11, In Togo over 20,000 school children from primary, secondary and high schools marched in the capital, Lome, in support of teachers who were on strike to seek better working conditions.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2014        Apr 11, The United States imposed sanctions on a Crimea-based gas company, Chernomorneftegaz, effectively putting it off limits to Russia's state-controlled Gazprom. The move, along with penalties on six Crimean separatists and a former Ukrainian official, is the third round of US sanctions since the Ukraine crisis erupted.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, G-20 financial officials met in Washington DC and pledged to keep working on economic reforms that could increase growth by 2 percent over the next five years. The G-20 also endorsed the $14 billion to $18 billion loan package that the IMF has developed to help Ukraine avoid a financial collapse.
    (AP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 11, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber killed a pro-government tribal elder and wounded three civilians in Paktiya province.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Australian PM Tony Abbott said search and rescue officials are confident they know the approximate position of the black box recorders from Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, missing since March 8.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Police in the Bahamas said they have discovered 75,000 marijuana plants with an estimated value of $7.5 million in a rural area on eastern Grand Bahama island.
    (AP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 11, In Brazil squatters in Rio de Janeiro clashed with police after a Brazilian court ordered that 5,000 people be evicted from abandoned buildings of a telecommunications company.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Britain's crisis-hit Co-operative Bank posted a vast annual loss and axed bonuses for former executives who had left prior to its near-collapse.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Patrick Seale (83), a veteran journalist and author on Middle Eastern affairs as well as one of the world's leading historians on Syria, died in London after a battle with cancer. His books included the authoritative biography of the late Syrian President Hafez Assad, "Assad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East" (1988).
    (AP, 4/14/14)
2014        Apr 11, A Cambodian court sentenced 13 men to prison terms ranging from five to nine years for plotting to overthrow the government in a case that was criticized by a human rights group as a political setup. The men were members of a self-styled Khmer National Liberation Front calling for PM Hun Sen's removal, primarily through Internet postings.
    (AP, 4/11/14) 
2014        Apr 11, In China residents of the western city of Lanzhou rushed to buy bottled water after authorities said the city's drinking water contained levels of benzene, a cancer-inducing chemical, standing at 20 times above national safety levels. The local environmental bureau blamed a crude oil leak from a pipeline owned by a unit of China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) for the water contamination.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)(Reuters, 4/13/14)
2014        Apr 11, Crimean lawmakers adopted a new constitution, taking another step to cement the region's absorption into Russia despite strong objections from the Muslim Tatar minority.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Egyptian soldiers ambushed and killed Nour Hamdeen, a leader of Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, an al-Qaida inspired group, as part of the government's ongoing campaign against terror groups in the Sinai Peninsula. Separately police were reported to have killed 2 gunmen who tried to set fire to a Nile Delta police station.
    (AP, 4/11/14)(SFC, 4/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 11, In Israel Ron Pundak (59), a longtime peace activist and architect of the 1993 Oslo agreement between Israel and the Palestinians, died at home of cancer.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Kenya's defense ministry said its troops have freed two Kenyans kidnapped near its northern border by Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab rebels in 2011. Officials identified the two as James Kiarie Gichuhi, a driver with CARE International, and Daniel Njuguna Wanyoike, said to be working with a logistics firm that may have been delivering medicines to the charity.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Kenya's Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources said the central government will oversee the running of the country's wildlife authority for the next three months in a bid to stop poaching of the country's elephants and rhinos.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Lebanon launched a fourth round of polio immunization, trying to prevent the disease spreading from neighboring Syria along with the tide of refugees fleeing the three-year conflict.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Madagascar named Kolo Christopher Laurent Roger as its new prime minister, part of a process aimed at ending years of political crisis on the Indian Ocean island.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, In Namibia 4 people including a three-year-old boy died after a military helicopter crashed in the north-east. 6 people survived.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 11, In Nigeria suspected Boko Haram Islamists killed 19 people, including 6 college teachers, over the last 24 hours in three separate attacks in the troubled northeastern Borno state.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 11, Pakistani officials said clashes this week between competing Taliban factions killed as many as 43 fighters. Both Shehryar Mehsud and Khan Sayed Sajna sought to gain control of the Mehsud faction of Tehrik-e-Taliban.
    (SFC, 4/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 11, In the Philippines running gunbattles erupted early today on Basilan Island leaving 2 soldiers and 5 Abu Sayyaf militants dead. 28 soldiers were also wounded following their assault on a group of Abu Sayyaf fighters led by Puruji Indama. At least 18 Muslim rebels died in the fighting near Tipo-tipo town on Basilan. Four of the dead were MILF members, while the others were Abu Sayyaf militants.
    (AP, 4/12/14)(Reuters, 4/15/14)
2014        Apr 11, The Philippines and the United States reached agreement on a new security accord allowing American military forces to share local bases for maritime and humanitarian operations.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Puerto Rico's Supreme Court ruled that a law to change a teachers' retirement system is unconstitutional, dealing a blow to the US territory's governor as he tries to revive a sluggish economy.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Sri Lanka's military killed 3 ethnic Tamil separatist militants, the first combat since government troops crushed the rebels in a 2009 offensive.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, The Swiss government said the Palestinians can join the Geneva Conventions governing the rules of war and military occupations, twenty-five years after they made their first bid for membership.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Switzerland said it will hand over to Tunisia $40 million (29 million euros) stashed in Swiss bank accounts by the family of ousted dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Investigations into the origin of $28.5 million remaining continued.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Syria's Al-Qaeda affiliate and its allies repulsed an assault by jihadist rivals (ISIL) on Abu Kamal, a town on the Iraqi border, in fighting that killed 86 people. People choking from poisoning were hospitalized after air raids with barrel bombs on the town of Kafr Zita. State television the next day reported that Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Nusra Front had released chlorine gas in an attack on the town that left at least two people dead.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)(AFP, 4/12/14)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.A3)
2014        Apr 11, Thai security forces shot dead 7 suspected drug smugglers and seized hundreds of thousands of methamphetamine pills after a firefight in the Golden Triangle border region.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)
2014        Apr 11, Turkey's constitutional court dealt another blow to PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan by annulling sections of a controversial law tightening the government's control over the judiciary.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Turkey condemned a US Senate committee resolution branding the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman forces during World War One as genocide and warned Congress against taking steps that would harm Turkish-American ties.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Ukraine's PM Arseniy Yatsenyuk told leaders in the country's restive east that he is committed to allowing regions to have more powers, but left it unclear how his ideas differ from the demands of protesters now occupying government buildings or Russia's advocacy of federalization.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, Nuclear technology firm Westinghouse said it has reached a deal with Ukraine to deliver fuel for its 15 reactors through 2020, a move that helps the country reduce its reliance on Russia for energy supplies as it squabbles with Moscow over unpaid gas bills.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 11, The United Arab Emirates announced that one of six Filipino paramedics in Abu Dhabi, who have been infected by the MERS coronavirus, has died from the respiratory disease. The WHO said that it had been told of 212 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS infection worldwide, of which 88 have proved fatal.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

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