Today in History - April 15

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 cApr 15,  The Thai new year, Songkran, is celebrated in mid-April.
 (Hem., 3/97, p.27)

1220        Apr 15, Adolf I, archbishop of Cologne, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1250        Apr 15, Pope Innocent III refused Jews of Cordova, Spain, permission to build a synagogue.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1452        Apr 15, Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, was born in Vinci near Florence. He apprenticed to the painters Verrocchio and Antonio Pollaiuolo and was accepted to the Florentine painters' guild at twenty. Only seventeen surviving paintings can be attributed to him. These include: “The Last Supper” in Milan, the “Mona Lisa” and “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne” in the Louvre. He tried to express his immense knowledge of the world by simply looking at things. The secret he said was "saper vedere," to know how to see. His final "Visions of the End of the World" was a sketchbook in which he tried to depict his sense of the forces of nature, which in his imagination he conceived of as possessing a unity that no one had ever seen before. His use of a smoky atmosphere (sfumato) helped create an impression of lifelikeness.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.137)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/15/98)

1469        Apr 15, The guru Nanak (d.1539), 1st guru of Sikhs, was born to Hindu parents in Lahore. Nanak assimilated tenets of pantheistic Hinduism and monotheistic Islam and founded Sikhism in the Punjab. He refused to accept the caste system and the supremacy of the Brahmanical priests and forbade magic, idolatry and pilgrimages. Brahma is the Hindu god of creation. Turbaned followers would sport the main of the lion, Singha or Sikh. The sacred Sikh book, Granth Sahib, was compiled by the 5th guru, Arjun, in 1605.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1326)(Hem., 3/97, p.28)(SFEM, 9/19/99, p.74)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)(MC, 4/15/02)

1472        Apr 15, Leon Battista Alberti (b.1404), Italian humanist, architect (Philodoxis), died. He wrote the 1st Italian grammar, the 1st theory of painting as an art, and the treatise “On the Art of Building.” In 1970 Joan Gadol authored a biography. In 2000 Anthony Grafton authored the biography “Leon Battista Alberti.”
    (WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 4/15/02)

1493        Apr 15, Columbus met with King Ferdinand and Isabella in Barcelona.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1594        Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1632        Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1651        Apr 15, Domenico Gabrielli, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1684        Apr 15, Catherine I, empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born. [see Feb 24]
    (HN, 4/15/98)(MC, 4/15/02)

1688        Apr 15, Johann Friedrich Fasch, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1689        Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1715        Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1719        Apr 15, In France Madame de Maintenon (b.1635), the wife of former King Louis XIV, died. In 1930 Maud Cruttwell authored the biography “Madame de Maintenon.” In 2008 Veronica Buckley authored “Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.”
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10(http://tinyurl.com/32xq5o)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1729        Apr 15, Johann S. Bach's "Matthew Passion" premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1738        Apr 15, The bottle opener was invented.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1741        Apr 15, Charles Willson Peale (d.1827), American portrait painter and inventor, was born. His 2nd teacher was John Singleton Copley.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/15/98)

1755        Apr 15, Dr. Samuel Johnson, English writer, published his “Dictionary of the English Language,” a selective English dictionary, after 9 years of work. The 1st edition had 42,773 entries. In 2005 Henry Hitchings authored “Defining the World,” an account of Johnson’s work.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)(HN, 4/15/01)(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.D13)

1756        Apr 15, Jacques Cassini (b.1677), French astronomer and cartographer, died.
    (http://galileo.rice.edu/Catalog/NewFiles/cassini_jac.html)

1764        Apr 15, Jeanne-Antoinette-Poison LeNormant d'Etoiles, Marquis de Pomador, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1784        Apr 15, The first balloon flight occurred in Ireland. [see Jun 5, 1783 in France]
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1788        Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica,” a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “”The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72.”
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1791        Apr 15, Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
    (WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)

1800        Apr 15, Sir James Clark Ross, Scottish explorer, was born. He located the Magnetic North Pole.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1812        Apr 15, Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1813        Apr 15, U.S. troops under James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future state of Alabama.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1814        Apr 15, John Lothrop Motley, US historian, author (Rise of Dutch Rep), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1817        Apr 15, The first American school for the deaf opened in Hartford, Conn.
    (AP, 4/15/97)

1820        Apr 15, Evander McNair, Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1902, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1832        Apr 15, Wilhelm Busch, German artist, was born. He created the precursor to the cartoon strip.
    (HN, 4/15/02)

1834        Apr 15, The Honore Daumier painting “Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834” showed the ghastly aftermath of a civilian massacre by French government forces.
    (WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A24)

1837        Apr 15, Horace Porter (d.1921), Bvt Brig General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1843        Apr 15, Henry James (d.1916), US novelist, writer and critic, was born in England. His older brother was William James, the psychologist and philosopher. Henry James Sr. in the 1850s dragged his 4 sons and daughter across Europe in search a “sensual education.” Henry’s first 40 years are documented by Sheldon M. Novick in "Henry James: The Young Master." There is also a 5-vol. biography by William Edel. His novels included "The Princess Casamassima," a work about the folly of radical politics. "It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature." In 2008 Paul Fisher authored “House of Wits: An Intimate Portrait of the James Family.”
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)(HN, 4/15/98)(AP, 8/3/98)(WSJ, 6/17/08, p.A21)

1850        Apr 15, The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1853        Apr 15, Johann Leopold Fuchs (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1854        Apr 15, The immigrant steamer ship "Powchattan" (Powhattan) struck Brigantine Shoals and sank off Long Beach, NY. Over 300 people died.
    (www.maritimeheritage.org/PassLists/js051854.html)

1858        Apr 15, At the Battle of Azimghur, Mexicans defeated the Spanish loyalists.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1861        Apr 15, Three days after the attack on Fort Sumter, S.C., President Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called out Union troops.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(HN, 4/15/98)

1864        Apr 15, General Steele's Union troops occupied Camden, Arkansas.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1865        Apr 15, President Lincoln died, several hours after he was shot at Ford’s Theater in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. Andrew Johnson, Vice-President under Lincoln, became the 17th President (1865-1869) of the US upon the assassination. The first Mourning Stamp was issued after his assassination, a 15-cent black commemorative. In 1999 Allen C. Guelzo authored "Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President," an intellectual biography. In 2002 William Lee Miller authored "Lincoln’s Virtues: An Ethical Biography." In 2004 Ronald C. White Jr. authored “The Eloquent President.” In 2005 Doris Kearns Goodwin authored “Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln.” In 2006 Douglas L. Wilson authored “Lincoln’s Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Woods.”
    (http://condor.stcloudstate.edu/~brixr01/NYTAPR151865.html)(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 1/20/05, p.D9) (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.M3)(SFC, 11/27/06, p.C2)
1865        Apr 15, Otto von Bismarck was elevated to earl.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1866        Apr 15, Robert LeRoy Parker, a.k.a. "Butch Cassidy," was born in Beaver, Utah. [see Apr 6,13]
    (MesWP)
1866        Apr 15, William Jackson (51), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1871        Apr 15, 'Wild Bill' Hickok became the marshal of Abilene, Kansas.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1874        Apr 15, George Harrison Shull, American botanist, developer of hybrid corn, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)
1874        Apr 15, Johannes Stark, Nobel Prize-winning German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1880        Apr 15, William Gladstone became Prime Minister of England.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1880        Apr 15, Max Wertheimer, Czech-born psychologist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1888        Apr 15, Matthew Arnold (65), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1889        Apr 15, Thomas Hart Benton (d.1975), painter, muralist, was born in Missouri.
    (HN, 4/15/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hart_Benton_%28painter%29)
1889        Apr 15, Asa Philip Randolph, American labor leader and Civil Rights advocate, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1889        Apr 15, A marshal's posse killed and captured a group of Sooners, settlers who stole onto the Public Domain territory in Oklahoma in hopes of claiming it legally, just nine days before the official start of the land rush.
    (HN, 4/15/99)
1889        Apr 15, Rev. Damien de Veuster (b.1840), Belgian priest who ministered to leprosy patients in Hawaii, died of leprosy. In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI set his canonization date for Oct 11, 2009. He was beatified in 1995 after the Vatican declared that the 1987 recovery of a nun of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary was a miracle. Audrey Toguchi recovered from lung cancer in 1999 after praying to Damien.
    (AP, 2/21/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Damien)

1892        Apr 15, General Electric Co., formed by the merger of the Edison Electric Light Co. and other firms, was incorporated in New York State.
    (AP, 4/15/02)

1895        Apr 15, Josephine Blatt of the US made a record hip-and-harness lift of 3564 lb.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1896        Apr 15, The first modern Olympic Games closed in Athens. 164 of the 241 competitors were from Greece. The remaining represented 13 countries, the largest international participation of any sporting event up to that time.
    (ON, 8/07, p.5)

1898        Apr 15, Bessie Smith, American blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1901        Apr 15, The 1st British motorized burial took place.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1903        Apr 15, Erich Arendt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1903        Apr 15, John Williams, actor (Niles-Family Affair, Dial M for Murder), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1910        Apr 15, In San Francisco detective Tim Riordan arrested Jolly Trixie, aka Miss Kitty Plunkett, for allegedly violating the Penal Code. She was accused of being deformed and exhibiting her deformity in a Fillmore Street show house. Plunkett said she weighed only 585 pounds as opposed to the alleged 685 pounds. 2 physicians testified that she was perfectly symmetrical.
    (SSFC, 4/11/10, DB p.50)

1912        Apr 15, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's communist founder and leader (1948-1994), was born.
    (AP, 7/8/97)(WSJ, 6/26/97, p.A14)(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A22)
1912        Apr 15, At 2:20 a.m., two hours and 40 minutes after impact, the luxury liner RMS Titanic sank in the North Atlantic Ocean off Newfoundland with the loss of about 1,522 lives. About 1,500 [1517] people died. Because there were lifeboats for only half those on board, only 705 passengers and crew survived the disaster. Among the survivors was J. Bruce Ismay, president of the White Star Line, who telegraphed his New York office, "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning after collision with iceberg, resulting in serious loss of life. Full particulars later." Nearly a third of the passengers died. The ship’s band played the waltz “Songe d’Automne” as it sank. The accident killed 1,523 [1503] people and 705 survived. By 1996 only 8 were still alive. Nearly 60% of the first-class passengers survived. There were 214 staff members of the 685 survivors. It was later discovered that Harland & Wolff, the ship’s builder, had used a lower quality rivet on the ship that likely contributed to the rapid sinking. The last night on the ship was described by Rick Archbold and Dana McCauley in their book: “Last Dinner on the Titanic.” The steamer Carpathia rescued 705 of the 2,358 people onboard. Prof. Steven Biel of Brandeis Univ. wrote “A Cultural History of the Titanic” in 1997.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.16)(SFC, 9/22/96, Par p.25)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/14/97, p.E8)(SFC, 4/19/97, p.A3)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.37)(SFC, 4/15/08, p.A6)

1915        Apr 15, Manuel de Falla's ballet "El Amor Brujo," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1917        Apr 15, The British defeated the Germans at the battle of Arras.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1918        Apr 15, Clemenceau published secret French-Austrian documents.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1919        Apr 15, Jane Arminda Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service, died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there. She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the 1st female recipient. In 1920 She was brought back to the U.S. and re-interred in Arlington National Cemetery.
    (www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jadelano.htm)

1920        Apr 15, A paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory in Braintree, Massachusetts, were killed in a robbery. Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti were accused of the crime.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P8)
1920        Apr 15, Richard von Weizsacker, baron, president (Germany, 1984-94), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1921        Apr 15, Georgi Timofeyevich Beregovoi, USSR cosmonaut (Soyuz 3), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1921        Apr 15, The Black Friday Labour Party strike of mine workers failed.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1922        Apr 15, Neville Mariner, conductor, was born. [see Apr 15,1924]
    (HN, 4/15/01)
1922        Apr 15, Harold Washington, first black mayor of Chicago (1983-1987), was born.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1922        Apr 15, Wyoming Democratic Senator John Kendrick introduced a resolution that set in motion one of the most significant investigations in Senate history. On the previous day, the Wall Street Journal had reported an unprecedented secret arrangement in which the Secretary of the Interior, without competitive bidding, had leased the U.S. naval petroleum reserve at Wyoming's Teapot Dome to a private oil company. Wisconsin Republican Senator Robert La Follette arranged for the Senate Committee on Public Lands to investigate the matter. His suspicions deepened after someone ransacked his Russell Building office.
    (http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Senate_Investigates_the_Teapot_Dome_Scandal.htm)

1923        Apr 15, American inventor Lee De Forest (1873-1961 premiered 18 short films made in Phonofilm at the Rivoli Theater in New York City. Phonofilm recorded sound directly onto film.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_De_Forest)
1923        Apr 15, Insulin became generally available for diabetics.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1924        Apr 15, Neville Mariner, conductor, was born in Lincoln, England. [see Apr 15,1922]
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1925        Apr 15, John Singer Sargent (b.1856), US portrait painter, died in London.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)( www.artfact.com/features/viewArtist.cfm?aID=3117)

1927        Apr 15, Babe Ruth hit his 1st of 60 HRs of season off A's Howard Ehmke.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1927        Apr 15, Francesco Gaeta (47), Italian poet (Di Giacomo), died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1931        Apr 15, Florian Zabach, violinist (Hot Canary, Club), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1932        Apr 15, Eva Figes, British novelist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1933        Apr 15, Elizabeth Montgomery, actress (Samantha/Serena-Bewitched), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1940        Apr 15, Jeffrey Archer, English novelist and politician (Kane and Abel, Honor Among Thieves), was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)
1940        Apr 15, French and British troops landed at Narvik, Norway.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1941        Apr 15, 1st helicopter flight of 1 hour duration took place at Stratford, Ct.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1942        Apr 15, Kenneth Lay, the son of a Baptist minister, was born. He grew up in Rush, Missouri, and in 1986 became the CEO of Texas-based Enron Corp.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)
1942        Apr 15, George VI awarded the George Cross to the citizens of Malta.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1945        Apr 15, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was buried on the grounds of his Hyde Park home.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1945        Apr 15, Commenting on the death of American President Franklin Roosevelt in his Order of the Day, Adolf Hitler proclaimed: “Now that fate has removed from the earth the greatest war criminal of all time, the turning point of this war will be decided.”
    (HNQ, 10/8/99)
1945        Apr 15, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp, although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000 people died in Belsen.
    (AHD, p.122)(AP, 4/17/05)
1945        Apr 15, The deadly battle for Berlin began. The Seelow Heights posed the last natural barrier to Berlin in April 1945 from an advancing Red Army. The rolling plains and plateaus of the Seelow Heights were only 35 miles from the German capital and were well defended. The battle, which raged for a week, was extremely costly to both sides, leaving some 30,000 Red Army soldiers and at least 80,000 Germans killed.
    (HNQ, 4/16/99)
1945        Apr 15, The USS Laffey, built at Maine's Bath Iron Works in 1943, got its nickname as "The Ship That Would Not Die" when it was on picket duty off Okinawa. About 50 Japanese planes attacked and about half got through to the Laffey. The ship suffered 103 casualties when it was hit by four bombs and five kamikaze planes. In 2012 it returned to its home at a maritime museum on Charleston Harbor on the South Carolina coast.
    (AP, 1/25/12)(http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/724.htm)

1947        Apr 15, Jackie Robinson, modern baseball's first black major-league player, broke the color barrier and made his official debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers on opening day. The Dodgers defeated the Boston Braves, 5-3.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(HN, 4/15/98)

1948        Apr 15, Arabs were defeated in the first Jewish-Arab battle.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1952        Apr 15, President Harry Truman signed the official Japanese peace treaty.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1952        Apr 15, The 1st B-52 prototype test flight was made.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1952        Apr 15, Franklin National Bank issued the 1st bank credit card.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1955        Apr 15, Ray Kroc acquired the McDonald’s chain of fast food restaurants. He was a food service equipment salesman who owned the national marketing rights to the milk-shake mixers used at the chain. He purchased the chain from Richard (d.1998 at 89) and Maurice McDonald (d.1971) who started the operation in California in 1948. Kroc built his first restaurant in Des Plains, Illinois, and later established his world headquarters and a company museum there.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)(HN, 4/15/98)(SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)

1957        Apr 15, Saturday mail delivery was restored after Congress gave the PO $41 million.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1958        Apr 15, In the 10th Emmy Awards: Gunsmoke, Robert Young and Jane Wyatt won.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1958        Apr 15, The Giants baseball team of Horace Stoneham, brought from New York to San Francisco, opened at Seal Stadium against the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Giants won 8-0.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A20)(SFEC,12/797, Z1 p.4,5)

1959        Apr 15, Emma Thompson, actress (Henry V, Howard's End, Oscar-1992), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1959        Apr 15, John Foster Dulles, US Sec. of State, resigned.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1959        Apr 15, Cuban leader Fidel Castro arrived in Washington, D.C., to begin a goodwill tour of the United States.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(HN, 4/15/98)

1960        Apr 15, The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized at Shaw University.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1961        Apr 15, "Music Man" closed at Majestic Theater in NYC after 1375 performances.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1961        Apr 15, Anti-Castro Cuban pilots, under the hire of the US CIA, knocked out part of the Cuban air force. 54 people were killed in the attacks on 3 military bases including two airfields and the Antonio Maceo Airport. Two “defecting” B-26 bombers flew to Miami.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A19)(AH, 4/07, p.18)

1964        Apr 15, Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel opened top northbound traffic with two tunnels and four man-made islands. It stretched 20 miles from Virginia Beach and Norfolk to Virginia’s eastern shore. A parallel span was added in 1995.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.D1)(http://www.cbbt.com/facts.html)

1969        Apr 15, North Korea shot down a US airplane above the Sea of Japan. All 31 men aboard the plane were believed dead.
    (www.willyvictor.com/History/Korean_Shootdown/Korea.html)

1970        Apr 15, Last Gasp’s first publication, Slow Death Funnies #1, came out for the first “Earth Day” (see April 22). Ron Turner founded Last Gasp, a San Francisco publisher of underground comics and graphic novels.
    (SFC, 3/27/10, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/ye78lv9)

1971        Apr 15, In the 43rd Academy Awards "Patton" won for best picture and George C Scott won best actor for his role as Patton. Glenda Jackson won as best actress for her role in “Women in Love.” George C. Scott (b.1927) refused his Oscar nomination for on grounds that actors should not have to compete against each other. He had refused it before in 1962 for his performance in "The Hustler."
    (www.super70s.com/Super70s/Movies/1970/Academy_Awards.asp)(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)
1971        Apr 15, North Vietnamese troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American troops were on a rescue mission.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1972        Apr 15, Canada’s PM Pierre Trudeau and President Richard Nixon met in Ottawa to sign the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The agreement followed measurements that showed that high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen led to the lakes being choked to death from vegetation and algae. Methods for quantifying eutrophication had been developed by Swiss scientist Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

1974        Apr 15, SLA members including Patty Hearst robbed the Sunset Branch of the Hibernia Bank in SF of more than $10,000. While fleeing they wounded 2 people passing by.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W23)

1975        Apr 15, Karen Ann Quinlan went into a coma after drinking several gin-and-tonics on top of a mild tranquilizer. She lived in a coma for over 10 more years. The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of the respirator that assisted her in 1976.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)
1975        Apr 15, Richard Conte (b.1910), film actor, died. He appeared in films such as “I'll Cry Tomorrow” and “The Godfather.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Conte)
1975        Apr 15, Egypt’s Pres. Anwar Sadat chose Hosni Mubarak to serve as vice president.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.A4)(www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=24129)

1976        Apr 15, Gerald L.K. Smith (b.1898), a leader of the “Share Our Wealth” movement and founder of the America First Party (1943), died in Arkansas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_L._K._Smith)
1976        Apr 15 In Argentina Floreal Avellaneda (14), the son of a Communist trade union leader of Greater Buenos Aires, was kidnapped from his house with his mother, by an Army contingent looking for his father. On May 14, 1976, Floreal’s corpse was found on the coast of Montevideo, Uruguay, hands and feet bound and with signs of torture. Iris Pereyra, the boy’s mother, was released after three years. In 2009 former general Santiago Omar Riveros (86) and 4 others were found guilty of involvement in the boy’s murder.
    (www.cidh.oas.org/annualrep/87.88eng/chap5.htm)(AP, 8/12/09)

1980        Apr 15, The Mariel boatlift officially began. When it ended on Oct 31, some 207,000 refugees entered the US of which 125,00 were Cubans.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 594)(www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/mariel-boatlift.htm)
1980        Apr 15, Existentialist philosopher, novelist and dramatist, Jean-Paul Sartre (b.1905) died in Paris at the age of 74. His work included "Being and Time" (1927) and "Nausea" (19238). He won the 1964 Nobel Prize for literature and his work included "Being and Nothingness." Philosophical replies to this work were written by Claude Levi-Strauss: "The Raw and the Cooked," a book that popularized structuralism in France, and by Michael Foucault: "Words and Things," ("The Order of Things" in the American edition). "If you're lonely while you’re alone, you’re in bad company." In 2000 Bernard-Henri Levy authored "Sartre: The Philosopher of the Twentieth Century."
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.8)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 4/15/99)(Econ, 8/30/03, p.60)

1981        Apr 15, Janet Cooke said her Pulitzer award 8-year-old heroin addict story was a lie. The Washington Post relinquished the Pulitzer Prize over the fabricated story.
    (www.museumofhoaxes.com/day/04_17_2001.html)
1981        Apr 15, Coca-Cola opened its first bottling plant in China since the country’s Communist revolution.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.9)

1983        Apr 15, The costliest theft in Israel's history saw 106 timepieces worth millions of dollars disappear from the L.A. Mayer Museum for Islamic Art. Among them was a pocket watch made for French queen Marie Antoinette that museum officials valued at more than $30 million. In 2008 detectives blamed Naaman Diller, a notorious Israeli thief, who fled to Europe and died in the United States in 2004. Diller apparently confessed the crime to his wife on his deathbed. When Israeli police and American law enforcement officials arrived at Diller's wife's Los Angeles home to question her, they found some more of the stolen clocks. Others were later found in hidden locations in Israel and around the world. They were put up for display again in 2009.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(AP, 7/20/09)
1983        Apr 15, Tokyo Disneyland opened.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo_Disneyland)

1984        Apr 15, William Empson (b.1926), English literary critic and poet, died. His 1950 book, “Seven Types of Ambiguity,” changed literary criticism. In 2005 John Haffenden authored “William Empson: Volume I, Among the Mandarins.” In 2006 Haffenden completed Vol II, “William Empson: Against the Christians.”
    (Econ, 6/4/05, p.79)(www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1427)(WSJ, 12/23/06, p.P10)

1986        Apr 15, The United States launched an air raid with F-111 warplanes against Libya in response to the bombing of a discotheque in Berlin on April 5; Libya said 41 people, mostly civilians, were killed in Tripoli and Benghazi. The step-daughter of Moammar Gadhafi, Hana, was reportedly among those killed near Tripoli by the US bombing. In 2011 evidence emerged that Hana was not killed and completed medical school 2010. 
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 8/30/11)
1986        Apr 15, Jean Genet (75), French playwright (Lesson Negres), was found dead in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Genet)

1987        Apr 15, Alfred Uhry's "Driving Miss Daisy," premiered in NYC.
    (www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1525)
1987        Apr 15, A jury in Northampton, Mass., found Amy Carter, Abbie Hoffman and 13 other protesters innocent of charges stemming from a demonstration against CIA recruiters at the University of Massachusetts.
    (AP, 4/15/97)

1988        Apr 15, Former White House spokesman Larry Speakes resigned from Merrill Lynch and Co. less than a week after disclosing that he had, on two occasions, fabricated quotations attributed to President Reagan.
    (AP, 4/15/98)
1988        May 15, The Soviet Union began the process of withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, more than eight years after Soviet forces had entered the country.
    (AP, 5/15/98)(HN, 5/15/98)

1989        Apr 15, In Sheffield, England, 96 people died in a crush of soccer fans at Hillsborough Stadium after police allowed spectators to pour onto a crowded terrace. On Sep 12, 2012, secret documents were released that said British police tried to blame soccer fans to cover up mistakes that contributed to the deaths of those who were crushed at a stadium.
    (AP, 4/15/08)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.61)(AP, 9/12/12)
1989        Apr 15, In China Hu Yaobang, former party chief, died. Thousands of students in Shanghai and Beijing took to the streets to mourn his death. The protests culminated in the June 5 Tiananmen Square massacre.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 4/15/99)   

1990        Apr 15, Actress Greta Garbo died in New York City at age 84. In 1997 Karen Swenson authored “Greta Garbo: A Life Apart.” In 2000 the Rosenbach Museum in Philadelphia opened 55 letters written by Garbo to her lesbian friend Mercedes de Acosta (d.1968) between 1931-1959. Acosta was a Spanish aristocrat turned Hollywood screenwriter.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A5)

1991        Apr 15, Turkey began moving thousands of Iraqi Kurds from a border settlement to camps farther inside Turkey, in a major policy shift for President Turgut Ozal’s government, which had previously kept the refugees in the mountains.
    (AP, 4/15/01)

1992        Apr 15, Hotel magnate Leona Helmsley began serving a prison sentence for tax evasion. She was released from prison after 18 months.
    (AP, 4/15/97)
1992        Apr 15, A US court threw out Apple's lawsuit against Microsoft.
    (www.abo.fi/~adeheer/students/itlekt1e.)
1992        Apr 15, On April 15-16 the Mujahedeen overthrew the Communist government led by Pres. Najibullah in Kabul. The Mujahideen took Kabul and liberated Afghanistan, Najibullah was protected by the UN. The Mujahideen formed an Islamic State, Islamic Jihad Council, and scheduled elections.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)(SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)(www.afghan-web.com/history/)
1992        Apr 15, Countries barred Libyan jets from their airspace and ordered diplomats to go home because of Libya's refusal to turn over suspects in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. U.N. Security Council imposed sanctions on arms sales and air travel against Libya to prod Gadhafi into surrendering two suspects wanted in the Pan Am 103.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(AP, 12/19/03)
1992        Apr 15, Russia's deeply divided Congress of People's Deputies formally endorsed President Boris Yeltsin's economic reforms.
    (AP, 4/15/97)
1992        Apr 15, Vietnam adopted a new constitution. It was updated in 2001.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l5r8wqd)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.52)

1993        Apr 15, The Group of Seven nations unveiled a $28.4 billion aid package for Russia at the conclusion of an emergency two-day meeting in Tokyo.
    (AP, 4/15/98)
1993        Apr 15, Leslie Charteris (85), British mystery writer (Saint), died.
    (www.nndb.com/people/820/000104508/)

1994        Apr 15, Ministers from 109 countries signed a 26,000-page world trade agreement known as the "Uruguay Round" accords in Marrakesh, Morocco. The TRIPS agreement (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), negotiated in the 1986-1994 Uruguay Round of the WTO, enabled governments to allow generic drugmakers to produce patented medicines.
    (AP, 4/15/99)(http://tinyurl.com/kmr22ya)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.10)
1994        Apr 15, Valerie Niyitegeka, a Tutsi woman whose family farmed near Mount Nyakizu, fled with her husband, Appolloni and their six children as mobs of Hutu men burned Tutsi houses. The father and children were soon killed. In 2011 she testified in Kansas, USA, against Lazare Kobagaya as the US government sought to revoke his US citizenship for allegedly lying to immigration authorities about his involvement in the Rwanda genocide. A US federal jury found Kobagaya lied on immigration forms and deadlocked on his involvement in the genocide. In August, 2011, charges against Kobagaya (84) were dismissed after the government failed to prove he took part in the atrocities.
    (AP, 5/6/11)(SFC, 6/1/11, p.A8)(SFC, 8/26/11, p.A5)

1995        Apr 15, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton asked Congress to protect a short list of key legislation, saying he was giving the highest priority to welfare reform, targeted tax cuts and a crime bill preserving the assault weapons ban.
    (AP, 4/15/00)

1996        Apr 15, President Clinton began a weeklong, round-the-world trip, heading for a three-day visit to Japan after a brief stopover in Cheju, South Korea.
    (AP, 4/15/97)
1996        Apr 15, Funeral services were held in Pescadero, Calif., for Jessica Dubroff, the 7-year-old girl who died trying to become the youngest person to fly across America.
    (AP, 4/15/97)
1996        Apr 15, Stavros Spyros Niarchos (86), Greek ship owner, died.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-ni.htm)
1996        Apr 15, Tens of thousands of striking Venezuelan teachers defied a government order to go back to their classrooms. The month-old stoppage has kept more than 6 million children out of school.
    (SFC, 4/15/96, p.A-9)

1997        Apr 15, Jackie Robinson's number 42 was retired 50 years after he became the first black player in major league baseball.
    (AP, 4/15/98)
1997        Apr 15, The Justice Department inspector general reported that FBI crime lab agents produced flawed scientific work or inaccurate testimony in major cases such as the Oklahoma City bombing.
    (AP, 4/15/98)
1997        Apr 15, The US military said it would allow American Indian soldiers to use peyote in their religious services.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A3)
1997        Apr 15, In Bosnia the joint presidency agreed on a new currency, a coupon with a value equal to one German mark, or about 57 cents.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A12)
1997        Apr 15, China blocked a UN resolution criticizing its human-rights record for the 7th year in a row.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr 15, In Saudi Arabia at least 343 Muslim pilgrims died in a fire on a plain outside the holy city of Mecca and injured 1290. The fires stemmed from cooking gas canisters. Aid workers and diplomats said the death toll was at least 500.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/15/98)(AP, 2/1/04)

1998        Apr 15, Pres. Clinton traveled to Chile for a Latin American trade summit.
    (WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 15, The federal government accused A. Bruce Rozet and his business partners of illegally siphoning off $7.5 million from 73 subsidized housing projects across the nation. HUD had already sued Rozet for milking 17 projects in California and Nevada.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 15, In SF a superior Court judge ordered the immediate closure of the Cannabis Cultivator’s Club, the nation’s largest dispenser of medicinal pot.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 15, Brazil lowered its prime rate from 28% to 23.3%.
    (WSJ, 4/17/98, p.A10)
1998        Apr 15, Pol Pot (73) died of a heart attack in Anlong Veng, northern Cambodia. His body was cremated. It was later reported that he killed himself with malaria pills and tranquilizers after learning that an aide planned to hand him over to the US. In 1999 it was reported that Ta Mok had Pol Pot executed. In 2001 the place of his death was designated as a historic site and plans were made to make it a tourist attraction. In 2004 Philip Short and John Murray authored “Pol Pot: The History of a Nightmare.”
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A1)(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/27/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/21/01, p.H5)(Econ, 11/6/04, p.89)
1998        Apr 15, In Indonesia anti-government rallies were held on at least 25 campuses around the country calling for the resignation of Suharto and his Cabinet.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A14)
1998        Apr 15, In Nepal Girija Prasad Koirala began his 2nd term as prime minister. He succeeded Krishna Prasad Bhattarai.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girija_Prasad_Koirala)
1998        Apr 15, In Somalia ten aid workers were kidnapped in Mogadishu.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1999        Apr 15, Erotica USA, a pornography trade show, opened a 4-day exhibit at the Javits Center in NYC.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A3)
1999        Apr 15, It was reported that astronomers, using the Hubble Space Telescope, detected a 13 Billion year-old galaxy, dubbed "Sharon." It was the oldest and most distant object yet detected.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.A7)
1999        Apr 15, Astronomers announced that 3 planets had been detected orbiting the star Upsilon Andromedae some 44 light-years away.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A1,19)
1999        Apr 15, The US Pentagon planned to ask for 30,000 reservists and National Guard members for NATO support. Pres. Clinton was expected to ask for $5.9 billion in emergency spending to cover US costs in the Kosovo operation.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A16)
1999        Apr 15, In Salt Lake City, Utah, Sergei Babarin (70) entered the Mormon Church's Family History Library and opened fire. He killed 2 people, Patricia Frengs of Pleasant Hill, Ca. and security guard Donald Thomas (62). He wounded 4 others and was shot dead by police.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A3)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A2)
1999        Apr 15, Algeria held elections. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was left alone in the race after 6 competitors withdrew over allegations that the vote was rigged. A 60% turnout was reported. Bouteflika said he would turn down the post without a massive turnout and a large majority support.
    (SFC, 2/13/99, p.A5)(SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)
1999        Apr 15, Austria began accepting refugees from Kosovo as the Austrian Army and Red Cross built a camp for 5,000 refugees in Shkoder, Albania.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.A8)
1999        Apr 15, In Colombia rebels released 3 more hostages as army units fought to free the remaining 32 captured in the hijacking of an Avianca plane.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 15, In Israel Arieh Deri, leader of the ultra-Orthodox Shas party, was sentenced to 4 years in prison for taking bribes.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)
1999        Apr 15, A South Korean Air cargo MD-11 crashed after takeoff from Shanghai and at least 5 people were killed. Explosives were suspect in the crash.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 15, NATO bombed TV transmitters, military installations and bridges throughout Yugoslavia. Military targets in Montenegro were struck as was the city of Subotica, near the Hungarian border.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A19)
1999        Apr 15, In Pakistan a court convicted Benazir Bhutto in absentia of corruption and sentenced her to 5 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)

2000        Apr 15, Rem Koolhaas (56), Dutch architect, won the annual $100,000 Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A4)
2000        Apr 15, In California Pres. Clinton created Giant Sequoia National Monument in Sequoia National Park. It protected 328,000 acres and 34 groves of Sequoias from timber harvest within 2 ½ years.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.C7)
2000        Apr 15, The world’s leading financial officials, meeting in Washington, pledged cooperation to promote global prosperity as anti-globalization protesters gathered. An estimated 600 people were arrested in Washington DC prior to the meeting of the IMF and World Bank.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A1)(AP, 4/15/01)
2000        Apr 15, Cal Ripken of the Baltimore Orioles became the 24th player to reach three-thousand hits when he lined a clean single to center off Twins reliever Hector Carrasco. The Orioles won the game, 6-to-4.
    (AP, 4/15/01)   
2000        Apr 15, Wellesley Women’s College in Massachusetts received a $25 million gift from Lulu Wang and her husband Anthony.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A17)
2000        Apr 15, The Int’l. Whaling Commission turned down a requests from Japan and Norway to allow expanded limited whaling. 2000 delegates were gathered in Nairobi, Kenya, for a 10 day UN Convention on Int’l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A22)
2000        Apr 15, In Zimbabwe David Stevens, a white farmer, was abducted and killed by squatters near Macheke. 4 neighbors who went to help him were missing.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.C22)

2001        Apr 15, Joey Ramone, punk rock icon, died of cancer in NYC at age 49. The Ramones punk rock group released their 1st album "Ramones" in 1976. Joey Ramone’s "Don’t Worry About Me" album was released in 2002. Ramone was born in 1951 as Jeffrey Hyman.
    (AP, 4/15/02)(SFC, 4/17/01, p.C2)(WSJ, 2/22/02, p.W7)(NW, 12/31/01, p.111)
2001        cApr 15, Australia indicated that it would not ratify the Kyoto treaty to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and said the treaty is probably defunct now that the US has repudiated it.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 15, Benin authorities sought Staneslas Abatan and 2 collaborators believed to be responsible for the child slave ship off the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. It was reported that human cargo had been shipped from Benin to Gabon on the ship MV Etireno over the past 5 years. The Etireno was later reported to have been confused with another ship, which was missing. The slave ship was later held to be a false alarm. 30 of the children on the ferry remained unclaimed after 3 days at dock.
    (SFC, 4/16/01, p.A8)(SFC, 4/17/01, p.A10)(SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)(SFC, 4/21/01, p.A16)
2001        Apr 15, In Brazil a prison takeover in Cuiaba ended when inmates killed 6 leaders of the rebellion after they took visitors hostage.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 15, In China police opened fire on villagers who opposed high local taxes and fees in Yuntang. 2 were killed and at least 18 wounded.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A16)
2001        cApr 15, In Colombia 32 peasant bodies were pulled from a fresh shallow grave and a right-wing death squad was accused of the killing.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 15, Rebels in Congo backed by Rwanda blocked the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Goma and demanded that the UN first condemn atrocities by Congo.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 15, U.N. investigators arrested Bosnian Serb army officer Dragan Obrenovic in connection with the Serbian Army's slaughter of as many as 7,000 Muslim men and boys. Obrenovic later pleaded guilty to five war crimes charges and testified against his one-time superior officers; he was sentenced to 17 years in prison..
    (AP, 4/15/06)

2002        Apr 15, The Boston Marathon was won by Rodgers Rop of Kenya for the men, 2:09:02, and Margaret Okayo of Kenya for the women, 2:20:43.
    (WSJ, 4/16/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 15, In Washington DC thousands of Jews and supporters of Israel gathered for a “National Solidarity Rally.”
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 15, The FDA approved Botox to smooth the appearance of wrinkles.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)
    (AP, 4/19/02)
2002        Apr 15, Damon Knight (79), science fiction writer and editor, died in Eugene. His work included “The Futurians” (1977), a memoir of a group of budding writers that included Asimov, Wollheim, Pohl and himself. His 1950 story “To Serve Man” was made into a Twilight Zone episode in 1962.
    (SFC, 4/19/02, p.A27)
2002        Apr 15, Byron R. White (b.1917), former Supreme Court Justice (1962-1993), died in Denver.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 15, Four American soldiers were killed in Afghanistan while disarming a rocket.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 15, Israeli forces in Ramallah seized Marwan Barghouti, a top Arafat lieutenant and alleged leader of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Two Palestinians were killed in fighting near Bethlehem and 2 of some 200 Palestinians surrendered at the Church of the Nativity Israeli forces played high-decibel sounds around the clock.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A1,10)
2002        Apr 15, Pope John Paul II summoned all US cardinals to the Vatican to discuss clerical sex abuse scandals in the US.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 15, In Ukraine evidence was made public that Pres. Kuchma in 2000 authorized the sale of an advanced $100 million radar system to Iraq in violation of UN sanctions.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A7)

2003        Apr 15, Umpire Laz Diaz was attacked by a fan during a game between the Kansas City Royals and Chicago White Sox; the fan, Eric Dybas, was later sentenced to six months in jail and 30 months probation.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2003        Apr 15, US and Canadian officials announced the disruption of a major methamphetamine supply system. An 18-month investigation netted 67 arrests.
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.A1)
2003        Apr 15, Theodore Weiss (b.1916), poet and teacher at Princeton, died. He and his wife had edited the Quarterly Review of Literature for nearly 60 years.
    (SFC, 4/21/03, p.B5)
2003        Apr 15, In Chechnya 16 people, mostly female construction workers, were killed last week in a bus explosion. The incident was not reported until Apr 21.
    (AP, 4/21/03)
2003        Apr 15, Finnish lawmakers appointed Anneli Jaatteenmaki the country's first female prime minister, making Finland the only state in Europe with women as president and premier.
    (AP, 4/15/03)
2003        Apr 15, US forces about this time cut off oil flow from Iraq to Syria. Oil flow had reached 130,000 barrels a day providing both countries over $10 million a month in profits.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.A18)
2003        Apr 15, In the 28th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom selected Iraqi leaders met with retired US Lt. Gen. Jay Garner to shape a new government with 13 goals, the 1st being "Iraq must be democratic." Secretary of State Colin Powell said the United States has no plans to go to war with Syria. Looters and arsonists ransacked and gutted Iraq's National Library and the principal Islamic library. Marines came under fire while seizing an airstrip on the outskirts of Tikrit. 7 Iraqis died when American troops opened fire to keep an angry crowd from storming a government complex in Mosul. US troops in Baghdad arrested Abul Abbas, head of the Palestinian terrorist group that attacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in 1985.
    (AP, 4/15/03)(SFC, 4/16/03, p.A1, A16)(AP, 4/15/04)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.C3)
2003        Apr 15, US forces signed a cease-fire agreement with the People's Mujahedeen (Mujahedeen Khalq), a designated terrorist organization. The Iranian group had an estimated 10,000 members and was led by a woman.
    (SFC, 4/29/03, A10)
2003        Apr 15, Israeli-Palestinian clashes in Gaza and the West Bank left 6 people dead.
    (SFC, 4/16/03, p.A7)
2003        Apr 15, In the Netherlands, Volkert van der Graaf, the killer of politician Pim Fortuyn, was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2003        Apr 15, Slovakia Pres. Rudolf Schuster signed an accession document committing Slovakia to joining NATO, the next-to-last step on the long road to membership in the military alliance.
    (AP, 4/15/03)

2004        Apr 15, In the finale to the first edition of the NBC reality show "The Apprentice," an estimated 27.6 million viewers tuned in to watch. Donald Trump "hired" Bill Rancic over Kwame Jackson during a segment that was telecast live.
    (AP, 4/16/05)
2004        Apr 15, The Pentagon told 20,000 US soldiers in Iraq that their tours would be extended.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 15, The US EPA warned California and a 30 other states to clean up smog-plagued regions. 474 counties fell short of standards including 36 in California.
    (SFC, 4/16/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 15, Several Los Angeles porn-movie companies said they would stop production for 2 months following reports that 2 stars, including veteran performer Darren James, had recently tested positive for AIDS.
    (SFC, 4/16/04, p.A2)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.66)
2004        Apr 15, The United States pledged $400 million to support a U.N. plan for reunifying Cyprus, but stressed no money would come unless voters on the divided island approve the settlement in a referendum next week.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, Thomas Corbally (b.1921), man of mystery, died. He became known as part of the 1963 British Profumo scandal. An FBI report declassified in 1987 characterized him as an American businessman who ran sex orgies in his London flat."
    (SFC, 4/27/04, p.B7)
2004        Apr 15, Colombian police seized dozens of estates and homes belonging to reputed drug kingpin Diego Montoya.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, A man identifying himself as Osama bin Laden offered a "truce" to European countries that do not attack Muslims, saying it would begin when their soldiers leave Islamic nations, according to a recording broadcast on Arab satellite networks.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the world wide web, became the 1st recipient of Finland’s Millennium Technology Prize.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.84)(www.infoworld.com/article/04/04/16/HNbernerslee_1.html)
2004        Apr 15, In Hungary government leaders and the Israeli president inaugurated this country's first Holocaust museum in memory of Hungary's 600,000 Holocaust victims.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, In Iraq 3 Japanese hostages who had been threatened with death unless Tokyo withdrew its troops from Iraq were released.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, A U.S. businessman was abducted from his hotel in the southern city of Basra by kidnappers disguised as policemen.
    (AP, 4/16/04)
2004        Apr 15, Gunmen killed a high-ranking Iranian diplomat in Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, Branko Crvenkovski, Macedonia's PM, took the lead in elections to replace the president who died in a plane crash, but he didn't get enough votes to avoid a runoff.
    (AP, 4/15/04)
2004        Apr 15, In western Mexico, an explosion tore through a small fireworks store in Tonala, killing seven people including a small child.
    (AP, 4/16/04)
2004        Apr 15, The liberal Uri Party loyal to South Korea's impeached president Roh Moo Hyun, won the most seats in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/15/04)(SFC, 4/16/04, p.A3)

2005        Apr 15, The DJIA dropped 191 to close at 10,087, the worst close since May 19, 2003.
    (SFC, 4/16/05, p.A1)
2005        Apr 15, It was reported that paleontologists have identified a new dinosaur species, an early relative of Tyrannosaurus rex that probably roamed what is now the Southeastern US about 77 million years ago. The scientists made the identification from hundreds of fossilized fragments collected mostly in Montgomery County, Ala., and southwestern Georgia. They named the new dinosaur Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis, which means "the Appalachian lizard from Montgomery County." The 25-foot-long creature roamed the earth 10 million years before T. rex and was smaller and more primitive, with a narrower snout.
    (AP, 4/16/05)
2005        Apr 15, Belize Telecommunications Limited (BTL) suffered an apparent act of sabotage which left the entire country without any phone, Internet or fax services. Unfortunately, BTL was unable to restore its services for the entire weekend, leaving Belize completely stranded.
    (www.sanpedrosun.net/old/05-161.html)(Econ, 4/30/05, p.34)
2005        Apr 15, Administrators for Britain’s MG Rover Group said they intend to break up the company, laying off 5,000 workers, in a bid to find buyers for different units after the Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. made clear it was not interested in a joint venture.
    (AP, 4/15/05)
2005        Apr 15, Ecuador’s Pres. Lucio Gutierrez declared a state of emergency in Quito and dissolved the Supreme Court, saying the unpopular judges were the cause of three days of pot-banging street protests.
    (AP, 4/16/05)
2005        Apr 15, In France a fire swept through a Paris hotel used by the city to house needy African families. 24 people were killed, half of them children.
    (AP, 4/16/05)(AP, 4/15/06)
2005        Apr 15, Sunni militants seized a 35-50 Shiite hostages in the central Iraqi town of Madain and threatened to kill them unless all Shiites leave.
    (AP, 4/16/05)
2005        Apr 15, Italy’s government teetered near collapse after 2 coalition parties said they would withdraw from PM Berlusconi’s government.
    (SFC, 4/16/05, p.A7)
2005        Apr 15, Communist rebels in southern Nepal dragged at least 10 males from their homes, including a 14-year-old boy, and gunned them down for refusing to take up arms with the guerrilla movement.
    (AP, 4/17/05)
2005        Apr 15, Police in Peru seized more than a ton of cocaine destined for the US as it was being packed into a shipment of canned fish at the Colra Fish Factory in Tacna.
    (AP, 4/17/05)
2005        Apr 15, Peruvian authorities said 3 poachers have been charged with killing 7 people during a five-year crime spree in which they allegedly slaughtered 2,500 vicuna, a protected Andean animal prized for its wool.
    (AP, 4/15/05)
2005        Apr 15, A Russian Soyuz-FG rocket lifted off at Baikonur, Kazakhstan, carrying 3 men to the int’l. space station.
    (SFC, 4/15/05, p.A3)
2005        Apr 15, In Sri Lanka at least five renegade Tamil Tiger rebels were killed in a fresh bout of violence in the restive northeast.
    (Reuters, 4/15/05)
2005        Apr 15, Turkish troops backed by attack helicopters killed 21 Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border overnight in the biggest clash since the rebels declared a unilateral truce more than five years ago. 3 Turkish soldiers and a village guardsman also were killed in the clash 25 miles from the Iraq border between the town of Pervari in Siirt province and Eruh in Sirnak province.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2006        Apr 15, Stanford Univ. said it will use a $3.3 million gift from the Malone Family Foundation of Englewood, Colo., to offer an online high school for gifted students.
    (SSFC, 4/16/06, p.B2)
2006        Apr 15, In Redwood City, Ca., 3 men were shot and killed at the Headquarters Bar.
    (SFC, 4/16/06, p.B1)
2006        Apr 15, In Oakland, Ca., Renardo Williams was shot in the chest. Police presented Williams with a picture of Ronald Ross and Williams identified Ross as the shooter. Williams and the son of the real shooter, Steven Embrey Sr., later recanted their story. In 2013 Ross (51) was freed from after nearly 7 years behind bars. In 2014 Ross filed a $32 million civil rights lawsuit against Oakland.
    (SFC, 2/23/13, p.C1)(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.C4)
2006        Apr 15, Taliban fighters simultaneously attacked two police checkpoints on a southern Afghan highway, and up to 14 militants were killed or wounded in the ensuing gunbattle. Suspected Taliban attacked coalition and Afghan army troops with small arms and rocket-propelled grenades in central Uruzgan province, sparking a gunbattle that killed three attackers. Suspected Taliban shot and killed a district administrator in Helmand province. US-led coalition forces using warplanes and artillery clashed with a small band of militants holed up in a house and a cave complex in Kunar province in fighting that killed seven Afghan civilians and wounded three. The US airstrike aimed at militants in eastern Kunar province mistakenly killed seven civilians.
    (AP, 4/16/06)(AP, 4/15/07)
2006        Apr 15, Bangladesh said it will vaccinate about 18 million children aged 5 and under to combat polio, which recently re-emerged after authorities believed it had been eradicated five years ago.
    (AP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, Cambodian soldiers departed to Sudan for a UN-backed landmine clearing operation, saying they hoped they could use their experience recovering from civil war to help the war-torn Sudanese.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, Chad threatened to cut off its flow of oil unless the World Bank releases $125 million frozen in a dispute over how the central African country should spend its oil revenues.
    (AP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, In southern Chechnya rebels killed two Russian soldiers and wounded five others in an ambush.
    (AP, 4/16/06)
2006        Apr 15, China announced tariff cuts on imports of fruit and fish from Taiwan, offering the self-ruled island new trade concessions in an effort to boost sentiment for uniting with the communist mainland.
    (AP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, China reported that the orbiting capsule of its Shenzhou VI spacecraft, which was launched into space six months ago, has returned to earth after orbiting 2,920 times.
    (AP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, Shiite politicians suggested a formula for replacing their nominee for prime minister to break the deadlock over Iraq's new unity government. At least 12 Iraqis died in a car bombing near a Baghdad restaurant and other attacks. 4 US Marines were killed in combat in western Anbar province.
    (AP, 4/15/06)(AP, 4/16/06)
2006        Apr 15, In Libya US singer Lionel Richie jived and rocked for an adoring audience in a concert to mark the 20th anniversary of a US raid on the North African country. Libya renewed a demand that Washington apologize and pay compensation.
    (AP, 4/15/06)(Reuters, 4/16/06)
2006        Apr 15, Palestinian police sealed off a main road and briefly stormed a government building in the central Gaza town of Khan Younis, angered by the Hamas-led government's failure to pay them.
    (AP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz began a two-day visit to Pakistan during which he is expected to discuss a possible arms deal.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)
2006        Apr 15-2006 Apr 17, In southern Sudan 15 people including 11 civilians were killed in clashes between militia fighters, straining a deal that ended the country's north-south civil war.
    (Reuters, 4/17/06)
2006        Apr 15, Suspected Tamil Tiger rebels detonated mines near two military vehicles in northeastern Sri Lanka, killing eight people in separate attacks.
    (AP, 4/16/06)

2007        Apr 15, Airlines canceled over 400 flights in the NYC area as a hard-blowing nor'easter gathered strength along the East Coast. The storm out of the Great Plains was already blamed for 5 deaths.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(SFC, 4/16/07, p.A4)
2007        Apr 15, Researchers reported that cells that are supposed to nourish and support other nerve cells instead secrete the poisons that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
    (Reuters, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Scientists unveiled the world’s tiniest eyedropper, capable of squeezing out zeptoliter droplets.
    (SFC, 4/16/07, p.A9)
2007        Apr 15, A fire in Quincy, Illinois, killed 5 children. Police arrested Zachary Meeks (27), a cousin who had a grudge with the victim’s parents stemming from a drug-related prison sentence.
    (SFC, 4/16/07, p.A5)
2007        Apr 15, Brant Parker (86), collaborator with Johnny Hart on the “Wizard of Id” (1964) cartoon strip, died in Lynchburg, Va. In 1997 Parker handed the illustration of the cartoon over to his son, Jeff Parker.
    (SFC, 4/9/07, p.B3)
2007        Apr 15, Afghanistan's government promised to end all hostage deals with the Taliban after two Afghan kidnap victims were executed in an agreement to free an Italian journalist.  In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber targeted a private US security firm, killing up to four Afghans working for the company and wounding another. In Ghazni province, southwest of Kabul, a clash between Afghan forces and insurgents left 15 militants dead and 15 wounded. Police and US-led coalition forces attacked suspected Taliban insurgents crossing from Pakistan into Afghanistan, killing 10 militants and wounding 15.
    (AFP, 4/15/07)(AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, Authorities in Bangladesh arrested a second son of former prime minister Khaleda Zia, as the military-backed interim government stepped up its anti-corruption drive. Arafat Rahman (36) was released the next day.
    (AFP, 4/16/07)(AP, 4/17/07)
2007        Apr 15, In Belgium 2 men hijacked a helicopter and forced the pilot to land in a prison courtyard, where they picked up an inmate in a dramatic jailbreak. RTL-TVI identified the fugitive as a Frenchman who was in pretrial detention on charges of fraud and theft.
    (AP, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Blind British aviator Miles Hilton-Barber, With the aid of co-copilot Richard Meredith-Hardy, landed his microlight aircraft in Jakarta to complete another leg of his London-Sydney charity flight.
    (AFP, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Ecuadoreans voted on whether to create a special assembly to rewrite their constitution. Exit polls said voters overwhelmingly supported Pres. Correa's plan to remake the nation's system of government and weaken its discredited Congress.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, Iran said it is seeking bids for the building of two more nuclear power plants, despite international pressures to curb its controversial program.
    (AP, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Four bombs exploded in predominantly Shiite sections of Baghdad, killing at least 37 people in a renewal of sectarian carnage. Many women and children were among the casualties. North of Baghdad, two British helicopters crashed after an apparent mid-air collision, killing two service members. The number of bodies found dumped in Baghdad increased sharply to 30. The number of detainees held in US-run facilities in Iraq reached 18,000, with an average stay of one year.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(SSFC, 4/15/07, p.A7)(AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, Israeli and Palestinian leaders discussed the outlines of Palestinian statehood for the first time in six years, taking a modest step toward breaking the long paralysis in peacemaking.
    (AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, A 14-year-old matador who left Spain to escape his home country's ban on young bullfighters was nearly gored to death in a Mexican City ring, his lung punctured by a 900-pound bull.
    (AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, Nigeria's mass daily newspapers reported that dozens of people died during state elections, as results began to emerge from state elections that were marred by rigging and violence.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(Reuters, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, In Pakistan some 100,000 people rallied in Karachi against a radical Islamic mosque and seminary that launched a Taliban-style anti-vice campaign in Islamabad last week.
    (AP, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 15, Three explosions hit Gaza City, damaging two Internet cafes and a Christian bookstore. Palestinian security officials have said they suspect a secret "vice squad" of Muslim militants.
    (AP, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Philippine marines killed at least 8 Muslim rebels and captured two of their camps in retaliation for a series of attacks that killed a child and two soldiers.
    (AP, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, Russia launched its first new generation nuclear submarine since the fall of the Soviet Union, as the Kremlin seeks to upgrade its undersea nuclear strike force. Russia began construction of its first floating nuclear power plant, and planned to build at least six more despite long-standing environmental concerns that they are vulnerable to accidents at sea. In St. Petersburg, Russia, club-swinging riot police clashed with opposition supporters as an anti-Kremlin protest dispersed. Police chased small groups of demonstrators, beating some on the ground and hauling them into police buses.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(Reuters, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, In Russia a keel-laying ceremony was held in Severodvinsk, on the White Sea, for the new 460-foot Mikhail Lomonosov, a $360 million demonstration ship capable of providing 76-megawatts of nuclear power to an onshore location. Completion was expected in 2010 with construction of new ships to start annually.
    (WSJ, 8/21/07, p.A13)
2007        Apr 15, The official Saudi news agency reported that Sudan has signed a joint agreement with the UN and the African Union that defines their respective roles in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2008        Apr 15, Pope Benedict arrived at Andrews air Force Base in Maryland and was met by President Bush and Catholic dignitaries. Benedict turned 81 the next day.
    (AP, 4/16/08)(SFC, 4/16/08, p.A2)
2008        Apr 15, Data firm RealtyTrac said home foreclosure filings surged 57% in the 12 month-period ended in March and bank repossessions soared 129% from a year ago. US inflation at the wholesale level soared in March at nearly triple the rate that had been expected as the costs of energy and food both climbed rapidly.
    (Reuters, 4/15/08)(AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Mike Leavitt, the top US health official, said US food and drug regulators will start working in China next month once Beijing gives its final approval.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, J Street, an American pro-Israel and pro peace lobby was established under director Jeremy Ben Ami. It argued for a 2-state solution based on Israel’s pre-1967 borders. It is the first and only federal Political Action Committee (PAC) established to explicitly promote meaningful American leadership to end the Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab conflicts peacefully and diplomatically.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.40)(www.jstreet.org/files/images/JStreet_MediaAdvisory_041507.pdf)
2008        Apr 15, A draft report by the US National Toxicology Program acknowledged concerns over bisphenol-a (BPA), a chemical found in thousands of everyday plastic products, saying it may cause cancer and other serious disorders.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.A4)
2008        Apr 15, California Sen. Leland Yee dropped efforts to put the Cow Palace in Daly City up for sale and settled on a compromise plan to allow an adjoining parking lot to be sold.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.B14)
2008        Apr 15, Hazel Court (b.1926), British-born horror film queen, died in Tahoe City, Ca. Her films included “Devil Girl From Mars” (1954). Her autobiography, “Hazel Court: Horror Queen,” was published later this month.
    (SFC, 4/19/08, p.B5)
2008        Apr 15, A Bangladesh official said at least 17 people were killed when a train plowed through a packed bus at a railway crossing in Tangail district.
    (AP, 4/16/08)
2008        Apr 15, Brazil and Russia signed an agreement to jointly develop top-line jet fighters and satellite launch vehicles.
    (AP, 4/16/08)
2008        Apr 15, In Brazil a police raid on drugs and dealers in a Rio de Janeiro shantytown set off a fierce gunbattle that killed at least nine people and wounded seven.
    (AP, 4/16/08)
2008        Apr 15, Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting thousands of people to leave their homes.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 44 people were killed and up tot 100 injured when a passenger plane crashed onto a market district after taking-off at Goma.
    (Reuters, 4/16/08)(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 15, In Egypt a security official said 25 members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood have been sentenced to up to 10 years in jail.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, French high school students threw bottles and rocks on the fringes of a Paris demonstration that drew thousands of protesters to a march against a government plan to cut teaching jobs.
    (AP, 4/16/08)
2008        Apr 15, A parked car bomb targeting a police patrol in central Baghdad, killed four civilians who were passing by and wounding 15 other people. In Baqouba a car parked in front of a restaurant exploded killing at least 35 people. In Ramadi a parked car bomb exploded near a kebab restaurant killing at least 13 people. US soldiers backed by an airstrike killed six militants during clashes in the Sudayrah area near Baghdad's Sadr City. American troops killed four militants who fired rocket-propelled grenades at a tank elsewhere in the area. More clashes in Sadr City left four militiamen killed and 15 others wounded.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Israel said it will resume some crucial fuel shipments to the Gaza Strip. Defense officials confirmed that Israel will let Jewish settlers build new houses in existing West Bank settlements if they remove unauthorized settlement outposts. An Israeli aircraft fired a missile at a motorcycle in northern Gaza, killing Mohammed Ghausain, an Islamic Jihad commander.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Italy's Silvio Berlusconi (71) pledged to use his big election win to push through economic reforms, and vowed to close the border to illegal immigrants in a crackdown on criminals he called "the army of evil." He owed his majority in parliament to the support of the xenophobic Northern League, which won 8 percent of votes.
    (Reuters, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Kazakhstan joined other Black Sea grain exporters in curbing shipments to combat double-digit inflation. Wheat exports were suspended until Sep 10. Kazakhstan will become the world’s 5th largest wheat exporter this year, shipping half its record 2007 crop.
    (WSJ, 4/16/08, p.A8)
2008        Apr 15, In Mexico gunmen held up a family of US tourists in Baha and made off with their small plane from a hotel airstrip in Mulege.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Nepal's former rebels surprised observers by winning more than half of the directly elected seats where counting was complete in an assembly that will shape the Himalayan nation's political future. Re-voting was held in six constituencies.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, In New Zealand 5 people were killed and three others missing after they were swept away by a storm-swollen river in the Mangatepopo Gorge.
    (AFP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Former US Pres. Jimmy Carter visited the West Bank and laid a wreath at the grave of Yasser Arafat. Carter was criticized by Israel and Washington for his plans to meet with Hamas leaders in Syria.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.A8)
2008        Apr 15, In the northern Philippines army troops clashed with communist rebels, leaving three people dead in Quezon province's General Nakar town.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, President Vladimir Putin accepted the leadership of the dominant United Russia party, securing his grip on power after he leaves the Kremlin and becomes PM next month.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, In Uganda a fire tore through a primary school dormitory overnight, killing 19 girls and two adults. Police said that the blaze may have been deliberately set.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Venezuela moved to take a greater cut of windfall oil profits, approving a 50 percent tax on foreign oil companies when crude tops US$70 a barrel.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, An opposition general strike to demand the release of Zimbabwe's delayed election result flopped and the ruling party in South Africa said the situation in the neighboring country was "dire."
    (Reuters, 4/15/08)

2009        Apr 15, Pres. Obama directed the US Treasury Dept. to seize assets of 3 Mexican drug cartels including the Sinaloa cartel, the Los Zetas cartel and the La Familia Michoacan group.
    (SFC, 4/16/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 15, In Washington, DC, the FBI arrested Walter Kendall Myers (72) and his wife, Gwendolyn (71), for spying. For three decades, Myers and his wife had shuffled secrets to their Cuban contacts. Kendall Myers first worked for the State Department as a lecturer at the Foreign Service Institute and later as a European analyst in the department's intelligence arm, the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, from 2000 until his retirement in October 2007. On Nov 20 Myers and his wife pleaded guilty to serving as covert agents since 1979. Myers agreed to serve life in prison and his wife agreed to serve 6-7½ years.
    (AP, 6/6/09)(SFC, 11/21/09, p.A4)
2009        Apr 15, In Florida inmates Doni Ray Brown (23) and Wayne Fletcher (25) escaped the county jail in Palatka and within hours stole 2 vehicles and killed Fletcher’s step-grandmother (66). Both were arrested on April 18 and charged with murder.
    (SFC, 4/20/09, p.A6)
2009        Apr 15, Hundreds of Afghans swarmed a demonstration of more than 100 women protesting against a new marriage law they say restricts wives' rights. The women were pelted with small stones as police struggled to keep the two groups apart. A NATO soldier and 2 Afghan policemen were killed in fresh violence. Taliban insurgents beheaded a government employee on charges of spying for foreign forces in the Bala Murghab district of Badghis province.
    (AP, 4/15/09)(AFP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 15, Bolivian police foiled an alleged plot to assassinate President Evo Morales, killing three men at the Hotel Las Americas in a 30-minute gunbattle with a mysterious group that included suspects from Hungary, Ireland and possibly Croatia. The 3 men were killed in their beds and 2 others were arrested. The dead included: Eduardo Rozsa Flores (49), the son of a Hungarian father and Bolivian mother, Arpad Magyarosi, a Romanian-born Hungarian, and Irishman Michael Martin Dwyer. Mr. Rozsa Flores was known as an activist for the autonomy of Bolivia’s department of Santa Cruz. The 3 men were involved in a conspiracy to create a separatist right-wing militia in the eastern, opposition-dominated state of Santa Cruz.
    (AP, 4/16/09)(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.A5)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.35)(AP, 5/21/10)
2009        Apr 15, Clement Freud (84), a grandson of Sigmund Freud, died. He became a well-known writer, politician and urbane regular on British radio. He was best known from his three decades appearing on the BBC game show, "Just a Minute," in which panelists compete to see who can talk the longest without hesitation, deviation or repetition.
    (AP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 15, China fired into orbit its second satellite in a program to build an alternative to the global positioning system based on U.S. satellites.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Colombia's most wanted drug lord was captured in a jungle raid involving hundreds of police officers. Daniel Rendon Herrera (43), a far-right warlord known as "Don Mario," was taken in shackles to the capital to await possible extradition to the United States.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Egyptian police detained three teenage Palestinian men on suspicion of crossing illegally into Egypt and also found explosives near the border with Gaza.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Fiji's military government tightened controls on the media, devalued the currency by 20% and said it would not tolerate opposition to plans for a sweeping overhaul of the country's politics.
    (AP, 4/15/09)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.44)
2009        Apr 15, A blockade by French fishermen angry at EU quotas cut ferry links with Britain for a second day as a union official threatened to block the Channel Tunnel in support of the movement.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, French forces detained 11 pirates during an assault on a pirate "mother ship" and thwarted a pirate attack on a Liberian-registered vessel.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Iranian scientists at the Royan Research Institute cloned a goat and planned future experiments they hope will lead to a treatment for stroke patients. The female goat, named Hana, was born in the city of Isfahan in central Iran.
    (AP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 15, In Iraq 11 Oil Ministry guards were killed and 13 wounded in a car bombing in Kirkuk.
    (AP, 4/17/09)
2009        Apr 15, In Mauritania Gen. Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, the leader of a coup that ousted the elected government, gave up power. This freed him to seek the presidency in balloting aimed at returning civilian rule. Senate president Ba Mamadou Mbare was quickly sworn in as interim leader of the desert nation in western Africa.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Mexico’s troubled border city of Ciudad Juarez and the federal government signed an agreement to train, recruit and equip enough city police officers to take over from 5,000 army troops now performing security patrols there.
    (AP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 15, Nigeria set up a panel to probe a multi-million dollar cash-for-contract scandal embroiling US giant Halliburton and reportedly implicating three former presidents.
    (AP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 15, Sri Lankan forces attacked Tamil guerrillas with mortar fire, artillery and heavy machine guns following a two-day cease-fire aimed at letting civilians flee the war zone, a pro-rebel Web site reported. The government denied launching a new attack.
    (AP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, A Sudanese court condemned 10 rebels from the Darfur rebel Justice and Equality Movement to death for an unprecedented attack on Khartoum in May, 2008, which killed more than 220 people.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, In southern Zimbabwe at least 29 people were killed and 39 injured when a bus plunged into a river bed near Chivhu town.
    (AFP, 4/16/09)

2010        Apr 15, The White House released a statement by Obama instructing his Health and Human Services secretary to draft rules requiring hospitals that receive Medicare and Medicaid payments to grant all patients the right to designate people, including gay and lesbian partners, who can visit and consult with them at crucial moments.
    (AP, 4/16/10)
2010        Apr 15, President Barack Obama set a goal to visit an asteroid by 2025. Obama outlined NASA's new path during a visit to the Kennedy Space Center.
    (AP, 4/16/10)
2010        Apr 15, A US Senate panel report was released saying some of the largest US health insurers are changing their accounting practices to book administration costs as medical costs in an attempt to circumvent new industry reforms.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In Washington, DC, several thousand Tea Party protesters marked tax day with a rally in Freedom Plaza capping a national protest tour that began in Nevada.
    (SFC, 4/16/10, p.A12)
2010        Apr 15, US federal agents, some in black hoods, swarmed over five Arizona shuttle businesses in a major crackdown on human trafficking, arresting dozens of van operators and smugglers accused of transporting illegal immigrants from the Mexican border to Phoenix.
    (AP, 4/16/10)
2010        Apr 15, In the San Francisco Bay Area BART officials stripped officers of Tasers days after a sergeant fired his stun gun at a boy (13) on his bicycle fleeing from an altercation with police in Richmond. Bay Area Rapid Transit police had begun using Tasers in December, 2008.
    (SFC, 4/16/10, p.A1)
2010        Apr 15, It was reported that researchers were warning of a new blight on the ocean: a swirl of confetti-like plastic debris stretching over thousands of square miles (kilometers) in a remote expanse of the Atlantic Ocean.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In southern Afghanistan a car bomb outside hotel in Kandahar city, injuring at least 6 people. A few hours later an Afghan civilian and two security guards were killed when the car slammed into a compound in Kandahar used by foreign security firms. A scrap metal dealer and four children helping him were killed by a suspected homemade bomb as they loaded materials collected door-to-door in rural Kandahar. Fighting in the north of the country left four German troops dead. One civilian was killed and one injured when a bomb blew up beneath the tractor they were riding near Gardez in the eastern province of Paktika. 5 Afghan UN employees were missing after their vehicles were hijacked in northern Baghlan province. The UN employees were freed in a military operation on May 17.
    (AP, 4/15/10)(AFP, 4/16/10)(AP, 4/16/10)(AP, 5/17/10)
2010        Apr 15, British TV broadcast the country’s first live debate between leaders of its 3 main political parties.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.60)
2010        Apr 15, British airport operator BAA Ltd. said all flights at London's Heathrow Airport have been suspended for the rest of the day, causing travel chaos as ash clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano halted air traffic across Europe.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In Canada the city of Vancouver released documents indicating it spent more than C$554 million ($554 million) as host of this year's Winter Olympics, much of it related to building the athletes village. The federal government and the province of British Columbia also paid the C$585 million cost to build and refurbish competition venues in Vancouver, and at the nearby mountain resort of Whistler.
    (Reuters, 4/16/10)
2010        Apr 15, A new study by Oxfam said the number of rapes carried out by civilians in eastern Congo has increased by 17-fold in the last few years. It said sexual assaults long perpetrated by armed groups are spreading across the population.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In Cuba historian Esteban Morales posted an article on a state Web site saying corruption at the highest levels of government posed the greatest threat to Cuba’s communist government.
    (SFC, 4/16/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 15, German authorities said they have targeted nine suspects, including former staff of Hewlett-Packard, in a probe into whether the world's top PC maker paid bribes to win business in Russia.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, Police in Guatemala said a 13-year-old boy has confessed to shooting a woman to death for a payment of about $12.50. The boy could face 6 years in a juvenile custody facility if convicted.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, Israel customs officials said they already have confiscated about 10 iPads since Israel announced new regulations this week. The iPad banned anyone from bringing an iPad into the country until officials certify that they are in compliance with local transmitter standards. Israel lifted a ban on April 25.
    (AP, 4/15/10)(AP, 4/25/10)
2010        Apr 15, Deposed Kyrgyzstan President Kurmanbek Bakiyev' left the country for neighboring Kazakhstan, just hours after gunfire erupted at a rally where he was speaking to supporters.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In Myanmar 3 bombs exploded at a water festival in the former capital Yangon, killing 8 people and wounding 94. State TV blamed "destructive elements" for the attacks.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, In Nigeria the burnt bodies of a Pentecostal pastor, Ishaya Kadah, and his wife, Selina, were discovered by the police in Boto village, two days after they were kidnapped.
    (AFP, 4/18/10)
2010        Apr 15, The Hamas government executed two men accused of collaborating with Israel. Mohammed Ismail (36) was convicted of planting devices in the cars of militants, presumably to help track them. Nasser Abu Freh (33), a former Palestinian police captain before the Hamas takeover, allegedly started receiving money to work with Israel in 1998. The bullet-riddled bodies of the men, convicted by military tribunals in 2008 and 2009, were dumped by armed men at Gaza City's main hospital before dawn. It was the first time the death penalty has been carried out in Gaza since Hamas violently seized power in the coastal area in 2007.
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said Russia has suspended all adoptions to US families until the two countries can agree on procedures, a week after Torry Hansen, an American woman, sent her adopted son, Artyom Saveliev (7), back to Russia on a plane by himself.
    (AP, 4/15/10)(SFC, 5/19/12, p.A5)
2010        Apr 15, Human Rights Watch, a leading international rights group, called on Senegal's government to clamp down on Islamic schools whose leaders are subjecting tens of thousands of children to forced begging and daily beatings in conditions it says are "akin to slavery."
    (AP, 4/15/10)
2010        Apr 15, Sudanese voters cast ballots on the last day of landmark elections. Sudan's ruling party said that the southern army had killed 9 people, including at least 5 of its officials, stoking tensions during voting in the first open elections in 24 years. Commission official Abel Alier said on April 26 that al-Bashir had garnered 68% of over 10 million valid ballots.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)(AP, 4/26/10)
2010        Apr 15, Venezuelan authorities were reported to be investigating the deaths of six Yanomami Indians, including two children, in a remote community in the Amazon. Prosecutors believed that four adults, a man and three women, died after drinking water contaminated by illegal miners, and that the two children were apparently killed.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2011        Apr 15, President Obama and the US Congress approved $205 million in aid to develop “Iron Dome,” a new Israeli-made missile defense system.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, Indictments were unsealed in Manhattan against 11 people including the founders of three of the largest online poker sites open to US players. PokerStars, Full Tilt Poker and Absolute Poker were charged with bank fraud, money laundering and violating gambling laws.
    (SFC, 4/16/11, p.A6)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.68)
2011        Apr 15, Storms marched into Tennessee, Louisiana and later into Georgia. At least three twisters touched down in Mississippi, where a state of emergency was declared in 14 counties, causing widespread damage.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Afghanistan Khan Mohammad Mujahid, the police chief in Kandahar city, was killed by a Taliban suicide bomber along with two of his bodyguards.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Algeria Islamist extremists attacked an army post and killed at least 13 soldiers watching the Algerian president's televised speech promising reforms. Two militants in the group were killed by soldiers at the post in Kabyle. President Bouteflika announced constitutional reforms "aimed at deepening the democratic process" amid upheavals.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, An Australian Crime Commission report said organized crime costs Australia up to Aus$15 billion (US$15.8 billion) each year. The report warned that opportunities for illegal activity were unprecedented.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)
2011        Apr 15, Burkina Faso soldiers shot into the air, stole cars and looted shops in the western and central parts of the capital, Ouagadougou, as protests by military guards against unpaid housing allowances spread.
    (AP, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 15, In Toronto, Canada, Liu Qian (23) was found raped and dead a few hours after her former boyfriend in China watched via webcam as she tried to fend off an attacker who appeared at her door. On April 7, 2014, Brian Dickson (32) was convicted of her murder and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 4/8/14)(http://tinyurl.com/mq7crka)
2011        Apr 15, Egypt's top prosecutor ordered deposed President Hosni Mubarak to be moved from a hospital at a Red Sea resort to a military hospital for questioning about the deaths of protesters and allegations of corruption and abuse of power.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In northeastern India gunmen ambushed and shot dead seven policemen in Manipur state, but a local politician managed to escape unhurt.
    (AFP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Indian Kashmir suspected Muslim rebels shot dead Haseena Akhter, a woman candidate contesting village-level polls.
    (AFP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Indonesia suicide bomber Muhammad Syarif (32) blew himself up as police were praying in the West Java town of Cirebon, wounding 30 people in the first attack on a mosque since extremists started targeting the predominantly Muslim country a decade ago.
    (AP, 4/15/11)(AP, 4/16/11)(AFP, 10/8/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Ivory Coast Gen. Brunot Dogbo Ble, head of the Republican Guard, was captured. The Guard had stood beside Gbagbo and fought fiercely in Abidjan.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, Japan's government ordered the embattled operator of the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant to offer payouts to tens of thousands of people made homeless by the ongoing crisis.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Jordan hundreds of protesting Islamic Salafi hard-liners clashed with supporters of King Abdullah II, wounding dozens, in the latest move by the extremist movement to assert itself amid the country's wave of anti-government demonstrations. 70 Islamic hardliners were soon arrested for suspected armed attacks that left 83 policemen wounded. Ayman al-Balawi (38), the brother of an al-Qaida triple agent who blew himself up in a CIA outpost in Afghanistan in Dec, 2009, was detained in a sweep along with 102 other members of the ultraconservative Muslim Salafi sect.
    (AP, 4/15/11)(AP, 4/16/11)(AP, 4/19/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Libya a fresh hail of government rockets crashed into Misrata after Western allies denounced a "medieval siege" of the city and vowed to keep bombing Muammar Gaddafi's forces until he stepped down. Gaddafi forces opened fire on rebels and killed one near the strategic eastern Libyan town of Ajdabiyah, after an insurgent plan for a new counter-assault fizzled out.
    (Reuters, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, Italian activist Vittorio Arrigoni (36) was found hanged in a Gaza apartment just hours after he was abducted by an al-Qaida-inspired group. Hamas soon arrested 4 people in connection with the killing, and sought others.
    (AP, 4/15/11)(AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, Mexican authorities said 10 complete bodies, 3 headless bodies and 4 severed heads were found when authorities dug up a pit in a house in Durango state. Marines detained 22 more suspects, including five women, in an operation over the killings of 145 people found in mass graves this month in Tamaulipas state.
    (AP, 4/15/11)(AFP, 4/19/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Mexico residents of Cheran, Michoacan state, captured five illegal loggers as their truck attempted to smuggle out illegally harvested wood. The indigenous Purepecha people said the loggers were backed by cartel henchmen and local police. Loggers shot and killed two Cheran men and wounded four others who were patrolling the woods on April 27.
    (AP, 5/18/11)
2011        Apr 15, In the Netherlands Gen. Ante Gotovina (55), a commander hailed by Croats as a hero of the Balkan conflict, was convicted of war crimes by a UN court and sentenced to 24 years in prison for a campaign of shelling, shootings and expulsions aimed at driving Serbs out of a Croatian border region in 1995.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Nigeria gunmen who hid their Kalashnikov rifles in long flowing gowns attacked residents in the city of Maiduguri. Two people were killed and five others wounded a day ahead of the country's presidential election.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, Somali pirates took a multi-million ransom and released the Asphalt Venture, hijacked last Sep 28, and some crew members. 7 Indian crew members were kept hostage in retaliation for the holding of over 100 Somali pirates by the Indian Navy.
    (AP, 4/16/11)(SFC, 4/16/11, p.A2)
2011        Apr 15, Syrian security forces fired tear gas at thousands of protesters who were marching toward Damascus.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 15, In Tajikistan Abdullo Rakhimov, also known by his nom de guerre Mullo Abdullo, was killed along with 14 other militants in the eastern Rasht Valley in a military operation.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 15, Opponents of Yemen's president stepped up a campaign to force him out, but Ali Abdullah Saleh was defiant as he addressed thousands of supporters and urged the opposition to join peace talks. Loyalists in Sanaa rallied in his support. Saleh said in a speech that the mingling of men and women at "Change Square," where daily anti-government protests take place in the capital, was against Islamic law.
    (Reuters, 4/15/11)(AP, 4/16/11)

2012        Apr 15, Pres. Obama and Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos said at a joint news conference that the US-Colombia free trade deal will go into effect May 15. Obama returned from Colombia to his familiar agenda of righting the US economy and winning a second term, wrapping up 3 days of Latin American summitry that yielded mixed results and were clouded by a Secret Service scandal. The 6th Summit of the Americas ended without a joint declaration due to divisions over Cuba and Argentine claims to the Falkland Islands.
    (AP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Daly City, Ca., generations of Serra Bowl patrons gathered for the final day of operations after 51 years in business. Business was good but the owners of the property decided not to renew its lease.
    (SFC, 4/16/12, p.C1)
2012        Apr 15, In Petaluma, Ca., Kim Conover (41) was shot and killed her outside the office of her divorce attorney. Her estranged husband, Kevin Conover (43), later turned the gun on himself. A week earlier the schoolteacher was denied an emergency restraining order.
    (http://tinyurl.com/82g8j4y)(SFC, 4/20/12, p.C2)
2012        Apr 15, In Las Vegas Ignacia Martinez (38) and her daughter Karla (10) were raped and bludgeoned to death. Arturo Martinez, the husband and father, was critically injured with head injuries. On April 27 police arrested Bryan Clay (22) for the attacks.
    (SSFC, 4/29/12, p.A9)
2012        Apr 15, In the area of Woodward, Oklahoma, tornadoes killed at least 5 people and left at least 29 injured. At least 8,000 were without power in the region. About 75 tornadoes touched down in Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa and Nebraska.
    (AP, 4/14/12)(SFC, 4/17/12, p.A6)
2012        Apr 15, In Afghanistan suicide bombers struck across the country in coordinated attacks claimed by Taliban insurgents as the start of a spring offensive. A total of 19 insurgents died and 14 police and nine civilians were wounded.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, Bahrain's Shiite opposition announced a week of daily pro-democracy protests until after the controversial Formula One Grand Prix race scheduled for April 22.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Egypt Islamist militants driving vehicles mounted with machine guns opened fire on a police checkpoint in the Sinai peninsula, killing two policemen and injuring a third. In the port city of Suez, one person died and 24 were injured during a fire that raged for nearly 20 hours in the storage facilities of an oil company.
    (AP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Guinea-Bissau political parties met with the military junta in an attempt to reach a political situation days after soldiers arrested the prime minister. They agreed to set up a transitional body to run the country, a day ahead of talks with West African bloc ECOWAS.
    (AP, 4/15/12)(AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In southern India a beef-eating festival at Osmania University triggered clashes between rival students as Hindu activists fought with low-caste Dalit groups who had organized the event in Hyderabad.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Iraq unknown attackers blew up a house north of Baghdad, killing three members of a family including a five-year-old boy and also wounding a two-year-old girl.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, Israel barred 40 pro-Palestinian activists who had flown in for a "Welcome to Palestine" campaign as hundreds more would-be protesters were stranded at airports across Europe.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, Jordan's King Abdullah II ordered the release of 19 political activists charged with insulting him during pro-reform demonstrations last month.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In northern Mali armed men abducted a Swiss woman working as a missionary in Timbuktu.
    (SFC, 4/16/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 15, North Korea's new leader, Kim Jong Un, addressed his nation and the world for the first time, vowing to place top priority on his impoverished nation's military, which promptly unveiled a new long-range missile.
    (AP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Pakistan 384 prisoners including militants escaped from the Bannu prison in the northwest after an attack by insurgents armed with guns, grenades and rockets. 11 prisoners were captured and 29 returned themselves.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, South African newspapers reported that authorities have seized assets of Khulubuse Zuma, a nephew of President Jacob Zuma, to cover debts to a security company, Aurora Empowerment Systems, that guarded now-liquidated gold mines he co-owned with a grandson of Nelson Mandela.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, The first batch of Sudanese prisoners of war captured in days of bloody fighting arrived in the South Sudanese capital, as the South's army said clashes continued in contested border regions. A Sudanese division raided Mugum, killed 25 rebels and seized a large quantity of weapons and equipment.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)(AP, 4/16/12)
2012        Apr 15, Syrian troops shelled residential neighborhoods dominated by rebels in the central city of Homs, killing at least three people hours before the first batch of United Nations observers were to arrive in Damascus to shore up a shaky truce. The bodies of two other people were found in the Deir Baalbeh and al-Dablan districts.
    (AP, 4/15/12)
2012        Apr 15, In Yemen 3 children were killed by a roadside bomb while walking to school. A 4th person was killed in an Al-Qaeda mortar attack on the southern town of Loder (Lawder).
    (AFP, 4/15/12)

2013        Apr 15, Two bombs exploded near the finish of the Boston Marathon  killing 3 people, a boy (8) and two young women. More than 140 people were injured. The explosives were fashioned out of pressure cookers and packed with shards of metal, nails and ball bearings to inflict maximum carnage.
    (AP, 4/16/13)(AP, 4/16/13)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.29)
2013        Apr 15, Iceland President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson announced the formation of the Arctic Circle at a Pres Club meeting in Washington, DC., The new nonprofit will dedicated to bringing together the many international stakeholders in an open venue to address the challenges facing the rapidly-changing Arctic.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mggqw4c)
2013        Apr 15, The Pulitzer Prize for fiction went to San Francisco writer Adam Johnson for “The Orphan Master’s Son,” a novel set in North Korea. “No North Korean has read a book, as we think of a book – as a work of art whose job it is to iluminate the human experience – in three generations.   
    (SFC, 4/20/13, p.D1)
2013        Apr 15, In New Jersey Mohamed Alessa (23) and Carlos Almonte (27) were sentenced to at least 20 years in prison for conspiring to join al-Shabab, a designated terrorist organization in Somalia.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A5)
2013        Apr 15, Key measures of New York's tough new gun law kicked in, with owners of firearms now reclassified as assault weapons required to start registering the firearms and new limits on the number of bullets allowed in magazines.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, FBI and IRS agents locked down the Knoxville, Tenn., headquarters of the Pilot Flying J truck stop business owned by the family of Gov. Bill Haslam and his brother Jimmy, owner of the Cleveland Browns.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A5)
2013        Apr 15, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to six activists for their efforts to protect the world ecosystem. They included Nohra Padilla (50) of Colombia, who began organizing waste pickers in Bogota in 1990 into the Bogota Recyclers’ Assoc.; Rossano Ercolini (57) of Italy for setting up a trash collection and conservation system; Kimberly Wasserman (36) of Chicago her grassroots campaign to close polluting coal-fired power plants; Aleta Baun (50) of Indonesia for organizing villages on west Timor against mining companies clearing forests for marble; Azzam Alwash (54) of Iraq for his efforts to restore Mesopotamian marshland; Jonathan Deal of South Africa for his efforts against hydraulic fracturing in Karoo.
    (SFC, 4/15/13, p.A10)
2013        Apr 15, Afghan commandos killed 22 insurgents during an operation to capture a Taliban commander in the Bati Kot district of Nangarhar province. Taliban commander, Jamal Faroqi, was killed in the pre-dawn raid and 10 insurgents were captured. NATO said a team of Afghan and coalition special forces captured a senior leader of the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba. A roadside bomb killed at least 7 members of a family travelling in a trailer towed by a tractor in Zabul province. A roadside bomb killed 4 Afghan police and wounded 3 overnight in southern Helmand province. 2 policemen were killed and 6 kidnapped during a Taliban attack on an outpost in northern Zawzjan province.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, Australian and British researchers reported that the summer ice melt in parts of Antarctica is at its highest level in 1,000 years, adding new evidence of the impact of global warming on sensitive Antarctic glaciers and ice shelves.
    (Reuters, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, Bahrain media said the government has backed proposals to impose penalties of up five years in prison for insulting the Gulf state's king or its national symbols.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, The British government approved a 1.9% rise in the minimum wage, giving the country's lowest-paid employees a bigger increase than most other workers but one that is still less than inflation.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, Chadian President Idriss Deby said his country's troops are pulling out of Mali three months after the French-led mission to oust al-Qaida-linked militants began.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, China signed a free-trade deal with Iceland as PM Johanna Sigurdardottir made a 6-day visit there. This was China’s first free-trade with a European nation. Some saw China’s goal as better access to shipping routes through the Arctic.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.50)
2013        Apr 15, Metropolitan Krystof (59), head of the Orthodox Church in the Czech Rep. and Slovakia resigned amid allegations of affairs with women and fathering illegitimate children.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 15, The EU took to task member states for not implementing new rules on human trafficking. Only 6 countries had translated the rules into national legislation by the April 6 deadline.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 15, This was the deadline for French ministers to declare their assets as set earlier by PM Jean-Marc Ayrault. Foreign minister Laurent Fabius dedclarewd €6m in assets.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.53)
2013        Apr 15, In France clashes again erupted over the construction on a new airport near the city of Nantes. 3 demonstrators were reported injured as anarchists and beret-wearing farmers joined against the project.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, In central Ghana an accident at a gold mine left 17 miners dead. Authorities said that the miners were working there illegally.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, Iranian Pres. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad arrived in the uranium-rich West African nation of Niger for a 2-day visit. Officials discounted that the mineral was the reason for his visit.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, In Iraq insurgents launched what appeared to be a highly coordinated string of attacks, killing at least 55 and wounding more than 200 across the country.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, In Kuwait former parliament member Mussallam al-Barrack was sentenced to five years in prison on charges of insulting the emir during a political rally last year. Last week Kuwait officials began considering a media law that reports say could bring fines of about $1 million for insulting the ruling family.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf said Francis Korkpor (61) will be the country's new chief justice.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, In central Nigeria leaders in two villages said at least 10 people were killed over the weekend in clashes between the Jukun people of Plateau state, a Muslim ethnic group, and the Tarok people, who are Christian.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, In South Africa a handler at the Elephant Sanctuary near Hartbeespoort Dam was trampled to death while taking elephants out for exercise. The handler got caught in the midst of an altercation between two of the animals.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, South Sudan’s government, enraged by recent cattle thefts and resulting deaths, deployed hundreds of soldiers to hunt down the raiders. But an official later said the security forces instead indiscriminately shot and killed civilians and burned down houses and shops and attacked a hospital, where four medical staff and a patient were killed.
    (AP, 4/18/13)
2013        Apr 15, Syrian government aircraft hit targets in rebel-held areas near Damascus, in Aleppo, Homs and the city of Raqqa in the province by the same name along the Euphrates River.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, The Togolese government closed all public and private primary and secondary schools in the capital, Lome, following protests that rocked the tiny West Africa nation's education system last week. One student was fatally shot by security forces in the town of Dapaong.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, A Turkish court convicted Fazil Say (43), a top pianist and composer, of denigrating religion through his comments on Twitter. He was given a 10-month suspended prison sentence.
    (SFC, 4/16/13, p.A2)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.58)
2013        Apr 15, A UN report said opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has been increasing for a third year in a row.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, The United Nations Children's Fund said more than a quarter of children under the age of 5 worldwide are permanently "stunted" from malnutrition, leaving them physically and intellectually weak and representing a scandalous waste of human potential.
    (AP, 4/15/13)
2013        Apr 15, Venezuela’s National Guard troops fired tear gas and plastic bullets to disperse students protesting the official results in the disputed presidential election.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

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