Today in History - April 20

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121        Apr 20, Marcus Aurelius (d.180), 16th Roman emperor, philosopher, was born. He authored the “Meditations." [see Apr 26]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.64)(HN, 4/20/98)

1164        Apr 20, Victor IV, [Ottaviano Montecello], Italian antipope (1159-64), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1139        Apr 20, The Second Lateran Council opened in Rome. The crossbow was outlawed in the 12th century, at least against Christians, by the second Lateran council (the 10th ecumenical council), called by Pope Innocent II. Capable of piercing chain mail from a range of up to 1,000 feet, this formidable missile weapon remained a fixture of technically-advanced European armies throughout the Middle Ages. Although it was used after the introduction of firearms, it was eventually succeeded by the harquebus—a primitive gun—in the late 15th century. The council attempted universal enforcement of priestly celibacy in the Roman Catholic Church.
    (HN, 4/20/98)(HN, 4/20/98)(HNQ, 12/5/00)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1314        Apr 20, Clement V, [Bertrand Got], pope (1305-14) who moved papacy to Avignon, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1317        Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1494        Apr 20, John Agricola, [Schneider], German theologian, prime minister, was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1505        Apr 20, Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1534        Apr 20, Elizabeth Barton, [St Magd van Kent], British prophet, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1534        Apr 20, Jacques Cartier departed St. Malo on the 1st of his 3 expeditions to the New World.

1632        Apr 20, Nicolas Antione, converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec 20]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1643        Apr 20, Christoph Demantius (75), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1653        Apr 20, Oliver Cromwell dissolved the English parliament. “You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately…"
    (, 5/8/10, p.60)

1657        Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
    (HN, 4/20/99)

1662        Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1695        Apr 20, Georg Caspar Weckler (63), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1715        Apr 20, Nicholas Rowe's "Tragedy of Lady Jane Gray," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1745        Apr 20, Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1761        Apr 20, Johann Gottlieb Karl Spazier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1769        Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (b~1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

1770        Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1775        Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1777        Apr 20, New York adopted a new constitution as an independent state. [see Apr 14]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1786        Apr 20, John Goodricke (21), English deaf and dumb astronomer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1799        Apr 20, Friedrich Schiller's "Wallensteins Tod," the third part of his Wallenstein trilogy, premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 4/20/02)(

1804        Apr 20, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Haitian rebel leader, commanded a massacre of the French at town of Cape Francois.

1807        Apr 20, Aloysius Bertrand ("Gaspard de la Nuit"), French poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1808        Apr 20, Charles Louis Napoleon (d.1873), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was born. He later served as president (1848-1852) and as emperor of France (1852-1870).
    (WUD, 1994, p.950)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(HN, 4/20/98)

1809        Apr 20, Napoleon defeated Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1812        Apr 20, George Clinton (73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in office.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1820        Apr 20, Arthur Young, author (Annals of Agriculture), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1821        Apr 20, Franz K. Achard (67), German physicist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1827        Apr 20, John Gibbon (d.1896), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1836        Apr 20, The Territory of Wisconsin was established by Congress.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1836        Apr 20, Johan I Jozef (75), monarch of Liechtenstein, field marshal, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1839        Apr 20, Giuseppe Rossini, father of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1841        Apr 20, Edgar Allen Poe’s first detective story, "Murders in Rue Morgue," was published. Poe published in this year 2 secret messages, as the work of W.B. Tyler, that were not deciphered until 1992 and 2000. [see Mar 20, Apr 14 1841]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A3)(MC, 4/20/02)

1850        Apr 20, Daniel Chester French (d.1931), sculptor of the Concord Minuteman, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire. He had his estate in Stockbridge, Mass. His work also included the Lincoln Memorial. His Chesterwood estate became a museum with an annual 6-month summer season. [Ph. 413-298-3579]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1861        Apr 20, Robert E. Lee resigned from U.S. Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)
1861        Apr 20, Thaddeus Lowe landed in South Carolina only to be surrounded by a group of incredulous Carolinians who believed he was a spy. Lowe managed to persuade the crowd that his 500-mile trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, was merely an innocent aerial journey to test his strange craft. He later tried to convince the Union to use his skill as a balloonist.
    (HNQ, 4/5/01)(ON, 2/05, p.7)
1861        Apr 20, Battle of Norfolk, VA. [see Apr 21]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1865        Apr 20, Chicago's Crosby Opera House opened.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1869        Apr 20, Johann Carl Gottfried Loewe (72), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1871        Apr 20, The US 3rd Enforcement Act, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, allowed the President to suspend writ of habeas corpus.
    (, 6/03, p.31)

1879        Apr 20, The first mobile home (horse drawn) was used in a journey from London to Cyprus. [what about Gypsy wagons, Conestoga wagons?]
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1888        Apr 20, 246 people were reported killed by hail in Moradabad, India.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1889        Apr 20, Adolf Hitler, leader of National Socialist Party (1921-1945), was born in Braunau, Austria. He was the dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933-1945 and started World War II by invading Poland. He committed suicide in his Berlin bunker. The German Fascist leader, promised to bring Germany to the promised land on one condition: that the state would have total control over all the organs, organizations, and citizens of the nation. Brigitte Hammann later authored “Hitler in Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship." In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum published “Explaining Hitler," a look at the various agendas and needs of different scholars in their examination of Hitler. In 1999 Ian Kershaw published "Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.309)(HN, 4/20/98)(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16) (AP, 4/20/99)(HN, 4/20/99)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A6)

1893        Apr 20, Harold Lloyd, film comedian, was born. He is best remembered for his film "Safety Last."
    (HN, 4/20/99)
1893        Apr 20, Joan Miró (Joan Miro), Spanish painter, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1896        Apr 20, 1st public film showing in US John Philip Sousa's "El Capitan," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1898         Apr 20, President McKinley signed a congressional resolution recognizing Cuban independence from Spain. He signed the Joint Resolution for War with Spain that authorized U.S. military intervention to Cuban independence. The US thus hijacked the independence rebellion in Cuba started by Jose Marti in 1995.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.19)

1902        Apr 20, Radium was isolated as a pure metal by Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of a pure radium chloride solution. Pierre and Marie Curie had discovered the element in 1898.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(

1906        Apr 20, In San Francisco Navy Lt. Frederick Freeman led his sailors in holding a line against advancing flames at Chestnut and Lombard and Pier 27 saving the city’s northeast waterfront. In 2005 Dennis Smith authored “San Francisco Is Burning: The Untold Story of the 1906 Earthquake and Fires."
    (SFC, 8/30/14, p.C2)

1910        Apr 20, Robert F. Wagner, (Mayor-D-NYC, 1954-65), was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1910        Apr 20, Eva Swan (26), a SF schoolteacher, disappeared. Doctor’s assistant Ben Gordon (18) kept the secret until after a fight with Dr. James Grant over $18 in wages. He then went to the police. Her body was found on Sep 23 buried under a basement at 320 Eureka St. and soaking in nitric acid with every joint sawed through. Grant and nurse Marie Messerschmidt were arrested on murder charges after the failed abortion went awry.
    (, 9/19/10, DB p.50)

1912        Apr 20, Boston’s Fenway Park, home to Boston Red Sox, opened with its first official baseball game.
    (SFC, 3/8/12, p.A7)(
1912        Apr 20, Bram Stoker, Irish theater manager, writer (Dracula), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1914        Apr 20, Soldiers killed 33 during mine strike in Ludlow, Colo. In the Ludlow Massacre 2 women and 11 children perished in a mining camp torched by Colorado militiamen called in by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to settle a strike. More than 75 people died during the Colorado coal strike with more than half of them being company guards. In 2007 Scott Martelle authored “Blood Passion: The Ludlow Massacre and Class War in the American West."
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.3)(, 8/5/07, p.M2)

1915        Apr 20, The Turks fired the first shot at Van; the first Armenians were deported from Zeitoun on the 8th April, and there is a record of their arrival in Syria as early as the l9th.

1916        Apr 20, The Chicago Cubs, after merging with the Chicago Whales, began playing at Weeghman Park. In 1926 the stadium became known as Wrigley Field.
1916        Apr 20, German-British sea battle off Belgian coast.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1917        Apr 20, In the Pravda newspaper Lenin named Russia "Free land of world."
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1919        Apr 20, Polish Army captured Vilna (Vilnius), Lithuania from Soviet Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1920        Apr 20, John Paul Stevens, 103rd Supreme Court Justice (1975-), was born in Illinois.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1920        Apr 20, Balfour Declaration was recognized following a conference in San Remo, Italy. It was agreed that a mandate to Britain should be formally given by the League of Nations over an area, which in 2010 comprised Israel, Jordan and the Golan Heights, to be called the "Mandate of Palestine". The Balfour Declaration was to apply to the whole of the mandated territory. The doctrine was named after British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, who had first articulated it as a policy on 2 November 1917.

1923        Apr 20, Tito Puente, bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1924        Apr 20, Nina Foch (d.2008), film, theater and TV actress, was born in Leyden, Netherlands.  Her films later included “An American in Paris" (1951).
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)

1927        Apr 20, Alex Muller, Nobel Prize-winning physicist, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1930        Apr 20, Charles (d.1974) and Anne Lindbergh (d.2001 at 94) set a transcontinental speed record flying from Los Angeles to New York in 14 hours and 45 minutes. Anne was 7 months pregnant. [see Jan 20]
    (SFC, 2/8/01, p.C2)

1931        Apr 20, British House of Commons agreed to sports play on Sunday.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1935        Apr 20, "Your Hit Parade" debuted on NBC radio. It was called the "Lucky Strike Hit Parade" by the newspapers. The show was re-named "Your Hit Parade" on November 9. The first number one song chosen for the first show was "Soon" by Bing Crosby.
    (Bruce C. Byrd, Your Hit Parade & American Top Ten Hits, 4th edition, 1994, p.15)

1936        Apr 20, Serious rioting took place on the borders between Jaffa and Tel-Aviv, in particular in the Catton, Manshieh and Saknat Abu Kebir quarters.

1938        Apr 20, San Francisco’s Joe DiMaggio ended his holdout with Colonel Jacob Rupert, owner of the NY Yankees, and accepted an annual salary of $25,000. DiMaggio had asked for $40,000.
    (SSFC, 4/21/13, DB p.46)

1939        Apr 20, The Kehlsteinhous, aka the Eagle’s Nest, a mountaintop teahouse located in the Kehlstein mountains near Berchtesgaden, was given to Adolf Hitler as a 50th birthday present.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G4)

1940        Apr 20, RCA publicly demonstrated its new and powerful electron microscope in Philadelphia, Pa.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)(MC, 4/20/02)

1941        Apr 20, Joni Evans, publisher of Simon & Schuster, Random House, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1941        Apr 20, Ryan O'Neal, actor (Peyton Place, Paper Moon, was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1942        Apr 20, Pierre Laval, the premier of Vichy France, in a radio broadcast, established a policy of "true reconciliation with Germany."
    (HN, 4/20/99)
1942        Apr 20, Heavy German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1942        Apr 20, The battle for Moscow ended. It officially lasted from September 30, 1941, to April 20, 1942, but in reality spanned more than those 203 days of unremitting mass murder, and marked the first time that Hitler's armies failed to triumph with their Blitzkrieg tactics. In 2007 Andrew Nagorski authored “The Greatest Battle: Stalin, Hitler, and the Desperate Struggle for Moscow That Changed the Course of World War II."
    (WSJ, 1/11/08, p.W6)

1945        Apr 20, During World War II, Allied forces, the U.S. 7th army, took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1945        Apr 20, American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge. Charles Guggenheim's (d.2002) last documentary film was title "Berga." [see Apr 10-11]
    (WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)
1945        Apr 20, US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1945        Apr 20, Soviet troops began their attack on Berlin.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(HN, 4/20/98)

1946        Apr 20, 1st baseball game telecast was in Chicago with the Cards vs. Cubs.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1948        Apr 20, United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit. [see Apr 14]
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1949        Apr 20, Jockey Bill Shoemaker won his 1st race, in Albany, California.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1949        Apr 20, Scientists at the Mayo Clinic announced they'd succeeded in synthesizing a hormone found to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; the substance was named "cortisone."
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1951        Apr 20, Gen. MacArthur addressed a joint session of Congress after being relieved by President Truman.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1953        Apr 20, Operation Little Switch began in Korea, the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war.
    (HN, 4/20/99)

1958        Apr 20, The last Key System train left San Francisco for Oakland. Ferry service from the SF Ferry Building ended when the Southern Pacific "Eureka" made its last crossing to Oakland. Train tracks were taken off the lower deck of the Bay Bridge and the lanes were paved in for car traffic.
    (SFC, 8/10/98, p.A5)(SFC, 9/4/98, p.A25)(SFC, 8/7/07, p.A6)(SFC, 4/18/08, p.B1)

1959        Apr 20, British ballerina Margot Fonteyn (1919-1991)) was arrested and briefly detained in a Panama prison. She and her diplomat husband, Roberto Arias, had sought Fidel Castro's help in a revolution that failed because of a last-minute blunder. Fonteyn, born Peggy Hookham, went on to reach even greater creative heights through her acclaimed partnership with Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev. She returned to Panama with her husband years later and died there.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

1961        Apr 20, American Harold Graham made 1st rocket belt flight.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1962        Apr 20, New Orleans Citizens Committee gave a free one-way ride to blacks to move North.
    (HN, 4/20/98)
1962        Apr 20, NASA civilian pilot Neil A. Armstrong took the X-15 to 63,250 m.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1962        Apr 20, The Secret Army Organization (OAS) leader and ex-general Salan was arrested in Algiers.
    (MC, 4/20/02)(PCh, 1992, p.984)

1964        Apr 20, August Sander (b.1876), German photographer, died. He attempted to make a complete portrait survey of 20th century German society. His “Face of Our Time," a volume of 60 photographs, was published in 1929.
    (, 6/3/04, p.D8)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.74)

1967        Apr 20, U.S. planes bombed Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1968        Apr 20, Enoch Powell (1912-1998) became a national figure in Britain following his address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Center, which became known as the "Rivers of Blood" speech. It pointedly criticized immigration into Britain from the Commonwealth nations and opposed the then proposed–anti-discrimination legislation Race Relations Bill being mooted at the time.
1968        Apr 20, Pierre Elliott Trudeau was sworn in as prime minister of Canada. He succeeded Lester B. Pierson.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(

1970        Apr 20, Paul Celan (49), Romania born poet, drowned himself in the Seine. English translations of his poems were published in 2001.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, BR p.5)

1971        Apr 20, The US Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools. The ruling allowed Charlotte, NC., and other cities nationwide to use mandatory busing and student assignment based on race to attempt to further integrate schools. The case arose in 1965 when a black parent, James E. Swann, challenged the system that kept Charlotte's black students apart from the white majority. In 2001 an appeals court ruled that the dual school system was dismantled and busing could end. A failed appeal to the Supreme Court ended the case in 2002.
    (, 7/13/97, p.D1)(AP, 4/20/07)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)

1972        Apr 20, The manned lunar module from Apollo 16 landed on the moon.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1977        Apr 20, The film "Annie Hall" premiered. Diane Keaton starred in the Woody Allen film Annie Hall. It was rated #31 by the Amer. Film Inst. in 1998.
    (, 1/9/97, p.E1)
1977        Apr 20, The US Supreme Court, in Wooley v. Maynard, said car owners could refuse to display state mottoes on license plates. The Court ruled that "Live Free or Die" may be covered on NH license plates.
    (AP, 4/20/07)

1978        Apr 20, A South Korean Air Lines Boeing 707 crash-landed in northwestern Russia. Flight 902 was fired on by a Soviet interceptor after entering Soviet airspace. 107 passengers and crew survived after the plane made an emergency landing on a frozen lake and 2 passengers were killed.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(

1979        Apr 20, Howard K. Smith (d.2002) resigned as news analyst for ABC over the curtailment of his commentary.
    (SFC, 2/19/02, p.A14)(

1980        Apr 20, The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(AP, 9/26/97)(AP, 4/20/00)

1981        Apr 20, The final performance of TV show "Soap" aired.

1983        Apr 20, Pres. Reagan signed a $165B bail out for Social Security.

1984        Apr 20, Julie Connell (18), a senior at Arroyo High School, disappeared in Hayward. Her body was found 5 days later in Palomares Canyon near Castro Valley. In 2000 DNA evidence revealed that Robert Rhoades (47), a Yuba City man on death row, had kidnapped, raped and stabbed her to death.
    (SFC, 1/26/00, p.A14)(SFC, 3/13/07, p.B3)

1986        Apr 20, The Atlas Star, a double-decker ferry, sank in stormy weather in Bangladesh. 500 passengers were feared drowned.
1986        Apr 20, Following an absence of six decades, Russian-born pianist Vladimir Horowitz performed in the Soviet Union to a packed audience at the Grand Hall of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow.
    (AP, 4/20/06)

1987        Apr 20, The United States deported Karl Linnas to the Soviet Union, where he had been convicted in absentia of Nazi war crimes and faced a death sentence. Linnas, who maintained his innocence, died of heart disease in Leningrad the following July.
    (AP, 4/20/97)
1987        Apr 20, In Florida the new Sunshine Skyway Bridge, connecting Tampa and St. Petersburg, opened. The original 1954 bridge had collapsed following a ship collision in 1980.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.D1)

1988        Apr 20, The US Senate passed the Civil Liberties Act, a measure providing $20,000 payments to Japanese-Americans interned by the US government during World War II. Pres. Reagan signed it on Aug 10.
    (AP, 8/10/97)(SSFC, 4/21/13, DB p.46)
1988        Apr 20, Gunmen who had hijacked a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet were allowed safe passage out of Algeria. An agreement also freed the remaining 31 hostages and ended a 15-day siege in which two passengers were slain.
    (AP, 4/20/98)
1988        Apr 20, Hector Felix, a muckraking Mexican journalist, was murdered. He had dubbed Jorge Hank, owner of the Tijuana Agua Caliente Racetrack, as “the Abominable Snowman" for a reputed cocaine habit.
    (SSFC, 8/5/07, p.A15)(

1989        Apr 20, Ramon Salcido, a California winery worker later convicted of killing six relatives and a co-worker, was deported from Mexico to the U.S.
    (AP, 4/20/99)
1989        Apr 20, The case of Oliver North went to the jury in his Iran-Contra trial.
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1990        Apr 20, Former junk bond financier Michael Milken agreed to plead guilty to six felonies and pay $600 million in penalties to settle the largest securities fraud case in history.
    (AP, 4/20/00)
1990        Apr 20, Pete Rose pleaded guilty to two felony counts of filing false income tax returns.

1991        Apr 20, US Marines landed in northern Iraq to begin building the first center for Kurdish refugees on Iraqi territory. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the US commander of Operation Desert Storm, left Saudi Arabia for home.
    (AP, 4/20/01)

1992        Apr 20, Defending champion Ibrahim Hussein of Kenya became the sixth three-time winner of the Boston Marathon, while Russia's Olga Markova won the women's division.
    (AP, 4/20/97)
1992        Apr 20, The Russian congress adopted a resolution affirming Russia's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States in a victory for President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1993        Apr 20, President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid "ultimate responsibility" on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
    (AP, 4/20/98)
1993        Apr 20, Mario Moreno (81), Mexican comedian known as Cantinflas, died in Mexico City. His films included "Around the World in 80 Days."
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1994        Apr 20, Israeli and PLO negotiators wrapped up an agreement transferring civilian government powers to Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
    (AP, 4/20/99)
1994        Apr 20, The Serbian army bombed Gorazde, Bosnia, and the local hospital was hit.

1995        Apr 20, In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, the FBI announced it was looking for two men suspected of renting the truck used to carry the explosive; rescue teams suspended the search for survivors so that the remaining structure of the Alfred P. Murrah Building could be shored up.
    (AP, 4/20/00)

1996        Apr 20, Russia and the leaders of the world's seven richest democracies agreed in Moscow to end nuclear tests by the fall and pledged new steps to keep nuclear materials out of the wrong hands.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1997        Apr 20, In Atlanta, Ga., Timmie Sinclair (27) was beaten by police officers in a scene that was captured on videotape and showed excessive use of force and baton beating.
    (SFC, 5/13/97, p.A6)
1997        Apr 20, An article in the Astrophysics Journal identified some of the missing matter (dark matter) of the universe as ionized hydrogen and helium gas spread out between the galaxies. The atoms were stripped of their electrons early in the formation of the universe.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A3)
1997        Apr 20, Lameck Aguta of Kenya won the Boston Marathon with a time of 2:10:34. Ethiopia’s Fatuma Roba won the women’s best time at 2:26:24.
    (WSJ, 4/22/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr 20, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu escaped indictment in an influence-peddling scandal, with prosecutors saying they lacked evidence.
    (AP, 4/20/98)
1997        Apr 20, Hwang Jang Yop, the highest-ranking North Korean to defect, arrived in South Korea, ending a 67-day odyssey that began in China.
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1998        Apr 20, In an unusual use of a racketeering law designed to fight the mob, a federal jury in Chicago ruled that anti-abortion protest organizers had used threats and violence to shut down clinics. However, the US Supreme Court ruled in February 2003 that federal racketeering and extortion laws were wrongly used to try to stop blockades, harassment and violent protests outside clinics.
    (AP, 4/20/03)
1998        Apr 20, The Goldman Environmental Awards were presented in SF. The prizes were increased to $100,000 from $75,000. Berita Kuwar U’wa (44) of Columbia won for leading the U’wa tribe’s struggle against Occidental Petroleum; Kory Johnson (19) of Phoenix won for organizing Children for a Safe Environment; Sven “Bobby" Peek (31) of South Africa won for fighting for the rights of poor people in industrialized South Durban; Anna Giordano (32) of Italy for her campaign against illegal hunting of birds in Sicily and southern Italy; Atherton Martin (52) for his work against a copper mine in Dominica; and Hirofumi Yamashita (64) for fighting against the conversion of tidal flats to farmland on Ishaya Bay on Kyushu.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)
1998        Apr 20, Moses Tanui of Kenya won the 102nd Boston Marathon in 2 hrs, 7 min. and 43 sec. Fatuma Roba of Ethiopia won among the women in 2:23:21.
    (WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 20, A report was published that suggested that the drug raloxifene, sold by Eli Lilly as Evista, can prevent breast cancer in addition to tamoxifen. Both synthetic drugs block the action of estrogen.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A7)
1998        Apr 20, A poll of 400 scientists indicated that 7 of 10 believed that a “mass extinction" is under way, and that one-fifth of all living species could disappear within 30 years.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A7)
1998        Apr 20, In Columbia a Boeing 727 leased to Air France crashed after takeoff from Bogota and all 53 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A12)(AP, 4/20/99)
1998        Apr 20, In Nigeria the last of 5 government-sanctioned parties agreed to back Sani Abacha in the presidential elections. the government gave each party $250,000 for its convention.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A13)
1998        Apr 20, Three Russian security agents met at a guest house outside Moscow to make an extraordinary video in which they claimed their bosses had ordered them to kill, kidnap and frame prominent Russians. In 2006 Alexander Litvinenko, one of the 3 agents on the tape, was poisoned with a rare radioactive isotope in London.
    (AP, 5/23/07)(WSJ, 5/23/07, p.A14)
1998        Apr 20, Turkmenistan Pres. Saparmurat Niyazov visited the US and planned to discuss oil and gas pipeline routes.
    (WSJ, 4/20/98, p.B7D)

1999        Apr 20, Jay Scott Ballinger (36), arrested in Feb., was indicted on charges of burning 10 churches in Indiana and Georgia.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A7)
1999        Apr 20, In New Jersey Attorney Gen'l. Peter Verniero acknowledged that state troopers had engaged in racial profiling to target minority motorists.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A7)
1999        Apr 20, In Littleton, Colo., 2 Columbine High School students, students Eric Harris (18) and Dylan Klebold (17), used guns and explosives to randomly kill 12 other students and one teacher before killing themselves: Cassie Bernall, Corey DePooter, Kelly Fleming, Matthew Kechter, Daniel Mauser, Daniel Rohrbough, Rachel Scott, Isaiah Shoels, John Tomlin, Lauren Townsend, Kyle Velasquez and teacher William "Dave" Sanders, were killed by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. They wounded 28 other students and were part of a small clique that identified themselves as the "Trench Coat Mafia." 30 homemade bombs attributed to Harris and Klebold were found at the school. Harris and Klebold had both worked at the Blackjack Pizza No. 2025. Klebold and Harris recorded 5 videos prior to the shooting in which they spoke of a bloodbath with hundreds killed. In 2001 it was reported that Daniel Rohrbough was shot and killed by police. An independent investigation in 2002 cleared the police. In 2004 it was reported that local police had 15 contacts with Harris and Klebold prior to the massacre.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/21/99, A1)(SFC, 4/22/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/13/99, p.A3)(SFC, 12/28/01, p.A9)(SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 2/27/04, p.A1)
1999        Apr 20, NATO bombing continued in Yugoslavia. The UN refugee agency in Macedonia declared its camps full beyond capacity and left 2,000 to 3,000 refugees at the border. Another few thousand crossed the border to the hamlet of Milana. The border with Albania was again opened but only a few crossed over.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A1,10)
1999        Apr 20, Bulgaria and Romania offered to let NATO use their airspace to bomb Yugoslavia.
    (WSJ, 4/21/99, A22)
1999        Apr 20, Russia defaulted on $1.3 billion Ministry of Finance bonds.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A13)
1999        Apr 20, In South Africa the police beating of 4 carjacking suspects was broadcast over TV. One suspect died from the beating and the officers were suspended and put under criminal investigation.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A13)

2000        Apr 20, Littleton, Colorado, paused to remember the victims on the first anniversary of the Columbine High School massacre.
    (AP, 4/20/01)
2000        Apr 20, In Chechnya Pres. Maskhadov told a Russian news agency that he had declared a unilateral cease-fire. Maskhadov later said his remarks meant that fighting would stop only if both sides agreed to stop fighting and negotiate a settlement.
    (WSJ, 4/21/00, p.A1)(SFC, 4/25/00, p.A10)
2000        Apr 20, In China the Communist party announced that Cheng Kejie, a deputy chairman in the national legislature, was expelled and charged with amassing $4.5 million in bribes and kickbacks.
    (SFC, 4/21/00, p.A20)
2000        Apr 20, In Italy the center-left parties closed ranks behind Treasury Minister Giuliano Amato following the resignation of Prime Minister Massimo D’Alema.
    (WSJ, 4/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Apr 20, In Slovakia police arrested former Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar for paying unauthorized bonuses to Cabinet members during his 5 years in office. He was released after several hours.
    (SFC, 4/21/00, p.A18)

2001        Apr 20, President Bush attended his first international summit as leaders of the Western Hemisphere's 34 democracies met in Quebec to advance plans to create the world's largest free-trade zone; police in riot gear clashed with protesters. Protestors pushed to interrupt the Summit of the Americas and held that the free trade efforts put corporate interests ahead of workers, human rights and the environment.
    (SFC, 4/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/20/02)
2001        Apr 20, Two therapists were convicted in Golden, Colo., of reckless child abuse in a young girl's suffocation death during a "rebirthing" therapy session. Connell Watkins and Julie Ponder were later sentenced to 16 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/20/02)
2001        Apr 20, Yasser Arafat proposed that he and Ariel Sharon simultaneously call for an end Israeli-Palestinian violence.
    (SFC, 4/21/01, p.A12)   
2001        Apr 20, In Peru an air force jet shot down a Cessna 185 carrying US missionaries. Veronica Bowers (35) and her infant daughter, Charity, were killed when the plane crash landed in the Amazon River. The plane was identified by a US surveillance plane and was believed to be trafficking in narcotics.
    (SFC, 4/21/01, p.A12)(SFC, 4/22/01, p.D1)(AP, 4/20/02)
2001        Apr 20-21, The 13th annual National Youth Service Day called on youths and adult volunteers to help make their schools and communities better.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, Par p.4)

2002        Apr 20, Representatives of the Group of Seven countries, meeting in Washington, agreed to intensify efforts to combat terrorist financing and also adopted a plan to better deal with international debt crises.
    (AP, 4/20/03)
2002        Apr 20, A US Navy F-4 crashed during an air show at Ventura, Ca., and its 2 crew members were killed.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A29)
2002        Apr 20, Eiman Judeh, a Palestinian gunman, was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers at the Erez Checkpoint, Gaza, after he killed border guard, Uriel Ben Maimon (21).
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 20, Sudanese government forces began a major offensive against 3 southern provinces to oust the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army. Rebels said hundreds of thousands of people were displaced.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A)
2002        Apr 20, In Vietnam a fire, raging for weeks, was reported to have destroyed half of U Minh National Park in Kien Giang province. Extended drought was blamed.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A24)

2003        Apr 20, An Australian navy vessel boarded a North Korean ship off Sydney and charged it with involvement in a $48 million heroin shipment to Victoria.
    (WSJ, 4/22/03, A1)
2003        Apr 20, After reporting a nearly tenfold increase in SARS cases in the capital, China announced the sacking of its top health official and the capital's mayor from key Communist Party positions. The number of infections in Beijing soared from 37 to 346.
    (AP, 4/20/03)
2003        Apr 20, Chechen rebels opened fire on Russian troops, killing 7 soldiers and wounding 7 others.
    (AP, 4/20/03)
2003        Apr 20, In Colombia the army said it killed 16 members of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) in eastern Antioquia state.
    (AP, 4/20/03)
2003        Apr 20, It was reported that the US planned a long-term military relationship with the emerging government in Iraq to include access to military bases in the region. US Army forces took control of Baghdad from the Marines in a changing of the guard that thinned the military presence in the capital. Celebrating Easter, the Reverend Emmanuel Delly, a longtime Iraqi bishop, pleaded for safeguards against the persecution of Christians in the new Iraq.
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A3)(AP, 4/20/04)
2003        Apr 20, Jamal Mustafa Abdallah Sultan al-Tikriti (9 of clubs), son-in-law to Saddam Hussein and former deputy head of Iraq's tribal affairs office, left Syria and surrendered to members of the Iraqi National Congress.
    (AP, 4/21/03)
2003        Apr 20, In southern Kyrgyzstan a landslide swept through a village, killing 38 people.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2003        Apr 20, In northern Laos gunmen opened fire at a bus, killing at least 12 people and injuring 30 others, in an attack officials with the communist government blamed on Hmong rebels.
    (AP, 4/21/03)

2004        Apr 20, The US Labor Dept. established new rules on overtime pay. It expanded the range for lower income workers and put a ceiling on overtime for higher income workers.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.D1)
2004        Apr 20, The US federal government agreed to settle a civil suit filed by leaders of Earth First following an FBI arrest in Oakland May 24, 1990. Darryl Cherney and the estate of Judi Bari expected to receive $2 million.
    (SFC, 4/23/04, p.B1)
2004        Apr 20, A US federal commission said oceans of the US are in dire shape due to pollution and over fishing.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 20, An Oregon judge ordered a halt to same sex marriages. He also ordered official recognition of marriages already held in Multnomah County.
    (SFC, 4/21/04, p.A3)
2004        Apr 20, Karen Jurgensen, the editor of USA Today, resigned following charges of fabrication and fraud against foreign correspondent Jack Kelley.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.66)
2004        Apr 20, WorldCom emerged from bankruptcy renamed as MCI.
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.A1)
2004        Apr 20, The NASA Gravity Probe B satellite, designed by Stanford researchers, was launched to test Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
    (SFC, 4/21/04, p.A7)
2004        Apr 20, A tornado hit Utica, Ill., and 8 people were killed in the basement of a tavern.
    (SFC, 4/22/04, p.A6)(WSJ, 4/22/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 20, Afghanistan carried out its first execution since the fall of the hardline Taliban, putting a bullet to the head of a former military commander convicted of more than 20 murders. "During his detention, Abdullah Shah reportedly revealed first hand evidence against several regional commanders currently in positions of power against whom no charges have been brought."
    (AP, 4/27/04)
2004        Apr 20, In Argentina a federal judge issued an international arrest warrant for former President Carlos Menem who has refused to appear for questioning in a corruption probe.
    (AP, 4/21/04)
2004        Apr 20, British PM Tony Blair said he would put a new European Union constitution to a nationwide vote. No date was set.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, China urged North Korean leader Kim Jong Il to rethink his demands for a written U.S. pledge not to attack, saying only a softer line can ease the standoff over Pyongyang's nuclear program.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, Yang Xiuzhu, former vice-mayor of Wenzhou and vice-director of the Zhejiang Provincial Construction Bureau, fled abroad as investigations began on bribery charges. She was believed to have taken bribes of 253.2 million yuan (US$30 million).
    (, 6/4/05, p.42)
2004        Apr 20, Chinese state media reported that from April last year, about 50 to 60 infants died from malnutrition after being fed a milk formula with virtually no nutritional value.
    (AP, 4/20/04)(SFC, 4/21/04, p.A8)
2004        Apr 20, Gen. Jose Miguel Soto Jimenez said the Dominican Republic will pull its troops out of Iraq early, in the next few weeks, following the lead of Spain and Honduras.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, Elections began in India for the 1st of 5 stages culminating May 10. India's general elections implemented the use of computerized voting machines.
    (WSJ, 4/19/04, p.A1)(AP, 4/22/04)
2004        Apr 20, Indonesia's Golkar Party chose ex-Gen. Wiranto as its presidential candidate. He was indicted by the UN for human-rights abuses in East Timor in 1999.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Apr 20, In Iraq a barrage of 18 mortars hit a Baghdad jail, killing 21 prisoners.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, Authorities in southern Italy reported that they had seized about 7,500 Kalashnikov assault rifles and other combat-grade firearms from a Turkish-flagged ship headed for New York. The weapons were destined for a company in the U.S. state of Georgia.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, In Jordan police shot and killed three suspected terrorists who were believed to have planned to detonate a bomb that would have flattened a large part of the capital Amman.
    (AP, 4/20/04)
2004        Apr 20, Palestinians fired a barrage of homemade rockets and mortar shells at Gaza Strip settlements and towns inside Israel in retaliation for the killing of Hamas leader Abdel Aziz Rantisi. Over two days, 15 Qassam rockets hit Israeli targets, wounding one Israeli and damaging at least five structures. Israeli soldiers raided the Gaza neighborhood where some of the rockets originated, killing 5 Palestinians, among them 3 militants, and wounding 21 others.
    (AP, 4/20/04)(SFC, 4/21/04, p.A12)
2004        Apr 20, Palestinian militants stormed a Palestinian police station in Gaza City and released three men with possible links to a deadly bombing of a U.S. diplomatic convoy.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2005        Apr 20, Pres. Bush signed new legislation to make individual bankruptcy more difficult.
    (SFC, 4/21/05, p.A3)
2005        Apr 20, The US government said consumer prices jumped 0.6 percent in March, the biggest inflation surge in 5 months, as the costs of energy, clothing and airline fares all rose sharply. The DJIA fell 115.5 to 10,012.36.
    (AP, 4/20/05)(SFC, 4/21/05, p.C1)
2005        Apr 20, The NYSE, in a move toward computerized trading, agreed to buy Archipelago Holdings of Chicago in a reverse merger. The new company, to be called NYSE Group was valued at $3.5 billion.
    (WSJ, 4/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Apr 20, Gov. Jodi Rell signed legislation making Connecticut the 2nd state after Vermont to offer civil unions to gay couples.
    (SFC, 4/21/05, p.A3)
2005        Apr 20, An air tanker Lockheed P-3 Orion crashed in California’s Lassen National Forest killing 3 crew members during a training run. A report in 2006 was unable to determine the cause of the crash.
    (SFC, 4/22/05, p.B3)(SFC, 9/5/06, p.B1)
2005        Apr 20, In Afghanistan 2 former Taliban leaders joined a reconciliation drive that American commanders hope will undermine a three-year-old insurgency.
    (AP, 4/21/05)
2005        Apr 20, Ecuador’s 100-member Congress voted 60 to 0 to remove President Lucio Gutierrez from office amid street protests calling for his ouster for abuse of power and misrule. Brazil granted asylum to Gutierrez. Alfredo Palacio, a heart surgeon and Ecuador's vice president, assumed the presidency.
    (SFC, 4/21/05, p.A3)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.37)
2005        Apr 20, Pernod, French spirits producer, announced the $14 billion purchase of Britain’s Allied Domecq.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.62)
2005        Apr 20, Haiti's former national police commander agreed to plead guilty to two of eight counts in a federal indictment accusing him of smuggling drugs and laundering money.
    (AP, 4/21/05)
2005        Apr 20, Iraq’s President Jalal Talabani said the bodies of more than 50 people have been recovered from the Tigris River and have been identified. The bodies were believed to have been those of hostages seized in the Madain (Madaen) region earlier this month.
    (AP, 4/20/05)(Econ, 5/7/05, p.19)
2005        Apr 20, Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi said he would step down but pledged to form a new government, an attempt to strengthen a coalition left weakened by electoral defeat and concerns over a slow economy.
    (AP, 4/20/05)
2005        Apr 20, Mexican prosecutors charged Mexico City's popular leftist mayor with abuse of authority in a case that could knock him out of the 2006 presidential race.
    (AP, 4/21/05)(WSJ, 4/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Apr 20, Oxfam reported that Vietnam’s Red River was at its lowest point for 100 years, and if the drought persisted beyond May then significant numbers of people will need food aid.
2005        Apr 20, In his first Mass as pontiff, Pope Benedict XVI pledged to work for unity among Christians and to seek an open and sincere dialogue'' with other faiths.
    (AP, 4/20/06)

2006        Apr 20, Pres. Bush welcomed Chinese President Hu Jintao to the White House as the two leaders embarked on talks aimed at cooling tensions over a yawning US-China trade gap. Bush urged Hui Jintao to make trade concessions, improve human rights and exert more influence over North Korea. The 2 leaders broke no new ground on sensitive issues.
    (AP, 4/20/06)(SFC, 4/21/06, p.A1)
2006        Apr 20, The CIA fired Mary McCarthy, a top intelligence analyst, who admitted leaking classified information about a network of secret CIA prisons. She had provided information that contributed to a Washington Post story last year disclosing secret US prisons in Eastern Europe.
    (AP, 4/22/06)
2006        Apr 20, John Negroponte, US National Intelligence Director, said the US employs almost 100,000 people in 16 federal departments and agencies dealing with intelligence.
    (SFC, 4/21/06, p.A18)
2006        Apr 20, America’s FDA issued a statement saying that smoked marijuana has no accepted medical use in treatment in the US. Medicinal use of marijuana was well established around the world.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.83)
2006        Apr 20, Arkansas Republican Governor Mike Huckabee signed a $1.10 state minimum wage increase into law to be effective Oct 1. The previous minimum was at the federal standard of $5.15 per hour.
2006        Apr 20, Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a bill into law that offered government-sanctioned elective classes on the Bible in public high schools. He also signed a bill permitting the display of the Ten Commandments at courthouses.
    (SFC, 4/21/06, p.A3)
2006        Apr 20, In Columbus, Kansas, 5 teenage boys were arrested for threatening to carry out a shooting spree at their high school on the anniversary of the Columbine bloodbath.
    (SFC, 4/25/06, p.A3)
2006        Apr 20, In SF federal and local agents raided a chapter of the Hells Angels in the Dogpatch neighborhood of Potrero Hill. They found a pound of methamphetamine. Agents targeted 16 locations including Livermore and San Mateo County recovering weapons and a total of 6 pounds of methamphetamine.
    (SFC, 4/21/06, p.B1)
2006        Apr 20, Oil jumped to a fresh record high above $74 a barrel after a steep drop in US gasoline inventories fueled fears of tight summer supplies at a time of growing anxiety over Iran's exports.
    (Reuters, 4/20/06)
2006        Apr 20, Scott Crossfield, the hotshot test pilot who in 1953 became the first man to fly at twice the speed of sound, was killed in the crash of his small plane in Georgia.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2006        Apr 20, Stanley Hiller Jr. (b.1925), boy-wonder and helicopter pioneer, died in California.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.B7)
2006        Apr 20, Suspected Taliban militants killed six Afghan policemen in Afghanistan's volatile south and burned four of their bodies. US military said a soldier was killed in a clash while inspecting a weapons cache in the central Uruzgan province's district of Dihrawud.
    (AP, 4/21/06)
2006        Apr 20, The Belgian parliament narrowly approved a bill to grant same-sex couples equal rights in adoption. Belgium became the fourth European Union member state to allow same-sex couples equal rights in adoption, after Spain, the Netherlands and Sweden.
    (AP, 4/21/06)
2006        Apr 20, China denied it is engaged in industrial espionage in Canada, calling accusations by Ottawa's foreign minister baseless and irresponsible.
    (AP, 4/20/06)
2006        Apr 20, In northeastern Colombia leftist rebels ambushed a military convoy, killing 16 soldiers and secret police officers in the deadliest attack on security forces this year.
    (AP, 4/21/06)
2006        Apr 20, In northeastern India a bus carrying wedding guests veered off a road and plunged into a lake, killing at least 64 people. Another bus crash later in the day killed at least 15 people.
    (AP, 4/20/06)(AP, 4/21/06)
2006        Apr 20, Bowing to intense pressure, Iraqi Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari agreed to abandon his claim to another term.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2006        Apr 20, In Mexico a violent confrontation between 800 federal and state police agents and more than 500 striking steelworkers left two workers dead and dozens of workers and police agents injured at the Siderurgica Lazaro Cardenas-Las Truchas, SA (Sicartsa) steel plant in the port city of Lazaro Cardenas in the state of Michoacan. The decapitated heads of two police officials were found dumped in front of a government building in Acapulco.
    (, 4/20/06)
2006        Apr 20, Nepalese police opened fire on thousands of pro-democracy protesters marching toward the capital in defiance of a government-imposed curfew, killing at least three and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 4/20/06)
2006        Apr 20, Militants ambushed a convoy of Pakistani troops in a northwestern tribal region near the Afghan border, killing seven soldiers and wounding 22. A suspected foreign Islamic militant linked to al-Qaida and a security official were killed in a gunfight at a roadblock near Afghan border.
    (AP, 4/20/06)
2006        Apr 20, Tamil Tiger rebels announced they were indefinitely postponing talks aimed at saving a truce with the Sri Lankan government as 4 more people were killed in fresh violence.
    (AFP, 4/20/06)

2007        Apr 20, Vermont senators voted to call for the impeachment of President Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney, saying their actions have raised "serious questions of constitutionality."
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, In NYC 13 people were indicted on charges stemming from their roles in a credit card fraud. Waiters in about 40 restaurants, in New York and as well eateries in Florida, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Connecticut, had quietly recorded customers' credit card information and passed it on to people who used the information to make more than $3 million worth of worth of illegal purchases. The conspirators had operated from November 2005 until this week.
    (AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, The American Economic Association announced that Susan Athey (36), professor at Harvard, had won the John Bates Clark medal. This prestigious honor was awarded every 2 years to the nation’s most promising economist under age 40.
    (WSJ, 4/21/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 20, The family of Virginia Tech gunman Seung-Hui Cho, who shot and killed 32 people and himself, said they felt ‘‘hopeless, helpless and lost,’’ and ‘‘never could have envisioned that he was capable of so much violence.’’
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2007        Apr 20, Andrew Hill (b.1931), jazz pianist, died in New Jersey.
    (SFC, 4/23/07, p.B6)
2007        Apr 20, William Phillips, a NASA contract worker, shot and killed David Beverly, a NASA civil servant, and then killed himself at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
    (SFC, 4/21/07, p.A3)
2007        Apr 20, A purported Taliban statement demanded the release of a number of the group's fighters and the withdrawal of French troops from Afghanistan in exchange for the freedom of two kidnapped French aid workers. In southern Afghanistan separate explosions killed two NATO soldiers. A Dutch soldier was killed in one explosion, the first fatality from hostile action among Dutch troops serving with NATO forces in the country.
    (AP, 4/20/07)(AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, Bolivia’s military retook control of a natural gas pipeline to Argentina after days of violent protests at gas installations in southern Bolivia. More than 1,000 protesters had seized the Yacuiba pipeline station run by Transredes, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. The disturbances killed at least one person and wounded dozens more.
    (AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, Eight workers went missing after a fire swept through a fish-processing ship off southern Chile, killing one person. 116 members of the Hercules' crew were rescued.
    (AP, 4/22/07)
2007        Apr 20, Bishop Fu Tieshan (76), the hard-line chairman of the state-sanctioned Catholic Church, died. He sparred had with the Vatican over China's insistence on appointing its own bishops. An upsurge of gas in a coal mine killed 11 miners in the Tao'er Coal Mine in Handan, an industrial city in Hebei province.
    (AP, 4/21/07)(AP, 4/24/07)
2007        Apr 20, Final results from a nationwide referendum showed an overwhelming majority of Ecuadoreans supported President Rafael Correa's push for a special assembly to rewrite the constitution.
    (AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, German Defence Minister Franz Josef Jung arrived in South Korea to discuss the proposed sale of second-hand Patriot missiles and other military issues.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, It was reported that German researchers had discovered a natural anti-HIV factor. The 20 amino acid peptide chain blocked multiple strains of HIV.
    (SFC, 4/20/07, p.A7)
2007        Apr 20, AIDA, Germany’s largest cruise line, christened the new 2,050 passenger AIDAdiva in the Hamburg harbor.
    (SFC, 4/21/07, p.A5)
2007        Apr 20, Thousands of mine workers in Indonesia's remote Papua province protested for a third day as marathon talks with US firm Freeport McMoRan over pay and benefits showed signs of progress.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, Clashes erupted between gunmen and US and Iraqi forces around a Shiite mosque in western Baghdad before Friday prayers, and two suspected insurgents were killed. US forces killed eight suspected insurgents and captured 41 in several raids across Iraq. A roadside bombing in Diwaniyah killed a Polish soldier.
    (AP, 4/20/07)(AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, Libya's National Oil Corporation and US firm Dow Chemical announced a joint venture to operate and expand the Ras Lanuf petrochemical complex in Libya.
    (AFP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, In Nigeria the opposition said that troops have intercepted a truck-load of already completed ballots a day before the presidential election, heightening fears the vote will be rigged. A Nigerian navy helicopter crashed in the country's south, killing its three crew members. 7 policemen on election duty were ambushed and shot dead near Karu town in central Nassarawa State.
    (Reuters, 4/20/07)(AFP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, North Korea restated its commitment to a landmark nuclear disarmament deal, saying it would invite UN atomic inspectors and discuss shutting down its bomb-making atomic reactor as soon as it confirmed the release of its funds frozen in a banking dispute.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, In Paraguay Japanese businessman Hirokazu Ota, the leader of Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church in Paraguay, was freed following a 19-day abduction and a 140,000-dollar ransom payment.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, In Somalia a local human rights group said 3 days of fighting between Islamic insurgents and Ethiopian troops backing the government has killed at least 113 civilians.
    (AP, 4/20/07)
2007        Apr 20, In Sri Lanka’s northern district of Vavuniya troops on foot patrol fired at suspected Tamil Tigers killing four rebels. A landmine explosion in the northeastern district of Polonnaruwa killed two soldiers and wounded two others.
    (AP, 4/21/07)
2007        Apr 20, A Vatican committee issued a report concluding that unbaptized babies who die may go to heaven and not be stuck in Limbo, which “reflects an unduly restrictive view of salvation."
    (SFC, 4/21/07, p.A7)

2008        Apr 20, Pope Benedict XVI held a Mass at Yankee Stadium on his last day in the US.
    (WSJ, 4/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 20,     The US Coast Guard recovered the bodies of 20 migrants, 19 Haitians and one Honduran, from the sea near the Bahamas after their boat apparently capsized.
    (AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 20, In Emeryville, Ca., Chad Clarke (38), a suspected marijuana dealer, was shot a killed. In 2011 Anthony Ramirez (25) was convicted of the murder and sentenced to 25 years in prison. Co-defendant Ricco Orlando Earl (31) had testified against Ramirez and faced 12-16 years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/24/11, p.C3)
2008        Apr 20, In eastern Afghanistan a child was killed in a militant rocket attack on an army base in Kunar province. 4 Taliban were killed in a gun battle with Afghan security forces in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20, In Brazil Rev. Adelir Antonio de Carli, a 41-year-old Roman Catholic priest, went missing after he lifted off under hundreds of balloons from the port city of Paranagua wearing a helmet, an aluminum thermal flight suit, waterproof coveralls and a parachute. Tugboat workers discovered a body off Rio de Janeiro in early July that authorities believed belonged to the cleric. DNA confirmed that it was the body of the priest.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(AP, 7/29/08)
2008        Apr 20,     China unveiled a new draft food safety law that provides for penalties of up to life imprisonment for people responsible for the production of substandard food.
    (Reuters, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20, The second and final day of voting in Ethiopia's local and parliamentary polls was held amid tight security. The 2 largest opposition parties boycotted the elections saying intimidation had forced out over 17,000 of their candidates.
    (AP, 4/20/08)(WSJ, 4/21/08, p.A8)
2008        Apr 20, A Georgian unmanned reconnaissance flight was shot down over the Georgian rebel region of Abkhazia. The next day Georgia's air force commander said a Russian fighter jet shot down the spy plane as it flew over Abkhazia, but Russia said it had been shot down by separatist forces and that the flight violated UN ceasefire agreements. A UN report on May 26 said a Russian jet shot down the spy drone.
    (Reuters, 4/22/08)(AP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 5/27/08, p.A12)
2008        Apr 20, In Indonesia several thousand hardline Muslims protested outside the presidential palace in Jakarta demanding that Pres. Yudhoyono ban Ahmadiyah, an unorthodox but moderate Muslim sect founded in India in the 19th century.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.59)
2008        Apr 20,     US troops killed 12 militants during an "uptick" in fighting, as fierce clashes broke out in Baghdad's Sadr City district after radical cleric Muqtada al-Sadr warned he will declare war if a crackdown against his followers persists. 6 civilians, four men and two boys ages 8 and 10, were killed in fighting in Sadr City after midnight. An armed drone fired a Hellfire missile at a group of gunmen killing all three. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice arrived in Baghdad for a trip she said was intended to promote fresh political gains she sees to be flowing from the government-led assaults on radical militias.
    (AP, 4/20/08)(AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 20,     Israeli airstrikes killed 2 more Hamas militants one day after the group detonated two jeeps packed with hundreds of kilograms of explosives on the Gaza border.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20,     In Mauritius a conference of the 14-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC) opened for talks on poverty and food prices.
    (AFP, 4/19/08)
2008        Apr 20, In Pakistan gunmen riding a motorcycle killed three paramilitary soldiers in an ambush in the town of Hub.
    (AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 20,     A group of Palestinian refugees stranded on the Iraq-Syria border since 2006 flew to Chile under a resettlement plan sponsored by the Catholic Church in the South American country and the UN agency for refugees.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20,     Paraguay held elections. The Colorado Party, in office since 1947, had the longest current run of uninterrupted governance in Latin America. Fernando Lugo (56), a former Roman Catholic bishop, won over Blanca Ovelar, a protege of President Nicanor Duarte. She had sought to become Paraguay's first woman president. 43 percent of the country's 6.5 million people lived in poverty.
    (AP, 4/20/08)(AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 20, Russia closed down a plutonium producing reactor in Seversk, marking a milestone in US nuclear nonproliferation efforts.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20, Pirates off the Somali coast, armed with grenade launchers, stormed a Spanish tuna fishing boat, the Playa de Bakio, with 26 crew members.
    (AFP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 20,     Sri Lankan forces killed a Roman Catholic priest who was also a top human rights campaigner inside rebel-held territory, as fighting raged in the troubled north.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20, Zimbabwe announced a delay in the partial recount of its disputed March 29 election. The opposition accused the authorities of waging a "war" that has killed 10 people and injured 500 others since disputed parliamentary and presidential elections. The secretary general of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change said 400 opposition supporters have been detained in Zimbabwe following the elections.
    (AFP, 4/20/08)

2009        Apr 20, President Barack Obama convened his first formal Cabinet meeting and asked department and agency chiefs to look for ways over the next 90 days to cut $100 million out of the federal budget.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, New York-based Human Rights Watch said gunmen with suspected links to Hamas security forces in the Gaza Strip killed at least 32 Palestinians and wounded dozens in attacks on political opponents and alleged informers during and after Israel's recent war in the coastal territory. The report said 18 Palestinians were killed by Hamas during the three-week war, which ended Jan. 18, and 14 others were killed afterward.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Chesapeake Energy Corp. filed its proxy statement revealing a compensation package to CEO Aubrey McClendon that totaled $112 million for 2008, even as the company’s stock price tumbled.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.B1)
2009        Apr 20, In Florida 7 more Venezuelan polo horses sickened just before a tournament died overnight, raising the death toll to 21. Officials said they may have been killed by some type of poison. On April 23 Franck’s Pharmacy admitted to having prepared a generic version of Biodyl, a vitamin supplement banned in the US, which was administered to all the dead horses.
    (AP, 4/20/09)(SFC, 4/24/09, p.A7)
2009        Apr 20, In Maryland a Loyola college student, her visiting parents and younger sister were found dead in a hotel room near Baltimore in an apparent murder suicide.
    (WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A6)
2009        Apr 20, In Washington state former Tacoma elementary school teacher Jennifer Rice (33) was convicted of having sex with a student (10) and his brother (15).
    (SFC, 4/21/09, p.A6)
2009        Apr 20, Chicago cancelled a $2.52 billion deal to privatize Midway Airport after a winning consortium failed to line up funding.
    (WSJ, 4/21/09, p.B4)
2009        Apr 20, Oracle Corp. snapped up computer server and software maker Sun Microsystems Inc. for $7.4 billion. The opportunity opened up after rival IBM Corp. abandoned an earlier bid to buy one of Silicon Valley's best known, and most troubled companies.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Benjamin F. Edwards III (77), former president (1967-2001) of St. Louis-based brokerage firm A.G. Edwards Inc., died. Under him the family firm grew from fewer than 50 branches to nearly 700.
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.A4)
2009        Apr 20, In southern Afghanistan two police were killed and four others wounded during a clash with insurgents in Zabul province. A roadside bomb in Uruzgan province killed a civilian, while a second roadside bomb in eastern Khost province killed two civilians.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Thousands of Tamils blocked some of London's busiest roads, demonstrating outside the Houses of Parliament for an immediate ceasefire in the war between Tamil rebels and Sri Lanka's government.
    (AFP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline said it has agreed to buy US-based skincare group Stiefel Laboratories in a deal worth up to 2.4 billion pounds ($3.6 billion).
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, At the Shanghai Motor Show Rolls Royce CEO Tom Purves announced that the company's new model would be called Ghost.
    (, 5/9/09, p.66)
2009        Apr 20, In Chile Gen. Gonzalo Santelices, former head of the Santiago army garrison, was indicted along with 2 other officers in the killing of 14 dissidents in the early days of the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990).
    (SFC, 4/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 20, In China a new English-language paper published by the Communist Party hit newsstands, part of Beijing's efforts to raise its profile on the global stage and find an international audience for the party line.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Ecuador’s finance minister Maria Elsa Viteri said the government will buy back about $3.2 billion in Global 2012 and 2030 bonds, worth about 32% of Ecuador's total foreign debt at a 70% discount, ending months of speculation about a default. A government audit last year determined that conditions surrounding the debt sale had left the bonds "illegal and illegitimate," prompting President Rafael Correa to order the refinancing.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, In southeast France workers at a French subsidiary of the American company Molex detained two bosses to protest plans to close the plant.
    (AP, 4/21/09)
2009        Apr 20, In Iraq a suicide bomber killed 3 Iraqi police officers and wounded eight US soldiers visiting the mayor of Baqouba city. At least 9 civilians were also injured.
    (AP, 4/20/09)(SFC, 4/21/09, p.A4)
2009        Apr 20, In Mexico police found a body in flames dumped along a main thoroughfare on the outskirts the northern border city of Tijuana. The victim was found with his head wrapped in packing tape, a common practice used by drug smugglers against rivals.
    (AP, 4/22/09)
2009        Apr 20, New Zealand's PM John Key said that he wants an exit strategy before sending the country's Special Air Service combat troops back to Afghanistan as the US has requested.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Nigerian pirates attacked the Aleyna Mercan ship about 50 nautical miles off Onne port, near the oil city of Port Harcourt. The vessel was delivering equipment to French oil group Total. On April 22 the kidnappers released the Turkish captain and the chief engineer.
    (AFP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 20, Pakistan's central bank lowered the discount interest rate by one percentage point, acknowledging that the economy in the poverty-stricken, nuclear-armed nation was showing resilience. Pakistani security forces shelled and launched airstrikes against Taliban in the South Waziristan tribal region overnight, killing 4 civilians and 8 suspected militants.
    (AFP, 4/20/09)(AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Paraguay's Pres. Fernando Lugo (57) was hit with another paternity claim, just a week after the former Roman Catholic bishop acknowledged fathering a different illegitimate child while still subject to his vows of chastity. Benigna Leguizamon, an impoverished soap-seller, said Lugo's previous admission inspired her to go public about her 6-year-old.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Vladimir Lukin, Russia's parliament-appointed human rights ombudsman, presented an annual report on human rights in Russia that included violations of religious freedoms, prisoners' rights and freedom of political expression. He said he is concerned about a growing number of claims that police and judicial authorities committed abuses.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Somali pirates in two boats with about six pirates each attacked the Maltese-flagged MV Atlantica, before the ship took evasive maneuvers and escaped in the Gulf of Aden without damages or injury. Other pirates released a Togo-flagged, Lebanese-owned ship after they found out it was supposed to pick up food destined for Somalia. The MV Sea Horse was hijacked April 14 with 19 crew as it headed to India to pick up more than 7,300 tons of food destined for Somalia. The pirates also were paid "a reward" of $100,000 by two Somali businessmen for freeing the aid ship.
    (AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Sri Lanka’s military said some 35,000 civilians fled the last corner of territory held by the Tamil Tigers, as the government warned the rebels it would launch a final assault in 24 hours. According to Tamil rebels 1,000 civilians died in a government raid on their territory. The military denied the accusation saying only 17 civilians were killed and that they died in rebel suicide bombings. Over the next 9 days some 114,520 civilians fled the area.
    (AP, 4/20/09)(AP, 4/21/09)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.44)
2009        Apr 20, A south Sudan district official said weekend clashes left more than 170 people dead as armed fighters from the Murle ethnic group in remote Akobo county in eastern Jonglei state attacked Lou Nuer villages.
    (AFP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, A UN racism conference opened in Geneva. Iran’s Pres. Ahmadinejad accused Israel of being the "most cruel and racist regime," sparking a walkout by angry Western diplomats. The US, Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Poland boycotted the conference out of concern that it could be used by Muslim countries to criticize Israel and to limit free speech when it comes to criticizing their religion.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(AP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, Zimbabwe's central bank governor admitted that he took hard currency from the bank accounts of private businesses and foreign aid groups without permission, saying he was trying to keep his country's cash-strapped ministries running.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2010        Apr 20, The US Supreme Court struck down a federal law aimed at banning videos that show graphic violence against animals, saying it violates the right to free speech.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, America’s Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) approved the second of 2 exchanges that would allow trading of contracts based on films’ box-office takings.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.74)
2010        Apr 20, The space shuttle Discovery landed in Florida ending its 15-day voyage to the int’l. space station.
    (SFC, 4/21/10, p.A8)
2010        Apr 20, An explosion and fire damaged an oil rig and critically injured 7 people off the coast of Louisiana leaving 11 workers missing in the Gulf of Mexico. The Deepwater Horizon rig sank 2 days later. Officials feared as much as 336,000 gallons of crude oil a day could be rising from the sea floor nearly 5,000 feet below. On April 23 no oil appeared to be leaking from the well head at the ocean floor, nor was any leaking at the water's surface. On April 25 it was reported that some 1000 barrels per day were leaking from 2 conduit sources related to the sunken oil rig. An internal investigation later said the deadly blowout was triggered by a bubble of methane gas that escaped from the well and shot up the drill column, expanding quickly as it burst through several seals and barriers before exploding. In June it was reported that BP had been trying to seal cracks in the Macondo well more than 2 months before the explosion.
    (AFP, 4/21/10)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/25/10)(AP, 5/8/10)(SFC, 6/18/10, p.A13)
2010        Apr 20, Dorothy Height (98), a longtime leader of the US civil rights movement and the chairwoman of the National Council of Negro Women, died in Washington, DC.
    (Reuters, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Argentina's last dictator, Reynaldo Bignone (82), was convicted and sentenced to 25 years in prison for kidnappings and torture during the nation's 1976-1983 military regime.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, A UN court delivered a long-awaited ruling rejecting Argentina's claim that a Uruguayan pulp mill pollutes their shared river. Both sides said the decision by the International Court of Justice in the Netherlands gave them what they need to resolve their differences, with Argentina taking heart from a part of the ruling that said Uruguay did not properly inform it about the project. Argentine activists were still blocking the main bridge across the river and refused to give up their fight. Activists in June voted to lift their four-year bridge blockade.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 6/17/10)
2010        Apr 20, Australia’s PM Kevin Rudd said he had reached agreement with all but one of Australia's states on major health reforms which he hopes will spearhead his 2010 re-election campaign.
    (Reuters, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Bolivia’s Pres. Evo Morales said that men should stay away from eating chicken if they want to maintain their hair and virility. He said chicken producers inject the birds with female hormones. Producers in the US, EU and other countries abandoned the use of hormones in poultry several decades ago.
    (SFC, 4/21/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 20, Brazil speedily awarded the tender for the controversial Belo Monte hydro-electric dam projected to be the world's third-largest, despite fierce opposition from environmentalists. The tender was awarded to Norte Energia, a consortium led by Chesf, a subsidiary of the state electricity company Electrobras, after a series of court injunctions that had blocked and unblocked the auction process. The reservoir of the dammed Xingu river will cover 516 square km. and leave scores of villages awash.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.34)
2010        Apr 20, Airplanes gradually took to the skies after five days of being grounded by a volcanic ash cloud that has devastated European travel. Only limited flights were allowed to resume at some European airports and UK authorities said London airports would remained closed for at least another day due to new danger from the invisible ash cloud.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Colombian Gen. Fernando Joya and five other members of the military died in a helicopter collision at a base in the nation's southwest.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Dagestan assailants gunned down two traffic policemen who pulled over their car in the provincial capital, Makhachkala.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Ethiopia said that it would go ahead with a new deal with six other countries on sharing the waters of the Nile and accused Egypt of "dragging its feet" on a more equitable treaty.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Honduras a gunman fatally shot journalist Georgino Orellana (48) in the head as he was leaving a television studio in the city of San Pedro Sula.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 20, India’s trade ministry said it will launch a formal dispute against the EU at the World Trade Organization (WTO) over EU seizures of Indian generic drugs.
    (Reuters, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Iran an explosion in a car killed 2 people and wounded 8 in the western city of Ilam. The car was not a gas-powered vehicle of the sort that has seen a number of accidental explosions in recent years.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Iraqi and US troops killed Ahmed al-Obeidi (Ahmad Ali Abbas Dahir al-Ubayd), a regional leader of al-Qaida in Iraq, in an early morning raid in the northern province of Ninevah. Five family members of a local chief of an anti-Qaeda militia were gunned down in their homes in Tarmiyah, north of Baghdad, with the children also beheaded. A police colonel and his driver were killed by a roadside bomb in the western city of Hit, while 7 other policemen and 4 civilians were injured in bombings in Ramadi and Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/20/10)(AFP, 4/20/10)(SFC, 4/23/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 20, Kyrgyzstan's ousted president was in exile in Belarus, as the interim authorities controlling the Kyrgyz capital warned he would be imprisoned if he tried to return to the Central Asian country.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Malaysia ruling party lawmaker Bung Mokhtar Radin (50) and actress Zizie Ezette A. Samad, his second wife, pleaded guilty to entering into a polygamous marriage without official consent amid a debate over Islamic morality among politicians.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Mexican state police reported that three men were found shot to death in a taxi in Acapulco.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 20, The Dutch Supreme Court overturned the acquittal of Guus Kouwenhoven, a businessman accused of supplying arms to former Liberian strongman Charles Taylor, and ordered a new appeals hearing in the case. He had been convicted in 2006 of breaching a UN arms embargo by trading weapons for timber in Liberia and sentenced to eight years imprisonment, but the conviction was overturned in 2008.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Pakistani officials said several senior Pakistani police and intelligence officials have been removed from their posts after a damning April 15 UN report into the killing of ex-premier Benazir Bhutto.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Gaza's Hamas rulers burned nearly 2 million pills of Tramadol, a painkiller many Gazans take recreationally because they say it relaxes them and provides temporary relief from the territory's hardships.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Rwanda’s army announced that 2 senior generals have been arrested over accusations of corruption and misconduct.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Saudi Arabia a police official said that the head of the powerful religious police has fired the chief of the Mecca branch for advocating the mixing of the sexes. Ahmed bin Qassim al-Ghamidi's suggestion in a newspaper interview this week that men and women should be left to mingle freely directly clashed with a central preoccupation of the force.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 20, In Serbia Biljana Kovacevic Vuco (58), one of Serbia's most prominent human rights activists, died. She played an important role in Serbia's fledgling human rights and anti-war movement during the 1990s rule of late strongman Slobodan Milosevic.
    (AP, 4/20/10)
2010        Apr 20, Two Somali radio stations said the government has ordered them to close for obeying a week-old order by an Islamic militant group to stop playing music. Officials at Somaliweyn and Tusmo radio stations said they won't obey the government order to resume playing music and shut down. The government order was rescinded minutes after it was issued.
    (AP, 4/20/10)(SFC, 4/21/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 20, In South Korea two North Korean army majors were arrested on suspicion of plotting to kill Hwang Jang-yop (87), a high-profile defector. Jang-yop was one of North Korea's most powerful officials when he fled the impoverished nation 13 years ago in a defection that reportedly enraged Kim Jong Il.
    (AP, 4/21/10)
2010        Apr 20, South Africa’s biggest agricultural union, Agri SA, said 2 farmers are attacked every day in South Africa and two killed per week.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)

2011        Apr 20, US officials said the Obama administration plans to give the Libyan opposition $25 million in non-lethal assistance in what will be the first direct US aid to the rebels after weeks of assessing their capabilities and intentions.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, US Homeland Security officials said they were scrapping the 5-color system used since 2001 terrorist threat alerts. New written alerts will warn of an elevated or imminent threat when needed.
    (SFC, 4/21/11, p.A8)
2011        Apr 20, In Colorado a pipe bomb and propane tanks were found planted at the Southwest Plaza Mall in Littleton, a suburb of Denver. On April 26 suspect Earl Albert Moore (65) was arrested.
    (SFC, 4/27/11, p.A8)
2011        Apr 20, Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin signed a pair of bills intended to further restrict abortion in her state.
    (SFC, 4/21/11, p.A6)
2011        Apr 20, BP marked the first anniversary of the massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill by suing its business partners for billions of dollars, as Gulf residents held somber vigils and relatives flew over the waters where 11 oil rig workers died.
    (AP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Afghanistan a French soldier was killed and nine others were wounded when their armored vehicle struck a road side bomb in Kapisa province. A Haqqani operator was captured in Tere Zayi district of Khost province, which borders Pakistan. Several suspected insurgents were detained in the provincial capital of Khost. Coalition and Afghan troops took the leader of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) and two of his associates into custody in Khan Abad district of Kunduz province.
    (AP, 4/21/11)(AP, 4/22/11)
2011        Apr 20, The Afghan government said the scandal-plagued Kabul Bank would be split in two, one good bank and one filled with bad loans, as part of a drastic overhaul to save it from failure.
    (SFC, 4/21/11, p.A5)
2011        Apr 20, A South Australian politician was detained and charged with four child pornography offences.
    (AFP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, In England Tina Nash (31), a mother-of-two, was assaulted by her boyfriend at her home in Hayle. Shane Jenkin (32) gauged out her eyes and broke her jaw and nose. He kept Nash imprisoned for the next 12 hours, stopping her from seeking help. On April 13, 2012, Jenkin pleaded guilty.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)(
2011        Apr 20, China’s Legal Daily newspaper said authorities in Shenyang have found bean sprouts tainted with banned food additives to make the vegetables grow faster and look shinier. Police had seized 40 tons of bean sprouts treated with the chemical compounds sodium nitrite and urea, as well as antibiotics and a plant hormone called 6-benzyladenine.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In the Czech Rep. a huge nitroglycerine explosion occurred at an explosives factory in Pardubice, leaving nine people injured and four missing.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, Hundreds of Eritrean exiles marched in the capital of neighboring Ethiopia to protest their country's autocratic leadership.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Haiti election officials declared Michel Martelly, a popular singer known by the stage name "Sweet Micky," to be the earthquake-devastated country's next president. The final election results were released late in the day giving victories to 17 Chamber of Deputies candidates and one Senate candidate who ended up with far more votes than they had when preliminary returns were announced April 4. Demonstrations popped up in the countryside and some turned violent. The ruling Unity Party expanded its presence in the Chamber of Deputies, taking 46 of the 99 positions, and gained an absolute majority in the upper Senate with 17 of the 30 seats.
    (AP, 4/21/11)(AFP, 4/22/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Iran more than 200 lawmakers warned President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that he must obey an order from the country's supreme leader reinstating Heidar Moslehi, the powerful intelligence minister who resigned on April 19.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, Prominent Israeli intellectuals and artists came out in favor of creating a Palestinian state based on the 1967 line marking the West Bank. Gaza Strip and east Jerusalem. 47 signatories to a statement released today called for an Israeli pullout from the West Bank.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, Israeli police arrested two Israelis in connection with a seizure of over $60 million worth of cocaine smuggled into Israel aboard a Colombian vessel.
    (AP, 5/16/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Ivory Coast die-hard forces loyal former President Laurent Gbagbo still battled troops of the democratically President Alassane Ouattara in an Abidjan neighborhood. Troops loyal to Ouattara lobbed shells into the Yopougon suburb as pro-Gbagbo civilian supporters tried to get out.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Libya Gadhafi's troops clashed with opposition forces In Misrata and shelled the mountain town of Yifran. Yifran, Qalaa, Nalut and others near the Tunisian borders are inhibited by Berbers who suffered under Gadhafi repressive policies. France and Italy announced that they will join the UK in sending small teams of military advisers to eastern Libya. Among those killed today in Misrata were British photojournalist Tim Hetherington, co-director of Oscar-nominated war documentary "Restrepo," and American photographer Chris Hondros. A Ukrainian doctor was killed in a separate incident. The doctor's wife lost her legs.
    (AP, 4/20/11)(AP, 4/21/11)(Reuters, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, Regulators said Malaysia and Singapore have agreed to slash roaming charges for voice calls and text messaging over the next two years in a landmark accord.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In northern Mexico investigators found 26 badly decomposed bodies at a vacant lot in the state of Durango and said they were looking for more. In Tamaulipas authorities reported they had rescued 68 people, including 12 Central American migrants, allegedly kidnapped by a drug cartel. Federal police in Cancun arrested Marco Antonio Gomez, a lawyer who allegedly helped the Zetas drug cartel manage ransom and extortion payments, which were sometimes handed over in the form of property deeds. Nine more suspected Zetas members were arrested in the border state of Tamaulipas.
    (AP, 4/20/11)(AP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Nigeria opposition presidential candidate, ex-military ruler Muhammadu Buhari, urged calm saying he would pursue his complaints through legal means as post-poll unrest in Nigeria was reported to have killed more than 200 people.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, South Korean telecoms operator KT rolled out Kibot, a robot playmate for children, in a move aimed at cashing in on the potentially lucrative industry.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Spain the Madrid Superior Court of Justice upheld a ban barring atheists from holding a march on Holy Thursday, saying that would be offensive to Spanish Catholics who mark Easter with processions of their own. The ban was imposed last week by the Interior Ministry office for the Madrid region.
    (AP, 4/21/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Syria thousands of students held demonstrations against the authoritarian regime, brushing off President Assad's sweeping declarations of reform as the country's growing protest movement vowed to stage the biggest rallies to date on April 22.
    (AP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In southeastern Turkey one person was killed when police opened fire on Kurdish protestors in Bismil town.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)
2011        Apr 20, In Yemen gunmen on motorcycles sped by and opened fire on hundreds of demonstrators camped out in the early hours of the morning in the Yemeni port city of Hodeida, killing one and wounding several protesters.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2012        Apr 20, Pres. Obama declared some 14,000 acres of California’s Fort Ord a national monument under the 1906 Antiquities Act.
    (SFC, 4/21/12, p.A1)
2012        Apr 20, In Arizona Isabel Mercedes Celis (6) was last seen in her bedroom in Tucson.
    (SFC, 4/28/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 20, In San Francisco the Sam Wo restaurant in Chinatown said goodbye after some 100 years in business.
    (SFC, 4/20/12, p.C1)
2012        Apr 20, In Sacramento, Ca., a man suspected in a crime spree led to the temporary closure if I-80. Officers fatally shot Jimmy Lee Graves (38) on a 2nd-story balcony after he started a fire and refused to show his hands.
    (SSFC, 4/22/12, p.A6)
2012        Apr 20, In Florida neighborhood watch volunteer George Zimmerman apologized to the family of Trayvon Martin, stunning a rapt courtroom and a national television audience at a hearing in which the judge granted him $150,000 bail on a charge of 2nd-degree murder.
    (Reuters, 4/21/12)
2012        Apr 20, An unresponsive twin-engine plane flying erratically over the Gulf of Mexico and tracked by the Air Force crashed between Louisiana and Florida. An airport mechanic who has worked on the plane said the pilot was  Dr. Peter Hertzak (65) of New Orleans.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A5)
2012        Apr 20, North Carolina-based was forced to move to a new web hosting service after its previous host said the attacks were threatening its entire business. The website has reported extensively on China's biggest political turmoil in years, underscoring the pivotal role the Internet has played in the unfolding scandal.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Members of the International Monetary Fund raised $430 billion in new funds for crisis intervention, with China and other emerging economic giants taking part.
    (AFP, 4/21/12)
2012        Apr 20, Bahrain's most senior Shiite cleric, Sheik Isa Qassim, condemned the Sunni rulers for staging the F1 race despite opposition protests. Opposition leaders from Bahrain's largest Shiite bloc, Al-Wefaq, said at least 50 people have been injured in the past two days when security forces fired pellets to disperse protesters on several occasions. Tens of thousands flooded a major highway demanding a halt to the Formula One race.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 20, British diplomat George Fergusson (56) was mugged as he walked through Hammersmith in West London. He lost sight in his left eye following the attack. He is due to take up the post of governor in the British overseas territory of Bermuda.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)
2012        Apr 20, British guitarist Bert Weedon (91) died. He inspired a generation to pick up the string instrument. The Beatles' George Harrison, John Lennon as well as Paul McCartney, Eric Clapton, Queen guitarist Brian May and Pete Townshend of The Who were all among those who started out with Weedon's books. His first "Play In A Day" book was published in 1957.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, China signed accords on energy cooperation and the Arctic in Iceland as Premier Wen Jiabao started a tour of northern Europe that will focus on Chinese investment in a continent eager for funds and to trade with the rising world power.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Hackers claiming to come from China defaced the website of the Philippines' top university to assert their country's claim over the hotly disputed South China Sea.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, In Egypt tens of thousands of protesters packed Cairo's downtown Tahrir Square in the biggest demonstration in months against the ruling military. But the crowds in Tahrir were divided between rival groups with differing complaints and goals.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, The Council of Europe's 47 member states agreed to a declaration aimed at making the European Court of Human Rights more efficient.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, The European Union parliament condemned Argentina's move to seize control of the YPF division of Spanish oil and gas giant Repsol and demanded that EU takes action against Buenos Aires at the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, European regulators recommended approval of a new type 2 diabetes drug from AstraZeneca, Britain's second biggest drugmaker, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, in a decision that contrasts starkly with its failure to win approval in the United States.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Dive operators and conservationists said Indonesia's government is not doing enough to keep illegal fishermen out of the boundaries of the Komodo National Park, a UN World Heritage site. They said enforcement declined greatly following the exit two years ago of a US-based environmental group that helped fight destructive fishing practices.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, In western Kazakhstan journalist Lukpan Akhmedyarov was stabbed and shot in an overnight attack that his colleagues say may have been motivated by his critical reporting about the Central Asian nation's authoritarian government.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, In Mexico masked gunmen burst into a bar in Chihuahua and opened fire killing 14 people.
    (SSFC, 4/22/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 20, In Mexico a truck trailer came loose and hit a passenger bus killing at least 43 people in Veracruz state.
    (SFC, 4/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 20, Mexico’s Popocatepetl volcano shot a heavy plume of ash into the sky southeast of Mexico City and spewed glowing rock from its crater at dawn.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, In North Korea tens of thousands rallied, screaming hatred for South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak and calling for his death over alleged insults during the North's anniversary celebrations.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, In Norway far-right fanatic Anders Behring Breivik described in court how he gunned down teenagers in the Utoya massacre as they fled in panic or froze before him, paralyzed with fear.
    (AP, 4/21/12)
2012        Apr 20, A Pakistani Bhoja Air passenger jet with 127 people on board crashed as it was landing in bad weather at an airport near Islamabad. All onboard were killed.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(AP, 4/21/12)
2012        Apr 20, Senegalese state media reported that Mali's Pres. Amadou Toumani Toure and family has sought refuge in neighboring Senegal nearly one month after the democratically elected leader was overthrown in a coup that has sparked political and humanitarian crises.
    (AP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, South Africa's President Jacob Zuma married his fourth current wife, marking the sixth time the 70-year-old has tied the knot.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Sudan said its forces have retaken the main town in the Heglig oil region 10 days after South Sudanese troops seized it. The announcement came shortly after South Sudanese President Salva Kiir ordered the immediate withdrawal of his troops from Heglig, following intensified global diplomatic efforts to pull the two nations from the brink of wider war.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Switzerland said it has revised a tax pact agreed with Britain last year and will offer it a higher rate of withholding tax, after Germany earlier this month succeeded in obtaining more favorable terms in a similar deal with the Swiss government.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Syrian troops fired bullets and tear gas to disperse thousands of protesters. State media reported that bombs and shooting killed 17 soldiers in the latest violence to defy international efforts to calm the country's crisis. Activists reported at least 11 civilians killed.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 20, Jailed former Ukrainian PM Yulia Tymoshenko went on hunger strike after prison guards allegedly beat her. She had refused to be treated for a severe spinal condition at the Kharkiv clinic because she doesn't trust government-appointed doctors.
    (AP, 4/24/12)
2012        Apr 20, In Yemen tens of thousands rallied in the capital, Sanaa, and several other cities demanding trial of Saleh and his family for killing protesters during past year's uprising. Yemen's air force raided Al-Qaeda hideouts in the south. The military regained control over part of Zinjibar after a battle left 12 militants and 7 troops dead.
    (AP, 4/20/12)(AFP, 4/21/12)(SSFC, 4/22/12, p.A2)

2013        Apr 20, In San Francisco some 10-15 thousand people gathered at Golden Gate Park’s Hippie Hill for the annual “420" unofficial pot-smoking bacchanalia. They left some 10,000 pounds of garbage for cleanup.
    (SFC, 4/22/13, p.A1)
2013        Apr 20, In Colorado an estimated 80,000 individuals gathered in Denver’s Civic Center Park the as they celebrated a state voters’ decision to legalize the recreational use of cannabis last November. Gunshots were heard less than an hour after the rally's keynote address completed. 2 individuals were wounded.
    (SFC, 4/22/13, p.A5)
2013        Apr 20, In Colorado an avalanche near Loveland Pass killed 5 backcountry enthusiasts.
    (SFC, 4/22/13, p.A6)
2013        Apr 20, Florida filed a lawsuit in Panama City against BP and Halliburton over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
    (SSFC, 4/21/13, p.A9)
2013        Apr 20, In Pennsylvania Dr. Autumn Klein (41) died after falling ill at home. A coroner later found cyanide in her system. On July 25 her husband, Univ. of Penn. researcher Dr. Robert Ferrante, was arrested on charges that he had poisoned her. On Nov 7, 2014, Ferrante (66) was convicted of 1st degree murder. On Feb 4, 2015, Ferrante was sentenced to mandatory life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.A7)(SFC, 11/8/14, p.A5)(SFC, 2/5/15, p.A5)
2013        Apr 20, Bahrain authorities foiled possible attacks one day before the kingdom's Formula One race.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 20, In Zedelgem, Belgium, fleeing robbers panicked and threw a cracked safe out the window sending some $1 million euros into the air. Inhabitants of the area were urged to return the money.
    (AP, 5/3/13)
2013        Apr 20, In China a powerful earthquake struck the steep hills of Lushan county, Sichuan province, leaving at least 188 people dead and more than 11,000 injured.
    (AP, 4/21/13)(AP, 4/22/13)
2013        Apr 20, Iraqis braved the fear of violence to vote in the first election since the US military withdrawal. Officials have delayed voting in two largely Sunni provinces, Anbar and Ninevah, where large anti-government protests have been held, citing security concerns. The largely autonomous northern Kurdish region will hold local elections in September. Voters are also not balloting in the ethnically disputed and oil-rich province of Kirkuk, which has not had a chance to elect local officials since 2005 because residents cannot agree on a power-sharing formula there.
    (AP, 4/20/13)
2013        Apr 20, Italy's Parliament re-elected Giorgio Napolitano to an unprecedented second term as president, after party leaders persuaded the 87-year-old to serve again in hopes of easing the hostility that has thwarted formation of a new government.
    (AP, 4/20/13)
2013        Apr 20, On the Lebanese side of the Syrian border, schools were evacuated in the mostly Shiite villages of al-Qasr, Bouweydah and Hawch amid fears that Syria's rebels could target the residents.
    (AP, 4/20/13)
2013        Apr 20, In Montenegro more than 5,000 opposition supporters rallied claiming their leader was cheated of victory in the April 7 presidential ballot. The opposition claimed their candidate Miodrag Lekic was robbed.
    (AP, 4/20/13)
2013        Apr 20, Police in Nicaragua detained Eric Justin Toth, a former US school teacher, who was on the FBI's 10 most-wanted fugitives as a suspect in a child pornography investigation.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 20, Pakistan’s former military ruler Pervez Musharraf was ordered held for two weeks until the next hearing in a case related to his 2007 decision to sack and detain several judges. A suspected suicide bomber targeted security forces outside the main gate of a hospital in Khar, in the Bajur tribal region. Four people died in the blast.
    (AP, 4/20/13)
2013        Apr 20, Syrian troops backed by pro-government gunmen advanced during battles with rebels in a strategic area in Homs province near the Lebanese border. SANA said government troops gained control of four key villages in Homs province: Qadesh, Mansourieh, Saadiyeh and Radwaniyeh. 6 rebels were reported killed in the fighting. SANA said a shell fell outside a sports club in Aleppo killing two children.
    (AP, 4/20/13)

2014        Apr 20, In Colorado tens of thousands gathered to celebrate the first legal 4:20, the April 20 pot holiday, at Denver’s Civic Center Park.
    (SFC, 4/21/14, p.A8)   
2014        Apr 20, Herb Wong, a leading West Coast jazz expert and educator, died at his home in Menlo Park, Ca. He started his own radio show on KJAZ in 1959 and continued until 1996.
    (SFC, 4/26/14, p.C3)
2014        Apr 20, In Afghanistan new partial results in the presidential election released today showed candidate Abdullah Abdullah as the front-runner, though a runoff election looked likely.
    (AP, 4/20/14)
2014        Apr 20, Prizefighter Rubin "Hurricane" Carter (b.1937) died at his home in Toronto. He was convicted in 1967 and again in 1976 for three 1966 murders committed at a tavern in Paterson, New Jersey. He was freed in 1985 when his convictions were thrown out after years of appeals The convictions became an international symbol of racial injustice and inspired a Bob Dylan song and a Hollywood film.
    (AP, 4/21/14)
2014        Apr 20, An Egyptian court sentenced people to more than three years in prison for violent protests in February in support of deposed Islamist president Mohamed Morsi. Gunmen killed a police captain and a conscript in a firefight on a desert road outside Cairo.
    (AFP, 4/20/14)(AP, 4/20/14)
2014        Apr 20, In India 2 victims were found dead aboard the Chinese-built carrier Tuo Fu 3 anchored near Haldia city in the Bay of Bengal. They had reportedly collapsed immediately after entering the cargo hold filled with coal and accumulated methane gas.
    (AP, 4/22/14)
2014        Apr 20, In Iraq a series of attacks, including a coordinated assault on a private Shiite college in Baghdad, killed at least 15 people and wounded nearly 50 others.
    (AP, 4/20/14)
2014        Apr 20, Israeli police arrested 16 Palestinians at one of Jerusalem's most revered and politically sensitive holy sites as they dispersed protesters opposed to any Jewish attempts to pray there.
    (Reuters, 4/20/14)
2014        Apr 20, Myanmar reported that fighting between government troops and ethnic Kachin rebels has left 22 people dead this month.
    (SFC, 4/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 20, In southern Pakistan a passenger bus rammed into a disabled flatbed trailer parked on the side of a highway near Pannu Aqil, killing at least 42 people, including 17 women and children.
    (AP, 4/20/14)(SFC, 4/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said three more patients who contracted a potentially fatal Middle East virus related to SARS have died amid a recent increase in infections.
    (AP, 4/21/14)
2014        Apr 20, In Syria dozens of people were killed in air strikes on Aleppo, including at least 29 people in a single neighborhood. Former German rapper Denis Mamadou Cuspert, aka Deso Dogg, was among 16 killed in a suicide attack by Al-Nusra Front in an eastern province. In Syria he had joined ISIL and taken on the name Abu Talha al-Almani.
    (Reuters, 4/21/14)(AFP, 4/22/14)
2014        Apr 20, Ukraine and Russia traded blame for a shootout at a checkpoint manned by pro-Russia insurgents in Slovyansk that left three people dead in a mysterious shooting.
    (AP, 4/20/14)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.50)
2014        Apr 20, Pope Francis, in his Easter address "Urbi et Orbi" (Latin for 'to the city and to the world') denounced the "immense wastefulness" in the world while many go hungry and called for an end to conflicts in Syria, Ukraine and Africa.
    (Reuters, 4/20/14)
2014        Apr 20, In Venezuela fresh clashes erupted in Caracas, with hooded anti-government protesters hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails at riot police who returned fire with rubber bullets, tear gas and water cannon.
    (AFP, 4/21/14)
2014        Apr 20, A drone strike in south Yemen killed at least 30 suspected Al-Qaeda militants.
    (AFP, 4/20/14)

2015        Apr 20, The USDA said bird flu has been found at a farm in Iowa holding nearly 10% of the state’s egg laying chickens. Up to 5.3 million hens in Osceola County would have to be destroyed.
    (SFC, 4/21/15, p.A5)
2015        Apr 20, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded in San Francisco to six activists. They included: Marilyn Baptiste (44) of Canada, for her work to stop the development of an open pit gold and copper mine that threatened lakes in British Columbia; Berta Caceres (42) of Honduras for her efforts fighting the Agua Zarca Dam, which threatened to cut off the water and hunting grounds of the Lenca people; Phyllis Omido (35) of Kenya for her work exposing lead fumes from a smelting plant; Jean Wiener of Haiti (50) for his efforts to protect and restore marine wildlife; Howard Wood (60) of Scotland for his efforts to restore undersea ecology; and Myint Zaw (39) of Myanmar for halt the construction of a hydroelectric plant on the Irrawaddy River that would submerge 50 villages and displace 18,000 people.   
    (SFC, 4/20/15, p.A6)
2015        Apr 20, New York officials said the $500,000 Albany Medical Center Prize in Biomedicine and Biomedical Research for 2015 will be awarded to Dr. Karl Deisseroth of Stanford University and Xiaoliang Sunney Xie of Harvard University and Peking University, where he is a visiting professor and director of the Biodynamics Optical Imaging Center. The award has been given annually since 2001 to those who have altered the course of medical research.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Afghan authorities confirmed that 6 Hazaras from Daikundi province, kidnapped by unknown assailants, had been found dead.
    (SFC, 4/23/15, p.A2)
2015        Apr 20, A fierce storm lashed southeast Australia destroying homes, stranding dozens of people in swirling floodwaters. In Dungog three people were found dead and at least one home was swept away.
    (AP, 4/21/15)
2015        Apr 20, Britain informed a United Nations sanctions panel of an active Iranian nuclear procurement network linked to two blacklisted firms.
    (Reuters, 4/30/15)
2015        Apr 20, China's President Xi Jinping arrived in Pakistan to oversee the signing of agreements aimed at establishing a Pakistan-China Economic Corridor. China and Pakistan launched a plan for energy and infrastructure projects in Pakistan worth $46 billion.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Kaisa Group Holdings Ltd., a struggling Chinese property developer, said it has defaulted on dollar-denominated debt, exposing international creditors to potential losses as it grapples with a slumping property market amid a slowdown in the world's second biggest economy.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Chinese customs authorities said they have detained over 250 members of two gangs earlier this month involved in smuggling in 440,000 tons of fuel using retooled fishing boats or vessels done up to look like boats that carry out cleaning work on oil tankers.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, An Egyptian court sentenced 22 members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death over an attack on a police station in a district outside Cairo in 2013.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Greek coast guards struggled to save migrants from a vessel destroyed after running aground off the island of Rhodes. At least 3 people were killed.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Guinean security forces took to the streets of the capital in huge numbers as anti-government activists staged fresh protests following deadly clashes between demonstrators and police last week.
    (AFP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Iran media said Washington Post journalist Jason Rezaian, detained about nine months ago, is being charged with four crimes, including espionage in a report offering the first details about the exact charges against him.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)   
2015        Apr 20, In Iraq and Syria the United States and its allies launched 36 air strikes targeting Islamic State militants over the last 24 hours with 10 in Syria and 26 in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Israel a Jewish man in Herzliya stabbed and slightly wounded an Arab and then confessed that he did so because of the victim's ethnicity.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Lebanon received the first installment of $3 billion worth of French weapons paid for by Saudi Arabia, part of a four-year plan to help arm Beirut in its battle against jihadi groups.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Somali militant group al Shabaab bombed a minivan carrying staff to a UN office in the semi-autonomous Puntland region, killing 9 people including 4 from the global body's children's fund UNICEF.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Spain a 13-year-old boy armed with a crossbow and a machete killed a substitute teacher and wounded four people at his school in Barcelona.
    (AP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Syria fighting began in the southern province of Daraa with at least 27 people killed. By the next day 37 rebels as well as 22 government troops were reported killed as opposition fighters clawed back most of the territory lost the previous day.
    (AP, 4/21/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Ukraine US paratroopers began training local government forces who will fight pro-Russian separatists in the east, angering Moscow as the deadly conflict rumbles on in the ex-Soviet country.
    (AFP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, In Yemen Saudi-led air strikes on a missile depot in Sanaa, the rebel-held capital, sparked explosions that left at least 18 people dead and 300 wounded.
    (AFP, 4/20/15)
2015        Apr 20, Zambia slashed by more than half a controversial mineral royalty tax after investors threatened to pull out of the copper-rich country.
    (AFP, 4/20/15)

2016        Apr 20, US Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announced that abolitionist and women’s rights crusader Harriet Tubman (~1822-1913) will replace Andrew Jackson on the front of the $20 bill.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.A1)
2016        Apr 20, It was reported that Volkswagen and the US government have reached a deal in principle for the automaker to spend over $1 billion to compensate owners of about 600,000 diesel cars that cheat on emissions tests.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.C5)
2016        Apr 20, In San Francisco the annual 4/20 marijuana celebration in Golden Gate Park attracted some 15,000 people. They left an estimated 22,000 pounds of trash.
    (SFC, 4/22/16, p.A1)
2016        Apr 20, Australian local media said it will cost an estimated A$93 million ($72.68 million) to begin the clean-up of environmental damage at the bankrupt Yabulu nickel refinery in the country's northeast near the Great Barrier Reef.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Belize Julio Rene Alvarado Ruano (13) of Guatemala was killed in a shooting incident apparently involving Belizean soldiers on the Guatemala border.
    (AP, 4/22/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Burundi gunmen ambushed Colonel Emmanuel Buzubona as he traveled on the back of a motorbike to his home in Bujumbura. Soldiers on patrol killed two people in a clash with an armed group in Kivumu village in Mugamba southern district, 60 km southeast of Bujumbura.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)
2016        Apr 20, China's statistics bureau said in estimates published today that the mainland population reached 1.373 billion at the beginning of November, up 33.77 million since the last census was held in 2010.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In southeastern Congo DRC police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of anti-government protesters in Lubumbashi, who accused security forces of vandalizing posters of opposition leaders.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, President Rafael Correa said Ecuador will temporarily increase some taxes, sell assets, and may issue new bonds on the international market to fund a multi-billion dollar reconstruction after a devastating 7.8 magnitude quake. The death toll from the weekend earthquake neared 600.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)
2016        Apr 20, A 6.1-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Ecuador.
    (AFP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Hungary nearly 25,000 of about 150,000 teachers in some 1,200 of 5,000 schools walked out on a one-day strike to demand more freedom, more financing and lighter workloads for themselves and their students. Teachers have been protesting for months against moves by the right-wing government of PM Viktor Orban to strip schools of much of their autonomy and increase central planning and management.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, Israeli police said they had arrested diamond dealer Hanan Abramovici, head of Hanan Abramovici Diamonds Ltd., on suspicion of embezzlement after a complaint was filed by members of the Israel Diamond Exchange (IDE).
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Israel a young Hamas militant (19), from Beit Jala near Bethlehem in the occupied West Bank, died from his wounds following an April 18 “suicide attack" on a bus that left 20 people wounded.
    (AFP, 4/21/16)
2016        Apr 20, Japan-based Mitsubishi Motors admitted that it had used improper methods to test the fuel economy of cars sold in Japan for 25 years.
    (SFC, 4/27/16, p.C6)(Econ, 4/30/16, p.58)
2016        Apr 20, An earthquake measuring 6.1 magnitude struck off northeastern Japan.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, Laos, one of the world's last communist nations, elected its top government leaders at a meeting of its newly seated National Assembly.
    (AP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Mexico an accidental leak caused a deadly petrochemical plant blast near the port of Coatzacoalcos killed at least 13 people. The death toll soon rose to 32.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)(AP, 4/23/16)(SFC, 4/26/16, p.A2) 
2016        Apr 20, A Dutch court quashed a $50 billion award Russia had been ordered to pay the former majority shareholders of Yukos, a major win for Moscow in the high-stakes dispute over the dismantling of what was once Russia's largest oil producer. The Dutch court said a Hague-based arbitration panel in 2014 did not have jurisdiction to rule in the case because the arbitration was based on an energy treaty that Russia had signed but had not ratified.
    (AP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In northeastern Nigeria two female suicide bombers killed at least 8 people in Banki at a camp for people displaced by the jihadist Boko Haram insurgency. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen on horseback killed at least 11 people overnight in Zango village, Yobo state.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)(AFP, 4/21/16)
2016        Apr 20, Norwegian mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik won his lawsuit against the state over his "inhuman" solitary confinement in prison. The court concluded that the prison conditions constitute inhuman treatment.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In Pakistan gunmen on motorcycles shot and killed 7 police officers involved in a polio vaccination campaign in two separate attacks in Karachi.
    (AP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In the Philippines government agents arrested a suspected hacker (23) at his home in Manila. A hacker group had defaced the website of the election commission last month and a 2nd group posted the entire election database online.
    (SFC, 4/23/16, p.A3)
2016        Apr 20, In Saudi Arabia President Barack Obama held talks with King Salman as he began a two-day visit hoping to ease tensions with the historic US ally.
    (AFP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, In north-eastern Syria 2 members of the Syrian Kurdish security force, known as the Asayish, were killed after being targeted by government forces in Qamishli.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, Turkish warplanes struck militant Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) targets in northern Iraq.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, The Abdulla al-Ghurair Foundation for Education from the United Arab Emirates launched the Arab world's largest education fund, setting aside $1.14 billion (4.2 billion dirhams) in grants for underserved youth from the region.
    (AP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, Negotiators from Yemen's Houthi group and their allies left Sanaa for delayed peace talks in Kuwait after a dispute over a shaky ceasefire was resolved.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, Zambia police said they have arrested over 250 people for allegedly attacking Rwandan nationals and looting their shops in Lusaka. The violence, which began on April 18, left two Zambians dead.
    (AP, 4/20/16)
2016        Apr 20, The Zimbabwean government suspended Harare Mayor Bernard Manyenyeni accusing him of insubordination, escalating a struggle for control of the capital which has been run by the opposition since 2002.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)

2017        Apr 20, US Pres. Donald Trump met with Italy’s PM Paolo Gentiloni for talks on trade and security.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A5)
2017        Apr 20, Arkansas executed its first inmate since 2005. Ledell Lee (51) was executed for the 1993 death of his neighbor Debra Reese, whom he struck 36 times with a tire tool.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A7)
2017        Apr 20, In northern California Tad Cummins (50), a Tennessee teacher, surrendered in Cecilville more than a month after kidnapping a student. The girl was rescued unharmed.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A5)
2017        Apr 20, Singer Cuba Gooding Sr. was found dead in a car in the Woodland Hills section of Los Angeles. He sang the 1972 hit “Everybody Plays the Fool" with the rhythm-and-blues group Main Ingredient.   
    (SSFC, 4/23/17, p.C10)
2017        Apr 20, The Cherokee Nation sued distributors and retailers of opioid medications for contributing to an epidemic of opioid abuse in the 14 Oklahoma counties that comprise the Cherokee Nation.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A5)
2017        Apr 20, In Missouri Clinton Willis killed two Laclede Gas utility workers in St. Louis before killing himself.
    (SFC, 4/22/17, p.A5)       
2017        Apr 20, A US federal court found that a Republican drawn map setting the boundaries of Texas statehouse districts violates the US Constitution by intentionally discriminating against minority voters.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A5)
2017        Apr 20, General Motors said it was shuttering operations in Venezuela a day after authorities seized its factory in the country. The neglected factory has not produced cars since 2015, but the company still had 79 dealers employing 3,900 people.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A2)
2017        Apr 20, Wells Fargo filed documents agreeing to boost its payout in a class-action settlement over unauthorized accounts to 142 million, up from 110 million it had announced three weeks earlier.
    (SFC, 4/22/17, p.D1)
2017        Apr 20, The head of US armed forces in Africa says the force is ending its mission against Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army because the senior leadership of the rebel group has been "taken off the battlefield."
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, In northern Afghanistan a roadside bomb planted by the Taliban killed two soldiers and a civilian in Badakhshan province.
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, A Chinese court jailed Gong Qinggai, a former deputy head of the country's Taiwan Affairs Office, for 15 years for taking bribes and abusing his position.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, China launched its first unmanned cargo spacecraft on a mission to dock with the country's space station, marking further progress in the ambitious Chinese space program.
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Egypt and Sudan said they will not harbor or support opposition groups fighting their respective governments, as top diplomats of the two countries vowed to boost bilateral ties.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Egypt’s military said its forces killed 21 extremists, at least 19 of them in an airstrike, including three senior figures of the Islamic State group's affiliate in the restive Sinai Peninsula.
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, In France a gunman shot and killed a policeman and wounded two others in Paris late today, an attack claimed by the Islamic State group. Frenchman Karim Cheurfi (39) pulled out an automatic weapon and opened fire on a police van just a few hundred meters from the iconic Arc de Triomphe.
    (AFP, 4/21/17)
2017        Apr 20, Lilium, a German startup, completed a successful test over Bavaria of a small electric plane capable of flying up to 300 km per hr.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.51)
2017        Apr 20, India’s government blocked the Public Health Foundation of India from accepting money from foreign donors. Under PM Narendra Modi over 11,000 NGOs have lost their licenses to accept foreign financing.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A2)
2017        Apr 20, Iraqi forces retook two more neighborhoods in west Mosul, tightening the noose around jihadists holed up in the Old City.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Several dozen Palestinian protesters clashed with Israeli forces outside the Ofer Prison where detainees were on a hunger strike. A group of Israeli hardliners nearby taunted prisoners by barbecuing.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, In Jamaica Olympic medal-winning track and field athlete Germaine Mason (34) died in a motorcycle crash outside the capital.
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Pakistan's Supreme Court ruled there was insufficient evidence to order PM Nawaz Sharif's removal from office over corruption allegations levelled by the opposition, but it ordered further investigations.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Pakistani police said three women dressed in burqas killed a man who had been accused of blasphemy in 2004 in a northeastern, the second brutal killing over alleged insults to Islam in a week.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, In the Philippines David Timothy Deakin (53) was arrested as he streamed illicit content through the Tor network, which disguised his identity, in a case of webcam sex tourism.
    (AP, 5/9/17)
2017        Apr 20, NATO member Romania said it plans to buy Patriot missiles from US company Raytheon to help protect its airspace.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Russia’s Supreme Court declared Jehovah’s Witnesses an extremist organization, banning the group from operating on Russian territory and putting more than 170,000 worshippers in the same category as Islamic State militants.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A4)
2017        Apr 20, In Rwanda Bernard Munyagishari, who headed a government-allied militia known as the Interahamwe in Rwanda's west, was convicted of crimes of genocide and crimes against humanity.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia’s labor ministry said foreigners will no longer be allowed to work in the country’s numerous shopping malls, in the latest measure to boost employment of Saudis.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, Spanish novelist Eduardo Mendoza (74) was presented with the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's highest literary honor. Mendoza is best known for his 1975 novel, "La verdad sobre el caso Savolta" (The Truth about the Savolta Case) and "La ciudad de los prodigios" (City of Marvels) of 1986.
    (AP, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, The Syrian army advanced into the town of Taybet al Imam in Hama province, expanding its territory along the strategic western highway between Damascus and Aleppo. The army was also joined by Iranian-backed militias in the push into Taybet al Imam. Dozens of aerial strikes also hit the nearby towns of Halfaya and Latamneh. A rebel commander said Russian jets had escalated their bombing campaign in the area in the past few days, deploying a "scorched earth" strategy using incendiary and phosphorous bombs.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, It was reported that authorities in Bangkok are banishing its world-famous street-food vendors as part of a clean-up drive by Thailand’s military government, outraging foodies and threatening the livelihoods of the road-side cooks.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 20, In Turkey American Kary Paul Kleman and Briton Stefan Aristidou, allegedly members of the Islamic State group, arrived at Oncupinar border crossing in Kilis province. Both men were arrested four days later after turning themselves in to authorities. Two Egyptians and four more children were also traveling with the group. All were to be deported to their home countries.
    (AP, 4/28/17)

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