Today in History - April 23

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303        Apr 23, St. George, dragon-slaying knight, died. He was made the patron saint of England in the 14th century. George, later fired by the Pope as mythical, was tortured and beheaded at Nicomedia. He was a soldier who was reported to have risen to a high rank under Diocletian.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AHD, p.552)(MC, 4/23/02)

871        Apr 23, Ethelred I, king of Wessex, brother of Alfred the Great, died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1014        Apr 23, The Battle of Contarf ended Danish rule in Ireland but a Dane killed Irish King Brian Boru (87).
    (PCh, 1992, p.80)(MC, 4/23/02)

1016        Apr 23, Ethelred II "the Unready", king of England (979-1016), died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1348        Apr 23, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp)

1500        Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million people. [see Apr 22]
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)(AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)

1504        Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1521        Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1564        Apr 23, William Shakespeare (1564-1616), English poet and playwright of the Elizabethan and early Jacobin periods, was born and died on the same date 52 years later. He added more than 1,700 word to the English language. He was the son of an illiterate glove maker who left school at 12: "Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them." -- from Act II, Scene 5 of "Twelfth Night." From "Henry V," "Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more."
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.a-23)(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1616        Apr 23, Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1616        Apr 23, William Shakespeare (b.1564), poet and playwright, died in Stratford-on-Avon, England. In 2004 Stephen Greenblatt authored “Will In the World." In 2006 Colin McGinn authored “Discovering the Meaning Behind the Plays."
    (AP, 4/23/97)(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)(SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)

1661        Apr 23, English king Charles II was crowned in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1662        Apr 23, Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1705        Apr 23, Richard Steele's "Tender Husband," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1706        Apr 23, Spanish Gov. Francisco Cuervo y Valdes founded a new villa consisting of 35 families and named it in honor of the viceroy of New Spain, who was also the Duke of Albuquerque, a town in southwestern Spain. The 1st r was later dropped and in 2006 Albuquerque, NM, celebrated its 300th anniversary.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)

1708        Apr 23, Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (Versuch einiger Poem), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1759        Apr 23, British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1775        Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)
1775        Apr 23, Mozart's Opera "Il Re Pastore" was produced (Salzburg).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1778        Apr 23, US Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk's silverware.
    (ON, 2/04, p.6)

1789        Apr 23, President-elect Washington and his wife moved into the first executive mansion, the Franklin House, in New York. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. In 1790, with construction on the new federal capital underway, the government was moved temporarily to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1791        Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1795        Apr 23, In Britain the trial to impeach Warren Hastings, governor-general of India (1773-1785), on 21 charges for high crimes and misdemeanors ended after 7 years. Hastings was acquitted on all charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, BR p.11)(WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 4/23/02)

1809        Apr 23, Eugene-Prosper Prevost, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1813        Apr 23, Stephen Douglas (d.1861), the "Little Giant," was born. He debated Abraham Lincoln for a seat on the U.S. Senate and later lost to Lincoln for the presidency of the United States. He argued that the Declaration of Independence did not mean to include blacks.
    (WSJ,2/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/23/99)

1826        Apr 23, Missolonghi (in west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1838        Apr 23, The British steamship "Great Western" arrived in NYC on its maiden voyage from Bristol, England, just hours after the retrofitted steamship Sirius, which had departed Cork on April 4. The Great Western crossed the Atlantic in a record 15 days and 12 hours.
    (ON, 8/07, p.7)

1850        Apr 23, William Wordsworth (b.1770), English poet, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wordsworth)

1851        Apr 23, Canada issued its first postage stamp, the Three-Penny Beaver, which carried an image of the beaver.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.38)

1852        Apr 23, Edwin Markham, US poet and 1st winner of Amer Acad of Poets Award in 1937, ("Man with a Hoe"), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1856        Apr 23, Free Stater J.N. Mace in Westport, Kansas shot pro-slavery sheriff Samuel Jones in the back.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1858        Apr 23, Max K.E. Ludwig Planck, German physicist (Planck Constant, Nobel 1918), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1860        Apr 23, Democratic convention in Charleston, SC, divided over slavery.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1860        Apr 23, The Pony Express rider missed the boat at Benicia, Ca. Thomas Bedford, a 34-year-old stable keeper, was hired on the spot and boarded the ferry Carquinez with his horse. His discovered that his horse had lost a shoe and borrowed a horse from Martinez blacksmith Casemoro Briones and delivered the mail to the ferry at Oakland. The mail reached SF 9 hours and 15 minutes from the time it left Sacramento.
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.A19)

1861        Apr 23, Arkansas troops seized Fort Smith.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1861        Apr 23, Battle of San Antonio, TX.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1864        Apr 23, Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett's Ferry).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1865        Apr 23, Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/23/99)
1865        Apr 23, Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule (b.1838) was shot and killed near his home in Colorado by a soldier named Charles Squires. It is thought that Squires was hired by men loyal to Col. John Chivington to kill Soule. Soule's testimony against Chivington about the 1864 massacre at Sand Creek led, in part, the United States Congress to refuse the Army's request for thousands of men for a general war against the Native Americans of the Plains States.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silas_Soule)

1881        Apr 23, Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "Patience" was produced in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1882        Apr 23, Albert Coates, conductor, composer (Eagle), was born in St. Petersburg.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1891        Apr 23, Sergey Sergeyevich Prokofiev, composer (Peter & the Wolf), was born in Ukraine. [see Apr 27]
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1891        Apr 23, Jews were expelled from Moscow.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1895        Apr 23, Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1896        Apr 23, The Vitascope system for projecting movies onto a screen was demonstrated in New York City. Motion pictures premiered in New York City. It was developed by Thomas Armat and C. Francis Jenkins and marketed by Thomas Edison.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(Sm, 3/06, p.105)

1897        Apr 23, Lucius du Bignon Clay, was born. He was the U.S. military governor of occupied Berlin following WW II, who promoted German self government.
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1899        Apr 23, Edith Ngaio Marsh, Kiwi mystery writer (Black Beech & Honeydew), was born in NZ.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1899        Apr 23, Vladimir Nabokov (d.1977), writer, was born in Russia. His work included "Lolita," "Pnin," and "Pale Fire." He was an avid butterfly collector. "There is no science without fancy, and no art without facts."
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A20)(http://lib.ru/NABOKOW/nabokr.txt)
1899        Apr 23, In Georgia some 2000 people gathered to watch the lynching Sam Hose, a black man questionably accused of murdering a white planter and raping his wife. His ears, fingers, and genitals were cut off and his face was skinned before he was burned in kerosene soaked wood. His and other stories were later told in the 1998 book: "Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow" by Leon F. Litwack.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.4)

1900        Apr 23, The 1st published use of word "hillbilly" was in the NY Journal.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1902        Apr 23, Halldór Laxness, Nobel Prize-winning Icelandic novelist (The Fish Can Sing, Paradise Reclaimed), was born.
    (HN, 4/23/01)

1904        Apr 23, The American Academy of Arts and Letters was founded.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

1906        Apr 23, Maria Arnoldo, [Adrianus Broeders], photographer, writer, was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1911        Apr 23, Simone Simon, French actress (All Money Can Buy, Ladies in Love), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1915        Apr 23, ACA becomes National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA), the forerunner of NASA.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1916        Apr 23, Lord Dunsany's "Night at an Inn," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1920        Apr 23, The Turkish Grand National Assembly held its first meeting in Ankara.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1923        Apr 23, Lady Elizabeth (Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, 1900-2002) married Prince Albert, Duke of York (d.1952) in Westminster Abbey. Albert was crowned King of England in 1937. [see Apr 26]
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(SSFC, 3/31/02, p.A3)

1924        Apr 23, Eugen Goldbeck shot his photo: "National Balloon Race."
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.E1)
1924        Apr 23, The U.S. Senate passed a Soldiers Bonus Bill, but deferred payments to some 4 million veterans to 1945. Pres. Coolidge vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode him.
    (HN, 4/23/99)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)

1925        Apr 23, The 1st London performance of operetta "Fasquita" was staged.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1926        Apr 23, J.P. Donlevey, American-born Irish writer (The Ginger Man), was born.
    (HN, 4/23/01)
1926        Apr 23, Virgil I (Gus) Grissom, was born. He was the Mercury and Gemini astronaut who was killed in a fire while preparing for the first Apollo flight.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1928        Apr 23, Shirley Temple Black, child actress, was born in Santa Monica, Ca. She sang "On the Good Ship Lollipop" in the 1934 film “Bright Eyes," and later became an American ambassador (Ghana 1974; Czechoslovakia 1989).
    (HN, 4/23/99)(SFC, 1/26/06, p.E3)

1932        Apr 23, Jim Fixx, runner and writer, was born, He popularized running as a form of exercise in the 1970s.
    (HN, 4/23/99)
1932        Apr 23, Halston, [R Halston Frowick], fashion designer (1972 Hall of Fame), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1932        Apr 23, The Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened at Stratford-on-Avon. It replaced one built in 1879 that burned down in 1926.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/fromthearchive/story/0,,1740490,00.html)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.91)

1936        Apr 23, Roy Orbison, rocker (Pretty Woman), was born in Vernon, Tx.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1938        Apr 23, Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demanded self government.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1940        Apr 23, Some 200 people died in a fire at the Rhythm Night Club in Natchez, Miss.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

1941        Apr 23, Greece Army surrendered to Nazis; RAF flew Greek king George II to Egypt.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1942        Apr 23, A 4-day allied bombing of Rostock began.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1942        Apr 23, Luftwaffe bombed Exeter.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1943        Apr 23, Herve Villechaize, actor, (Fantasy Island), was born in France.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1945        Apr 23, US troops in Italy crossed the river Po.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1945        Apr 23, The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1945        Apr 23, The Soviet Army fought its way into Berlin.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1949        Apr 23, The Chinese Red army entered and occupied Nanjing. Reporter Chang Kuo-sin (d.2006) was the 1st to flash the news that the Nationalist government had collapsed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanjing)(SFC, 2/11/06, p.B5)

1950        Apr 23, Chaing Kai-shek evacuates Hainan, leaving mainland China to Mao Zedong and the communists.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1951        Apr 23, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis (1914-1997) was arrested in Prague. Secret police put him in isolation and deprived him of sleep and food. Historians agree that this psychological torture coerced his confession.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1952        Apr 23, Hoyt Wilhelm hit a home run in his 1st major league at bat, then went on to pitch more than 1,000 games in the next 21 baseball seasons. He never hit another homer.
    (AARP, 1/05, p.69)
1952        Apr 23, Oil pipeline from Kirkuk, Iraq, to Banias was completed.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1952        Apr 23, Elisabeth Schumann, singer, died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1954        Apr 23, Hank Aaron of the Milwaukee Braves hit the first of his record 755 major-league home runs against the St. Louis Cardinals. The Braves won, 7-5.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1954        Apr 23, The Army-McCarthy hearings began. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/23/01)

1955        Apr 23, "Kismet" closed at Ziegfeld Theater NYC after 583 performances.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1956        Apr 23, US Supreme court ended race segregation on buses.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1956        Apr 23, During a 10-day visit to England Khrushchev announced that the USSR would produce an H-bomb guided missile.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1198)

1958        Apr 23, The film noir thriller "Touch of Evil," starring Charlton Heston, Janet Leigh and Orson Welles, who also directed, was released.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

1964        Apr 23, Houston Colt 45s Ken Johnson became the 1st major league pitcher to lose a 9 inning no-hitter, Reds win 1-0.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1966        Apr 23, President Lyndon Johnson publicly appeals for "more flags" (foreign countries) to come to the aid of South Vietnam.
    (HN, 4/23/00)

1967        Apr 23, Soyuz 1 was launched, and Vladimir Komarov became the first in-flight casualty.
    (AP, 4/23/98)

1968        Apr 23, The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merged to form the United Methodist Church.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1968        Apr 23, At Columbia Univ. in NYC the SDS held a rally in support of the IDA Six. An 8-day student sit-in began at Columbia Univ. to protest ties to the Defense Dept. and plans to build a gym over neighborhood objections. Within 72 hours students seized 5 buildings and 628 people were arrested. [see Apr 24] In 2009 Mark Rudd, prominent student leader at Columbia, authored “Underground: My Life With SDS and the Weathermen."
    (www.wikicu.com/1968_protests)(SFC, 9/1/03, p.B4)(WSJ, 3/28/09, p.W8)

1969        Apr 23, Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for assassinating New York Sen. Robert F. Kennedy. The sentence was later reduced to life imprisonment.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1971        Apr 23, In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps.
    (www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/peacehistoryapril.htm)
1971        Apr 23, The Rolling Stones released their Sticky Fingers album. Following the release of Sticky Fingers, the Stones left England after allegations by the UK Inland Revenue service of unpaid income tax.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sticky_Fingers)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rolling_Stones)
1971        Apr 23, The Soviet Union launched Soyuz 10; the cosmonauts became the first in Salyut 1 space station.
    (HN, 4/23/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_10)

1972        Apr 23, In the 26th Tony Awards, held in NYC, "Sticks & Bones" won as best play and "Two Gentlemen of Verona" won as best musical.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/26th_Tony_Awards)

1975        Apr 23, Harold Pinter's "No Man's Land," premiered in London.
    (www.thehomecomingonbroadway.com/haroldPinter.php)

1977        Apr 23, Dr. Allen Bussey completed 20,302 yo-yo loops in Waco, Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waco,_Texas)

1979        Apr 23, In Britain Blair Peach (b.1946), a New Zealand-born teacher, died. A day earlier he was taking part in a protest against the far-right National Front in west London when he was hit on the head with what is thought to have been a lead-filled cosh or a police radio. Details of a long-secret report were made public in 2010 but the name of an officer under "grave suspicion" over the killing were blacked out.
    (AFP, 4/27/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blair_Peach)

1980        Apr 23, Albert Hakim, a wealthy arms merchant, unexpectedly skipped town the day before a US rescue mission. The Iranian exile and CIA informant worked for the CIA near the Turkish boarder handling the logistics of the rescue mission in Tehran. Hakim had purchased trucks and vans and rented a warehouse on the edge of Tehran to hide them in until they were needed for the operation. In July, 1981, Hakim approached the CIA with a plan to gain favor with the Iranian government by selling it arms.
    (www.donhopkins.com/drupal/node/104)

1981        Apr 23, Stacy Benjamin (19) and Patty Geddling (23) were murdered in Redwood City, Ca., under drug-related circumstances. In 2003 A federal appeals court upheld the conviction of Donald Beardslee of San Mateo. Beardslee had killed a woman in Missouri in Dec, 1969. Psychiatric evidence later showed that Beardslee suffered from brain damage due to an accident in 1964. Beardslee was executed by lethal injection at San Quentin State Prison on Jan. 19, 2005.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A4)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.B4)(SSFC, 1/16/05, p.A1)
1981        Apr 23, An estimated 1 million West German metal workers staged a warning strike as 3-month-old negotiations stalled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2pwxbk)
1981        Apr 23, Josep Pla (b.1897), Catalan Spanish journalist and popular author, died in his native Empordà, leaving thirty-eight volumes of Complete Works published. “It is more difficult to write than to think, much more difficult: so everyone thinks".
    (SFC, 1/1/15, p.D6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josep_Pla)

1982        Apr 23, The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb from Provo, Utah, to Penn state Univ. It was forwarded to Vanderbilt Univ. scientist Patrick C. Fisher. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski [see May 5].
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A3)(SFEC,11/9/97, Z1 p.4)
1982        Apr 23, Key West, Fla., under Mayor Dennis Wardlow declared that it was seceding from the US and would rename itself the Conch Republic. The move was in response to a state roadblock and inspection on all cars heading out of the Florida Keys. In 1997 Gregory King authored “The Conch That Roared."
    (WSJ, 1/19/05, p.B1)

1983        Apr 23, Buster Crabbe (b.1908), 400m US swimmer (Olympics-gold-1932), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buster_Crabbe)

1984        Apr 23, US Health Secretary Margaret Heckler said the AIDS-virus was identified as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. [see Apr 21]
    (http://tinyurl.com/yuvyv6)

1985        Apr 23, The Coca-Cola Co. announced it was changing the secret formula for Coke. Negative public reaction soon forced the company to resume selling the original version.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1985        Apr 23, Sam J Ervin Jr (b.1896), Democratic Senator from North Carolina, died. He was the leader of the Watergate Hearings that led to Pres. Nixon's resignation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Ervin)
1985        Apr 23, Russia’s Communist Party Sec. Gen. Mikhail Gorbachev (b.1931) announced economic reforms known as perestroika (reconstruction and opening). This Gorbachev era in the Soviet Union (1985-1992) is covered in the 2007 book “Seven Years That Changed the World: Perestroika in Perspective" by Archie Brown.
    (Econ, 5/12/07, p.88)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev)

1986        Apr 23, Harold Arlen (81), [Hyman Arluck], American songwriter, died in NYC. His many song included "Over the Rainbow." Edward Jablonski (d.2004) authored a biography of Arlen in 1961: "Harold Arlen: Happy With the Blues."
    (WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A7)(SFC, 2/14/04, p.A22)
1986        Apr 23, Otto Preminger (80), film director (Advise & Consent, Anatomy of Murder), died. In 2007 Foster Hirsch authored “Otto Preminger."
    (AP, 4/23/06)(WSJ, 10/20/07, p.W8)

1987        Apr 23, In Connecticut 28 construction workers were killed when an apartment complex being built in Bridgeport collapsed.
    (AP, 4/23/97)

1988        Apr 23, A federal ban on smoking during domestic airline flights of two hours or less went into effect.
    (AP, 4/23/98)(WSJ, 1/27/04, p.D12)
1988        Apr 23, A drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh in Martinez, Ca., and 10,000 barrels of oil (432,000 gallons) poured in the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough. Shell cleaned the mess and paid $20 million in penalties. The marsh was purchased with part of the funds and turned into a regional park.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A19-20)(SFC, 4/30/04, p.A17)
1988        Apr 23, Archbishop Michael Ramsey (b.1904), the one hundredth Archbishop of Canterbury (1961-1974), died. In 2009 amateur divers found valuable coins and medallions belonging to the former archbishop in the River Wear, near Durham Cathedral.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Ramsey)(AP, 10/23/09)
1988        Apr 23, Greek cycling champion Kanellos Kanellopoulos pedaled a self-powered aircraft named Daedalus 88 for 74 miles. The MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department's Daedalus was a human-powered aircraft flew from Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete, Greece, crashing in the sea just short of the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. Daedalus 87 had crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed on 17 February 1988, and was rebuilt as a backup.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Daedalus)

1989        Apr 23, Troy Aikman of UCLA became the first player chosen in the NFL draft in New York City as he was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.
    (AP, 4/23/99)(HN, 4/23/99)
1989        Apr 23, Students in Beijing China announced class boycotts.
    (www.christusrex.org/www1/cbs/tiananmen_content.html)

1990        Apr 23, Freed American hostage Robert Polhill, released in Lebanon the day before, enjoyed his first full day of freedom in nearly 39 months at the U.S. Air Force hospital in Wiesbaden, West Germany.
    (AP, 4/23/00)

1991        Apr 23, President Bush welcomed General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the just-returned Gulf War commander, at the White House.
    (AP, 4/23/01)
1991        Apr 23, NASA scrubbed the launch of the space shuttle "Discovery" after a sensor on one of the main engines failed during fueling.
    (AP, 4/23/01)
1991        Apr 23, In Russia Pres. Gorbachev signed the so-called '9+1' agreement on a new Union Treaty. Under this agreement he accepted in principle the transfer of a major share of his central presidential authority to the republics, not only in economic management but also in important areas of political power.
    (http://history.eserver.org/ussr-in-1991.txt)

1992        Apr 23, Marion Berry, former mayor of Wash DC, was let out of prison.
    (www.washtimes.com/metro/20040613-111808-1902r.htm)
1992        Apr 23, McDonald's opened its first fast-food restaurant in the Chinese capital of Beijing.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1992        Apr 23, In Burma Gen’l. Saw Maung stepped down as chairman of SLORC because of illness. He was replaced by Gen’l. Than Shwe.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A18)
1992        Apr 23, Fighting erupted in the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo just hours after the warring parties signed a truce amid sniper fire.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1992        Apr 23, Satyajit Ray (70), Indian director (Distant Thunder, Agantuk), died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1993        Apr 23, President Clinton said he was giving "serious consideration" to limited U.S. air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1993        Apr 23, Labor leader Cesar Chavez (b.1927) died in San Luis, Ariz. He founded the United Farm Workers Union on his birthday Mar 31, 1962. In 1996 a 2-hr documentary of his life was made: "The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Struggle." In 2011 Frank Bardacke authored “Trampling Out the Vintage: Cesar Chavez and the Two Souls of the United Farm Movement." In 2014 Miriam Pawel authored “The Crusades of Cesar Chavez."
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.E1)(AP, 4/23/98)(SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A14)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.96)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.74)
1993        Apr 23-1993 Apr 25, Eritrea voted to secede from Ethiopia.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/hornafrica.html#eri)

1994        Apr 23, Mourners left red roses, burning candles and cards at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, Calif., in memory of the 37th president of the United States, who had died the day before at age 81.
    (AP, 4/23/99)

1995        Apr 23, Pres. Clinton declared a national day of mourning for the victims of the Oklahoma City blast.
    (AP, 4/23/00)
1995        Apr 23, Sportscaster Howard Cosell died in New York at age 77. In 2011 Mark Ribowsky authored “Howard Cosell: The Man, the Myth, and the Transformation of American Sports."
    (AP, 4/23/00)(SSFC, 12/11/11, p.F1)
1995        Apr 23, Former Sen. John C. Stennis (D-Miss.) died in Jackson, Miss., at age 93.
    (AP, 4/23/00)
1995        Apr 23, Hideo Murai, head of the science ministry of the Aum Shinri Kyo cult, was stabbed and killed. Police suspected that a cult leader ordered his murder so that he would not testify about Aum’s nerve gas production.
    (SFC, 4/24/96, p.A-8)

1996        Apr 23, A Bronx civil-court jury ordered Bernhard Goetz to pay $43 million to paralyzed Darrell Cabey, one of four young men he shot on a subway car in 1984.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1996        Apr 23, A three-night auction of the late Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis' possessions began at Sotheby's in NYC with a bidding frenzy. The 4-day auction took in $34.5 million.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(MC, 4/23/02)
1996        Apr 23, In Germany the Federal Security Council decided to allow German firms to co-produce weapons abroad even if they did not know who would end up using them.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)
1996        Apr 23, Pamela Lyndon Travers (96), Australia born writer (Mary Poppins), died in London.
    (www.maryborough.qld.gov.au/index.aspx?page=678&mid=1)

1997        Apr 23, Golfer Fuzzy Zoeller, again apologizing for racial comments about Masters winner Tiger Woods, withdrew from the Greater Greensboro Chrysler Classic.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1997        Apr 23, Doctors at the University of Southern California announced that a child was born in late 1996 to a 63-year-old woman on hormone therapy.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1997        Apr 23, The military confirmed that two pieces of wreckage found on a snowy Rocky Mountain peak were from the Air Force warplane that vanished on a training mission over Arizona.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1997        Apr 23, N. Korean defector, Hwang Jang Yop, claimed that North Korea has nuclear weapons and that the 1.2 million man army was prepared for war.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.A4)

1998        Apr 23, Two New Jersey troopers fired 11 shots into a van carrying African American and Latino men from the Bronx. They admitted to racial profiling and pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges in 2002.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A3)
1998        Apr 23, James Earl Ray died at a Nashville hospital at age 70. He was the ex-convict who confessed to assassinating the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and then insisted he was framed.
    (AP, 4/23/99)
1998        Apr 23, The president of Montenegro, Milo Djukanovic, called for full autonomy for the Kosovo region.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A16)

1999        Apr 23, The Whitney Museum In NYC opened its mammoth "The American Century" show.
    (WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)
1999        Apr 23, On the first day of a 50th anniversary NATO summit in Washington, Western leaders pledged to intensify military strikes against Yugoslavia and vowed "no compromise" on demands that Slobodan Milosevic withdraw his troops from Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 4/23/00)
1999        Apr 23, NATO forces bombed Nis and a broad swath of Yugoslavia on the 31st day of attacks. 16 civilians were killed and 16 others injured during the attack on the headquarters and studios of Radio Television Serbia in central Belgrade. In 2009 Amnesty International demanded that NATO be held accountable for civilian casualties in the bombing.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A11)(AP, 4/23/09)
1999        Apr 23, In China it was reported that a bus collided with a truck and causing an explosion that killed at least 30 people in Xiangshui county, 300 miles northwest of Shanghai.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A15)
1999        Apr 23, From Colombia it was reported that Marxist rebels and right-wing death squads had killed at least 371 civilians in the 1st 3 months of this year. 171 were killed by guerrillas and 179 by paramilitary gangs.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.C1)
1999        Apr 23, In Mexico a truck with 55 passengers plunged into a ravine killing 46 people, 28 of them children from the hamlet of Chiquixvil in Chiapas.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A9)
1999        Apr 23, The foreign ministers of Indonesia and Portugal completed an agreement for the people of East Timor to vote on their future.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A14)
1999        Apr 23, Yugoslav Foreign Minister Zivadin Jovanovic ruled out allowing armed foreign soldiers to enforce a peace agreement in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A12)

2000        Apr 23, Elian Gonzalez spent a secluded Easter with his father at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, a day after the six-year-old boy was removed from his Miami relatives’ home in a pre-dawn raid by immigration agents.
    (AP, 4/23/01)
2000        Apr 23, In China Li Chenglong (48), deputy mayor of Guigang city, was executed. He had been convicted of corruption during his term as Communist Party secretary of Yulin city between 1991 and 1996.
    (SFC, 4/24/00, p.A14)
2000        Apr 23, In Iran 5 liberal publications were shut down and Latif Safari, director of the banned Neshat daily, was jailed.
    (SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)
2000        Apr 23, Jordan’s King Abdullah II made his first state visit to Israel and spent 4 hours in Eilat with Prime Minister Barak.
    (SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)
2000        Apr 23, Philippine gunmen, Abu Sayyaf rebels, abducted 20-21 tourists and workers from a Malaysian resort on Sipadan Island. Islamic insurgents took credit for the attack. They later freed 2 hostages and demanded $2.4 million in ransom for 19 captives. [see Aug 27]
    (SFC, 4/25/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A13)(AP, 4/23/01)
2000        Apr 23, In Sri Lanka the government confirmed that it lost the battle for the control of Elephant Pass. Rebels claimed 1000 soldiers died in the fight.
    (WSJ, 4/24/00, p.A1)

2001        Apr 23, Pres. Bush decided to sell Taiwan older ships and planes, but not the advanced Aegis radar system.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 23, USS Greeneville Cmdr. Scott Waddle was given a letter of reprimand as punishment for the submarine collision that killed nine people aboard a Japanese fishing vessel off Hawaii.
    (AP, 4/23/02)
2001        Apr 23, A US robot spy plane completed the 1st unmanned trans-Pacific flight from California to Australia.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A12)
2001        Apr 23, In San Jose Cathline Repunte (36), a school bus driver, shot and killed a co-worker at a Laidlaw bus yard and wounded 3 others before she was stopped by a fellow driver.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 23, In Gaza a 12-year-old Palestinian boy was shot and killed during the funeral of a Palestinian police officer. 11 others were wounded. Near Tel Aviv a 3rd bomb blast in 2 days injured 4 people.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A10)
2001        Apr 23, In Sri Lanka Tamil Tiger rebels decided to end their unilateral cease-fire.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A12)
2001        Apr 23, In Turkey 13 pro-Chechen rebels released 120 hostages and were arrested.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A9)

2002        Apr 23, President Bush's top White House aide, Karen Hughes, resigned to go home to Texas with her family.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2002        Apr 23, The US Supreme Court ruled that property owners were not entitled to compensation in cases where a temporary freeze stops development. The ruling stemmed from a development freeze around Lake Tahoe.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 23, In California the Metrolink Train from Riverside to Orange County collided with a Burlington Northern Santa Fe freight train and 2 people were killed. Over 260 were injured. The freight train failed to heed line signals.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A3)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 23, In Argentina Jorge Remes Lenicov, the economy minister, resigned and the senate refused to consider legislation to convert bank deposits into low-interest, long-term bonds.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A7)
2002        Apr 23, German police arrested 11 suspected Islamic militants during a sweep against Al Tawhid (Divine Unity), a Sunni Muslim and Palestinian movement.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A8)
2002        Apr 23, Spanish police arrested Mohamed Zouaydi on charges of financing terrorist activities around the world.
    (SFC, 4/25/02, p.A9)
2002        Apr 23, Pope John Paul II opened a Vatican meeting with American cardinals to discuss sexual abuse by clergy.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A1)

2003        Apr 23, American Airlines reported a $1-billion first-quarter loss.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2003        Apr 23, US forces captured 4 more former Iraqi government officials, including 3 on the top wanted list: Muzahim Sa'b Hassan al-Tikriti (queen of diamonds), Gen. Zuhayr Talib Abd al-Sattar al-Naqib (7 of hearts), and Muhammad Mahdi al-Salih (6 of hearts).
    (SFC, 4/24/03, A14)(SFC, 4/26/03, A14)
2003        Apr 23, Guy Mountfort, ornithologist and co-founder of the World Wildlife Fund (1961), died. His books included "Portrait Of A Wilderness" (1958), "The Vanishing Jungle" (1969), "Saving The Tiger" (1981) and "Rare Birds Of The World" (1988).
    (AP, 4/30/03)
2003        Apr 23, In southern Afghanistan Taliban fighters attacked a government office with rockets and automatic weapons, setting off a four-hour shootout that left two Afghan soldiers and three assailants dead.
    (AP, 4/24/03)
2003        Apr 23, U.S. negotiators met with North Korean and Chinese representatives in Beijing for the first three-way meeting by the governments since the Korean War.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2003        Apr 23, Beijing closed all its primary and secondary schools until at least May 7 due to the SARS epidemic.
    (SFC, 4/23/03, A16)
2003        Apr 23, A Chinese fuel tanker, "Daqing 767" carrying a 1000 tons of oil, sank and 3 crew members were missing after the vessel collided in heavy fog with another ship off China's southeastern coast.
    (AP, 4/24/03)
2003        Apr 23, Colombia and Venezuela agreed Wednesday to build a $120 million pipeline to deliver natural gas to northeastern Colombia and western Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/23/03)
2003        Apr 23, In Cyprus Turkish Cypriot leaders lifted travel restrictions across the 1974 buffer zone separating the Greek and Turk sides.
    (SSFC, 4/27/03, A6)
2003        Apr 23, Paris police arrested 28 airport workers for allegedly stealing digital cameras, perfumes, jewelry, clothing and other goods from the bags of travelers.
    (AP, 4/25/03)
2003        Apr 23, A mudslide in western Guatemala killed seven people and left more than a dozen missing.
    (AP, 4/24/03)
2003        Apr 23, In northern Uganda rebels waging a 16-year insurgency attacked two villages and abducted more than 180 people.
    (AP, 4/24/03)
2003        Apr 23, The WHO added Toronto to its list of places to avoid due to SARS. Global health officials warned travelers to avoid Beijing and Toronto, where they might get the SARS virus and export it to new locations.
    (SFC, 4/24/03, A1)(AP, 4/23/04)
2003        Apr 23, In Zimbabwe many banks, factories and stores were forced to close as workers stayed off the job to protest a government increase gasoline prices.
    (AP, 4/23/03)

2004        Apr 23, President Bush eased Reagan-era sanctions against Libya in return for Moammar Gadhafi's giving up weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2004        Apr 23, In Illiopolis, Ill., 4 workers were killed in an explosion at the Formosa Plastics Plant. The entire community was forced to evacuate the area.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.A2)
2004        Apr 23, China confirmed two cases of SARS and said the mother of one patient has died, apparently the first SARS fatality in the country since July.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2004        Apr 23, France closed its last coal mine.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2004        Apr 23, A rain-triggered landslide smashed into a bus on Indonesia's Sumatra island, killing at least 37 passengers and leaving six others buried under tons of mud.
    (AP, 4/24/04)
2004        Apr 23, Paul Bremmer, the top U.S. administrator in Iraq, announced an easing of the ban on members of Saddam Hussein's disbanded party, a move that will allow thousands of former Baathists to return to their positions in the military and government bureaucracy.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2004        Apr 23, Israeli troops killed four Palestinians, one of them armed, in arrest raids in the West Bank.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2004        Apr 23, In Nigeria a speedboat full of gunmen attacked a boat carrying oil workers in the delta region. 2 Americans and 4 others were killed.
    (AP, 4/24/04)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.A3)
2004        Apr 23, President Thabo Mbeki was elected unopposed for a second term. He pledged to fight poverty and improve opportunities for all South Africans after his party scored its biggest victory yet in a decade of multiracial democracy.
    (AP, 4/23/04)
2004        Apr 23, In Thailand a massive fire raced through a slum in downtown Bangkok, snarling traffic and spewing plumes of black smoke over embassies and five-star hotels in the area. Armed assailants fatally shot an army officer, just hours after unidentified attackers set fire to about 50 public buildings in all 13 districts of Narathiwat in the worst day of arson attacks in Thailand's Muslim-dominated south.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2005        Apr 23, Larry Lasater (35), Pittsburg, Ca., police officer, was shot while chasing 2 robbery suspects. Doctors declared him brain dead the next day. In 2007 Alexander Hamilton (20) and Andrew Moffett (20) were convicted of murder and robbery and a jury said Hamilton should be executed. Moffett was 17 at the time and not eligible for the death penalty. In 2007 Hamilton was sentenced to death by lethal injection. In 2008 Moffet was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/26/05, p.B1)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.B3)(SFC, 9/13/07, p.B3)(SFC, 7/25/08, p.B9)
2005        Apr 23, Two Bangladeshi farmers were shot dead by Indian border forces in the latest in a spate of frontier clashes.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, British actor Sir John Mills (97) died at his home in Denham. His over 100 films included “Great Expectations" (1946) and “Ryan’s Daughter" (1970).
    (SSFC, 4/24/05, p.A2)
2005        Apr 23, The government of the Turkish Cypriot state in northern Cyprus resigned, making way for PM Mehmet Ali Talat to take over as president following his election win.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, The leaders of China and Japan met in an effort to end a dispute over Japan's World War II aggression that has badly damaged relations between them. They met on the sidelines of a summit for Asian and African leaders in Jakarta.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, Indian troops killed four Islamic rebel infiltrators who sneaked across the heavily fortified frontier dividing Indian and Pakistan held Kashmir.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, In Indonesia leaders from Asia and Africa struck what they called a historic deal to build economic and political links.
    (Reuters, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, Iraqi insurgents struck across the country with bomb attacks, killing at least 16 people, including an American soldier. US forces captured six men suspected in the downing of a civilian helicopter and the shooting death of the lone survivor.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, A television cameraman working for The Associated Press was killed when gunfire broke out after an explosion in the northern city of Mosul. An AP photographer was wounded in the same incident.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, Silvio Berlusconi formed a new government and will present his choice of Cabinet ministers to Italy's legislators for approval in the hopes of avoiding new elections. Berlusconi was sworn in as head of Italy's 60th government since the end of World War II.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2005        Apr 23, Leaders of the two Koreas agreed to resume talks between their nations that broke down last summer and to discuss the international standoff over the North's nuclear weapons ambitions.
    (AP, 4/23/05)
2005        Apr 23, In western Nepal 5 children were killed and three others wounded when a crude bomb left by suspected Maoist rebels exploded.
    (Reuters, 4/24/05)
2005        Apr 23, President Hugo Chavez says "Don Quixote" is a must-read for Venezuelans — and his government has printed 1 million free copies to mark the 400th anniversary of the classic tale of the knight who dared to dream.
    (AP, 4/23/05)

2006        Apr 23, Some 10,000 people marched in SF to denounce a bill in the US House of Representatives that would make illegal immigration a felony. Latinos organized a day of protests in over 100 cities. As many as 500,000 marched in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 4/24/06, p.A1)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.14)
2006        Apr 23, In Alaska 2 small planes collided midair and crashed about 20 miles north of Anchorage, killing five people.
    (AP, 4/24/06)
2006        Apr 23, In Maryland Katrina Denise Powe (31) and Mystery Toma Hillian (9) were found dead in an apartment in District Heights. A 12-year-old boy was charged with the murders.
    (SFC, 4/25/06, p.A5)
2006        Apr 23, It was reported that Massachusetts has decided to begin requiring doctors to state the names of anyone testing positive for HIV.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.A3)
2006        Apr 23, Afghan security forces surrounded Taliban fighters hiding in a village in southern Ghazni province, launching a gunbattle that killed at least three militants and a police officer. Another policeman was killed and two others were wounded in the Shah Wali Kot district of Kandahar province when suspected Taliban militants attacked a road construction company.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, Osama bin Laden issued new threats in an audiotape broadcast on Arab television and accused the United States and Europe of supporting a "Zionist" war on Islam by cutting off funds to the Hamas-led Palestinian government.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2006        Apr 23, In Canada the bodies of Marc Richardson (42), his wife Debra (48), and son Jacob (8) were discovered stabbed to death in their family home in Medicine Hat, Alberta. Their daughter Jasmine (12) and her boyfriend Jeremy Steinke (23) were arrested the next day in Saskatchewan. With them were a bag of bloodstained clothing, knives and a purse belonging to the preteen's mother. In 2007 a jury found Jasmine guilty of first-degree murder for helping her adult boyfriend stab her parents and little brother to death. Jasmine was sentenced to serve four years in custody and another 4-1/2 years under community supervision.
    (Reuters, 7/6/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richardson_family_murders)(AP, 11/9/07)
2006        Apr 23, Powerful waves capsized a boat carrying Dominican migrants near a popular surfing beach off the coast of Puerto Rico killing at least five people. Small boats frequently attempt to smuggle migrants from the Dominican Republic to the US Caribbean territory, a roughly 70-mile journey across the often-perilous Mona Passage.
    (AP, 4/24/06)
2006        Apr 23, In Hungary Socialist PM Ferenc Gyurcsany's coalition won the runoff parliamentary ballots, becoming Hungary's first administration to win re-election since communism fell.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, In Iraq 3 US soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb northwest of Baghdad. More than 20 Iraqis also died in other violence, including 7 who were killed in 3 explosions that occurred just outside the heavily guarded Green Zone in Baghdad
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, Japan agreed to pay 59% of the $10.3 billion cost in transferring 8,000 US Marines from Okinawa to Guam.
    (SFC, 4/24/06, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Apr 23, In Mongolia some 200 demonstrators have ended their protests over alleged government corruption and the mishandling of mineral wealth after the country's leaders agreed to investigate their complaints.
    (AP, 4/24/06)
2006        Apr 23, Nepali police fired rubber bullets at thousands of protesters, struggling to enforce a curfew imposed to keep persistent pro-democracy demonstrators off the streets in the Himalayan country's deepening crisis.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, In North Korea 2 troop trains packed with soldiers collided head-on leaving more than 1,000 dead. A Buddhist humanitarian aid group reported the tragedy June1.
    (AFP, 6/1/06)
2006        Apr 23, The militant Hamas group and the rival Fatah Party agreed to work together to restore calm following violent clashes and mass protests across the Palestinian areas over their struggle for control over security forces.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, It was reported that Sweden has allowed the letter 'W' into the mainstream of the Swedish language. The Swedish language, according to the Swedish Academy, now has 29 letters instead of 28.
    (AP, 4/23/06)
2006        Apr 23, Opponents of Thailand's outgoing prime minister wore black and tore up their ballots to protest parliamentary elections they said were unfair. Weekend elections failed to fill several seats in Parliament, deepening the country's political crisis.
    (AP, 4/23/06)(AP, 4/24/06)

2007        Apr 22, Congressional Democratic leaders agreed on legislation requiring the first US combat troops to be withdrawn from Iraq by Oct. 1, 2007, with a goal of a complete pullout six months later; President Bush pledged to veto such a measure.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2007        Apr 23, New projections said US Medicare trust funds will run out in 2019 and Social Security in 2041, each a year longer than said by earlier projections.
    (WSJ, 4/24/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 23, A US Agriculture Department official said a virus in the Great Lakes, that has killed tens of thousands of fish in recent years, is spreading and poses a threat to inland fish farming.
    (AP, 4/24/07)
2007        Apr 23, A Chicago man who spent 25 years in jail for a rape he didn't commit was fully exonerated on the basis of new DNA evidence, bringing to 200 the number of such cases overturned since the 1980s. Jerry Miller (48) was paroled from jail in March 2006 after serving more than half of his 45 year sentence.
    (AFP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, Paul Erdman (74), world-class economist and banker, died in Sonoma County, Ca. He used his knowledge of economics and politics to write best-selling novels that included “The Billion Dollar Sure Thing" (1973) and “The Crash of ‘79" (1976).
    (SFC, 4/24/07, p.B5)
2007        Apr 23, David Halberstam (73), Pulitzer Prize winning journalist and writer, died in a car crash in San Mateo, Ca. His books included “The Best and the Brightest" (1972) and “The Powers That Be" (1979). He had just finished his 21st book “The Coldest Winter," a history of the Korean War, which was published later this year.
    (SFC, 4/24/07, p.A1)(Econ, 5/5/07, p.108)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.98)
2007        Apr 23, Michael Smuin (68), choreographer, died in SF of a heart attack.
    (SFC, 4/24/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 23, In Afghanistan assailants in Laghman province struck an intelligence service vehicle with a remote-controlled bomb, killing six employees and wounding three. In Zabul province, a roadside bomb hit police as they were patrolling in Shamulzayi district, killing two policemen and wounding five others.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, British bank Barclays Plc agreed to buy Dutch rival ABN AMRO for about 67 billion euros ($91 billion) in shares as it attempts to fight off rivals to clinch the world's biggest bank takeover.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, Chinese, state television reported that President Hu Jintao has launched a campaign to rid the country's sprawling Internet of "unhealthy" content and make it a springboard for Communist Party doctrine.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, China’s The Ministry of Land and Resources said agricultural land in China fell to 121.8 million hectares (300 million acres) by the end of October 2006, a loss of 306,800 hectares since the start of the year. The ministry said that heavy metals had contaminated about 13 million tons of grain and that 30.4 million acres is contaminated by pollution.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6582571.stm)(WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)
2007        Apr 23, Ecuador's highest court reinstated 51 lawmakers ousted last month for allegedly interfering with a referendum on the South American nation's need for a new constitution, the 19th over the last 180 years.
    (AP, 4/23/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.30)
2007        Apr 23, In France Sarkozy and Royal advanced to the second round of France's presidential election, With nearly all votes counted, Sarkozy had 31.1%, followed by Royal with 25.8% and Bayrou with 18.5%. Turnout was 84.6 percent, the highest in more than 40 years and just shy of the record set in 1965.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, Indian police discovered a human "bones factory" in West Bengal state and arrested six people for illegally trading in skeletons. Authorities in northeastern Assam state launched a crackdown on rhinoceros poachers, rushing in armed paramilitary soldiers to a sprawling game reserve.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)(AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, The American ambassador said the US would "respect the wishes" of the Iraqi government after the prime minister ordered a halt to construction of a three-mile wall separating a Sunni enclave from surrounding Shiite areas in Baghdad. A suicide attacker detonated his car in front of an office of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Massoud Barzani. At least 10 people were killed and 20 wounded in the attack in Tal Uskuf. A suicide car bomb struck a restaurant near Ramadi killing at least 19 people and wounding 35. A suicide car bomber also struck a police station in Baqouba killing at least 10 people and wounding 23. In central Baghdad, a bomber wearing an explosives belt blew himself up in an Iraqi restaurant in the mixed Shiite-Sunni neighborhood of Karradah Mariam, killing at least seven people and wounding 16. Nearby a parked car bomb exploded in a parking lot, killing one civilian and wounding another. 9 US soldiers were killed and 20 wounded in a suicide car bombing against a patrol base in Diyala province. An al-Qaida-linked group posted a Web statement the next day claiming responsibility for a suicide truck bombing. A US soldier was also killed in a roadside bombing in Diyala.
    (AP, 4/23/07)(AP, 4/24/07)
2007        Apr 23, Eleazar Medina Rojas, described as a key member of the powerful Gulf drug cartel, was arrested in the border city of Nuevo Laredo, along with his father, four other cartel members and four women. Authorities reported the killing of Jorge Gonzalez, police chief of Cardenas, in the southern Gulf coast state of Tabasco. Mexican police found the body of Saul Noe Martinez Ortega (36), a newspaper editor abducted last week in the border city of Agua Prieta. He had been dead at least six days and was found in neighboring Chihuahua state.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, Umaru Yar'Adua of Nigeria's ruling party was declared winner of a presidential poll rejected by the opposition and condemned by observers as a "charade."
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, In Northern Ireland Brendan Cranston (42), was shot through both legs and beaten, while his 38-year-old partner, Linda Doherty, also was assaulted. A brother-in-law of Martin McGuinness, the Sinn Fein deputy leader supposed to oversee a new power-sharing government for Northern Ireland, was charged on April 26 with kidnapping and assaulting the couple in an IRA-style operation.
    (AP, 4/26/07)
2007        Apr 23, Philippine police said they have identified a local woodcarver as a suspect in the April 8 killing of Julia Campbell, a US Peace Corps volunteer, and are following up leads on a possible accomplice. They named the suspect as Juan Duntugan (25) from the village of Batad in Banaue township. Duntugan gave himself up April 27 and confessed on television, saying he would accept "whatever punishment you will impose on me."
    (AP, 4/23/07)(AP, 4/27/07)
2007        Apr 23, Boris Yeltsin (b.1931), former Russian leader (1991-1999), died. He engineered the final collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) and pushed Russia to embrace democracy and a market economy. His 1994 memoir was titled "The Struggle for Russia."
    (AP, 4/23/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.98)
2007        Apr 23, The WWF said hunters in Russia's Far East have shot and killed one of the last seven surviving female Amur leopards living in the wild.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, In Somalia masked Islamic insurgents and Ethiopian-backed government forces pounded each other with machine-gun fire, mortars and heavy artillery in Mogadishu, bringing the death toll from six days of fighting to at least 250.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, A bomb ripped through a long-distance bus in northern Sri Lanka, killing at least three passengers and wounding 35 in the third bombing of a civilian bus this month.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, A top Sudanese government official offered a two-month halt in military operations in strife-torn Darfur to allow for rebel groups to join the peace process.
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, Syrians voted for a second day in a tightly controlled election to pick a new legislature, a vote President Bashar Assad hopes can consolidate his rule, soften his regime's authoritarian image and ease its international isolation.
    (AP, 4/23/07)

2008        Apr 23, Actress Megan Fox was named the world's sexiest woman by an annual online poll, while the world's most Googled woman, Britney Spears, barely scraped in at No. 100 after a shocker of a year.
    (AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, The Bush administration promoted Gen. David Petreaus head of Central Command. Lt. Gen. Raymond Odierno would succeed him as senior commander in Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/24/08, p.A3)
2008        Apr 23, The US Supreme Court ruled that police can conduct searches and seize evidence during arrests, even it the arrests turn out to violate state law.
    (WSJ, 4/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 23, Officials said the US is scrapping a $20 million virtual fence, developed by Boeing Corp., on the Arizona-Mexico border because the system failed to adequately alert border patrol agents to illegal crossings.
    (SFC, 4/24/08, p.A7)
2008        Apr 23, New York’s Gov. David Paterson signed into law a $1.25 per pack tax hike on top of the state’s $1.50 per pack cigarette tax. NYC has an additional $1.50 per pack tax. By July 1 smokers will be paying an average $9.00 a pack for legal cigarettes. The taxes have encouraged major criminal smuggling.
    (WSJ, 5/7/08, p.A17)
2008        Apr 23, Vicorp Corp., the Denver-based owner of Bakers Square and Village Inn restaurants, said it had filed for Bankruptcy as it struggled amid a slowing economy and higher operating costs.
    (WSJ, 4/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 23, It was reported that home foreclosures in California and the SF Bay Area soared over 300% during the first 3 months of 2008.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 23, In southern Afghanistan a spate of suicide bombings and other attacks on security forces left 13 people dead and 24 others wounded.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, Officials said Bangladesh has begun evacuating thousands of stranded workers who were trafficked into war-ravaged Iraq by illegal manpower traders.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, PM Gordon Brown pledged that Britain would promote proposals for an arms embargo on Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, German publisher Bertelsmann said it planned to publish the world's first reference book based on entries from Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia. The single volume, 992-page tome would contain about 50,000 condensed entries and sell for about $31.80.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(SFC, 4/24/08, p.C1)
2008        Apr 23, Two US soldiers were killed in an accident in Salahuddin province when their vehicle rolled onto its side. Another American soldier died in a single-vehicle accident on a highway in neighboring Kuwait.
    (AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, Norway raised its main interest rate a quarter point to 5.5%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/08, p.A8)
2008        Apr 23, Officials and a rebel spokesman said Pakistan's new government has drafted a peace agreement with Taliban militants in its troubled tribal belt bordering Afghanistan. A militant letter attributed to Baitullah Mehsud, a Pakistani Al-Qaeda warlord accused of ordering Benazir Bhutto's assassination, told followers to halt attacks amid peace talks with the government.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, A threatened shutdown of the Gaza Strip's only power plant was averted after Israel agreed to pump in about 260,000 gallons of diesel fuel, enough to run the plant for at least 3 days. An Israeli airstrike killed a Palestinian civilian near the town of Beit Hanoun.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, In Somalia residents said four more corpses were found Mogadishu, bringing the death toll from last weekend's shelling and seizure of small towns by the Islamists' to at least 103. Amnesty Int’l. Ethiopian soldiers, stationed in Somalia to bolster the interim government, had killed 21 people and captured dozens of children in a raid on the Al Hidaaya mosque earlier this week during operations against Islamist insurgents.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, In Sri Lanka officials said at least 52 guerrillas and 38 soldiers were killed and hundreds more wounded as Tamil separatists reported repulsing a Sri Lankan offensive ahead of key local elections. The defense ministry said its forces killed more than 100 Tigers and reported losing 43 soldiers, with another 33 missing in action. It was the security forces' biggest loss in a single offensive since October 2006. Later reports said at least 165 government soldiers were killed and 20 more left missing in the battle with Tamil separatists.
    (AP, 4/23/08)(AFP, 4/24/08)(AFP, 4/25/08)
2008        Apr 23, Switzerland said it had frozen the assets of a further 12 Iranian companies in accordance with new UN sanctions aimed at stopping Tehran's alleged nuclear program.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, Syria handed over a trove of some 700 looted artifacts to Iraq after seizing the items from traffickers since the US-led invasion that toppled Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, In Turkmenistan Pres. Berdymukhamedov abolished the calendar introduced by his late predecessor, Saparmurat Niyazov, who named months after himself and his parents as part of an elaborate personality cult.
    (AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, The UN nuclear monitoring agency announced what it called a "milestone" agreement with Iran that aims to provide answers about allegations that Tehran tried to develop nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez joined with his leftist allies to create a $100 million program to fight the rising cost of food for Latin America's poor.
    (AP, 4/24/08)
2008        Apr 23, Zimbabwe state media reported the first results from an election recount under way showing President Robert Mugabe's party has won an additional parliamentary seat. The recount in Goromonzi concluded with just a one-vote difference from the original count from the poll, giving the seat to Mugabe's ZANU-PF party,
    (AP, 4/23/08)

2009        Apr 23, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 7 people have been diagnosed with a new kind of swine flu in California and Texas.
    (Reuters, 4/24/09)
2009        Apr 23, In California Attorney General Jerry Brown filed a securities fraud lawsuit against Wells Fargo & Co. for deceptively marketing a financial instrument to thousands of state investors who suffered losses of over $1.5 billion.
    (SFC, 4/24/09, p.A1)
2009        Apr 23, In central Afghanistan international and Afghan troops killed two militants in an overnight raid. Afghan and coalition troops captured three suspected militants in a raid in eastern Logar province. 3 Afghan army soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb in eastern Paktia province.
    (AP, 4/23/09)(AP, 4/24/09)
2009        Apr 23, The EU development commissioner said an international conference has already pledged over 250 million dollars to help Somalia improve its security.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, Dubai's deputy police chief denied a report that pirates have laundered ransom money through banks in the Gulf city-state, according to a local newspaper.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, Around 110 million Indians voted in the second and largest stage of month-long elections. In eastern India suspected communist rebels blew up a jeep carrying polling officials in Bihar state, killing five people as part of a wave of violence that has marred national elections. Ethnic separatist rebels killed two policemen when they opened fire on the convoy of a politician in northeastern Assam state.
    (AP, 4/23/09)(AP, 4/24/09)
2009        Apr 23, Iran's official news agency says Tehran has reached an agreement with Iraq to build a pipeline that will feed Iraqi crude to an Iranian refinery.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, In Iraq two suicide bombers blew themselves up in separate attacks, killing at 88 people. One blast in Baghdad killed 31 people. In the other near Muqdadiya 57 dead included visiting Shiites from Iran.
    (AP, 4/23/09)(AP, 4/24/09)
2009        Apr 23, A Kazakh court jailed the publisher of an opposition newspaper for failing to pay damages in a libel case that government critics contend is politically motivated.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, In Madagascar armed forces fired tear gas to disperse demonstrators loyal to the island nation's ousted president, as looters rampaged through the streets of the capital.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, The editor of a Malaysian anti-government news Web site, charged with sedition, went into hiding, prompting a court to order his arrest. Raja Petra Raja Kamarudin, who runs the popular Malaysia Today Web site, failed to appear for a court hearing on a sedition charge stemming from an article he wrote that allegedly implied the prime minister was involved in the murder of a Mongolian woman.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, In Nigeria unknown gunmen kidnapped Peter Ademokhai, a retired army general, from his farm in the southern state of Edo.
    (AFP, 4/25/09)
2009        Apr 23, Pakistani paramilitary forces rushing to protect government buildings and bridges in the Taliban-infiltrated district of Buner, just 60 miles from the capital, were met with gunfire that killed one police officer. Gunmen opened fire on a security convoy that included some of the Frontier Constabulary killing an escorting police officer and wounding another in the Totalai area. Dozens of militants armed with guns and gasoline bombs attacked a truck terminal near Peshawar, burning five tanker trucks carrying fuel to NATO troops in Afghanistan. The Pakistani army killed at least 11 militants on the third day of an operation against insurgents in the northwest's Orakzai tribal region.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, Former King Michael of Romania took the unusual step of endorsing his son-in-law as a candidate in the country's next presidential election.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, Russia’s central bank said it will cut its key lending rates by half a percentage point and increase reserve requirements.
    (WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A10)
2009        Apr 23, In Serbia a war crimes court found four former Serbian policemen guilty of the massacre of 48 Kosovo Albanians and sentenced them to up to 20 years in prison. The verdict said the defendants rounded up members of one Kosovo Albanian family in their village of Suva Reka in March 1999, killing several men with machine-gun fire before forcing the rest into a pizza restaurant and throwing hand-grenades at them.
    (AP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, In South Africa with early returns giving the ANC a 66% lead, the party said it would block off downtown Johannesburg streets around its offices for Zuma to address his supporters in the evening to celebrate victory.
    (AFP, 4/23/09)
2009        Apr 23, Sri Lanka pleaded for international help after Doctors Without Borders warned that civilian casualties are rising rapidly in the country's war zone despite the exodus of more than 100,000 people. 15 people were killed when shells hit a Roman Catholic church, wounding a priest whose leg was amputated.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2010        Apr 23, Arizona’s Gov. Jan Brewer signed into law SB1070, a bill that supporters said would take handcuffs off police in dealing with illegal immigration. Arizona, with an estimated 460,000 illegal immigrants, was the nation's busiest gateway for human and drug smuggling from Mexico.
    (AP, 4/24/10)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.25)
2010        Apr 23, Belgium's longest serving bishop, Roger Vangheluwe (73) the Bishop of Bruges, resigned, saying he was "enormously sorry" for having sexually abused a young boy about 25 years ago. It later was established that the victim was his nephew. In 2011 the Vatican clarified the punishment against Vangheluwe after Belgian bishops reported that he had merely been sent outside Belgium for spiritual and psychological counseling.
    (AP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/12/11)
2010        Apr 23, Bolivia’s President Evo Morales said he is creating a "Mother Earth Ministry" to promote the planet's rights and says that he would like to establish an international court with the power to punish nations that fail to obey emissions-reduction agreements. Morales revealed the plans as he launched a campaign to plant 10 million trees, equal to Bolivia's population, by April 22, 2011.
    (AP, 4/24/10)
2010        Apr 23, Chinese police in Xining, the capital of Qinghai province, detained Tagyal, a prominent Tibetan intellectual. Tagyal had recently authored “The Line Between Earth and Sky," in which he praised the activism of monks during the Tibetan unrest of 2008. 
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.42)
2010        Apr 23, In El Salvador gunmen shot and seriously wounded First Secretary Guillermo Medina Alfaro, a Mexican diplomat who worked with the international police agency Interpol. Police said the diplomat's wife was killed.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, Greece asked for the activation of a financial rescue plan by the eurozone and International Monetary Fund, in the hope it will help the heavily indebted country out of a major crisis and give it the breathing space to put its finances in order.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, Diplomats said Iran has agreed to give the UN nuclear monitoring agency greater inspection and monitoring rights to a sensitive site where it is enriching uranium to higher levels.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, In Iraq a series of bomb attacks mainly targeting Shiite worshippers killed 72 people, including 25 near the main Baghdad office of an anti-US Shiite cleric. An Iraqi soldier was killed as he stormed a house west of Baghdad where insurgents had stockpiled explosives.
    (AP, 4/23/10)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/24/10)
2010        Apr 23, NATO ministers meeting in Tallinn, Estonia, agreed to begin handing over control of Afghanistan to the Afghan government this year, a process that if successful would enable President Barack Obama to meet his target date of July 2011 for starting to bring US troops home.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, In Mexico gunmen ambushed two police vehicles at a busy intersection in Ciudad Juarez, killing 7 officers and a 17-year-old boy who was passing by. Police in the Pacific coast state of Guerrero said they found the bodies of five men who had been shot to death lying on a dirt road near the state capital, Chilpancingo. Three of the men were brothers, all in their 20s. In central Morelos state, federal police and the Mexican army raided two ranch homes and arrested 15 men near the town of Amacuzac. The men were suspected of working for alleged drug trafficker Jose Gerardo Alvarez Vazquez, who was arrested April 21 in Mexico City.
    (AP, 4/24/10)
2010        Apr 23, North Korea said it will confiscate five South Korean-owned properties at a jointly operated mountain resort in the isolated communist country, a development likely to worsen already-soured relations.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas rejected the establishment of a Palestinian state within temporary borders, an idea he said was recently proposed for restarting peace talks.
    (AP, 4/24/10)
2010        Apr 23, In Russia two-time Olympic rhythmic gymnastics champion Natalia Lavrova (25) was killed with her sister in a car accident. Lavrova was Russia's only rhythmic gymnast to win two Olympic gold medals, in team competitions at the Sydney and Athens Olympics in 2000 and 2004.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 23, In Sudan an announcement that Unity state incumbent Taban Deng had retained his post in this month's election was followed by protests in the state capital Bentiu that left two people shot dead by police and a third wounded. Supporters of Deng's main rival Angelina Teny, wife of south Sudan's vice president Riek Machar, were accused of trying to wreck a local radio station. The National Election Commission also announced that Beshir's ruling National Congress Party had won the posts of governor in North Darfur and West Darfur, with results for South Darfur yet to be released.
    (AFP, 4/23/10)

2011        Apr 23, In Texas sheriff’s deputy Clifton Taylor (34) was fatally shot after responding to a domestic disturbance call. Gunman Wesley Davis was killed in a subsequent shootout.
    (SFC, 4/25/11, p.A4)
2011        Apr 23, In eastern Afghanistan insurgents shot down a NATO helicopter in the Alasay district of Kapisa province where fighting has intensified. The only two crew members were recovered alive. One foreign service member was killed. Militants ambushed an Afghan police vehicle, killing 2 policemen and wounding 2 others in Dara Nur district of Nangarhar province. A roadside bomb killed 2 NATO service members. A gunman shot dead Abdul Zahir, deputy of the Helmand provincial peace council.
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, Algerian police again stifled an attempt by pro-reform activists to rally against the government in what has become a weekly ritual.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, Bahrain’s main opposition party said that government authorities have demolished 16 mosques as part of a crackdown on Shiite dissent.
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, p.A6)
2011        Apr 23, In southern Brazil emergency workers said at least 10 people have been killed by landslides and other accidents caused by heavy rains.
    (Reuters, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, A 2nd day of fighting between Cambodian and Thai troops killed at least four soldiers, bringing the two-day death toll to 11, the worst bloodshed since the United Nations called for a ceasefire in February.
    (AP, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, Italian police arrested Francesco Campana (38), the alleged No. 1 boss of the organized crime syndicate based in Puglia, the region that makes up Italy’s boot-shaped heel.
    (AP, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, In Japan former Sony president Norio Ohga (81), died. He served as president from 1982 to 1995 and led the evolution of the electronics manufacturer into a global entertainment empire covering music, movies and computer games. Ohga helped transform the music industry with the development of the compact disc format (1982).
    (AFP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, A Kurdish protester (28) died of gunshot wounds, becoming the tenth person killed in more than two months of rallies in Iraq's northern autonomous region. Hardi Farukh was wounded by a bullet to the head during demonstrations on April 18 in Sulaimaniyah.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, In Libya Kadhafi's regime gave its army an "ultimatum" to take Misrata but government troops retreated to the outskirts under rebel fire. The opposition claimed victory after officials in Tripoli decided to pull back forces following nearly two months of laying siege. At least 15 people were killed by booby-traps and in ambushes set up by Gaddafi brigades while withdrawing from Misrata. NATO air raids struck near a compound in the capital Tripoli where Kadhafi resides. The US carried out its first Predator drone strike in Libya. A US Predator drone destroyed a multiple rocket launcher in the Misrata area that was being used against civilians.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/23/11)(AP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, In Mexico police in Acapulco said 4 women and a teenage girl have been found with their throats cut in the resort city. All appeared to have been connected to the same beauty parlor. A young man was shot to death in the lobby of a luxury hotel in Cabo San Lucas. Mexico City prosecutors said residents of the San Miguel Chapultepec neighborhood discovered a woman's upper body on one block and her left leg and right leg on two other blocks.
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, Max van der Stoel (86), former Dutch human rights watchdog for Iraq and the first High Commissioner on National Minorities at the 54-nation Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), died.
    (AP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, In northern Nigeria at least two suspected bomb-makers were killed in a blast in Kaduna close to a residential neighborhood for members of local government.
    (Reuters, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, Pakistan’s army chief Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani said that his forces have broken the "backbone" of Islamist militants in the country. Hours later a suicide bomber on foot detonated his explosives alongside a convoy of soldiers and elders from an anti-Taliban militia in the town of Salarzai in the Bajur tribal region. The attack killed four of the militiamen and a paramilitary soldier. Pakistan suspended delivery of supplies to NATO troops in Afghanistan via its land border for three days as campaigners began a sit-in on the supply route over US drone attacks.
    (AP, 4/23/11)
2011        Apr 23, In South Sudan clashes broke out in the Canal area of northern Jonglei state as thousands of civilians fled fighting between rebels and south Sudan's army in oil-producing Unity state. In northern Jonglei state 57 gunmen led by Gabriel Tang were killed in a shoot-out with SPLA troops, before fleeing into the surrounding bush,
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AFP, 4/24/11)(AFP, 4/25/11)
2011        Apr 23, Syrian security forces fired on tens of thousands of mourners during funeral processions killing at least 12 people including 4 in Nawa. Two members of parliament from Deraa resigned in protest against the killing of protesters. The death toll from two days of violence reached 120. Rights campaigners said the death toll rose to around 350, with scores of missing since the demonstrations broke out on March 18.
    (AP, 4/23/11)(AFP, 4/23/11)(Reuters, 4/24/11)(SFC, 4/25/11, p.A3)
2011        Apr 23, Venezuela detained Joaquin Perez Becerra as he arrived in Caracas on an airline flight from Frankfurt, Germany. He was described him as an alleged member of the international front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AP, 4/24/11)
2011        Apr 23, Yemen’s Pres. Saleh agreed to the proposal for him to hand power to his vice president within 30 days of a deal being signed in exchange for immunity from prosecution for him and his sons.
    (AP, 4/24/11)

2012        Apr 23, Common Cause, a US open government advocate, said it has filed an IRS complaint accusing the American Legislative Exchange Council of masquerading as a public charity. ALEC was formed as a non-profit to develop legislation and policy.
    (SFC, 4/24/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 23, Aid agencies said they are facing a multi-million dollar funding shortage to deal with a food crisis in the Sahel where people are resorting to increasingly desperate measures to survive. The crisis has so far affected Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Bangladesh police opened fire on hundreds of stone-throwing demonstrators who stormed a police station on the second day of an opposition-sponsored general strike protesting a politician's disappearance. Police said one person was killed and more than 50 others injured.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, In Brazil political journalist Decio Sa (42) was shot dead in a restaurant in Sao Luis, Maranhao state. He had spent most of his career reporting on corruption.
    (SFC, 4/25/12, p.A7)
2012        Apr 23, Ferrovial-owned BAA said it had agreed to sell Edinburgh airport to Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP) for 807 million pounds ($1.3 billion), adding the Scottish hub to an investment portfolio that includes London's Gatwick and City airports.
    (Reuters, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Chinese state media said Guangdong party authorities have punished eight Wukan officials for corruption following a three month inquiry, including the previous Communist party chief, after their land grabs sparked an unprecedented uprising.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Chinese state media said police have arrested nine people and detained 54 others in a crackdown on chromium-tainted gel capsules made from industrial waste. On April 22 Xinhua News said that police have seized 77 million gel capsules and shuttered 80 production lines in Hebei province.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Egyptian authorities said they have denied permission to eight American nonprofit groups to operate locally, including a center headed by former President Jimmy Carter that monitors elections.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Eritrea said President Issaias Afeworki is at the "peak of his health" in a statement aimed to quash rumors the authoritarian leader is sick.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, In Iceland former PM Geir Haarde was acquitted on the major counts in a trial probing his responsibility for the country’s 2008 economic collapse.
    (SFC, 4/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 23, Italian police arrested an Italian man, identified as Andrea Campione (28), in a crackdown in several Italian cities on an Islamic extremist network suspected of supporting international terrorism.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Dutch PM Mark Rutte and his Cabinet resigned after failing to reach agreement on reducing the country's budget to meet European guidelines.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Philippine coast guard and fisheries bureau operatives arrested 12 Vietnamese fishermen for poaching endangered marine turtles, black corals and reef fishes in southern Philippines waters. Other foreign fishing boats spotted in the same area managed to flee toward Malaysia.
    (AP, 4/25/12)
2012        Apr 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir said there will be no more talks with South Sudan, as fresh Sudanese air raids drew swift condemnation from the US and France. Sudanese bombs fell on a key bridge and a market, killing at least two children in the state capital of Bentiu. Sudan’s armed forces commander said more than 1,000 South Sudanese troops died during the battle for the oilfield of Heglig.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Swiss-based Nestle said it would buy Pfizer Nutrition, the infant nutrition arm of American Drug firm Pfizer, for $11.85 billion.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.75)
2012        Apr 23, Syrian state news said that "terrorists" had killed a doctor in the country's south, two military officers in the central province of Hama and two others in the south. UN observers monitoring the shaky cease-fire visited a string of rebellious Damascus suburbs. The EU banned the sale of luxury goods and products that can have military as well as civilian uses. At least 55 people were killed across Syria, most in the central city of Hama, a day after a visit by UN observers. Regime forces "summarily executed" nine activists.
    (AP, 4/23/12)(AP, 4/24/12)(AFP, 4/26/12)
2012        Apr 23, Ukraine's two biggest pro-Western opposition parties announced they will be joining forces in the fall parliamentary election in order to challenge Pres. Viktor Yanukovych's grip on power.
    (AP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 23, Vietnamese and US Navy troops conducted joint exercises in the South China Sea.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.44)

2013        Apr 23, Paul Kevin Curtis, the Mississippi man charged with sending poisoned letters to President Barack Obama, a US senator and a state judge, was released from jail. The reason for the release wasn't immediately clear. Focus shifted to Everett Dutschke, a longtime foe of Curtis in Tupelo.
    (AP, 4/24/13)(SFC, 4/25/13, p.A5)
2013        Apr 23, Apple Corp. said it will return $55 billion in cash to its shareholders. It also boosted its quarterly dividend and alloted more cash for buybacks.
    (SFC, 4/24/13, p.D1)
2013        Apr 23, A fake tweet asserted that explosions at the White House had injured Pres. Obama. For 43 minutes prices stock exchanges tumbled in what came to be called the first Twitter crash. A group calling itself the Syrian Electronic Army took credit.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.68)
2013        Apr 23, Afghan and coalition forces killed 6 insurgents during a joint operation in Tagab district of Kapisa province. 7 others were killed in a separate operation run by Afghan security forces in the Hisarak district of Nangarhar province.
    (AP, 4/24/13)
2013        Apr 23, In Afghanistan 20 people died in flooding in Balkh province.
    (AP, 4/25/13)
2013        Apr 23, Mullah Omar, leader of the Taliban movement behind an escalating insurgency against the government in Kabul, reportedly died in Pakistan. His death was only made public in July 2015. Pakistan's defense minister later insisted that Mullah Omar died in Afghanistan and was buried there. On Sep 13, 2015, Omar’s eldest son confirmed that Omar had died in Afghanistan.
    (Reuters, 7/29/15)(Reuters, 7/30/15)(SFC, 7/30/15, p.A2)(AP, 8/7/15)(Econ, 8/8/15, p.78)
2013        Apr 23, Australian police arrested a man they say is affiliated with international hacking collective Lulz Security on a charge of attacking and defacing a government website.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Australia's competition regulator approved the takeover by Virgin Australia of budget rival Tiger Airways Australia.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, In Bangladesh Rana Plaza owner Mohammed Sohel Rana called engineer Abdur Razzak Khan to inspect an 8-story building after it developed cracks. That night Khan appeared on a private television station saying that after his inspection he told Rana to evacuate the building because it was not safe. The next day garment factory managers told their workers to go inside.
    (AP, 5/3/13)
2013        Apr 23, The people of Bhutan voted in the nation's second parliamentary election. The People’s Democratic Party, led by Tshering Tobgay, won 32 of 47 seats in the National Assembly as opposed to 15 seats for the ruling Peace and Prosperity Party.
    (AP, 4/23/13)(SSFC, 7/14/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 23, Chinese marine surveillance vessels drove away Japanese nationalists who had entered the waters of the Diaoyu Islands.
    (SSFC, 4/28/13, p.A4)
2013        Apr 23, In China Jia Jiuxiang, vice president of the Sanmenxia City Intermediate People's Court in Henan province, died under mysterious circumstances, his body bruised after 11 days in the custody of anti-graft investigators of the ruling Communist Party.
    (AP, 4/24/13)
2013        Apr 23, In northwestern China a violent clash between authorities and assailants described as a terrorist gang left 21 people dead near Kashgar, Xinjiang province. Local sources said that police sparked the incident by shooting a Uighur youth during an illegal search of homes.
    (AP, 4/24/13)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.45)
2013        Apr 23, In Egypt Fuad Gadallah, the most senior legal advisor to Pres. Morse, resigned, issuing a public letter that cited a lack of vision.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)
2013        Apr 23, Egypt's state news agency reported that former finance minister Yousef Boutros-Ghali, a nephew of former UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, was found guilty in absentia of squandering around $3.6 million during his final years in the post.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, France legalized gay marriage after a wrenching national debate that exposed deep conservatism in the nation's heartland and triggered huge protests that tapped into deep discontent with the Socialist government.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Amnesty International said Haiti has violated international human rights obligations by failing to protect people who have been forced to leave the impromptu settlements that sprang up in the Caribbean nation after the 2010 earthquake.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Iraqi security forces backed by helicopters raided a Sunni protest camp before dawn, prompting clashes that left at least 56 people dead in the former insurgent stronghold of Hawija. Abdul-Karim Al-Sammarraie, the minister of science and technology, and Mohammed Tamim, the Minister of Education, submitted their resignations in the wake of the killings in Hawija. 3 soldiers were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 4/23/13)(AP, 4/24/13)(AP, 4/25/13)(Econ, 4/27/13, p.46)
2013        Apr 23, Israel and Palestine agreed to renewed involvement by UNESCO in the Old City of Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 4/24/13, p.A2)
2013        Apr 23, In Libya a car bomb targeted the French Embassy in Tripoli, wounding two French guards and a Libyan teenager.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Myanmar's president pardoned 93 prisoners, including at least 59 political detainees, a day after the EU lifted sanctions against it.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, A Dutch court sentenced diplomat Raymond Poeteray (61) to 12 years in prison for delivering confidential NATO and European Union documents to Russian agents. He was arrested in March 2012 in connection with a German investigation.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, In Pakistan car bomb aimed at a Shiite politician in Quetta missed him but killed four other people. Hours earlier police had defused an explosives-laden vehicle near the house outside Islamabad where ex-leader Pervez Musharraf was being held.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Palestinian prisoner Samer Issawi (33), who refused food for eight months, ended his hunger strike after a deal was reached with Israeli authorities for his early release. Issawi was sentenced in 2002 to 26 years in prison for his role in a series of shooting attacks targeting police cars and students at Jerusalem's Hebrew University.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Spanish police were reported to have arrested two suspected members of al-Qaida's North African branch. Nou Mediouni (23), an Algerian, was arrested in Zaragoza, while Hassan El Jaaouani (52), a Moroccan, was arrested in Murcia. Neither was known to possess any explosives nor be planning any attack.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Two Syrian rockets struck Lebanon, causing material damage and heightening tensions between Lebanese Shiite and Sunni communities over neighboring Syria's civil war.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni faced criticism from anti-corruption activists for donating a sack loaded with $100,000 in cash at a political rally.
    (AP, 4/23/13)
2013        Apr 23, It was reported that the authrities in Ras al-Khaimah, the northernmost emirate in the UAE, have posted signs on public beaches warning of possible fines for revealing swimwear.
    (SFC, 4/23/13, p.A2)
 2013        Apr 23, A Yemeni court sentenced 11 al-Qaida militants to up to 10 years in prison for forming armed gangs to destabilize the country and planning attacks on foreign embassies as well as army and security forces.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2014        Apr 23, President Barack Obama opened a four-country Asia tour in Japan aimed at reassuring allies in the region that the US remains a committed economic, military and political partner that can serve as a counterweight to China's growing influence.
    (AP, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal signed legislation that will allow people to carry guns in bars, churches and government buildings under certain conditions as of July 1.
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A8)
2014        Apr 23, A Kansas judge granted a request to formally change the name of Bradley Edward Manning, the soldier convicted of leaking classified documents to WikiLeaks, to Chelsea Elizabeth Manning as he served a 35-year prison sentence.
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A6)
2014        Apr 23, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel said he would heed a court order to reinstate ousted Bogota Mayor Gustavo Petro. The mayor had been removed from office in March for alleged administrative missteps. 
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 23, An Egyptian policeman and a militant were killed when security forces raided a hideout used by radical Islamists near Alexandria. Brig. Gen. Ahmed Zaki was killed near Cairo when a bomb blew up his car. Ajnad Misr (Egypt’s Soldiers), an Islamist militant group, soon claimed responsibility for the attack on Zaki
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)(SFC, 4/25/14, p.A2)
2014        Apr 23, Hong Kong scrapped travel sanctions against the Philippines after Manila issued an apology and offered greater compensation for the deaths of eight tourists during a 2010 hostage-taking and siege.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, Kosovo's parliament approved an EU-backed special court to try ethnic Albanian ex-guerrillas accused of harvesting organs from Serbs captured in the 1998-99 Kosovo war.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)   
2014        Apr 23, The Gaza-based Islamist group Hamas and President Mahmoud Abbas's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) agreed to implement a unity pact. Hamas had freed 10 Fatah prisoners ahead of the meeting as a goodwill gesture.
    (AP, 4/22/14)(Reuters, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, In the Philippines police armed with truncheons, shields and a fire hose clashed with more than 100 left-wing activists who rallied at the US Embassy in Manila to oppose a visit by President Obama and an expected security pact that would increase the American military presence.
    (AP, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, Saudi Arabia announced 11 new cases of MERS, including a 13-year-old child. Acting health minister Adel Fakieh vowed to keep the public better informed on the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, South Korea said the death toll from the April 16 disaster off the southern coast reached 156 with about 150 people were still missing.
    (AP, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, South Sudan media reported that President Salva Kiir has sacked his army chief, replacing him with a loyalist from his own ethnic group as the country's four-month conflict shows signs of being increasingly fought along tribal lines. Kiir also replaced his head of intelligence. South Sudanese rebel forces battling President Kiir captured the town of Renk, close to the border with Sudan and began advancing on the Paloich oil fields.
    (Reuters, 4/24/14)(AFP, 4/24/14)
2014        Apr 23, In Thailand Kamol Duangphasuk, a pro-government activist who opposed a law punishing critics of the monarchy, was fatally shot by gunmen on a motorcycle in Bangkok.
    (AP, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan offered what the government said were unprecedented condolences on Wednesday to the grandchildren of Armenians killed in World War One by Ottoman soldiers on the eve of the 99th anniversary of the deeply contested deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)
2014        Apr 23, The WHO said 147 people have died from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, including 136 in Guinea and 11 in Liberia.
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A2)

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