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Today in History - April 30

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30        Apr 30, Jesus of Nazareth was crucified [see 33AD]. Christ died on hill of Golgotha, Jerusalem. His path along the Via Dolorosa was later disputed as to whether he was tried by Pontius Pilate at the palace of Herod or at the Roman fortress of Antonia. His death was at an abandoned quarry, the site of today’s Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1998 Robert Funk and the Jesus Seminar published "The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus." The group had published an earlier work "The Five Gospels," in which the sayings of Jesus were examined. In 1999 Thomas Cahill authored "Desire of the Everlasting Hills," a book about Jesus and his effect on the world. In 2010 Paul Johnson authored “Jesus: A Biography From a Believer.” Also in 2010 Philip Pullman authored “The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ,” in which he proposes that Jesus and Christ were twin brothers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Jesus)(SFC, 3/27/97, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.8)(HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.85)

311        Apr 30, Emperor Galerius recognized Christians legally in the Roman Empire.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

313        Apr 30, Co-emperor Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

535        Apr 30, Amalaswintha, queen of Ostrogoten, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1250        Apr 30, King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars. The Mamluk dynasty exacted 240 tons of silver for his release.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1309        Apr 30, Kazimierz III de Great, King of Poland (1333-70), was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1349        Apr 30, Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1396        Apr 30, Crusaders and the Earl of Nevers departed from Dijon.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1492        Apr 30, Spain announced it would expel all Jews.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1494        Apr 30, Christopher Columbus arrived in Guantanamo Bay on his 2nd voyage to the Americas.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A7)

1527        Apr 30, Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1563        Apr 30, Jews were expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1602        Apr 30, William Lilly, astrologer, author, almanac compiler, was born in England.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1629        Apr 30, John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (http://38.1911encyclopedia.org/E/EN/ENDECOTT_JOHN.htm)

1651        Apr 30, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French priest, theorist, saint, was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1671        Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1695        Apr 30, William Congreve's "Love for Love," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1708        Apr 30, Simon de Vries, book seller, writer (Unequal), died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1722        Apr 30, Game of Billiards was mentioned in New England Courant.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1725        Apr 30, Spain withdrew from the Quadruple Alliance.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1777        Apr 30, Karl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, was born. He researched infinitesimal calculus, algebra and astronomy. He was also a pioneer in topology and is considered one of the world's great mathematicians. His methods in World War II helped disarm magnetic mines
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1789        Apr 30, George Washington was inaugurated and took office in New York as the first president of the United States. He took his oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street and spoke the words “So help me God,” which all future US presidents have repeated. The oath as prescribed by the Constitution makes no mention of God of the Bible.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.W4)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1792        Apr 30, John Montague (73), 4th Earl of Sandwich, English Naval minister, died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1798        Apr 30, US Department of Navy formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1803        Apr 30, The US under Thomas Jefferson signed a treaty that accepted the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte's government of France for 60 million francs or about $15 mil. The area included most of the thirteen states that lie between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. American envoys sent to France were originally instructed to buy only the port city of New Orleans and were astonished when Napoleon, abandoning plans for an American empire, offered them all of Louisiana. The United States doubled in size through the Louisiana Purchase. The federal government spent less than $8 million in operations and borrowed the money needed for the purchase.
    (CO, 11/10/95)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 5/1/99)

1808        Apr 30, Italian Pellegrini Turri built the 1st practical typewriter for the blind Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizono, the world's first typist.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.D3)(MC, 4/30/02)

1812        Apr 30, Louisiana became the 18th state.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)

1849        Apr 30, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian republican patriot and guerrilla leader, repulsed a French attack on Rome.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(ON, 10/06, p.5)

1852        Apr 30, A strong tornado hit New Harmony, Indiana, killing 16 people.
    (SFC, 4/30/09, p.D8)
1852        Apr 30, Anton Rubinstein’s opera "Dmitri Donskoi," premiered in St Petersburg.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1858        Apr 30, Mary Scott Lord Dimmick, Pres. B. Harrison's first lady, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1859        Apr 30, The California state legislature granted a charter to St. Ignatius Academy in San Francisco. The school then changed its name to St. Ignatius College with the right to confer degrees.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_San_Francisco)

1860        Apr 30, Navaho Indians attacked Fort Defiance (Canby).
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1861        Apr 30, President Lincoln ordered Federal Troops to evacuate Indian Territory.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1864        Apr 30, Work began on the Dams along the Red River which would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/30/98)
1864        Apr 30, New York became the 1st state to charge for a hunting license.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1865        Apr 30-May 1, Gen Sherman's "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1869        Apr 30, Hawaiian YMCA was organized.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1870        Apr 30, Franz Lehár, operetta composer, was born. He is best known for "The Marry Widow" and "The Land of Smiles."
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1871        Apr 30, Anglo and Mexican vigilantes killed 118 Apaches at Camp Grant, Arizona, and kidnapped 28 children.
    (www.desertusa.com/mag98/april/stories/campgrant1.html)

1877        Apr 30, Alice B. Toklas (d.1967), expatriate American, was born. She was associated with Gertrude Stein, who wrote "The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" (1933).
    (HN, 4/30/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_B._Toklas)

1885        Apr 30, Boston Pops Orchestra formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1888        Apr 30, John Crowe Ransom, poet and critic, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1889        Apr 30, Washington's inauguration became the first U.S. national holiday.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1894        Apr 30, Giuseppe Farnara and Francis Polti were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempted terrorism in London.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)

1900        Apr 30, Hawaii was organized as a U.S. territory. [see Feb 22]
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1900        Apr 30, Engineer John Luther "Casey" Jones of the Illinois Central Railroad was killed in a Cannonball Express wreck near Vaughan, Miss., after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers.
    (AP, 4/30/99)

1902        Apr 30, Debussy's opera "Pelleas et Melisande" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1904        Apr 30, At 1:06 p.m. President Theodore Roosevelt officially opened the St. Louis World’s Fair commemorating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. Although the Fair was originally scheduled to open in 1903, the opening was delayed for a year while the elaborate fairgrounds were completed. Visitors were awed by 142 miles of exhibits shown in palatial buildings like Festival Hall the centerpiece of the fair boasting an auditorium seating 3,500 and the largest pipe organ in the world. Other wonders seen at the St. Louis World’s Fair were the Liberty Bell, ice cream cones. Food vendors, Arnold Fornachou (ice cream) and Ernest Hamwi (sweet, rolled wafers), collaborated for the ice cream cones. In 1903 Italo Marconi received a patent for pastry cornets to hold ice cream. Charles Menches sold ice cream at the fair and an anonymous Syrian sold the zalabia pastry in the next booth.
    (HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(SFC, 6/24/00, p.B3)
1904        Apr 30, The St. Louis World’s Fair popularized the all-American hamburger. The fair lasted 7 months and inspired the phrase "Meet Me in St. Louis." Cass Gilbert designed the art museum in Foret park, the only building left over from the fair. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition the temperatures in St. Louis soared and hot-tea vendor Richard Blechynden began pouring his tea over ice thus the invention of iced-tea. The fair popularized sausage in a bun, the hot dog with prepared mustard and the ice cream cone.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.19)(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)
1904        The 3rd modern Olympics were held at the St. Louis World’s Fair. 1,505 contestants from 7 countries participated.
    (PCh, 1992, p.658)
1904        Although invented in Waco, Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national exposure at the St.  Louis World‘s Fair.
    (HNQ, 10/25/00)

1909        Apr 30, Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands, was born. She fled during the Nazi occupation and abdicated in favor of her daughter Beatrix.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1911        Apr 30, Portugal approved woman suffrage.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1912        Apr 30, Eve Arden (Eunice Quedens), actress, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/01)

1919        Apr 30, US postal workers discovered 30 booby-trap bombs in the national mail system, targeting several members of congress and other public figures. Investigators later implicated a network of anarchists and radicals who were rounded up and deported.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.B2)

1921        Apr 30, Pope Benedict XV issued his encyclical "On Dante."
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1924        Apr 30, Sheldon Harnick, lyricist (Fiorello, Fiddler on the Roof), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1927        Apr 30, Princess Juliana got a seat in Dutch Council of State.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1930        Apr 30, The Soviet Union proposed military alliance with France and Great Britain.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1933        Apr 30, Willie Nelson, country singer who sang “On the Road Again” and “To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before,” was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1936        Apr 30, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Park-O-Meter has been recommended by Chief Administrative Officer Alfred Cleary. A trial plan called for 50 meters on Market St. charging 10 cents for 20 minutes.
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)

1938        Apr 30, Larry [Van Cott] Niven, US sci-fi author (5 Hugo, Neutron Star), was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1939        Apr 30, The New York World’s Fair, billed as a look at "the world of tomorrow," officially opened. NY Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia mandated that the city's nude dancers cover up during the fair. The cover-up evolved into the G-string and later the thong. The General Motors exhibit was titled Futurama. Philo T. Farnsworth premiered his television at the fair. AT&T presented its first Picture Phone at the World's Fair. Salvador Dali created a pavilion that was called “Dream of Venus” and described as the “funny house of tomorrow.” In 2000 Miles Beller authored "Dream of Venus (Or Living Pictures): A Novel of the 1939 New York world’s Fair." National Presto Industries introduced the home pressure cooker at the fair.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/16/00, BR p.7)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.20) (www.imdb.com/title/tt0149460/trivia)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)

1941        April 30, Iraqi pro-German junta leader Rashid Ali ordered 9,000 troops to surround Habaniyah and prepare to take it. The British troops, supported by Assyrian and local infantry, defeated three Iraqi brigades with a few hundred troops and 96 aircraft.  By the end of the battle, British bombers flying from Habaniyah destroyed the entire Iraqi air force. The ground troops, aided by reinforcements, launched a counterattack, took control of Baghdad and reinstalled a friendly government.
    (AP, 7/5/03)

1943        Apr 30, Pius XII wrote a letter to Bishop von Preysing of Berlin and referred to the extermination of the Jews. His concluding thoughts stated: “Unhappily in the present state of affairs, we can bring no help other than our prayers.”
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)
1943        Apr 30, The British submarine HMS Seraph dropped “the man who never was," a dead man the British planted with false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain. Operation Mincemeat was based on a 1939 suggestion by Lt. Commander Ian Fleming, and was used to cover Britain’s invasion of Sicily.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.4)
1943        Apr 30, Bergen-Belsen, located near Hanover, formed as a POW camp.
    (HNQ, 4/13/00)(MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Dutch struck against forced labor in Nazi Germany's war industry.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Rene Blum (b.1878), art critic and impresario, died in Auschwitz. Blum became director of plays and operettas at Monte Carlo in 1924. In 1931 he was hired to form the Ballet of the Opera of Monte-Carlo by Prince Louis II of Monaco. His brother was Leon Blum, the first Jewish prime minister of France. In 2011 Judith Chazin-Bennahum authored “Rene Blum and the Ballet Russes: In Search of a Lost Life.”
    (SSFC, 8/28/11, p.F4)
1943        Apr 30, Etty Hillesum, Dutch diarist, died in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Beatrice Potter Webb (b.1858), British socialist, reformer and writer, died. Her books included  “My Apprenticeship” (1943).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_Webb)

1944        Apr 30, Jill Clayburgh, actress (Unmarried Woman, Semi-Tough), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1944        Apr 30, The 8th and 9th US Army Air Forces and Royal Air Force Bomber Command began to fly sorties into France and the Low Countries in preparation for the Allied Expeditionary Force landing on Jun 6.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)

1945        Apr 30, Annie Dillard, writer (Pilgrim at Tinker Creek), was born.
    (HN, 4/30/01)
1945        Apr 30, "Arthur Godfrey Time" made its debut on the CBS radio network.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
1945        Apr 30, The show “Queen For Today” began on the Mutual Broadcasting Company radio program. In 1956 it moved to television as Queen For a Day until 1964 with a 2nd run from 1969-1970.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_for_a_Day)(WSJ, 2/4/08, p.B1)
1945        Apr 30, US troops attacked at the Elbe.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, Lord Haw-Haw called for a crusade against the Bolsheviks.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, Red Army opened an attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, The Russian Army freed the Ravensbrueck concentration camp. They found 3,000 sickly prisoners who had been unable to make the march north under the SS.
    (AP, 4/17/05)
1945        Apr 30, Adolf Hitler (56) committed suicide along with his wife of one day, Eva Braun (33), in his Fuhrerbunker as Russian troops approached Berlin. Karl Donitz became his successor. Their bodies were cremated and their remains hastily buried in a shell hole in the Reich Chancellery garden just hours before Berlin's fall. A few days later a Soviet officer showed British troops Hitler's probable gravesite. In 1970 Russia’s KGB ordered Hitler’s remained to be dug up, turned to powder and thrown into the nearest river. In 1947 Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “The Last Days of Hitler.” In 1973 Robert Payne authored a definitive biography. In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum authored "Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origin of His Evil." In 1977 Robert G.L. Waite (d.1999) authored The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler." In 2002 Ingo Helm made a film for TV titled "Hitler’s Money." In 2004 the German film “The Downfall” portrayed the last days of Hitler.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 4/30/99)(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A14)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.48)(WSJ, 12/29/05, p.D8)
1945        Apr 30, Hanna Reitsch evaded Soviet searchlights and fighters to reach temporary freedom in German-held territory. During the final days of World War II, German female test pilot Reitsch was ordered to fly General Ritter von Greim 60 miles to Berlin to personally accept Adolf Hitler’s appointment as Supreme Commander of the German Luftwaffe. Flying her light plane through heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire, Reitsch and her passenger reached Hitler’s underground bunker safely, where they were among the last to see the German dictator alive. Although both expected to die in the bunker, Hitler ordered Reitsch and Greim to escape from Berlin to continue the fight.
    (HNPD, 4/27/00)

1947        Apr 30, President Truman signed a measure officially changing the name of Boulder Dam to Hoover Dam.
    (AP, 4/30/97)

1948        Apr 30, The charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) was signed in Bogota, Colombia.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1954        Apr 30, Jane Campion, New Zealand film director (The Piano, A Portrait of a Lady), was born.
    (HN, 4/30/01)
1954        Apr 30, KQED, SF-based public television, began broadcasting.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.E1)

1955        Apr 30, West German unions protested for 40-hour work week and more wages.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1955        Apr 30, Bao Dai (1913-1997), Vietnam’s former emperor (1926-1945), ended his term as chief of state (1949-1955). He went into exile in France where he died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bao_Dai)

1956        Apr 30, Richard Farina, folk singer (Reflections in a Crystal Wind), was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1956        Apr 30, Alben W. Barkley (b.1877), the 35th Vice President of the US (1949-53), died in Lexington, Va.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alben_W._Barkley)

1958        Apr 30, Britain's Life Peerages Act 1958 allowed women to become members of the House of Lords.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1961        Apr 30, Willie Mays of the SF Giants hit 4 home runs in a game with the Milwaukee Braves.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A18)
1961        Apr 30, Eastern Airlines began the 1st shuttle flights began between Wash DC, Boston and NYC.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1961        Apr 30, Premier Fidel Castro of Cuba received the Lenin Peace Prize.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1962        Apr 30, Milton Obote took over as prime minister of Uganda.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Uganda)

1968        Apr 30, U.S. Marines attacked a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do.
    (HN, 4/30/99)

1969        Apr 30, US troops in Vietnam peaked at 543,000. Over 33,000 had already been killed.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)

1970        Apr 30, President Nixon announced to a national TV audience that the United States was sending troops into Cambodia “to win the just peace that we desire.” The action that sparked widespread protest. U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas and to attack Communist border sanctuaries. Calling the joint U.S.-South Vietnamese operation "indispensable," some 32,000 American and 48,000 South Vietnamese troops captured large caches of supplies, but most Communist forces had already been withdrawn. A storm of protest against expansion of the war swept the United States and four days later four student protesters at Ohio's Kent State University were shot dead by National Guardsmen.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1970)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNQ, 5/3/98)
1970        Apr 30, Inger Stevens (b.1934, Stockholm-born star of TV’s “The Farmer’s Daughter,” died of an overdose. For all intents and purposes, Ms. Stevens' death was a suicide but following her death, it came out in the tabloids that she had been secretly married to African-American Ike Jones since 1961. The couple was estranged at the time of her death.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0828447/bio)
1970        Apr 30, Yoshimi Tanaka and a group of students of the Red Army Faction, including Shiro Akagi, seized a Japan Airlines jet and flew to Pyongyang, N. Korea, in Japan's first ever case of air piracy. In 1996 Tanaka was sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3c4bk7)(AP, 6/5/07)(www.tkb.org/KeyLeader.jsp?memID=102)

1973        Apr 30, President Nixon announced the resignations of his aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean. Nixon announced that he would nominate Elliot Richardson as US attorney general to oversee the Watergate investigation.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)

1974        Apr 30, President Nixon handed over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings.
    (www.watergate.info/chronology/1974.shtml)

1975        Apr 30, The city of Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front forces. The last American forces evacuated Saigon as South Vietnam surrendered unconditionally to the Communist North Vietnamese. At 8:35 a.m. the last Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, departed as North Vietnamese troops pour into Saigon and encounter little resistance. By 11 a.m. the Viet Cong flag flew from the presidential palace. President Minh broadcast a message of unconditional surrender. Graham Martin, the US ambassador to South Vietnam, made a hasty departure. The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh City and Nguyen Huu Tho was the first mayor. The war left 58,200 Americans dead, 153,300 wounded, and 2,124 missing in action. The Communists listed 1 million dead, 300,000 missing and 2 million dead civilians. President Gerald Ford, closing a chapter in United States history, called upon Americans "to avoid recriminations about the past, to look ahead to the many goals we share."
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A1)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1977        Apr 30, In Argentina 14 women whose children had disappeared went to the Plaza de Mayo to demonstrate their cause. Police said they could not stay there so they began to walk around the pyramid in the center of the plaza. In 2006 they completed their 1,500th and last demonstration [see Dec 1977].
    (SSFC, 2/26/06, p.E3)

1980        Apr 30, In Pinole, Ca., Rena Aguilar was stabbed to death. 4 days later as police closed in James R. Odle shot and killed Officer Floyd Swartz. Odle was convicted and sentenced to death but his competency was later questioned due to a removed temporal lobe following a car accident. Swartz was the father of Amber Swartz, born 4 months after his death. Amber Swartz-Garcia disappeared in 1988.
    (SFC, 2/7/01, p.A19)(SFC, 7/7/09, p.C5)
1980        Apr 30, Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London. Only after the incident was over did it become known that Iraq had trained and armed the gunmen in order to try to embarrass Iran.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_Embassy_Siege)
1980        Apr 30, Juliana Z(1909-2004), Queen of the Netherlands, abdicated. Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, was crowned queen of Netherlands.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliana_of_the_Netherlands)

1981        Apr 30, William Eugene Cox and Annika Oestberg Deasy (27) robbed and killed Joseph Torre (58), a restaurant owner, in Stockton, Ca. A few days later they killed Sgt. Richard Helbush and stole his patrol car. They were both caught and sentenced to long jail terms. Cox later hanged himself in jail. In 1999 Sweden called for the transfer of Deasy to Sweden under the 1983 Strasbourg Treaty, which provided for prisoner transfers. In 2009 a Swedish court ruled that Annika Ostberg (55) would be released in 2011.
    (SFC, 11/9/99, p.A13)(AP, 11/16/09)

1983        Apr 30, McKinley Morganfield (68), better known as Muddy Waters, died. The US blues singer and guitarist (Mad Love) was known as the King of the Blues. The Mississippi-born guitarist revolutionized the genre in Chicago in the 1940s and 50s with his electric blues.
    (HNQ, 1/28/99)(www.muddywaters.com/bio.html)

1986        Apr 30, Ranch foreman James Hazelton (28) and brother-in-law Peter Sparagana (23) were murdered near Huntsville, Texas, after they interrupted a burglary. Gary Johnson (59) was later convicted of the murders and was executed on Jan 12, 2010.
    (SFC, 1/13/10, p.A6)(www.itemonline.com/local/local_story_011092452.html)

1987        Apr 30, President Reagan welcomed Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone to the White House.
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1987        Apr 30, William Bennett, US Education Secretary, called for mandatory AIDS testing for several groups of people, including hospital patients and prison inmates.
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1987        Apr 30, The Christian Coalition, created by Pat Robertson, was incorporated.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Coalition_of_America)
1987        Apr 30, Pope John Paul II began a five-day visit to West Germany.
    (AP, 4/30/97)

1988        Apr 30, World Exposition, Expo 88 opened in Brisbane, Australia.
    (http://expomuseum.com/1988/)
1988        Apr 30, Gen. Manuel Noriega, waving a machete, vowed at a rally to keep fighting U.S. efforts to oust him as Panama's military ruler.
    (AP, 4/30/98)

1989        Apr 30, President Bush attended a parade in New York City celebrating the bicentennial of the American presidency.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1989        Apr 30, Sergio Leone (60), Italian director (Good, Bad & Ugly), died.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0001466/)

1990        Apr 30, Hostage Frank Reed was released by his captives in Lebanon, the second American freed in eight days.
    (AP, 4/30/00)

1991        Apr 30, Former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas announced his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 4/30/01)
1991        Apr 29-1991 Apr 31, A cyclone in Bangladesh killed an estimated 131,000 people. 9 million were left homeless. Thousands of survivors died from hunger and water borne disease.
    (http://tinyurl.com/duk2u)(www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1992        Apr 30, As rioting in Los Angeles entered its second day, President Bush condemned the violence and said the Justice Department would intensify its investigation of police conduct in the beating of Rodney King.
    (AP, 4/30/97)

1993        Apr 30, Top-ranked women's tennis player Monica Seles was stabbed in the back during a match in Hamburg, Germany, by a man who called himself a fan of second-ranked German player Steffi Graf. Convicted of causing grievous bodily harm, he received a suspended sentence.
    (AP, 4/30/98)

1994        Apr 30, The Eurovision Song Contest was held in Dublin’s Point Theater. The first performance of Riverdance was held there which featured a modern form of Irish stepdancing.
    (WSJ, 3/12/96, p. A-16)
1994        Apr 30, The counting of ballots began in South Africa's first all-race elections.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1994        Apr 30, Some 100,000 men, women and children fleeing ethnic slaughter in Rwanda crossed into neighboring Tanzania. In Rwanda Tutsis were singled out, abducted and massacred at a convent close to an army camp. In 2010 in Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda handed down a life sentence to Ildephonse Hategekimana, a lieutenant from the former Rwandan army, for ordering the massacre. He was found guilty of genocide, murder and rape.
    (AP, 4/30/99)(AFP, 12/6/10)

1995        Apr 30, President Clinton announced he would end U.S. trade and investment with Iran, denouncing the Tehran government as "inspiration and paymaster to terrorists."
    (AP, 4/30/00)
1995        Apr 30, Federated merged the A&S (Abraham & Straus) stores into Macy's, Bloomingdale's and Stern's.
    (http://tenant-search.net/dealmakers/1995%20Issues/DM042195.asp)
1995        Apr 30, More than 10,000 soldiers, students and children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, celebrated the 20th anniversary of the end of the war.
    (AP, 4/30/00)

1996        Apr 30, In Fort Myers, Florida, members of a teen militia called the Lords of Chaos slew high-school band director Mark Schwebes. They had begun a crime spree on Apr 13 with acts of arson and vandalism. Arrested were Kevin Foster,18, Derek Shields, 18, Peter Magnotti, 17, Christopher Black, 18, Christopher Burnett, 17, and Thomas Tarrone, 16.
1996        Apr 30, President Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres signed an accord in Washington extending U.S. help to Israel in countering terrorism.
    (AP, 4/30/97)

1997        Apr 30, ABC aired the "coming out" of the title character in the sitcom "Ellen," played by Ellen DeGeneres.
    (AP, 4/30/98)
1997        Apr 30, President Clinton reopened the newly renovated Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 4/30/98)
1997        Apr 30, The Senate approved the nomination of Alexis Herman to be labor secretary.
    (AP, 4/30/98)
1997        Apr 30, Sarah Patterson (11) was sexually assaulted and murdered with her throat slit near Fort Worth, Texas. Her brother was beaten, but survived and later testified against Bobby Wayne Woods. Woods (44) was executed on Dec 3, 2009.
    (SFC, 12/4/09, p.A18)(www.prodeathpenalty.com/Pending/08/jan08.htm)
1997        Apr 30, A huge blast killed 22 Albanians in the village of Selize. They were stripping the bronze casings of mortar shells stored in a cave.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A13)

1998        Apr 30, President Clinton questioned the conduct of Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr and dismissed Republican challenges to his own character as "high-level static" during a news conference.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1998        Apr 30, The US Senate approved the expansion of NATO to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 30, In Florida lawmakers passed a bill that required girls under 18 to notify at least one parent prior to an abortion.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 30, United and Delta airlines formed an alliance that would control one-third of all U.S. passenger seats.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1998        Apr 30, A study reported in the New England Journal of medicine that RU-486, an abortion pill, was 92% effective in causing abortions with 15 days without surgery.
    (SFC, 4/30/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 30, A report in Nature traced mammals back to around 100 million years before the present using a “molecular clock.”
    (SFC, 4/30/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 30, The 85,000 ton Disney cruise ship Disney Magic was scheduled to debut.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T5)
1998        Apr 30, In California Daniel V. Jones (40) blew up his truck and fatally shot himself on a connector bridge between the harbor and Century Freeways freeway with live TV coverage. He had HIV and displayed an anti-HMO banner before killing himself.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A3)(SFC, 5/2/98, p.A3)
1998        Apr 30, In Indiana Antoine Whitehead (19) robbed the KeyBank in Carmel and killed Penny Schmitt (32) and shot 3 co-workers. He had just been refused a loan and killed himself following an intensive manhunt.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Apr 30, In Northern Ireland the IRA refused to disarm as part of the peace accord, which demanded the decommission of weaponry to begin in June and finish in 2 years.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.D2)

1999        Apr 30, The US State Dept. annual report on terrorism listed Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and Syria as sponsoring terrorism groups.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A8)
1999        Apr 30, The Florida Legislature gave final approval to a school voucher program that would entitle students in the worst public schools to receive $3-25,000 a year to help pay for private or parochial school tuition. In 2002 a judge struck down the school-voucher law.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 8/6/02, p.A1)
1999        Apr 30, Cambodia was admitted as the 10th member of the Association of Asian Nations (ASEAN).
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.B1)
1999        Apr 30, In Guatemala some 600 peasants stormed a police station in Huehuetenango and freed 12 former paramilitary members who had just been sentenced to 25 years in prison for killing peasants in Colotenango in 1993.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.B1)
1999        Apr 30, In London a bomb exploded at the Admiral Duncan pub, a gay bar in Soho. 2-3 people were killed and over 70 wounded. David Copeland (24) was convicted for the bombing in 2000.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A1)(AP, 4/30/00)(SFC, 7/1/00, p.A14)
1999        Apr 30, Ecuador reached an agreement with the IMF for a $900 million loan package.
    (WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1,16)
1999        Apr 30, NATO undertook over 600 sorties and strikes in Montenegro and Kosovo reportedly killed 13 people.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 30, In Belgrade, Serbia, a 5.5 earthquake struck. Later in the day Jesse Jackson met with the 3 captured Americans and planned to meet with Pres. Milosevic for their release. In an interview Pres. Milosevic pronounced that his countrymen were willing to died to defend their rights.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A1,6)(AP, 4/30/00)
1999        Apr 30, Serbian forces began a forced evacuation of Prizren and 10,000 people crossed the border to Albania.
    (SFC, 5/1/99, p.A6)

2000        Apr 30, The Clinton administration defended their decision to classify AIDS as a threat to national security as a means to garner attention and funding to fight the disease worldwide.
    (SFC, 5/1/00, p.A7)
2000        Apr 30, The 4th annual gay rights rally, billed as the Millennium March, was held in Washington DC. The crowd in the national Mall was estimated from 200-750 thousand.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.A13)(AP, 4/30/01)
2000        Apr 30, It was reported by the Royal Swedish Academy that the Earth is currently hotter than at any time in recorded human history.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.A17)
2000        Apr 30, In Guatemala villagers in Todos Santos Cuchuman stoned to death a Japanese tourist, Tetsuo Yamahiro (40), and his tour’s bus driver, Edgar Castellanos (35), in the belief that they had come to steal children. The driver was cremated with gasoline.
    (SFC, 5/1/00, p.A14)
2000        Apr 30, In Sri Lanka rebels captured a key army base at Pallai.
    (SFC, 5/1/00, p.A13)

2001        Apr 30, US Immigration offices were converged on by illegal immigrants on the last day for applying for residency status without leaving the country.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.A3)
2001        Apr 30, The SF Board of Supervisors passed a measure 9-2 to allow city employees medical benefits for a sex change.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 30, Chandra Levy (24), an intern from Modesto, Ca.,  was last seen at a health club near her apartment in Washington, DC. On July 5 the aunt of Chandra Levy reported that her niece told her of a relationship with US Rep. Gary Condit before she disappeared. Levy’s remains were found May 22, 2002, in Rock Creek Park, Washington DC. In 2009 Ingmar Guandique (27), a Salvadoran immigrant already serving a 10-year sentence for attacking 2 women in the same park, was charged in her murder. In 2010 Scott Higham and Sari Horwitz authored “Finding Chandra: The True Washington Murder Mystery.” In Nov 22, 2010, a jury found Guandique guilty of 2 counts of 1st degree murder. On Feb 11, 2011, Guandique was sentenced to 60 years in prison.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A3)(SFC, 7/6/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/30/02)(SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/23/09, p.A4)(SSFC, 5/9/10, p.F1)(SFC, 11/23/10, p.A12)(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A6)
2001        Apr 30, The Soyuz-32, carrying California businessman, multimillionaire Dennis Tito and 2 Russian astronauts, Talgat Musabayev and Yuri Baturin, docked with the Int’l. Space Station. The Soyuz landed in the Kazak steppe on May 6.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.B3)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.A15)(AP, 4/30/02)
2001        Apr 30, In Colombia Carlos Alberto Trespalacios (33), information director for the Medellin sports institute, was slain in the El Poblado district.
    (SFC, 5/2/01, p.A9)
2001        Apr 30, It was reported that Germany’s Chancellor Schroeder had proposed a draft for turning the EU Executive Commission into a European government and giving the EU Parliament full power over the 15-nation budget.
    (SFC, 4/30/01, p.A8)
2001        Apr 30, In Indonesia 363 of 500 legislators censured Pres. Wahid for a 2nd time this year.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.A8)
2001        Apr 30, In Mexico Zapatista rebels broke off contact with the government due to the watered down Indian rights legislation.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.A9)
2001        Apr 30, Five Palestinians were killed in bomb blasts in Gaza and the West Bank.
    (SFC, 5/1/01, p.A10)
2001        Apr 30, In the Philippines the army went on alert after Cardinal Sin urged people into the streets to defend democracy and Pres. Arroyo from defenders of former Pres. Estrada. Some 20,000 followers of Estrada tried to storm the presidential palace and at least 4 people were killed.
    (SFC, 4/30/01, p.A8)(SFC, 5/1/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 30, In Zambia the ruling party nominated Pres. Chiluba for re-election following a vote to amend the constitution.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A1)

2002        Apr 30, Benevolence International Foundation, an Islamic charity based in suburban Chicago, and its director were charged with perjury and accused by the FBI of supporting terrorists; the charity maintains its innocence. Enaam Arnaout later pleaded guilty to racketeering, admitting he had defrauded donors by diverting some of the money to Islamic military groups in Bosnia and Chechnya.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2002        Apr 30, Striking new images from the upgraded Hubble Space Telescope were unveiled.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A9)
2002        Apr 30, A US grand jury indicted Colombia’s rebel FARC army and 6 of its members on charges of murdering 3 Americans.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A10)
2002        Apr 30, Israel blocked the UN proposed fact-finding mission to Jenin. Israeli forces pulled out of Hebron and 26 Palestinians emerged from the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A1)
2002        Apr 30, North Korea accepted a US invitation on talks to curb its missile program and military exports.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)
2002        Apr 30, In Pakistan Pres. Musharraf won a resounding mandate for 5 more years in office, but the turnout was estimated at only 25-30%. Published figures showed 97.7% support and over 50% turnout and much voter fraud was alleged.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A10)(SFC, 5/2/02, p.A10)
2002        Apr 30, Russia’s military command said the Chechen commander Shamil Basayev had been killed.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)
2002        Apr 30, In Somalia a fire destroyed half of the Bakara market in Mogadishu. At least 7 people were killed in attempts to stop looters.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A13)

2003        Apr 30, Donald Rumsfeld visited Iraq and hailed its liberation. US soldiers fired on anti-American protesters in the city of Fallujah; the mayor said two people were killed and 14 wounded.
    (AP, 4/30/03)(SFC, 5/1/03, A1)
2003        Apr 30, The U.S. Navy withdrew from its disputed Vieques bombing range in Puerto Rico, prompting celebrations by islanders.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2003        Apr 30, Eric Gupton (b.1960), founding member of the Black theater troupe Pomo Afro Homos, died in SF of complications from AIDS. The group’s breakthrough first show was titled “Fierce Love: Stories From black Gay Life” (1990).
    (SFC, 2/18/08, p.E1)
2003        Apr 30, Burundi's Tutsi minority handed over the presidency to Domitien Ndayizeye of the Hutu majority as part of the peace process aimed at ending 9 1/2 years of civil war.
    (AP, 4/30/03)
2003        Apr 30, In Israel some 700,000 workers closed down public services in an open-ended strike to protest proposed spending cuts and mass firings.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A9)
2003        Apr 30, US Ambassador Dan Kurtzer met with Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to present him with an internationally backed Mideast peace plan, that envisioned Palestinian statehood within three years. Mediators presented Israeli and Palestinian leaders with a new Middle East "road map," a U.S.-backed blueprint for ending 31 months of violence and establishing a Palestinian state.
    (AP, 4/30/03)(AP, 4/30/04)
2003        Apr 30, Mahmoud Abbas took office as Palestinian prime minister.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2003        Apr 30, Libyan Foreign Minister Abdel Rahman Shalqam said his government accepted responsibility for the 1998 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A7)
2003        Apr 30, North Korea was reported to be a country with 1.17 million military personnel, the world's 5th largest. Its air force had more than 1,700 aircraft and the navy more than 800 ships. In March Gen. Leon J. LaPorte said "North Korea maintains a substantial chemical weapons stockpile and a production capability that threatens both our military forces and civilian population centers in South Korea and Japan." In addition, he said, North Korea has the capability "to develop, produce and potentially weaponize biological warfare agents."
    (AP, 4/30/03)
2003        Apr 30, South and North Korea agreed in Cabinet-level talks to peacefully resolve the nuclear crisis on the Korean Peninsula.
    (AP, 4/30/03)

2004        Apr 30, On ABC's "Nightline," Ted Koppel read aloud the names of 721 U.S. servicemen and women killed in the Iraq war. The Sinclair Broadcast Group refused to air the program on seven ABC stations.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2004        Apr 30, Graphic photographs were shown on TV screens across the Middle East of naked Iraqi prisoners being humiliated by smiling U.S. military police. Pres. Bush condemned the mistreatment of prisoners, saying it "does not reflect the nature of the American people."
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, Former NBA star Jayson Williams was acquitted of manslaughter in the shotgun slaying of a limousine driver at his mansion, but found guilty of trying to cover up the shooting.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, Michael Jackson pleaded not guilty in Santa Maria, Calif., to a grand jury indictment that expanded the child molestation case against him.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2004        Apr 30, In the SF Bay Area the National Labor Relations Board ruled that cab drivers for an East Bay syndicate to taxi companies are employees, not independent contractors, and therefore entitled to unionize. The companies refused to negotiate.
    (SFC, 7/28/04, p.B5)
2004        Apr 30, Bosnian Serb authorities offered details of six previously undisclosed mass graves in the town of Srebrenica.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, In Indonesia hundreds of protesters clashed with police as officers re-arrested  Abu Bakar Bashir (66), a Muslim cleric accused of heading an al-Qaeda-linked terror network. Muslims and Christians with homemade bombs and military-issue weapons clashed in the eastern city of Ambon, leaving 15 wounded and scores of houses in flames.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, Iraqi troops led by Maj. Gen. Jassim Mohammed Saleh (49), one of Saddam Hussein's generals, replaced U.S. Marines and raised the Iraqi flag at the entrance to Fallujah under a plan to end the month long siege of the city. A suicide car bomb on the outskirts killed two Americans and wounded six. Saleh was replaced May 3 by Muhammad Latif, a former Iraqi intelligence officer.
    (AP, 4/30/04)(SFC, 5/4/04, p.A11)
2004        Apr 30, U.S. troops and radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr agreed to a three-day truce in negotiations to end the standoff at Najaf.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, The Associated Press found that around 1,361 Iraqis were killed from April 1 to April 30, 10 times the figure of at least 136 U.S. troops who died during the same period.
    (AP, 4/30/04)
2004        Apr 30, A bus skidded off a mountain highway in central Nepal, killing at least 29 people.
    (AP, 5/1/04)
2004        Apr 30, In southern Vietnam a tourist boat carrying about 130 passengers sank off the coast. Authorities recovered 22 bodies, including one 8-year-old boy.
    (AP, 5/1/04)

2005        Apr 30, James Toney outpointed John Ruiz to win the WBA heavyweight title in NY.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2005        Apr 30, Jennifer Wilbanks (32) of Duluth, Georgia, turned up in Albuquerque, NM, after being missing for 4 days. She was scheduled to be married Apr 30, and got “cold feet.”
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.A2)
2005        Apr 30, “With all of its liabilities in dollars and most of its assets in foreign currencies, America gets a wealth boost when the dollar drops.” The Bank of Japan and other central banks have amassed $2 trillion in foreign-exchange reserves, perhaps 70% in dollars. Should the dollar fall, these central banks will be exposed to heavy capital losses.
    (Econ, 4/30/05, p.70,74)
2005        Apr 30, In Egypt a bomb blast and tour bus shooting took place near Cairo tourist sites. A man identified as a suspect in an April 7 bombing blew himself up as he leapt off a bridge during a police chase. Less than two hours later 2 veiled women opened fire on a tour bus in a historic part of Cairo and one of them was killed in a gunbattle with security guards.
    (AP, 5/1/05)
2005        Apr 30, Insurgents launched fresh attacks in Baghdad and northern Iraq, killing at least 10 Iraqis and wounding more than 30.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2005        Apr 30, Nepal's King Gyanendra lifted a state of emergency he imposed after seizing power in February.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2005        Apr 30, Palestinian security officials said Israeli special forces entered Tulkarem before dawn and arrested 18-year-old Mohammed Shalhoub. Israeli military officials said Shalhoub was an Islamic Jihad militant preparing an imminent suicide attack against Israelis and had already filmed the video testament often left by suicide bombers.
    (AP, 5/1/05)
2005        Apr 30, Students and administrators at the main campus of Puerto Rico's largest university agreed to end a 3-week-old strike called to protest a 33 percent tuition increase.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2005        Apr 30, Sudanese leaders began work on drafting an interim constitution expected to seal a peace deal with the south, but major opposition groups boycotted the opening session.
    (AFP, 4/30/05)
2005        Apr 30, In western Turkey a police officer was killed and four others were injured when a parcel bomb exploded in the hands of a bomb disposal expert in a seaside resort town.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
2005        Apr 30, Vietnam marked the 30th anniversary of the war's end.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2006        Apr 30, Some 100,000 rallied in Washington DC, SF and other US cities to urge the Bush administration to take decisive action to stop the genocide in Darfur.
    (SFC, 5/1/06, p.A1)
2006        Apr 30, It was reported that on average a family of four should expect to pay $261 a day for food and lodging when traveling in the US this summer.
    (SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G2)
2006        Apr 30, In San Francisco Daniel Elizalde (17) shot and killed Karl Bartolome (19) as Bartolome walked with his girlfriend and nephew at Lisbon and Persia streets in the Excelsior district. Elizalde later pleaded guilty to 2nd degree murder and was sentenced to 15 years to life.
    (SFC, 12/25/09, p.D2)(http://tinyurl.com/ydhpjr4)
2006        Apr 30, In Afghanistan Edward Caraballo (44), an American jailed for two years in Kabul on charges of torturing alleged terrorists in a makeshift jail, was freed two months early after a government decree. Police found an Indian hostage's beheaded body in southern Afghanistan. Taliban militants said they shot the hostage dead as he tried to escape.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, In Australia rescuers made voice contact with two miners trapped a half mile beneath the earth for nearly a week. Todd Russell (34) and Brant Webb (37) were trapped April 25 when a small earthquake caused a rock collapse at the Beaconsfield Gold Mine. One of their co-workers was killed in the quake.
    (AP, 5/1/06)
2006        Apr 30, A fisherman off Barbados found a boat with the bodies of 11 men from Senegal. The boat had left Senegal Christmas eve with 52 migrant people and was apparently bound for the Canary Islands.
    (AP, 6/1/06)
2006        Apr 30, British environment ministry officials said work has begun to cull chickens at two more poultry farms in eastern England after the suspected discovery there of the H7 strain of bird flu.
    (AFP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, China successfully tested a locally made magnetic levitation train, the first time the country has achieved the feat without using foreign technology. The 20-ton test maglev train ran steadily on a 1,400-foot experimental line in the provincial capital of Chengdu, the capital of southwestern Sichuan province.
    (AP, 5/1/06)
2006        Apr 30, Congo's electoral commission said that national elections, the first in 40 years for the violence-plagued central African nation, will take place July 30, about a month later than planned.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Egypt's parliament agreed to a two-year extension of emergency law requested by the government while it prepares replacement anti-terrorism laws. Egyptian security forces hunting bombers behind attacks last week in the Sinai peninsula fought gunbattles with suspects and killed 3 of them.
    (AP, 4/30/06)(AFP, 5/2/06)
2006        Apr 30, In Ethiopia visiting Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has said he backed plans for an expanded United Nations Security Council, adding that he would present his country's position at the African Union (AU) headquarters in Addis Ababa.
    (AFP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, In Iraq the office of President Jalal Talabani said he had met with representatives of seven armed groups and was optimistic they may agree to lay down their weapons. Bombs and drive-by shootings killed 12 people. The bodies of 7 Iraqi men, who apparently were kidnapped and tortured, were found in three areas of the capital. Three security contractors were killed and two others injured in a roadside bomb attack 30 miles south of Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/30/06)(AP, 5/1/06)
2006        Apr 30, Israel's Cabinet voted to modify the route of its West Bank separation barrier to put thousands of Palestinians on the "Palestinian" side of the enclosure.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Suspected Islamic militants raided a village in Indian-controlled Kashmir and killed 22 Hindus, lining them outside their homes and shooting them execution-style. Police found the bodies of 4 of 13 Hindu cattle grazers who were abducted over the weekend by suspected Islamic militants. 9 more bodies were found the next day.
    (AFP, 5/1/06)(AP, 5/1/06)
2006        Apr 30, Laotians voted for a new parliament in a largely symbolic exercise since all the candidates belonged to the communist party. But in an effort to bring in fresh faces, only about a quarter were incumbents.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Nepal's Parliament called for a cease-fire with Maoist insurgents and elections for an assembly to rewrite the constitution, as the new PM Girija Prasad Koirala (84) urged the rebels to sit down for talks.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, In Pakistan an army spokesman said Mohammed Farooq, a senior Pakistani scientist suspected of helping leak nuclear weapons technology to Iran, Libya, and North Korea, has been released after two years in detention.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Saudi King Abdullah issued a decree lowering domestic gasoline prices by about 25%. That would lower the cost to about 16 cents per liter.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, Serbia braced for suspension of EU aid and trade talks as deadline expired for the arrest of war-crimes fugitive Ratco Mladic.
    (WSJ, 5/2/06, p.A1)
2006        Apr 30, In eastern Sri Lanka at least 18 rebels were killed and many wounded when Tamil Tiger guerrillas launched a major attack against a breakaway faction.
    (AP, 4/30/06)
2006        Apr 30, The Sudanese government said it was ready to sign a draft peace deal with rebels from its Darfur region, but the rebels said they still had reservations about the agreement.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2007        Apr 30, The US announced a major expansion of offshore oil and gas development, with proposed lease sales covering 48 million new acres.
    (WSJ, 5/1/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 30, US and Mexican law enforcement officials said Mexican druglords are taking over the business of smuggling migrants into the United States, using them as human decoys to divert authorities from billions of dollars in cocaine shipments across the same border.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, Delta Air Lines emerged from bankruptcy after 19 months in Chapter 11.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.84)
2007        Apr 30, Tom Poston (b.1921), American TV and film actor, died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Poston)
2007        Apr 30, The presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan, a meeting arranged by Turkish leaders, agreed to share intelligence on extremist groups to bolster efforts to deny sanctuary, training and financing to terrorists in both countries. NATO-led troops killed 75 suspected insurgents on the first day of an operation against Taliban militants in a valley in southern Helmand province. Hundreds of people demonstrated in the Shindand district of the western province of Herat, after coalition and Afghan operations there on April 27 and 29, insisting that civilians were among the victims. Police the next day said at least 30 civilians, including women and children, were among those killed in Shindand's fighting. The US military reported killing 136 rebels over 3 days of fighting in western Afghanistan. One US soldier died in the clashes.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(AP, 5/1/07)(AFP, 5/1/07)(WSJ, 5/1/07, p.A1)
2007        Apr 30, Miles Hilton-Barber (58), A blind British adventurer, touched down in Sydney Monday to end an epic 13,500-mile flight by microlight aircraft from London. His 54-day journey was performed under the supervision of sighted co-pilot Richard Meredith-Hardy.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, A British judge sentenced five men to life in prison for plotting to bomb several targets in London including a popular nightclub, power plants and shopping mall in a trial that exposed links between the men and at least two of the suicide bombers who attacked the capital two years ago. Mohammed Junaid Babar's testimony in the yearlong trial revealed how disaffected Britons were trained for terrorism in Pakistan, where many have family ties. The former terrorist turned informant was arrested in New York in 2004, and has since given evidence to prosecutors in Britain, the US and Pakistan.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(AP, 5/1/07)
2007        Apr 30, Britain's first convicted war criminal was sentenced to a year in prison and dismissed from the army in connection with the death of an Iraqi hotel worker. Corp. Donald Payne had pleaded guilty to inhumanely treating Iraqi civilians in southern Basra in 2003.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, In China a manager of a feed company and one of the chemical's producers said that the mildly toxic chemical melamine is commonly added to animal feed in China. The process fraudulently boosts the feed's sales value but risks introducing the chemical into meat eaten by humans.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, Egyptian authorities released two Muslim Brotherhood lawmakers but ordered 12 other members of the country's most powerful opposition group detained.
    (AP, 5/1/07)
2007        Apr 30, A suicide car bomber apparently targeting an Interior Ministry convoy struck an Iraqi checkpoint near a busy square in the predominantly Sunni Arab area of Harthiyah in western Baghdad, killing 4 people and wounding 10. Some 50 gunmen attacked a police station in a mainly Sunni Arab area in the northern city of Mosul, prompting clashes as police chased the attackers through the streets. 4 gunmen were killed and two were detained, while one policeman was wounded. A parked car bomb struck a police patrol in the same area, killing one policeman and wounding two. A suicide bomber struck a crowd of funeral mourners north of Baghdad killing over 30 people. Nationwide at least 102 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(SFC, 5/1/07, p.A12)
2007        Apr 30, An Israeli government commission aimed harsh criticism at PM Ehud Olmert and other officials for their handling of last summer's war in Lebanon.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, Hundreds of protesters briefly pushed into the Palestinian education ministry as Fatah-allied teachers in the West Bank went on strike to press for the payment of overdue salaries. Angry Palestinian demonstrators stormed the Egyptian embassy in Gaza City, demanding that Egypt release five Palestinians held in Cairo jails.
    (AP, 5/1/07)(AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, In the northern Philippines Mayor Julian Resuello of San Carlos died 2 days after he was shot to death.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, The South African government and AIDS campaigners launched a joint national body to oversee a program aimed at halving the country's rate of new infections.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, The Sudanese armed forces vowed to "crush" a coalition of rebel groups in Darfur for killing an officer whose helicopter had landed in north Darfur after a technical failure.
    (Reuters, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, In southern Thailand suspected Islamic insurgents exploded a bomb at a busy night market and wounded 20 people.
    (AP, 5/1/07)
2007        Apr 30, In southern Tunisia a stampede at an open-air concert by stars of the Arab version of "American Idol" killed seven young people and injured 32.
    (AP, 5/1/07)
2007        Apr 30, The Turkish stock market plunged, reacting sharply to political tensions as the Islamic-rooted government comes under strong pressure from secular circles to call parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, President Hugo Chavez announced he would pull Venezuela out of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, a largely symbolic move because the nation has already paid off its debts to the lending institutions.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2008        Apr 30, The US Federal Reserve cut interest rates for a 7th time in 8 months, but signaled that the rate-cutting may be nearing an end. The federal funds rate was lowered to 2% from 2.25%.
    (WSJ, 5/1/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 30, Scientists at Hewlett-Packard said they have discovered a fourth basic type of electrical circuit that could lead to a computer you never have to boot up. The three fundamental elements of a passive circuit included resistors, capacitors and inductors. In 1971 Leon Chua of the University of California at Berkeley, theorized there should be a fourth called a memory resistor, or memristor, which remembers the direction and the amount of charge that flows through it.
    (Reuters, 5/1/08)(SFC, 5/1/08, p.C1)
2008        Apr 30, Afghan security forces raided a Kabul hide-out where militants with suspected links to the attack on President Hamid Karzai were holed up. Seven people died in the pre-dawn raid, including a child.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, Attorney General Robert McClelland said Australian gay and lesbian couples will have the same rights as heterosexuals under new laws but marriage will remain off limits.
    (AFP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, Western Australia state police raided the Perth offices of the Sunday Times, which is published by Australia's largest newspaper publisher, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited. Staff said police were searching for the source of a leak that led to a story alleging the state government planned to use 16 million dollars (14.9 million US) in taxpayer funds on an advertising campaign to help its re-election.
    (AFP, 5/1/08)
2008        Apr 30, Canada pledged an extra C$50 million ($49.5 million) for international food aid and said it would also allow its money to be used to buy food abroad and not tie it to purchases of Canadian produce.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, Syncrude Canada's operations were under investigation by environmental regulators after as many as 500 birds landed in the waste water in the oil sands region of northern Alberta.
    (Reuters, 5/1/08)
2008        Apr 30, The Olympic torch returned to Chinese soil after a turbulent 20-nation tour, landing in the bustling financial capital of Hong Kong where officials deported at least seven activists before the flame's arrival.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, In Egypt state news agency MENA said Palestinian factions meeting in Cairo for talks with Egyptian security officials have agreed to an Egyptian proposal for a truce with Israel starting in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, Baghdad sent a delegation to Tehran with "evidence, confessions and pictures" indicating that Iran is supplying weapons and training fighters who are locked in a violent standoff with US and Iraqi troops. PM al-Maliki accused the Mahdi Army of using civilians as human shields, and vowed to continue the crackdown against militias. 2 people were killed and 16 wounded overnight in Sadr City. Clashes in Baghdad killed at least 25 people. 3 US soldiers were killed in Baghdad. A US soldier was killed by an explosion in Ninevah province.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(AP, 5/1/08)(SFC, 5/1/08, p.A2)
2008        Apr 30, Ethiopian troops allied to Somalia's shaky government opened fire on civilians in a street in southwestern Somalia, killing 13 after an explosion there killed two soldiers.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, An official said Nepal will give the families of the 13,000 people killed in the country's decade-long civil war more than 1,500 dollars each in compensation.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, In Niger a summit of nine west African states convened in Niamey to consider a proposed 20-year, 5.5 billion euro (8.6 billion dollar) program to rescue the Niger River from extinction and guarantee the future of 110 million people.
    (AFP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, In the southern Philippines troops captured a camp that housed a bomb-making factory of al-Qaida-linked militants after heavy fighting.
    (AP, 4/30/08)
2008        Apr 30, It was reported that the value of spinner dolphin teeth in the Solomon Islands has appreciated 400% in the last year from about .065 US cents to 26 US cents. Dolphin teeth have been used there for centuries as currency.
    (WSJ, 4/30/08, p.A1)
2008        Apr 30, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in southern Sudan and called for demarcation of the contested oil-rich border region between the north and south.
    (AP, 5/1/08)
2008        Apr 30, President Hugo Chavez ordered the expropriation of Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker, after attempts by the government to acquire a majority stake in the company failed. Chavez said Venezuela will turn Siderurgica del Orinoco, which was controlled by Luxembourg-based Ternium SA., into "a socialist company."
    (AP, 5/1/08)
2008        Apr 30, Zimbabwe said it has decided to float its local currency on foreign exchange markets in an attempt to eliminate speculation on the black market. Farmers tore up their tobacco crop in protest on the auction floors of Harare as state price controls to combat hyperinflation threatened to wipe out their profits. An unidentified senior official with Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF party said results from the March 29 election gave opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai 47% of the votes while Mugabe trailed with 43%.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(AP, 5/1/08)

2009        Apr 30, Obama administration officials said Chrysler will file for bankruptcy protection after overnight talks broke down with a small group of the company's creditors.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, Chrysler filed for bankruptcy protection after overnight talks broke down with a small group of the company's creditors. Canada's government said it will take an ownership stake in Chrysler in exchange for more than $2 billion in loans, under a sweeping North American rescue plan. Ottawa and Washington demanded the Detroit company partner with Fiat as a condition for funding.
    (AP, 4/30/09)(Reuters, 5/1/09)
2009        Apr 30, In Illinois Ali al-Marri (43) pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to provide material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization. A second charge of providing material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization was dropped. His case had sparked a legal debate over whether the government can hold terrorism suspects indefinitely. The Qatar native faced up to 15 years in prison and a $250,000 fine at his July 30 sentencing. On Oct 29 a federal judge sentenced Ali Saleh Kahlah al-Marri to 8 years in prison. 
    (AP, 5/1/09)(SFC, 10/30/09, p.A8)
2009        Apr 30, The San Francisco Municipal Railway announced plans to raise adult bus and streetcar fares, effective July 1, by 50 cents to $2.00, the largest one-time raise in nearly a century. Sweeping service cuts were also approved.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.A1)
2009        Apr 30, In Texas Derrick Lamone Johnson was executed for the 1999 rape and murder of LaTausha Curry (25) abducted while she trying to make a call at a pay phone. He was the 14th Texas prisoner executed this year.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.A8)
2009        Apr 30, In Wisconsin Shane Kettner (36) was arrested in Nelsonville for killing his estranged girlfriend and 2 of their children.
    (SFC, 5/5/09, p.A7)
2009        Apr 30, In Azerbaijan Georgian citizen Farda Gadyrov (20) opened fire at the prestigious oil industry academy in Baku, killing 12 people and wounding 13 before turning the gun on himself.
    (Reuters, 4/30/09)(AP, 5/1/09)
2009        Apr 30, Belgium stripped the credentials of 2 high-ranking members of Russia’s permanent mission to NATO and  expelled them on accusations of espionage.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 30, Brazil's Supreme Court struck down a 1967 press censorship law enacted during the military dictatorship. In a 7-4 vote the court ruled the law unconstitutionally violated freedom of expression.
    (AP, 5/1/09)
2009        Apr 30, British forces formally ended combat operations in Iraq, one month ahead of schedule. A solemn ceremony remembered 179 dead comrades from six years of warfare.
    (AFP, 4/30/09)(SFC, 5/1/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 30, In Beijing Japan’s PM Taro Aso called for Tokyo and Beijing to unite in facing the world's environmental and economic challenges, while playing down concerns over China's military power.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, Chinese state media reported that China has reopened its land border to tourists traveling to North Korea after a three-year break, with a group of 71 tourists visiting the isolated country earlier this week on a one day tour of Sinuiju.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, In India millions cast their votes in the third wave of month-long elections, with security tight as the staggered polls took in the Kashmir Valley and the financial capital Mumbai.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, The Iraqi government decided to kill three wild boars at the Baghdad Zoo amid worldwide fears of swine flu. No date was set for their killing. Two US Marines and a sailor were killed during combat operations in Anbar province.
    (AP, 5/1/09)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 30, Mexican health authorities said they confirmed 300 swine flu cases and 12 deaths due to the virus among a total of 679 people tested so far.
    (AP, 5/1/09)
2009        Apr 30, Mexican authorities detained 12 federal police investigators accused of leaking information to hit men who ambushed and killed 8 officers on April 18 in a failed attempt to free a high level drug cartel member.
    (SFC, 5/1/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 30, In the Netherlands 5 people died when a car slammed into a crowd at the Queen's Day festival attended by members of the royal family in the western city of Apeldoorn. A policeman as well as the assailant died the next day from their injuries. The suspect was identified by Dutch media as Karst Tates (38). Neighbors said Tates recently was fired from his job as a security guard and was to be evicted from his home in the small eastern town of Huissen because he could no longer afford the rent. An injured woman died a week later bringing the total to 7 victims.
    (AFP, 4/30/09)(AP, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/9/09)
2009        Apr 30, In Pakistan troops sent to repel a Taliban advance toward the Pakistani capital killed 14 suspected militants. Troops ousted militants from the Ambela Pass leading over the mountains into Buner and were inching toward the north. Militants, who have kidnapped dozens of lightly armed police and paramilitary troops, had burned a police station farther north and sealed off the town of Sultanwas.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, In Peru Ashaninka and Yines Indians blocked an airport in the central jungle town of Atalaya as well as two stations on a northern oil pipeline to protest laws that they say threaten their ancestral land and resources. Some 15,000 Indians have been protesting since April 9 and planned to start taking over oil and gas rigs. They said laws passed in December opened the door to privatization of water resources and jungle land which they used.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, Russia signed a deal with Georgia's two breakaway regions giving Moscow the power to guard the borders of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, a move sharply criticized in Tbilisi.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, In Saudi Arabia a lawyer said an 8-year-old girl has divorced her middle-aged husband after her father forced her to marry him last year in exchange for about $13,000. Saudi Arabia has come under increasing criticism at home and abroad for permitting child marriages. The United States, a close ally of the conservative Muslim kingdom, has called child marriage a "clear and unacceptable" violation of human rights.
    (AP, 5/1/09)
2009        Apr 30, Sri Lanka's president rejected international appeals for a cease-fire in his nation's bloody civil war, as the Tamil Tiger rebels vowed never to surrender to the advancing government forces.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, Turkey's military said its warplanes struck Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, The UN Security Council extended for another year the mandate of UN peacekeepers in southern Sudan who monitor compliance with a peace deal that ended Sudan's two-decade-long civil war.
    (Reuters, 4/30/09)
2009        Apr 30, Police in the US Virgin Islands canceled the popular J'ouvert carnival after four people were wounded in a shooting and two stabbings.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2010        Apr 30, Oil from a leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico began washing ashore in the southern US state of Louisiana, threatening an ecological disaster.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, In NYC an indictment was unsealed against Wesam El-Hanafi and Sabirhan Hasanoff for scheming to provide computer systems expertise and other goods and services to Al-Qaida. Ion June 18, 2012, Hanafi pleaded guilty federal charges of conspiracy and providing material support to a terrorist organization.
    (SFC, 5/1/10, p.A5)(SFC, 6/19/12, p.A8)
2010        Apr 30, In Arkansas several tornadoes ripped through the state, killing a woman and injuring two dozen others. Leveled homes, overturned vehicles and uprooted trees were scattered across central Arkansas.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Apr 30, Peter Lopez (60), a successful entertainment attorney who was married to actress Catherine Bach, was found dead at his home in the Encino Hills, Ca., in an apparent suicide.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Mar 30, Jadin Wong (b.1913), Chinese-American dancer and actress, died. She appeared in dozens of films including “Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation” (1939).
    (SFC, 5/12/10, p.C5)
2010        Apr 30, In southern Afghanistan foreign troops killed two women and a girl as they traveled by car.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, In Albania tens of thousands of people thronged the main square of Tirana and demanded a partial recount of the election that the opposition claims involved vote-rigging.
    (SFC, 5/1/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 30, In Argentina over 2,000 adolescents in schools across the province of Mendoza skipped classes and met in a plaza in a mass truancy organized on Facebook. A judge in Mendoza soon ordered Facebook to shut groups created by minors to organize the truancy.
    (SFC, 5/13/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 30, Shanghai kicked off the six-month World Expo with a star-studded gala ceremony set to end in a lavish blaze of fireworks and light along the city's river-front. The World Expo officially opened on May 1. Closing date was set for Oct 31.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)(AP, 5/1/10)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.42)
2010        Apr 30, A Chinese farmer attacked kindergarten students with a hammer, injuring five, before burning himself to death in China's third such assault in as many days and prompting the government to demand stricter school security nationwide.
    (AP, 4/30/10)  
2010        Apr 30, The EU's foreign affairs chief Catherine Ashton said that China is willing to discuss sanctions on Iran as long as they are carefully targeted and bolster efforts to curb the Iranian nuclear program.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, Ireland mourned the shock loss of one of the nation's best-known broadcasters, Gerry Ryan (53), who was found dead in his Dublin apartment after failing to broadcast his morning radio show, an Irish institution.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, Jordanian doctor Humam Khalili Abu-Mulal al-Balawi, who killed seven CIA employees in a suicide attack in Afghanistan late last year, called on Muslims to wage jihad and become martyrs in a posthumous message posted on extremist websites.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, Kurdish rebels killed four Turkish soldiers and wounded seven others in eastern Turkey in the largest attack on troops in several months.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Apr 30, Hezbollah's leader Sheik Hassan Nasrallah said in published remarks that Hezbollah can strike infrastructure deep inside Israel if a new war breaks out, but refused to confirm whether or not the Lebanon-based militants have long-range Scud missiles.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, Mexican authorities rescued two journalists who had been stranded for nearly three days among feuding militants after a caravan of rights activists was caught in a deadly ambush in southern Oaxaca state.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, A Nigerian court sentenced six Ghanaians and a Nigerian to 8 years in prison each after they were found guilty of stealing 4,000 tons of oil products. Rebels in the restive Niger Delta claimed to have blown up a Shell pipeline in the creeks of the southern oil producing region and threatened further attacks.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, In Pakistan Khalid Khawaja, a former intelligence officer, was found shot dead in a northwest tribal region. Khawaja went missing in late March with another ex-intelligence official, Sultan Amir Tarar, and journalist Asad Qureshi. There was no word on the fate of the two others. Pakistani troops pressing an anti-Taliban offensive into a second month in a lawless tribal district near the Afghan border killed at least eight militants. Taliban militants blew up a state-run girls' school in Sadiqabad village in Bajaur, another of Pakistan's seven tribal districts where militants have destroyed 89 schools.
    (AP, 4/30/10)(AFP, 4/30/10)(AP, 9/9/10)
2010        Apr 30, Panama police found an arsenal of assault rifles, grenades and almost a half million rounds of ammunition at the home of Professor Vinicio Jimenez, a Guatemalan-born sociology professor. Their raid netted 47 assault rifles, 24 machine pistols, 487,900 rounds of ammunition and almost 4,000 grenades and grenade-style munitions.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Apr 30, In Puerto Rico regulators shut down three banks that had struggled to stay afloat during Puerto Rico's grinding, four-year recession. A judge in Puerto Rico sentenced two former police officers to prison for the beating death of a suspect who was detained in 2003 for allegedly stealing a patrol car.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, In Russia Vera Trifonova (53), who was reported to have diabetes and chronic kidney failure, died in the Matrosskaya Tishina jail. Trifonova, the head of a real estate company, had been jailed since December on fraud charges. The next day Pres. Medvedev ordered investigators to determine why another person has died in the same Moscow jail where lawyer Sergei Magnitsky died last year of an untreated illness.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        Apr 30, In south Sudan at least seven people were killed after men said to be affiliated with a defeated candidate in regional elections attacked an army base.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, Taiwan carried out a death sentence for the first time since 2005, executing 4 inmates as a heated debate rages on the island over whether capital punishment should be abolished.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2011        Apr 30, In Ohio Randle Lee Roberts II (27) died in a shootout about a half hour after a girl found the bodies of her relatives in a home near West Union. The dead included George Stephens (68), the grandfather of Roberts' wife. The others were Sonja Stephens (46), Kendra Stephens (34) and her 11-year-old daughter, Harley.
    (AP, 5/1/11)
2011        Apr 30, The Afghan Taliban announced the beginning of their spring military offensive against the US-led coalition.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato (b.1911), who led the government's probe of crimes committed by Argentina's dictatorship, died. His books included "One and the Universe" (1945), his first novel "The Tunnel" (1948), and "The Angel of Darkness" (1974).     
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Benin held parliamentary elections. President Boni Yayi's allies won a majority of seats in parliament following the polls.
    (AFP, 5/6/11)
2011        Apr 30, Police in Burkina Faso said they will end their demonstrations. Some 1,000 demonstrators rallied in the capital to demand the departure of Pres. Blaise Compaore.
    (AP, 4/30/11)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.A6)
2011        Apr 30, Troops from Cambodia and Thailand exchanged fire at the countries' contested border, marking the ninth straight day of clashes that have left at least 16 people dead and displaced nearly 100,000.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, In Denmark the 900 residents of the Christiania hippie enclave in Copenhagen announced they had agreed in principle to a deal that will allow them to collectively buy the former naval base they first occupied four decades ago.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, the country's best organized movement, announced the formation of a party to contest up to half of parliament's seats in a September election.
    (AFP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, India's premier Manmohan Singh urged the country's top police agency to investigate a series of corruption scandals embroiling his government "without fear or favor."
    (AFP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, In India a single-engine helicopter, carrying Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu (56), two other passengers and two pilots, disappeared in bad weather just 20 minutes after taking off from the Himalayan Buddhist retreat of Tawang for the state capital, Itanagar. Wreckage and bodies were found on May 4.
    (AP, 5/4/11)(AP, 5/1/11)
2011        Apr 30, Two Iraqi lawmakers said parliament has approved a $400 million settlement to Americans who claim they were abused by Saddam Hussein. A judge, his wife and daughter were killed when their house in Taji was blown up.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Laos held legislative elections that are expected to sweep in a younger generation of lawmakers but preserve the political status quo.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi said he was ready for a ceasefire and negotiations provided NATO "stop its planes," but he refused to give up power as rebels and Western powers demand. Rebels and NATO rejected the offer, as Gaddafi’s forces pressed an offensive against the key port city of Misrata. Gadhafi escaped a NATO missile strike in Tripoli, but his youngest son, Seif al-Arab (29), and three grandchildren under the age of 12 were killed. Gaddafi forces entered the towns of Jalu and Awlijah opened fire, killing at least five civilians and wounding more than 10.
    (Reuters, 4/30/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)(AP, 4/30/11)(Reuters, 5/1/11)
2011        Apr 30, In northwestern Pakistan a roadside bomb hit a minibus, killing two passengers and wounding nine others in the Kurram tribal region.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Syrian army troops backed by tanks and helicopters took a prominent mosque that had been controlled by residents in a besieged southern city, killing four people. Another six people were killed in separate incidents. 138 members of Assad's ruling Baath Party resigned to protest the crackdown. Troops and snipers killed six civilians as Syrians prepared to bury scores of people killed in a "day of rage", while the United States and EU imposed sanctions on Damascus.
    (AP, 4/30/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)(AP, 5/1/11)
2011        Apr 30, In Taiwan some 2,000 protesters demanded that the government scrap plans to operate a newly built nuclear power plant and turn the facility into a museum to highlight the dangers of nuclear power.
    (AP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Two Thai troops died and nine were injured in bombings that struck the restive south.
    (AFP, 4/30/11)
2011        Apr 30, Yemeni forces with heavy weapons drove hundreds of anti-government protesters out of a square they had been camping for months in the southern city of Aden. Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen's leader of 32 years, told the GCC secretary general in a meeting in Sanaa that he had asked a senior aide to represent him in the signing ceremony in Riyadh.
    (AP, 4/30/11)(AP, 5/1/11)

2012        Apr 30, Pres. Obama met with visiting Japanese PM Yoshihiko Noda. Both leaders re-affirmed US-Japan ties.
    (SFC, 5/1/12, p.A2)
2012        Apr 30, In San Francisco a group of between 50 and 100 people moved down Valencia St. smashing windows, throwing paint balls, and even attacking an unsuspecting police station. The cops were apparently not prepared to make mass arrests and were slow to respond to the chaos, though it quickly broke up.
    (SFC, 5/2/12, p.A1)
2012        Apr 30, Robert "Rider" Dewey, a Colorado man, was exonerated on the basis of new DNA evidence and set free after spending more than 16 years behind bars. He was wrongly convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the June, 1994, rape and murder of Jacie Taylor (19), who found strangled with a dog leash. New analysis showed DNA samples matched the DNA of Douglas Thames, who is serving a life sentence without parole for the 1989 rape and strangulation of Susan Doll (39) of Fort Collins.
    (Reuters, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Ohio 5 people, claiming to be anarchists, were arrested in Cleveland for trying to blow up a four-lane bridge across the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The explosive devices were inoperable and controlled by an undercover FBI agent. On Sep 5 three of the men admitted their roles in the bomb scheme in a move to avoid life in prison. A 4th had pleaded guilty earlier. On Oct 7, 2013, Joshua Stafford (25), the last of the five defendants, was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7p5kn2k)(SFC, 9/6/12, p.A5)(SFC, 10/8/12, p.A5)
2012        Apr 30, In Texas two men who spent nearly 30 years in prison for a brutal sexual assault and attempted murder were declared innocent after DNA evidence pointed to other men. James Curtis Williams (54) and Raymond Jackson (67) had been sentenced to 99 years in prison for the November 1983 assault of a Canadian woman who identified them in a lineup as her attackers. Two other men who were connected to the crime through DNA testing have been charged with attempted capital murder.
    (Reuters, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, A rare white buffalo, a male calf named Lightning Medicine Cloud, was found slaughtered and skinned on Lakota Ranch near Greenville, Texas, just shy of its first birthday. Its mother died the next day of suspected poisoning. The ranch and its supporters soon offered $45,000 for information leading to the killer.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Afghanistan a NATO service member was killed in an insurgent attack in the south. 4 children died during an exchange of fire between Taliban insurgents and ISAF and Afghan security forces in Shahjoy, Zabul province. In Laghman province an Afghan-led and coalition supported security force conducted an operation to detain a Taliban leader today. 2 young men were reported killed.
    (AP, 4/30/12)(AFP, 5/1/12)
2012        Apr 30, One of Australia's richest men, Clive Palmer, unveiled plans to build a 21st century version of the doomed Titanic in China, with its first voyage from England to New York set for 2016.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, Bangladesh police charged 28 opposition officials over a series of bomb explosions in the capital Dhaka, as a nationwide strike again paralyzed the country.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, A British police report said British police discovered more than 20 cannabis farms and factories in the UK every day last year, seizing drugs worth up to £100 million.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, Chad called for the 16-nation Lake Chad Basin Commission to set up a joint force tasked with containing the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, The EU announced a further €20 million in aid to victims of Pakistan's 2011 monsoon floods, as well as people displaced by conflict, bringing funding this year to €55 million.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, The West African bloc ECOWAS imposed sanctions on Guinea-Bissau's junta after talks in Banjul failed to yield any progress.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In India a ferry packed with 280 passengers capsized on the Brahmaputra River in Assam state. 103 bodies were soon recovered, but dozens of others were feared swept by the current to neighboring Bangladesh. Over 160 people were feared drowned or missing.
    (AP, 5/1/12)(SFC, 5/2/12, p.A3)
2012        Apr 30, In Mali anti-junta forces tried to take over the country's state broadcaster and attacked the airport and the junta's main military base. Coup leader Capt. Amadou Sanogo told a private radio station that the countercoup had failed and that his soldiers have captured foreign fighters. Human Rights Watch said Tuareg rebels, militias and Islamist groups are committing war crimes in Mali's lawless north, including summary executions and rapes. HRW also said that government troops in the north were also flouting rights.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/1/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Myanmar the opposition party led by Aung San Suu Kyi agreed to end its weeklong boycott of parliament and swear an oath to a Constitution that it has resisted.
    (SFC, 5/1/12, p.A3)
2012        Apr 30, In southern Nepal 4 people were killed and nearly 30 wounded when a bomb attached to a motorbike went off near a crowd of protesters in Janakpur. They staging a sit-in to demand a separate province for Maithili-speaking people when the bike exploded.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, Tomas Borge Martinez (81), the last surviving founder of Nicaragua’s Sandinista front, died in Managua.
    (SFC, 5/2/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 30, In Nigeria a suicide attack on a senior police official's convoy in the eastern state of Taraba killed 11 people, including one policeman.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, Norwegian telecom giant Telenor wrote off the rest of its mobile business in India worth 3.9 billion kroner (513 million euros, $680 million) after New Delhi scrapped licenses in a massive fraud probe. In 2009 Telenor acquired a 67.25 percent stake in Uninor which holds 22 of the 122 licenses cancelled by India’s Supreme Court.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Pakistan the widow and mother-in-law of one of two Pakistani men shot and killed by a CIA contractor last year were murdered in Lahore. The killings appeared related to the large amount of "blood money" Zohra Haider received to pardon her husband's killer, Raymond Davis. Haider's father, Shahzad Butt, was suspected of killing her and her mother, Nabeela Bibi, after Haider expressed a desire to remarry.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Syria twin blasts targeting security buildings killed more than 20 people in the northwest Syrian city of Idlib. Most of those killed in Idlib were members of the security forces. State television put the death toll at eight. Rockets struck the central bank in Damascus, killing nine people and wounding 100. UN monitors said at least 70 people, among them 47 civilians, were killed nationwide at the weekend.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/1/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Tunisia Abdekrim Boulahya and Kemaies Saai, both from the mining town of Om Larayes, tried to hang themselves outside the ministry building before being rescued and taken to hospital.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Yemen fierce clashes killed at least 21 people, including 18 Al-Qaeda militants, near the southern town of Loder (Lawder).
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

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