Today in History -  June 23

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930        Jun 23, Icelanders established the Althing, an open-air national parliament and the world‘s oldest surviving parliamentary body. This was later credited as the first example of representative government.
    (NH, 6/96, p.53)(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.C3)(MC, 6/23/02)

1579        Jun 23,  Francis Fletcher, the chaplain of the Golden Hind, gave the first-ever Protestant service in North America somewhere around Point Reyes, Ca. The Golden Hind, under the command of English privateer Francis Drake, had stopped here for repairs and supplies after failing to find the fabled Strait of Anian. 
    (SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)

1586        Jun 23, Sir Francis Drake encountered the Roanoke Island Hurricane off the Atlantic coast. Harsh weather caused Drake to evacuate the settlers back to England.
    (SFC, 6/23/09, p.D8)

1683        Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1700        Jun 23, Russia gave up its Black Sea fleet as part of a truce with the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1757        Jun 23, Forces of the East India Company led by Robert Clive (1725-1774) defeated Indians at Plassey and won control of Bengal. Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal and exacted a payment of $140 million from Moghul ruler Mir Jafar and a Moghul title of nobility and rights to land around Calcutta. This effectively marked the beginning of British colonial rule in India. Clive served 2 terms as the governor of Bengal.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.40)(AP, 6/23/07)

1758        Jun 23, British and Hanoverian armies defeated the French at Krefeld in Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1760        Jun 23, Austrians defeated the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1763        Jun 23, Josephine Martinique, empress of France (1804-14), was born.
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1776        Jun 23, The final draft of Declaration of Independence was submitted to US Congress.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1794        Jun 23, Empress Catherine II granted Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1810        Jun 23, John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) organized the Pacific Fur Co. in Astoria, Oregon.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1812        Jun 23, The church at Mission San Juan Bautista in California was dedicated.
    (SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)

1836        Jun 23, Congress approved the Deposit Act, which contained a provision for turning over surplus federal revenue to the states.
    (AP, 6/23/97)

1845        Jun 23, The congress of the Republic of Texas voted to accept annexation by the US after 10 years as an independent republic. [see Jul 4, 1845]
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1848        Jun 23, A bloody insurrection of workers in Paris erupted to protest inflation, unemployment and corruption. The insurrection was ruthlessly suppressed by Gen. Cavaignac.
    (HN, 6/23/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1860        Jun 23, The U.S. Secret Service was created to arrest counterfeiters and protect the president.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1863        Jun 23, Confederate forces overwhelmed a Union garrison at the Battle of Brasher City in Louisiana.
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1865        Jun 23, Confederate General Stand Watie, who was also a Cherokee chief, surrendered the last sizable Confederate army at Fort Towson, in the Oklahoma Territory.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)(HN, 6/23/98)

1868        Jun 23, Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called a "Type-Writer."
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)(AP, 6/23/97)

1876        Jun 23, Irvin S. Cobb, U.S. playwright, novelist, actor, and editor, was born. He is best remembered for his "Judge Priest" stories.
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1878        Jun 23, Adm. George Back (b.1796), English Arctic explorer, died in London.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9011650)

1884        Jun 23, A Chinese Army defeated the French at Bacle, Indochina.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1888        Jun 23, Abolitionist Frederick Douglass received one vote from the Kentucky delegation at the Republican convention in Chicago, effectively making him the first black candidate nominated for US president. The nomination went to Benjamin Harrison.
    (AP, 6/23/00)
1888        Jun 23, Emil Naumann (60), composer, died.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1892        Jun 23, The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated former President Cleveland on the first ballot.
    (AP, 6/23/02)

1894        Jun 23, Edward VIII [Duke of Windsor], King of England (1936), was born. He abdicated his throne for American Wallis Simpson.
    (HN, 6/23/99)
1894        Jun 23, Alfred Kinsey, zoologist and sociologist, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/01)

1897        Jun 23, Winifred Wagner-William, German organizer (Bayreuth Wagner Festival), was born.
    (MC, 6/23/02)
 
1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1909        Jun 23, A Ford Model T crossed the finish line in the NYC to Seattle Automobile Race after 22 days and 55 minutes to claim the Guggenheim Cup and a $2,000 first prize. A Shamut came in 17 hours later to win the 2nd-place prize of $1500. An Acme car came in on June 29 to claim a $1000 3rd prize. The Ford was later disqualified for having switched engines enroute.
    (AH, 6/03, p.23)

1910        Jun 23, Jean Anouilh, French playwright, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/01)

1912        Jun 23, Alan M. Turing (d.1954), English mathematician and pioneer of computer theory, was born. He cracked the Enigma code in World War II that was used by the Germans to communicate with their submarines. A play by Hugh Whitemore titled “Breaking the Code," tells his story. It was shown as a TV film on Masterpiece Theater in 1997.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.349)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.D3)(HN, 6/23/01)

1916        Jun 23, Carleton Watkins (b.1829), California photographer, died in obscurity at Napa State Hospital. He was later considered the greatest documentarian of Western landscape ever to heft a camera.
    (SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carleton_Watkins)

1917        Jun 23, Babe Ruth, starting pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, was ejected from a baseball game after he walked the 1st batter and argued with the umpire. Relief pitcher Ernie Shore threw out the 1st batter at 2nd base and proceeded to pitch a no-hitter.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.B3)

1924        Jun 23, Lt. Russell Maugham flew from New York to San Francisco in his 3rd attempt at a dawn to dusk traverse of the continent.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W7)
1924        Jun 23, Cecil [James] Sharp (64), English folk musician, died.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1927        Jun 23, Bob Fosse, choreographer and director, was born. He won Tonies for "Pippin" and "Damn Yankees," and an Oscar for "Cabaret."
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1930        Jun 23, The US Coast Guard Cutter Tingard captured the trawler “5048" also known as the Dora, and confiscated 400 cases of imported whiskey in Drake’s Bay, Marin, Ca.
    (SFC, 6/17/05, p.F5)   

1931        Jun 23, Wiley Post and Harold Gatty flew in a single-engine plane, the Winnie Mae, from New York on a round-the-world flight and returned to New York on July 1 after 8 days, 15 hrs, and 51 min., a new world record.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(ON, 12/03, p.10)(NPub, 2002, p.12)

1927        Jun 23, Bob Fosse Chicago, choreographer and director, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1929        Jun 23, Valerie June Carter (d.2003) was born in Maces Springs, Va., to Mother Maybelle Carter, a founding member of the Carter Family trio. She married Johnny Cash in 1968.
    (SFC, 5/16/03, p.A24)

1931        Jun 23, Wiley Post and Harold Gatty flew in a single-engine plane, the Winnie Mae, from New York on a round-the-world flight and returned to New York in 8 days, 15 hrs, and 51 min., a new world record.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(ON, 12/03, p.10)

1934        Jun 23, Italy gained the right to colonize Albania after defeating the country.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1938        Jun 23, The Civil Aeronautics Authority was established.
    (AP, 6/23/97)

1940        Jun 23, Wilma Rudolph (d.1994), the first African American to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad, was born. At the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, she became the first American to win three gold medals. Her athleticism was remarkable since Rudolph contracted polio as a small child and spent six years in a steel brace. With therapy and hard work, Rudolph overcame her handicap to excel in basketball and track. As a celebrity, she worked to break many gender and racial barriers. Rudolph died of brain cancer in 1994.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1941        Jun 23, The German army entered Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania.
    (WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)
1941        Jun 23, Juozas Ambrzevicius (Juozas Brazaitis), one of the leaders of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), began serving as the acting PM of the Provisional Government of Lithuania and continued to August 5, 1941. He died in exile in 1974. He published memoirs “All Alone" (Lithuanian: Vienų vieni) in 1964 under the name of N. E. Sudūvis.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juozas_Ambrazevi%C4%8Dius)

1943        Jun 23, James Levine, pianist and conductor, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/01)
1943        Jun 23, RAF discovered and bombed Werner von Braun's V1/V2-base in Peenemunde.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1944        Jun 23, In one of the largest air strikes of the war, the U.S. Fifteenth Air Force sent 761 bombers against the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1945        Jun 23, Lt Gen Ushijima, Japanese commander, committed suicide at Okinawa.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1947        Jun 23, As a result of the worker strikes in 1946, the US government passed the Taft-Hartley Act that put the brakes on union activities. The Senate joined the House and passed the Taft-Hartley Act over the veto of the president. It prohibited the use of union funds for political purposes and introduced a 60-day notice before a strike or lockout, outlawed the closed shop, and empowered the government to serve injunctions against strikes likely to cripple the nation’s economy.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)(AP, 6/23/97)

1950        Jun 23, Northwest Airlines Flight 2501, a DC-4 propliner operating its daily transcontinental service between New York City and Seattle, crashed into Lake Michigan killing 58 people. This was to date the worst commercial airliner accident in American history.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Orient_Airlines_Flight_2501)(AP, 3/30/11)

1951        Jun 23, British diplomats and Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean fled to the USSR.
    (MC, 6/23/02)
1951        Jun 23, Soviet U.N. delegate Jacob Malik proposed cease-fire discussions in the Korean War.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1952        Jun 23, The US Air Force bombed power plants on Yalu River, Korea.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1955        Jun 23, Walt Disney's "Lady and the Tramp," the first animated feature filmed in CinemaScope, opened in theaters.
    (AP, 6/23/99)

1956        Jun 23, Egyptians approved a new constitution and elected Gamal Abdel Nasser as president. The new constitution acknowledged the long struggle by women and for the first time provided them with equal political rights.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/875/eg4.htm)(AP, 6/23/97)

1958        Jun 23, Dr. John Jay Osborn (d.2014) and cardiac surgeon Frank Gerbode used their heart-lung machine to operate on a boy (8) at Stanford Hospital before a Bay Area televisioon audience of some 1.2 million.
    (SFC, 5/1/14, p.D6)
1958        Jun 23, In the Netherlands the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation was founded by Prince Bernhard. It awarded the annual Erasmus Prize to individuals or institutions that have made notable contributions to European culture, society, or social science.
    (www.123exp-culture.com/t/03604490053/)

1959        Jun 23, Klaus Fuchs was released after nine years in British prison. Fuchs was a German-born Los Alamos scientist whose espionage had helped the USSR build their first atomic and hydrogen bombs.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1960        Jun 23, The Food and Drug Administration approved Enovid by GD Searle, the first oral contraceptive.
    (Internet)
1960        Jun 23, Patrice Lumumba and the MNC formed the first government, with Lumumba (35) as Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu (1917-1969) as its president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba)

1962        Jun 23, The Syrian government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira which was predominantly Kurdish. As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira were arbitrarily categorized as aliens.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurds_in_Syria)

1964        Jun 23, Henry Cabot Lodge resigned as the U.S. envoy to Vietnam and was succeeded by Maxwell Taylor.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1966        Jun 23, Civil Rights marchers in Mississippi were dispersed by tear gas.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1967        Jun 23, President Johnson and Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin held the first of two meetings in Glassboro State College in New Jersey.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
1967        Jun 23, The US Senate voted to censure Democrat Thomas J. Dodd of Connecticut for using campaign money for personal uses.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

1969        Jun 23, Warren E. Burger was sworn in as chief justice of the United States by the man he was succeeding, Earl Warren.
    (AP, 6/23/97)

1972        Jun 23, President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discussed a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation sparked Nixon's resignation in 1974. In the “smoking gun" tape Pres. Nixon told his chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, to tell top CIA officials that “the president believes this (in reference to Watergate) is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again." Nixon counseled Haldeman on how to use deception to thwart an FBI investigation on how Watergate was financed.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B11)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 6/23/97)
1972        Jun 23, Pres. Nixon signed the federal Title IX of the Education Amendment for nondiscrimination and affirmative action as an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1975 it was bolstered strengthened to insure equal rights for women’s sports programs.
    (GEG, 6/96, p.4)(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/25/02, p.D9)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/14, p.C4)

1977        Jun 23, The Brazil congress legalized divorce with a constitutional amendment, despite opposition from Roman Catholic Church. The amendment would be signed into law by President Ernesto Geisel.
    (www.wiwomensnetwork.org/chrontwo1.html)

1978        Jun 23, Joseph Freeman Jr. became the 1st black priest in Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990s_(LDS))

1980        Jun 23, Clifford Still (b.1904), abstract expressionist artist, died. In 2011 a museum dedicated to his work opened in Denver.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clyfford_Still)(SFC, 11/22/11, p.A8)
1980        Jun 23, Sanjay Gandhi (b.1946), Indian politician, died in an airplane crash shortly after his mother's return to power. Captain Subhas Saxena, the only passenger in the plane, was also killed in the crash.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanjay_Gandhi)

1981        Jun 23, The body of Catherine Schilling (21), a Georgetown law student, was found raped and murdered in Rock Creek Park. She was shot in the head five times after taking a shortcut home through the park after working late at her job as a paralegal at a DC law firm. In September 1982, a D.C. jury convicted Donald Eugene Gates of killing and raping Schilling. In 2009 Gates was released from prison based on DNA evidence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8smuur)(SFC, 12/15/09, p.A9)

1985        Jun 23, All 329 people aboard an Air India Boeing 747 were killed when Flight 182 from Montreal to London crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland, apparently because of a bomb. An hour earlier, a bomb in baggage intended for another Air India flight exploded in a Tokyo airport, killing two baggage handlers. In 2000 Canadian police arrested 2 men of Sikh origin for the bombing. In 2001 Canadian prosecutors filed murder charges against Inderjit Singh Reyat. In 2003 Reyat was sentenced to 5 years for his role in making the bomb. Reyat spent 10 years in prison for building the bomb that exploded at the Narita airport, and another five years for helping make the Flight 182 bomb. In 2005 a Canadian judge acquitted 2 men who had been accused of conspiring in the case. Talwinder Parmar (1944-1992) was later assumed to have been the mastermind behind the attacks. In 2010 Reyat was found guilty of perjury. In 2011 he was sentenced to an additional 9 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A13)(SFC, 6/6/01, p.C3)(AP, 2/11/03)(AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.47)(Reuters, 9/18/10)(Reuters, 1/7/11)

1986        Jun 23, Tip O'Neill refused to let Reagan address the House.
    (http://www-tech.mit.edu/archives/VOL_106/TECH_V106_S0437_P003.txt)

1987        Jun 23, The Iran-Contra hearings resumed with testimony from former CIA employee Glenn A. Robinette, who said he'd installed a $14,000 security system at the home of Lt. Col. Oliver North, then helped make it appear that North had paid for the work.
    (AP, 6/23/97)

1988        Jun 23, NASA climatologist James Hansen brought the greenhouse effect to the attention of the American public when he told Congress that worldwide temperature increases were probably a sign of human alteration of the atmosphere.
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.A13)(SFC, 6/23/08, p.A3)
1988        Jun 23, The Yellowstone Fire began and by Sep 11 burned some 1.6 million acres in Idaho and Montana.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1988        Jun 23, Pope John Paul II began his second papal visit to Austria, where he met with President Kurt Waldheim, despite controversy over Waldheim's alleged involvement in Nazi war crimes.
    (AP, 6/23/98)

1989        Jun 23, The movie "Batman" premiered across the US.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0096895/releaseinfo)
1989        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court refused to shut down the "dial-a-porn" industry, ruling Congress had gone too far in passing a law banning all sexually oriented phone message services.
    (AP, 6/23/99)

1990        Jun 23, The tune "That's The Way Of The World" by D'Mob with Cathy Dennis hit #1 on Billboard magazine’s Hot Dance Music/Club Play.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)
1990        Jun 23, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela received a tumultuous welcome in Boston as he continued his US tour.
    (AP, 6/23/00)

1991        Jun 23, The Group of Seven finance ministers and central bankers, meeting in London, agreed that the Soviet Union should become the first associate member of the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 6/23/01)

1992        Jun 23, Israel's Labor Party upset the hard-line Likud bloc in parliamentary elections. Israeli voters elected the Labor Party’s Yitzhak Rabin as prime minister.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A17)
1992        Jun 23, John Gotti (d.2002), Mafia boss nicknamed the "Teflon Don" after escaping unscathed from several trials during the 1980s, was convicted on 14 accounts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering and sentenced in New York to life in prison. His son John Gotti Jr. succeeded him as head of the Gambino crime family and was arrested in 1998.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.A8)

1993        Jun 23, John Wayne Bobbitt had his penis severed by his wife, Ecuadorian born Lorena Bobbitt, in a domestic dispute. In 1996 he was ordained a minister in the Universal Life Church. Lorena Bobbitt of Prince William County, Va., sexually mutilated her husband, John, after he allegedly raped her. John Bobbitt was later acquitted of marital sexual assault; Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding by reason of insanity.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.A3)(AP, 6/23/98)
1993        Jun 23, Canada's Senate ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    (AP, 6/23/02)

1994        Jun 23, The United States and Russia signed agreements in Washington on cooperating in space and economic development.
    (AP, 6/23/04)
1994        Jun 23, French marines and Foreign Legionnaires headed into Rwanda to try to stem the country's ethnic slaughter.
    (AP, 6/23/99)

1995        Jun 23, Dr. Jonas Salk, the medical pioneer who developed the first vaccine to halt the crippling rampage of polio, died in La Jolla, California, at age 80.
    (AP, 6/23/00)
1995        Jun 23, In Mexico Hector “El Guero" Palma, reputed head of the Sinaloa drug cartel, was arrested after his plane crashed near Guadalajara. He faced 9 counts of murder for the killing of 9 relatives and associates of his rival Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo. Gallardo had earlier decapitated Palma’s first wife and arranged the murder of his 2 children.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A11)

1996        Jun 23, Congressional Democrats unveiled a "families first" legislative package aimed at winning middle-class voters and retaking Capitol Hill.
    (AP, 6/23/97)
1996        Jun 23, The US defense budget has dropped to $265 billion. The Russian defense budget has dropped to $63 billion.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, zone 1 p.6)
1996        Jun 23, Two newly discovered planets were announced. One, 4 times the size of Jupiter, revolves around the star Tau Bootes in the constellation Bootes in 3.3 days. The other, about 60% the mass of Jupiter, revolves around Upsilon Andromedae every 4.6 days.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A18)
1996        Jun 23, Andreas Papandreou, Greek Socialist Party founder and statesmen, died.
    (USAT, 6/25/96, p.10A)(AP, 6/23/97)
1996        Jun 23, In the Philippines a peace agreement was reached with Muslim rebels. Opponents fear being under the administration of former rebels.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, p.C3)

1997        Jun 23, The San Francisco Food Bank, the largest distributor of food for the needy in the city, opened a new storage facility on Potrero Hill with cold storage capability.
    (SFC, 6/23/97, p.A13)
1997        Jun 23, Three brand new Municipal Railway cars crashed in San Francisco. Three MUNI employees were injured.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A15)
1997        Jun 23, Kristen Modafferi (18) was last seen after she finished her shift at Spinelli’s coffeehouse at the Crocker Galleria in San Francisco. She had just moved to the Bay Area from Charlotte, N.C., lived in Oakland and worked in SF. In 2015 a cadaver dog picked up a scent of human remains at her former home near Lake Merritt in Oakland.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.D1,3)(SFC, 6/26/15, p.D2)
1997        Jun 23, Betty Shabazz (61), the widow of Malcolm X, died in New York of burn wounds inflicted by a fire set on Jun 1 by her 12-year-old grandson. Malcolm Shabazz pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 18 months at a Massachusetts facility specializing in young arsonists.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A3)(SFC, 6/26/97, p.A15)(AP, 6/23/02)
1997        Jun 23, Two freight trains collided in Texas near San Antonio and 4 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A2)
1997        Jun 23, From Vietnam it was reported that worker strikes were increasing in factories controlled by foreign investors. The minimum wage in shoe factories that produce Adidas, Fila, Nike and All-Star shoes was about .20 cents an hour.
    (SFC, 6/23/97, p.A10)

1998        Jun 23, President Clinton said the reported discovery of traces of deadly nerve gas on an Iraqi missile warhead gave the United States new ammunition to maintain tough U.N. sanctions against the Baghdad government.
    (AP, 6/23/99)
1998        Jun 23, Congressional leaders approved a plan to reduce the period for investment capital gains to 12 months from 18 and the rate from 20% to 15%. It was planned to be retroactive to Jan 1, 1998.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A8)
1998        Jun 23, The FDA announced the approval of rifapentine, a drug to treat pulmonary TB.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A2)
1998        Jun 23, In Chicago some 4,500 got sick from an outbreak of E. coli possibly due to contaminated potato salad at Iwan’s Deli in Orland Park.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A9)
1998        Jun 23, In Georgia a virulent E. coli, O157:H7, sickened at least 6 children after playing in a Marietta water park.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A9)
1998        Jun 23, Laboratory grown adult nerve cells were implanted into a human brain for the first time to treat a stroke at the Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A2)
1998        Jun 23, In Florida some 260 fires raged across the state.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A3)
1998        Jun 23, Maureen O’Sullivan (b.1911), film actress, died in Scottsdale, Arizona. She had starred as Jane in the Tarzan movies with Johnny Weissmuller.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maureen_O%27Sullivan)
1998        Jun 23, Pakistan and India agreed to negotiations in Sri Lanka. Their prime ministers would meet during a South Asian summit starting Jul 29.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A12)
1998        Jun 23, In Russia Pres. Yeltsin called for a package of emergency fiscal measures to bolster the economy and threatened to dissolve parliament if the measures were not quickly passed.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A10)
1998        Jun 23, In Spain a Boeing 727 with 131 people was hijacked and diverted to Valencia.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A11)
1998        Jun 23, In Yemen police killed 6 people blocking fuel trucks in the 5th day of violence. The government ordered increased fuel prices to pay off an $80 million IMF loan.
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A1)

1999        Jun 23, A divided Supreme Court dramatically enhanced states’ rights in a trio of decisions that eroded Congress’ power.
    (AP, 6/23/00)
1999        Jun 23, House Republicans unveiled their "e-Contract," a pitch to the high-tech community that included a promise to keep the Internet free.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Jun 23, In Chicago delegates of the 290,000 member US AMA voted to form a union for doctors.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Jun 23, In Kosovo US Marines at a checkpoint in Zegra killed one Serb and wounded 2 others after being fired upon.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A1)
1999        Jun 23, Amnesty Int'l. issued a report condemning Brazil's prison system.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)
1999        Jun 23, In Canada police announced the break-up of a major Asian drug organization that had moved heroin valued in the millions through Vancouver in containers. 28 people were arrested in Vancouver, New York, Puerto Rico, Hong Kong and Thailand following a 3-year investigation.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)
1999        Jun 23, In Hungary torrential rains caused the evacuation of thousands and shut down roads and railways across the country.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T8)
1999        Jun 23, Iran announced that it had set up a $128 million fund for compensations to dispossessed owners of large plants seized in 1979. Property of the former royal Pahlavi family and 50 others was not included.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)

2000        Jun 23, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, during a visit to South Korea, said American troops would remain in the country indefinitely to maintain strategic stability in the Pacific area.
    (AP, 6/23/01)
2000        Jun 23, The federal government pledged over $22 million to help fight the glassy-winged sharpshooter, a pest threatening the California vineyards.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A1)
2000        Jun 23, The new $250 million, 140,000-sq.-foot Experience Music Project opened in Seattle. It was funded by Paul G. Allen, designed by Frank Gehry and dedicated to the celebration of creativity in music.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.E8)(SFC, 6/22/00, p.A1)
2000        Jun 23, Jerome Richardson (b.1920), SF Bay Area jazz musician, died.
    (SFC, 2/19/08, p.D1)(www.jazzhouse.org/gone/lastpost2.php3?edit=962098717)
2000        Jun 23, In Australia a fire at a hostel in Childers, 130 miles north of Brisbane, killed at least 15 foreign backpackers.
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D3)
2000        Jun 23, The Cotonou Agreement, a treaty between the European Union and the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP countries), was signed in Cotonou, the largest city in Benin, by 79 ACP countries and the then fifteen Member States of the EU. It entered into force in 2002 and is the latest agreement in the history of ACP-EU Development Cooperation. As of Dec 31, 2007, the Cotonou Agreement ceased to be legal under the rules of the WTO.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)(Econ, 1/5/08, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotonou_Agreement)
2000        Jun 23, In Colombia Guillermo Valencia was freed after 4 days. Luisa Cano (5) was also freed by guerrillas after being kidnapped Apr 15.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A13)
2000        Jun 23, In Indonesia street battles in the Maluku Islands between Christians and Muslims left at least 18 people dead.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A13)
2000        Jun 23, In the Philippines the military captured Camp Rajamuda, a guerrilla stronghold in Maguindanao and North Catabato provinces. The weeklong operation left 4 guerrillas and one soldier dead.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A13)
2000        Jun 23, A Panamanian registered tanker sank off Cape Town, South Africa and at least 1,300 tons of seeped out. Oil began to soak the local penguins at Robben Island.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A16)

2001        Jun 23, In Colombia the army reported that recent clashes with rebels left 30 soldiers and 26 guerrillas dead. Separately 5 inmates were killed during a FARC arranged prison escape at the La Picota prison in Bogota.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A20)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A9)
2001        Jun 23, In Northern Ireland David Trimble was re-elected as leader of the Ulster Unionist party and said he would quit the government next week if the IRA does not begin disarming by July 1.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A13)
2001        Jun 23, In southern Peru a 7.9 offshore earthquake killed at least 100 people. 12,500 people lost their homes.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A8)(AP, 6/23/02)
2001        Jun 23, Pope John Paul II began his 5-day visit to Ukraine, where the Greek Catholic Church had 5 million followers who observed Byzantine rites but were loyal to Rome. He hoped to mend a rift with the Eastern Orthodoxy.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.A14)
2001        Jun 23, Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s former spy chief, was arrested in Caracas, Venezuela. Pres. Chavez pledged to return him to Peru.
    (SFC, 6/25/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/25/01, p.A16)
2001        Jun 23, In Yugoslavia the Cabinet adopted a decree that committed itself to sending former Pres. Milosevic to the UN Tribunal in The Hague.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Jun 23, Yvonne Dionne, one of three remaining Dionne quintuplets, died at age 67.
    (AP, 6/23/02)

2002        Jun 23, Two fires in Arizona merged and approached the town of Show Low. The Rodeo-Chediski fire grew past 375,000 acres.
    (SFC, 6/24/02, p.A1)(SFC, 6/26/02, p.A1)
2002        Jun 23, Cameroon's government halted parliamentary and municipal elections shortly after they began Sunday, citing logistical problems.
    (AP, 6/23/02)
2002        Jun 23, In Canada an amphibious tour boat sank in Ottawa killing four people. It had also sunk a year ago.
    (AP, 6/24/02)
2002        Jun 23, A wild elephant killed 10 people on the India-Nepal border.
    (SFC, 6/25/02, p.A8)
2002        Jun 23, In Indonesia tens of thousands lined the streets of Jakarta to mark the 475th birthday of one of Asia's most crowded capitals with parades and dancing.
    (Reuters, 6/23/02)
2002        Jun 23, Rival groups of Protestants and Catholics clashed on the streets of north Belfast, Northern Ireland, following a weekend of sporadic sectarian violence.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2002        Jun 23, Twenty-six North Korean asylum seekers left South Korean and Canadian diplomatic compounds in Beijing bound for South Korea, ending a monthlong diplomatic standoff.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2002        Jun 23, In Malaysia Fadzil Noor, the leader of the main opposition, Parti Islam se-Malaysia (PAS), died after failing to recover from emergency heart surgery nearly two weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 6/23/02)

2003        Jun 23, Former Vermont Gov. Howard Dean announced that he's running for president.
    (WSJ, 6/23/03, p.A4)
2003        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court, in Grutter v. Bollinger, upheld a University of Mich. law school admissions policy that gave minorities an edge, ruling 6-3 that race can be one of many factors that colleges consider when selecting their students. A point system for undergraduate admission was ruled unconstitutional.
    (AP, 6/23/03)(WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A1)
2003        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court ruled that Congress can require libraries to install filters on computers to screen out pornography.
    (SFC, 6/24/03, p.A1)
2003        Jun 23, Judith Miller, reporter for the NY Times, met with Lewis “Scooter" Libby, chief of staff for VP Dick Cheney, who gave her information about CIA operative Valery Plame. Reporter Bob Woodward also spoke with Libby on this day and on June 27 and in 2005 testified that Libby made no mention of Plame. Woodward did say another senior government official told him about Plame and her role in the CIA in mid-June.
    (SFC, 10/22/05, p.A3)(SFC, 11/17/05, p.A3)(WSJ, 11/17/05, p.A5)
2003        Jun 23, Apple Computer Inc. introduced new Macintosh computers that use its "G5" microprocessor, a design by IBM Corp. that can handle twice as much data at once as traditional PC microchips.
    (Reuters, 6/23/03)
2003        Jun 23, The WSJ reported that General Motors had launched a $13 billion debt offering to shore up its pension funds. Strong demand pushed it to $17 billion, the largest ever by a US company.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R10)
2003        Jun 23, Idec Pharmaceuticals Corp. said it agreed to acquire Biogen Inc. in a $6.79 billion stock-for-stock transaction. The deal would create the world's 3rd largest biotech company.
    (AP, 6/23/03)(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R10)
2003        Jun 23, The US-led civil administrators announced the creation of a new Iraqi army.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2003        Jun 23, Maynard Jackson Jr. (65), former black mayor of Atlanta (1973-1993), died.
    (SFC, 6/24/03, p.A21)
2003        Jun 23, The head of the IMF met with Argentina's new government, opening a 2-day visit to hear how Pres. Kirchner plans to confront the country's worst economic crisis in history.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2003        Jun 23, The World Health Organization removed Hong Kong from its list of SARS-infected areas.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2003        Jun 23, India's PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee, making the first visit to China by a leader of his nation in a decade, told his Premier Wen Jiabao that he hoped for friendship and trust between the nuclear-armed former rivals.
    (AP, 6/23/03)
2003        Jun 23, In Iran Zahra Kazemi (54), a Montreal-based journalist, was detained after taking pictures of Tehran's notorious Evin prison. She died Jul 11 of brain hemorrhage from inflicted blows. Iran later admitted that she was murdered while under police custody. Her family sought $14 million in damages, but a 1985 Canadian law held that foreign states are immune from the jurisdiction of Canadian courts.
    (AP, 7/13/03)(SFC, 7/17/03, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/6/09, p.A26)
2003        Jun 23, The main rebel group in Liberia said it was pulling out of peace talks and accused the top peace mediator of allowing Pres. Taylor to renege on a promise to step down.  Swiss authorities ordered a freeze on any bank accounts of Pres. Charles Taylor, so war crimes prosecutors can search for possible illegal diamond profits linked to West Africa's conflicts.
    (AP, 6/23/03)

2004        Jun 23, In a major retreat, the US abandoned an attempt to win a new exemption for American troops from international prosecution for war crimes, an effort that had faced strong opposition because of the Iraqi prisoner abuse scandal.
    (SFC, 6/24/04, p.A3)(AP, 6/23/05)
2004        Jun 23, The US issued 4 new 1st class stamps, part of a series featuring Disney themes. This set was titled “The Art of Disney."
    (SFC, 6/24/04, p.B3)
2004        Jun 23, In Iraq Polish forces purchased 17 rockets for a Soviet-era launcher and two mortar rounds containing the nerve agent cyclosarin for an undisclosed sum.
    (AP, 7/2/04)
2004        Jun 23, Saudi Arabia offered Islamic militants a limited amnesty, saying their lives would be spared if they surrendered but they would face the "full might" of state wrath if they did not. Prince Nayef said foreign residents may be allowed to carry guns.
    (AP, 6/23/04)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.A10)

2005        Jun 23, The San Antonio Spurs won a thrilling Game 7 over Detroit Pistons, 81-74, to claim the NBA championship.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2005        Jun 23, The White House defended presidential adviser Karl Rove against Democratic demands he apologize or quit for saying "liberals saw the savagery of the 9/11 attacks and wanted to prepare indictments and offer therapy and understanding for our attackers" while conservatives "saw the savagery of 9/11 and the attacks and prepared for war."
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2005        Jun 23, In Kelo vs. London a divided US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that local governments may seize people's homes and businesses against their will for private development. In 2006 a group petitioned for signatures in Weare, New Hampshire, to seize the home of Justice David Souter in order to build an inn called the Lost Liberty Hotel. In 2009 Jeff Benedict authored “Little Pink House," the story of Susette Kelo’s battle in New London, Connecticut, against eminent domain.
    (AP, 6/23/05)(WSJ, 6/24/05, p.A1)(Econ, 8/20/05, p.21)(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A6)(WSJ, 1/26/08, p.A13)
2005        Jun 23, Former Ku Klux Klansman Edgar Ray Killen was sentenced to 60 years in prison for the 1964 Mississippi slayings of three civil rights workers.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2005        Jun 23, Joseph Massino, who went from the New York Mafia's last old-school don to its highest-ranking turncoat in a betrayal that rocked organized crime, was sentenced to life in prison after admitting his involvement in eight mob murders.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Ohio Republican Gov. Bob Taft was reported to be mired in a scandal that started with a questionable state investment in rare coins. It had the governor and other Republicans all the way to Pres. Bush scrambling to give back potentially tainted campaign contributions.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, The US FDA approved the heart failure drug BiDil for use by blacks. It will be the 1st medication targeted for a specific racial group.
    (SFC, 6/24/05, p.A3)
2005        Jun 23, An indictment, unveiled in US federal court in Los Angeles, said Seymour Lazar and his family were plaintiffs in over 50 class action lawsuits against both large and small companies. Prosecutors claimed that he received $2.4 million in illicit kickbacks from a New York law firm believed to be Milberg Weiss. In 2008 Melvyn Weiss (72) agreed to plead guilty to racketeering and acknowledge that his firm, Milberg Weiss, concealed secret payment arrangements with plaintiffs in class-action suits.
    (Econ, 7/2/05, p.65)(SFC, 3/21/08, p.C3)
2005        Jun 23, In Morongo Valley, Ca., the first major wildfire of the summer raced across more than 5,500 acres of desert brush, destroying at least six homes.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Shana Alexander (79), writer and liberal commentator on 60 Minutes (1975), died in Hermosa Beach, California.
    (SFC, 6/25/05, p.B5)
2005        Jun 23, Afghan and U.S.-led coalition forces surrounded a rebel hide-out in southern Afghanistan, and the number of insurgents killed from three days of fighting rose to 102.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Aruba police arrested the father of a young Dutch teen already in custody in connection with the disappearance of a young Alabama woman, and said that he was considered a suspect in the 3-week-old case.
    (AP, 6/24/05)
2005        Jun 23, Australia's Deputy Prime Minister John Anderson resigned because of health concerns.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, G8 foreign ministers met in London. The Middle East peace process, Iran's nuclear program and tackling opium production in Afghanistan topped the agenda.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Ecuador’s foreign minister said his country will not sign a pact to grant US military personnel special immunity from the International Criminal Court, even if that means more aid cuts from Washington.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, The French government launched the partial privatization of utility company Gaz de France through an initial public offering of shares worth up to 4.9 billion euros ($5.9 billion).
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Four apparently synchronized car bombs in the Karada district of Baghdad killed 15 and wounded 50. A sniper killed 2 soldiers in western Baghdad. US troops backed by Iraqi troops and helicopters killed 7 insurgents who opened fire on the patrol from a home in western Baghdad's Jamiaa. A web statement said Abdullah Mohammed Rashid al-Roshoud, one of Saudi Arabia's most-wanted militants, was killed by a US airstrike in northwestern Iraq.  A suicide car bomb in Fallujah and ensuing small-arms fire killed 6 US troops including 3 women. 11 of 13 wounded were female.
    (AP, 6/23/05)(SFC, 6/24/05, p.A18)(AP, 6/28/05)
2005        Jun 23, A fast food chain in northern Japan began offering a whale burger, even as anti-whaling nations urged Japan to cut back on its catch at an international conference on whaling.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Jerusalem officials said they will ban the annual gay pride parade set for next week, claiming the march would offend many of the holy city's residents.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, The two Koreas agreed to seek a peaceful resolution to the international standoff over the North's nuclear program, but the rivals failed to set a date for resuming stalled disarmament talks.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Palestinian officials said they reached a tentative agreement to absorb about 700 gunmen in Nablus into the Palestinian security services.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, Palestinian militants killed an officer in an attack on a police station in the West Bank town of Jenin.
    (AP, 6/24/05)
2005        Jun 23, UN human rights experts said they have reliable accounts of detainees being tortured at the U.S. base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
    (AP, 6/23/05)
2005        Jun 23, In Uruguay firefighters recovered the badly burned remains of eleven men killed aboard a Ukrainian-flagged fishing vessel that caught fire in Montevideo. The "Simeiz," carrying a crew of 39, caught fire before dawn the previous day.
    (AP, 6/24/05)
2005        Jun 23, Zimbabwe state media reported that 2 children were crushed to death by rubble during the demolition of illegal houses this month in a government crackdown that has made tens of thousands homeless.
    (Reuters, 6/23/05)

2006        Jun 23, Vice President Cheney denounced the revelation of an anti-terrorism program that tapped into an immense international database of confidential financial records.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2006        Jun 23, Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta announced he was leaving the Bush administration.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2006        Jun 23, A US federal appeals court tossed out a controversial rule requiring hedge fund advisors to register with the SEC.
    (WSJ, 6/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Jun 23, Aaron Spelling (83), TV producer, died. He captivated generations of television viewers with shows like "Charlie's Angels" (1976-1981) and "Beverly Hills 90210" and left an indelible stamp on American pop culture.
    (AP, 6/24/06)(SFC, 6/24/06, p.A2)
2006        Jun 23, Julian White (b.1930), American composer and pianist, died at his home in Kensington, Ca. His work included “The Montmorency Offertory" (1983) and the ballet “The Man Who Died" (1985).
    (SFC, 7/7/06, p.B9)
2006        Jun 23, In Afghanistan coalition troops fought more than 40 extremists during a five-hour gunbattle near the village of Mirabad, in southern Uruzgan province. Most of the militants were believed killed. Afghan and coalition forces battled a large group of militants in the Zharie district of Kandahar province, killing about 25 during the three hours of fighting. Provincial officials in Zabul said the decapitated bodies of four men, who were abducted at gunpoint earlier in the week, were discovered in Shahjoy district near the village of Chinoh.
    (AP, 6/24/06)
2006        Jun 23, Bolivia’s energy minister said that he's seeking criminal charges against ex-President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada and others for allegedly cheating the state in a gas pipeline investment deal.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, A bankruptcy judge canceled the planned sale of Brazil's flagship Varig airline to a workers' group, throwing the future of the carrier into limbo and virtually ensuring more travel chaos ahead for ticket holders in Brazil and abroad.
    (AP, 6/24/06)
2006        Jun 23, In Cameroon a truck carrying a load of sand slammed into a passenger bus, killing at least 34 people.
    (AP, 6/2306)
2006        Jun 23, Chinese PM Wen Jiabao arrived in Uganda, the final leg of a seven-nation African tour aimed at boosting ties and partnerships as well as shopping for resources for his country's fast-expanding economy.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, East Timor's president backed off a threat to resign, telling thousands of flag-waving supporters he would not abandon them as the country searched for a solution to weeks of political turmoil and bloody street battles.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, The leaders of EurAsEC countries convened in Minsk, Belarus, for the 16th session of the Interstate Council of Eurasian Economic Community. The Summit was attended by the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko, President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Russia Vladimir Putin, President of Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiyeva and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov.
    (www.press-service.uz/en/content.scm?contentId=22610)
2006        Jun 23, Indian border guards killed four Bangladesh villagers in two separate shootings.
    (AFP, 6/24/06)
2006        Jun 23, UN bird flu experts said 7 recent deaths in Indonesia involved a viral mutation, but one that didn’t spread beyond that gathering.
    (WSJ, 6/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Jun 23, Iranian Oil Minister Kazem Vaziri-Hamaneh said Iran will halt gasoline imports from September 23 and start rationing gasoline supplies to motorists because of budget constraints.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, The Iraqi government declared a state of emergency and imposed a curfew after insurgents set up roadblocks in central Baghdad and opened fire on US and Iraqi troops outside the heavily fortified Green Zone. A bomb struck a Sunni mosque northeast of Baghdad, killing at least 12 worshippers and wounding 15 in the same town where Abu Musab al-Zarqawi was slain earlier this month. 3 armed members of the Mahdi army militia of radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr were killed while battling US forces in eastern Baghdad. 5 Iraqi soldiers and 3 police died during the clashes on Haifa Street and 8 suspected insurgents were arrested. 5 bodies found in the Tigris River were confirmed as part of the group kidnapped June 21 in Taji. One US soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Baghdad and another in a "non-combat incident" that was being investigated.
    (AP, 6/23/06)(AFP, 6/23/06)(AP, 6/24/06)(SFC, 6/24/06, p.A3)
2006        Jun 23, Japan and Washington agreed to strengthen cooperation on missile defense amid concerns of a possible long-range rocket launch by North Korea.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, In Mexico Enrique Rueda Pacheco, the leader of about 70,000 striking teachers in southern Oaxaca state, said they won't interfere with the July 2 presidential election, and promised to meet with a civic commission to try to resolve their pay demands. The monthlong strike has left 1.3 million children in grade and high schools in Oaxaca without classes.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip fired three homemade rockets into Israel, hours after the Israeli prime minister pledged to push forward with airstrikes against the militants despite a recent string of civilian casualties.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, In the southern Philippines a car bomb exploded in a public market in Shariff Aguad as a convoy carrying a provincial governor was passing by, killing five people wounding 10 others.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, Poland's finance minister resigned after a prosecutor asked a court to investigate whether she collaborated with the country's communist-era secret police.
    (AP, 6/24/06)
2006        Jun 23, In Serbia a popular Belgrade newspaper quoted an unnamed source as saying top war crimes fugitive General Ratko Mladic had suffered "his third stroke" and was in grave condition, near death.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, In Somalia Martin Adler, a Swedish television cameraman, was fatally shot by an unidentified gunman during a demonstration in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 6/23/06)(www.nppa.org/news_and_events/news/2006/06/adler.html)
2006        Jun 23, Saudi security forces stormed a suspected al-Qaida hideout in Riyadh, killing six militants and arresting a seventh after an exchange of gunfire.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
2006        Jun 23, Turkey's top court indefinitely suspended the corruption trial of former PM Mesut Yilmaz on technical grounds, a move that amounts to the case being dropped.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2007        Jun 23, In Canton, Ohio, authorities found the body of Jessie Davis (26), who had disappeared a week earlier. Davis was pregnant and due to deliver on July 3. Police arrested Bobby Cutts Jr. (30), Davis’ boyfriend and the father of Davis’ two-year-old son. Myisha Ferrel, a former classmate Bobby Cutts, was arrested the next day in connection with the murder. In 2008 Cutts was convicted of aggravated murder and sentenced to 57 years to life in prison.
    (SSFC, 6/24/07, p.A6)(SFC, 6/25/07, p.A5)(SFC, 2/16/08, p.A4)(AP, 6/23/08)
2007        Jun 23, Donna Jou (19), a student a San Diego State Univ., was last scene on the back of a motorcycle driven by John Steven Burgess (35), a convicted sex offender. In August Burgess pleaded guilty to a drug charge in Florida and waived extradition to California.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.B9)
2007        Jun 23, A Belgian teenager was arrested for hacking and temporarily shutting down the federal police website, leaving a mocking on-line note which helped identify him.
    (AFP, 6/26/07)
2007        Jun 23, Britain’s PM Tony Blair held long talks with Pope Benedict XVI, with the Vatican stop on his farewell tour fueling rumors that he plans to convert to Catholicism.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2007        Jun 23, Authorities said an outbreak of distemper has been killing seal pups off the coast of Denmark, warning that thousands of seals could die if the disease spreads to other northern European countries.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2007        Jun 23, European Union leaders agreed on a "precise mandate," no longer called a constitution, that will guide and govern the expanded EU. They agreed on the key points of a treaty meant to strengthen the bloc's foreign policy role and eliminate unwieldy bureaucracy.
    (AP, 6/23/07)(WSJ, 6/25/07, p.A1)
2007        Jun 23, In India the mutilated bodies of Manoj and Babli Banwala were fished out of Barwala Link Canal in Hisar district by Kheri Chowki police, their hands and feet tied. Manoj and Babli Banwala (19), childhood sweethearts in northern Haryana state, were murdered some days earlier by male relatives of Babli, who was forced to drink pesticide by her brother. Manoj was garroted by the bride’s uncle. Their alleged crime was to have married within the same Hindu clan.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaithal_honour_killing_case)
2007        Jun 23, It was estimated that 2.2 million of Iraq’s 27 million people have fled the country for Jordan, Syria and elsewhere. Iraqi and US troops captured two senior al-Qaida militants in Diyala province. US military said that at least 55 al-Qaida operatives have been killed and 23 detained since the start of Operation Arrowhead Ripper. A predawn operation by US forces working with Iraqi informants in Baghdad's main Shiite district of Sadr City netted 3 other militants suspected of ties to Iran. A car bomb in the southern city of Hillah killed at least two people and wounded 18 others. A total of 11 US soldiers were killed, including seven killed by roadside bombs, four by a single blast near Baghdad. An Iraqi man was killed by US troops near Kirkuk. On July 19 two American soldiers were charged with his murder.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.54)(AP, 6/23/07)(AP, 6/24/07)(SFC, 7/20/07, p.A15)
2007        Jun 23, Israeli troops arrested the founder of the Hamas military wing in the West Bank. Saleh Aruri, was taken from his West Bank home before dawn. Aruri had served 15 years in an Israeli prison and was released in March.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2007        Jun 23, Italian energy company Eni SpA and Russia's state-controlled OAO Gazprom said they signed a memorandum of understanding on the possibility of supplying Russian gas to European Union countries through a pipeline under the Black Sea.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2007        Jun 23, In Nigeria labor unions called off a strike aimed at overturning a government fuel-price hike, ending a four-day work stoppage that shut down most major economic activity in Africa's biggest oil producer. Labor officials said they accepted a government proposal to hold off on raising fuel prices for a year, while accepting an earlier offer to halve the price increase that had sparked the strike. Kidnappers released four foreign oil workers seized weeks ago.
    (AP, 6/24/07)
2007        Jun 23, In Pakistan radical Islamic students kidnapped nine people, including 6 Chinese women, from an alleged brothel in Islamabad. The nine were released after about 17 hours. Collapsed houses and severed electrical cables killed at least 228 people after heavy rains and thunderstorms lashed Pakistan's southern port city of Karachi.
    (Reuters, 6/23/07)(AP, 6/24/07)
2007        Jun 23, In Romania a bear attacked a group of US tourists on a remote trail in the Carpathian Mountains, killing a woman and injuring two other people.
    (AP, 6/24/07)
2007        Jun 23, In Saudi Arabia a judge postponed the trial of 3 members of the religious police for their alleged involvement in the death of a man arrested after being seen with a woman who was not his relative.
    (AP, 6/23/07)
2007        Jun 23, Sudan’s oil production stood at 480,000 barrels per day with proven reserves at 1.6 billion barrels.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.54)
2007        Jun 23, In Turkey a separatist Kurdish rebel and a civilian were killed in a botched suicide attack in the eastern province of Tunceli. Paramilitary troops opened fire on the truck as it was approaching a military outpost at which point the vehicle exploded. Fighting elsewhere left five rebels and a government militia member dead.
    (AFP, 6/24/07)
2007        Jun 23, A Yemeni guard opened fire on a group of foreign oil workers shortly after they landed at a company airstrip, killing one and wounding five, including an American. The provincial governor said the guard's was mentally ill.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2008        Jun 23, US presidential candidate John McCain argued that the 54 cent tariff on imported ethanol should be scrapped.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.43)
2008        Jun 23, A survey of religion found that 92% of Americans believe in God, but most say their faith isn’t the only way to eternal life.
    (WSJ, 6/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Jun 23, Henry Samueli, co-founder of Broadcom, pleaded guilty to making a false statement to the SEC in connection with the agency’s investigation of alleged stock option backdating at the company.
    (WSJ, 6/24/08, p.B2)
2008        Jun 23, Republic Services Inc. of Florida agreed to acquire Allied Waste Industries of Arizona for $6.24 billion in stock.
    (WSJ, 6/24/08, p.B3)
2008        Jun 23, More than 840 wildfires sparked by an "unprecedented" lightning storm burned across Northern California, alarming the governor and requiring the help of firefighters from Nevada and Oregon.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, The World Wildlife Fund cautioned that the spread of so-called marine dead zones, where nothing can survive due to lack of oxygen, could cause the Baltic Sea ecosystem to collapse.
    (AFP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, In Afghanistan a civilian father and son were killed by coalition forces in eastern Nangarhar province. 2 gunmen on a motorcycle killed a female police officer in Herat province.
    (AFP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, Algeria's president named Ahmed Ouyahia, a pragmatist known for his tough line against Islamic extremists, as the country's prime minister, his third stint in the post.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, Anglo-Australian mining group Rio Tinto said that it had agreed to a near doubling of the price of its iron ore sales to Chinese steel maker Baosteel.
    (AFP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, Canada confirmed a new case of mad cow disease, its 13th since 2003, but said the case in British Columbia did not pose a health threat.
    (Reuters, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, Chile’s Pres. Michelle Bachelet pushed to permanently ban whaling along Chile's coast at the opening of the weeklong International Whaling Commission meeting.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, European Union nations approved new sanctions against Iran, including an assets freeze of the country's biggest bank. The sanctions also include a travel ban on high-level experts dealing with Iran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, In Iraq a gunman opened fire on US soldiers attending a municipal council meeting in Madain, southeast of Baghdad, killing two of them and wounding three soldiers. An interpreter was also killed.
    (AP, 6/23/08)(AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, In Jerusalem French President Nicolas Sarkozy said there could be no Mideast peace unless Israel drops its refusal to cede sovereignty over parts of Jerusalem claimed by the Palestinians, challenging one of Israel's most emotionally held positions.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, A Japanese fishing boat capsized and sank off the country's eastern coast, leaving four crew members dead and 13 missing.
    (AP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, Lebanese security officials say heavy overnight fighting between pro- and anti-government supporters in the northern city of Tripoli has left four more dead. Lebanese troops deployed in Tripoli after 2 days of sectarian fighting left at least 9 people dead and 42 wounded.
    (AP, 6/23/08)(WSJ, 6/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Jun 23, Vlado Taneski (56), a Macedonian journalist jailed on suspicion of murdering at least two women in crimes he wrote about for his newspaper, was found dead in his cell.
    (AP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, The Nigerian senior oil workers union, PENGASSAN, launched a strike against Chevron. Company officials said the next day that oil production had not been affected.
    (AFP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, A Pakistani court disqualified former prime minister Nawaz Sharif from contesting a by-election for a seat in the National Assembly later this week.
    (AP, 6/23/08)
2008        Jun 23, Somali gunmen reportedly seized 4 Europeans from a yacht off the Gulf of Aden and took to Puntland, a semiautonomous region of northern Somalia. They demanded $1 million for the release of a German couple, their young son and a French boat captain. German officials subsequently said no child was kidnapped. The German couple was released on August 8 following a $1 million ransom.
    (AP, 6/26/08)(AP, 8/9/08)
2008        Jun 23, In Sri Lanka fighting in northern Sri Lanka killed 21 Tamil Tiger separatist rebels and two soldiers.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, UN experts began probing allegations that Syria has a hidden nuclear program, as Damascus imposed strict secrecy on the visit, warning the UN not to drag it into a drawn-out investigation like the standoff with Iran.
    (AP, 6/24/08)
2008        Jun 23, Zimbabwe police raided the opposition party's headquarters and took away about 60 people, a day after the party's presidential candidate withdrew from a runoff against longtime leader Robert Mugabe. Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai took refuge at the Netherlands embassy in Harare. World leaders challenged Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's legitimacy and threatened sanctions. UN Security Council members unanimously condemned Zimbabwe's government, saying it has waged a "campaign of violence" that has made it impossible to hold a fair presidential election. The Zimbabwe opposition said that one of its lawmakers was in intensive care after being beaten up by President Robert Mugabe's supporters ahead of an aborted campaign rally.
    (AP, 6/23/08)(AFP, 6/23/08)(AP, 6/24/08)(AFP, 6/24/08)

2009        Jun 23, US Trade Representative Ron Kirk said the United States is launching a World Trade Organization case against China over its export restrictions on raw materials. The EU said it was joining the US in the action, which follows failure to persuade China to reduce its export tariffs and raise quotas on materials such as zinc, tin, tungsten and yellow phosphorous.
    (Reuters, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, CIA director Leon Panetta, learned of a nascent CIA counterterrorism program within the CIA, terminated it and the next day called an emergency meeting with the House and Senate Intelligence committees to inform them of the program and that it was canceled. Former Vice President Dick Cheney had directed the CIA in 2001 not to inform Congress about the nascent counterterrorism program, which developed plans to dispatch small teams to kill senior Al-Qaida terrorists.
    (AP, 7/12/09)(SFC, 7/14/09, p.A4)
2009        Jun 23, In Santa Cruz, California, Clyde Persley (49) turned in his winning SuperLotto Plus ticket and should get his first check for about $16 million in four to six weeks.
    (AP, 6/28/09)
2009        Jun 23, Ed McMahon (86), loyal "Tonight Show" sidekick, died. He bolstered boss Johnny Carson with guffaws and a resounding "H-e-e-e-e-e-ere's Johnny!" for 30 years.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, In Afghanistan 3 German soldiers were killed when their patrol near the northern city of Kunduz came under fire. A suicide car bombing targeting a US-led military convoy in the eastern province of Ghazni killed two passers-by. Also in Ghazni, Taliban ambushed a police convoy, killing a policeman. 3 Afghan aid workers were killed in a roadside bombing in the northern province of Jawzjan. Another blast killed three policeman just outside the southern city of Kandahar. Afghan and coalition forces killed 23 suspected Taliban fighters in a clash in southern Uruzgan province. Mullah Ismail, a Taliban commander in the region, was killed during the clash. A box of leaflets dropped from a British plane killed a girl.
    (AFP, 6/23/09)(AP, 6/24/09)(AP, 9/30/09)
2009        Jun 23, In Britain wildcat strikes spread to oil refineries and power plants across the country. Thousands of workers demonstrated outside the Lindsey terminal in Lincolnshire, where almost 650 contract workers were sacked by French oil giant Total last week.
    (AFP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, Bulgarian authorities detained Agim Ceku (59), a former Kosovo prime minister (2006-2008), on an international arrest warrant issued by Interpol at Serbia's request. He is wanted for war crimes allegedly committed during the 1998-1999 war when he was military chief of the Kosovo Liberation Army, made up of ethnic Albanian guerrillas.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
2009        Jun 23, The French parliament created a commission to study the wearing of body-covering burqas and niqabs in France, a day after President Nicolas Sarkozy said the Islamic garment turns women into prisoners.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, Frederic Mitterrand (b.1947) was appointed to the French government as the Minister of Culture and Communications.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric_Mitterrand)
2009        Jun 23, An Indian court issued arrest warrants for 22 Pakistani nationals accused of masterminding last year's deadly Mumbai terrorist attacks, including the founder of an Islamist militant group recently freed by a Pakistani court.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, Iran's top electoral body said it found "no major fraud" and will not annul the results of the presidential election, closing the door to a do-over sought by angry opposition supporters alleging systematic vote-rigging. The 12-member Guardian Council also received approval for an extension of its examination to June 29. 185 out of 290 members of parliament, including Speaker Ali Larijani, stayed away from a victory celebration for Ahmadinejad.
    (AP, 6/23/09)(SFC, 6/24/09, p.A2)(AP, 6/25/09)
2009        Jun 23, Abdel Aziz Duaik, the most senior Hamas leader being held by Israel, was freed after serving the bulk of his three-year sentence.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, A Kyrgyz parliamentary committee approved a deal in which the United States has agreed to pay more than triple the previous rent for use of a key air base in Kyrgyzstan to ship non-lethal military supplies to Afghanistan.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, In Mauritania gunmen attempted to kidnap Christopher Ervin Leggett (39), an American teacher, then shot and killed him when he tried to resist. Leggett had taught at a center specializing in computer science in El Kasr, a lower-class neighborhood in Nouakchott. Al-Qaida's North Africa branch soon claimed responsibility for the killing. On July 17 police arrested two suspects in the killing. On July 24 a 3rd suspect, Didi Ould Bezeid (26), was arrested in Nouakchott.
    (AP, 6/23/09)(AP, 6/25/09)(AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jun 23, Northern Ireland’s government said more than 100 Romanian Gypsies who suffered racist attacks and intimidation in Belfast are being flown back home at taxpayer expense.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
2009        Jun 23, In Pakistan 3 unmanned drones fired missiles at the funeral procession for suspected militants killed in South Waziristan by a similar strike earlier in the day. As many as 50-80 people were reported killed. Taliban faction leader Qari Zainuddin was fatally shot in Dera Ismail Khan, reportedly by one of his own guards. He was seen as the chief rival to Baitullah Mehsud, the militant group's Pakistani head.
    (AP, 6/23/09)(AP, 6/24/09)(AP, 6/25/09)(SFC, 6/25/09, p.A2)
2009        Jun 23, Serbia's war crimes court convicted Damir Sireta, a Croatian Serb man, for the execution-style killings in Vukovar of some 200 Croatian prisoners of war in 1991 during the Balkan conflict. Sireta was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/23/09)
2009        Jun 23, Swedish retailer IKEA announced that it was suspending its investment in Russia because of “the “unpredictable character of administrative procedures, a euphemism for graft.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.63)

2010        Jun 23, Pres. Barack Obama met with Gen. Stanley McChrystal, his top Afghanistan commander, to decide whether to fire him over inflammatory comments that angered the White House and threatened to undermine the war effort. McChrystal resigned and Obama chose General David Petraeus, an architect of the Afghan campaign, to take over as commander in Kabul.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)(AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, The Obama administration announced that it will station an unmanned aerial drone in Texas as part of its stepped-up surveillance of criminal trafficking along the Mexican border.
    (SFC, 6/24/10, p.A6)
2010        Jun 23, An industry source said the CIA has hired Xe Services, formerly known as Blackwater Worldwide, to guard facilities in Afghanistan and elsewhere. The contract was said to be worth about $100 million.
    (SFC, 6/24/10, p.A6)
2010        Jun 23, In Michigan former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (40) was indicted on federal fraud and tax charges. He was accused of turning a charity into a private slush fund.
    (SFC, 6/24/10, p.A9)
2010        Jun 23, The TV show “As the World Turns," daytime TV’s oldest drama, wrapped up production. The show premiered in 1956. the last show will air on Sep 17, 2010.
    (AP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, Illinois state and federal officials said an Asian carp has been found for the first time beyond electric barriers meant to keep the voracious invasive species out of the Great Lakes, prompting renewed calls for swift action to block their advance. Commercial fishermen landed the 3-foot-long, 20-pound bighead carp in Lake Calumet on Chicago's South Side, about six miles from Lake Michigan.
    (AP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, Embattled BP CEO Tony Hayward handed over the handling of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to Bob Dudley (54), an American executive brought up in Mississippi, one of the states affected by the disaster. BP reinstalled an oil containment system sucking up crude from a ruptured pipe in the Gulf of Mexico, which had been removed following a collision with a robotic submarine.
    (AP, 6/23/10)(AFP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, In southern Afghanistan 4 British soldiers were killed in a vehicle crash.
    (AFP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, Australian PM Kevin Rudd announced a shock ballot to fight a challenge from his deputy Julia Gillard, raising the prospect of the country's first female head of government. Rudd emerged from marathon late-night talks with Gillard and other ministers to tell a hastily convened press conference the vote would be held early on June 24.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Bosnia firefighters and volunteers worked overnight and into the day to evacuate dozens of towns and villages due to flooding.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, British Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged to deepen strategic relations with Pakistan as he paid his first visit to Islamabad since the new government in London took power.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, British-based risk consultancy Maplecroft said African nations led by Mauritania, Somalia and Sudan have the most precarious water supplies in the world.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In London Picasso’s “Portrait of Angel Fernandez de Soto" sold for nearly $52 million. Andrew Lloyd-Webber sold the painting to benefit his charitable foundation.
    (SFC, 6/25/10, p.A2)
2010        Jun 23, Bulgaria says it will send 65 more troops to the NATO-led force in Afghanistan in early September.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Canada 7 people were killed when a small plane crashed near Jean-Lesage International Airport in Quebec City in Eastern Canada.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, China stepped in to provide Cambodia with more than 250 military vehicles after the United States earlier suspended a similar shipment when the Cambodian government deported 20 asylum seekers.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Cairo Abdel Hamid Musa Abu Aqrab, a top Egyptian militant leader, was sentenced to death for killing two police commanders in 1992 and 1993 and for organizing bomb attacks against security officials and tourists in the 1990s. Aqrab headed the military wing of Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiya group. The group was also blamed for a failed 1995 assassination attempt on President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa. A judge at the state security court referred Abu Aqrab's case for confirmation by Egypt's top religious authority, the Grand Mufti, in a procedural step that almost always confirms the death penalty.
    (Reuters, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Hong Kong thousands of protestors chanting slogans and blaring vuvuzelas faced off as legislators debated a controversial plan to enact limited political reforms in the Chinese territory. Pro-democracy Hong Kong legislators attacked a proposal for limited political reforms made by the territory's Beijing-appointed government and tried to stall a vote expected to go in the administration's favor.
    (AP, 6/23/10) 
2010        Jun 23, In Indonesia an elite anti-terrorism squad arrested Abdullah Sunata, the country’s most-wanted man, and two other suspects after raiding their hide-out on the country's main island of Java. At least one person was killed and several weapons seized, including a bomb in a backpack.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, Iran's nuclear chief said his country has produced 17 kilograms of uranium enriched to 20 percent, defying UN demands to halt the controversial program.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Iraq 7 police officers were killed in suicide bombings and a checkpoint shooting in Mosul.
    (SFC, 6/25/10, p.A2)
2010        Jun 23, Israeli troops overnight arrested four Palestinians in the occupied West Bank, among them Shadi Amwasi (30), a former intelligence officer.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, Japan placed Paul Watson (59), the Canadian founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, a US-based anti-whaling organization, on an international wanted list for allegedly masterminding the group's disruption of Japanese whale hunts in the Antarctic Ocean.
    (AP, 6/25/10)
2010        Jun 23, Lithuania said its Russian gas supplies, which transit through Belarus, had been cut by 30 percent as a result of Russia's energy dispute with Belarus.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In the southern Philippines about 30 hooded attackers, believed to be Abu Sayyaf militants, shot and hacked horrified victims as they ran for their lives. Four people died and six were wounded in the ambush on a village road on Basilan island.
    (AP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, Romania's most notorious television journalist and his producer were formally arrested and detained for 29 days on charges of blackmailing and threatening a mayor. Dan Diaconescu and producer Doru Parv were arrested after a 7-hour overnight court hearing. They were charged with demanding money from Ion Motz, the mayor of Zarand village, to avoid broadcasting compromising material about him.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, South Korean and Japanese activists floated hundreds of thousands of leaflets by balloon toward the border with North Korea to condemn the country's government amid tensions over the sinking of a South Korean warship.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Spain 12 people died and 14 others were injured when a passenger train slammed into a group of young revelers who crossed a railway track instead of using a crowded underground passageway at the Castelldefels Playa station some 25 km (15 miles) south of Barcelona.
    (AFP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, The Swedish Dock Workers Union launched a week-long blockade of cargo to and from Israel to protest the Israeli raid on a Gaza-bound aid flotilla last month.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, In Syria a court in Damascus convicted Muhannad al-Hassani (44), a leading Syrian lawyer and rights activist, of spreading false information and sentenced him to three years in prison. He was also charged with "weakening national sentiments," a term often used in Syria against those who challenge the regime.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, Mohamed Mzali (b.1925), former Tunisian prime minister (1980-1986) and a longtime member of the International Olympic Committee, died in Paris after a long illness.
    (AP, 6/24/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Mzali)
2010        Jun 23, Venezuela said it will nationalize a fleet of oil rigs belonging to US company Helmerich and Payne. The 11 drilling rigs have been idled for months following a dispute over $49 million in pending payments by the state oil company PDVSA. On June 26 the oil minister said Venezuela will pay Helmerich and Payne for the fleet of seized oil rigs, warning that five drills at a Chevron venture were also at risk of nationalization.
    (Reuters, 6/24/10)(Reuters, 6/26/10)

2011        Jun 23, The US blacklisted a major Iranian port operator and the country's national airline, Iran Air, to increase pressure on Tehran to curtail its alleged nuclear weapons program.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, Early Bradley (58), a former Delaware pediatrician, was found guilty of abusing scores of young patients, most of whom were toddlers.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A8)
2011        Jun 23, F. Chris Garcia, a former Univ. of New Mexico president, was arrested and jailed in connection with a multistate, online prostitution ring. Police said Garcia and New Jersey’s Fairleigh Dickinson professor David Flory were among 7 members in the top echelon of the ring, which had 1,400 members including 200 prostitutes.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A8)
2011        Jun 23, The Wild Goose Festival, a music fest for theological liberals, kicked off in North Carolina with some 1500 people attending.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.26)
2011        Jun 23, Peter Falk (83), star of the TV detective series “Columbo" (1971-1977), died in his Beverly Hills, Calif., home.
    (AP, 6/25/11)
2011        Jun 23, A special Afghan tribunal overturned nearly 25 percent of last year's legislative election results, alleging massive fraud and putting into question who will control the parliament, one of the few checks on President Hamid Karzai. The Afghan government said that ten Pakistani artillery shells landed in Sarkano district of Kunar province, killing four children.
    (AP, 6/23/11)(Reuters, 6/24/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Algeria a bomb attack on a military patrol killed one soldier and wounded another. Moustapha Dial, a father of five, was fired upon by troops who raided a villa in Azazga where he was caretaker and seriously wounded. He was finished off by another burst of gunfire as he tried to seek aid. 15 soldiers, including an officer, were later detained in connection with the accidental killing.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)(AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jun 23, Belarus police released most of the 450 or so protesters they detained the previous evening at a rally against President Alexander Lukashenko in the capital Minsk. Several dozen were put on trial. The protests in Minsk, and nearly 30 other Belarusian cities, was the third such action in as many weeks.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)(AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Brazil 8 people were killed in an early hours police raid on a Rio slum aimed at cracking down on suspected drug traffickers.
    (AFP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, A British court convicted Levi Bellfield (43) of abducting and murdering Milly Dowler (13) after she walked past his home in 2002. It took Milly's parents Bob and Sally nine years to get justice, even though her killer had been living 50 yards from where she was last seen in Station Avenue, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey. The former wheelclamper and bouncer went on to kill Miss McDonnell and to murder Amelie Delagrange (22), and attempt to murder Kate Sheedy (18) in 2004. Bellfield was jailed for life for those crimes in February 2008 and was told he would never be released.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A5)
2011        Jun 23, China's state-controlled Catholic church said it will move swiftly to appoint new bishops in dioceses where there are none, in a step that is certain to worsen frictions with the Vatican. Filling the more than 40 empty bishop's seats is an urgent task because the vacancies are causing serious problems in the handling of church affairs.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, In CongoDRC right groups walked out of the Kimberley meeting in Kinshasa, where African countries, China and India supported a decision to allow Zimbabwe to sell some diamonds from its controversial Marange fields. The endorsement was opposed by Western nations, rights groups and industry.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)
2011        Jun 23, An Egyptian state security court sentenced Tareq Hassan, an Egyptian businessman, to 25 years in prison for spying for Israel. Two Israeli citizens were also sentenced in absentia to 25 years in jail.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, France said it will pull its 4,000 troops out of Afghanistan on the same staggered timetable as the US withdrawal, helping pave the way for drawdowns by other allies.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, The Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) said 28 countries have agreed to release 60 million barrels of crude to the market to offset disruptions prompted by Libya's war. The countries will make 2 million barrels a day available from their emergency stocks over a period of 30 days.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, Germany's national disease control center said the death toll from Europe's E. coli outbreak has risen to 43, up from 39 a day earlier. One person has died in Sweden.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, India and Pakistan held talks on peace and security issues in Islamabad, part of efforts to stabilize South Asia.
    (AFP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Iraq 3 bombs ripped through Shiite neighborhoods in Baghdad, killing 24 people in the worst violence the capital has seen in months. An American civilian aid specialist working to improve education in Iraq was killed in a separate attack.
    (AP, 6/24/11)(AFP, 6/26/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Iraq Hasna Ali Yahya, the Yemeni wife of Abu Ayyub al-Masri, was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison on terrorism-related charges.
    (AP, 6/26/11)
2011        Jun 23, Japanese inventors were reported to have pushed the frontiers of technology with the ultimate companion for lonely singles, a wired torso-shaped device that you can hug and that hugs you back.
    (AFP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Japan a 6.7 earthquake rattled the northeast, that same area of march 11 quake, which triggered a massive tsunami.
    (SFC, 6/23/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 23, The Mexican army discovered 117 migrants, mainly from Guatemala and El Salvador, hidden inside a trailer truck in the southern state of Oaxaca.
    (AP, 6/25/11)
2011        Jun 23, A Dutch court acquitted right-wing politician Geert Wilders of hate speech charges finding that his inflammatory comments about Muslims were protected by rules governing discourse in a free society.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A5)
2011        Jun 23, New Zealand's government said that it has offered to pay thousands of homeowners to leave areas of Christchurch, the country's second-largest city, that were hardest hit by recent earthquakes.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, In Nigeria unusually heavy rains flooded a neighborhood in the northern city of Kano killed 24 people overnight.
    (AFP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, Ibrahim Aaraj was arrested by Gaza narcotics squad officers. On June 27 the Gaza-based Palestinian Center for Human Rights said it feared Ibrahim Aaraj might have been tortured while in custody at the Nusseirat refugee camp and called for an inquiry into his death. Since Hamas wrested control of Gaza in 2007, eight people have died in police custody under questionable circumstances.
    (AP, 6/27/11)
2011        Jun 23, Russia’s PM Putin said his government would not revoke a ban on European vegetable imports until Brussels met Kremlin conditions.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A4)
2011        Jun 23, In Russia Vladislav Achalov (65), a former Soviet general who supported two botched anti-Kremlin coups and recently organized a protest against the government's military reform, died in Moscow. Achalov supported the 1991 hardline coup that briefly ousted Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev but didn't face trial. In October 1993, he played an active role in a rebellion against President Boris Yeltsin and spent several months in custody before being released under amnesty.
    (AP, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, Senegalese police lobbed tear gas at thousands of protesters who amassed in the capital to oppose proposed changes to the constitution that critics said would benefit the longtime president and his family. Pres. Abdoulaye Wade cancelled his proposed change to the Constitution, which would have paved the way for his son to take power.
    (AP, 6/23/11)(SFC, 6/24/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 23, Somalia’s Pres. named Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, a Somali American economist, as the country’s new prime minister. He was elevated from his position as minister of planning and int’l. cooperation.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 23, In southern Somalia an airstrike from military aircraft hit a convoy carrying al-Qaida-linked militants. Foreign fighters were among those killed in the attack carried out by a "partner country." A US drone fired on two senior commanders of Somalia's Shebab Islamist insurgency after they were found to have ties to Al-Qaeda. US military forces landed to retrieve the bodies of dead or wounded militants following the drone strike.
    (AP, 6/24/11)(AFP, 6/29/11)(AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jun 23, Swaziland was re[ported to be asking neighboring South Africa for an emergency bailout to patch over a chronic national cash crunch that has sparked rare political unrest against King Mswati III, Africa's last absolute monarch. The IMF said last month Swaziland was near financial collapse, with a budget deficit of 14.3 percent of GDP, similar to Greece, and an economy stuck in the doldrums. Swaziland's public wage bill amounts to 18 percent of GDP, more than any other country in Africa.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)
2011        Jun 23, Syrian troops massed near the Turkish border, raising tensions with Ankara as protests against President Bashar al-Assad's rule hit the 100 day mark. Syrian forces stormed the border town of Khirbet al-Jouz. Rights groups said Syrian security forces have killed more than 130 civilians and arrested 2,000 in the military campaign southwest of Aleppo. Some 1,300 civilians have been killed across Syria since mid-March.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)(SFC, 6/24/11, p.A3)
2011        Jun 23, In northern Vietnam flash floods and whirlwinds killed seven people, left three others missing and injured 60.
    (AP, 6/24/11)

2012        Jun 23, In Texas 2 women were found lying in "knee-deep" grass in a park in Portland. Mollie Judith Olgin (19) was pronounced dead at the scene. Her girlfriend, Mary Christine Chapa (18), was hospitalized with a single gunshot wound to the head.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7qto9p6)
2012        Jun 23, Afghan Pres. Karzai called for subjects such as medicine and engineering to be taught in international languages such as English or German, and invited foreign institutions to come and fund Afghan faculties. One NATO service member died in an insurgent attack and another in a bomb blast. Authorities said flash floods in the north have killed at least 37 people.
    (AP, 6/24/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)(SSFC, 6/24/12, p.A4)
2012        Jun 23, In Croatia at least eight Czech tourists were killed and 44 injured when a bus crashed and overturned on a major highway near Gospic.
    (AP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, In France thousands of Iranian exiles led a Paris rally to demand democratic change in Iran and help for Iranian resistance members in Iraq's refugee camps.
    (AP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, In Honduras a US Drug Enforcement Administration agent shot and killed a suspected drug trafficker during a raid in a remote northern area, known as a destination for illicit flights carrying cocaine from South America. Honduran National Police arrested four suspects and seized 792 pounds (360 kg) of cocaine. 6 other people were arrested later on suspicion of aiding the smuggling operation.
    (AP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 23, Israeli police arrested 85 protesters arrested after clashing with officers and vandalizing banks in Tel Aviv. The demonstrators had gathered to protest the arrest of 12 social activists a day earlier.
    (AP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 23, Israeli airstrikes killed at least 3 Palestinian men and a boy (6), as Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel wounded one person and damaged a school in Sderot. Gaza militants fired over 30 rockets and mortar shells, bringing the week's rocket tally to more than 150.
    (AP, 6/23/12)(SSFC, 6/24/12, p.A8)
2012        Jun 23, Liberia extradited 41 Ivory Coast nationals for their role in last year's bloody post-electoral violence in the neighboring West African nation.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, In Mexico local media reported that 14 mutilated corpses and a threatening message aimed at a drug cartel were found inside a truck in the parking lot of a supermarket in Mante, Tamaulipas state.
    (Reuters, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, In Pakistan gunmen on motorcycles shot dead 8 men at a laundry in the restive southwestern city of Quetta.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, Voting began in Papua New Guinea, a struggling Pacific nation which is on the brink of a huge resources boom. 3,428 candidates vied for 109 of 111 parliamentary seats, with no single political party likely to win enough seats to form government on its own.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)(Econ, 8/4/12, p.36)
2012        Jun 23, Paraguay's newly sworn-in president, Federico Franco, set about forming a new government as he promised to honor foreign commitments, respect private property and reach out to Latin American leaders to minimize diplomatic fallout and keep his country from becoming a regional pariah.
    (AP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, South Korea and the USA launched a massive 3-day naval exercise in the tense Yellow Sea, ahead of the 62nd anniversary (June 25) of the outbreak of the Korean War.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)
2012        Jun 23, Syrian President Bashar Assad issued a decree forming a new government, but it will be headed by a key loyalist and the foreign, defense and interior ministers kept their jobs.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said 116 people were killed today in violence across the country.
    (AP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/23/12)(AFP, 6/24/12)
2012        Jun 23, Yemeni officials said landmines planted in the southern province of Abyan by Al-Qaeda militants before they were driven out from the area have killed at least 35 people in the past 10 days.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)

2013        Jun 23, Former US National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden flew from Hong Kong to Russia. A report said he intended to fly to Cuba on June 24 and then on to Caracas, Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/23/13)
2013        Jun 23, In Texas more than 800 women's rights protesters crowded into the Austin Capitol to watch Democrats try a series of parliamentary maneuvers to stop the Republican majority from passing some of the toughest abortion restrictions in the country.
    (AP, 6/24/13)
2013        Jun 23, Richard Matheson, American sci-fi and fantasy writer, died in Los Angeles. His 1954 vampire novel “I Am Legend" inspired three different film adaptations: “The Last Man on Earth" (1964), “The Omega Man" (1971), and “I Am Legend" (2007).
    (SFC, 6/26/13, p.E5)
2013        Jun 23, Albania held national elections. An exchange of gunfire near a polling station wounded a candidate for parliament and left dead a supporter of a rival party in Lac. On June 26 near complete results showed a 53% victory for the Socialist opponents, headed by former Tirana mayor Edi Rama.
    (AP, 6/23/13)(AP, 6/26/13)
2013        Jun 23, The WHO said the new H7N9 strain of bird flu in China has killed 37 people with more than 130 sickened.
    (SFC, 6/24/13, p.A2)
2013        Jun 23, An Egyptian court said that Muslim Brotherhood members conspired with Hamas, Hezbollah and local militants to storm a prison on Jan 29, 2011, and free 34 Brotherhood leaders, including the future President Mohammed Morsi. Adel el-Khayat, a member of a radical Islamist group appointed by Morsi as governor of the ancient city of Luxor, resigned in the face of daily protests outside his office.
    (AP, 6/23/13)
2013        Jun 23, In Egypt a Shiite prayer leader (66) and 3 followers were bludgeoned to death by a Sunni mob. The attack came after Salafi preachers in the village of Zawiyet Abu Muslim gave a small local Shiite community an ultimatum to leave the town by sundown.
    (AP, 6/24/13)(Econ, 6/29/13, p.45)
2013        Jun 23, In northern Iraq suicide bombers and a gunman assaulted a police station near the town of Hawija, one of several attacks across the country that left 7 dead.
    (AP, 6/23/13)
2013        Jun 23, In Lebanon clashes erupted in the south between factions supporting opposing sides in the Syrian civil war leaving 2 Lebanese soldiers killed in Sidon.
    (AP, 6/23/13)
2013        Jun 23, In Montenegro a bus fell from a bridge over the Moraca river during a rainstorm and crashed some 40 meters (130 feet) into a ravine. 18 Romanian tourists were killed and 28 hospitalized.
    (AP, 6/24/13)
2013        Jun 23, Syrian rebels assaulted a police station in Damascus shortly after a powerful explosion went off in the same neighborhood. At least 10 died in the violence in Damascus. 12 soldiers loyal to Assad were reported killed in a car explosion in the suburbs of Aleppo. Jabhat al-Nusra, a Syrian branch of al-Qaida, later claimed responsibility for the suicide attacks on security compounds in Damascus that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 6/23/13)(AP, 6/25/13)

2014        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court trimmed the Obama administration’s power to curb greenhouse gases under a long-running air pollution program in a decision that means most major facilities, including power plants and refineries, will continue to be regulated.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In Atlanta, Ga., the new $75 million National Center for Civil and Human Rights opened.
    (SFC, 6/24/14, p.A6)
2014        Jun 23, General Electric was declared the winner for the energy business of Alstom, a French engineering group. A day earlier the French government said it would take a 20% stake in Alstom.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.53)(http://tinyurl.com/n3hbmn7)
2014        Jun 23, Afghanistan's chief electoral officer resigned in a bid to resolve a political crisis over allegations of massive fraud in the runoff presidential vote earlier this month. Preliminary results are due on July 2, then final results on July 23. Karzai has set Aug. 2 as the date for the new president to be inaugurated.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, A Bangladesh court sentenced eight people, including a leader of a banned Islamist group, to death for their roles in a bombing at a Bengali 2001 New Year's celebration concert that left 10 people dead.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In Central African Republic Christian an anti-Balaka militia attacked the village of Ardo-Djobi, killing 18 of the local Fulani tribal population. One militiaman also died. An initial attack by mainly Christian militia just outside Bambari led to waves of reprisals by Muslim youths. About 10 anti-Balaka were killed.
    (AP, 6/23/14)(Reuters, 6/24/14)
2014        Jun 23, Chinese authorities said they broke up 32 terror groups and arrested more than 380 suspects in the far west in the first month of a crackdown aimed at demonstrating the Communist Party's resolve to maintain order in the Xinjiang region. Many suspects received rapid trials and stiff sentences, including death penalties. Security forces also seized several hundred explosive devices.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, An Egyptian court convicted three Al-Jazeera journalists, Australian Peter Greste, Canadian-Egyptian Mohamed Fahmy and Egyptian Baher Mohammed, and sentenced them to seven years in prison each on terrorism-related charges in a verdict that stunned their families and raised international outrage.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, An Egyptian court sentenced to life in prison 24 Islamists for killing a taxi driver last December. He had put in his car a picture of Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, the ex-army chief turned president.
    (AFP, 6/23/14)(SSFC, 6/29/14, p.A4)
2014        Jun 23, The European Union said it is suspending all official visits to and from Thailand and shelving important agreements, to protest last month's military coup. It is putting on hold the signing of an agreement to deepen political and business ties with Thailand "until a democratically elected government is in place."
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In Germany a Learjet chartered by the German air force to take part in a training exercise with two unarmed Eurofighter jets collided with one of the military planes near the town of Elpe Two civilian pilots were presumed dead. The fighter pilot landed safely.   
    (AP, 6/24/14)
2014        Jun 23, Israel's army said it has detained another 37 Palestinians overnight as it searched for three missing teenagers and extended a crackdown on the Hamas Islamist group it accuses of kidnapping them.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, Israeli authorities announced the arrest of an alleged Hamas operative for involvement in the deadly shooting of an Israeli police officer in the West Bank over the Passover holiday in April.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In Kashmir a protester was killed and four others were wounded when Indian government forces fired at demonstrators protesting the killing of a suspected rebel in an earlier gunbattle.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, The first-ever United Nations Environmental Assembly opened in Kenya, as more than 150 high-level delegations began a weeklong examination of the intersection between global economic progress and the environment.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In Kenya 5 people were killed in attacks in Witu, near Mpeketoni where some 60 people were killed last week.
    (SFC, 6/25/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 23, In northern Nigeria an explosion tore through Kano State School of Hygiene, killing at least 8 people. It was not immediately clear if Islamist militants were behind the blast.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)(Reuters, 6/24/14)
2014        Jun 23, Tahir-ul-Qadri (63), a populist Canada-based cleric, returned to Pakistan to try to start what he has called a "peaceful revolution" against the government, as his supporters engaged in violent clashes with police.
    (AFP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, A Philippine senator surrendered to police after a court ordered his arrest on corruption charges. Jinggoy Estrada, the son of an ex-president, was the second celebrity politician in days to end up in jail on charges of plundering the poor Southeast Asian nation's coffers.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, South Africa's AMCU union declared a five-month platinum strike "officially over" as thousands of miners roared their approval when leader Joseph Mathunjwa asked if they wanted to end the longest work stoppage in the country's history. A South African labor court declared unlawful a planned gold mining strike by the country's radical union AMCU, which has staged a crippling work stoppage at platinum mines.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)(AFP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, In South Korea a massive manhunt ended when a 22-year-old sergeant, surnamed Yim, shot himself in the upper left chest as his father and brother approached, pleading with him to surrender. Yim was hospitalized. He had killed 5 comrades on June 21 near his North Korea border outpost. On Feb 3, 2015, Yim was sentenced to death.
    (AP, 6/23/14)(AP, 2/3/15)
2014        Jun 23, The Syrian government said a series of Israeli airstrikes early today hit nine military targets, killed 4 people and wounded nine others.
    (AP, 6/23/14)(SFC, 6/23/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 23, Syria handed over the remaining 100 tons of toxic material it had declared to the global chemical weapons watchdog. Western governments wanted the mission to continue to investigate numerous ambiguities in Syria's chemical weapons declaration and several alleged chlorine gas attacks, which they also blame on Assad's forces.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, The United Arab Emirates jailed seven men for belonging to an al Qaeda network and aiding its affiliate in Syria. Six were jailed for seven years, one was given life. They were arrested last year on suspicion of planning attacks on the UAE.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, The World Health Organization (WHO) said that the latest figures show 567 cases of Ebola with 350 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The virus has no cure and causes internal bleeding and organ failure, spreading through contact with infected people.
    (AP, 6/23/14)

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