Today in History - July 1

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70CE        Jul 1, Roman Emperor Titus assaulted the walls of Jerusalem with battering rams.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

96CE        Jul 1, Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1097        Jul 1, The 1st Crusaders defeated Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1200        Jul 1, Sunglasses were invented in China.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1390        Jul 1, A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1517        Jul 1, The 1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1523        Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2 monks were executed in Brussels for refusing to recant their Lutheran beliefs.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1535        Jul 1, Sir Thomas More went on trial in England for treason.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1543        Jul 1, England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1569        Jul 1, The Lublin Union was signed and direct rule over Lithuania was passed to Poland. Lithuania maintained certain ministers, laws, money and an army. The territories of Volinija, Kiev and Podolija were transferred to Polish rule.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)
1569        Jul 1, Latvia Parliament accepted the Union of Lublin and was incorporated into Poland.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1596        Jul 1, An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1646        Jul 1, Gottfried Von Leibniz (Leibnitz, d.1716), German philosopher and mathematician, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(WUD, 1994, p.819)

1656        Jul 1, The 1st Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1690        Jul 1, England's Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
    (PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690        Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1731        Jul 1, The “Instrument of Association" for the Library Company of Philadelphia was signed under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. It was America’s first circulating library.
    (www.librarycompany.org/Lemay1.pdf)(AH, 2/06, p.56)

1776        Jul 1, The Continental Congress, sitting as a committee, met on July 1, 1776, to debate a resolution submitted by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee on June 7. The resolution stated that the United Colonies "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States." The committee voted for the motion and, on July 2 in formal session took the final vote for independence.
    (HNQ, 7/1/99)
1776        Jul 1, The British fleet anchored off Sandy Hook in New York Bay.
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1777        Jul 1, British troops departed from their base at the Bouquet river to head toward Ticonderoga, New York.
    (HN, 7/1/00)

1784        Jul 1, Wilhelm Friedmann Bach (73), composer (Sinfonias 64), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1798        Jul 1, Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt. In 1962 J.C. Herold authored "Bonaparte in Egypt." A corps of 150 civilian artists and scientists traveled with Napoleon’s troops to Egypt. In 2007 Nina Burleigh authored “Mirage: Napoleon’s Scientists and the Unveiling of Egypt."
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.E3)(HN, 7/1/98)(ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1804         Jul 1, George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucille Dupin de Francueil, d.1876), French novelist, was born in Paris. She wrote some 80 novels that included “Consuelo" (1842) and “La Comtesse de Rudolstadt" (1843). In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than believe that He was indifferent."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1265)(HN, 7/1/01) (AP, 10/17/98)(HN, 7/1/01)(Econ, 7/31/04, p.72)

1817        Jul 1, Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his first term as governor of New York and continued to 1822.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeWitt_Clinton)

1818        Jul 1, Ignaz Semmelweis (d.1865), Hungarian gynecologist, was born. He later connected childbed fever to doctors who spread of germs due to their failure to wash their hands. In 2003 Sherwin B. Nuland authored "The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M3)

1823        Jul 1, The United Provinces of Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and San Salvador) gained independence from Mexico. The union dissolved by 1840.
    (PC, 1992, p.393)(ON, 12/99, p.5)

1835        Jul 1, German printer Carl Bertelsmann (1791-1850) founded Bertelsmann Verlag in Gutersloh, as a publisher and printer of religious books. In 2004 it was Europe’s largest media company.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.61)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/y8odb47)

1838         Jul 1, Charles Darwin presented a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnea Society in London.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1847        Jul 1, The faces of founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were pictured on the first U.S. government-sponsored postage stamps. Following a Congressional directive, the Post Office issued a Franklin five-cent stamp and a Washington 10-cent stamp.
    (HNQ, 5/16/98)(HN, 7/1/98)

1848        Jul 1, Ranald MacDonald (1824-1894), a Chinook-Scottish sailor, separated from an American whaling ship and arrived at Rishiri Island off Hokkaido, Japan. He was imprisoned for virtually his whole 10-month stay. In 2003 Frederik L. Schodt authored "Native American in the Land of the Shogun: Ranald MacDonald and the Opening of Japan."
    (SSFC, 7/12/03, p.M3)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.63)

1858        Jul 1, The Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution was 1st read at a meeting of the Linnaean Society of London.
    (NH, 2/02, p.76)

1860        Jul 1, Charles Goodyear (b.1800), inventor or the vulcanization process for rubber, died. In 2002 Charles Slack authored "Noble Obsession" an account of his quest to develop a form of rubber impervious to high temperatures.
    (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Goodyear)

1861        Jul 1, The US War Department decreed that Kansas and Tennessee were to be canvassed for volunteers.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1862        Jul 1, Abraham Lincoln instituted an income tax to pay for the Civil War. The US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was founded. Internal Revenue Law imposed federal taxes on inheritance, tobacco & a progressive rate on incomes over $600.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1)
1862        Jul 1, Pres. Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.H3)
1862        Jul 1, The US Congress outlawed polygamy for the 1st time. The Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, signed by Pres. Lincoln, made polygamy illegal in American territories. It led to the prosecution of over 1300 Mormons. It also granted large tracts of public land to the states with the directive to sell for the support of institutions teaching the mechanical and agricultural arts. It also obligated state male university students to military training. The education initiative resulted in 68 land-grant colleges.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.8,14)(HNQ, 10/6/02)(MC, 7/1/02)
1862        Jul 1, In day 7 of the 7 Days Battle Union artillery stopped a Confederate attack at Malvern Hill, Virginia. Casualties totaled: US 15,249 and CS 17,583.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(MC, 7/1/02)
1862        Jul 1, Czar Alexander II granted Jews the right to publish books.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1863          Jul 1, The opening shot at the Battle of Gettysburg was at 7:30 a.m. In the first day's fighting at Gettysburg, Federal forces retreated through the town and dug in at Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill. Gen. Robert E. Lee's ordered Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell, "Take the hill if practicable, but do not bring on a general engagement..." Books on the campaign included "The Gettysburg Campaign, A Study in Command," by Edwin B. Coddington and "Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill," by Harry W. Pfanz. The novel "While Gods and Generals" by Jeff Shaara, son of Michael Shaara, describes the years leading up to the battle.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(AP, 7/1/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D5)(HN, 7/1/98)
1863        Jul 1, John Fulton Reynolds (42), Union general, died in battle at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1863        Jul 1, The Dutch abolished slavery in Suriname. The Dutch were among the last Europeans to abolish slavery.
    (AP, 7/2/03)

1864        Jul 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA, began.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1867        Jul 1, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. A dispute with Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled in 1889 on behalf of Ontario. John Alexander Macdonald became the 1st prime minister.
    (AP, 7/1/97)(www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/constitution/constitution13_e.html)

1873        Jul 1, Prince Edward Island became the 7th Canadian province.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1874        Jul 1, The 1st US zoo opened in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1878        Jul 1, Treaty of Berlin divided Africa for colonization. [see Jul 13]
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1882        Jul 1, Susan Glaspell (d.1948), novelist and playwright, author of "Alison’s House," was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.600)(HN, 7/1/98)

1884        Jul 1, Allan Pinkerton (b.1819) founder of the Pinkerton Agency, died in Chicago. In 1996 James Mackay authored “Allan Pinkerton."
    (http://aotw.org/officers.php?officer_id=918)(ON, 7/06, p.12)

1892         Jul 1, James M. Cain (d.1977), fiction writer, was born in Annapolis, Maryland. His work included "The Postman Always Rings Twice" and "Mildred Pierce." As a member of the "hard-boiled" school of crime fiction of the 1930s and 1940s he is often associated with the equally popular writers Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(iUniv. 7/1/00)

1893        Jul 1, Pres. Cleveland underwent a secret oral surgery aboard the yacht Oneida for a cancerous growth in his upper palate. The cancer operation remained a secret until July 1, 1917, when the doctor who performed the operation revealed the story.
    (ON, 10/99, p.11)(HNQ, 11/6/99)
1893        Jul 1, Canada enacted a riot act as part of its criminal code.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/lfqouh)

1896        Jul 1, Harriet Beecher Stowe (85), US author (Uncle Tom's Cabin), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1898        Jul 1, American troops took San Juan Hill and El Caney, Cuba, from the Spaniards. During the Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" waged a victorious assault on San Juan Hill in SE Cuba. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt was unsatisfied with the lack of clear orders and decided to lead a charge up San Juan Hill himself. At first, Regular troops were resistant to following a volunteer officer, but Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt and his eager Rough Riders managed to rally enough troops and convince enough officers to charge. By nightfall, the Spaniards had retreated and the heights overlooking Santiago were in American hands. The black Buffalo Soldiers captured San Juan Hill. As the Rough Riders shipped off to war the band played: "There’ll Be A Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1267)(AP, 7/1/97)(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.C14)(HNPD, 7/1/99)
1898        Jul 1, Major Gen. Joseph Wheeler (63) led a cavalry division in the Battle of San Juan Hill. As a Confederate brigadier and then major general, "Fightin' Joe" Wheeler commanded the cavalry of the Confederate Army of Mississippi and, later, the Army of Tennessee. Captured in May 1865, he went on to have a prosperous postwar life, serving as a US congressman for eight terms. After his Spanish-American War service, Wheeler retired from the army as a brigadier general of US Regulars. When he died in January 1906, he was interred in Arlington National Cemetery.
    (HNQ, 2/13/02)
1898        Jul 1, The US Congress passed legislation regarding bankruptcy. The Bankruptcy Act of 1898, also known as the "Nelson Act," was the first Act of Congress involving bankruptcy that gave companies an option of being protected from creditors. Previous attempts at federal bankruptcy laws had lasted at most a few years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bankruptcy_Act_of_1898)
1898        Jul 1, China leased the New Territories and 235 adjacent islands to Britain on a 99-year lease.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.14)(SFC, 3/11/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)

1899        Jul 1, Reverend Thomas Dorsey, father of gospel music, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1899        Jul 1, Charles Laughton, actor (Mutiny on Bounty, Spartacus), was born in England.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1899        Jul 1, Gideon Society was established to place bibles in hotels.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1902         Jul 1, William Wyler (d.1981), film director (The Best Years of Our Lives, Ben Hur), was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)(SFC, 7/8/02, p.D2)
1902        Jul 1, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax."
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1903         Jul 1, Amy Johnson, English aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)
1903        Jul 1, The 1st Tour de France bicycle race began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tour_de_France)

1905        Jul 1, John Hay (b.1838), American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, died in New Hampshire. He served as Lincoln's secretary from 1861 until 1864. In 2013 John Taliaferro authored “All the Great Prizes: The Life of John Hay, from Lincoln to Roosevelt."
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hay)

1906        Jul 1, In San Francisco St. Ignatius College held a formal inauguration ceremony for a new campus site, its 4th, at Hayes and Shrader. Since the earthquake 18 SI Jesuits took up temporary residence at the 57-room mansion of Mrs. Bertha Welch at 1090 Eddy Street.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1907        Jul 1, World's 1st air force was established as part of the US Army.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1907        Jul 1, The Asiatic Registration Act became law in the province of Transvaal, SA.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1908        Jul 1, Estee Lauder, CEO of Estee Lauder's cosmetics, was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1909        Jul 1, In England Indian army officer Sir Curzon Wyllie (b.1848) was shot dead on a Kensington street by Indian student revolutionary Madan Lal Dhingra. Vinayak Savarkar was suspected of encouraging Dhingra.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hutt_Curzon_Wyllie)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.57)

1911        Jul 1, A proclamation removed "Dei Gratia" from Canada's coins.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1912         Jul 1, Drama critic Harriet Quimby (b.1875) took a passenger up in her new Blériot monoplane from Boston to fly over Dorchester Bay at the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet. As she descended for landing, the plane went into a dive and, without seat belts, she and her passenger were thrown out into the shallow water of the bay, where they struck the muddy bottom and were crushed to death. Quimby was the first American to receive a pilot's license (1911) and was the first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912). Her interest in flight was piqued at an aviation meet in 1910.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Quimby)(HNPD, 7/31/98)(ON, 1/00, p.11)

1913        Jul 1, Serbia and Greece declared war on Bulgaria.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1914        Jul 1, A US Navy order went into effect prohibiting liquor on warships. US Navy Secretary Josephus Daniels substituted grape juice for the daily rum ration.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)(SSFC, 6/29/14, DB p.42)

1915         Jul 1, Willie Dixon, blues musician, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)
1915         Jul 1, Jean Stafford, American writer (The Mountain Lion), was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1916        Jul 1, Olivia DeHavilland (Academy Award-winning actress: To Each His Own [1946], The Heiress [1949]; Gone with the Wind), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1916        Jul 1, Dwight D. Eisenhower married Mary "Mamie" Geneva Doud in Denver.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1916        Jul 1, Roland Robert Tuck, London, British Spitfire ace during World War II who shot down 29 enemy planes Tuck's hard-won flying skill and a remarkable run of good fortune contributed to victory in the Battle of Britain, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1916        Jul 1, In France at 7:30AM, a 5 day, continuous, British artillery bombardment of German lines stopped, and 11 British divisions (100,000 men) went "over the top" toward the Germans. By 9AM 22,000 were dead & another 40,000 were wounded in what became known as the Battle of the Somme. Some 57,500 British soldiers were killed or wounded on the first day of the battle. These attacks continued for another five months, costing the British over one million killed & wounded. Field Marshal Douglas Haig commanded the British forces. 4 months of stalemate cost 420,000 British casualties. In 2014 Joe Sacco authored “The Great War: July 1, 1916 – The First Day of the Battle of the Somme.
    (AP, 7/15/09)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.66)
1916        Jul 1, British court martial was held for the Dublin Easter uprising.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

 1917        Jul 1, The 1893 upper jaw cancer operation for President Grover Cleveland remained a secret until July 1, 1917, when the doctor who performed the operation revealed the story.
    (HNQ, 11/6/99)

1924        Jul 1, A regular transcontinental airmail service formed between NYC and SF.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1925        Jul 1, Eric Satie (b.1866), French composer, died. Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Satie)(www.jazclass.aust.com/satie.htm#04)

1928        Jul 1, Avery Hopwood (b.1882), US playwright, died in France. He left a bequest to the Univ. of Michigan that established the Avery and Julie Hopwood Awards in Creative Writing.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avery_Hopwood)(LSA, Fall/02, p.3)

1929        Jul 1, The US Immigration law of 1924 went into effect.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1931        Jul 1, Ice vending machines were introduced in LA.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1932        Jul 1, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated for president at the Democratic convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 7/1/07)

1933        Jul 1, Strauss-Hofmannsthal opera "Arabella," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1933        Jul 1, German Nazi regime decreed married women should not work.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1933        Jul 1, Italian Air Force Gen. Italo Balbo led a flight of twenty-four flying boats on a round-trip flight from Rome to the Century of Progress in Chicago, Illinois. The flight had seven legs and ended on Lake Michigan near Burnham Park on Aug 12. In honor of this feat, Mussolini donated a column from Ostia to the city of Chicago; it can still be seen along the Lakefront Trail, a little south of Soldier Field.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italo_Balbo)

1934         Jul 1, Sydney Pollack, film director (Tootsie, Presumed Innocent, The Firm, Out of Africa), was born in Lafayette, Indiana.
    (www.nndb.com/people/772/000023703/)
1934        Jul 1, Jamie Farr (Jameel Farah) (actor: M*A*S*H, The Blackboard Jungle, Scrooged, Cannonball Run, With Six You Get Egg Roll), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1934        Jul 1, The 1st x-ray photo of entire body was made in Rochester, NY.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1937        Jul 1, Rev. Martin Niemoeller (Bekennende Kirche) was arrested in Germany.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1937        Jul 1, Spanish bishops supported Franco & fascists.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1939        Jul 1, The US "Bureau of Lighthouses" was transferred to the US Coast Guard, which then took charge of America’s more than 1,000 lighthouses.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)(www.uscg.mil/history/articles/h_USLHSchron.asp)

1940        Jul 1, Australia refused entry to Dutch Jewish refugees.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1940        Jul 1, The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington state opened to the public. The initial design by Clark Eldridge had been redesigned by NYC consultant Leo Moisseiff, who replaced a 25-foot deep stiffening truss with an 8-foot truss to reduce costs.
    (ON, 6/09, p.8)

1941        Jul 1, Commercial black and white television broadcasting began in the US under approval by the FCC. NBC’s New York station was the 1st to transition from radio to TV. “Truth or Consequences" with host Ralph Edwards became the 1st commercial TV show for NBC. WW II disrupted TV’s progress. “Truth or Consequences" prospered on radio and returned to TV in 1950.  
    (http://www.tvhistory.tv/History%20of%20TV.htm)(SFC, 11/17/05, p.B5)

1942        Jul 1, Genevieve Bujold, actress (King of Hearts, Choose Me, Coma), was born in Montreal.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1942        Jul 1, German troops captured Sebastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1943        Jul 1, "Pay-as-you-go" income tax withholding began.
    (AP, 7/1/97)

1944        Jul 1, Delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, N.H., where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The US hosted an international conference at Bretton Woods, N.H., to deal with international monetary and financial problems. The talks resulted in the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in 1945. The agreement was a gold exchange standard and only the US was required to convert its currency into gold at a fixed rate, and only foreign central banks were allowed the privilege of redemption. In 1983 Michael Moffitt authored “The World’s Money: Int’l. Banking from Bretton Woods to the Brink of Insolvency." In 1997 Catherine Caufield wrote "Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations."
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A4)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A22)(AP, 7/1/04)(WM, 1983, p.13)
1944        Jul 1, Over 2500 were killed in London and SE England by German flying bombs.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1944        Jul 1, Count Claus von Stauffenberg was promoted to colonel.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1945        Jul 1, New York established the New York State Commission Against Discrimination to prevent discrimination in employment because of race, creed or natural origin; it was the first such agency in the United States.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1946        Jul 1, Deborah Harry (singer: group: Blondie: The Tide is High, Rapture, Heart of Glass, Sunday Girl), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1946        Jul 1, Ron Silver, actor (Reversal of Fortune, Entity, Silkwood, Best Friends), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1946        Jul 1, The United States exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The energy released by any one of the ten or so major earthquakes every year is about 1,000 times as much as the Bikini atomic bomb.
    (DD-EVTT, p.76)(WUD, 1994, p.147)(AP, 7/1/97)

1947        Jul 1, The Willem Ruys, later Achille Lauro, a 192m long passenger ship, was launched.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1948        Jul 1, Brooklyn's Roy Campanella debuted as catcher.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1948        Jul 1, New York International Airport at Idlewild, later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport, was officially opened.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1948        Jul 1, The fare on New York City subways doubled from a nickel to ten cents.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1948        Jul 1, Charles D. Harrold, radio pioneer, died in Oakland, Ca. He broadcast the 1st radio entertainment program in 1912.
    (TV)

1950        Jul 1, American ground troops arrived in South Korea to stem the tide of the advancing North Korean army.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1950        Jul 1, The EPU came into being, by agreement of the country members of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC).  The latter had replaced the original Committee of European Economic Cooperation (CEEC), in April, 1948, and is an organization of European recipients of U.S. economic assistance.
    (www.eagletraders.com)

1952        Jul 1, Dan Aykroyd (comedian, actor: Driving Miss Daisy, Grosse Point Blank, Coneheads, Saturday Night Live, Dragnet, Ghostbusters, The Blues Brothers), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1955        Jul 1, Singapore’s government started the Central Provident Fund, a compulsory comprehensive social security savings plan. It required contributions from both employees and employers.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, SR p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Provident_Fund)

1956        Jul 1, Elvis Presley appeared on Steve Allen Show wearing a tuxedo.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1957        Jul 1, The International Geophysical Year, an 18-month global scientific study, began. 12 nations established over 60 stations in Antarctica. The beginning of international cooperation in Antarctica and the start of the process by which Antarctica becomes "non-national."
    (AP, 7/1/07)(http://tinyurl.com/337joj)

1959        Jul 1, Israeli Knesset agreed to weapon sales to West Germany.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1960        Jul 1, Fidel Castro nationalized Esso, Shell & Texaco in Cuba.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1960        Jul 1, Ghana became an independent republic within the British Commonwealth and Kwama N. Nkrumah became the 1st president.
    (PC, 1992, p.973)
1960        Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
    (PC, 1992, p.973)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.44)
1960        Jul 1, USSR shot down a US RB-47 reconnaissance plane.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1961        Jul 1, Carl Lewis (Olympic Gold Medalist: 100 meter & 200 meter sprints, long jump & 4x100 meter relay [1984]; 100 meter in 9.93 seconds, a world record, long jump, 4x100 meter relay [1988], long jump and 4x100 relay [1992]; Olympic Hall of Famer; AP Male Athlete of the Year [1983, 1984]), was born.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1961        Jul 1, Diana Frances Spencer, the princess of Wales, was born near Sandringham, England. She died August, 1997, in a car crash in Paris at age 36.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1961        Jul 1, British troops landed in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.
    (HN, 7/1/98)
1961        Jul 1, Louis-Ferdinand Celine (b.1894), French physician, author, anti-Semite, died. His books included “Journey to the End of Night" (1932).
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lfceline.htm)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1962        Jul 1, Some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence. The vote was nearly unanimous. De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on July 3. The Provisional Executive, however, proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence.
    (www.onwar.com/aced/data/alpha/falgeria1954.htm)
1962        Jul 1, Burundi gained independence from Belgium. The UN trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi in east-central Africa was divided into the independent nations of Rwanda and Burundi.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.A12)(http://africanscoutjamboree.org/en/history-of-burundi)

1963        Jul 1, The U.S. Post Office inaugurated its five-digit ZIP codes. The Zoning Improvement Plan was initially developed by Robert Aurand Moon (d.2001 at 83).
    (AP, 7/1/97)(HN, 7/1/98)(SFC, 4/16/01, p.A22)

1964        Jul 1, Pierre Monteux (89), French-US conductor (Concert Bldg Orch), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1966        Jul 1, The Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1966        Jul 1, The U.S. Marines launched Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1967        Jul 1, "Funny Girl" closed at Winter Garden Theater in NYC after 1348 performances.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1967        Jul 1, Beatles' "Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band," went #1 for 15 weeks.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1968        Jul 1, The Band released their "Music From Big Pink" album. It features one of their best-known songs, "The Weight."
    (WSJ, 12/15/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_from_Big_Pink)
1968        Jul 1, The United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and 58 other nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India refused to sign.
    (AP, 7/1/97)(SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/d5cf45)
1968        Jul 1, Dominica’s left-wing government brought in the Seditious and Undesirable Publications Act to suppress dissent. Eugenia Charles led the opposition to get it withdrawn and was made the leader of the Dominica Free Party.
     (Econ, 9/17/05, p.90)(http://tinyurl.com/l5lh6m)

1969        Jul 1, Britain's Prince Charles was invested as the Prince of Wales.
    (AP, 7/1/99)
1969        Jul 1, The Tokyo Stock Price Index (TOPIX) was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 3/15/07, p.C1)

1970        Jul 1, In Guatemala Gen. Carlos Arana Osorio (1918-2003), a hard-line conservative of the National Liberation Movement, began serving as president and continued to 1974. He expanded efforts to bring armed rebels under control and prosecuted student radicals. He declared a state of siege in his 1st year.
    (AP, 12/6/03)(SFC, 12/8/03, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Manuel_Arana_Osorio)

1971        Jul 1, President Nixon ordered chief of staff H. R. Haldeman to have the Brookings Institute burglarized. Nixon met with Haldeman and Kissinger and told them: "We’re up against an enemy, a conspiracy, that (sic) are using any means."
    (www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a063071nixonburglaries)(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A6)
1971        Jul 1, The US Post Office Department was transformed into the US Postal Service as an independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States. The US government changed the Post Office to a quasi-government body with a mandate to be financially self-sustaining.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, C13)(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blmailus5.htm)(AP, 7/1/01)
1971        Jul 1, The state of Washington became the 1st US state to ban sex discrimination.
    (http://amiannoying.com/(S(01543u55fxileom1lbr04z2u))/view.aspx?ID=6957)
1971        Jul 1, Great Britain and Argentina signed an accord on sea and air links to the Falkland Islands, which later caused a war (1982).
    (www.bartleby.com/67/2791.html)

1972        Jul 1, Ms. Magazine published its first regular issue. Ms. was launched as a "one-shot" sample insert in New York Magazine in December 1971. The debut issue featured Wonder Woman on the cover.
    (www.msmagazine.com/about.asp)(SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P2)
1972        Jul 1, "Hair" closed at Biltmore Theater in NYC after 1750 performances.
    (www.geocities.com/hairpages/hairhistory.html)
1972        Jul 1, The first Rainbow Gathering began in Colorado’s Roosevelt National Forest. It has been held annually in the United States from July 1 - 7 every year on National Forest land.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Gathering)

1973        Jul 1, The rock opera "Jesus Christ Superstar" closed at the Mark Hellinger Theater on Broadway. It closed July 1, 1973 after 711 performances.
    (www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/1012b-almanac.htm)
1973        Jul 1, The US Army began its All-Volunteer Force (AVF). Gen. Walter T. Kerwin Jr. (1917-2008) was the architect of the program.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/07/20030701-11.html)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.B6)
1973        Jul 1, Maryland declared that only a marriage between a man and a woman is valid in the state.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/5ygqvd)

1974        Jul 1, Juan D. Peron (b.1895), president of Argentina (1946-55, 73-74), died. Isabel Peron succeeded her husband Juan as president.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Per%C3%B3n)
1974        Jul 1, Walter Scheel (b.1919) began serving as the 4th President of the Federal Republic of Germany and continued to 1979.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scheel)

1975        Jul 1, Cesar Chavez and sixty supporters of the UFW embarked on a thousand-mile march across California to rally the state’s farm workers.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.23)
1975        Jul 1, Shelley Robertson, a Bundy victim, disappeared in Colorado. Her body was found on August 21, 1975, in a mine in Berthoud Pass, Colorado.
    (www.crimenews2000.com/memorial/00052902pg8.htm)
1975        Jul 1, Eamon Molloy, a Belfast IRA member, disappeared after being branded a traitor. His body was recovered in 1999. His mother-in-law vanished from the Divis Flats in Belfast in March 1972. Jean McConville (38) was a widowed mother of 10. His brother, Anthony, was shot dead by loyalists in June 1975.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3o6v79)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/355041.stm)
1975        Jul 1, Thailand and China signed a formal agreement on diplomatic relations.
    (www.thaiembdc.org/politics/foreign/diprelat.htm)

1979        Jul 1, The Susan B. Anthony dollar was issued. It was the 1st US coin to honor a woman. It was not widely accepted and production stopped in 1981. The 1st coin was struck Feb 2 in San Francisco.
    (WSJ, 7/12/96, p.B5B)(MC, 7/1/02)(SFC, 1/30/04, p.E6)

1980        Jul 1, "O Canada" was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 7/1/97)
1980        Jul 1, Charles Percy Snow (b.1905), British writer (Friends & Associates), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._P._Snow)

1981        Jul 1, Tim Giago, an Oglala Sioux writer from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, launched The Lakota Times, the first independently owned Indian newspaper in the US.
    (SSFC, 12/23/07, p.F1)
1981        Jul 1, The Symphony in F by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (K.19a), discovered in 1980, debuted in Munich.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2lunn3)
1981        Jul 1, The "Wonderland Murders" took place at 4763 Wonderland in the Hollywood Hills. Ronald Launius, William Deverell, Barbara Richardson and Joy Miller were murdered. The killings were said to have occurred in retaliation for a drug robbery 2 nights earlier. Federal prosecutors unveiled in indictment in 2000 against Eddie Nash, a former nightclub owner, Gregory DeWitt Diles, his bodyguard, and porn star John Curtis Holmes. Holmes (d.1988) was later released. Holmes died in 1988 of an AIDS-related illness. In 2003 the film "Wonderland" starred Val Kilmer as Holmes.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.B5)(ST, 10/17/03, p.22H)

1982        Jul 1, In NYC Sun Myung Moon wed 2,075 Unification Church couples at Madison Square Garden.
    (http://hoopedia.nba.com/index.php/Madison_Square_Garden)
1982        Jul 1, Cal Ripken (b.1960), drafted as a pitcher in 1981, began playing his shortstop position for the Baltimore Orioles. By Sep 20, 1998 he had played a record 2,632 consecutive games.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2um6o6)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A1)
1982        Jul 1, General Reynaldo Bignone (b.1928) was sworn in as president of Argentina following the Falklands War.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynaldo_Bignone)(SFC, 1/21/99, p.A14)

1983        Jul 1, Buckminster Fuller (87), visionary and inventor, died in LA. He dubbed our planet "Spaceship Earth." He was the creator of the geodesic dome and the dymaxion motor car. He founded the World Game Institute to help solve global problems through deployment of military resources.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, p.D-3)(SFC, 4/15/96, D-1)(NH, 7/96, p.10)
1983        Jul 1, In Australia the High Court on circuit in Brisbane ruled by a vote of 4 to 3 in the federal government's favor and prohibited Franklin River dam-related clearing, excavation and building activities that had been authorized by Tasmanian state legislation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Dam)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.49)

1984        Jul 1, Hollywood imposed its PG-13 rating to cover the middle ground between "PG" for parental Guidance and "R" for restricted movies.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, DB p.55)(http://tinyurl.com/2o8j3o)
1984        Jul 1, In Germany Richard von Weizsaecker (1920-2015) became president and continued to 1994.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_von_Weizs%C3%A4cker)(AP, 1/31/15)

1987        Jul 1, President Reagan nominated federal appeals court judge Robert H. Bork to the Supreme Court, setting off a tempestuous confirmation process that ended with Bork's rejection in October by the Senate.
    (AP, 7/1/97)(MC, 7/1/02)

1988        Jul 1, A four-day national conference of Soviet Communist Party members ended in Moscow, with Mikhail S. Gorbachev winning approval for sweeping changes.
    (AP, 7/1/98)

1989        Jul 1, The NY State Legislature passed the Staten Island secession bill.
    (http://tinyurl.com/htf9r)
1989        Jul 1, "Playboy" magazine founder Hugh Hefner married Kimberley Faye Conrad at his mansion in Los Angeles. The couple separated in 1998.
    (AP, 7/1/99)
1989        Jul 1, The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone.
    (HNQ, 8/11/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)

1990        Jul 1, East Germans lined up to obtain West German deutsche marks as a state treaty unifying the monetary and economic systems of the two Germanys went into effect.
    (AP, 7/1/00)

1991        Jul 1, President Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court, beginning a confirmation process marked by allegations of sexual harassment.
    (AP, 7/1/01)
1991        Jul 1, Actor Michael Landon died in Malibu, California, at age 54.
    (AP, 7/1/01)

1992        Jul 1, California issued its first state IOU's since the Great Depression as a budget standoff left the state cashless on the first day of its fiscal year.
    (AP, 7/1/97)

1993        Jul 1, The space shuttle Endeavour returned from a 10-day mission.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1993        Jul 1, In San Francisco Gian Luigi Ferri opened fire with a TEC-DC9 semiautomatic pistol at the 34th floor law offices of Petit & Martin at 101 California St. He killed 8 people, wounded six and then committed suicide.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A20)(SFC, 5/7/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A11)

1994        Jul 1, The last Mass at San Francisco’s St. Brigid Church was held after it was ordered closed along with 8 other city churches by Archbishop Quinn. In 2011 Julian Guthrie authored “The Grace of Everyday Saints: How a Band of Believers Lost Their Church and Found Their Faith."
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.A14)(SSFC, 8/14/11, p.F3)
1994        Jul 1, Brazil under finance minister Henrique Cardoso adopted the Real Plan, named for a new currency fixed to the US dollar with a "crawling peg." Inflation had hit 7,000% as Cardoso launched the new currency.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-1,13)(WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 6/12/97, p.A19)
1994        Jul 1, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat drove from Egypt into Gaza, returning to Palestinian land after 27 years in exile.
    (AP, 7/1/99)

1995        Jul 1, "Kiss of the Spider Woman" closed at Broadhurst in NYC after 904 performances.
    (www.chitarivera.com/productions/kiss_of_the_spider_woman.htm)
1995        Jul 1, Wolfman Jack (57), rock-and-roll disc jockey, died in Belvidere, North Carolina.
    (AP, 7/1/00)
1995        Jul 1, Russian President Boris Yeltsin’s government survived a critical no-confidence vote.
    (AP, 7/1/00)

1996        Jul 1, Placido Domingo became artistic director of Washington National Opera (f.1956).
    (www.dc-opera.org/aboutcompany/placidodomingo.asp)
1996        Jul 1, President Clinton declared an emergency in drought-stricken parts of the Southwest.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1996        Jul 1, Twelve members of an Arizona anti-government group, the Viper Militia, were charged with plotting to blow up government buildings. The group was infiltrated by Drew Nolan, an agent for the Federal Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms (ATF).
    (AP, 7/1/97)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.A11)
1996        Jul 1, Actress Margaux Hemingway was found dead in her Santa Monica, California, apartment; she was 41.
    (AP, 7/1/01)
1996        Jul 1, The world’s first voluntary suicide law was scheduled to go into effect in Australia. The Rights of the Terminally Ill Act originated in Darwin.
    (WSJ, 6/27/96, p.A18)
1996        Jul 1, Draugas, the Lithuanian daily newspaper published in Chicago, issued its first English version edition and planned a weekly English edition. The first subscribed edition was planned for Aug 31.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
1996        Jul 1, In Bulgaria there was sharp increases in taxes, excise duties and electricity and fuel prices.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A10)
1996        Jul 1, In China a new regulation went into effect that called for films co-produced with foreigners to apply for approval from the State Council before filming begins.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.F3)
1996        Jul 1, In Sri Lanka Tamil Tiger separatists ambushed an army patrol and killed 29 soldiers while losing at least 35 of their own.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A10)
1996        Jul 1, In Uganda rebels fighting for the return of Idi Amin killed 11 people in a nightclub in Koboko.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A10)

1997        Jul 1, Nevada Athletic Commission suspended Mike Tyson for biting Holyfield.
    (www.lasvegassun.com/sports/boxing/htfight/)
1997        Jul 1, Film star Robert Mitchum died at 79 (b.1917) in Santa Barbara County, Calif.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/1/98)
1997        Jul 1, Hong Kong reverted to Chinese rule after 156 years as a British colony. Britain relinquished Hong Kong as a colonial territory, and China became master. Many rights were guaranteed for 50 years under a Sino-British treaty.
    (WSJ, 11/14/94, p.A9)(SFC, 5/30/96, p.A9)(AP, 7/1/98)
1997        Jul 1, Two Israeli soldiers were injured by a pipe bomb and 15 Palestinians were wounded by rubber bullets in Hebron in disturbances after an Israeli women, Tatiana Susskin (25), distributed leaflets with the Prophet Mohammed depicted as a pig stomping on the Koran.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, p.A8)(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A10)
1997        Jul 1, In the UK a new handgun law took effect as a result of the 1996 massacre at the school in Dunblane, Scotland.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A13)
1997        Jul 1, In Russia the grave site of 9,000 victims in the Karelia Forest at Medvezhyegorsk was opened. In Oct-Nov, 1937, a 3-man panel under Stalin, the "Osobaya Troika," signed death sentences that were sent to thousands of gulags across Russia and led to the massacre. A monument was planned.
    (SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)
1997        Jul 1, Thailand let its currency, the baht, float and it devalued about 20%. This event marked the beginning of the Asian economic crises. In 1999 Thailand sought to extradite Rakesh Saxena, a currency trader, from Canada for his role in an alleged fraud that drained over $2 billion from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which led to the devaluation of the baht. Pin Chakkaphak was blamed for the collapse of the currency and fled Asia. He was ordered back from Britain in 2001 to face accounting and theft charges. In 2009 Saxena (57) arrived in Thailand after his extradition from Canada to face charges he embezzled $88 million from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which collapsed in 1995. Saxena was also implicated in backing the attempted 1997 coup in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A1)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/9/01, p.A16)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.80)(AP, 10/30/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.42)

1998        Jul 1, Pres. Clinton in Guilin and Shanghai, China, said to the Chinese that the environment must not be sacrificed for economic growth. China was reported to have the top ten of the world’s most polluted cities. Clinton urged his Chinese hosts to also open markets and battle corruption.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A1,14)(AP, 7/1/99)
1998        Jul 1, Florida fires closed a 125-mile section of I-95.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A3)
1998        Jul 1, The European Central Bank was inaugurated with headquarters in Frankfurt under Pres. Wim Duisenberg.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.A18)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C3)
1998        Jul 1, The UN imposed sanctions on Unita-held areas in Angola due to the former rebels’ refusal to abide by a 1994 peace accord.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 1, In the Congo Etienne Tshisekedi, opposition leader, was freed from internal exile and returned to the capital.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)
1998        Jul 1, In England the memorial museum to Princess Diana opened on what would have been her 37th birthday at Althorp House, Great Brington.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A18)
1998        Jul 1, In South Korea Pres. Kim Dae Jung ordered the release of political prisoners. Some 500 prisoners were expected to be released by Aug 15, the 50th anniversary of the end of Japanese occupation.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A16)
1998        Jul 1, In Sicily Mt. Etna erupted for 30 minutes.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A7)
1998        Jul 1, In Northern Ireland David Trimble, head of the Ulster Unionist Party, became the first minister of the new Northern Ireland Assembly. Seamus Mallon was elected deputy first minister.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A14)
1998        Jul 1, In Russia the Duma approved 9 of 20 economic measures called for by Pres. Yeltsin. The Russian market reached its lowest level in 25 months.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)

1999        Jul 1, Exactly six months before the year 2000, Congress passed legislation to shield businesses from a potential flood of Y-2-K computer-related lawsuits.
    (AP, 7/1/00)
1999        Jul 1, Lawrence Summers was confirmed as Treasury secretary.
    (WSJ, 7/2/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 1, In Maine the 162 year-old Edwards Dam was broken open by government order to allow fish to move upstream.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 1, In Maryland some 20,000 fish turned up dead in the tributaries of the Magothy and Patapsco Rivers. Drought conditions and the build up of phosphorus and nitrogen was suspected.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 1, Movie director Edward Dmytryk died in Encino, California, at age 90.
    (AP, 7/1/00)
1999        Jul 1, African nationalist Joshua Nkomo died in Harare, Zimbabwe, at age 82.
    (AP, 7/1/00)
1999        Jul 1, Forrest Mars Sr., creator of the M&Ms candies, died in Miami at age 95.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A21)(AP, 7/1/00)
1999        Jul 1, In Congo fighting intensified as rebels advanced on key diamond areas near Kabinda and Miba.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)
1999        Jul 1, Croatia planned to file charges against Yugoslavia in The Hague for genocide following its declaration of independence in 1991.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)
1999        Jul 1, In France a cable car gondola in the French Alps crashed and killed 21 [20] people in Grenoble.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.A15)(AP, 7/1/00)
1999        Jul 1, In Germany Johannes Rau (68) was sworn in as the 8th postwar president. He succeeded Roman Herzog as the symbolic head.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)
1999        Jul 1, Mexico planned to introduce a $15 per person entry fee for travel into the country beyond the border.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A21)
1999        Jul 1, Scotland celebrated the opening of its 129-member Parliament.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A13)
1999        Jul 1, In Turkey Kurdish rebels killed 3 people in a coffeehouse in Elazig. One of the attackers was killed by security forces.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

2000        Jul 1, Vermont’s civil unions law, which granted gay couples most of the rights, benefits and responsibilities of marriage, went into effect.
    (AP, 7/1/01)
2000        Jul 1, The Confederate flag was removed from atop South Carolina’s Statehouse.
    (AP, 7/1/01)
2000        Jul 1, In Washington DC thousands of Tibetans and their supporters rallied to urge the World Bank to scrap a plan to resettle some 60,000 poor farmers, many of them Chinese, on traditional Tibetan lands.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A16)
2000        Jul 1, Walter Matthau, actor, died in Santa Monica, Ca., at age 79.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 1, Australia adopted the Goods and Services Tax (GST).
    (SMH, 7/1/00)
2000        Jul 1, Canada and Russia began to allow regular commercial air flights over the North Pole.
    (WSJ, 6/8/00, p.A19)
2000        Jul 1, The Oeresund Fixed Link (Oresund Bridge), the centerpiece of a $3.5 billion, 10-mile rail, motorway, bridge and tunnel project between Copenhagen and southern Sweden was scheduled for completion. Danish Queen Margrethe II met with Swedish King Carl Gustaf XVI on the artificial isle of Peberholm, half way across.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A20)(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T3)
2000        Jul 1, In Iran a justice officials said 3 of 13 Jews tried on charges for spying were acquitted and that 10 were sentenced to fines, lashes and jail terms from 4 to 13 years. An appeals court later annulled 2 of the 3 convictions against the defendants and reduce their jail terms.
    (SFC, 7/1/00, p.A13)(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A7)(SFC, 9/22/00, p.A17)
2000        Jul 1-9, In Italy the World Pride int’l. gay pride festival opened in Rome.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C14)(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A17)
2000        Jul 1, Lucie Blackman (21), a British citizen working in Tokyo, became the 8th Western woman to disappear in the last 5 years. In 2001 police found her remains encased in concrete near the residence of Joji Obara, a wealthy businessman and prime suspect. Obara was formally accused Apr 6, 2001. Some 4,800 tapes were found that linked Obara to some 400 rapes over 25 years [see April 24, 2007]. On Dec 16, 2008, Obara was convicted for the abduction and dismemberment of Blackman, but acquitted of her murder. The court also upheld an earlier conviction for the rapes of 9 other women. In 2011 Richard Lloyd Parry authored “People Who Eat Darkness: The Fate of Lucie Blackman."
    (SFC, 10/17/00, p.A13)(SFC, 2/10/01, p.A11)(SSFC, 2/11/01, p.C2)(SFC, 4/7/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/9/01, p.A7)(AP, 12/16/08)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.90)

2001        Jul 1, US Vice President Dick Cheney rested at home, a day after having a new pacemaker implanted in his chest.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2001        Jul 1, In the US lower tax rates went into effect for some middle and upper-income taxpayers.
    (SSFC, 7/1/01, p.A10)
2001        Jul 1, In Michigan a state law went into effect that allowed virtually any gun owner to carry a concealed weapon in public.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.C6)
2001        Jul 1, The National Organization for Women announced in Philadelphia that delegates had chosen Kim A. Gandy to be its new president, succeeding Patricia Ireland.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2001        Jul 1, US air strikes at Kakrak, Afghanistan, killed 54 civilians.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A14)
2001        Jul 1, In China Pres. Jiang Zemin announced that the Communist Party will allow private businessmen to become members.
    (SFC, 7/2/01, p.A8)
2001        Jul 1, In China parts of the US spy plane were flown out from Hainan Island.
    (WSJ, 7/3/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 1, In Colombia the body of Alma Jaramillo, an advisor to a peace group, was found in Morales. She had been abducted Jun 29. Rightwing paramilitary militia were blamed.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A10)
2001        Jul 1, Israel hit a Syrian radar site in Lebanon. In the West Bank Israeli helicopters rocketed a car with 3 Islamic Jihad members. Israeli infantry killed 2 Hamas members.
    (WSJ, 7/2/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/2/01, p.A8)
2001        Jul 1, In Pakistan a bomb exploded in a crowded movie theater in Karachi and at least one person was killed.
    (SFC, 7/2/01, p.B1)
2001        Jul 1, In Portugal a nationwide law took effect to decriminalize the personal use and possession of all drugs.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.43)(www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10080)

2002        Jul 1, It was reported that the Bush administration had designated 33 toxic waste sites for funding cuts.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.A5)
2002        Jul 1, A US district judge in NY ruled that the federal death penalty is unconstitutional because it creates undue risk of executing innocent defendants.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A3)
2002        Jul 1, A US federal magistrate recommended a $73 million penalty against Zimbabwe's ruling party for allegedly torturing and killing political opponents.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Tennesseans found their government in a partial shutdown after lawmakers failed to pass a balanced budget over the weekend in a stalemate over how to cover an $800 million deficit.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Northrup Grumman agreed to pay $7.8 billion in stock for TRW Corp. [see Feb 22]
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.B1)
2002        Jul 1, In Afghanistan US Air Force gunship killed 44-48 members of a wedding party in Kakarak, Uruzgan province, during a major operation to track down Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar.
    (Reuters, 7/2/02)(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A9)(AP, 7/1/03)
2002        Jul 1, A Canadian climber who had scaled Alaska's Mount McKinley alone died after he fell about 1,000 feet (300 meters) while descending from the peak's upper reaches.
    (Reuters, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Chile's Supreme Court ruled that former dictator General Augusto Pinochet was suffering from dementia and dropped all charges against him for human rights violations during his regime.
    (AP, 7/1/03)
2002        Jul 1, In the Hague the world's first permanent war crimes tribunal officially came into existence. It was vehemently opposed by the United States.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, In southwestern Hungary a bus carrying Polish pilgrims to a shrine in Bosnia struck a stone barrier and overturned in a ditch killing 19.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Indonesian police fired water cannon at about 500 demonstrators who knocked down the gates of parliament to protest against a decision by MPs to reject an inquiry into a graft scandal.
    (Reuters, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Jordan reported that 11 people, including a Palestinian-Jordanian who fled the American bombing on Osama bin Laden's stronghold in Afghanistan, have been detained in connection with an alleged plot to attack American targets.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, In Mozambique health officials reported that at least 62 people have died of cholera in the northern province of Cabo Delgado since the latest outbreak of the disease in February.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, In Peru Vladimiro Montesinos, once one of the country's most feared men, was convicted of usurping office, the first of more than 70 criminal charges ranging from arms smuggling to homicide that the ex-spymaster faces.
    (AP, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Philippine government forces using bomber planes and helicopters attacked suspected Muslim rebel positions in the southern Philippines, inflicting an undetermined number of casualties.
    (Reuters, 7/1/02)
2002        Jul 1, Bashkirian flight 2937 with 45 Russian children headed for a beach vacation in Spain were among 71 people killed when their chartered Tupolev airliner slammed into a Boeing 757 DHL cargo plane over southern Germany. The flights were under Swiss air control. An onboard device told the pilot to climb but he followed a controller’s order to dive instead. In 2007 four employees of a Swiss air traffic control company were convicted of negligent homicide for the crash of flight 2937.
    (AP, 7/2/02)(SFC, 7/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/3/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/9/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/4/07)

2003        Jul 1, The US planned to suspend $48 million in aid to some 35 countries for failing to meet this day's deadline for exempting Americans from prosecution before the new UN int'l. war crimes tribunal.
    (SFC, 7/2/03, p.A9)
2003        Jul 1, Bishop Sean O'Malley was named by Pope John Paul II the new archbishop of Boston, succeeding Cardinal Bernard Law, who'd resigned in the wake of a clerical sex abuse scandal.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2003        Jul 1, In Missouri an employee shot and killed three co-workers and wounded four others at the Modine Manufacturing plant on the outskirts of Jefferson City, then drove into town and killed himself in a confrontation with police.
    (AP, 7/2/03)
2003        Jul 1, Herbie Mann (73), jazz flutist, died in Pecos, NM. He was born Apr 16, 1930, as Herbert Jay Solomon in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SFC, 7/3/03, p.A2)
2003        Jul 1, In Iraq US troops killed 4 people who failed to stop at checkpoints.
    (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/2/03, p.A14)
2003        Jul 1, At a summit, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian PM Mahmoud Abbas rededicated themselves to peace efforts and spoke of a shared future for their peoples.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2003        Jul 1, In Hong Kong the "Article 23" measures targeting crimes against the state drew hundreds of thousands of people into the streets in a protest that overshadowed the 6th anniversary of the handover of the territory from Britain to China.
    (AP, 7/1/03)(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.A8)
2003        Jul 1, Roman Abramovich, Russian billionaire and governor of Chukotka, bought England’s Chelsea football club in a deal worth £140m ($233m).
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A14)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3036838.stm)

2004        Jul 1, The US Coast Guard began boarding foreign vessels as int’l. security rules went into effect.
    (SFC, 7/3/04, p.A3)
2004        Jul 1, AB 1627 declared that beginning on this day each California hospital will be required to make one written or electronic copy of its charge description master (chargemaster) available at the hospital’s location or on its Internet Web site.
    (www.oshpd.cahwnet.gov/hid/hospital/chrgmster/index.htm)(WSJ, 12/28/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 1, Connecticut’s Republican Lt. Gov. M. Jodi Rell (b.1946) became state governor following the resignation of Gov. John Rowland. She was elected to her own term in 2006.
    (SFC, 11/10/09, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._Jodi_Rell)
2004        Jul 1, The Cassini spacecraft sent back photographs of Saturn's shimmering rings.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2004        Jul 1, Marlon Brando (80), film actor, died in LA. His many films included “On the Waterfront" (1954), and “The Godfather" (1972). In 2008 Stefan Kanfer authored “Somebody: The Reckless Life and Remarkable Career of Marlon Brando."
    (http://tinyurl.com/2vfnpa)(SSFC, 12/7/08, Books p.7)
2004        Jul 1, Historic Afghan elections scheduled for September were delayed because of wrangling among officials and political parties.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2004        Jul 1, Statistics Canada counted 31,946,316 Canadians.
    (AP, 9/29/04)
2004        Jul 1, Horst Koehler, former IMF, head was sworn in as Germany's 9th post-war president.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2004        Jul 1, Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Hong Kong to demand democratic rights from China.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2004        Jul 1, India’s Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act took effect. It required the government to cut the fiscal deficit by 0.3% of GDP annually until 2009.
    (WSJ, 1/12/05, p.A9)
2004        Jul 1, A defiant Saddam Hussein rejected charges of war crimes and genocide in a court appearance, telling a judge "this is all theater, the real criminal is Bush."
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2004        Jul 1, In Iraq US jets pounded a suspected safehouse of terrorist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in Fallujah.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2004        Jul 1, In Ayacucho, Peru, hundreds of striking teachers burned buildings and looted bank teller machines during clashes with riot police that injured 34 people and led to 15 arrests.
    (AP, 7/2/04)
2004        Jul 1, Interfax news reported that the Russian Tax Service is demanding another $3.3 billion from the Yukos oil company in back taxes for 2001.
    (AP, 7/1/04)
2004        Jul 1, Saudi security forces traded gunfire with militants in a Riyadh, killing one militant and wounding one. A police officer was killed and two were hurt.
    (AP, 7/2/04)
2004        Jul 1, The United Nation's World Food Program (WFP) began airlifting enriched food from the Ethiopian capital to Sudan's western Darfur region, where it estimates 1.2 million people will need food aid every month until October. UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan visited the area.
    (AFP, 7/2/04)(WSJ, 7/2/04, p.A1)

2005        Jul 1, Sandra Day O'Connor, the first woman on the US Supreme Court and a swing vote on abortion as well as other contentious issues, announced her retirement.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1-2005 Jul 2, Federal and local authorities arrested 27 suspects in the Bay Area in a sex trafficking operation. Another 18 people were arrested in southern California during nighttime raids for allegedly conspiring to smuggle South Korean women into the US to work as prostitutes at massage parlors and other businesses.
    (AP, 7/2/05)(SFC, 7/2/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 1, In St. Paul some state offices closed and about 9,000 state employees were jobless after parts of Minnesota's government shut down for the first time in state history, leaving most rest stops closed for the Independence Day weekend. Lawmakers failed to pass even a stopgap plan to keep the government up and running while negotiators keep working.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, In North Dakota a 14-mile, $28 million drainage channel, from Devil’s Lake to the Sheyenne River, was scheduled to open, but it was held up by heavy rains. Canada protested that polluted water would end up in Lake Winnipeg.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.34)
2005        Jul 1, The Mustang Ranch bordello reopened east of Reno with the generic name World Famous Brothel six years after the government shut it down and auctioned off its buildings and contents.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, Song, a low-fare unit of Delta Airlines, began service from SFO to JFK in NY.
    (SFC, 7/2/05, p.C1)
2005        Jul 1, IBM and Microsoft settled antitrust claims with IMB getting $775 million in cash and $75 million worth of software from Microsoft.
    (SFC, 7/2/05, p.C1)
2005        Jul 1, In Detroit Renaldo "Obie" Benson (69), a member of the legendary Motown singing group the Four Tops, died.
    (AP, 7/2/05)
2005        Jul 1, Luther Vandross (54), Grammy award winning singer, died in New Jersey.
    (AP, 7/2/05)
2005        Jul 1, In eastern Afghanistan a US airstrike in Kunar province resulted in casualties; Afghan officials said 48 people were killed, including 25 members of an extended family attending a wedding celebration; US officials later confirmed 34 dead. Hundreds of Afghan troops raided a Taliban hide-out in the mountains of central Afghanistan and 18 rebels and two soldiers were killed in fierce fighting.
    (SFC, 7/7/05, p.A14)(AP, 7/2/05)(AP, 7/1/06)
2005        Jul 1, Canadians celebrated Canada Day, the 60th anniversary of V-E Day and Canada's role in liberating the Netherlands, as well as the 100th anniversary of Alberta and Saskatchewan joining Confederation were all marked with music and tributes.
    (AP, 7/2/05)
2005        Jul 1, China and Russia issued a declaration demanding respect for the right of all countries to develop free of outside interference.
    (SFC, 7/2/05, p.A14)
2005        Jul 1, In Dagestan, Russia, a bomb in Makhachkala killed 10 Russian troops.
    (WSJ, 7/29/05, p.A11)
2005        Jul 1, Egypt and Israel signed a commercial agreement committing Egypt to export natural gas to Israel.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.56)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/egisgas.html)
2005        Jul 1, An EU directive took effect banning lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and 2 types of brominated flame retardants. Some exceptions were allowed.
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.E1)
2005        Jul 1, Finland's crippling paper industry dispute ended but there were lingering fears that the seven-week shutdown could have wider repercussions beyond the loss of an estimated 1.5 billion euros ($1.8 billion) in export earnings.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, Germany's parliament voted no confidence in Gerhard Schroeder's government at the chancellor's own request, setting the stage for new elections amid economic sluggishness and growing discontent with proposed economic reforms.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, Police in Iceland charged Jon Asgeir Johannesson, multimillionaire and CEO of Baugur, with fraud. Baugur was taken private in 2003. In October the Supreme Court dismissed 32 of 40 charges. A district court acquitted him of the remaining 8 charges in March, 2006.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.54)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.A9)(WSJ, 7/11/06, p.A9)
2005        Jul 1, In Iraq gunmen killed Shiite cleric Kamal Ezz al-Deen al-Ghuraifi, an aide to Iraq's most influential Shiite cleric, and 2 bodyguards in a drive-by shooting outside a Baghdad mosque. A suicide bomber detonated his car outside the party offices of PM Ibrahim al-Jaafari, killing one guard.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, The Defense Ministry gave clearance for the last Italians serving under the military draft to be discharged, marking the end of a 200-year-old practice.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, Italian police arrested two people accused of creating a "parallel" anti-terrorism police force that used government money and confidential police information.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, In Northern Ireland a Protestant construction worker sitting in a truck was shot to death in an attack in Belfast that police blamed on Protestant extremists.
    (AP, 7/2/05)
2005        Jul 1, Russia's defense minister said that most university military departments will be closed by 2009, a decision that blocks a widely-used chance to avoid compulsory military service.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, An explosion believed to have been caused by a remote-controlled bomb ripped through a Russian military truck at a bath house in Makhachkala, the capital of Dagestan, killing at least 10 troops.
    (AP, 7/1/05)
2005        Jul 1, On the island of Tobago Kitty Nichole Pepe (14) of Keene, N.Y., was stabbed to death in the village of Charlottville. On July 4 police arrested a 22-year-old man in connection with her death. Pepe was the 5th homicide victim on the island of 55,000 people this year. In April, 2011, Sean Antoine (28) was convicted of manslaughter. In May he was sentenced to 19 years at hard labor.
    (AP, 7/3/05)(AP, 7/5/05)(AP, 5/16/11)
2005        Jul 1, In Ankara, Turkey, a suicide bomber who tried to enter the Justice Ministry was shot to death by police as he fled when metal detectors went off. Police identified the dead man as Eyup Beyaz, a member of the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front, or DHKP-C, an outlawed group that aims to topple the government and replace it with a Marxist one.
    (AP, 7/1/05)

2006        Jul 1, New Jersey failed to approve a budget and Gov. Jon S. Corzine began closing the state government amid a bitter dispute with fellow Democrats in the Assembly over his plan to increase the sales tax, threatening to shutter beaches, parks and possibly casinos in the coming days.
    (AP, 7/1/06)(WSJ, 7/3/06, p.A1)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.27)
2006        Jul 1, An estimated 5,000 bikers rode into Hollister, Ca., for the annual 4th of July motorcycle rally, even though it was officially cancelled last year by the City Council.
    (SSFC, 7/2/06, p.B1)
2006        Jul 1, Thunderstorms forced NASA to call off the launch of Discovery, delaying the first space shuttle flight in a year. Discovery was launched three days later, on July 4.
    (AP, 7/1/07)
2006        Jul 1, Phillip Rieff (83), sociologist and a severe critic of contemporary academic culture, died. He was best known for his 1966 book “The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud." His final work: “Charisma: The Gift of Grace, and How It Has Been Taken Away from Us," was published in 2007.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P12)(http://tinyurl.com/lphph)
2006        Jul 1, In southern Afghanistan 2 rockets fired by insurgents slammed into the main coalition military base. The wounded included five American and two Canadian soldiers, as well as three foreign contract workers. 2 British soldiers and an Afghan interpreter were killed when their base in Sangin district in Helmand province came under attack. Afghan forces killed 11 militants in a separate attack in the same area. A total of five British troops have been killed since the start of Operation Mountain Thrust.
    (AP, 7/1/06)(AP, 7/2/06)
2006        Jul 1, China’s new $4.2 billion, 710-mile-long railway from Golmud to Lhasa, Tibet, began operations. Canada’s Bombardier manufactured high-tech cars for the Sky Train with regulated oxygen levels to cope with 16,500-foot passes.
    (SFC, 6/30/06, p.A18)(Reuters, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, It was reported that Chinese consumers had begun ganging up on retailers by arriving en masse at pre-arranged times, arranged online, to push for bargain prices.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.59)
2006        Jul 1, China reported a new outbreak of bird flu near Zhongwei in the Ningxia region.
    (WSJ, 7/3/06, p.A6)
2006        Jul 1, Sources said East Timor's outgoing foreign minister Jose Ramos-Horta will head the government until a new premier is appointed in coming days.
    (AFP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, About 100 Ethiopian troops entered the Somali border town of Beled-Hawo in eight military vehicles, the latest sign that Ethiopia might try to bolster this country's weak interim government as an Islamic militia gains increasing power.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, Finland began its 6-month rotating presidency of the EU.
    (www.government.fi/eu/suomi-ja-eu/2006/en.jsp)
2006        Jul 1, Thousands of people marched through Paris to protest plans to tighten restrictions on immigration and step up deportations of immigrant families with children who are in the country illegally.
    (AP, 7/2/06)
2006        Jul 1, The 3-week Tour de France began. 4 favorites, including Ivan Basso and Jan Ullrich, were barred with 5 others from the cycling competition after their names popped up in a Spanish probe of a network that allegedly supplied riders and other athletes with banned drugs and doping know-how.
    (AP, 6/30/06)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.D1)
2006        Jul 1, In Gambia a summit of more than 50 African leaders opened with the aim of pursuing regional integration, but conflicts in Darfur and Somalia are inevitably topping the agenda. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez called on Africa to forge closer ties with Latin America to combat what he called a threat of U.S. hegemony.
    (AFP, 7/1/06)(Reuters, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, Thousands chanted slogans and marched through Hong Kong's streets in a pro-democracy protest, while a pro-Beijing parade also drew a big crowd to mark the ninth anniversary of the former British colony's return to Chinese rule.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, India's PM Manmohan Singh announced an 835-million-dollar relief package to aid farmers in the country's main cotton belt where crippling debts and falling prices have led to thousands of suicides. A court convicted three men of involvement in a 2002 terrorist attack on a Hindu shrine in western India that killed 33 people, and it sentenced them to death.
    (AP, 7/1/06)(AFP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, Ryutaro Hashimoto (68), former Japanese PM (1996-1998), died. He had stood up to the US in trade negotiations and helped diffuse tensions over US military bases in Japan.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, A parked car bomb exploded at a popular outdoor market in a Shiite slum in Baghdad, killing at least 66 people and wounding dozens. It was the bloodiest attack to hit Iraq since the death of terror leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Gunmen in Baghdad kidnapped a Sunni female legislator along with seven of her bodyguards. Iraqi and US authorities freed 495 prisoners from US facilities, completing a mass release announced by the prime minister last month as part of his national reconciliation efforts.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, Palestinian militants holding an Israeli soldier issued a new set of demands, calling for the release of 1,000 prisoners and a halt to Israel's military offensive in Gaza. But Israel rejected them.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, A new law, combined with a series of bureaucratic bungles, forced some 30% of Russian liquor stores to close indefinitely because they will have nothing to sell. The law, which aimed to block counterfeit wine sales, requires distributors to place new, government-issued excise labels on all wine and liquor. But a series of delays and misunderstandings has meant few properly labeled imports will be ready in time.
    (AP, 7/1/06)
2006        Jul 1, In Geneva developing countries emerged from a failed World Trade Organization meeting more united than ever and warned rich countries not to undermine the development thrust of the Doha Round of global trade talks.
    (AFP, 7/1/06)

2007        Jul 1, Former Gov. Mitt Romney’s compulsory health plan for Massachusetts went into force.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.30)
2007        Jul 1, Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in Kennebunkport, Maine, for an overnight visit at the Bush family estate and talks with President Bush.
    (AP, 7/2/07)
2007        Jul 1, In California the price for milk, set by the state Dept. of Food and Agriculture, rose to $1.98 per gallon, up from $1.06 a year ago.
    (SFC, 6/30/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 1, In NYC a ban on restaurant cooking with trans fats went into effect.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 1, Virginia became home of the $3,000 traffic ticket. In an effort to raise money for road projects, the state started to hit residents who commit serious traffic offenses with huge civil penalties. Beginning today Virginia added new civil charges to traffic fines. They range from $750 to $3,000 and will be added to existing fines and court costs.
    (USAT, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, In northeastern Utah a wildfire burned 46 square miles and killed 3 people working in a hayfield.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A7)
2007        Jul 1, In Oregon the bodies of David Cheryl Gibbs of the SF Bay Area and priest David Schwartz of Garden Grove, Ca., last seen on June 8, were found in the wreckage of their car 60 miles west of Portland. A motorist reported the accident to 911 on June 8, but emergency crews failed to find the wreck.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A1)(SFC, 7/3/07, p.B5)
2007        Jul 1, In Afghanistan a suicide attacker on foot blew himself up near a convoy of British forces in Gereshk district. One NATO soldier was killed and several soldiers and civilians wounded in the attack. A suicide car bomber killed one Afghan soldier and wounded eight others in the central province of Wardak.
    (AP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, Argentina’s official government news agency said President Nestor Kirchner has tapped his wife to take his place as the ruling coalition candidate in October presidential elections.
    (AP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, Australian media reported that PM John Howard is secretly planning to begin withdrawing Australian troops from Iraq by February 2008. Howard denied the report, saying the idea was "absurd."
    (AFP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, Miroslav Lajcak, Slovak diplomat, took over as the EU's High Representative in Bosnia replacing Dr. Christian Schwarz-Schilling.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, p.60)
2007        Jul 1, British police arrested two people, a 26-year-old man and a 27-year-old woman, on a major highway in Cheshire, northern England, in a joint swoop by officers from London and Birmingham, Scotland Yard said in London in relation to the attack in Glasgow and 2 car bombs in London. A fifth suspect was arrested in Liverpool. 2 more arrests in the failed car bombings brought the total to 7.
    (AP, 7/1/07)(AP, 7/2/07)
2007        Jul 1, England slammed the door on smoking in bars, workplaces and public buildings in what campaigners hail as the biggest boost to public health since the creation of the National Health Service in 1948.
    (AP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, A 3-day African Union summit focused on forging a closer federation among the 53 member states began in the Ghanaian capital Accra.
    (AFP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, A suicide bomber detonated an explosives-packed truck at a checkpoint at the entrance of the city of Fallujah, west of Baghdad, killing five policemen. In eastern Baghdad, a roadside bomb exploded near policemen, killing two. Gunmen in a vehicle opened fire on a minibus carrying Shiite day laborers in the mixed district of Saydiyah, killing one passenger and wounding four. The bullet-riddled body of a senior police commander was discovered in Basra. Col. Nasser Hamoud, who was in charge of the city's prisons, had been kidnapped along with three of his guards the day before. Five US service members were killed in fighting, including two soldiers who died in attacks in Baghdad and two soldiers and a Marine who died in fighting in western Anbar province.
    (AP, 7/1/07)(AP, 7/2/07)
2007        Jul 1, Israel transferred millions of dollars worth of tax funds to the new Palestinian government, allowing it to pay its workers in full for the first time in a year, while skipping the ones who work for the Islamic Hamas in Gaza.
    (AP, 7/2/07)
2007        Jul 1, Kenya police said 12 suspected criminals and members of a murderous sect were killed over the last 24 hours, as a fierce crackdown on surging crime intensified.
    (AFP, 7/1/07)
2007        Jul 1, In Namibia a seal hunt started with a planned run of five months saying it wants to save its fishing industry. The start followed a government announcement that it would allow the killing of 6,000 adult males and 80,000 pups, up by 20,000 in 2006.
    (AP, 7/6/07)
2007        Jul 1, In Peru a passenger bus crashed into an oncoming truck killing 24 people.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 1, Portugal took over the rotating EU presidency.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.14)
2007        Jul 1, The state-run Sunday Mail said a senator from Zimbabwe's ruling party and 20 business people have been arrested for flouting a government-imposed ceiling on basic commodity prices.
    (AFP, 7/1/07)

2008        Jul 1, An Alabama jury found Glaxo and Novartis guilty of drug-price fraud and ordered them to pay $114 million.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 1, Nicholas T. Sheley (28) was arrested in Granite City, Ill., following a manhunt that extended into Missouri. The ex-convict was suspected in eight recent grisly slayings. He was suspected of killing, among others, a 93-year-old man, a toddler and a couple whose blood-soaked dogs were found roaming a motel parking lot.
    (AP, 7/2/08)(SFC, 7/11/08, p.A4)
2008        Jul 1, Starbucks, the Seattle-based coffee retailer, said it would close another 500 stores in America and reduce its work force by about 7%. The closure of 100 stores had been announced earlier this year. 70% of the stores to close were opened after 2005.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.74)
2008        Jul 1, In California the 11-day old Basin Complex Fire in the Los Padres National Forest threatened the Esalen Institute in Big Sur.
    (AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Robert E. Boni (b.1928), writer and former chief executive of Armco (1985-1989), died. In 1993 a partnership between Armco and Kawasaki led to the formation of AK Steel Holding Corp.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.A5)
2008        Jul 1, Clay Felker (b.1925), founder of the New York magazine (1968) and New West magazine (1976), died in his New York home. From 1994 he taught at UC Berkeley for over a decade.
    (SFC, 7/2/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 1, In Afghanistan 4 police officers died when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb as they went to reinforce a checkpost that had come under attack in southern Uruzgan province. The US-led force said it helped Afghan security forces kill "several" insurgents in the province and a young girl was also killed in the fighting. Five Taliban militants died in a clash in southern Zabul province. Another rebel was killed in southwestern Nimroz province. Official figures showed June was the deadliest month for foreign troops in Afghanistan since the 2001 fall of the Taliban and the second in a row in which casualties exceeded those in Iraq.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Egypt, announced that it was extending the mandate of its force in Somalia for another six months but urged the UN to take over the peacekeeping mission. The African leaders also called for dialogue between Zimbabwe's political foes and a national unity government following President Robert Mugabe's widely discredited reelection.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)(AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Josef Branis (66) fatally shot four relatives in two houses in the Vienna suburb of Strasshof after being evicted from his sister's Vienna apartment. He was arrested in August after being on the run for weeks.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25495397/)
2008        Jul 1, In China a man armed with a knife stormed a police station in Shanghai, stabbing officers inside and killing 6 officers. On September 1 Yang Jia (28) was sentenced to death for the knife attack. In northwest China 18 miners were killed in a mine-shaft collapse at the state-owned Huisen Liangshuijing Coal Mine in Shaanxi province. Yang Jia was executed on Nov 26.
    (AP, 7/1/08)(AP, 7/2/08)(AP, 9/1/08)(AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Jul 1, Gao Wenyuan, the regional Grassland Work Office's director, told Xinhua News that Inner Mongolia in north China is mobilizing 33,000 people, including 1,100 technical staff, to wipeout a plague of locusts in the past two weeks.
    (http://english.gov.cn/2008-07/01/content_1032452.htm)
2008        Jul 1, France took over the rotating presidency of the European Union with high-level meetings and a ceremony at the Arc de Triomphe.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, French officials said the asbestos-contaminated aircraft carrier Clemenceau, which was towed half-way across the globe in a failed bid to have it dismantled, will be broken up by Able UK in Britain. The ship was decommissioned in 1997.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, Munich-based Giesecke & Devrient, caved in to pressure from the German government to stop supplying Zimbabwe with special blank paper money. Zimbabwe required new notes every few weeks as the inflation rate pushed well over one million percent.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 1, Iranian state radio said that at least 25 people were killed and 16 injured in a bus accident near Tehran.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Iraq militants killed seven people in a series of attacks in Iraq's eastern Diyala province, and a local official said government crackdowns against Sunni extremists elsewhere in the country were driving them back to the area. Staffan de Mistura, the UN envoy to Iraq, said it was unlikely that the country would be able to hold provincial elections by the beginning of October as planned because lawmakers had failed to approve a new election law.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, Israel closed its cargo crossings with the Gaza Strip after accusing Palestinian militants of firing a rocket at southern Israel in violation of a shaky truce. The Israeli military said its radar detected a rocket launched from Gaza the previous evening that struck near the communal farm of Mefalsim.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Kingston, Jamaica, 39 young American missionaries, from the Georgia-based Adventures in Missions, were robbed by two gunmen who broke into a Salvation Army school for the blind where they were volunteering.
    (AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Muslim majority Indian-held Kashmir authorities reversed a controversial plan to transfer land to a Hindu shrine as Muslim and Hindu protesters held massive rallies across the region assailing the state government for its handling of the politically sensitive issue.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, Malaysian opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim vowed to seize power from a "corrupt" government at a rally of some 15,000 supporters as he fights back against new sodomy accusations.
    (AFP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Mexico videos showing Leon police practicing torture techniques on a fellow officer and dragging another through vomit at the instruction of a US adviser created an uproar, which has struggled to eliminate torture in law enforcement.
    (AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Mongolia thousands of people staged a violent protest in the capital as they voiced outrage over what they claimed were rigged elections, forcing police to fire gunshots.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Myanmar a ferry named "Myo Pa Pa Tun" sank in the Yway river in the cyclone-battered Irrawaddy delta, killing 38 people. 44 others were rescued.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 1, A smoking ban went into effect in cafes, restaurants and bars across the Netherlands, as the country joins a growing list of European countries to tighten rules on tobacco use in public places. Smoking marijuana in the Netherlands' infamous "coffee shops" is still permitted under the new law, as long the drug is not mixed with tobacco.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, The Nigerian Senate passed a resolution barring the anti-graft agency EFCC and other security agents from arresting witnesses who appear before parliament. The lawmakers passed the resolution following the arrests of an Austrian contractor and two former ministers on the floor of the Senate shortly after testifying before a parliamentary hearing on the aviation sector.
    (AFP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Pakistani forces destroyed a major militant compound in the Khyber tribal region. The site served as key headquarters for the banned Lashkar-e-Islam.
    (SFC, 7/2/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 1, Panama's Supreme Court overturned a presidential pardon of four Cuban emigres accused of plotting to kill Fidel Castro, including former CIA operative Luis Posada Carriles. The court ruled that 180 pardons granted in 2004 by outgoing President Mireya Moscoso, including those the four Cubans, were unconstitutional.
    (AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Officials said Maoist rebels in the southern Philippines killed two soldiers in a public market and torched a cellular phone tower as the latest flare-up in the 40-year-old insurgency showed no sign of abating.
    (AP, 7/1/08)
2008        Jul 1, In Sri Lanka fighting erupted in the Vavuniya and Welioya regions bordering the rebels' de facto state in the north. The fighting in Vavuniya killed 16 rebels and one soldier, while in the nearby Welioya region, 11 rebels and one soldier died.
    (AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Thailand’s deputy prime minister said the Thai government has suspended its decision to support Cambodia's bid to have an 11th century temple near the Thai border declared a world landmark. In 1962, the International Court of Justice awarded the Preah Vihear temple and the land it occupies to Cambodia.
    (AP, 7/1/08)

2009        Jul 1, California’s Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a fiscal state of emergency after Lawmakers failed to balance the state's main checkbook. State Controller John Chiang said his office is prepared to issue IOUs totaling $3.3 billion in July.
    (AP, 7/2/09)
2009        Jul 1, Utah ditched a 40-year-old requirement for bar customers to fill out applications and pay a fee to become a member of a private club before entering a bar.
    (SFC, 7/2/09, p.A5)
2009        Jul 1, The Financial Times reported that Citigroup Inc increased interest rates on up to 15 million US credit card accounts just months before curbs on such rises come into effect.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, A US federal “cash for clunkers" scheme went into effect providing incentives for car buyers.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)
2009        Jul 1, US car giants General Motors and Ford suspended operations on their production lines in Russia as the deepening economic crisis squeezes Russian consumers' demand for new cars.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Karl Malden (b.1912 as Mladen Sekulovich), Academy Award-winning actor, died. His intelligent characterizations on stage, screen and television made him a star despite his plain looks. His more than 50 film credits included "Patton," "Pollyanna," "Fear Strikes Out," "The Sting II," "Bombers B-52," "Cheyenne Autumn," and "All Fall Down." Malden gained his greatest fame as Lt. Mike Stone in the 1970s television show "The Streets of San Francisco," in which Michael Douglas played the veteran detective's junior partner.
    (AP, 7/2/09)(SFC, 7/2/09, p.A8)
2009        Jul 1, In southern Afghanistan an explosion killed two NATO troops and wounded six others.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Albania's governing Democrats claimed they won weekend parliamentary elections, but the opposition Socialists accused PM Sali Berisha's party of attempting to snatch victory. Near complete results showed the Democrats were ahead by just over one percentage point. It was unclear whether Berisha had secured enough seats in parliament needed to govern alone.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Argentina Juan Luis Manzur, a doctor and vice governor in Tucuman province, replaced Health Minister Graciela Ocana, who resigned on June 29 as concerns over the virus rose. He announced plans to boost public health spending by $263 million this year and said pregnant women could miss work for 15 days to avoid contracting swine flu.
    (AP, 7/2/09)
2009        Jul 1, Bolivia enacted what animal rights defenders called the world's first law that prohibits the use of animals in circuses. A handful of other countries have banned the use of wild animals in circuses, but the Bolivian ban includes domestic animals as well. The law would become effective on July 1, 2010.
    (AP, 7/30/09)(AP, 4/16/10)
2009        Jul 1, In Brazil Sao Paulo state officials launched what they say is Latin America's first passenger bus with an electric engine powered by hydrogen fuel cells. The bus will start test runs on the streets of Sao Paulo in August and will be joined by three similarly powered vehicles next year.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, British actress Mollie Sugden (86), best-known for her role as Mrs. Slocombe in the television comedy series "Are You Being Served?" (1972-1985), died.
    (Reuters, 7/2/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Germany Marwa al-Sherbini (31), a pregnant Muslim woman from Egypt, was stabbed to death in a Dresden courtroom as her young son (3) watched. She was involved in a court case against her neighbor for calling her a terrorist and was set to testify against him when Alex Wiens (28) stabbed her at least 16 times inside the courtroom. Her husband, Elwy Okaz, who was in Germany on a research fellowship, came to her aid and was also stabbed by Wiens and shot in the leg by a security guard who initially mistook him for the attacker. On Nov 11 Wiens was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 7/6/09)(AFP, 11/11/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Honduras thousands demonstrated for the return of ousted Pres. Manuel Zelaya. Thousands more rallied in favor of the military-backed government. The Organization of American States said Honduran coup leaders have three days to restore deposed President Manuel Zelaya to power, before Honduras risks being suspended from the group.
    (AP, 6/30/09)(SFC, 7/2/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 1, The Indian government announced a rise in petrol and diesel fuel prices, saying its hand had been forced by the increase in global crude oil prices.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In India Tyeb Mehta (b.1925), a celebrated modernist painter, died in Mumbai.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.C8)
2009        Jul 1, In Iran opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi reasserted his claim that the June 12 election was illegitimate, and demanded that Iran's cleric-led government release all political prisoners and institute electoral reforms and press freedoms. A reformist political group said that authorities banned the daily Etemad-e-Melli (National Confidence) newspaper allied to presidential candidate Mehdi Karroubi after he denounced Iran's government as "illegitimate" because of claims of voting fraud. Former President Mohammad Khatami lashed out at what he termed "a poisonous security situation" in the wake of violent street protests.
    (AP, 7/1/09)(AP, 7/2/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Iran Clotilde Reiss (24), a French academic, was among the hundreds of people detained following the disputed presidential elections. She was released on bail after a month and a half and later convicted of provoking unrest and spying. In May, 2010, she was released after paying a $300,000 fine.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(AP, 5/16/10)
2009        Jul 1, Iraq's government approved a BP-led consortium's offer to develop a giant southern oil field near Basra, moving forward with the only deal struck during a disappointing international oil auction. On Oct 16 the Iraqi government approved the deal by BP and its Chinese partner CNPC to develop the 17.8 billion barrel Rumaila field, the 2nd largest in the Middle East. A bombing in Kirkuk killed at least 30 people.
    (AP, 7/1/09)(AP, 7/2/09)(AP, 10/17/09)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.58)
2009        Jul 1, In Libya an African Union summit opened.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Namibia the annual seal hunt opened despite objections by animal welfare groups. Hunters were expected to club over 90,000 seals including 85,000 pups by Nov 15.
    (SFC, 7/7/09, p.A2)(AFP, 8/4/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Nicaragua Managua Mayor Alexis Arguello (b.1952), a three-time world boxing champion, was found dead at his home. The La Prensa newspaper reported he was found with a gunshot wound to the chest in an apparent suicide.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Nigeria's President Umaru Yar'Adua extended an amnesty offer to the jailed rebel leader Henry Okah, detained on treason charges for over 18 months.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In northwestern Pakistan tribesmen attacked Taliban hide-outs, killing 28 militants and suffering seven fatalities themselves. The intensifying battles prompted them to ask for army troops to help. A new opinion poll was released saying 81 percent of Pakistanis view the fundamentalist Muslim militants as a critical threat to the country.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Businessman Ricardo Martinelli (57) was sworn in as Panama's new president, promising to start the biggest job-creation push ever in the country. Martinelli said he wants to make the nation of 3.3 million inhabitants the best place to do business in Latin America.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In Russia thousands of casinos, slot-machine parlors and betting halls across the country shut down, complying with sweeping new restrictions that require all gambling business to relocate to four remote regions of the country. Lawmakers had signed the casino closure law in 2006. Under the new law, casinos and slot machines will be allowed to operate only in Kaliningrad on the Baltic Sea; the Primorsky region on the Pacific coast; the mountainous Altai region in Siberia; and near the southern cities of Krasnodar and Rostov.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In San Sebastian, Spain, a meeting was underway of five regional fisheries management organizations, tasked primarily with protecting tuna populations worldwide. The groups representing 80 countries met for the first time in two years to assess stocks of the fish and determine what more can be done to save the 23 tuna populations, nine of which are under threat.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Darfur rebels signed an accord with one of Sudan's main opposition parties in Cairo, agreeing to push for a new transitional government, a move that will infuriate Khartoum.
    (Reuters, 7/3/09)
2009        Jul 1, Sweden took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.51)
2009        Jul 1, Switzerland said it had refused a request to extradite a Rwandan national wanted in his own country for alleged genocide and war crimes. Other European countries have also refused extradition requests arguing that suspects cannot at present receive a fair trial in the country.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, In southern Thailand a rampaging elephant stomped three rubber tappers to death after it was left to wander freely by its handler.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Zimbabwe's former finance minister Simba Makoni launched a new opposition party that promises to "clean up" the country's political landscape.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)

2010        Jul 1, Pres. Obama signed into law new sanctions on Iran that, for the first time, will bar from the American market foreign companies that work with Iranian businesses charged with aiding Tehran’s nuclear program.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A7)
2010        Jul 1, US government mortgage agency Freddie Mac said that the average fixed-rate for a 30-year mortgage fell this week to 4.58%. This was the lowest since Freddie Mac started keeping track of mortgage rates in 1971.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)
2010        Jul 1, A US audit, commissioned by the Commerce Dept., found that the national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) fishery police misspent millions in federal fines on cars for managers, a luxury undercover boat and training in Norway.
            (SFC, 7/2/10, p.A6)
2010                Jul 1, California began its fiscal year with no budget in place and a $19 billion deficit.
            {California, Economics}
            (SFC, 7/1/10, p.A1)
2010            Jul 1, In the SF Bay Area most bridge tolls rose by $1 dollar with variable rates on the Bay Bridge depending on travel time.
            (SFC, 7/1/10, p.A1)
2010            Jul 1, Boston researchers claimed they have hit upon genetic sequences that can predict whether you'll live to have "exceptional longevity." The scientists studied over 1,000 centenarians to develop a system of genetic analysis by which they can predict, with a 77-percent accuracy rate, whether someone has a strong chance of "exceptional longevity," according to findings published in the journal Science.
            (AFP, 7/1/10)
2010        Jul 1, D.light, a solar powered lantern that could provided light for up to 12 hours after charging in sunlight for one day, won the Ashden award for sustainable energy. It was designed by an Indian company in California and marketed successfully in India.
    (www.dlightdesign.com/dataDoc/media/International_winners_Ashden2010_final.pdf)
2010        Jul 1, In Argentina a survivor of the former military junta detention centers was reported to have presented a list of 293 detainees, part of a trove of evidence he rescued from destruction decades ago and hid away. There, in neat columns typed by a police functionary, each "subversive delinquent" is listed alongside a terse decision on their fate, the letters "DF," military shorthand for "disposition final" — death. The 1976-1983 military junta killed at least 13,000 people, though human rights groups believe as many as 30,000 died during what Argentines call the "dirty war."
            (AP, 7/1/10)
2010        Jul 1, In Benin Investment Consultancy and Computering Services (ICC) was forced to close, and more than a dozen of its employees were jailed. More than a hundred thousand people lost their savings in a Ponzi scheme run by the company that appeared to be publicly endorsed by the country's President Boni Yayi. In August the government said that more than 130,000 people gave their savings to the company and altogether lost more than $130 million.
    (AP, 9/1/10)
2010            Jul 1, In Brazil a statue of Christ overlooking Rio de Janeiro was reinaugurated after a renovation costing nearly $4 million. The renovation of the Christ the Redeemer statue, which has towered over the city for nearly 80 years, was financed by Brazilian mining giant Vale and the Roman Catholic archdiocese of Rio.
            (AFP, 7/1/10)
2010            Jul 1, An Iranian military court convicted and sentenced to death two suspects charged with torturing and killing three anti-government protesters in prison.
            (AP, 7/1/10)
2010            Jul 1, In Iraq 2 soldiers and 2 members of a government-backed Sunni militia fighting Al-Qaida were killed in a day of attacks.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 1, Japanese electronics maker Toshiba Corp. said it's jumping into the battery business for electric vehicles in a development deal with Mitsubishi Motors Corp.
            (AFP, 7/1/10)
2010        Jul 1, In Mexico a massive gun battle between rival drug and migrant trafficking gangs near the US border left 21 people dead near Nogales, Sonora state.
            (AP, 7/1/10)(SFC, 7/2/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 1, In Mexico the sprawling remains of Hurricane Alex drenched much of the north, paralyzing the major city of Monterrey. 12 people were killed.
    (AP, 7/1/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A4)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.30)
2010              Jul 1, In Lahore, Pakistan, at least two suicide bombers attacked a popular Muslim shrine minutes apart killing 42 people with some 175 injured. Thousands of people were visiting Data Darbar shrine at the time of the attack. It contains the tomb of a famous Sufi saint and is visited by hundreds of thousands of people every year.
            (AP, 7/1/10)(WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)(SFC, 7/3/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 1, Somali and African Union troops launched a battle against an Al-Qaida-backed group in Mogadishu. A total of 17 people were killed including 16 killed and 45 wounded in the Karan neighborhood.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A2, A8)
2010        Jul 1, Sudanese opposition leader Hassan Turabi said his 45-day detention and the shuttering of his party newspaper are proof that the country's historic elections haven't changed the regime's "oppressive" ways. Turabi was arrested in May after sharply criticizing Sudan's historic multiparty elections, saying they were marred by "shameful" fraud.
            (AP, 7/1/10)
2010                Jul 1, Sweden abolished compulsory military service for men during peacetime.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)
2010        Jul 1, The international court in Tanzania investigating Rwanda's 1994 genocide said it has sentenced Yussuf Munyakazi (75), a father of 13, to 25 years in jail for killing thousands of people. He was found guilty of "genocide and extermination" involving Tutsis who had sought refuge in Catholic churches.
            (AFP, 7/1/10)
2010        Jul 1, The Turkish military said fighting near the border with Iraq killed 12 Kurdish guerrillas, 2 government soldiers and 3 government-paid village guards. Clashes erupted after rebels fired long range weapons and rockets at a military unit in Slirt province.
            (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A10)
2010        Jul 1, Francisco Chavez Abarca of El Salvador, was arrested in Venezuela, traveling on a false passport, and quickly flown to Cuba to face charges in a 1990s bombing campaign. On Sep 27 Abarca said on state TV that he was hired to plant bombs by Luis Posada Carriles, an 80-year-old anti-Castro militant and former CIA operative.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

2011        Jul 1, Owners of the National Basketball Association (NBA) locked out their 450 players after the two sides failed to reach a collective bargaining agreement. The average player salary last year was $5 million.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.29)
2011        Jul 1, Six weeks after Arnold Schwarzenegger revealed he had fathered a child out of wedlock, his wife Maria Shriver filed divorce papers to end their marriage of 25 years.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, San Francisco cable car prices rose a dollar to $6 following a recent $19 million upgrade of the California Street cable car line.
    (SFC, 6/28/11, p.C1)
2011        Jul 1, Connecticut Governor Dannel Malloy signed a bill mandating paid sick leave for workers beginning in 2012.
    (Reuters, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 1, A US federal judge blocked Kansas from enforcing new abortion regulations that would have prevented two of the state’s three abortion providers from continuing to terminate pregnancies.
    (SFC, 7/2/11, p.A5)
2011        Jul 1, Minnesota's state government began a broad shut down going into the July 4 holiday after Democratic Governor Mark Dayton and Republican legislative leaders failed to reach a budget deal.
    (Reuters, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Hundreds of barrels of crude oil spilled into Montana's Yellowstone River after an ExxonMobil pipeline beneath the riverbed ruptured, sending a plume 25 miles downstream and forcing temporary evacuations. About 63,000 gallons of oil leaked into the river near the city of Laurel. On June 12, 2015 the US Dept. of Transportation ordered ExxonMobil to pay a $1 million penalty.
    (AP, 7/3/11)(SFC, 7/23/11, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/13, p.A6)(SSFC, 6/14/15, p.A8)
2011        Jul 1, In NYC former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn (62) was released without bail after a dramatic court hearing where the sexual assault case against him appeared to shift in his favor. Prosecutors said the credibility of the woman at the center of the case had been thrown into question.
    (Reuters, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Wisconsin a fierce thunderstorm left an 11-year-old girl dead and over 3 dozen people injured in Burnett County.
    (SSFC, 7/3/1, p.A8)
2011        Jul 1, In Afghanistan two civilians riding a donkey were killed when the animal stepped on a bomb in Kandahar’s Maruf district. When villagers came to recover the bodies, another roadside bomb went off and killed two more civilians. A NATO coalition service member was killed in a roadside bombing in the south.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, Australian federal police charged two currency printing firms and several of their former senior managers with bribing foreign officials to secure bank note supply contracts. The charges against Securency International Pty Ltd., one of the world's leading currency printing firms, and Note Printing Australia Ltd. related to alleged bribes paid to officials in Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam between 1999 and 2005.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Bangladesh at least 12 people were killed and more feared missing after three days of heavy rain triggered landslides near a slum in the port city of Chittagong.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Burundi's President Pierre Nkurunziza appealed for the first time to opposition leaders in exile to return home and begin a dialogue, in a speech to mark the country's independence.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, China confirmed that an oil spill had occurred in waters around Nanhuangcheng Island in Shandong province. US oil company ConocoPhillips operated the Penglai 19-3 oil field where the leak originated. Leaking oil was first detected on June 4, and then again on June 17. The state maritime bureau said that an area in the mouth of the Bohai Sea, measuring 840 square km (336 square miles), had been badly polluted due to the spill.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 1, Doctors without Borders (MSF) said cholera has claimed 153 lives out of 2,787 cases in the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the provinces. MSF said that the outbreak began in March in the northeastern city of Kisangani, and soon spread westwards, with the first cases reported in Kinshasa on June 20.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Denmark approved a decision to re-establish permanent customs checkpoints at its borders, removing the last hurdle to a plan aimed at stopping crime and illegal immigration but which has been strongly criticized in Europe as violating visa-free travel rules.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck Inc. said it will demand that US distributors sign an agreement stating that they will not make the sedative pentobarbital available for prisons using it for lethal injections.
    (SFC, 7/2/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 1, In Egypt hundreds rallied in Cairo's landmark Tahrir Square demanding speedy trials for former regime figures and policemen accused of killing protesters during the 18-day revolt earlier this year.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Equatorial Guinea Africa's heads of state signed off on a road map designed to help Libya emerge from civil war, but carefully dodged the issue of what role the country's entrenched dictator Moammar Gadhafi should play in its future government. The African Union called on its members to disregard the International Criminal Court's arrest warrant for Moammar Gadhafi.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Equatorial Guinea, said Senegal must try Hissene Habre, the former dictator of Chad, who has been living in the Senegalese capital for decades. Habre has lived in Senegal since 1990, and Senegal agreed to create a special court to try him more than five years ago.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Ethiopia Swedish freelance journalists Johan Persson and Martin Schibbye were arrested after entering the Ogaden region to report on allegations of human rights violations.
    (AFP, 12/22/11)
2011        Jul 1, Greece announced it was banning vessels heading to Gaza from leaving Greek ports and escorted back to shore American protesters on a boat bound for the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Guatemalan villagers beat, shot and stabbed to death five men and a woman they suspected of robbery in a remote mountain village.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Hong Kong tens of thousands of people vented anger over skyrocketing property prices and government policies at an annual march held on the anniversary of the former British colony's return to Chinese rule. Police arrested 231 people and used pepper spray during the demonstration.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AFP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In India scientists warned that water off the famed beaches of the Indian holiday state of Goa was unfit for bathing and fishing due to high levels of bacteria from untreated sewage.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Indonesia an 18-month-old Sumatran tiger died seven days after it fell into a trap and within three hours of being tranquilized by local conservation officials. The trap was on the border of an acacia forest and an APP logging concession. Estimates of the number of Sumatran tigers remaining in the world range from 300 to 400.
    (AP, 7/26/11)
2011        Jul 1, In central Iraq the Al-Ahdab oil field, operated by China National Petroleum Corp, began production with 60,000 barrels per day. The contract with CNPC, signed in 2008, allows the Chinese company to develop the field for 23 years.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Italy a horse smashed into a barrier and died during training for a famed race around Sienna’s cobblestone piazza, leading to calls from animal rights groups for a suspension of the risky bareback contest. Some 50 horses have died since 1970.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, Ivory Coast said it has issued international arrest warrants for youth leader Charles Ble Goude and other close aides of former president Laurent Gbagbo. 15 members of Gbagbo's inner circle were charged last week.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Jordan about 2,000 people demonstrated across the country to demand the dissolution of the "parliament of shame," over a suspected corruption case involving a gambling.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi threatened to target European "homes, offices, families" unless NATO halts its bombing campaign.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In northern Mexico marines battled alleged members of the Zetas drug cartel for more than five hours, leaving 15 gang suspects dead and six marines wounded.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Mexico remnants of Tropical Storm Arlene continued dumping rain over the country's central highlands. 22 deaths due to the storm were soon confirmed.
    (AP, 7/2/11)(AP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 1, Monaco's reigning prince, Albert II, wed Charlene Wittstock of South Africa in a long-awaited civil ceremony that transformed the one-time Olympic swimmer into the Princess of Monaco.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, Moroccans voted on whether to adopt a new constitution that the king has championed as an answer to demands for greater freedoms, but that protesters say will still leave the monarch firmly in control. The preliminary results showed a 98.94 percent approval rating and 72.56 percent turnout.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Moroccan constitutional reforms made Tamazight, a form of Berber, an official language. Its written tradition extended to at least 200BC. The Tuareg traditionally use their own alphabet, called Tifinagh, to write it.
    (SSFC, 7/17/11, p.N3)
2011        Jul 1, North Korea assumed the rotating presidency of the 65-nation Conference on Disarmament, the world's top disarmament body, for four weeks.
    (AP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Pakistan 2 Swiss tourists, David Och and Daniela Widmer, were kidnapped in southwest Baluchistan province. The couple were reported freed on March 15, 2012.
    (AP, 7/2/11)(AP, 3/15/12)
2011        Jul 1, In the Philippines government "environment enforcers" wearing mint-green Polo T-shirts fanned out across Manila to start handing out penalties for smoking in public places of 500 pesos ($11.50), following a month-long trial period.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Poland took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.66)
2011        Jul 1, Senegalese opposition leader, ex-prime minister Macky Sall, accused President Abdoulaye Wade's regime of recruiting mercenaries from countries such as Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, Singapore’s government declared the Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (aka Bersih) to be illegal.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.46)
2011        Jul 1, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir ordered the army to fight in South Kordofan until it has "cleaned" the border state of rebels.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In Syria hundreds of thousands of protesters flooded cities in one of the largest outpourings against the regime of President Bashar Assad since the uprisings. Security forces in Hama shot dead over 20 protesters.
    (AP, 7/1/11)(AP, 7/2/11)(Econ, 7/16/11, p.55)
2011        Jul 1, In Yemen hundreds of thousands of protesters staged huge rallies across the country calling for the departure of all figures in the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. An armed member of the Southern Movement, a group seeking autonomy, was killed in an attack on an army position north of Aden. Military officials said Ahmed Saleh, the son of Pres. Saleh, has led a crackdown arresting dozens of military officers suspected of turning against his wounded father.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)(SFC, 7/2/11, p.A2)

2012        Jul 1, A US federal judge temporarily blocked Mississippi from enforcing a new law that requires doctors who perform abortions at the state's sole abortion clinic to have admitting privileges at a local hospital. The Mississippi legislation, signed by Rep. Gov. Phil Bryant in April, was due to go into effect today. Abortion clinic doctors had applied to 7 area hospitals for admitting privileges.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.A5)(Reuters, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, In South Dakota a C-130 Air Force air tanker from North Carolina crashed with a crew of 6 while fighting a fire in the Black Hills. At least one crew member was killed. Officials put 7 other tankers on operational hold. Five USAF C-130s returned to the flight line on July 3.
    (SFC, 7/3/12, p.A7)(SFC, 7/3/12, p.A7)   
2012        Jul 1, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed five civilians, including women and children, riding in a bus near Ghazni city. Another 11 were wounded. 3 British soldiers were shot dead by a man in Afghan police uniform at a checkpoint in Nahr-e-Saraj in Helmand province, where they were meeting local elders.
    (AP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/2/12)
2012        Jul 1, Australia introduced a controversial carbon tax in a bid to tackle climate change, with PM Julia Gillard hailing the move amid opposition warnings it will stifle industry. A mining levy was also introduced.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.18)
2012        Jul 1, An EU embargo on Iranian oil went into effect, provoking anger in Tehran which said the measure will hurt talks with world powers over its sensitive nuclear activities.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)
2012        Jul 1, Hong Kong's biggest protest for nearly a decade packed the former British colony's streets in a defiant reception for its new leader and a show of popular anger after 15 years of Chinese rule. The vast rally came after Leung Chun-ying, a millionaire property consultant seen as close to China's communist authorities, was sworn in as chief executive in front of Chinese President Hu Jintao -- who had his speech interrupted.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, In Iraq 4 coordinated bomb attacks within minutes of each other hit the central city of Tikrit, 130 km (80 miles) north of Baghdad. A civilian walking by was killed and two others were wounded.  A gunman assassinated a jurist in Mosul.
    (www.ninanews.com/english/News_Details.asp?ar95_VQ=FMFFJL)(SFC, 7/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 1, An Israeli military court sentenced Ibrahim Hamed, a former military leader of Hamas, to 54 life sentences after convicting him of ordering the killing of dozens of Israelis. The army said he was convicted last week of responsibility for a long list of suicide attacks which brought about the deaths of 46 Israelis and the wounding of more than 400 Israelis.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, Japanese engineers began refiring an atomic reactor, despite growing public protests in the aftermath of meltdowns at Fukushima, ending nearly two months in which the country was nuclear-free.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, In Japan the governor of Okinawa rejected a US plan to deploy Osprey military aircraft on the sub-tropic island chain amid safety concerns.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, In Kenya gunmen killed 17 people and wounded dozens in gun and grenade attacks on two churches in the town of Garissa near the border with Somalia.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, Mali appealed to the UN to take action after extremists ravaged shrines in Timbuktu. Islamist rebels took hoes and chisels to the tombs of ancient Muslim saints in Timbuktu for a second day, ignoring international pleas to halt their campaign of destruction.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)
2012        Jul 1, In Mexico Enrique Pena Nieto, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) candidate, won 38.21% support in national elections. Top challenger, leftist candidate Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (31.59%), refused to concede, saying he would await a full count and legal review. Josefina Vazquez Mota of the ruling National Action Party, Mexico's first woman candidate for a major party, conceded with 25.41%. Final results were completed on July 6. The PRI and its allies fell just short of a majority in both houses of Congress.
    (AP, 7/2/12)(AP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/10/12)
2012        Jul 1, Nigerian hunters killed a hippopotamus in the town of Shelleng on the bank of the Benue river. The hippo had killed two fishermen a day earlier.
    (AP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 1, In Pakistan US missiles fired from a drone in North Waziristan killed eight suspected militants. The latest attack killed fighters loyal to militant commander Hafiz Gul Bahadur. Dozens of militants based in Afghanistan attacked a checkpost in Upper Dir, a district in the government-controlled part of Pakistan, for the second time in eight days. 6 militants were reported killed.
    (AP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/2/12)
2012        Jul 1, A Russian Soyuz space capsule landed in Kazakhstan bringing an end to a 193-day mission for American astronaut Donald Petit, Dutchman Andre Kuipers and Russian Oleg Kononenko.
    (SFC, 7/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 1, Senegal voted for new lawmakers in an election set to put more women in the national assembly thanks to a new law which requires an equal gender balance on party lists. President Macky Sall's coalition won a landslide majority in legislative polls, swooping up 119 of 150 seats in the national assembly.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/2/12)(AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 1, Syrian opposition groups rejected a UN-brokered peace plan for a political transition in Syria, calling it ambiguous and a waste of time and vowing not to negotiate with President Bashar Assad or members of his "murderous" regime. 3 pro-government militiamen were killed in Hama province.
    (AP, 7/1/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 1, A Yemeni soldier and an Al-Qaeda militant were killed as jihadists tried to raid a village in the southern province of Daleh. a group of children accidentally set off a shell with which they were playing, killing one and wounding seven others in Jaar. Landmines laid by al-Qaida fighters and unexploded shells in battlefields have so far killed more than 85 soldiers and civilians around Zinjibar and nearby Jaar since their recapture by the Yemeni army last month.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)(AP, 7/2/12)

2013        Jul 1, The WikiLeaks website said Edward Snowden, the American who admitted leaking National Security Agency documents, is seeking asylum in 19 more countries, including China.
    (AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, SF Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) workers went on strike leaving many commuters stranded.
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A1)
2013        Jul 1, In southern California police arrested high school teacher Laura Elizabeth Whitehurst (28), two weeks after giving birth, for allegedly having had unlawful sex with a student (16).
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A5)
2013        Jul 1, Connecticut’s Fairfield Univ. and others that supported a charity, designed to help feed and educate boys in Haiti, reached a $12 million settlement with children who were sexually abused by Douglas Perlitz, a founder of the group. Perlitz  was sentenced to nearly 20 years in prison in 2011 for the assaults at the Project Pierre Toussaint School.
    (SFC, 7/2/13, p.A4)
2013        Jul 1, In Mississippi it became legal to make beer at home. Home brewing remained illegal in the state’s dry counties.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.29)
2013        Jul 1, In northern Afghanistan a regional police commander and three of his men were killed when their vehicle was hit with a roadside bomb in Baghlan province.
    (AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, Mark Carney took over as the 120th governor of the Bank of England.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.58)
2013        Jul 1, In Canada John Stewart Nuttall and Amanda Marie Korody were arrested and charged with terrorism for attempting to leave pressure cooker bombs at British Columbia's provincial legislature on Canada Day.
    (AP, 7/2/13)
2013        Jul 1, Croatia became the 28th EU member, the bloc's first addition since Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. In its first day as an EU member, Croatia pledged to help other Balkan countries move closer to the bloc and to help bring lasting stability to a region which was engulfed in conflict 20 years ago.
    (AP, 6/30/13)(AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, In Cuba a privately run wholesale market opened near Havana’s airport. Drivers had earlier gathered on the outskirts of Havana to sell fruit and vegetables without state sanction.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.35)
2013        Jul 1, Egypt’s military gave Pres. Morsi a July 3 deadline to resolve the country’s political crises. The military said it would "announce a road map for the future and measures to implement it" if Morsi and its opponents cannot reach a consensus within 48 hours. Protesters stormed and ransacked the Cairo headquarters of President Mohammed Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood group early today as demonstrators geared up for a second day of mass rallies aimed at forcing the Islamist leader from power.
    (AP, 7/2/13)
2013        Jul 1, The German government said if media reports of large-scale US spying on the European Union were confirmed, it would be unacceptable Cold War-style behavior between partners who require mutual trust to forge a new transatlantic trade area.
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, In Germany parent companies Bertelsmann and Pearson said they signed final contracts to combine the global activities of publishers Random House Inc. and Penguin Group to create Penguin Random House. Random House parent Bertelsmann will hold 53% of the new company and Penguin owner Pearson 47%.
    (AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, In Hong Kong tens of thousands took to the streets in protest, demanding that Leung Chun-ying, their widely disliked Beijing-backed leader, resign and pressing for promised democratic reforms so they can choose their own top representative. The annual protest march has become increasingly popular in recent years.
    (AP, 7/1/13)(SFC, 7/2/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 1, New sanctions against Iran came into effect, targeting trade with Iran's shipping and automobile sectors, gold sales to Iran and handling of the Iranian currency, the rial - a further attempt to force Tehran to curb its nuclear activities.
    (Reuters, 7/2/13)
2013        Jul 1, In Iraq the bodies of 8 pro-government, anti-al-Qaida Sunni militiamen, were found in an orchard. They had been kidnapped in Mishada and killed over the last two days by gunmen. The UN mission to Iraq said violence last month claimed the lives of 761 Iraqis. A suicide bomber blew himself up at a mourning ceremony inside a Shi'ite mosque, killing at least 22 people in Muqdadiya. A suicide bomber blew himself up inside a cafe in the restive city of Baqouba, killing 8 people.
    (AP, 7/1/13)(Reuters, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, Israel announced a crackdown against Jewish ultranationalists who vandalize Palestinian property, saying they were tantamount to terrorists and their attacks could fan sectarian violence.
    (AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, Lithuania took the reigns for its six-month presidency of the European Union.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Jul 1, Gulf Arab states called on the UN Security Council to meet urgently to prevent a massacre in Homs, as pro-government forces in Syria try to wrest the city from rebels fighting to topple President Assad.
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, In Tanzania teeming crowds and blaring horns welcomed President Barack Obama to Dar Es Salaam as he arrived on the last leg of his three-country tour of the African continent.
    (AP, 7/1/13)
2013        Jul 1, A UN report said: Some 80 percent of withdrawals from the Central Bank of Somalia are made for private purposes and not for the running of government, representing a patronage system and a set of social relations that defy institutionalization of the state. "Key to these irregularities has been the current governor of the Central Bank, Abdusalam Omer."
    (Reuters, 7/1/13)

2014        Jul 1, The United States blacklisted a Ugandan Islamic group, the Allied Democratic Forces, for targeting children in armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, The US Navy promoted Michelle Janine Howard to the rank of four-star admiral, making her the first woman to reach its highest rank.
    (SFC, 7/2/14, p.A6)
2014        Jul 1, In southern California the parents of a severely autistic boy were arrested after investigators determined the 11-year-old had been kept in a large metal cage, possibly to control his violent outbursts.
    (AP, 7/3/14)
2014        Jul 1, In southern California CHP Officer Daniel Andrew stopped, stradded and pummeled Marlene Pinnock (51) at the 10 Freeway La Brea Avenue exit. The woman had been walking barefoot along the freeway. A video of the incident was posted on YouTube causing widespread outrage. On Sep 24 Los Angeles agreed pay Pinnock $1.5 million and officer Andrew agreed to resign.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.A4)(SFC, 9/26/14, p.A14)
2014        Jul 1, David Greenglass (92), the US government’s star witness in the 1951 conviction of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, died in NYC. In 2001 Mr. Greenglass admitted that he had lied on the witness stand against his sister, Ethel. The Rosenbergs, convicted of passing secrets about the atomic bomb to the Soviets, were executed by electric chair in 1953.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A16)
2014        Jul 1, Afghan officials delayed the presidential election result for several days, as a dispute over alleged fraud threatens to derail the country's first democratic transfer of power.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In Austria a man accused of traveling to Syria to receive weapons training from Islamist militants was sentenced to 21 months in jail. The verdict was subject to appeals from both the prosecution and the defense.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Cambodia agreed to free Thai nationalist Veera Somkwamkid. He was imprisoned for more than three years for illegally crossing its border to claim territory for Thailand.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Egyptian police arrested four Islamist leaders who back Mohamed Morsi, two days ahead of protests their alliance has called to mark the first anniversary of his ouster.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, The European Court of Human Rights upheld France's law banning face-covering Muslim veils from the streets.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy was held for questioning over suspicions he used his influence to secure leaked details of an inquiry into alleged irregularities in his 2007 election campaign.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In Hong Kong tens of thousands marched through the streets of the former British colony to push for greater democracy in a rally fueled by anger over Beijing's recent warning that it holds the ultimate authority over the southern Chinese financial center.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Iraq's new parliament deadlocked less than two hours into its first session when minority Sunnis and Kurds walked out, dashing hopes for the quick formation of a new government that could hold the country together in the face of a militant blitz.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) called on Muslims worldwide to join the battle to help build an Islamic state in newly conquered territory. ISIS (aka ISIL) fighters numbered about 11,000.
    (SFC, 7/2/14, p.A2)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.11)
2014        Jul 1, Israeli aircraft struck 34 targets across Gaza overnight after more than 20 rockets were fired into Israel since late Jun 29 from the Palestinian territory. A Palestinian from the militant group Hamas was shot dead when he threw a grenade at forces carrying out an arrest raid in the West Bank.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Italy's "Mare Nostrum" ("Our Sea") rescue operation saved 27 people off Sicily. Survivors said another 75 migrants were lost at sea.
    (AP, 7/2/14)
2014        Jul 1, Japan’s cabinet approved a reinterpretation of the constitution ending a ban that has kept the military from fighting abroad since 1945, a victory for PM Shinzo Abe but a move that has riled China and worries many Japanese voters.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.34)
2014        Jul 1, In Myanmar violence began late today in Mandalay when a group of about 300 Buddhists converged on a tea shop owned by a Muslim man accused of raping a Buddhist woman. On March 18, 2015, a court in Pyinmama town sentenced five people for spreading rumors and creating panic.
    (AP, 7/4/14)(AP, 3/22/15)
2014        Jul 1, Former New Zealand batsman Lou Vincent received a life ban from cricket after admitting years of involvement in match-fixing with the words "I am a cheat."
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In Nigeria a car bomb exploded in a market in Maiduguri, the birthplace of Boko Haram Islamic extremists, reducing stalls, goods and vehicles to piles of trash. At least 56 people were killed.
    (AP, 7/1/14)(AFP, 7/1/14)(SFC, 7/2/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 1, The Socio-Economic Rights and Accountability Project said it is suing Nigeria's president and attorney general for dropping corruption charges against Mohammad Abacha, the son of the former military dictator accused of helping to launder millions in stolen funds.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Panama’s Pres. Juan Carlos Varela gave a speech following his inauguration and issued a decree to freeze the price of 22 staple goods. He also announced amnesty to some 200 gang members who surrender their weapons.
    (SSFC, 7/6/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 1, In Somalia Al Shabaab militants shot dead 3 soldiers in Mogadishu, their fourth attack since the start of the Ramadan fasting month that the Islamists have threatened to target.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In South Africa nearly a quarter of a million members of the National Union of Metalworkers downed tools, beginning an indefinite strike that threatens to bring the engineering sector to a halt.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Doctors Without Borders said 58 people have been killed in four hospitals in South Sudan since last December.
    (SFC, 7/2/14, p.A3)
2014        Jul 1, A Sri Lanka Defense Ministry circular banned activist groups and NGOs from holding press conferences and issuing press releases.
    (AP, 7/9/14)
2014        Jul 1, Sudanese state security agents arrested another members of the opposition Sudanese Congress Party. This was in addition to six other members held since June 11 in the West Kordofan town of En Nahud.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In Syria the jihadist Islamic State (IS) took control of the key border town of Albu Kamal after a fierce three-day battle with rival fighters.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, In Tunisia six members of the security forces were wounded when a roadside bomb exploded in the mountainous Kef region near the Algerian border.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Turkey's ruling party nominated PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to run in Turkey's first directly elected presidential race in August, announcing his candidacy to thousands of cheering supporters.
    (AP, 7/1/14)
2014        Jul 1, Ukrainian forces struck at pro-Russian separatist bases in eastern regions with air and artillery strikes after President Petro Poroshenko announced he would not renew a ceasefire but go on the offensive to rid Ukraine of "parasites." Rebels captured the Interior Ministry headquarters in Donetsk.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)(AP, 7/1/14)   
2014        Jul 1, The UN warned that nearly 800,000 refugees in Africa have had their food rations slashed by up to 60 percent, threatening to push many to the brink of starvation. The situation was most dire for the 300,000 refugees in Chad, mainly from Sudan's Darfur region and from the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

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