Today in History - July 4

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1054        Jul 4, Chinese and Arabian observers first documented the massive supernova of the Crab Nebula created thousands of years ago and consisting of a huge expanding cloud of gas and dust 6,000 light-years from Earth. The great nova, as Oriental astronomers described it, was six times brighter than Venus and was only outshone by the sun and moon. For 23 days the nova could be observed in broad daylight. An entry in the Records of the Royal Observatory of Peking reads: "In the first year of the period Chihha, the fifth moon, the day Chi-chou, a great star appeared approximately several inches southeast of T’ien-Kuan (i.e. Zeta Tauri). After more than a year it gradually became invisible."
    (LSA., S. Pobojewski, p.29)(TNG, Klein, p.96)(SCTS, p.183)(IB, 12/7/98)

1187        Jul 4, In the Battle of Hittin (Tiberias) Saladin defeated Reynaud of Chatillon. Salah al Din, who ruled from his imperial seat in ancient Syria, defeated Christian armies of the Crusaders and forced their retreat from the Holy Land. The battle was depicted in a mosaic that was found and restored for the palace of Pres, Hafez Assad of Syria. Saladin personally executed Crusader Reynaud of Chatillon (b.1124/5). Reynaud of Chatillon, Lord of Kerak, Jordan, had violated twice violated a tenuous truce and earlier this year attacked a caravan of pilgrims returning from Mecca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Chatillon)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A1)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.24)

1301        Jul 4, Battle at Breukelen: Holland vs. Lichtenberg.
    (Maggio, 98)

1415        Jul 4, Pope Gregory XII (1326-1417), born Angelo Correr or Corraro, stepped down in a deal to end the Great Western Schism among competing papal claimants.
    (AP, 2/11/13)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII)

1453        Jul 4, 41 Jewish martyrs burned at stake at Breslau.
    (Maggio, 98)

1610        Jul 4, Battle at Klushino: King Sigismund II beat Russia & Sweden.
    (Maggio, 98)

1623        Jul 4, William Byrd (80), English composer (Ave verum corpus), died.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1652        Jul 4, Prince of Cond‚ started a blood bath in Paris.
    (Maggio, 98)

1653        Jul 4, British Barebones Parliament went into session.
    (Maggio, 98)

1672        Jul 4, States of Holland declared "Eternal Edict" void.
    (Maggio, 98)

1693        Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.
    (Maggio, 98)

1708        Jul 4, Swedish King Karel XII beat Russians.
    (Maggio, 98)

1712        Jul 4, Twelve slaves were executed for starting a slave uprising in New York that killed nine whites. [see Apr 7]
    (HN, 7/4/98)(PCh, 1992, p.278)

1753        Jul 4, Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard (d.1809), French balloonist, was born. He made the 1st balloon flights in England and US.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/AVblanchard.htm)

1754        Jul 4, George Washington gave Ft. Necessity to France.
    (Maggio, 98)

1761        Jul 4, Samuel Richardson, English novelist, died at 72 in London.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1231)

1776         Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock--President of the Continental Congress--and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the "Unanimous Declaration" inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, "There, I guess King George will be able to read that." referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History."
     (SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)(SFC, 7/4/13, p.A14)

1777        Jul 4, No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 - one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mpsa8y)

1779        Jul 4, French fleet occupied Grenada.
    (Maggio, 98)

1785        Jul 4, The first Fourth of July parade was held in Bristol, Rhode Island. It served as a prayerful walk to celebrate independence from England.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1789        Jul 4, 1st US tariff act.
    (Maggio, 98)

1796        Jul 4, 1st Independence Day celebration was held.
    (Maggio, 98)

1802         Jul 4, The United State Military Academy opened its doors at West Point, New York, welcoming the first 10 cadets.
    (AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)

1804        Jul 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Marblehead, [Salem], Massachusetts. Hawthorne was born to a prominent but decaying family. One of his ancestors, a judge in the Salem witchcraft trials, became the model for the accursed founder of The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne would often wonder whether the decline of his family’s fortune was a punishment for the sins of his "sable-cloaked steeple-crowned progenitors." Marblehead is also the location of the house in his book "The House of Seven Gables." He also wrote "The Scarlet Letter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.651)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)(HN, 7/4/98) (IB, 12/7/98)

1807        Jul 4, Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Italian military leader, was born in Nice, France. He led the movement to make Italy one nation.
    (HN, 7/4/98) (IB, 12/7/98)

1810        Jul 4, French troops occupied Amsterdam.
    (Maggio, 98)

1817         Work began on the Erie Canal, more properly named the New York State Barge Canal. The canal connected Lake Erie with the Hudson and opened on October 26, 1825.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)

1819         Jul 4, The Territory of Arkansas was created. [see Mar 2]
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1819        Jul 4, William Herschel made his last telescopic observation of an 1819 comet.
    (Maggio, 98)

1826        Jul 4, Stephen Foster (Stephen Collins Foster, d. Jan 13, 1864) composer, was born near Pittsburgh. His famous songs include "My Old Kentucky Home," "O Susanna," "Old Folks at Home," "Old Black Joe" and "Camptown Races."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p. 519)(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96) (IB, 12/7/98)
1826        Jul 4, Construction of the Pennsylvania Grand Canal was begun.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)
1826        Jul 4, Thomas Jefferson, the nation's third president, died at age 83 at one o'clock in the afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind, published "The Sage of Monticello," the sixth and final volume of his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J. Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for "American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson." "Nothing gives one person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled in all circumstances."
    (A&IP, Miers, p.29)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1826        Jul 4, John Adams died at age 90 in Braintree [Quincy], Mass, just a few hours after Jefferson. Because communications was slow in those days, Adams and Jefferson, at their death, thought the other was still alive. Adams' last words were, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." It was 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Adams was the 2nd president of the US. A multi-generational biography of the Adams family was later written by Paul C. Nagel: "Descent from Glory." The Joseph Ellis book The Passionate Edge" helped restore Adams to his rightful place in the American pantheon. The 1972 musical film 1776 focused on Adams’ efforts to get an independence resolution through Congress. In 1998 C. Bradley Thompson published "John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty." In 2001 David McCullough authored "John Adams." In 2005 James Grant authored “John Adams: Party of One."
    (A&IP, p.29)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 7/4/98, p.E4)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/05, p.D8)

1827        Jul 4, New York state law emancipated adult slaves.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.5)(Maggio, 98)

1828        Jul 4, James Johnston Pettigrew, scholar, teacher, Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1828        Jul 4, Ground-breaking ceremonies were held in Baltimore for construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the same day, in nearby Georgetown, President John Quincy Adams, with great fanfare, lifted the first shovel of dirt to begin construction of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal that would link Washington, Baltimore and Pittsburgh by water. The railroad went on to become one of the nation's longest rail lines, reaching St. Louis, Missouri, in 1857. The 185-mile canal, though it had many years of use, was quickly eclipsed as a transportation medium by the superior technology of the railroad.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1829        Jul 4, Cornerstone laid for 1st US mint (Chestnut & Juniper St, Phil).
    (Maggio, 98)
1829        Jul 4, In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1830        Jul 4, William Sublette, a trapper and explorer, named Independence Rock, Wyo., when he celebrated his 54th birthday there.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A3)

1831        Jul 4, "America (My Country 'Tis of Thee)" was 1st sung in Boston. [see Jul 4, 1832]
    (Maggio, 98)
1831        Jul 4, James Monroe, 5th President of the United States, died in New York City at age 73, making him the third ex-President to die on Independence Day.
    (AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)

1832        Jul 4, The song "America" was sung publicly for the first time at a Fourth of July celebration by a group of children at Park Street Church in Boston. The words were written on a scrap of paper in half an hour by Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, and were set to the music of "God Save the King." [see Jul 4, 1831]
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1834        Jul 4, NYC Mayor Cornelius W. Lawrence presided over the laying of the cornerstone for the Astor House hotel, designed by Isaiah Rogers. Construction took four years and cost around $400,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lg8xuna)

1835        Jul 4, The Boston and Worcester Railroad was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1836        Jul 4, Jacob Leese, a trader from Ohio, built a house in Yerba Buena (later San Francisco). This was the town’s first building and Leese threw a 3-day party over the 4th of July to celebrate.
    (SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)
1836        Jul 4, The territorial government of Wisconsin was established.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1836        Jul 4, Narcissa Prentiss Whitman and Eliza Hart Spaulding made a marker at South Pass Wyoming as the first European women to cross the continent.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A8)

1840        Jul 4, The Cunard Line took just over 14 days to make its first Atlantic crossing with the paddle steamer "Britannia", which embarked from Liverpool.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1845        Jul 4, American writer Henry David Thoreau began his 26 month experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, Mass. He chose this day to move to a rustic hut in the peace and quiet of Walden Pond. He doubted that there was a spot in Massachusetts where one could not hear a train whistle. The Fitchburg trains passed Walden Pond about a hundred rods south of his cabin. He lived there until September 6, 1947. His writings about his thoughts and experiences there are still read and remembered by millions around the world. "I went to the woods because I wished to see if I could not learn what it [life] had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.76) (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)
1845        Jul 4, Texas Congress voted for annexation to US. [see Jun 23, 1845]
    (Maggio, 98)

1848        Jul 4, The Communist Manifesto was published.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1848        Jul 4, The Cornerstone of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. was laid by President Polk. Each state of the union was invited to donate a memorial stone. The white marble obelisk, which is 555 feet tall and 55 fee square at the base, was not completed until 1884. The public was admitted to the monument on October 9, 1888. Architect Robert Mills (1781-1855) designed the monument.
    (ON, 3/00, p.9)(WSJ, 2/16/08, p.W18)
1848        Jul 4,    Vicomte Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand (b.1768), French writer and statesman, 79, died in Paris. 
    (WUD, 1994, p.250)

1850        Jul 4, President Zachary Taylor stood hatless in the sun for hours listening to long-winded speeches. He returned to the White House and attempted to cool off by eating cherries, cucumbers and drinking iced milk. Severe stomach cramps followed and it is likely that Taylor's own physicians inadvertently killed him with a whole series of debilitating treatments. Taylor died July 9.
    (HN, 7/11/99)
1850        Jul 4, William Kirby (b.1759), English entomologist, died. He was an original member of the Linnean Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest. He had studied how the ichneumon insect devours the living body of the caterpillar upon which it preys.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kirby_%28entomologist%29)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A10)

1852        Jul 4, Frederick Douglass delivered the keynote speech for the Independence Day celebration in Rochester, NY. In 2006 James A. Colaiaco authored Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July."
    (WSJ, 7/1/06, p.P6)

1855        Jul 4, One of America's greatest poets -- Walt Whitman -- published the first edition of his famous "Leaves of Grass", a collection of 12 poems. Whitman published the edition himself and had about 1,000 copies printed. He later recalled about the publication, "I don't think one copy was sold, not a copy." The book was published in Philadelphia after the Boston district attorney cited 22 passages as violating a state law against obscenity.
    (IB, 12/7/98)(SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.9)

1860        Jul 4, In San Francisco the Market Street Railroad Co. opened a line on Market from Third to Valencia running both horsecar and steam train lines. This was the first street railway on the Pacific Coast.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C2)

1861        Jul 4, In a special session of 27th Congress Lincoln requested 400,000 troops.
    (Maggio, 98)
1861        Jul 4, Union and Confederate forces skirmished at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
    (HN, 7/4/98)

1862        Jul 4, Charles Dodgson, an Oxford mathematician whose penname of Lewis Carroll would make him world famous, told little Alice Liddell on a boat trip the fairy tale he had dreamed up for her called "Alice's Adventures Underground." He later wrote it out for her and it became the classic children's tale, "Alice in Wonderland."
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1862        Jul 4, Battle at Green River, Ky. (Morgan's Ohio Raid).
    (Maggio, 98)
1862        Jul 4, Battle of Port Royal, SC. (Port Royal Ferry). [see Jun 6, 1862]
    (Maggio, 98)

1863        Jul 4, Boise, Idaho, was founded.
    (Maggio, 98)
1863        Jul 4, General U.S. Grant's Union army captured the Confederate town of Vicksburg, Miss., after a long siege during the Civil War. In 2009 Winston Groom authored “Vicksburg 1863."
    (HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.88)
1863        Jul 4, General Lee’s army limped toward Virginia after defeat at Gettysburg. 28,063 of 75,000 confederate soldiers were lost. General Meade’s army suffered 23,049 soldiers killed, wounded and missing.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T6)
1863        Jul 4, Paul Joseph Revere, US grandson of Paul Revere, Union brig-gen, died from wounds at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1863        Jul 4, Failed Confederate assault on Helena, Arkansas, left 640 casualties.
    (Maggio, 98)
1863        Jul 4, Skirmish at Smithburg, TN.
    (Maggio, 98)

1864        Jul 4-9, Battle at Chattahoochee River, Georgia.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1865        Jul 4, 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" was published. English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for writing the children’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Born in 1832, also a skilled portrait photographer, Dodgson pioneered in the art of photographing children.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(HNQ, 6/12/98)(Maggio, 98)   

1866        Jul 4, Firecracker thrown in wood started a fire that destroyed Portland, Me.
    (Maggio, 98)

1868        Jul 4, In Japan the last Tokugawa armies were defeated at the Battle at Ueno.
    (Maggio, 98)

1869        Jul 4, Frederick Marriott flew his unmanned Aviator Hermes Jr. over a field near Millbrae and Burlingame. The machine was a gasbag filled with hydrogen, and a steam engine turning rotors with attached delta wings guided by men on the ground with ropes.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A23)(SFC, 10/11/14, p.C2)

1872        Jul 4, John Calvin Coolidge (d.1933) 30th President of the United States (1923-29), was born in Plymouth, Vermont. Calvin Coolidge, also known as ‘Silent Cal,’ was a Republican; Vice President from 1921-23 and succeeded to the Presidency on the death of Warren Harding in 1923; elected President in 1924 and served a full term. He was especially known for his economy of language. A lady dinner companion during his presidency told him she had a bet she could get him to say more than two words; he replied: "You lose." "Little progress can be made by merely attempting to repress what is evil. Our great hope lies in developing what is good."
    (AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(AP, 12/26/99)

1874        Jul 4, Social Democratic Workmen's Party of North America was formed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1875        Jul 4, White Democrats killed several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg, Miss.
    (Maggio, 98)

1876        Jul 4, Fr. Joseph Neri, SJ, introduced electric lights on Market Street in SF.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1876        Jul 4, Batholdi visited Bedloe Island, future home of his Statue of Liberty.
    (Maggio, 98)

1879        Jul 4, Afrikaner Union was formed by Rev SJ du Toit at Cape colony.
    (Maggio, 98)
1879        Jul 4, Battle at Rorkes Drift: Britain ended attack on Zulus.
    (Maggio, 98)

1881        Jul 4, In Alabama Tuskegee Institute enrolled 30 students. It was founded by former slave Booker T. Washington as a "normal" school and industrial institute where "colored" people with little or no formal schooling could be trained as teachers and skilled workers.
    (NH, 2/97, p.82)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1881        Jul 4, Billy the Kid was shot dead in New Mexico. [see Jul 14]
    (HN, 7/4/98)

1882        Jul 4, Telegraph Hill Observatory opened in SF.
    (Maggio, 98)

1883        Jul 4, Alan Brooke, English general, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1883        Jul 4, Rube Goldberg (Ruben Lucius Goldberg, 1883-1970) cartoonist, was born in San Francisco. He was known for cartoons featuring absurdly complicated mechanical devices to accomplish absurdly simple tasks.
    (WUD, 1994, p.607)(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A28)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1883        Jul 4, Maximilian Oseyevich Shteynberg, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1883        Jul 4, One of the first Wild West shows was performed in North Platte, Nebraska, and was organized by Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody), who took the show on the road the following year.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1884        Jul 4, 1st US bullfight was held in Dodge City, Ka.
    (Maggio, 98)
1884        Jul 4, The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States in ceremonies at Paris, France. The 225-ton, 152-foot statue was a gift from France in commemoration of 100 years of American independence. Created by the French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the statue was installed on Bedloe Island (now Liberty Island) in New York harbor in 1885. It was dedicated on October 28, 1886.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1886        Jul 4, The 1st scheduled Canadian transcontinental passenger train (CPR) reached Pt. Moody, BC. It had left Montreal on June 28.
    (ON, 11/07, p.12)

1888        Jul 4, Many believe that the first rodeo in America was held in Prescott, Arizona, on this day. Before this, informal competitions were frequently held among ranch hands from a single ranch or from neighboring spreads, but they were not full-scale rodeos. The Prescott event went on to become an annual contest.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1889        Jul 4, North Dakota founders began drafting a constitution but left out a key requirement that the governor and other top officials take an oath of office, putting the state constitution in conflict with the federal one. In 2011 State Senator Tim Mathern introduced a bill fixing the mistake that will be put to voters.
    (www.court.state.nd.us/court/history/dakotaterritory.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/6cz8dks)
1889        Jul 4, Washington state constitutional convention held 1st meeting.
    (Maggio, 98)

1892        Jul 4, The Omaha Platform was adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska. The People's party, more commonly known as the Populist party, was organized in St. Louis to represent the common folk, especially farmers, against the entrenched interests of railroads, bankers, processors, corporations, and the politicians in league with such interests. At its first national convention in Omaha in July 1892, the party nominated James K. Weaver for president and ratified the so-called Omaha Platform, drafted by Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omaha_Platform)
1892        Jul 4, James Keir Hardie was 1st socialist chosen in British Lower house.
    (Maggio, 98)

1893        Jul 4, A. Borrelly discovered asteroid #369 Aeria.
    (Maggio, 98)

1894        Jul 4, San Francisco’s Mid-Winter Fair at Golden Gate Park closed down. More than 1.3 million people had attended.
    (Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)(SFC, 7/5/14, p.C2)
1894        Jul 4, The Provisional Government under Judge Stanford B. Dole declared Hawaii a republic.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1894        Jul 4, Elwood Haynes successfully tested one of 1st US autos at 6 MPH.
    (Maggio, 98)

1895        Jul 4, The words to "America the Beautiful" appeared for the first time in "The Congregationalist", a Boston magazine; the author was Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), a Wellesley professor, who penned it in 1893. It has often been suggested that this song be adopted as the national anthem of the US since it is easier to sing than the "The Star Spangled Banner." In 1904 Clarence Barbour adapted it to the melody of Samuel Ward’s “Materna" (1890). Bates’ final version was completed in 1911. In 2001 Lynn Sherr authored "America the Beautiful."
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.W13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, Par p.8)(AH, 10/04, p.26)

1898        Jul 4, Gertrude Lawrence, English actress, was born.
    (HN, 7/4/01)
1898        Jul 4, A US flag was hoisted over Wake Island during the Spanish-American War.
    (Maggio, 98)
1898        Jul 4, The French liner "La Bourgogne" collided with bark Cromartyshire, and 560 people died.
    (Maggio, 98)

1901        Jul 4, William H. Taft, later the 27th president of the United States, became the American territorial governor of the Philippines. Taft soon appointed Prof. Bernard Moses secretary of public instruction for the Philippines. Taft, who had been solicitor general of the U.S. under President Benjamin Harrison, was a federal circuit court judge when President William McKinley appointed him to serve as president of the U.S. Philippines Commission in 1900-01. Later in 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt named Taft the first civil governor of the Philippines Islands, a post he held for four years. Roosevelt named Taft secretary of war in 1904. A Republican, Taft was president from 1909 to 1913 and Supreme Court Chief Justice from 1921 to 1930. He was born in 1857 and died on March 8, 1930, shortly after his resignation from the court.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.13)(HNQ, 2/18/00)
1901        Jul 4, Julian Scott (b.1846), American artist, died alone and penniless. He had achieved fame for his paintings of Civil War events. His work included “The Death of General Kearny" (1884) and “The Death of General Sedgwick" (1887). In 1997 Robert J. Titterton authored “Julian Scott: Artist of the Civil War and Native America."
    (AH, 2/03, p.40)(http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2943183)

1902        Jul 4, Meyer Lansky (d.1983), mobster (Started numbers), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meyer_Lansky)
1902        Jul 4, Pres. Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War. Estimates for the civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive account of the conflict.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)(PC, 1992, p.642)

1903        Jul 4, Pacific Cable (SF, Hawaii, Guam, Philippines) opened. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt opened the first Pacific communications cable by sending a message around the world. Roosevelt sent a message around the world, and the message came back to him in 12 minutes. [see Jul 3]
    (Maggio, 98)(HNQ, 7/6/01)

1905        Jul 4, Lionel Trilling (d.1975), literary critic and educator, was born. His work included "The Liberal Imagination" and "Sincerity and Authenticity." He wrote the 1947 novel "Middle of the Journey."
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W15)(HN, 7/4/01)

1906        Jul 4, Great Britain, France & Italy granted independence to Ethiopia.
    (Maggio, 98)

1907        Jul 4, Heavy weight champ Tommy Burns (1881-1955) knocked out Bill Squires of Australia in the first round in Colma, Ca.
    (http://boxrec.com/media/index.php/Tommy_Burns)

1908        Jul 4, Glenn Curtiss flew a new airplane, called the June Bug, at a competition sponsored by Scientific American, for the first heavier than air machine to fly one kilometer. The Aero Club sent 22 members to Hammondsport, NY, to view the event. Curtiss easily covered the distance, angering the Wright Brothers, who felt that their patent was being infringed.
    (ON, 12/11, p.11)

1910        Jul 4, African-American Jack Johnson knocked out Jim Jeffries in the 15th round of a heavyweight boxing match in Reno, Nevada. As Johnson entered the ring a band played “All Coons Look Alike to Me." Johnson’s victory prompted race riots in major cities across the United States leaving as many as 26 people dead. Jack London covered the match and coined the phrase "The great white hope" in his story.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.B10)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.104)(ON, 4/09, p.7)
1910        Jul 4, Melville W. Fuller (b.1833), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1888-1910), died after serving over 21 years. He favored limited government, economic liberty, private property rights, free trade and contractual freedom.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A4)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/50/)
1910        Jul 4, The new San Mateo County Courthouse, referred to as the Temple of Justice, opened in Redwood City, Ca. It integrated the stained-glass dome from the original structure destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. It later became the home of the San Mateo County History Museum.
    (Ind, 2/2/99, p.11A)(SFC, 8/27/15, p.E6)

1911        Jul 4, 105øF (41øC) at Vernon, Vermont (state record).
    (Maggio, 98)
1911        Jul 4, 106øF (41øC) at Nashua, New Hampshire (state record).
    (Maggio, 98)
1911        Jul 4, Ty Cobb went 0 for 4 & ended a 40 game hit streak. White Sox Ed Walsh stopped Ty Cobb's 40-game hitting streak.
    (Maggio, 98)

1912        Jul 4, Detroit Tiger George Mullen no-hits St Louis Browns, 7-0.
    (Maggio, 98)
1912        Jul 4, Jack Johnson TKOd Jim Flynn in 9 for heavyweight boxing title.
    (Maggio, 98)

1914        Jul 4, 1st US motorcycle race (300 miles, Dodge City Ks).
    (Maggio, 98)

1916        Jul 4, Tokyo Rose, (Iva Toguri D'Aquino), was born in Los Angeles. She did propaganda broadcasts against the U.S. from Japan during World War II.; imprisoned after the war, then received presidential pardon in 1977.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1916        Jul 4, Nathan’s Famous Hot Dogs opened a stand at Brooklyn’s Coney Island and held an eating contest as a publicity stunt that became an annual event.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)
1916        Jul 4, Poet Alan Seeger died in action at Befloy-en-Santerre. He had enlisted into the French Foreign Legion at the outset of WW I. He wrote the lines: I have a rendezvous with death / At some disputed barricade..."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, z1 p.2)

1917        Jul 4, During a ceremony in Paris honoring the French hero of the American Revolution, US Lt. Col. Charles E. Stanton declared, "Lafayette, we are here!"
    (AP, 7/4/97)

1918        Jul 4, Ann Landers and Abigail Van Buren, twin sisters who became famous columnists, were born in Sioux City, Iowa, as Esther P. (Landers) and Pauline E. (Abbie) Friedman. Their "advice" columns are syndicated in more than 1,000 newspapers. Esther Friedman died in 2002 at age 83.
    (IB, 12/7/98)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A10)
1918        Jul 4, Altar dedicated at full-scale replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Wa.
    (Maggio, 98)
1918        Jul 4, A record 17 war vessels were launched the Bay Area. The steamer "Defiance" was sponsored by Mrs. Charles Schwab.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)
1918        Jul 4, Taufa’ahau Tupou IV, king of Tonga (1965-2006), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taufa'ahau_Tupou_IV)(WSJ, 9/11/06, p.A1)

1919        Jul 4, Jack Dempsey, the "Manassa Mauler", defeated Jess Willard by a knockout in Toledo, Ohio, after three rounds to become the World's Heavyweight Boxing Champion.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1919        Jul 4, Max Wolf discovered asteroid #914 Palisana.
    (Maggio, 98)
1919        Jul 4, The ADGB (Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) party was formed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1920        Jul 4, Leona Helmsley, (wife of Harry), real estate billionaire, tax cheat, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1923        Jul 4, Jack Dempsey beat Tommy Gibbon in 15 for the heavyweight boxing title.
    (Maggio, 98)

1924        Jul 4, The first San Mateo County park opened as San Mateo County Memorial Park in a 450-acre Redwood grove 6 miles east of Pescadero. It was dedicated to the memory of 52 area soldier who had died in WW I.
    (DRC, 6/5/99, p.1)

1925        Jul 4, 44 died when Dreyfus Hotel in Boston collapsed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1926        Jul 4, The NSDAP (Nazi) party formed in Weimar.
    (Maggio, 98)

1927        Jul 4, Neil Simon, (Marvin Neil Simon) American playwright, was born in New York City. His many hit plays include "Barefoot in the Park", "The Odd Couple", "Sweet Charity", "The Sunshine Boys", "Prisoner of Second Avenue", "Biloxi Blues" and "Lost in Yonkers" for which he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1991.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)
1927        Jul 4, Ir Sukarno formed PNI (Perserikatan Nasional Indonesia) in Batavia.
    (Maggio, 98)

1928        Jul 4, Cathy Berberian, US singer, was born in Armenia.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1928        Jul 4, Stephen Boyd, [William Millar], actor (Fantastic Voyage, Ben-Hur), was born in Ireland.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1928        Jul 4, Jean Lussier became the first person to go over the Niagara Falls in a rubber ball. He went over Horseshoe Falls in the padded ball, which he had built complete with oxygen tanks and which weighed 750 pounds.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1929        Jul 4, Al Davis (d.2011), NFL team owner, was born in Brocton, Mass. In 1982 he moved the Oakland Raiders to Los Angeles. The team moved back to Oakland in 1995.
    (SFC, 1/22/03, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.A18)

1930        Jul 4, George Steinbrenner, (George Michael Steinbrenner, III) businessman and baseball executive, was born in Rocky River, Ohio. He became the principal owner of the New York Yankees baseball team (1973-90); ordered by the Commissioner of Baseball to give up active management of the Yankee franchise for alleged association with gamblers; he is now back in control; known for firing one Yankee manager after another.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1931        Jul 4, 1st fireworks were held at Cleveland Stadium.
    (Maggio, 98)
1931        Jul 4, 1st trailside museum opened in Cleveland Metroparks.
    (Maggio, 98)
1931        Jul 4, Novelist James Joyce (22) married Nora Barnacle (20) in London. They legalized their 26-year common-law marriage at the Kensington Registry Office in London.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)

1933        Jul 4, Work began on Oakland Bay Bridge, Ca.
    (Maggio, 98)

1934            Jul 4, Boxer Joe Louis won his first professional fight, knocking out Jack Kracken in the first round in Chicago. He won 12 fights that year, all in Chicago, 10 by knockout.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Louis#Early_life_and_career)
1934        Jul 4, Jordanians revolted in Amsterdam after reduction in employment.
    (Maggio, 98)
1934        Jul 4, "Madame" Marie Curie-Sklodovska, Polish-born French chemist and Nobel Prize winner, died in Paris of leukemia caused by her long exposure to radiation. In 1937 Eve Curie authored "Madame Curie, a Biography." In 2004 Barbara Goldsmith authored “Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie."
    (ON, 3/00, p.2)(http://myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=madameCurie)(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E2)

1936        Jul 4, The League Council voted to end economic sanctions against Italy with the collapse of Ethiopia. The cancellation of economic sanctions against an aggressor state marked the failure of collective security under the League and was a harbinger of conflict in the upcoming years.
    (http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1936.htm)

1938        Jul 4, 1st game at Shribe Park, Phil; Braves beat Phillies 10-5.
    (Maggio, 98)
1938        Jul 4, France-Turkish friendship treaty.
    (Maggio, 98)

1939        Jul 4, Baseball's "Iron Horse," Lou Gehrig (1904-1941), said farewell to 61,808 fans honoring him with a special day at New York City's Yankee Stadium. He was suffering from A.L.S. (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a neurodegenerative disorder that destroys the body's neuromuscular system. Many now call it Lou Gehrig's disease. He did less than two years later at the age of 37.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, Par. p.2)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)

1940        Jul 4, British destroyed French battle fleet at Oran, Algeria, 1267 died.
    (Maggio, 98)

1941        Jul 4, Howard Florey & Norman Heatley meet for 1st time, 11 days later they successfully recreated penicillin.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1941        Jul 4, Latvia partisans shot 416 Jews dead.
    (Maggio, 98)
1941        Jul 4, Politburo of Yugoslav communist party reorganized.
    (Maggio, 98)

1942        Jul 4, Irving Berlin’s musical review "This Is the Army" opened at the Broadway Theater in New York.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1942        Jul 4, Allied convoy PQ-17 scattered when its escort ships were withdrawn, leaving the convoy to face German U-boats alone.
    (HN, 7/4/98)
1942        Jul 4, 1st American bombing mission over enemy-occupied Europe (WW II). US air offensive against Nazi-Germany began.
    (Maggio, 98)

1943        Jul 4, Geraldo Rivera, TV talkshow host, was born in New York City. He became known for his non-conformity in the subjects he approached.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1943        Jul 4, A Liberator II aircraft carrying Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski, Poland’s prime minister and chief army commander, crashed into the sea just 16 seconds after taking off from Gibraltar. In 2008 Poland began an investigation into the crash.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

1944        Jul 4, Stanley Hiller Jr. (1925-2006) flew his XH-44 helicopter free from its tether for the 1st time in the stadium of UC Berkeley. A public demonstration took place in SF on Aug. 30, 1944.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.B7)(www.helis.com/timeline/hiller.php)
1944        Jul 4, 1,100 US guns fired 4th of July salute at German lines in Normandy.
    (Maggio, 98)
1944        Jul 4, Allied assault on Carpiquet airport at Caen.
    (Maggio, 98)
1944        Jul 4, Gestapo arrested German Social Democrat Julius Leber.
    (Maggio, 98)
1944        Jul 4, The Japanese made their first kamikaze (god wind) attack on a US fleet near Iwo Jima. There is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles [see Oct 21].
    (Maggio)(WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamikaze)


1946        Jul 4, Ron Kovic, disabled Vietnam veteran, author (Born on 4th of July), was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1946        Jul 4, Michael Milken, partner (Intl Capital Access Group), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1946        Jul 4, The Philippines became independent of U.S. sovereignty. The Philippines, which officially became a territory of the United States in 1902, gained its independence. In 1932 a movement to implement Philippine independence began to grow. The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934, providing for independence after 12 years, was unanimously accepted and a Philippine constitution approved by President Roosevelt in February 1935. Manuel Quezon was elected the first president of the Philippines on September 17, 1935. In 1937 a Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs was established by Roosevelt to recommend a program for economic adjustment. The Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.A14)(AP, 7/4/97)(HNQ, 11/9/99)
1946        July 4, A postwar pogrom in Kielce, Poland, left 42 people, mostly Jews, dead and 50 wounded. Army and security officers took part in the attack that was sparked by the false story of Walenty Blaszcyk that his son had been kidnapped by Jews. The event is considered as Europe’s last pogrom. In 2001 Jan Tomascz Gross authored “Neighbors," the story of the Kielce Jews, who were herded into a barn that was set alight.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-14)(SFC,10/17/97, p.D3)(Econ, 2/2/08, p.59)

1947        Jul 4, "Wino Willie" Forkner (d.1997) led his South Central LA Boozefighters motorcyclists to Hollister for a weekend of beer-drenched fun. They were all veterans of WW II. He was said to have been the model for Marlon Brando in the film "The Wild One." 3,000 motorcyclists spilled over into Hollister from a nearby racetrack. [see Jul 7]
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A1)

1949        Jul 4, Joyce Brothers, psychologist, author, columnist, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1951        Jul 4, The "Capital Times" in Madison, Wisconsin, reported that one of its reporters was turned down by 99 out of 100 people he asked to sign a petition made up of quotations from the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights. Many said the petition was subversive.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1951        Jul 4, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in a communist prison on trumped-up espionage charges. three Czech AP colleagues who were sentenced with him. Oatis was pardoned in May 1953. During the 1960s, Czechoslovak judicial reviewers exonerated Oatis, but this finding was overturned in 1968 after the Soviet Union-led invasion of Warsaw Pact troops ousted Alexander Dubcek's reformist government. In 1990, as the Soviet empire tottered, he was quietly cleared again. Audio tapes of the 3-day trial emerged in 2012.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1953        Jul 4, Today the song "I’m Walking Behind You" by Eddie Fisher topped the charts and stayed there for 7 weeks.
    (DataDragon)
1953        Jul 4, Imre Nagy succeeded Matyas Rkosi as premier of Hungary.
    (Maggio, 98)

1954        Jul 4, WMSL (WYUR, now WAFF) TV channel 48 in Huntsville, AL (ABC) began.
    (Maggio, 98)
1954        Jul 4, West Germany beat Hungary 3-2 to win the 5th World Cup soccer match in Bern, Switz.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954_World_Cup)
1954        Jul 4, Marilyn Sheppard (31 and pregnant) was killed at her home near Cleveland and her husband, Dr. Sam Sheppard (d.1970), was later accused, tried and jailed for the murder. Sam was released from jail in 1964. His story inspired the TV series "The Fugitive" and a film in 1993. DNA evidence in 1997 indicated a third person was involved. Cleveland’s chief prosecutor ruled in 1998 that the DNA samples were too old. A civil trial in Cleveland in 2000 rejected the claim of Sam Reese Sheppard that his father was innocent.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A6)(SFC, 3/5/98, p.A3)(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A3)(SFC, 4/13/00, p.A2)

1956        Jul 4, Independence National Historical Park formed in Philadelphia.
    (Maggio, 98)
1956        Jul 4, US most intense rain fall (1.23" in 1 minute) at Unionville Maryland.
    (Maggio, 98)

1957        Jul 4, Dutch 2nd Chamber accepted temporary tax increase.
    (Maggio, 98)
1957        Jul 4, In Italy the new 13 horsepower Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) was launched in Turin. In 1965 Fiat introduced the 500 F model. The car could get 58 mpg from its 4.25-gallon tank.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.J1)(SFC, 4/13/12, p.F1)

1959        Jul 4, A 49-star flag was raised for the first time at the Capitol in Washington, D.C., in honor of Alaska which had become the 49th state in the Union on July 7, 1958.
    (IB, 12/7/98)
1959        Jul 4, Cayman Islands separated from Jamaica, made a crown colony.
    (Maggio, 98)

1960        Jul 4, The 50-star flag made its debut in Philadelphia. A 50th star was added to the American flag in honor of Hawaii's admission into the Union on August 21, 1959.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)

1962        Jul 4, Island Records began.
    (Maggio, 98)
1962        Jul 4, KIKU (now KHNL) TV channel 13 in Honolulu, HI (IND) 1st broadcast.
    (Maggio, 98)

1963        Jul 4, Naturalization ceremonies began to be held annually at Monticello, Virginia.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1964           Jul 4, The song "I Get Around" by the Beach Boys topped the charts and stayed there for 2 weeks. Sales went on to exceed a million records.
    (DataDragon)(Maggio, 98)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D8)

1966        Jul 4, President Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act, which went into effect the following year.
    (AP, 7/4/97)
1966        Jul 4, Beatles were attacked in Philippines after insulting Imelda Marcos.
    (Maggio, 98)

1967        Jul 4, The Freedom of Information Act became official, making government information more readily available. To withhold information, the government must prove its need to be classified.
    (IB, 12/7/98)

1968        Jul 4, Arthur Kopit's "Indians," premiered in London.
    (www.enotes.com/indians)
1968        Jul 4, The radio astronomy satellite Explorer 38 launched.
    (www.n2yo.com/satellite/?s=28608)

1969        Jul 4, "Give Peace a Chance" by Plastic Ono Band was released in UK.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Give_Peace_a_Chance)
1969        Jul 4, Some 140,000 attended the Atlanta Pop Festival featuring Led Zeppelin & Janis Joplin.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanta_International_Pop_Festival_(1969))
1969        Jul 4, In San Francisco Jim (d.2007) and Artie Mitchell (d.1991) opened the Mitchell Brothers O’Farrell Theater at O’Farrell and Polk.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 7/14/07, p.A7)
1969        Jul 4, The California Zodiac killer shot and killed a waitress in Vallejo.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W20)
1969        Jul 4, The Italian coalition government under Mariano Rumor (1915-1990) fell apart.
    (www.speedylook.com/Mariano_Rumor.html)
1969        Jul 4, Erwin Blumenfeld (b.1897), German-born fashion photographer and artist, died in Rome. His books included “My One Hundred Best Photos" (1981) and the autobiography “Eye to I," published in English in 1999. In 1996 William Ewing authored “Blumenfeld: A Fetish for Beauty."
    (SFC, 4/21/06, p.E13)(www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/blumenfeld.html)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.88)
1969        Jul 4, The USSR performed nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.
    (www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Arch/sts-table/sts-table.html)

1970        Jul 4, Some 100 people were injured in race rioting in Asbury Park, NJ. In 2005 Daniel Wolff authored “Fourth of July, Asbury Park: A History of the Promised Land."
    (SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E1)
1970        Jul 4, Casey Kasem (b.1932) debuted his "American Top 40" on LA radio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casey_Kasem)
1970        Jul 4, Barnett Newman (b.1905), American artist of the abstract expressionist movement, died. His "zips" consisted of fields of flat color punctuated by vertical stripes.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(SFC, 3/30/02, p.D1)(NW, 4/22/02, p.66)

1971        Jul 4, Koko, a female lowland gorilla who learned American sign language, was born.
    (AP, 8/9/04)(www.koko.org)
1971        Jul 4, A July 4th concert on the West Lawn of the White House was held and began an annual tradition.
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)
1971        Jul 4, Michael S. Hart (1947-2011) began typing the Declaration of Independence into the memory of a mainframe computer at the Univ. of Illinois. This led him to begin Project Gutenberg, an effort to put US historical documents on line. It was later expanded to include books out of copyright.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_S._Hart)
1971        Jul 4, In Bulgaria Marin Naidenov Minkov (1914-2012) was named Patriarch of the country’s Orthodox Christians.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
1971        Jul 4, France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.
    (www.atomicforum.org/france/1971.html)

1972        Jul 4, Lee Hu-rak (1924-2009), South Korean President Park Chung-hee’s top intelligence officer, helped broker a joint statement in which the two Koreas agreed to work toward peacefully reunifying their divided peninsula. The July 4 joint communique was hailed as the first major accord between the Koreas on unification since the Korean War ended with a fragile truce in 1953.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

1973        Jul 4, In San Francisco the new Sutro Tower sent its first television transmission.
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A13)
1973        Jul 4, Alan Ayckbourne's "Absurd Person Singular," premiered in London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absurd_Person_Singular)
1973        Jul 4, Eleanor F. Helin, American astronomer, discovered asteroid #5496.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_asteroids/5401%E2%80%935500)
1973        Jul 4, The Treaty of Chaguaramas was signed in Trinidad and established the Caribbean Community CARICOM - Caribbean Community & Common Market.
    (www.axses.com/encyc/caricom/nt/faqs.cfm)
1973        Jul 4, Leonid Stein (b.1934), Soviet Grandmaster chess player from the Ukraine, died of a heart attack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonid_Stein)

1975        Jul 4, Nancy Baird (23), a Bundy victim, disappeared from a convenience store where she worked in Layton, Utah.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Bundy)

1976        Jul 4, The nation held a 200th anniversary party across the land in celebration of America's 200 years of independence. President Ford made stops in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, and New York, where more than 200 ships paraded up the Hudson River in Operation Sail.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1976)(IB, 12/7/98)(AP, 7/4/01)
1976        Jul 4, The National Museum of American Jewish History opened in Philadelphia. It was established to tell the story of the American Jewish experience.
    (SFC, 7/3/08, p.E15)(www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_jewish.htm)
1976        Jul 4, A government program was begun in 1937 to provide American flags, certified to have flown over the capital, to the public. Each flag was provided a certificate with the date it was flown and the name of the person for whom it was flown. By 1998 the program average 250-300 flags per day with a peak of 10,471 flown on July 4, 1976, and a record of 154,224 flown in 1991.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)
1976        Jul 4, The Ramones, a US punk rock group managed by Danny Fields and Linda Stein (1945-2007), held a concert in England that sparked the young British punk scene.
    (SFC, 11/2/07, p.E2)
1976        Jul 4, Jonathan Netanyahu, brother of Benjamin, led and was killed in an Israeli raid called Operation Thunderball that rescued the [105] hostages held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda. The raid was by Sayeret Matkal, Israel’s elite counter-terrorist unit led by Muki Betser, and it freed all but 3 of the 104 Israeli and Jewish hostages and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers. A total of 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed during the raid. The events are described by Muki Betser and Robert Rosenberg in "Secret Soldier, The True Life of Israel’s Greatest Commando." The hijacking was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Entebbe)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)

1978                    Jul 4, Memphis fire fighters halted 3-day strike under a court order. At least 350 fires were reported during the strike. The city police director charged that the strikers set almost all of the fires, which broke out mostly in abandoned buildings.
    (http://tinyurl.com/34xkkk)
1978        Jul 4, L.I. Chernykh (b.1935), Russian astronomer, discovered asteroids #3332, #6110 & #7730.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyudmila_Chernykh)

1979        Jul 4, Algerian ex-president Ben Bella (b.1918) was freed after 14 years of detention, but remained under house arrest. He had served as prime minister from 1962-63, and as president from 1963-65. Bella was freed on Oct 20, 1980.
    (http://www.rulers.org/indexb2.html)(www.cnn.com/almanac/9807/04/)

1982        Jul 4, The space shuttle Columbia 4 concluded its fourth and final test flight with a landing at Edwards AFB.
    (http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/missions/sts-4/mission-sts-4.html)(AP, 7/4/02)
1982        Jul 4, Antonio Guzman (b.1911), president of the Dominican Rep., committed suicide by a gunshot wound to his head while still in office.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Guzm%C3%A1n_Fern%C3%A1ndez)
1982        Jul 4, Four Iranians, charge d'affaires Mohsen Musavi, diplomat Ahmad Motovasselian, photographer Kazem Akhavan and driver Mohammad Taqi Rastgar Moghaddam, were seized at a Lebanese Forces checkpoint north of Beirut. In 2006 Samir Geagea, former head of the disbanded Lebanese Forces, said that they were killed by Christian militiamen.
    (AP, 5/19/06)
1982        Jul 4, Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (b.1934) was elected president of Mexico. Madrid was chosen by Pres. Portillo as his successor. De la Madrid took office in a year when inflation had surpassed 100 percent and Mexico had a foreign debt of $87 billion, much of it short-term.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_de_la_Madrid)(AP, 3/9/04)
1982        Jul 4, USSR performed nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.
    (www.iss.niiit.ru/ksenia/catal_nt/3_9.htm)

1984        Jul 4, The NY Yankee Phil Niekro became the 9th pitcher to strike out 3,000 batters.
    (www.thebaseballpage.com/players/niekrph01.php)

1986        Jul 4, Liberty Weekend was capped with a spectacular fireworks display that lighted up New York Harbor.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
1986        Jul 4, E F Helin discovered asteroid #3855 Pasasymphonia.
    (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=3855)

1987        Jul 4, Bill Graham took Santana, the Doobie Brothers and Bonny Rait to Moscow for an American-Soviet peace concert.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)
1987        Jul 4, Martina Navratilova won her eighth Wimbledon singles title as she defeated Steffi Graf.
    (AP, 7/4/97)
1987        Jul 4, Klaus Barbie, the former Gestapo chief known as the "Butcher of Lyon," was convicted by a French court of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life in prison; he died in September 1991.
    (AP, 7/4/97)

1989        Jul 4, Drew Barrymore (b.1975), actress, attempted suicide.
    (www.worldofquotes.com/history/7_4/9/index.html)
1989        Jul 4, Unmanned Russian Mig-23 crashed in Bellegem-Kooigem, Belgium, and 1 person died. The pilot had ejected over Poland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ftljd)
1989        Jul 4, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in France for a three-day visit that included an address to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg.
    (AP, 7/4/99)

1990        Jul 4, Rioting that left three people dead erupted in 30 English towns following England’s loss to West Germany in World Cup soccer.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1990        Jul 4, France performed nuclear test at Muruora Island.
    (www.seismo.ethz.ch/bsv/nuclear_explosions/undergr/france.html)

1991        Jul 4, Americans celebrated Independence Day, with the Persian Gulf War adding to emotions. President Bush and his wife, Barbara, attended festivities in Marshfield, Missouri, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, before returning to Washington DC for the annual fireworks display.
    (AP, 7/4/01)
1991        Jul 4, In Memphis, Tenn., the $9.7 million National Civil Rights Museum opened at the former Lorraine Hotel where Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968. It was founded by Judge D’Army Bailey (1941-2015).
    (SFC, 7/15/15, p.D3)
1991        Jul 4, Victor Chang, who had earned an international reputation for his pioneering work on heart transplant methods, was shot dead near his home as he made his way to work. Phillip Choon Tee Lim and co-offender Chew Seng Liew were imprisoned over the killing of Chang in the exclusive Sydney suburb of Mosman, following a failed extortion attempt. In 2010 Lim (50) was extradited to Malaysia after serving 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Chang)

1992        Jul 4, The song "Baby Got Back" by Sir Mix-A-Lot topped the charts and stayed there for 5 weeks.
    (DataDragon)
1992        Jul 4, Steffi Graf won her fourth Wimbledon title, defeating Monica Seles in a 5 1/2-hour match interrupted three times by rain.
    (AP, 7/4/97)

1993        Jul 4, Pilar Fort was crowned 25th Miss Black America.
    (Maggio, 98)
1993        Jul 4, Pete Sampras won the men's title at Wimbledon, defeating fellow American Jim Courier.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
1993        Jul 4, South African leaders F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Liberty Medal in a ceremony outside Philadelphia's Independence Hall.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
1993        Jul 4, Pizza Hut blimp deflated & landed safely on W 56th street in NYC.
    (Maggio, 98)

1994        Jul 4, The United States opened its embassy in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, with a Fourth of July party.
    (AP, 7/4/99)
1994        Jul 4, E F Helin discovered asteroid #6875.
    (Maggio, 98)
1994        Jul 4, Russian manned space craft TM-18, landed.
    (Maggio, 98)
1994        Jul 4, Rwandan Tutsi rebels seized control of most of their country's capital, Kigali, and continued advancing on areas held by the Hutu-led government.
    (AP, 7/4/99)(Maggio, 98)

1995        Jul 4, The space shuttle "Atlantis" and the Russian space station "Mir" parted after spending five days in orbit docked together.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1995            Jul 4, Actress Eva Gabor (b.1919), Hungarian-born actress, died in Los Angeles, Ca., of respiratory failure due to complications of food poisoning.
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001247/)
1995        Jul 4, British Prime Minister John Major won re-election as Conservative Party leader.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1995        Jul 4, President Boris Yeltsin announced that Russian troops would be permanently stationed in Chechnya.
    (AP, 7/4/00)

1996        Jul 4, President Clinton extolled the joys of democracy and asked the nation to honor America's independence by praising continued free rule in Russia as he spoke during a jamboree honoring the 200th anniversary of Youngstown, Ohio.
    (AP, 7/4/97)
1996        Jul 4, Koko, the first gorilla to use sign language, turned 25 and asked for a box of scary, rubber snakes and lizards. Koko was the offspring of Jackie, who was donated to the SF Zoo by benefactor Carroll Soo-Hoo (d.1998 at 84).
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A24)(SFC, 7/3/98, p.D6)
1996        Jul 4, The film "Independence Day," produced and co-written by David Devlin, was released. It passed $100 mil in revenue in six days beating the Jurassic Park record of 9 days.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.E4) (SFC, 7/10/96, p.E2)
1996        Jul 4, Hot Mail, a free internet E-mail service began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotmail)
1996        Jul 4, In Burundi unidentified gunmen killed 80 people in an attack on a tea factory 15 miles northeast of Bujumbura.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 4, Floods and landslides in China killed at least 121 people and forced 450,000 from their homes from Zhejiang on the east coast to Guizhou in the southwest.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 4, China’s Pres. Jiang Zemin began a 3-day to Kazakhstan, whose population numbered about 15 million. Zemin held talks with President Nazarbayev, and met with Kazakhstan Parliament Lower House Speaker Ospanov and delivered an important speech entitled "For a Better Future of Friendship and Cooperation Between China and Central Asia". The two sides signed a joint statement, the extradition treaty, the agreement on cooperation between the People's Bank of China and the Kazakhstan National Bank, the agreement on cooperation in quality control and mutual certification of import and export commodities and other documents.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.48)(http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2003-05/21/content_879991.htm)
1996        Jul 4, In Panama police arrested Jaime Revello, a top Columbian drug lord, and seized 4.5 tons of cocaine.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)
1996        Jul 4, In Sri Lanka a suicide bomber killed an army commander and 20 others when she leaped in front of a motorcade in Jaffna.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 4, In Switzerland the defense ministry hoped to save $476,000 a year by pensioning off 7,000 carrier pigeons.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.C1)

1997        Jul 4, In San Francisco at the Howard and Karen Rheinstein 6th annual July 4th party, a baby spilled a glass of red wine on the white wool carpet, just moments after their carpet-cleaning friend departed. Guests rushed for mineral water and white soda to scrub out the red droplets.
    (EW, 7/4/97)
1997        Jul 4, Bikers returned to Hollister, Ca., for a 50-year anniversary and began an annual tradition. [see Jul 4, 1947]
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A18)
1997        Jul 4, The Mars Pathfinder landed at 10:07 AM PST on Ares Vallis Mars and began to broadcast pictures of the red rocky landscape.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A1)(Maggio, 98)
1997        Jul 4, TV journalist Charles Kuralt (b.1934) died at 62 from lupus.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A5)
1997        Jul 4, It was reported that Australia had sold 167 tons of gold over the last 6 months in order to put the money into more productive assets.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.C1)
1997        Jul 4, In Cambodia troops of Prince Ranariddh laid down their arms and some 140 were taken prisoner by troops of 2nd Prime Minister Hun Sen. Ranariddh was on a trip to France and Hun Sen claimed that illegal negotiations were taking place with Khmer Rouge guerrillas.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A10)
1997        Jul 4, In Guatemala Pres. Alvaro Arzu fired 2 top military officials, after they had helped negotiate a peace treaty. They were known as moderates and the hard-liner Gen’l. Hector Barrios took over as the new defense chief.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A10)
1997        Jul 4, The Hong Kong Philharmonic premiered the "Symphony 1997 (Heaven Earth Mankind)" by the composer Tan Dun. The piece was commissioned by China to mark the reunification of Hong Kong and China.
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)
1997        Jul 4, In Mexico it was reported that Amado Carillo Fuentes (41), Mexico’s reputed top drug trafficker, died following extensive plastic surgery. His operations were centered in Juarez, across the border from El Paso. He was called "Lord of the Skies" for using passenger jets to bring in cocaine from Columbia. It was later reported that his death was an inside job arranged because a massive manhunt for him had become a liability to his cartel’s business.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.B4)(SFC, 7/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A9)
1997        Jul 4, In Russia the parliament passed a law to reassert state control over weapons exports.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1998        Jul 4, In San Francisco at the home of Howard and Karen Rheinstein, Howard managed to recover in time from his broken leg, due to a February ski accident, to host his 7th annual July 4th party. He sold his 486-equipped wheel chair, ivory crutches, and a gold plated cane to cover the expenses.
    (EW, 7/4/98)
1998        Jul 4, Jana Novotna of the Czech Republic won the women's title at Wimbledon, defeating France's Nathalie Tauziat 6-4, 7-6 (7-2).
    (AP, 7/4/99)
1998        Jul 4, In Finland in the annual Wife Carrying World Championships, 2 Estonian couples won top honors in the 278 yard course in Sonkajarvi.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A2)
1998        Jul 4, Japan launched its Planet-B probe to Mars the Planet-B on its M-5 rocket, which is to begin beaming back photographs and data from the Red Planet in October 1999.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A10)(AP, 7/4/99)

1998        Jul 4, In Kosovo fresh fighting erupted outside Suva Reka, a region with 60,000 residents.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A17)
1998        Jul 4, In Pakistan Zuhair Akram Nadeem, a former provincial and federal legislator, was shot a killed by 2 men on motorcycle.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A18)
1998        Jul 4, Aftershocks hit southern Turkey and some 1000 people were reportedly injured.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A14)

1999        Jul 4, In San Francisco at the home of Howard and Karen Rheinstein, Brian Weiss (4) learned about gravity. Shortly thereafter his teacher gave everybody a public demonstration by spilling red wine over the white carpet. A special cleaner was quickly fetched to clean the spill.
    (EW, 7/4/99)
1999        Jul 4, Pete Sampras and Lindsay Davenport won the singles titles at Wimbledon, defeating Andre Agassi and Steffi Graf.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1999        Jul 4, In Bloomington, Ind., Benjamin Nathaniel Smith killed Won Joon Moon (26), a Korean-born Indiana Univ. student. Later the same day he shot himself dead during a police chase in Salem, Ill. Authorities believe Smith was also responsible for killing former college basketball coach Ricky Byrdsong during a three-day rampage targeting minorities.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A1,5)(AP, 7/4/00)
1999        Jul 4, A 2,000 pound tombstone for "Unknown Civilians Killed in Wars" departed from Sherborn, Mass., on a 450-mile trek to Arlington National Cemetery. It was impounded by police on August 6 for safekeeping pending approval by Congress. In the 20th century 62 million civilians died in wars as compared to 43 million military people.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A2)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)
1999        Jul 4, In Congo Abdulaiye Yerodia, the foreign minister, objected to the inclusion of foreign rebels in a joint military commission to verify terms of a cease-fire. Meanwhile The Congolese Liberation Movement, led by Jena-Pierre Bemba, took Gbadolite, 750 miles northeast of Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)
1999        Jul 4, In East Timor  anti-independence fighters fired for the first time on a convoy of foreign workers and wounded as many as 3.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)
1999        Jul 4, Pakistani PM Nawaz Sharif met with Pres. Clinton and announced that it would abandon its seized positions in Kashmir. Meanwhile India claimed a victory at Tiger Hill. In 2002 it was revealed that Clinton confronted Sharif with intelligence reports that the Pakistani military was preparing missiles with nuclear warheads.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A8)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A11)
1999        Jul 4, In Mexico City elections for governor were scheduled. Arturo Montiel (55), a PRI former congressman, faced Jose Luis Duran (38), a PAN mayor of Naucalpan. PRI candidate Arturo Montiel defeated Jose Luis Duran of the National Action Party. In Nayarit Antonuio Echeverria, a coalition candidate, led a victory over the PRI.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A12)(SFC, 7/5/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 4, In Puerto Rico anti US Navy protests drew some 50,000 people.
    (SFC, 7/26/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 4, In Russia troops were forced to delay their departure for Kosovo after NATO blocked air corridors on their route.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 4, In Turkey PKK guerrillas planted a bomb in an Istanbul park that killed one person and injured 25.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

2000        Jul 4, Pres. Clinton presided over the largest naval parade in history in Ney York harbor. Tall ships sailed through New York Harbor during OpSail 2000, celebrating Independence Day.
    (WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/4/01)
2000        Jul 4, In Fiji Laisenia Qarase was sworn in as prime minister along with a 19-member all-Fijian temporary government.
    (SFC, 7/4/00, p.A9)
2000        Jul 4, In India the Cabinet rejected a demand for political autonomy by the Kashmir state legislature.
    (SFC, 7/5/00, p.A12)
2000        Jul 4, In Indonesia 10 people were killed over 2 days of clashes between Christians and Muslims in the Malukus.
    (SFC, 7/5/00, p.A10)
2000        Jul 4, In Northern Ireland protestors clashed with police in Belfast for a 2nd night due to restrictions on traditional parades in Catholic areas.
    (SFC, 7/5/00, p.A10)
2000        Jul 4, In Mexico president-elect Vincente Fox promised to fight corruption, to restart talks with the Zapatista rebels, and to strip the Interior Ministry of all functions but those involving political relations between the federal and state governments.
    (SFC, 7/5/00, p.A4)
2000        Jul 4, In Sri Lanka the government reimposed censorship on local media and foreign journalists reporting on the civil war.
    (SFC, 7/5/00, p.A4)

2001        Jul 4, The US counter-terrorism group run by Richard Clarke sent a memorandum to Condoleeza Rice, national security advisor, that described a series of steps that the White House had taken to put the nation on heightened terrorist alert. It noted that all 56 FBI field offices were tasked in late June to go to increased surveillance and contact informants related to known or suspected terrorists.
    (SFC, 4/10/04, p.A1)
2001        Jul 4, Australia’s interim cabinet approved East Timor’s demands for 90% of the revenues from oil and gas reserves in the Timor Sea.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A8)
2001        Jul 4, A Russian airliner crashed in Siberia, killing all 145 people aboard.
    (AP, 7/4/02)
2001        Jul 4, In Turkey Mahmut Gokhan Ozocak (41) became the 27th person to die from a hunger strike protesting prisoner transfers.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.D6)

2002        Jul 4, Hesham Mohamed Hadayet (41), an Egyptian-born 10-year resident of Irvine, opened fire at Israel’s El Al airline ticket counter in Los Angeles' airport. Victoria Hen and Yaakov Aminov were killed before Hadayet, born July 4, 1961, was shot to death by a guard.
    (AP, 7/5/02)(Reuters, 7/5/02)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A12)
2002        Jul 4, In central Texas 70,000 cubic feet of water gushed down a spillway from Canyon Lake toward the Guadalupe River for three days, scraping off vegetation and topsoil and leaving only limestone walls. The mile-and-a-half-long Canyon Lake Gorge, up to 80 feet deep, was dug out from what had been a nondescript valley covered in mesquite and oak trees.
    (AP, 10/5/07)
2002        Jul 4, A Cessna 310 plane crashed at Frank G. Bonelli Regional County Park at San Dimas and 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A24)
2002        Jul 4, General Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. (b.1912), the first black general in the US Air Force and commander of the World War II Tuskegee Airmen, died in Washington. In 1991 he published his autobiography “Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_O._Davis,_Jr.)(AP, 7/4/03)
2002        Jul 4, Winnifred Quick Van Tongerloo (98), one of the four known survivors of the Titanic sinking, died in East Lansing, Mich.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
2002        Jul 4, In Australia Steve Fossett launched Independence Day celebrations early when his Spirit of Freedom balloon ended its record-breaking flight around the world.
    (AP, 7/4/02)
2002        Jul 4, In Bangui, CAR, a Boeing 707 cargo plane crashed in a sparsely populated residential area in this central African capital, killing at least 20 people.
    (AP, 7/4/02)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A14)
2002        Jul 4, In Chile Augusto Pinochet resigned as senator-for-life.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A14)
2002        Jul 4, In China a blast in the Fuqiang mine in Songshu trapped 39 miners. There was little hope for survivors.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A14)
2002        Jul 4, American warplanes bombed an Iraqi air defense system after coming under attack from Iraqi anti-aircraft artillery.
    (AP, 7/4/02)
2002        Jul 4, Italian photographer Angelo Frontoni (76), known for his work with stars such as Sophia Loren, Brigitte Bardot and Ava Gardner, died in Rome.
    (AP, 7/4/02)
2002        Jul 4, A British ship left Takahama, Japan, with 550 pounds of defective, near weapons-grade plutonium, for return to its British supplier.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A12)
2002        Jul 4, The Palestinian police chief Ghazi Jabali decided to resign and run for president following a controversy over whether Yasser Arafat had tried to oust both him and security commander Jibril Rajoub.
    (Reuters, 7/4/02)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A7)
2002        Jul 4, An explosion shattered a white Mercedes, killing two people including Jihad Amerin (38), a Gaza leader of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Palestinian police said their initial suspicions were Israeli agents had planted a bomb.
    (AP, 7/4/02)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A7)
2002        Jul 4, In Spain AIDS experts announced a $4.8 billion prevention plan.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A1)

2003        Jul 4, President Bush visited Dayton, Ohio, to praise the work of U.S. troops and celebrate the 100th anniversary of flight in the hometown of the Wright brothers.
    (AP, 7/4/04)
2003        Jul 4, Los Angeles Lakers guard Kobe Bryant was arrested on suspicion of sexual assault after a woman accused him of sexual misconduct at a hotel near Vail, Colo.
    (AP, 7/4/04)
2003        Jul 4, US forces raided a Turkish special forces office in northern Iraq and detained 11 soldiers on reports that Turks were plotting to kill the governor of the oil-rich city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2003        Jul 4, Manuel Gehring (44) shot and killed his 2 children, Philip (11) and Sarah (14), following a dispute with his wife in Concord, NH. He was later arrested in Gilroy, Ca. He confessed to police that he shot and killed his 2 children in New Hampshire and buried them in the Midwest. In 2005 authorities found the bodies of the 2 children buried off I-80 in Ohio. Gehring committed suicide in his jail cell on February 19, 2004 at the Merrimack County Jail in Boscawen, New Hampshire.
    (SFC, 8/1/03, p.A3)(SSFC, 12/4/05, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/62dfka)
2003        Jul 4, Barry White (58), a singer and songwriter whose rich bass crooning stirred romance in the hearts of a generation of fans, died in Los Angeles. His songs included "Can't Get Enough of Your Love, Babe" (1974).
    (SFC, 7/5/03, p.A20)

2003        Jul 4, In Algeria suspected Islamic militants killed Lawmaker Rabah Radja and three other people at a roadblock east of the capital.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2003        Jul 4, Landslides in central China caused by torrential rains killed 21 people as river waters ran at their highest level in more than a decade,
    (AP, 7/6/03)
2003        Jul 4, A coal mine explosion in northeastern China killed 22 people and injured 6 others.
    (AP, 7/6/03)
2003        Jul 4, Tung Chee-hwa, Hong Kong's leader, withdrew parts of an anti-subversion bill that triggered massive street protests.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2003        Jul 4, A voice purported to be Saddam Hussein's, aired on the Arab television station Al-Jazeera, said he is in Iraq directing attacks on American forces and called on Iraqis to help the resistance against the US-led occupation.
    (AP, 7/4/03)(SFC, 7/5/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 4, Ivory Coast's government and rebel officials declared an official end to the civil war, 9 months after fighting erupted following a failed attempt to oust Pres. Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
2003        Jul 4, In Indian-controlled Kashmir suspected Islamic guerrillas tossed a grenade and opened fire at a meeting between a minister and health officials, killing 2 people and wounding 28.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2003        Jul 4, Liberia's President Charles Taylor, under US pressure to quit, said he had agreed to step down. A senior Nigerian official said Taylor had accepted an offer of asylum.
    (AP, 7/4/03)
2003        Jul 4, In Mexico gunmen in Las Choapas, Veracruz, killed a man believed to be a migrant trafficker and then fatally shot four bystanders, including a 12-year-old boy, apparently to avoid leaving witnesses.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2003        Jul 4, In Quetta, Pakistan, 3 assassins attacked a Shiite Muslim mosque and killed 44 worshippers during prayers. Angry Shiites rioted in the streets burning cars and tires.
    (SFC, 7/5/03, p.A1)(AP, 7/6/03)(SSFC, 7/6/03, p.A6)
2003        Jul 4, The 180-nation world Radio Communication Conference in Geneva planned to approve an expansion of the band for wireless local area networks (Wi-Fi) by 455 megahertz.
    (WSJ, 7/3/03, p.B4)

2004        Jul 4, Defending the war in Iraq, President Bush told a cheering crowd outside the West Virginia state capitol that America was safer because Saddam Hussein was in a prison cell.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2004        Jul 4, In NYC a 20-ton slab of granite, inscribed to honor "the enduring spirit of freedom," was laid at the World Trade Center site as the cornerstone of the skyscraper that will replace the destroyed towers.
    (AP, 7/4/04)
2004        Jul 4, In NYC Takeru "The Tsunami" Kobayashi chewed up the competition at the Nathan's Famous hot dog eating competition, breaking his own previous world record. Kobayashi, of Nagano, Japan, gulped down 53 1/2 wieners in 12 minutes and shattered his own world record by three dogs. 105-pound Sonya "The Black Widow" Thomas, 36, of Alexandria, Va., ate more hot dogs (32) than any other woman and any other American in the contest's history.
    (AP, 7/4/04)
2004        Jul 4, The Army's 1st Armored Division stowed its flags and prepared to head home after the longest tour in Iraq of any American combat command — 15 months.
    (AP, 7/4/04)
2004        Jul 4, Afghan President Hamid Karzai issued a decree ordering death penalty for criminals who remove body parts from kidnapped children.
    (Reuters, 7/4/04)
2004        Jul 4, Australia and Thailand signed a free-trade agreement that officials believe will boost the economies of both countries by billions of dollars over the next two decades.
    (AP, 7/5/04)
2004        Jul 4, It was reported that Libya's state-owned Tam Oil Co has bought the Niger unit of US oil major ExxonMobil Corp, in the first such deal following an end to US sanctions on Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/04)

2005        Jul 4, President Bush, during an Independence Day visit to Morgantown, W.Va., urged resolve in the war in Iraq and said that "the proper response is not retreat. It is courage."
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2005        Jul 4, A senior US defense official confirmed the deaths of two Navy SEALS that were missing in action in Afghanistan's northeast.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, Meeting in Georgia the General Synod of the United Church of Christ, the rule-making body for 1.3 million members, endorsed same-sex marriage with a resolution that called for equal marriage rights for all.
    (SFC, 7/5/05, p.A3)
2005        Jul 4, Iowa’s Gov. Tom Vilsack gave all Iowa’s ex-prisoners the right to vote.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.23)
2005        Jul 4, In NYC Takeru Kobayashi (27) captured the Nathan's Famous hot dog eating contest for the 5th straight year, gobbling a nauseating 49 dogs in 12 minutes, but missing his own world record of 53 1/2, set at last year's July Fourth competition.
    (AP, 7/5/05)
2005        Jul 4, Idaho authorities said they found the remains of Dylan Groene (9) in western Montana. [see July 2] In 2008 a jury recommended the death sentence for Joseph Edward Duncan III in the 2005 kidnapping, torture and murder of the 9-year-old boy.
    (SFC, 7/5/05, p.A3)(AP, 8/28/08)
2005        Jul 4, Hank Stram (82), Hall of Fame football coach, died in Covington, La.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2005        Jul 4, June Haver (79), movie musical actress died.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2005        Jul 4, In Afghanistan a provincial governor said a 2nd member of a missing elite US military team has been located in the rugged mountains near the Pakistan border.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, Al-Jazeera announced plans to launch an international, a satellite channel by March, 2006, that will beam English-language news to the US, and much of the rest of the world, from its base in tiny Qatar.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, In Austria IAEA representatives of more than 100 countries gathered at the UN nuclear agency's Vienna headquarters to consider strengthening international laws meant to safeguard nuclear materials from theft and prevent terrorist attacks on atomic power plants.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, A British court upheld the government's ban on adoptions of Cambodian children. Six couples had gone to court to challenge the ban, which was imposed in June of last year.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, Burundi's main Hutu ex-rebel group, the Forces for the Defense of Democracy (FDD), won a comfortable victory in legislative elections, taking 58.23% of the vote.
    (AP, 7/5/05)
2005        Jul 4, In China protests began at the Jinxing Pharmaceutical plant in Xinchang, a town about 125 miles south of Shanghai, by local farmers angry over pollution.
    (AP, 7/19/05)
2005        Jul 4, Egypt replaced the editors of all the top state-owned publications in the biggest reshuffle the media houses have seen in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, A UN official said boat carrying dozens of migrants fleeing Haiti sank off the island's coast, killing two people and leaving 11 others feared dead.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, In an illegal overflight an American Shadow-200 aircraft crashed about 38 miles inside Iranian territory in the province of Ilam. On Nov 7 Iran circulated letters at the UN protesting the violation of its territory and airspace.
    (AP, 11/8/05)
2005        Jul 4, US and Iraqi forces raided suspected insurgent safe houses near Baghdad International Airport, arresting at least 100 suspected militants, including foreign fighters.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, A Japanese parliamentary committee approved bills that would create the world's largest bank by privatizing the state-run postal system, which handles trillions of dollars in savings and insurance deposits.
    (AP, 7/5/05)
2005        Jul 4, In Libya Moammar Gadhafi called on African nations to stop "begging" during the opening of an African summit attended by more than 50 leaders from this crisis-wracked continent. African Union (AU) chairman Olusegun Obasanjo called on rich nations to provide "massive" financial help rather than sympathy in its fight against poverty at their summit in Scotland this week. UN Sec-Gen. Kofi Annan announced the creation of a fund to promote democratic institutions and practices around the world, an idea first proposed by the Pres. Bush in Sep 2004.
    (AP, 7/4/05)(AP, 7/5/05)
2005        Jul 4, In Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, UN agencies met for a 3-day conference on bird flu virus and said the disease remains as dangerous as ever and nations must do more to prepare for a pandemic among humans.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, Mauritius' opposition Social Alliance claimed victory as counting from the Indian Ocean island's weekend election neared an end.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, A Moroccan court convicted and sentenced Taoufik Hanouichi and Mohcine Bouarfa to death. They were among those arrested in a sweep to dismantle militant Islamic networks following suicide bombings in Casablanca. Dozens of others were jailed. The two men were unlikely to be executed, as Morocco has had a de facto moratorium on the death penalty since 1993.
    (AP, 7/5/05)
2005        Jul 4, In Edinburgh, Scotland, police scuffled with black-clad anarchists and antiglobalization protesters, and 450 demonstrators sat down in the road blocking an entrance to a naval base for nuclear submarines.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, The UN’s World Food Program (WFP) said it has suspended aid shipments to lawless Somalia after gunmen hijacked a vessel it chartered and demanded a $500,000 ransom.
    (AP, 7/4/05)
2005        Jul 4, In Zimbabwe armed paramilitary police swept through a Harare township, pulling down more 100 prefabricated wooden cabins, including one with screaming children inside.
    (AP, 7/5/05)

2006        Jul 4, The US space shuttle Discovery took off at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, with 7 astronauts. Up to six pieces of debris that could be foam insulation fell off Discovery's troublesome external fuel tank minutes after liftoff. News arrived that North Korea had launched test missiles [see July 5].
    (AFP, 7/5/06)(SFC, 7/5/06, p.A3)
2006        Jul 4, In Gustine, Ca., Trevor Branscum (38) killed his 4 young children with a hunting rifle and then turned the weapon on himself.
    (SFC, 7/5/06, p.B3)
2006        Jul 4, A bomb exploded in downtown Kabul, wounding at least 10 people. In eastern Afghanistan 5 laborers were ambushed and fatally shot on their way to a US military base. US-led coalition forces killed 35 suspected militants during a raid late in the village of Gujdar in Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/4/06)(AP, 7/5/06)
2006        Jul 4, Two former currency dealers for Australia's biggest bank were jailed for their part in a 260 million US dollar rogue trading scandal. Vince Ficarra (27) and David Bullen (34) made a raft of fictitious trades for the National Australia Bank (NAB) between September 2003 and January 2004 to mask massive losses. Bullen was sentenced to 44 months in prison and Ficarra to 28 months.
    (AFP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, A bomb exploded in downtown Kabul, wounding at least 10 people. In eastern Afghanistan 5 laborers were ambushed and fatally shot on their way to a US military base.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Gunmen attacked a Russian military convoy in the Chechnya region, killing at least five troops and wounding as many as 25 others, officials said. Pro-rebel Web sites claimed more than 20 Russian soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, A French court convicted respected wine exporter Georges Duboeuf Wines of fraud after one of its wineries mixed a variety of grapes in its Beaujolais.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Iraq’s justice minister demanded that the UN Security Council ensure that a group of US troops are punished in the March 11 rape and murder of a young Iraqi and the killing of her family. In eastern Baghdad gunmen in camouflaged uniforms kidnapped Iraq's deputy electricity minister along with 11 of his bodyguards. The minister was released after several hours.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, PM Ehud Olmert ignored a deadline to begin releasing Palestinian prisoners and instead issued a veiled threat against Syria, vowing to strike "those who sponsor" the militants in the Gaza Strip who seized a young Israeli soldier.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Japan initiated new rules that tightened 89 existing laws covering the financial industry. It doubled the maximum jail sentence for fraud to 10 years and gave extra power and broader authority to the Financial Services Agency (FSA).
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.67)
2006        Jul 4, The parties of Kazakhstan's leader and his eldest daughter announced a merger, a move that tightens President Nursultan Nazarbayev's grip on power.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Lopez Obrador, Mexico’s leftist presidential candidate, called for a recount of election results that showed him trailing his conservative rival by 1 percentage point.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Lars Korvald (90), the first Christian Democrat to serve as prime minister of Norway (1972-1973), died.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Palestinian militants hit an Israeli city with a rocket from Gaza for the first time, causing no casualties but drawing a pledge of harsh retaliation from Israel while it was already in the midst of a military offensive.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
2006        Jul 4, Radical Islamic militia fighters in Somalia shot and killed two people who were watching a World Cup soccer broadcast. The Islamic group that controls Somalia's capital soon arrested two of its own militiamen for killing two people who were watching the soccer match.
    (AP, 7/5/06)(AP, 7/6/06)
2006        Jul 4, President Hugo Chavez marked Venezuela's entry into the South American trade bloc Mercosur with a six-nation summit, an alliance that he says should be a common front against US free trade deals.
    (AP, 7/4/06)

2007        Jul 4, In NYC Joey Chestnut emerged as the world's hot dog eating champion, knocking off six-time winner Takeru Kobayashi in a record-setting yet repulsive triumph. Chestnut ate 66 hot dogs in 12 minutes.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, In SF some 300 skateboarders rolled down the Embarcadero in a 3-mile, police-escorted rally promoted by Emerica, an Orange County shoe and skateboard apparel company.
    (SFC, 7/5/07, p.B1)
2007        Jul 4, In California the Zaca wildfire began in Santa Barbara County. By the end of the month it had consumed 32,000 acres and was 70% contained.
    (SFC, 7/30/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 4, In Bridgeport, Conn., a mother and 3 children drowned after their van rolled into a park pond.
    (SFC, 7/6/07, p.A7)
2007        Jul 4, Johnny Frigo (90), jazz violinist and bassist, died in Chicago.
    (SFC, 7/6/07, p.B8)
2007        Jul 4, Bill Pinkney (81), the last survivor of the original members of the musical group The Drifters, died.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb hit a NATO vehicle, killing six Canadian soldiers and their Afghan interpreter.
    (Reuters, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, On the historic occasion of their first summit, the EU and Brazil decided to establish a comprehensive strategic partnership, based on their close historical, cultural and economic ties. Brazil and EU leaders met in Lisbon, Portugal.
    (www.eu2007.pt/UE/vEN/Noticias_Documentos/20070704BRSUM.htm)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.40)
2007        Jul 4, In Chile Osvaldo Romo (70), a security agent who became a symbol of torture and repression under Gen. Augusto Pinochet's former military dictatorship, died in prison.
    (AP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, In northeast China a blast ripped through a karaoke parlor and bath house, killing 25 people and injuring 33 others. It was later reported that a coal mine owner, who ran the karaoke parlor, stored more than a ton of explosives in the basement.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(AP, 7/6/07)
2007        Jul 4, Human Rights Watch accused the Ethiopian army of burning homes and displacing thousands of civilians in a crackdown on rebels in the volatile east.
    (AP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, In Ghana a drive towards forging a United States of Africa ran out of steam as leaders filed away from a summit without agreeing on a timeline for creating a new government for the continent.
    (AFP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, In India 13 passengers aboard the Karnataka Express from Bangalore to Delhi were found unconscious in their compartment. They had eaten cookies laced with sedatives offered by thieves and lost all their possessions.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G2)
2007        Jul 4, Khaled Abdul-Fattah Dawoud Mahmoud al-Mashhadani (aka Abu Shahid), believed to be the most senior Iraqi in the al-Qaida in Iraq network, was captured in Mosul.
    (AP, 7/18/07)
2007        Jul 4, The foreign ministers of Israel and Morocco held their first publicly disclosed talks in years, with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict at the heart of the discussion.
    (AP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, In Mexico heavy rains triggered the landslide on a remote winding road near the town of Eloxochitlan in the state of Puebla. As many as 60 passengers were thought to be buried in a bus on the rural road. 32 bodies were recovered.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(AP, 7/6/07)
2007        Jul 4, Mexico’s financial website Sentido Comun reported that telecom tycoon Carlos Slim Helu (67) has overtaken Microsoft founder Bill Gates as the richest person on the planet.
    (AFP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, Mozambique's President Armando Guebuza sought to expand trade ties with Tanzania to boost development in the two impoverished African nations.
    (AFP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, In southern Nigeria armed men kidnapped five foreigners, the same day the country's most prominent militant group announced it would end a truce with the government.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, In Pakistan Maulana Abdul Aziz, one of the leaders of the radical-held Red Mosque, was arrested while fleeing his government-besieged mosque in a woman's burqa and high heels. He said that the nearly 1,000 followers still inside should flee or surrender. At least 16 people, including eight militants, have been killed and scores injured in the standoff.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.50)
2007        Jul 4, Palestinian gunmen released Alan Johnston, a British journalist, who had been kidnapped March 12.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 4, A top Panamanian prosecutor said tests show at least 94 people have died from taking medicine contaminated with diethylene glycol since July 2006 and that 293 more deaths are under investigation. Total deaths reached 116 from contaminated medications.
    (AP, 7/4/07)(AP, 5/10/08)
2007        Jul 4, Russia’s parliament authorized an exemption to Gazprom and OAO Transneft from limits on wielding arms. They would now be able to employ their own armed operatives.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 4, The Black Sea resort of Sochi was elected the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, taking the Winter Games to Russia for the first time. Russia proposed to spend $12 million to stage the games at Sochi. Costs ended at $50 billion.
    (AP, 7/4/08)(Econ, 7/13/13, p.45)(Econ, 11/22/14, p.22)
2007        Jul 4, Taiwan's vice president kicked off a Latin American tour in the Dominican Republic, an ally rapidly increasing its economic and political ties with the island's diplomatic rival, China.
    (AP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 4, UN food agencies called for global backing for a "Green Revolution" in Africa to help the continent build stable agricultural systems and rescue tens of millions of people from poverty.
    (Reuters, 7/4/07)

2008        Jul 4, In California 27 major fires were considered active. These included the Basin Complex Fire in Los Padres National Forest where over 68,700 acres were scorched and the Indians Fire in Monterey County with 81,300 acres consumed.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 4, In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, early morning gunfire killed 2 men and 2 women on the city’s north side.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A4)
2008        Jul 4, Jesse Helms (b.1921), former 5-term US Senator from North Carolina, died in Raleigh, NC. Helms had switched to the Republican Party in 1970 and was elected to the Senate in 1972, the first Republican from North Carolina in the 20th century. The conservative senator earned the title “Senator No" as a leading crusader against communism, liberalism, tax increases, abortion, homosexuality, affirmative action and court-ordered busing to desegregate schools.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 4, Evelyn Keyes (b.1916), American film star, died in Montecito, Ca. Her 3 former husbands included director John Huston, director Charles Vidor and jazz musician Artie Shaw. Her nearly 50 films included a role as the younger sister of Scarlett O’Hara in “Gone With the Wind" (1939). Her memoir “Scarlett O’Hara’s Younger Sister" was published in 1977.
    (SFC, 7/12/08, p.B5)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)
2008        Jul 4, In southern Afghanistan gunmen assassinated parliament member and former military commander Habibullah Jan. In Helmand province a roadside bomb militants were planting detonated prematurely, killing 10 Taliban. 22 civilians were killed in air strikes in the Waygal district, including a woman and a child. A spokesman for the US-led coalition said the airstrikes in Nuristan province hit militants who earlier attacked a US military base with mortars. Several militants were killed during an operation in Ghazni province. More than 20 militants were killed and wounded during a battle with NATO-backed Afghan forces in Kunar province.
    (AP, 7/5/08)(AP, 7/6/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Austria 9 people, including a prominent executive who fled to France in an attempt to elude justice, were convicted of criminal charges in a major Austrian bank fraud case linked to the 2005 collapse of New York-based commodities brokerage Refco Inc. Vienna Federal Court Judge Claudia Bandion-Ortner found the defendants responsible for euro1.4 billion (US$1.9 billion) in losses at BAWAG, Austria's No. 4 bank.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Belarus about 50 people were wounded by a home-made bomb that sprayed nuts and bolts into a crowd at an open-air concert in Minsk attended by long-time ruler President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, China and Taiwan launched regular direct flights for the first time in nearly six decades, ushering in what Beijing called a "new start" in their tense and testy relations.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Colombia's military found more than a ton of explosives in a house in a rural area outside the capital.
    (AP, 7/6/08)
2008        Jul 4, Ecuador’s constitutional assembly pardoned hundreds of jailed convicts, low-level drug couriers known as "mules." An estimated 1,200 prisoners may be eligible for pardon.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 4, India's coalition government underwent a major shake-up with the dominant Congress party pushing on with a controversial nuclear deal with the US and ditching left-wing allies. In eastern India at least six people were killed and 20 injured in a stampede at a popular Hindu religious festival in Orissa state’s Puri district. Truck drivers called off their strike after the government agreed to roll back rising road tolls.
    (AFP, 7/4/08)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.A5)
2008        Jul 4, State television said Iran delivered its response to an international offer of incentives for it to suspend uranium enrichment, a central part of its nuclear program. It did not say what the response was.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Basra, Iraq, gunmen on a motorcycle assassinated Sheik Salim al-Dirraji, an official of Iraq's biggest Shiite party.
    (AP, 7/5/08)
2008        Jul 4, Japan announced it will provide $50 million in new emergency food aid to help developing countries cope with the impact of soaring food prices.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Fierce fighting raged in India's portion of Kashmir, killing five army soldiers and a suspected Muslim rebel near the de facto border with Pakistan.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In New Zealand morning rush-hour traffic slowed to a crawl in most cities as truckers snarled highways and streets with thousands of vehicles to protest higher road taxes.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Nigeria hundreds of soldiers, who served as UN peacekeepers in Liberia, went on the rampage in southwestern Akure in protest against the military authorities' refusal to pay their allowance. In 2009 a Nigerian court-martial sentenced 27 former UN peacekeepers to life in prison after they were convicted of mutiny following their protests.
    (AP, 7/5/08)(AP, 4/28/09)
2008        Jul 4, North Korea said it will not take further steps to dismantle its nuclear program until the US and its other negotiating partners award fuel oil and political benefits promised under an aid-for-disarmament deal.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Pakistan a bomb exploded on a busy street in the southwestern city of Quetta, killing a 4-year old girl and wounding 11 other people.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Poland rejected a US offer to boost its air defenses in return for basing a "missile shield" on Polish soil but PM Donald Tusk said Poland remains open for further talks with Washington.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Sri Lanka soldiers took control of Michael Base in the rebel stronghold of Mullaitivu district after three days of fighting. Other battles in Vavuniya killed 18 rebels and wounded three soldiers. Fighting in Mannar, Jaffna and Welioya left 15 rebels dead and one soldier wounded.
    (AP, 7/4/08)(AP, 7/5/08)
2008        Jul 4, Robert Mugabe ruled out the prospect of talks with his opponents on ending Zimbabwe's political crisis unless they acknowledge his victory in the one-man presidential election. Botswana's government urged its neighbors not to recognize Mugabe's re-election as it reiterated calls for Zimbabwe to be suspended from a regional bloc.
    (AFP, 7/4/08)

2009        Jul 4, In southeast Afghanistan two US soldiers were killed when their base came under attack. The attack included an attempted suicide truck bombing of the base in the Zirok district of southeastern Paktika province. As many as 30 Taliban insurgents might have been killed when troops called in air strikes.
    (Reuters, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, Albania's opposition Socialists charged that the ruling Democrats were improperly trying to influence the country's lengthy vote count by declaring victory before all ballots from last week's national election were tallied.
    (AP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, In Myanmar UN chief Ban Ki-moon gave a rare public speech outlining his vision for a democratic Myanmar, just hours after the ruling junta refused to let him meet opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, Nigeria's rebel group MEND threatened to thwart a 10-billion-dollar trans-Saharan gas pipeline linking vast reserves in Nigeria to Europe. The army vowed to protect the project.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, North Korea fired seven ballistic missiles off its eastern coast, in a violation of UN resolutions and an apparent message of defiance to the US on its Independence Day.
    (AP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, Pakistani warplanes and helicopter gunships pounded Taliban positions in the country's volatile northwest, killing at least 12 suspected insurgents. Clashes between tribesmen and Taliban fighters left 16 people dead in the remote Mohmand region. Army helicopters attacked a militant position in the area the previous day’s helicopter crash and struck a militant bunker on a peak. 10 bodies were reported found lying there.
    (AP, 7/4/09)(Reuters, 7/4/09)

2008        Jul 4, In California 27 major fires were considered active. These included the Basin Complex Fire in Los Padres National Forest where over 68,700 acres were scorched and the Indians Fire in Monterey County with 81,300 acres consumed.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 4, In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, early morning gunfire killed 2 men and 2 women on the city’s north side.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A4)
2008        Jul 4, Jesse Helms (b.1921), former 5-term US Senator from North Carolina, died in Raleigh, NC. Helms had switched to the Republican Party in 1970 and was elected to the Senate in 1972, the first Republican from North Carolina in the 20th century. The conservative senator earned the title “Senator No" as a leading crusader against communism, liberalism, tax increases, abortion, homosexuality, affirmative action and court-ordered busing to desegregate schools.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 4, Evelyn Keyes (b.1916), American film star, died in Montecito, Ca. Her 3 former husbands included director John Huston, director Charles Vidor and jazz musician Artie Shaw. Her nearly 50 films included a role as the younger sister of Scarlett O’Hara in “Gone With the Wind" (1939). Her memoir “Scarlett O’Hara’s Younger Sister" was published in 1977.
    (SFC, 7/12/08, p.B5)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)
2008        Jul 4, In southern Afghanistan gunmen assassinated parliament member and former military commander Habibullah Jan. In Helmand province a roadside bomb militants were planting detonated prematurely, killing 10 Taliban. 22 civilians were killed in air strikes in the Waygal district, including a woman and a child. A spokesman for the US-led coalition said the airstrikes in Nuristan province hit militants who earlier attacked a US military base with mortars. Several militants were killed during an operation in Ghazni province. More than 20 militants were killed and wounded during a battle with NATO-backed Afghan forces in Kunar province.
    (AP, 7/5/08)(AP, 7/6/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Austria 9 people, including a prominent executive who fled to France in an attempt to elude justice, were convicted of criminal charges in a major Austrian bank fraud case linked to the 2005 collapse of New York-based commodities brokerage Refco Inc. Vienna Federal Court Judge Claudia Bandion-Ortner found the defendants responsible for euro1.4 billion (US$1.9 billion) in losses at BAWAG, Austria's No. 4 bank.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Belarus about 50 people were wounded by a home-made bomb that sprayed nuts and bolts into a crowd at an open-air concert in Minsk attended by long-time ruler President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, China and Taiwan launched regular direct flights for the first time in nearly six decades, ushering in what Beijing called a "new start" in their tense and testy relations.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Colombia's military found more than a ton of explosives in a house in a rural area outside the capital.
    (AP, 7/6/08)
2008        Jul 4, Ecuador's constitutional assembly pardoned hundreds of jailed convicts, low-level drug couriers known as "mules." An estimated 1,200 prisoners may be eligible for pardon.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 4, India's coalition government underwent a major shake-up with the dominant Congress party pushing on with a controversial nuclear deal with the US and ditching left-wing allies. In eastern India at least six people were killed and 20 injured in a stampede at a popular Hindu religious festival in Orissa state’s Puri district. Truck drivers called off their strike after the government agreed to roll back rising road tolls.
    (AFP, 7/4/08)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.A5)
2008        Jul 4, State television said Iran delivered its response to an international offer of incentives for it to suspend uranium enrichment, a central part of its nuclear program. It did not say what the response was.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Basra, Iraq, gunmen on a motorcycle assassinated Sheik Salim al-Dirraji, an official of Iraq's biggest Shiite party.
    (AP, 7/5/08)
2008        Jul 4, Japan announced it will provide $50 million in new emergency food aid to help developing countries cope with the impact of soaring food prices.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Fierce fighting raged in India's portion of Kashmir, killing five army soldiers and a suspected Muslim rebel near the de facto border with Pakistan.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In New Zealand morning rush-hour traffic slowed to a crawl in most cities as truckers snarled highways and streets with thousands of vehicles to protest higher road taxes.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Nigeria hundreds of soldiers, who served as UN peacekeepers in Liberia, went on the rampage in southwestern Akure in protest against the military authorities' refusal to pay their allowance. On April 27, 2009, a Nigerian court-martial sentenced 27 former UN peacekeepers to life in prison after they were convicted of mutiny following their protests. On Aug 29 the army commuted the life sentences to 7 years.
    (AP, 7/5/08)(AP, 4/28/09)(AFP, 8/29/09)
2008        Jul 4, North Korea said it will not take further steps to dismantle its nuclear program until the US and its other negotiating partners award fuel oil and political benefits promised under an aid-for-disarmament deal.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Pakistan a bomb exploded on a busy street in the southwestern city of Quetta, killing a 4-year old girl and wounding 11 other people.
    (AP, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, Poland rejected a US offer to boost its air defenses in return for basing a "missile shield" on Polish soil but PM Donald Tusk said Poland remains open for further talks with Washington.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)
2008        Jul 4, In Sri Lanka soldiers took control of Michael Base in the rebel stronghold of Mullaitivu district after three days of fighting. Other battles in Vavuniya killed 18 rebels and wounded three soldiers. Fighting in Mannar, Jaffna and Welioya left 15 rebels dead and one soldier wounded.
    (AP, 7/4/08)(AP, 7/5/08)
2008        Jul 4, Robert Mugabe ruled out the prospect of talks with his opponents on ending Zimbabwe's political crisis unless they acknowledge his victory in the one-man presidential election. Botswana's government urged its neighbors not to recognize Mugabe's re-election as it reiterated calls for Zimbabwe to be suspended from a regional bloc.
    (AFP, 7/4/08)

2009        Jul 4, Attacks began on more than two dozen Internet sites in the United States and South Korea and some were disabled by hackers. South Korea's spy agency later said the attacks were possibly linked to North Korea. Some of the affected US government Web sites, such as the Treasury Department, Federal Trade Commission and Secret Service, were still reporting problems days after it started during the July 4 holiday.
    (Reuters, 7/8/09)(AP, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 4, NYC police arrested a dozen people and seized 33 pounds of heroin worth $30 million that was stuffed inside Build-A-Bear toys.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.A11)
2009        Jul 4, In North Carolina 2 workers were killed when a truckload of fireworks exploded on a dock at the southern end of Ocracoke Island. 2 others soon died from their injuries.
    (AP, 7/5/09)(SFC, 7/6/09, p.A10)
2009        Jul 4, In Tennessee Steve McNair (36), a four-time Pro Bowl selection, was found dead with multiple gunshot wounds on a sofa in his Nashville condominium living room. Sahel Kazemi, (20), discovered near him, was killed by a single gunshot wound. McNair was married with four children.
    (AP, 7/5/09)
2009        Jul 4, Drake Levin (b.1946), blues guitarist and former lead guitarist for Paul Revere and the Raiders, died of cancer in SF.
    (SFC, 7/17/09, p.D5)
2009        Jul 4, In Afghanistan insurgent attacks in Helmand province killed 3 British soldiers. Gunmen in the east abducted 16 mine-clearing personnel working for the United Nations as they traveled between Paktia and Khost provinces.
    (Reuters, 7/4/09)(AP, 7/5/09)(AP, 7/6/09)
2009        Jul 4, Albania's opposition Socialists charged that the ruling Democrats were improperly trying to influence the country's lengthy vote count by declaring victory before all ballots from last week's national election were tallied.
    (AP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, In Canada an explosion damaged a natural gas pipeline in northeast British Columbia, the sixth attack on an energy facility in that area in recent months. In a letter to a local newspaper the bomber gave EnCana until mid-October to cease operations in the area, or face larger attacks.
    (Reuters, 7/4/09)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.32)
2009        Jul 4, A joint French-Spanish operation captured 3 suspected members of ETA in the French city of Pau.
    (SFC, 7/6/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 4, The OAS suspended Honduras participation in the organization because of last week's military coup.
    (AP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, In Mali dozens of people were killed during clashes in the Timbuktu region between the army and Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) fighters.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 4, In Myanmar UN chief Ban Ki-moon gave a rare public speech outlining his vision for a democratic Myanmar, just hours after the ruling junta refused to let him meet opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, Nigeria's rebel group MEND threatened to thwart a 10-billion-dollar trans-Saharan gas pipeline linking vast reserves in Nigeria to Europe. The army vowed to protect the project.  Rebels Sichem Peace oil tanker and its six crew members. The ship and crew were freed July 21 after spending 18 days in captivity in the Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)(AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 4, North Korea fired seven ballistic missiles off its eastern coast, in a violation of UN resolutions and an apparent message of defiance to the US on its Independence Day.
    (AP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 4, Pakistani warplanes and helicopter gunships pounded Taliban positions in the country's volatile northwest, killing at least 12 suspected insurgents. Clashes between tribesmen and Taliban fighters left 16 people dead in the remote Mohmand region. Army helicopters attacked a militant position in the area the previous day’s helicopter crash and struck a militant bunker on a peak. 10 bodies were reported found lying there.
    (AP, 7/4/09)(Reuters, 7/4/09)

2010        Jul 4, Joey Chestnut (26), of San Jose, Ca., ate 54 hot dogs capturing his 4th straight Nathan’s Famous Fourth of July Int’l. Hot Dog Eating Contest at Coney Island, NYC.
            (www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/07/04/MNSM1E9I2D.DTL)
2010        Jul 4, It was reported that 5 electricians working for the city of San Francisco spent years allegedly stealing from taxpayers, moonlighting on city time and fraudulently billing to pay for suburban life styles. 5 members of the Hetch Hetchy Power Crew were arrested in 2009. The spree had gone on for about 4 years ending in 2007.
            (SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A1)
2010        Jul 4, In Bellevue, Iowa, a pair of runaway horses, in harness to a wagon, crashed into a Fourth of July parade float and collapsed, ending a rampage that injured 24 people and killed wagon passenger Janet Steines.
            (AP, 7/5/10)(SFC, 7/6/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 4, In Texas an air ambulance crashed after takeoff in Alpine killing all 5 people on board including a patient and his wife.
            (SFC, 7/5/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 4, In Afghanistan a joint force in Kunduz province discovered rocket-propelled grenades, automatic weapons and a roadside bomb near a mosque. A 2-day drug-sweeping operation ended in the south with security forces killing 63 smugglers and terrorists.
            (AP, 7/7/10)(SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2) 
2010        Jul 4, In the Bahamas fugitive Colton Harris-Moore (19), dubbed the "Barefoot Bandit," crash landed a stolen plane on Great Abaco Island, and eluded police. Harris-Moore, who grew up in the woods of Washington state's Camano Island, has been on the run since escaping from a halfway house more than two years ago. Colton Harris-Moore was arrested on July 11 in northern Eleuthera. He pleaded guilty on July 13 and was deported to face US charges. On June 17, 2011, Colton pleaded guilty to 7 charges carrying a prison term of up to 6½ years. On Dec 16 Harris-Moore was sentenced to over 7½ years in prison. On Jan 27, 2012, a US district judge sentenced him to 6½ years in prison, to run concurrent with the December ruling. 
    (AP, 7/9/10)(AP, 7/11/10)(AP, 7/13/10)(SFC, 6/18/11, p.A6)(SFC, 12/17/11, p.A7)(SFC, 1/27/12, p.A7)
2010        Jul 4, In Northumbria, England, Raoul Moat (37), a nightclub bouncer and bodybuilder, shot policeman David Rathband as he sat in his patrol car in Newcastle. Rathband lost his sight and was fitted with prosthetic eyes. On Feb 31, 2012, Rathband (44) was found dead at his home.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)
2010        Jul 4, In London Rafael Nadal reclaimed his Wimbledon title. The match lasted just two hours and 13 minutes before being concluded 6-3 7-5 6-4.
            (AP, 7/4/10)
2010        Jul 4, In the Central African Republic Ugandan LRA rebels killed four people and took six hostages in an attack on the village of Mandabazouma.
            (AFP, 7/8/10)
2010        Jul 4, In central China a fire on a shuttle bus carrying steel factory workers killed 24 people and injured 19. State media later reported that Dong Chuansheng (57), an angry steel worker, had started the shuttle bus fire near Shanghai.
    (AP, 7/4/10)(AP, 7/15/10)
2010        Jul 4, In Japan Toyota started recalling more than 90,000 luxury Lexus and Crown vehicles over defective engines.
            (AP, 7/4/10)
2010        Jul 4, In Lebanon Grand Ayatollah Mohammed-Hussein Fadlallah (b.1935), revered Shiite cleric and one-time mentor to Hezbollah, died in Beirut.
            (SFC, 7/5/10, p.A3)
2010        Jul 4, Poland’s moderate conservative Bronislaw Komorowski narrowly won the presidential election. Komorowski won 52.6% of the vote, according to results based on 95% of the ballots. Right-wing rival Jaroslaw Kaczynski performed much better than expected.
            (Reuters, 7/4/10)
2010        Jul 4, Russia’s NTV, a TV channel controlled by Gazprom, aired “Godfather," a documentary that portrayed Belarus Pres. Lukashenka as a brutal election-rigging, opposition-repressing tyrant.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.53)
2010        Jul 4, In Zimbabwe a collision involving 2 buses and a truck killed 18 people and injured 30 others 50 miles west of Harare.
            (SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)

2011        Jul 4, In Pennsylvania Mark Richard Geisenheyner (51) was killed by a SWAT team in Trainer for shooting 5 people, 2 of them fatally, a day earlier in a suburban Philadelphia home over an insurance fraud scheme.
    (SFC, 7/5/11, p.A6)
2011        Jul 4, Doctors said a test designed to spot chromosome abnormalities in eggs could be a "revolution" in fertility, helping older women determine their chances of having an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) baby.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Two studies were released indicating that environmental factors may play a greater role in autism than previously thought, tipping the scale away from a strict focus on genetics.
    (Reuters, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Afghanistan the Taliban said that British soldier Scott McLaren (21), who was reported missing, was captured by their fighters and then died in the crossfire during a battle with NATO troops in the Babaji area of Helmand province. The top Afghan commander said McLaren was found dead in a stream that ran through his military base, after apparently drowning, and his body was later shot by insurgents. A NATO service member was killed in a bomb attack in the east.
    (AP, 7/4/11)(AFP, 7/6/11)
2011        Jul 4, Around 60 Afghan militants attacked a Pakistani paramilitary checkpoint in a cross-border raid, killing one soldier and sparking a gunbattle that lasted for more than two hours. Militants used mortar and rocket fire to cover their advance into the Bajur tribal area.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Algeria a policeman was killed and another wounded during a clash with armed men in the Kabylie region east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Burundi an armed gang raided two police posts in Bujumbura and dropped leaflets saying they were members of a rebel group called FRONABU-Tabara (Burundi National Front). Four suspects were arrested.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Egypt saboteurs bombed a gas pipeline in the Sinai peninsula, sending flames into the sky and cutting supplies to Israel and Jordan. 7 policemen charged with killing protesters were ordered released on bail. Angry families stormed a station where the suspects from Ezbet Abu Qarn were being held, triggering clashes with security forces in which an 18-year-old boy was killed.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)(AP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, An Ethiopian official said government troops have killed have 15 rebels in the country's restive east and arrested two Swedish journalists who were with them. Johan Persson and Martin Schibbye were lightly wounded in last week's clash between troops and rebels from the Ogaden National Liberation Front. On Nov 3 an Ethiopian court dropped charges of participating in terrorism against the two journalists, but they still faced accusations of supporting terrorism.
    (AP, 7/4/11)(AFP, 11/3/11)
2011        Jul 4, The European Union said it will restart food aid to North Korea after the country's repressive communist regime agreed to an unprecedented monitoring system as it suffers through its worst food crisis in years. The WFP will check delivery at every stage and pay more than 400 visits a month to distribution sites, hospitals, child-care facilities and households.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Otto von Habsburg (98), son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor, died in Germany. He had become head of the House of Habsburg in 1922. In 1979 he became a member of the European Parliament.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Habsburg)
2011        Jul 4, Greek authorities detained three activists attempting to breach Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip, after a boat set sail in defiance of a Greek ban. The "Dignite-Al Karama" left port near Athens and reached international waters. On board were eight activists and two crew members.
    (AP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, In India a group of ruling party parliamentarians and dozens of state lawmakers resigned en masse to protest the government's sluggishness in addressing their demand for the new state of Telengana to be carved out of Andhra Pradesh.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, India's Supreme Court ordered a special investigation into undeclared money stashed in foreign bank accounts, while accusing the government of "serious lapses" in handling the issue.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, The Athletics Federation of India said two more of its athletes have tested positive for banned substances, taking the number to eight in the space of five days.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Iranian lawmaker Esmail Kosari told newspapers that 26 Americans, it believes violated human rights, would be tried in absentia and their files passed on to international tribunals. The list included former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, his deputy Paul Wolfowitz, and military commanders at US detention centers Abu Ghraib in Iraq and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. State news reported that Mohammad Ali Dadkhah, a prominent human rights lawyer, was sentenced to 9 years in prison for seeking to overthrow the ruling system.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(SFC, 7/5/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 4, In Iraq several insurgent attacks around the country killed seven people and wounded 14. A late night rocket attack on Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone killed four people and wounded 10.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Nigeria's secret police said it was holding over 100 leaders and members of a northern-based "dissident" group it did not name.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, North Koreans gathered at a massive rally in Pyongyang to denounce the conservative government of South Korean President Lee Myung-bak as a "group of unparalleled traitors."
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Pakistan some 28,000 people escaped Kurram in a mass exodus after the offensive was launched, with the army saying that artillery and fighter jets had swung into action to drive out "terrorists." Hundreds of Islamists held rallies in major cities to denounce a gay rights event hosted last month by the United States embassy.
    (AP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, In South Africa more than 110,000 engineers and metalworkers launched a strike to demand a 13 percent wage increase.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, The WWF said South Africa lost 193 rhinos in the first six months of the year, with 126 of them killed in Kruger National Park.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, A South Korean marine, surnamed Kim (19), killed four colleagues at a front-line base. He also wounded another marine when he opened fire at a Ganghwa Island base just south of the tense maritime border with North Korea. Kim tried unsuccessfully to kill himself by detonating a grenade after the shooting. On Jan 13, 2012, Kim was sentenced to death after a court martial.
    (AP, 7/5/11)(AP, 1/13/12)
2011        Jul 4, North and south Sudan agreed to continue negotiating outstanding issues between the two sides after southern independence on July 9.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, Syrian troops stormed houses in Hama as thousands of people took to the streets shouting "God is greatest," in the city which saw huge protests last week against President Bashar al-Assad.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Thailand's military eased concerns of renewed turmoil by accepting the sweeping electoral win of toppled ex-premier Thaksin Shinawatra's party, while his sister vowed to reconcile the deeply divided nation as its first female prime minister.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, In Tunisia 2 people were killed and 24 injured when inmates set mattresses on fire during an attempted jailbreak in the central city of Kasserine.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)(AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 4, Turkey froze Libya's holdings in a Turkish bank, a day after it recognized Libya's rebel leaders as the country's legitimate representatives and quietly removed its ambassador from Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Venezuela's ever-theatrical President Hugo Chavez made a surprise homecoming from Cuba and declared himself "fine" despite speculation his cancer may still require lengthy treatment.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)
2011        Jul 4, Syrian troops stormed houses in Hama as thousands of people took to the streets shouting "God is greatest," in the city which saw huge protests last week against President Bashar al-Assad. Two adults and 12-year-old Omar Khalouf were killed in Hama.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A3)

2012        Jul 4, In NYC Joey Chestnut of San Jose, Ca., won his 6th straight title matching his own record of eating 68 hot dogs in ten minutes at Nathan’s Coney Island contest.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A7)
2012        Jul 4, In Afghanistan the French military handed over Kapisa province to local forces, completing an important stage in France's accelerated withdrawal from the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Austrian police said they have identified 272 suspects in the country as part of a months long investigation of internet-based child pornography involving 141 nations.
    (AP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Cambodian officials reported that 61 of 62 children, admitted to hospitals with a mysterious respiratory disease, have died. Lab tests soon confirmed that a virulent strain of hand, hoof and mouth disease, known as EV-71, was to blame for some of the cases.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A5)(SFC, 7/10/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 4, China’s giant and controversial Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River started working at full capacity as the last of its 32 generators went into operation.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, In China a coal mine in Hunan province flooded trapping 16 miners. Rescue workers pulled 8 miners out of the coal mine in Leiyang city on July 8, but another 3 were believed to be still trapped.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)(SFC, 7/9/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 4, In Colombia a rebel assault killed 5 contractors for the state-owned Ecopetrol oil company in Puerto Caicedo, Putumayo state.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 4, Egyptian security officials said university student Ahmed Hussein Eid (20) was fatally stabbed as his girlfriend looked on after three suspected Islamic militants confronted the couple and told them they should not be together in public. The killing followed murders of two musicians, also by suspected militants.
    (AP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, The European Parliament in Brussels overwhelmingly defeated the international ACTA anti-piracy trade agreement after concern that it would limit Internet freedom mobilized broad opposition across Europe.
    (AP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, In southern Germany police commandos stormed a Karlsruhe apartment after a hostage standoff and found five bodies, including that of the gunman. The man had opened fire when a bailiff and others went to his apartment to eject him for failing to pay his rent.
    (AP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Three Kenyan musicians were charged for inciting ethnic violence through their songs, under laws set up following deadly post-poll violence four years ago.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, In central Iraq a car bombing at a market Iraq killed eight people and three others were murdered in Baghdad, the latest in a spike in nationwide unrest ahead of Shiite rituals.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Israel's vice premier, Kadima chairman Shaul Mofaz, demanded that PM Benjamin Netanyahu accept a panel's contentious guidelines for reforming the country's military draft rules, but stopped short of explicitly threatening to quit the governing coalition if the Israeli leader refuses.
    (AP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, A body representing nations in western Africa sent notice that it does not recognize Mali’s Capt. Amadou Haya Sanogo’s status as a former head of state, and threatened sanctions against him if he continues to obstruct the return to constitutional rule.
    (AP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 4, Palestinians sought an international probe into the death of former president Yasser Arafat after an investigation showed he may have been poisoned with polonium.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda said Theoneste Bagosora, the most high-profile detainee at the UN court for Rwanda, has been sent to Mali to serve his sentence along with three other prisoners. Seven other genocide suspects convicted by the court have been sent to Benin.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Sweden granted permanent residency to Ahmed Agiza (49), a former Egyptian terror suspect. The Swedish government has acknowledged blame for the circumstances of the 2001 deportation and that Agiza and fellow Egyptian Muhammed Alzery were tortured in Egypt. It has awarded them 3 million kronor ($433,000) each in compensation for circumstances related to their deportations.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Physicists at CERN, Switzerland, said they had found a new sub-atomic particle consistent with the elusive Higgs boson which is believed to confer mass. “We have discovered a boson, and now we have to determine what kind of boson it is." Finding the Higgs would validate the Standard Model, a theory which identifies the building blocks for matter and the particles that convey fundamental forces.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, A Swedish ad team from Studio Total dropped hundreds of teddy bears carrying messages promoting human rights onto Belarus. On Aug 11 the ad team was summoned by Belarus' top security agency — the KGB — for violating the country's air space. On Aug 14 Studio Total instead offered to discuss the stunt directly with Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko and invited him to Sweden.
    (AP, 8/11/12)(AP, 8/14/12)
2012        Jul 4, The Swiss government temporarily blocked all arms shipments to the United Arab Emirates after a newspaper published a photograph indicating that a Swiss-made hand grenade was found in Syria. The hand grenade appearing in a photograph published July 1 by Zurich weekly Sonntagszeitung came from a shipment of 225,162 hand grenades by Swiss-based RUAG Holding AG to the United Arab Emirates in 2003.
    (AP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 4, Syria's fractured opposition groups wound up talks in Cairo that descended into chaos and even fist fights as they tried to forge a common vision for a transition in their country. They did agree on the final documents, which included an end to the Assad regime, support of the Free Syrian Army, and agreement on basic constitutional principles of justice, democracy and pluralism.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, In Thailand an explosion at an oil refinery in an industrial area of Bangkok sparked a massive fire. There were no reported injuries, but it prompted the government to close the 120,000 barrels-a-day refinery for at least 30 days.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, The independent Tunisian authority (INRIC) charged with reforming the media announced that it had shut down after failing to achieve its objective, accusing the Islamist-dominated government of censorship.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, Ukraine opposition activists clashed with riot police in the center of Kiev and Parliament Speaker Volodymyr Lytvyn resigned after the legislature passed a bill that would upgrade the status of the Russian language. The president has said he has not decided whether to approve or veto the bill, but Lytvyn's resignation was likely to delay that process because it cannot be submitted to the president without the speaker's signature.
    (AP, 7/4/12)

2013        Jul 4, In San Francisco representatives from BART and two unions agreed to a 30-day extention of the current contract and said transit workers will go back to work on July 5.
    (SFC, 7/5/13, p.A1)
2013        Jul 4, In Afghanistan roadside bombs killed 4 young girls in Helmand province. Lieutenant Islam Bibi, the most senior policewoman in volatile southern Helmand province, was shot dead on her way to work in Lashkar Gah. 2 schoolboys were killed when they triggered a roadside bomb in Paktika province. A NATO service member was killed in fighting in western Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/4/13)(Reuters, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, Bahrain sentenced 29 protesters to one month in prison for trying to enter a heavily guarded area last year that was once the center of the Gulf nation's anti-government uprising.
    (AP, 7/5/13)
2013        Jul 4, Belgian lawmakers seized on King Albert's decision to abdicate to call for his son and heir, Prince Philippe, to become a purely ceremonial monarch.
    (AP, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, In Egypt Adli Mansour, the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, was sworn in as the nation's interim president, taking over hours after the military ousted the Islamist President Mohammed Morsi. The prosecutor's office ordered the arrest of the Muslim Brotherhood's top leader, Mohamed Badie, and his deputy Khairat el-Shater on accusations of inciting violence in which at least 8 people were killed earlier this week.
    (AP, 7/4/13)(Reuters, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, In Iraq gunmen in speeding cars shot and killed 3 people in Baghdad. A suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden car into police patrolling Tuz Khormato, killing two police.
    (AP, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, In Mexico the Popocatepetl volcano registered several tremors after spraying rock and ash over the last 24 hours. At leaqst 40 commercial flights in the Mexico City area were canceled.
    (SFC, 7/5/13, p.A3)
2013        Jul 4, North and South Korea agreed to hold talks aimed at reopening a jointly run factory park that was a rare source of cash for the North three weeks after their last attempt at dialogue collapsed in bickering over protocol.
    (Reuters, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, Pakistan took a major step toward averting an economic crisis, reaching an initial deal with the IMF on a bailout of at least $5.3 billion to help shore up the country's rapidly diminishing foreign reserves.
    (AP, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, Peruvian police fired tear gas at hundreds of students and civil servants in Lima as they marched towards Congress to protest reforms that would impose tougher standards on universities and bureaucrats.
    (Reuters, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, The World Health Organization said at least 71 people have been killed and more than 300 wounded in ongoing fighting between rival militias in the Somali city of Kismayo.
    (AP, 7/4/13)
2013        Jul 4, Syrian opposition figures met in Turkey to elect a new leadership as President Bashar Assad claims his opponents have failed to overthrow his regime.
    (AP, 7/4/13)

2014        Jul 4, In Florida three boats collided at high speed, killing 4 people and injuring nine near the Dinner Key Marina in Miami.
    (SSFC, 7/6/14, p.A7)
2014        Jul 4, In NYC high-ranking chowhound Joey "Jaws" Chestnut dropped to one knee and proposed to his longtime girlfriend before the annual Nathan's Famous Fourth of July Hot Dog Eating Contest at Coney Island, then packed away 61 franks and buns to hold onto his coveted mustard yellow winner's belt.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In London Andy Coulson (46), former News of the World editor and PM David Cameron's communications chief, was sentenced to 18 months in prison for conspiring to hack phones. Private investigator Glenn Mulcaire, the newspaper's chief phone hacker, received a suspended six-month sentence.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In London television entertainer Rolf Harris, who for decades cultivated an image of the affectionate uncle with numerous children's television programs, was sentenced to five years and nine months in prison for a string of abuses against young girls.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In China Zhang Shaojie, the pastor of a Christian church in Henan province, was sentenced to 12 years in prison in what supporters say is a crackdown aimed at curbing fast-growing religious activity.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In Egypt 3 people were believed killed in an explosion at a house south of Cairo used for making bombs.
    (Reuters, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In southern France the mother of a pupil at a pre-school in Albi stabbed a teacher (34) to death in front of her class on the last day of the school year.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, A Guatemalan court handed down the country's first conviction of a leftist guerrilla leader for the killings of indigenous farmers during the 1960-1996 civil war. Fermin Solano got 90 years in prison for his role in the 1988 massacre that killed 22 pro-government indigenous farmers in the town of El Aguacate.
    (AFP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In southern Honduras three miners were rescued after spending more than two days trapped following a collapse at a small, wildcat gold mine. Eight others remained missing.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, India’s newly elected PM Narendra Modi made his first official trip to Indian-controlled Kashmir, where separatist groups called a strike that shut shops, businesses and schools.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Iraqi government airstrikes targeted Islamic militants trying to capture the country's largest oil refinery, reportedly killing as many as 30 insurgents. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, ISIL leader and self-proclaimed "caliph," gave a 30-minute sermon in the most venerated mosque in Mosul. A video of the sermon was posted the next day. The US had a $10 million bounty on Baghdadi.
    (AP, 7/4/14)(AFP, 7/6/14)(SFC, 7/7/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 4, Israeli police clashed with Palestinian protesters in Jerusalem as thousands of people converged on a cemetery for the burial of Mohammed Abu Khdeir (16). Palestinians say he was killed by Israeli extremists in a suspected revenge attack. Palestinian militants fired at least six rockets and mortars at Israel, two of which exploded prematurely inside Gaza.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, It was reported that Israeli inventor Dror Sharon has created a small scanner, the SciO, that can read the chemical makeup of foods, drugs and other items we use. His infrared spectrometer, the size of a thumb drive, was being marketed for applications in food, pharmaceuticals and horticulture.
    (SFC, 7/4/14, p.A3)
2014        Jul 4, Liberia's security forces fired shots in the air to break up a protest at an ArcelorMittal SA iron ore plant northeast of Monrovia.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Macedonian police fired teargas and stun grenades in clashes with around 2,000 ethnic Albanians who took to the streets of the capital to protest against the jailing of six people for murder and terrorism.
    (Reuters, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Malaysian police said they have arrested four foreign nationals suspected of having links to Sri Lanka's defeated separatist Tamil Tigers, the second such detention aimed at the group's militants in the southeast Asian country.
    (Reuters, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Myanmar police cordoned off Mandalay's Muslim neighborhood as hundreds of Buddhists wielding knives, swords and bamboo poles roamed the city.
    (Reuters, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Nigerian soldiers blocked roads, fired shots into the air and burned several buses in Lagos after a soldier was killed in a bus accident.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In Nigeria at least 50 alleged insurgents were killed during clashes with Nigerian soldiers as security forces repelled an attack on a military base in the northeastern state of Borno. 6 soldiers, including the commanding officer, died in the assault on the base and a nearby police station in the town of Damboa. 63 girls and women abducted by Islamic extremists in Borno state on June 22 managed to escape.
    (AP, 7/6/14)(AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 4, In Peru Joran van der Sloot (26), the prime suspect in the 2005 disappearance of US teen Natalee Holloway, married his pregnant Peruvian girlfriend Leidy Figueroa (24) in a ceremony at the maximum-security prison where he is serving 28 years for murdering a woman he met in a Lima casino.
    (AP, 7/5/14)
2014        Jul 4, Philippine Sen. Juan Ponce Enrile (90) surrendered to face a charge of large-scale corruption. He was the country’s defense minister when late strongman Ferdinand Marcos placed the country under martial rule in 1972. His former chief aide in the Senate and co-accused, Jessica Lucila Reyes, also surrendered.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, Six Saudi members of al Qaeda, already wanted by authorities, struck the town of al-Sharurah between Yemen and Saudi Arabia in an attack that left 4 border guards and 3 of the gunmen dead. Two of the militants grabbed 10 hostages and fought their way into a government building where they blew themselves up the next day.
    (AP, 7/5/14)(Reuters, 7/6/14)(Reuters, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 4, Senegalese President Macky Sall sacked PM Aminata Toure after she failed to win a seat at local elections.
    (AP, 7/5/14)
2014        Jul 4, A Syrian warplane carried out three airstrikes in an area about four miles (seven km) within Lebanese territory, killing a 12-year-old boy.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In Syria Islamic militants seized an eastern oil field near Iraq and inched closer to the Turkish border in an attempt to consolidate their control of an area along the length of the Euphrates river stretching through Syria and Iraq.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, At least two dozen US Delta Force commandos arrived on heavily armed Black Hawk helicopters in Akrishi, a small town near the eastern Syrian city of Raqqa on the bank of the Euphrates River in an attempt to rescue American hostages including journalist James Foley. They reportedly destroyed anti-aircraft weapons at a jihadist base about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of the city, but did not find hostages in the area.
    (Reuters, 8/22/14)
2014        Jul 4, Ukraine National Security Council Secretary Andriy Parubiy said government troops have recaptured more than a dozen eastern villages from pro-Russia separatists but Russia is allowing the rebels to attack Ukrainian border posts from its territory. At least 13 military personnel were killed in separate incidents in fighting against pro-Russian rebels in the east. Insurgents in the Luhansk province said that they have killed 125 Ukrainian troops since July 2.
    (AP, 7/4/14)(Reuters, 7/4/14)

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