Today in History - July 7

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1124        Jul 7, Tyre [Tyrus] surrendered to the Crusaders.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1307        Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239), King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.

1456        Jul 7, Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1550        Jul 7, Chocolate was introduced (Europe).
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1585        Jul 7, King Henri III & Duke De Guise signed the Treaty of Nemours: French Huguenots lost all freedoms.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1607        Jul 7, "God Save the King" was 1st sung.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1690        Jul 7, Johann Tobias Krebs, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1713        Jul 7, The 1st performance of Georg F Handel's "To Deum" & "Jubilate."
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1742        Jul 7, A Spanish force invading Georgia ran headlong into the colony's British defenders. A handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
    (HN, 5/3/98)(HN, 7/7/99)

1753        Jul 7, English parliament granted Jews English citizenship.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1754        Jul 7, King's College in New York City opened. The school was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1752        Jul 7, Joseph Marie Jacquard, inventor of the first loom that could weave patterns, was born.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1777        Jul 7, American troops gave up Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, to the British.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1791        Jul 7, Benjamin Rush, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones founded the Non-denominational African Church.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1795        Jul 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1797        Jul 7, The US House of Representatives exercised its constitutional power of impeachment, and voted to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with "a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator." Blount had financial problems which led him to enter into a conspiracy with British officers to enlist frontiersmen and Cherokee Indians to assist the British in conquering parts of Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1798        Jul 7, Napoleon Bonaparte's army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1801        Jul 7, A new constitution, drafted by a committee appointed by Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), went into effect and declared the independence of Hispaniola. The constitution made him governor general for life with near absolute powers.
    ('Ouverture)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1802        Jul 7, The first comic book was published in Hudson, NY. "The Wasp" was created by Robert Rusticoat.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1807        Jul 7, Napoleon I of France and Czar Alexander I of Russia signed a treaty at Tilsit ending war between their empires. It divided Europe among themselves and isolated Britain.
    (HN, 7/7/98)(AP, 7/7/07)

1814        Jul 7, Sir Walter Scott's novel Waverly was published anonymously so as not to damage his reputation as a poet.
    (HN, 7/7/01)

1815        Jul 7, After defeating Napoleon at Waterloo, the victorious Allies marched into Paris.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1846        Jul 7, U.S. annexation of California was proclaimed at Monterey after Commodore Sloat reached Monterey and claimed California for the US.
    (HFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 7/7/97)

1856        Jul 7, In California the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors held their 1st meeting at the general store of John Vogan on Main Street in Redwood City. The county had just recently been created.
    (Ind, 2/3/01, 5A)(SFC, 5/18/13, p.C2)

1860        Jul 7, Gustav Mahler, conductor of the Vienna State Opera House, was born in Kalischat, Bohemia, Austria.
    (HN, 7/7/98)(MC, 7/7/02)

1863        Jul 7, Confederate General Robert E. Lee, in Hagerstown, Maryland, reported his defeat at Gettysburg to President Jefferson Davis.
    (HN, 7/7/98)
1863        Jul 7, The 1st military draft was called by the US. It allowed exemptions for $100.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1863        Jul 7, Orders barring Jews from serving under US Grant were revoked.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1865        Jul 7, The trap doors of the scaffold in the yard of Washington's Old Penitentiary were sprung, and Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David Herold and George Atzerodt dropped to their deaths. The four had been convicted of "treasonable conspiracy" in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, and had learned that they were to be hanged only a day before their execution. Shortly after 1 p.m. the prisoners were led onto the scaffold and prepared for execution. The props supporting the platform were knocked away at about 2 p.m. Assassin John Wilkes Booth had been killed on April 26, 12 days after Lincoln's assassination. Other convicted conspirators--Edman Spangler, Dr. Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold and Michael O'Laughlin--were imprisoned.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(HNPD, 7/7/98)

1875        Jul 7, Jesse James robbed a train in Otterville, Missouri.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1879        Jul 7, George Caleb Bingham (b.1811), artist and legislator, died in Kansas City, Mo. His paintings included “The Jolly Flatboatmen," which became a best-seller in 1846 after it was chosen by the American Art Union for its annual engraving.
    (WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W16)(

1884        Jul 7, Lion Feuchtwanger, German philosopher, writer (Jud Suss), was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1887        Jul 7, Marc Chagall (d.1985), French painter and designer, was born in Vitebsk, Belarus, Russia, as Moishe Shagal. He left there in 1907 to attend art school in St. Petersburg. He was sent to Paris by a benefactor and befriended Chaim Soutine and Alexander Archipenko and stayed until 1914. "From late cubism he adopted a manner of making forms and space interpenetrate." His work included "Les Amoureux" (The Lovers - 1916), a portrait of himself and his wife. In 1996 it sold for $4.2 mil. In 1997 Mikhail Guerman published "Marc Chagall: The Land of My Heart - Russia."
    (SFC,7/2/96,p.E3)(WSJ,10/8/96,p.A20)(SFEC,12/797,Par p.6)(HN, 7/7/01)

1893        Jul 7, In Bardwell, Ky., C.J. Miller, a black man accused of murdering two white girls, was mutilated, torched and left hanging from a telegraph pole. Ida Wells (1862-1931) was commissioned to investigate the story by the Chicago Inter-Ocean newspaper and published her findings under the title “History Is a Weapon."
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.W8)(
1893        Jul 7, Guy de Maupassant (42), writer, died.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1896        Jul 7, The Democratic National Convention opened in Chicago. The National Democratic Party formed to run a slate of candidates in 1896 because the Democratic Party had been taken over by the free-silver faction, which called for the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the 16 to 1 ratio. They also condemned trusts, monopolies, high protective tariffs and the use of injunctions against labor. The “sound money" or gold Democrats withdrew from the party convention, organized the National Democratic Party and nominated John M.  Palmer of Illinois its presidential candidate. The gold plank in the Republican Party caused a similar split, with free-silver Republicans bolting the party and forming the National Silver Republicans, who endorsed the Democratic Party candidate for president, William Jennings Bryan. Republican William McKinley won the presidential election.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(HNQ, 8/23/99)

1898        Jul 7, The United States annexed Hawaii.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(AP, 7/7/97)

1899        Jul 7, George Cukor (d.1983), film director, was born in New York City.
    (AP, 7/7/99)(MC, 7/7/02)

1905        Jul 7, The International Workers of the World founded their labor organization in Chicago. The IWW was formed by William Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party and Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party. Members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were also known as Wobblies. The Wobblies were formed partly in response to the American Federation of Labor’s opposition to the unionization of unskilled labor. As an organization that advocated sabotage, they were suppressed and prosecuted by the federal government from 1917-18 and were driven underground by the "Red Scare" that started in the United States in 1919. Ideological disputes with the newly formed U.S. Communist Party dissipated their remaining energies so that they ceased to be a force of any significance past the mid-1920s. In 1969 Melvyn Dublfsky authored its definitive history "We Shall Overcome."
    (HNQ, 10/16/00)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.A24)(HN, 7/7/01)

1906        Jul 7, Leroy "Satchel" Page, baseball pitcher for the Negro Leagues and the Major League, was born.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1907        Jul 7, Robert Heinlein (d.1988), science-fiction author, was born in Butler, Miss. "Goodness without wisdom always accomplishes evil."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.383)(AP, 5/25/99)(AP, 7/7/07)

1908        Jul 7, Great White Fleet left SF Bay.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1908        Jul 7, The Democratic National Convention opened in Denver.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

1911        Jul 7, Gian-Carlo Menotti, composer (Amahl & Night Visitors), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1913        Jul 7, British House of Commons accepted Home-Rule Law.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1919        Jul 7, William Moses Kunstler, defense attorney (Chicago 8), was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1919        Jul 7, The U.S. Army’s First Transcontinental Motor Train left Washington, D.C., bound for San Francisco. The 62-day journey crossed 3,250 miles. In 2002 Peter Davies authored "American Road," an account of the trip.
    (HN, 3/7/01)(WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)

1920        Jul 7, A device known as the radio compass was used for the first time on a U.S. Navy airplane.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1922        Jul 7, Pierre Cardin, fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
    (AP, 7/7/02)(MC, 7/7/02)

1925        Jul 7, Afrikaans was recognized as one of the official languages of South Africa, along with English and Dutch.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1927        Jul 7, Doc Severinson, [Carl], bandleader, trumpeter (Tonight), was born in Arlington, Or.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1927        Jul 7, Christopher Stone became the first British ‘disc jockey’ when he played records for the BBC.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1930        Jul 7, Construction began on Boulder Dam on the Colorado River. It is now known as Hoover Dam.
    (AP, 7/7/97)
1930        Jul 7, Arthur Conan Doyle (b.1859), British novelist, died. His work included 4 Sherlock Holmes mystery novels and 56 short stories about Holmes. Doyle was an eye doctor. In 1999 Daniel Stashower published "Teller of Tales: The Life of Arthur Conan Doyle." In 2007 Andrew Lycett authored “Conan Doyle: The Man who Created Sherlock Holmes."
    (SFEC, 6/13/99, Par p.12)(, 3/06, p.12)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.98)

1937        Jul 7, A conflict between troops of China and Japan came to be known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The incident occurred near the Marco Polo Bridge outside of Beijing and eventually escalated into warfare between the two countries and was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II.
    (HNQ, 9/22/99)

1940        Jul 7, Ringo Starr, drummer for the Beatles, was born. He went on to a solo career and acting.
    (HN, 7/7/99)

1941        Jul 7, Although a neutral country, the United States sent troops to occupy Iceland to keep it out of Germany's hands.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(HN, 7/7/98)
1941        Jul 7, Nazis executed 5,000 Jews in Kovno, Lithuania.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1943        Jul 7, Adolf Hitler made the V-2 missile program a top priority in armament planning.
    (HN, 7/7/98)
1943        Jul 7, In the 3rd day of battle at Kursk the Germans occupied Dubrova. Erich Hartmann shot 7 Russian aircraft at Kursk.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1944        Jul 7, Bomber Command dropped 2,572 tons of bombs on Caen, France.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1944        Jul 7, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy issued an order suspending Nazi deportations of Hungarian Jews.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.1)
1944        Jul 7, There was a heavy Japanese counter offensive on Saipan.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1945        Jul 7, Matti Salminen, operatic basso (King Philip-Don Carlos), was born in Turku, Finland.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1946        Jul 7, William Durkin (1916-2006) rescued Howard Hughes (1905-1976) from the fiery wreckage of an XF-11 reconnaissance plane that Hughes was testing over Beverly Hills.
    (SFC, 5/1/06, p.B8)
1946        Jul 7, Italian-born Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini was canonized as the first American saint. She was the founder of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1947        Jul 7, A made-up photo in Life magazine featured a biker in Hollister, Ca. In 1997 bikers returned to Hollister for a 50-year anniversary and began an annual tradition. [see Jul 4]
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A18)

1948        Jul 7, Six female reservists became the first women to be sworn into the regular U.S. Navy.
    (AP, 7/7/98)

1949        Jul 7, The police drama "Dragnet," starring Jack Webb and Barton Yarborough, premiered on NBC radio. It became a TV series in 1951 and 1967.
    (AP, 7/7/99)(MC, 7/7/02)

1950        Jul 7, South Africa’s Population Registration Act commenced. It required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid. It was repealed by section 1 of the Population Registration Act, Repeal Act No 114 of 1991.

1952        Jul 7, The American ocean liner SS United States, known as "the Big U," crossed the Atlantic in record 82:40, while on her maiden voyage.
    (USAT, 1/20/04, p.14A)

1956        Jul 7, The Douglas Moore and John Latouche opera "Ballad of Baby Doe," premiered.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1956        Jul 7, Seven Army trucks loaded with dynamite exploded in middle of Cali, Columbia, killing 1,100-1,200. 2000 buildings were destroyed.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1954        Jul 7, Elvis Presley made his radio debut as Memphis, Tennessee, station WHBQ played his first recording for Sun Records, "That’s All Right (Mama)."
    (AP, 7/7/00)

1958        Jul 7, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill. Alaska became the 49th state in January 1959.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

1961        Jul 7, James R. Hoffa was elected president of Teamsters.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1962        Jul 7-1962 Jul 17, Operation Sunbeam was a series of four nuclear tests conducted at the United States of America's Nevada Test Site.
1962        Jul 7, In Burma Sein Lwin headed the army unit that shot dead Rangoon University students protesting Ne Win's rule.
    (AP, 4/10/04)

1965        Jul 7, Moshe Sharett, Israel’s 2nd prime minister (1954-1955), died.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.93)(

1966        Jul 7, The U.S. Marine Corps launched Operation Hasting to drive the North Vietnamese Army back across the Demilitarized Zone in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1967        Jul 7, Beatles' "All You Need is Love" was released.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1967        Jul 7, Vivian Leigh (53), actress (Scarlet-Gone with the Wind), died.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1969        Jul 7, The first U.S. troops to withdraw from South Vietnam left Saigon.
    (HN, 7/7/98)
1969        Jul 7, J.S. Furnivall (b.1878), British anthropologist, died in Cambridge. He coined the term “plural society" while working as colonial servant in Burma.
    (Econ, 3/10/12, p.52)(
1969        Jul 7, Canada's House of Commons gave final approval to a measure making the French language equal to English throughout the national government.
    (AP, 7/7/97)
1969        Jul 7, Der Spiegel revealed Munich's Bishop Defregger as a war criminal. Charges against Defregger were dropped in 1970.
1972        Jul 7, Athenagoras (b.1886), 268th patriarch of Constantinople, died.

1975        Jul 7, Philippines’ President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 742 and Letter of Instruction 290 creating Western and Central Mindanao regions in Mindanao and establishing the Office of the Regional Commissioner in both regions.

1976        Jul 7, The US 94th Congress amended the Flag Code.
    (SFC, 6/14/11, p.E6)(
1976        Jul 7, The 1st female cadets enrolled at the West Point Military Academy in NY. West Point Military Academy admitted 119 women out of a class of 1367. Four years later 62 women graduated.
    (, 2/16/97, p.A12)

1977        Jul 7, Sir Michael Tippett (1905-1998), British composer, premiered his 4th opera "The Ice Break," which featured a race riot and a psychedelic sequence.

1978        Jul 7, China cut off all aid to Albania after a dispute and left it completely isolated.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(CO, GAAE/Albania)
1978        Jul 7, The Solomon Islands gained independence from Britain.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(

1981        Jul 7, President Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(HN, 7/7/98)
1981        Jul 7, The 1st solar-powered aircraft, Solar Challenger, crossed the English Channel flying 163 miles from Paris to Canterbury. It was created by Dupont and Paul MacCready.
    (, 9/8/07, p.88)

1983        Jul 7, Samantha Smith (11) of Manchester, Maine, left for a visit to the Soviet Union at the personal invitation of Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1986        Jul 7, The US Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.
1986        Jul 7, Jordan’s government shut down all 25 offices of al-Fatah, the mainstream group in the divided Palestine Liberation Organization.

1987        Jul 7, Lt. Col. Oliver North began his long-awaited public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing, telling Congress that he had "never carried out a single act, not one," without authorization.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1988        Jul 7, Russia’s PHOBOS 1 Mars Orbiter and lander was launched. Contact was lost on September 2, 1988.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(
1988        Jul 7, The European Parliament adopted a resolution condemning brutalities against Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh.
1988        Jul 7, The candidate of Mexico's ruling party, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, claimed a "national victory" one day after presidential elections that opponents charged were riddled by fraud.
    (AP, 7/7/98)

1989        Jul 7, The US Labor Dept. reported that unemployment rose 0.1% in June to 5.2%.
    (AP, 7/7/99)

1990        Jul 7, President Bush welcomed fellow leaders of the Group of Seven countries, who were gathering in Houston for their 16th annual economic summit.
    (AP, 7/7/00)
1990        Jul 7, Martina Navratilova captured a record-breaking ninth women’s title at Wimbledon, outplaying Zina Garrison, 6-4, 6-1.
    (AP, 7/7/00)

1991        Jul 7, Responding to President Bush’s call for stepped-up efforts on arms control talks, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev told the White House he was sending Foreign Minister Alexander Bessmertnykh and other officials for talks with Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third.
    (AP, 7/6/01)
1991        Jul 7, Michael Stich defeated Boris Becker, 6-4, 7-6, 6-4, to win the men’s singles title at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/7/01)
1991        Jul 7, Jordan’s king abolished most provisions of martial law.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1992        Jul 7, Group of Seven leaders meeting in Munich, Germany, condemned the carnage in former Yugoslavia and warned Serb-led troops that U.N. military force would be used if needed to keep relief operations going.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1993        Jul 7, The Group of Seven nations, on the first day of their economic summit in Tokyo, unveiled a long-sought agreement on world trade. Prior to the summit opening, President Clinton delivered a speech at Waseda University.
    (AP, 7/7/03)
1993        Jul 7, Mia Zapata (27), a rising punk-rock star, was last seen alive in Seattle. In 2003 Jesus C. Mezquia (b.1965), who lived in Seattle at the time of the rape and murder, was arrested in Florida on DNA evidence. On March 25, 2004, a jury convicted Florida fisherman Jesus Mezquia of her murder and he was sentenced to 36 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 1/12/03, p.A6)(

1994        Jul 7, President Clinton, visiting Poland, assured the parliament that the U.S. would "not let the Iron Curtain be replaced by a veil of indifference."
    (AP, 7/7/99)
1994        Jul 7, Panama withdrew its offer to the United States to accept thousands of Haitian refugees.
    (AP, 7/7/99)

1995        Jul 7, The space shuttle "Atlantis" landed at Cape Canaveral, Florida, bringing back American astronaut Norman Thagard, who’d spent three and a-half months aboard the Russian space station "Mir."
    (AP, 7/7/00)
1995        Jul 7, UN military observers in Bosnia appealed to the UN to "stop the carnage and damage in a UN declared safe zone."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1996        Jul 7, Dutch tennis player Richard Krajicek won the Wimbledon men's title, defeating American MaliVai Washington 6-3, 6-4, 6-3.
    (AP, 7/7/97)
1996        Jul 7, President Clinton delivered more Whitewater trial testimony before video cameras, this time testifying in the case of two Arkansas bankers accused of making political contributions with bank funds; a jury later acquitted Herby Branscum Jr., and Robert M. Hill of four counts and was deadlocked on seven other counts. Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr decided against retrying the bankers
    (AP, 7/7/97)
1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in the US was $2.36. In Germany it was $3.22.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.17)
1996        Jul 7, In Ecuador lawyer Abdala Bucaram, aka El Loco, was elected president with 54% of the vote. He led the center-left Roldosista party.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.A8)

1997        Jul 7, Montgomery Wards, the nation’s largest privately owned retailer, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
    (SFC, 7/8/97, p.A1)
1997        Jul 7, It was reported that toxic waste was being used across the country in fertilizers with no regulation. Substances being recycled in fertilizer included low level radioactive waste from a uranium processing plant in Gore, Okla.; lead-laced waste from a pulp mill in Camas, Wash.; and toxic byproducts from steel-making in Moxee City, Wash.
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.A2)
1997        Jul 7, In California it was reported that the state’s million plus cows were churning out $3 billion worth of milk and leaking harmful nitrates into the ground water of the Central Valley. Years ago the Chino basin was forced to write off vast quantities of tainted ground water due to dairies.
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.A8)
1997        Jul 7, Three days after landing on Mars, the Pathfinder spacecraft yielded what scientists said was unmistakable photographic evidence that colossal floods scoured the Red Planet's now-barren landscape more than a billion years ago.
    (AP, 7/7/98)
1997        Jul 7, In Chile the government agreed to back the 670,000 acre nature preserve of Doug Tompkins, founder of the Esprit clothing chain.
    (SFC, 7/8/97, p.A7)
1997        Jul 7, Abdul Rashid Wani (30) disappeared in Srinagar, Kashmir, while running an errand on the day of his niece’s wedding.
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A17)
1997        Jul 7, In Kenya 9 people died during protests for constitutional reform.
    (SFC, 7/8/97, p.A8)(SFC, 7/12/97, p.A10)

1998        Jul 7, The American League defeated the National League 13-8 in baseball's All-Star Game, played in Denver.
    (AP, 7/7/99)
1998        Jul 7, A jury in Santa Monica, Calif., convicted Mikail Markhasev of murdering Ennis Cosby, Bill Cosby's only son, during a roadside robbery.
    (AP, 7/7/99)

1998        Jul 7, The American League defeated the National League 13-8 in baseball's All-Star Game, played in Denver.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
1998        Jul 7, The US Court of Appeals ruled that condemned prisoners have the option to choose death by lethal injection or by gas in San Quentin’s death chamber. The gas chamber was shut down in 1994.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A17)
1998        Jul 7, A jury in Santa Monica, Calif., convicted Mikhail Markhasev of murdering Ennis Cosby, Bill Cosby's only son, during a roadside robbery. Markhasev was sentenced to life in prison without possibility of parole.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
1998        Jul 7, In Texas 2 Border Patrol agents were killed in a gun battle with Ernest Moore who was suspected of killing a woman and her daughter. Moore soon after died of wounds at a hospital.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A2)
1998        Jul 7, In Angola 16 policemen were killed in an ambush by Unita.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 7, In Australia the Senate passed a law that scaled back Aboriginal land rights under threat by Prime Minister John Howard to dissolve both houses and call for new elections.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A12)
1998        Jul 7, Britain sent more troops to Northern Ireland to help quell the rioting.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 7, In Indonesia troops battled protestors on Irian Jaya who demanded independence.
    (WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 7, In Italy Silvio Berlusconi, media tycoon and former prime minister, was sentenced to 2 years and 9 months in prison for bribing tax officials.
    (WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 7, Mexican courts ordered the attorney general’s office to rehire more than half the 826 agents dismissed 6 months ago for failed drug tests and alleged corruption.
    (SFC, 7/10/98, p.A16)
1998        Jul 7, In Nigeria opposition leader Moshood Abiola (60) died of a heart attack while still in prison and his death sparked rioting in Lagos that left at least 19 people dead. Gen’l. Abubakar dissolved his cabinet, inherited from Abacha, but left intact the Provisional Ruling Council. He called the death a tragedy and appealed for calm.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/9/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/7/99)
1998        Jul 7, In Puerto Rico a general 2 day strike was called against the sale of the phone company and the San Juan Int’l. Airport was blocked for a short time.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A3)
1998        Jul 7, The UN voted to grant the Palestinian delegation nearly the same rights as given to independent states.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A10)

1999        Jul 7, In NYC "The Peony Pavilion," a 22-hour Chinese opera, opened at the LaGuardia Theater.
    (WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A20)
1999        Jul 7, President Clinton became the first president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to visit an Indian reservation as he toured the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
    (AP, 7/7/00)
1999        Jul 7, In the first class-action lawsuit by smokers to go to trial, a jury in Miami held cigarette makers liable for making a defective product that causes emphysema, lung cancer and other illnesses.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/7/00)
1999        Jul 7, In Bahrain the top dissident, Sheik Abdul-Ameer al-Jamri, was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $15 million after he was convicted of spying and inciting unrest. He was freed the next day with an amnesty.
    (WSJ, 7/8/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/9/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 7, Britain and Libya announced a resumption of diplomatic relations.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 7, From China it was reported that flooding on the Yangtze River since late June had killed 240 people and caused over $3 billion in damage.
    (WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 7, In Iran the parliament approved general outlines for new press restrictions.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A9)
1999        Jul 7, From Kazakstan it was reported that a rocket carrying a telecom satellite blew up and that launches at Baikonur would be suspended.
    (WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 7, Pres. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone signed a peace accord with rebel leader Foday Sankoh in Togo. Sankoh was given the vice-presidency and the rebels were promised 4 ministerial and 4 deputy ministerial posts.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A8)

2000        Jul 7, The 4th installment of the "Harry Potter" series, "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire," by J.K. Rowling went on sale.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 7, In Denver Episcopal bishops approved an alliance with the nation’s largest Lutheran denomination.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A3)
2000        Jul 7, President Clinton postponed the first federal execution since 1963 so that death row inmate Juan Raul Garza could ask for clemency under guidelines being updated by the government. Garza was executed June 19, 2001.
    (AP, 7/7/01)
2000        Jul 7, A$100 million US test missile failed to hit a dummy warhead from another missile. It was the 2nd failure of 3 tests.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 7, In West Virginia 2 teenagers (17) in Grant Town confessed to killing Arthur Warren Jr. (26), a gay man. They beat him to death and then drove over his body several times to make it look like a hit-and-run.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A4)
2000        Jul 7, Stock car driver Kenny Irwin was killed when his car slammed into a wall during practice at New Hampshire International Speedway; he was 30.
    (AP, 7/7/01)
2000        Jul 7, In Austria the parliament approved a $415 million fund to compensate Nazi-era victims of forced labor.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.C14)
2000        Jul 7, Three days of torrential rains over central China left at least 22 people dead in Sichuan. Thousands of buildings, 17 bridges and 7 hydroelectric power stations were damaged. In Guangxi Zhuang a bus fell into the Liujiang River in Liuzhou and at least 65 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.D8)(SFC, 7/10/00, p.A9)
2000        Jul 7, German drug maker Boehringer Ingelheim said it would donate nevirapine, a drug to help prevent the transmission of AIDS from mothers to infants, to every nation in the developing world that asks for it.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 7, In Fiji supporters of George Speight seized up to 30 hostages at Korovou.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A11)
2000        Jul 7, In Nicaragua another earthquake struck and at least 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A12)
2000        Jul 7, Typhoon Kai Tak killed at least 39 people in the Philippines and moved on to Japan.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A11)(WSJ, 7/10/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 7, The World Bank cancelled its Chinese resettlement project for Tibet. China then withdrew its request for a $40 million loan and vowed to proceed with its own development program.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A10)

2001        Jul 7, Bolivia’s Pres. Banzer (75) was reported to be hospitalized in Washington DC with cancer in his lung and liver.
    (SFC, 7/7/01, p.B1)(SSFC, 7/8/01, p.A16)
2001        Jul 7, It was reported that China had executed 1,781 people over the last 3 months.
    (SFC, 7/7/01, p.A8)
2001        Jul 7, In Croatia PM Ivica Racan announced that citizens indicted by the UN War Crimes tribunal could be extradited to the Hague.
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, p.A16)
2001        Jul 7, In Bradford, England, 80 police officers were injured in race riots, later known as the “Bradford riots." They began after a rally by the far-right National Front was banned. Asian and white youths ran amok in the streets armed with firebombs and baseball bats. The Manningham Labor Club was firebombed.
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, p.A16)(AP, 7/6/02)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.63)
2001        Jul 7, In Jamaica a police crackdown began in Kingston following 2 months of fighting between gangs that killed 37 people. The murder rate for the country had reached 530 for the half year.
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.A8)
2001        Jul 7, In the Gaza Strip a Palestinian boy was shot and killed and 2 others injured by Israeli soldiers. Palestinian militants were said to have been shooting in the Raffah refugee camp area.
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, p.A13)
2001        Jul 7, In Puerto Rico Parmenio Medina (62), a Colombian-born journalist, was gunned down in his car. He ran a radio program called "La Patada," or "The Kick," which denounced fraud at a religious radio station. In 2007 a court convicted Omar Chaves, a businessman, of ordering the murder of the journalist. Chaves also got a 12-year prison sentence on a fraud count. His partner, Father Minor de Jesus Calvo, was acquitted of the killing, but was convicted of fraud and sentenced to 15 years in jail.
    (AP, 12/19/07)

2002        Jul 7, Lleyton Hewitt crushed David Nalbandian in straight sets, 6-1, 6-3, 6-2, in the Wimbledon final to win his second Grand Slam title.
    (AP, 7/7/03)
2002        Jul 7, Texas Gov. Rick Perry saw by helicopter the devastation days of torrential rain had brought to central and southern Texas.
    (AP, 7/7/03)
2002        Jul 7, Afghanistan's vice president, Abdul Qadir, was buried with full military honors one day after being assassinated.
    (AP, 7/7/07)
2002        Jul 7, Nearly two dozen people were killed and thousands left homeless as torrential monsoon rains lashed large parts of Asia over the weekend, worsening floods and triggering fresh storms and landslides. Monsoon flooding killed at least 11 in Bangladesh.
    (Reuters, 7/7/02)(Reuters, 7/8/02)
2002        Jul 7, In southern China 13 people were killed when a wall being demolished at a vegetable market crumbled after heavy rain, burying vendors and workers under a mound of rubble.
    (Reuters, 7/7/02)
2002        Jul 7, In Hong Kong tens of thousands of civil servants staged a huge street protest against a government plan to pass a law that would cut their pay by up to 4.42 percent.
    (Reuters, 7/7/02)
2002        Jul 7, In Indonesia 53 people burned alive or jumped to their deaths when fire ripped through a crowded Palembang karaoke bar on Sumatra island but the final death toll could be double that.
    (AP, 7/8/02)(Reuters, 7/9/02)(WSJ, 7/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 7, In Northern Ireland Protestant hard-liners battled riot police after being barred from parading through the main Catholic section of Portadown.
    (AP, 7/7/02)
2002        Jul 7, The 14th Int'l. AIDS Conference opened in Barcelona. Estimates said AIDS had claimed 20 million lives to date and threatened 40 million currently infected. African cases were estimated at 28.5 million.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A6)
2002        Jul 7, In eastern Ukraine rescue workers found the bodies of 35 miners killed in one of two fires over the weekend in mines.
    (AP, 7/7/02)(AP, 7/8/02)

2003        Jul 7, Hilary Lunke won the U.S. Women's Open.
    (AP, 7/7/04)
2003        Jul 7, Pres. Bush departed for a 5-country African tour. In 2007 Ari Fleischer, former White House press secretary, said he had lunch with Scooter Libby on this day and was told by Libby that Ambassador Wilson had been sent to Africa by his wife, Valerie Plame, who worked for the CIA. Wilson had criticized the Bush administration the previous day for the way it used intelligence to justify the war in Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.A8)(SFC, 1/30/07, p.A3)
2003        Jul 7, A federal judge approved a settlement fining WorldCom $750 million for its $11-billion accounting scandal.
    (AP, 7/7/04)
2003        Jul 7, A chunk of foam insulation fired at shuttle wing parts blew open a gaping 16-inch hole, yielding what one member of the Columbia investigation team said was the "smoking gun" proving what brought down the spaceship on Feb 1.
    (AP, 7/7/04)
2003        Jul 7, The CDC confirmed the year's 1st case of West Nile Virus, which killed 284 in the US in 2002.
    (SFC, 7/8/03, p.A6)
2003        Jul 7, NASA's 2nd Mars Lander, named Opportunity, was launched.
    (SFC, 7/8/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 7, In Corsica explosions rocked vacation homes owned by mainland French in new nationalist violence a day after Corsicans rejected a plan designed to set up a single executive body to run Corsican affairs.
    (AP, 7/7/03)
2003        Jul 7, In Indonesia gunbattles between soldiers and rebels in Aceh province left 18 insurgents dead, and the bodies of five civilians were discovered in the region.
    (AP, 7/8/03)
2003        Jul 7, In northwestern Tanzania a bus rolled several times after one of its front tires burst, killing at least 19 people and injuring 23 others.
    (AP, 7/8/03)

2004        Jul 7, Former Enron chairman Kenneth Lay was indicted on criminal charges related to the energy company's collapse.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2004        Jul 7, Jeff Smith (65), a white-bearded minister who became public television's popular "Frugal Gourmet" (1983-1997) before a sex scandal ruined his career, died.
    (AP, 7/9/04)
2004        Jul 7, The Iraqi government issued a long-anticipated package of security laws to help crush insurgents, including a provision allowing interim PM Iyad Allawi to impose martial law. 4 Iraqi National Guard soldiers were killed and 20 injured from a gunbattle in central Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/7/04)(SFC, 7/8/04, p.A15)
2004        Jul 7, In Russia the board of Guta Bank approved its sale to the state-owned Vneshtorgbank. A day earlier Guta had announced a suspension of payments.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.66)
2004        Jul 7, In Sri Lanka a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber detonated explosives at a police station, killing herself and 4 officers.
    (AP, 7/7/04)
2004        Jul 7, It was reported that fighting between Arab and African tribes has killed at least 70 people and displaced thousands more this week in the Darfur region of western Sudan.
    (Reuters, 7/7/04)

2005        Jul 7, Morgan Stanley disclosed that Philip Purdell had been given an exit package worth an estimated $113.7 million. 2 days earlier John Mack was signed on as CEO on a contract worth as much as $25 million a year.
    (SFC, 7/8/05, p.C1)
2005        Jul 7, Gustaf Sobin (69), American-born writer and poet, died in France. His work included the 2000 novel “The Fly-Truffler."
    (SFC, 7/13/05, p.B7)
2005        Jul 7, A Human Rights Watch report said numerous officials in Afghan President Hamid Karzai's government are implicated in war crimes that took place at the start of the country's bloody civil war in the early 1990s.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, In Pale, Bosnia-Herzegovina, NATO troops arrested Aleksandar Karadzic, the son of top Bosnian Serb war crimes fugitive Radovan Karadzic, who is wanted for alleged genocide including the 1995 Srebrenica massacre.
    (AFP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Four blasts rocked the London subway and tore open a packed double-decker bus during the morning rush hour, sending bloodied victims fleeing. 52 were killed in the subway blasts, including 13 on the bus, and London hospitals reported more than 700 wounded. A group calling itself "The Secret Organization of al-Qaida in Europe" posted a claim of responsibility, saying they were in retaliation for Britain's involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. In 2007 British police arrested 3 suspects. [see ref URL for CNN timeline on the bombing] In 2008 a jury failed to convict 3 Britons accused of helping the suicide bombers. In 2009 three men were found not guilty of helping to plan the suicide bombings, although two were convicted on lesser charges.
    (AP, 7/7-8/05)(, 7/11/05)(WSJ, 3/23/07, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/2/08, p.A6)(AFP, 4/28/09)(AFP, 1/19/15)
2005        Jul 7, Al-Qaida in Iraq said in a Web statement that it has killed Ihab al-Sherif, Egypt's top envoy in Iraq, posting a video of the blindfolded diplomat identifying himself.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Egypt recalled its staff to Cairo and said it will temporarily shut its diplomatic mission in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Hurricane Dennis, a Category 4 storm with 135-mph winds, left 10 people dead in Haiti and some 100 missing.
    (AP, 7/9/05)
2005        Jul 7, The 150-ton KMP Digul sank off Papua province, Indonesia, while en route from the port town of Merauke to Tanah Merah. As many as 200 were feared dead.
    (AP, 7/9/05)(AP, 7/10/05)
2005        Jul 7, Iraq's president called for national unity as mortar attacks killed 4 civilians in the northern city of Mosul and police opened fire on demonstrators in Saddam Hussein's hometown Tikrit, wounding 4.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, About 600 US Marines and Iraqi soldiers launched Operation Scimitar near Fallujah, the fourth counterinsurgency operation in less than a month.
    (AP, 7/9/05)
2005        Jul 7, Ali Shakir, the head of Iraq's karate union, was kidnapped south of Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/9/05)
2005        Jul 7, Saddam Hussein's chief lawyer quit the Iraqi dictator's Jordan-based legal team, saying some of the team's American members were trying to control the defense and tone down his criticism of the U.S. presence in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker asked his citizens to pass a referendum in favor of the EU Constitution.
    (WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A5)
2005        Jul 7, In Pakistan 2 masked gunmen opened fire on an intelligence officer in a remote northwestern tribal region, killing him before fleeing.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, Romania's PM Calin Popescu Tariceanu said his Cabinet would resign and early elections would be called after a court blocked essential justice reforms required by the EU.
    (AP, 7/7/05)
2005        Jul 7, In Scotland world leaders united in a show of solidarity to condemn the deadly bombings in London as an attack on all nations and vowed to defeat the terrorists responsible.
    (AP, 7/7/05)

2006        Jul 7, The Arkansas state board barred Dr. Randeep Mann from prescribing narcotics after officials said 10 of his patients died from a lethal mix of drugs or an overdose of prescription medicines.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Louisiana joined 21 other states in banning Internet hunting, the practice of using a mouse click to kill animals on a distant game farm.
2006        Jul 7, Oil hit a fresh record high of $75.78 a barrel, boosted by strong demand in the US and global tension ranging from Iran's nuclear work to North Korea's missile tests.
    (Reuters, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Fighting in southern Afghanistan killed a US-led coalition soldier and at least eight suspected Taliban militants.
    (AP, 7/8/06)
2006        Jul 7, Syd Barrett (60), a founding member of the rock group Pink Floyd, died at his home in Cambridge, England. The band’s first album was “The Piper at the Gates of Dawn."
    (Reuters, 7/11/06)(SFC, 7/12/06, p.B7)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.83)
2006        Jul 7, In Canada 2 Mounties were wounded near the Saskatchewan community of Spiritwood as they investigated what appeared to be a family dispute. Constables Robin Cameron (29) and Marc Bourdages (26) died from their wounds on July 15 and 16.
    (AP, 7/17/06)
2006        Jul 7, In northern China a fire ignited explosives at a home in Dongzhai, a village in the coal-mining province of Shanxi, killing at least 47 people, many of them neighbors who had rushed to the scene to battle the flames. A seven-story apartment building collapsed in the major city of Zhengzhou in central China, killing at least two people and burying an unknown number of others.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, UN peacekeepers in Haiti found the bodies of 16 people believed killed in a surge of gang violence.
    (AP, 7/8/06)
2006        Jul 7, Iraqi forces backed by US aircraft battled militants in a Shiite stronghold of eastern Baghdad, killing or wounding more than 30 fighters and capturing an extremist leader who was the target of the raid. Residents claimed up to 11 civilians died. A series of bombs and a mortar round targeting the main Islamic weekly service struck four Sunni mosques in the Baghdad area and a Shiite mosque in northern Iraq, killing 17 people and wounding more than 50.
    (AP, 7/7/06)(AP, 7/8/06)
2006        Jul 7, Israel launched an airstrike in the northern Gaza Strip. Witnesses said three Palestinians were killed. The Israeli military said the attack on the town of Beit Lahiya targeted a group of militants. Palestinians said 32 people had died in days of Gaza fighting.
    (AP, 7/7/06)(WSJ, 7/8/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 7, Former Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi was ordered to stand trial following an investigation into the sale of television rights at Mediaset SpA.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, The first batch of Japanese troops began pulling out of Iraq.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, North Korea announced a scientific breakthrough. State-run media boasted that researchers developed a new cosmetic agent to make skin supple.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Pakistan's president amended a controversial Islamic law so that women facing charges for adultery and other minor crimes can be released on bail. The much-awaited amendment by President Gen. Pervez Musharraf to the Hadood Ordinance will initially affect 1,300 female prisoners.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, In the Philippines 6 fugitive military officers linked to a failed 2003 mutiny against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo were arrested.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Officials said Russian authorities have dramatically curtailed the number of stations broadcasting Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Voice of America news programs, sending an unsettling signal about the state of press freedoms in Russia.
    (AP, 7/8/06)
2006        Jul 7, A Spanish judge charged two former Guatemalan dictators with genocide and issued international warrants for their arrest. National Court Judge Santiago Pedraz issued warrants on charges of genocide, torture, terrorism and illegal detention against Gen. Efrain Rios Montt, Gen. Oscar Humberto Mejia Victores and six other men.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, Spain’s Agriculture Ministry said it has recorded its first case of H5N1 bird flu. The deadly strain was found in a water fowl in a marsh area outside the northern city of Vitoria.
    (AP, 7/7/06)
2006        Jul 7, The UN General Assembly unanimously approved a series of reforms that were welcomed by the US as a long overdue step toward greater efficiency and accountability. A two-week UN conference reviewing efforts to fight the illegal weapons trade ended in failure, with nations too divided on too many contentious issues to agree on the best way to combat a scourge that fuels conflict worldwide. Japan introduced a draft UN Security Council resolution to sanction North Korea for test-launching a series of missiles. The Council unanimously adopted a compromise resolution on July 15.
    (AP, 7/8/06)(AP, 7/7/07)

2007        Jul 7, The 24-hour Live Earth music marathon reached the Western Hemisphere with rappers, rockers and country stars taking the stage at Live Earth concerts to fight climate change.
    (SSFC, 7/8/07, p.A4)(AP, 7/7/08)
2007        Jul 7, A Big Mac in the US cost an average $3.41. At current exchange rates the cheapest Big Mac was in China at $1.45, and the most expensive in New Zealand at $5.89.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.74)
2007        Jul 7, Wildfires in California consumed 17,000 acres in Inyo National Forest and 7,500 acres in Los Padres National Forest. An 8,000-acre wildfire forced hundreds of people in the town of Winnemucca to leave their homes, one of more than a dozen blazes that charred a combined 55 square miles in northern Nevada. In Utah a 160,000-acre wildfire forced evacuations at Cove Fort and the Blundell Geothermal Power Plant. Wildfires also burned in Colorado, Arizona, Oregon and Washington states.
    (AP, 7/8/07)(SSFC, 7/8/07, p.A5)
2007        Jul 7, In Oregon Kent Couch (47) in his lawn chair with some snacks and a parachute rose to the sky under 105 large helium balloons. Nearly 9 hours later the gas station owner came back to earth in a farmer's field near Union, 193 miles from home. In September he had gotten off the ground for six hours.
    (AP, 7/10/07)
2007        Jul 7, A global poll picked the Great Wall of China, Rome's Colosseum, India's Taj Mahal, Peru’s Macchu Picchu, Jordan’s Petra, Brazil's Statue of Christ Redeemer and Mexico's Chichen Itza pyramid as the new seven wonders of the world. The campaign to name the new wonders was launched in 1999 by the Swiss adventurer Bernard Weber.
    (AP, 7/8/07)
2007        Jul 7, Barton Shackelford, former president of PG&E (1979-1985), died in Kentfield, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/16/07, p.C6)
2007        Jul 7, In Kandahar province Taliban fighters ambushed police traveling in between Ghorak and Mawiwand, sparking a six-hour battle. About 20 Taliban fighters were wounded in the engagement, and several police were missing. Taliban fighters beheaded two civilians they accused of being spies for the government or NATO. A roadside blast struck a NATO convoy in southern Afghanistan and wounded four alliance soldiers.
    (AP, 7/7/07)(AP, 7/9/07)
2007        Jul 7, A court in Algeria's Kabylie region sentenced Said Sahnoun, a correspondent for newspapers in sub-Saharan Africa, to 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.
    (Reuters, 7/8/07)
2007        Jul 7, Algeria's state oil and gas company and KBR Inc., a former Halliburton Co. subsidiary, signed a $2.88 billion deal for a liquefied natural gas plant.
    (AP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, Britain’s PM Gordon Brown pledged 14 million pounds in extra aid for parts of northern England hit by floods which killed at least four people.
    (AFP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, Jack Odell (b.1920), British creator of the Matchbox miniature toys (1953), died. The toys were made by Lesney Products, founded by Leslie and Rodney Smith in 1947. The company went public in 1960 and bankrupt in 1982, when it was sold to Hong Kong’s Universal International Ltd. In 1997 Mattel acquired Matchbox.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 7, German scientists said a genetically engineered herpes virus, designed to kill cancer cells but leave normal tissue unharmed, has shown early promise in clinical tests.
    (Reuters, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, Authorities said floods in eastern India have left nearly a million people stranded from torrential monsoon rains.
    (AFP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, In Iraq a bombing in Armili, a farming town of 26,000, mostly Shiites from Iraq's ethnic Turkoman minority, killed over 130 people. Another car bomb attack against a military checkpoint in Baghdad killed at least 3 people and wounded 10. British troops came under heavy attack by militants in Basra, killing one soldier and wounding 3. An American soldier was killed in combat in Salahuddin province.
    (AFP, 7/7/07)(AP, 7/8/07)
2007        Jul 7, In Indian-controlled Kashmir protesters clashed with police in Srinagar a day after a teenager was killed when police fired on a crowd protesting alleged human rights abuses.
    (AP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, In Indonesia a speeding bus carrying a group of junior high school students and their teachers plunged into a 30-foot ravine on the main island of Java, killing 14 people. Poisonous fumes from the Indonesia’s Salak volcano killed six teenagers who were camping on the mountain.
    (AP, 7/7/07)(AP, 7/8/07)
2007        Jul 7, Nepal's king celebrated his 60th birthday with a lavish ceremony at his palace that set off protests in the streets of Katmandu.
    (AP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, President Pervez Musharraf told Islamist militants barricaded in a mosque to surrender or die, while concern grew for hundreds of women and children inside the besieged compound in the Pakistani capital.
    (Reuters, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, Pope Benedict XVI removed restrictions on celebrating the old form of the Latin Mass in a concession to traditional Catholics, but he stressed that he was in no way rolling back the reforms of the Second Vatican Council.
    (AP, 7/7/07)
2007        Jul 7, Zimbabwe's government announced a new law making it an offense to defy steep price cuts ordered in an effort to control runaway inflation and a growing economic crisis.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

2008        Jul 7, Tropical storm Bertha strengthened to become the first hurricane of the Atlantic season.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, Bruce Conner (b.1933), SF-based artist, died. His collages and prints looked back to classics of surrealism. His work was later said to look like a bridge between the Beat generation and postmodernism.
    (, 7/8/08, p.B5)(SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)
2008        Jul 7, In Afghanistan a car bomb detonated by a suicide bomber ripped through the front wall of the Indian Embassy in central Kabul, killing 41 people in the deadliest attack in the capital since the fall of the Taliban.
    (AP, 7/7/08)(AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, Austria’s ruling coalition crumbled and new elections were expected as early as September. The left-right alliance broke up after 18 months in office.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A12)(Econ, 7/12/08, p.63)
2008        Jul 7, In central Bangladesh 2 passenger buses collided head-on, killing at least 20 people and wounding dozens more.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, The Church of England's ruling body voted its support for women to become bishops without giving traditionalist supporters of male-only priesthood the concessions they had sought.
    (AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, In China Diana O'Brien (22), a Canadian model, was found murdered in her Shanghai apartment. On Jul 11 police arrested Chen Jun (18), who confessed to killing the woman during a robbery.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Colombia a rose-laden US cargo plane headed for Miami crashed before dawn near Bogota, killing a father and son in their home on the ground. It was the second time in six weeks that a Boeing 747 flown by Ypsilanti, Michigan-based Kalitta Air has crashed.
    (AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Congo (DRC) unidentified gunmen ambushed a vehicle belonging to the World Wildlife Fund in Virunga national Park, killing two people and wounding three others.
    (AP, 7/9/08)
2008        Jul 7, Police in East Timor's capital fired tear gas to disperse students protesting a plan by lawmakers to buy themselves new cars with state funds.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Egypt smugglers killed a police officer during a shootout on the border with Israel.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, A court in Equatorial Guinea convicted former British officer Simon Mann on of being the key player in a failed 2004 coup plot in this Central African nation and sentenced him to 34 years and four months in prison.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, European Union nations gave their backing to a French-drafted pact calling for tightening immigration and asylum rules across the 27-nation bloc.
    (AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Germany war crimes suspect Callixte Mbarushimana, a former UN employee wanted for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, was arrested in Frankfurt.
    (AFP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, Germany’s Fresenius SE said it has agreed to buy US generic drug maker APP Pharmaceuticals for $3.7 billion in cash in a deal that will give the health care company more opportunities in the North American market for drugs administered intravenously.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, PM al-Maliki said Iraq has proposed a short-term memorandum of understanding with the US rather than trying to hammer through a formal agreement on the presence of US forces. A roadside bomb near a dress shop in Baqouba killed a woman and injured 14 others.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, Israeli troops in jeeps swooped down on the West Bank town of Nablus, shutting down a girls' school, a medical center and two other facilities of a Hamas-affiliated charity. Palestinian militants fired a mortar shell at a border crossing with the Gaza Strip. Israel's military said it had begun digging up the bodies of Lebanese fighters after the government struck a deal with Hezbollah guerrillas to swap five living prisoners and dozens of bodies for two Israeli soldiers captured in 2006.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, Israeli Lt. Col. Omri Borberg was caught on video holding the arm of Ashraf Abu Rahmeh while he was shot in the foot with a rubber-coated bullet in the West Bank village of Naalin. On Jan 27, 2011, an Israeli military court sentenced two soldiers, convicted in the close-range shooting of a bound and blindfolded Palestinian man, but spared them jail time.
    (AP, 1/27/11)(
2008        Jul 7, In Italy transport workers went on strike, forcing the cancellation of thousands of bus, tram and subway lines and snarling traffic across the country.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Japan G8 leaders raised the prospect of more sanctions against Zimbabwe unless quick progress is made to end a political crisis after a violent election that extended President Robert Mugabe's 28-year rule. The G8 met with seven African leaders at its annual summit. African leaders urged the Group of Eight nations to tackle spiking oil and food prices. Japan included 5 “outreach" countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa) for brief discussions with the G8.
    (Reuters, 7/7/08)(AFP, 7/7/08)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.33)
2008        Jul 7, In Indian Kashmir Ghulam Nabi Azad, the chief minister said he was stepping down following protests over the government’s handling of the transfer of government land to the Shiri Amarnath Shrine Board, a trust running the revered Hindu shrine.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A12)
2008        Jul 7, Mexican police found six charred bodies on a Tijuana street following a bloody weekend that left 14 people dead.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, In Pakistan a total of seven small blasts left 43 people wounded in the commercial capital of Karachi.
    (AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, Serbia's parliament approved a new government that includes a pro-Western group and the political party of the late strongman Slobodan Milosevic.
    (AP, 7/8/08)
2008        Jul 7, The South African Reserve Bank said 5 million coins featuring a smiling Nelson Mandela will go into circulation on July 18, the former president's 90th birthday.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, Sudan's parliament approved a new electoral law, a crucial step towards scheduled national elections and a democratic transition laid out in peace arrangements after a 21-year civil war.
    (AP, 7/7/08)
2008        Jul 7, A UNESCO official said that an 11th century temple that sits on Cambodia's disputed border zone with Thailand has been designated as a world heritage site. Hindu-themed Preah Vihear reflects the beliefs of the kings who ruled what was then the Angkorean empire.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2009        Jul 7, Google announced its new operating system, Google Chrome OS, which would initially target low cost netbooks.
    (SFC, 7/9/09, p.C1)
2009        Jul 7, Ron Nicolino (b.1939), artist and former resident of Point Richmond, Ca., died of cancer. He had attempted to string a collection of bras across the Grand Canyon in the mid-1990s, but was unable to get federal permission. Instead he and Ellen Duffy concocted the creation of a bra ball. A dispute led each one to create their own versions. Nicolino’s 1,600 pound “Big Giant Bra Ball" was left with his mother in Washington state.
    (SFC, 7/16/09, p.D7)
2009        Jul 7, In eastern Afghanistan a hand grenade thrown at a police vehicle exploded in a crowd, killing one civilian and wounding 28 others in Khost province. A British soldier died in an explosion in Helmand province. He was the 7th British soldier killed in Afghanistan in a week. Hundreds of insurgents attacked police posts and a government building in eastern Nuristan province. The attacks continued into the next day leaving 6 policemen and 21 insurgents dead. (AP, 7/7/09)(AP, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 7, British officials unveiled a memorial of 52 steel pillars in a London park, one for each victim of the July 7, 2005, attacks on the city's transit system.
    (AP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, The Cameroonian newspaper Le Jour said five Chinese workers were abducted off the oil-rich Bakassi peninsula in Cameroon near the border with Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 7, Canadian officials said they had identified yet another new flu virus, this one a mixture of human and swine influenzas, in two farm workers in Western Canada.
    (Reuters, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 7, In China mobs of Han Chinese wielding meat cleavers and clubs and groups of Muslim Uighur men beat people in the streets of Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang region. The government imposed a curfew as it tried to stem communal violence. The official Xinhua News Agency said that 1,434 suspects had been arrested, and that checkpoints had been set up to stop rioters from escaping.
    (AP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, In Egypt 22 people were killed in two separate accidents on the notoriously dangerous road between the capital Cairo and the southern city of Minya.
    (AP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, Ethiopia's parliament adopted a new anti-terrorism bill despite criticism by rights groups that the legislation violates civil liberties.
    (AFP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, In India at least 16 people were killed and 25 injured after a fire tore through a firecracker factory in Madurai.
    (SFC, 7/9/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 7, In Italy Matteo Salvini, a member of the often xenophobic, anti-immigrant Northern League party, resigned his seat in the lower chamber of Parliament after being filmed singing a racist chant about Naples and its residents.
    (AP, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 7, In northern Mexico an anti-crime activist and a neighbor were killed by gunmen believed linked to a drug cartel. Anti-crime activists said the slaying of Benjamin LeBaron, a US citizen, in Chihuahua state was the first time one of their own had been killed for denouncing crime and called it a chilling warning. Jose Rodolfo Escajeda, a lieutenant and one of the main operators of the Juarez cartel, was later presumed responsible for the killing of LeBaron and a neighbor near Nuevo Casas Grandes.
    (AP, 7/8/09)(AP, 9/6/09)
2009        Jul 7, In Pakistan a US missile strike pulverized a compound in a stronghold of Taliban warlord Baitullah Mehsud, killing 16 foreign and local militants in South Waziristan. Two paramilitary soldiers were killed and nine security personnel wounded in three bomb attacks in North and South Waziristan. The military said that four militants were killed, including a brother of Ibn-e-Amin, one of the most-wanted Taliban commanders in the Swat valley.
    (AFP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, In the Philippines a crude bomb hidden on a motorcycle exploded in a port city on southern Jolo island where al-Qaida-linked militants are active, killing at least two people and wounding 24.
    (AP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, In Moscow President Barack Obama asked the Russian people to "forge a lasting partnership" with the US, but he acknowledged after talks with PM Vladimir Putin that on divisive issues there won't be "a meeting of the minds anytime soon.
    (AP, 7/7/09)
2009        Jul 7, Spanish police arrested Jorge Alberto Soza (72), an ex-Argentine police official suspected of human rights abuses committed during the South American country's dirty war. Soza was wanted in Argentina in connection with 18 cases of kidnapping and torture between 1975 and 1977 when he was an assistant Federal Police commissioner and chief delegate in the southern Argentine city of Neuquen.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 7, Pope Benedict XVI called for a radical rethinking of global economy in “Caritas et Verite" (Charity in Truth) his 3rd encyclical.
    (SFC, 7/8/09, p.A2)

2010        Jul 7, At a US military tribunal Ibrahim Gitmo detainee Ahmed Mahmoud, a Sudanese man who was said to have worked in Afghanistan as Osama bin Laden’s bodyguard, driver, cook and paymaster, pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy and supporting terrorism.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.23)
2010        Jul 7, In Philadelphia, Pa., a 250-foot barge collided on the Delaware River with a stalled amphibious sightseeing boat. 2 visitors from Hungary were killed. In 2011 tug pilot Matt Devlin agreed to plead guilty to involuntary manslaughter following evidence that he was talking on a cell phone during the accident.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(SFC, 7/15/11, p.A7)
2010        Jul 7, In Brazil Bruno Souza, a star goalkeeper and captain of defending club champion Flamengo, surrendered to police to face questioning in connection with the disappearance and suspected death of his ex-lover, Eliza Samudio, last seen alive on June 7. Police believed Bruno was in a home near Belo Horizonte home with Samudio at the time of her murder, and that her body was later cut into pieces, some of which were fed to dogs in a bid to cover the murder.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)
2010        Jul 7, Police in northeast England detained Abid Naseer (24), the alleged ringleader of an al-Qaida bomb plot, at the request of the US government. He was among 12 people arrested last year in raids across northern England. All were released without charge.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, In Britain scientists at a top research unit embroiled in a row over climate research were cleared of dishonesty, but their lack of openness was criticized. The Independent Climate Change Email Review found nothing in the emails to undermine reports from the United Nations' climate change panel.
    (AFP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, China executed the former top justice official in the southwestern city of Chongqing, the highest ranking person caught in a massive crackdown on violent gangs and corrupt officials who protect them. Wen Qiang (55), former director of the Chongqing Municipal Judicial Bureau, was convicted in April of corruption charges involving organized crime.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, Cuba promised the Roman Catholic Church it will free 52 political prisoners, slashing the number held by nearly a third in what would be the communist-led island's largest release of dissidents since Pope John Paul II visited in 1998.
    (AP, 7/8/10)
2010        Jul 7, East Timor's Pres. Jose Ramos Horta said he supports in principle an Australian plan to turn his country into a regional center for processing asylum seekers but does not want his tiny, impoverished nation to become an "island prison."
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, European Union lawmakers voted overwhelmingly to cap bankers' short-term cash bonuses from next year, a move that European leaders hope other parts of the world will follow.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, A French court convicted Manuel Noriega of money-laundering and sentenced Panama's former dictator to seven years in jail after he spent two decades in a US prison.
    (AFP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, Germany's interior minister Thomas de Maiziere said his country plans to take in two inmates from the United States' Guantanamo Bay detention facility.
    (AP, 7/7/10) 
2010        Jul 7, Iranian media reported that the Veil and Modesty Festival, a fashion organization, has issued a new list of culturally appropriate haircuts for men, possibly indicating a new crackdown on male attire after years of strict rules for women, Iranian media reported.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, In Iraq militants targeted the homes of security forces west of Baghdad, blowing them up and killing three family members despite heightened security around the capital for a Shiite religious occasion. In a separate attack in the predominantly Sunni neighborhood of Dora in southern Baghdad, police Maj. Abdul-Rahman Sobhi was killed when a bomb attached to his car detonated as he drove to work. Nearly 60 people were killed in attacks in and around Baghdad, including 35 by a suicide bomber who targeted pilgrims heading to a mosque in northern Baghdad. Two people were killed near Ramadi, when insurgents blew up the houses of three policemen.
    (AP, 7/7/10)(AP, 7/8/10)
2010        Jul 7, Israel said that its moves to ease its blockade on Gaza do not include relaxing regulations on Palestinians looking to travel out of the enclave. Israel's military released maps and aerial photographs showing what it described as a network of Hezbollah weapons depots and command centers inside villages in south Lebanon, near the Israeli border.
    (AFP, 7/7/10)(AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, A Tokyo court convicted a New Zealand activist of assault and obstructing Japanese whaling ships in the Antarctic Ocean, and sentenced him to a suspended prison term. Peter Bethune (45) was also found guilty on three other charges: trespassing, vandalism and possession of a knife. Bethune was deported 2 days later.
    (AP, 7/7/10)(AP, 7/9/10)
2010        Jul 7, In Indian Kashmir 2 people were killed and anger increased when security forces beat people in funeral processions.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.42)
2010        Jul 7, In Mexico a judge acquitted Juan Llaca Diaz, a man charged with dealing in precursor drug chemicals and allegedly linked to the bust of a Chinese-Mexican businessman who hid $205 million at his Mexico City mansion.
    (AP, 7/9/10)
2010        Jul 7, A Mexican air force helicopter crashed in the western state of Jalisco, killing three military personnel on board.
    (AP, 7/10/10)
2010        Jul 7, Royal Dutch Shell said it has begun production at a major project in Nigeria that should eventually provide up to 70,000 barrels of oil per day and help boost electricity for the power-starved nation.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)
2010        Jul 7, The UN WHO said at least 2,000 lead-poisoning victims in northern Nigeria may require treatment to remove brain-damaging lead. The poisoning was believed to be related to the processing of lead-rich ore for the extraction of gold.
    (SFC, 7/8/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 7, A Peruvian judge halted the expulsion of Paul McAuley (62), a British religious activist. He was accused by the government of inciting unrest among indigenous groups protesting environmental damage to the Amazon rain forest.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, In the Philippines officials said Nicanor Faeldon (44), a rebel soldier accused of leading two failed coup attempts, has turned himself in to authorities after 3 years on the run. Faeldon, a former bomb making trainer with the marines, was accused of helping lead 300 soldiers in taking over the upscale Oakwood Hotel and a nearby shopping center in Manila's financial district of Makati in July 2003, rigging the area with bombs.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, In Poland Warsaw district court Judge Tomasz Calkiewicz ordered that Uri Brodsky, a Mossad agent, be extradited to Germany on charges of forgery. Brodsky was suspected of helping fake a German passport that was used by a member of a hit squad believed to be behind the killing of Mahmoud al-Mabhouh in Dubai in January.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, Thailand police said Russian pianist and composer Mikhail Vasilievich Pletnev, founder of the Russian National Orchestra, has been charged with raping a 14-year-old boy at a beach resort.
    (SFC, 7/8/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 7, A Yemeni court convicted two al-Qaida militants for the killing of senior police and army officers and sentenced them to death. Mubarak el-Shabawni (23) and Mansour Salem (18), arrested last December, denounced the verdict and shouted 'God is Great' afterward.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2011        Jul 7, In Michigan Rodrick Shonte Dantzler (34) killed seven people in a bloody rampage that ended when he shot himself in the head during a hostage standoff with police. Police said Dantzler had targeted two former girlfriends.
    (Reuters, 7/7/11)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.A5)
2011        Jul 7, In Texas Humberto Leal (38), a Mexican national, was executed for the rape-slaying of a teenager after the US Supreme Court turned down an appeal to spare him that was supported by Mexico and the White House. He was sentenced to death for the 1994 murder of 16-year-old Adria Sauceda.
    (AP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Wyoming Everett E. Conant III opened fire inside a mobile home in Wheatland killing his three sons and a brother. His wife was wounded.    He surrendered without incident and was charged with first-degree murder, attempted first-degree murder, battery and a weapons violation.
    (AP, 7/9/11)
2011        Jul 7, Rupert Murdoch caused astonishment when he killed off the 168-year-old News of the World after it was dogged by allegations that it hacked the voicemails of a teenage murder victim and the families of dead soldiers. This was widely seen as a way to quell the scandal and save the bid by his News Corp. for control of the satellite broadcaster BSkyB, on which the British government is due to decide.
    (AFP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed 8 Afghan policemen on a patrol in the northern district of Fayz Abad. A NATO service member died as a result of a non-battle related injury in the south. In the east a NATO helicopter crashed in Parnwan province, but the crew was recovered. Up to 13 civilians, mostly women and children, were killed in a NATO air strike in the eastern province of Khost.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, British officers arrested Eneko Gogeaskoetxea Arronategui (44), a suspected Basque separatist, in connection with a 1997 attempted assassination of Spain's King Juan Carlos. The arrest came a day after the arrest of ETA suspect Daniel Derguy on terrorism charges in Cahors, France.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Canada formally ended its combat mission in Afghanistan after years of being on the front lines of the fight against Taliban insurgents in the south.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Canada Richard Oland (69), part of the family that owns Moosehead Breweries, was found dead in a pool of blood in his office. His body bore numerous stab and blunt-force wounds to the head, neck and hands. Police said his son was the last person to see him alive.
    (AFP, 12/20/15)
2011        Jul 7, Ash from a Chilean volcano grounded flights across much of South America again, disrupting travel for thousands of people just as the continent's premier football tournament got going in Argentina.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In China 4 miners were killed in a gas explosion in a mine in the western-most Xinjiang region. The death toll in a mine that flooded on July 2 in Guangxi province rose to four, with 18 still trapped. In eastern Shandong province, the number of miners trapped in a coal mine in Zaozhuang city dropped to 28 following a fire the previous evening. 23 miners remained trapped in a coal mine in southwest Guizhou province that also flooded on July 2.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, A CongoDRC colonel known as Kifaru, accused of mass rapes last June in volatile eastern Congo, surrendered with 106 others.
    (AP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili's personal photographer was arrested on suspicion of espionage, along with his wife and two other photographers.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In northern India a train hit a stopped bus at a railway crossing, killing at least 35 people returning from a wedding party in Uttar Pradesh state.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Iraq a roadside bomb killed 2 US soldiers outside the main American military base in Baghdad.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 7, An Israeli tank hit a roadside bomb that was planted by Palestinian militants along the border with the Hamas-run Gaza Strip. A soldier was slightly injured in the incident.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Ivory Coast's government named Gen. Soumaila Bakayoko, a former rebel leader, as the new army chief, replacing Gen. Philippe Mangou, who served under the former strongman Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Kenya police tear gassed several hundred protesters marching toward the offices of Kenya's president and prime minister to demand action over a growing hunger crisis.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Lebanese lawmakers voted to approve the newly formed Hezbollah-dominated Cabinet after a contentious debate over the government's position in confronting the Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, A senior Libyan official accused NATO of intensifying its bombing campaign and backing foreign mercenaries to lay the groundwork for an advance by rebels.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Libya the International Organization for Migration (IOM) began an operation to return home around 2,000 Chadian migrants, mostly women and children, trapped in Libya.
    (AP, 7/9/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Malaysia a man carrying a machete barged into a kindergarten and held children and teachers hostage for six tense hours before police shot him in the head. The unidentified man was in hospital after sustaining a single bullet wound to the head.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Mexican judges convicted four men, Juan Alfredo Soto, Aldo Fabio Hernandez, Jose Dolores Arroyo and Heriberto Martinez, of killing 15 people in the Jan 30, 2010, Ciudad Juarez attack, known as the Villa Salvarcar massacre. The attack prompted President Felipe Calderon to alter the government's anti-drug strategy in the area. On July 11 the 4 men were each sentenced to 240 years in prison.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Mexico’s western state of Michoacan presumed drug gang members shot at federal officers, who repelled the attack and killed four alleged criminals and wounded another in the city of Apatzingan. Police said the gunmen were members of the Knights Templar, a criminal organization that split off from La Familia cartel.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In the Netherlands a large section of the roof of a soccer stadium collapsed during off-season construction work in Enschede, killing one person and leaving 10 hospitalized.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Nigeria motorcycles were completely banned in the northeastern city of Maiduguri, wracked by violence blamed on the Boko Haram Islamist sect.
    (AFP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Pakistan gunmen shot up a bus and opened fire in several neighborhoods of Karachi, killing at least 22 people. 49 other people were killed in the city in sporadic shootings over the last 3 days.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(SFC, 7/8/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 7, Ricardo Alegria (90), a Puerto Rican scholar, died. He was known for his pioneering studies of the island's native Taino culture and is credited with preserving the capital's colonial district.
    (AP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, Swedish officials said a man (36) with tracheal cancer has received a new lab-made wind pipe seeded with his own stem cells in the first successful attempt of its kind.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 7, Syrian protesters hurled stones and set roadblocks of burning tires against government forces trying to enter Hama, a key opposition city, where Syrian troops had killed 23 civilians since July 5. Around a hundred families fled Hama fearing a military crackdown.
    (AP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 7/7/11)
2011        Jul 7, In Turkmenistan a series of mysterious blasts severely damaged hundreds of houses in the town of Abadan, 12 miles (20 km) from the capital, Ashgabat. Exiled Turkmen activists said a munitions dump was the source of the blast and that many people have been killed.
    (AP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, Yemen’s Pres. Saleh appeared on state TV late in the day, a first since flying to Saudi Arabia a month ago to treat wounds sustained in an attack on his palace. The video showed the leader with casts on his arms and visibly weakened after a series of operations, reinforcing speculation that he won't return to Yemen soon.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2012        Jul 7, The Obama administration declared Afghanistan the United States' newest "major non-NATO ally," an action designed to facilitate close defense cooperation after US combat troops withdraw from the country in 2014. Afghanistan was the 15th such country to receive the designation.
    (AP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, Thousands of visitors climbed aboard the USS Iowa as the storied WWII and Cold War battleship opened as a museum at the port of Los Angeles.
    (Reuters, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Massachusetts Democratic Representative Barney Frank wed his longtime partner, James Ready, becoming the first sitting congressman to enter into a same-sex marriage.
    (Reuters, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, The US Border patrol said agents had opened fire along the Rio Grande border after being pelted by rocks. A Mexican citizen was fatally shot at the Los Tomates-Veterans int’l. bridge in Brownsville, Texas.
    (SFC, 7/10/12, p.A4)
2012        Jul 7,     Philip L. Fradkin (b.1935), environmental journalist and historian, died at his home in Point Reyes, Ca. His 13 books included “A River No More" (1981), about the taming of the Colorado River and “Wallace Stegner and the American West" (2008).
    (SFC, 7/11/12, p.C5)
2012        Jul 7, A video obtained by Reuters showed a man shooting dead a woman accused of adultery in front of a crowd near Kabul. Provincial Governor Basir Salangi said the video was shot a week ago in the village of Qimchok in Shinwari district. Salangi said two Taliban commanders were sexually involved with the woman, either through rape or romantically, and decided to torture her and then kill her to settle a dispute between the two of them.
    (Reuters, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb ripped through a pickup truck in the Chora district of Uruzgan province killing six people. Another bomb exploded in the Gereshk district of Helmand province, killing one child and wounding another. A rocket attack targeting the governor's office in Farah province killed one civilian and wounded 26 others. A NATO service member was killed in southern Afghanistan in a roadside bomb explosion.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Burkina Faso West African presidents (ECOWAS) met with civil leaders from Mali in a bid to secure a national unity government to tackle a crisis in the north where Islamists have enforced Sharia law.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In China the Rev. Thaddeus Ma Daqin was consecrated as auxiliary bishop of Shanghai. Ma announced that he would no longer work for the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CCPA), the government body that oversees Catholics in China.
    (SFC, 7/11/12, p.A6)(Economist, 9/8/12, p.42)
2012        Jul 7, East Timor's voters went to the polls in parliamentary elections seen as a key test for the young and fragile democracy and likely to determine if UN peacekeepers can leave by the end of the year. Preliminary results showed resistance hero Xanana Gusmao to be set for a new term as premier after his party won most seats in parliamentary polls, but will have to form a coalition.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, Egyptian border guards arrested 68 Eritreans and Ethiopians trying to sneak across the border into Israel.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, Thousands of Israelis took to the streets in Tel Aviv to call on the government to require all sectors of society to participate in national service.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Libya hundreds of protesters burned ballots to demand greater representation although most residents of the Mediterranean city of Benghazi voted in historic elections. Acts of sabotage, mostly in the east of the country, prevented 101 polling stations from opening. 80 seats were set aside for party lists, while the remaining 120 were for individual independent candidates. In Benghazi the liberal National Forces Alliance took 95,733 votes against 16,143 for the Islamist Justice and Construction Party (JCP). The National Forces Alliance, a liberal coalition led by wartime prime minister Mahmud Jibril, gained 39 of 80 seats open to parties in the General National Congress. The Justice and Construction Party, which was launched by Libya's Muslim Brotherhood, took only 17 seats. The remainder of party seats went to a constellation of smaller, lesser-known parties.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/11/12)(AFP, 7/17/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Mexico tens of thousands of people marched in Mexico City to protest Enrique Pena Nieto's apparent win in the country's presidential election, accusing his long ruling party of buying votes.
    (AP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, Myanmar authorities released all of the student leaders detained in the country's biggest crackdown on activists since the dissolution of the junta. At least 20 people were detained ahead of today’s commemoration a 1962 crackdown, sparking calls for their immediate release.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Nigeria assailants launched "sophisticated attacks" on several villages near Jos. At least 80 people were killed and more than 300 displaced people from the attacks. Similar raids have been blamed on Muslim herdsmen in the past.
    (AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul 7, An explosion injured five Palestinian children in the central Gaza Strip, a hospital said, blaming Israeli tank fire. Witnesses said, however, that there were no Israeli tanks in the area at the time and that the explosion might have been caused by an old bomb.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In the Philippines presidential palace said President Benigno Aquino has signed a long-delayed executive order revamping the mining industry.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Russia overnight rains dumped as much as 28 cm (about 11 inches) of water on parts of the Krasnodar region. Water rushed into the hard-hit town of Krymsk with such speed and volume that residents said they suspected that water had been released from a reservoir in the mountains above. Federal investigators acknowledged that water had been released from the reservoir, but they insisted it did not cause the flooding and the dam had not been breached. The death toll in the southern Black Sea region soon reached 171.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AP, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul 7, Somali security forces said they had detained over 500 people in a two-day operation in the Mogadishu area who were either Islamist rebel fighters or had have links to them.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, Sudan and South Sudan pledged to cease hostilities along their disputed oil-rich border but stopped short of actually signing an agreement.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Sudan Kamal Omar, head of the politburo in the opposition Popular Congress Party, was taken from his home by suspected agents of the National Intelligence and Security Service. Omar was to fly to Qatar on July 9 for an appearance on Al-Jazeera satellite news channel.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, Syria's military began large-scale exercises simulating defense against outside "aggression." Activists struggling to topple the regime reported fierce government offensives to try to retake rebellious areas outside of Aleppo and near Damascus. Shells fired from inside Syria killed 2 Lebanese civilians and injured 10 others. 77 people were killed across Syria, among them 39 civilians, 25 soldiers and 13 rebels.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 7, Taiwanese residents of the offshore island of Matsu voted in favor of opening Taiwan's first legal casino.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)
2012        Jul 7, In Ukraine a bus carrying Russian religious pilgrims crashed killing 14 of 45 people onboard near Chernihiv.
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.A4)
2012        Jul 7, In Yemen 2 protesters were killed and one man was left "clinically dead" and several people were shot and wounded, including three police, as a separatist march in Aden turned into a gunbattle. In the town of Seyun in Hadramawt province, one protester was killed and four others were wounded.
    (AFP, 7/7/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)

2013        Jul 7, In Alaska an air taxi crashed after takeoff from Soldotna killing the pilot and all 9 passengers.
    (SFC, 7/8/13, p.A4)
2013        Jul 7, In Montana Cody Lee Johnson (25) died in Glacier National Park. Jordan Lynn Graham (22), his newly-wed wife of 8-days, later admitted that she pushed her husband off a cliff and then lied about his death. On Dec 12 Jordan pleaded guilty to pushing her husband. On March 27 she was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 9/11/13, p.A4)(SFC, 12/13/13, p.A15)(SFC, 3/28/14, p.A14)
2013        Jul 7, In Afghanistan a roadside bomb seriously wounded Fazil Ahmad, the High Peace Council’s chief in Ghazni province. His driver was killed. The government said fighting over the previous 24 hours killed 14 Afghan soldiers and 64 Taliban militants.
    (SFC, 7/8/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 7, Bahrain said twin attacks have left a policeman dead and three injured in the latest sign of targeted strikes by anti-government factions.
    (AP, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric once called "Osama bin Laden's right-hand man in Europe," was deported from Britain to Jordan. Qatada pleaded innocent to terrorism charges in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, In India a series of 10 bombs exploded in and around the Mahabodhi Temple complex, a revered Buddhist site at Bodh Gaya in Bihar state. This is where Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained enlightenment.
    (Econ, 7/27/13, p.35)(
2013        Jul 7, The president of Iraqi Kurdistan, Masoud Barzani, visited Baghdad for the first time in more than two years, in a step towards resolving long-running disputes between the central government and the autonomous region over land and oil.
    (Reuters, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, Israel's cabinet approved a draft law to abolish wholesale exemptions from military duty granted to Jewish seminary students, stoking ultra-Orthodox anger over the break with tradition.
    (Reuters, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, In Mexico an election for mayor of Fresnillo, Zacatecas state, was won by Benjamin Medrano (47). He became the first openly gay mayor ever elected in Mexico and was scheduled to take office in September.
    (SFC, 7/19/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 7, North and South Korea agreed to take steps to reopen a jointly run industrial park, including facilities inspections, after the two rivals staged a marathon meeting lasting more than 16 hours to arrange details.
    (Reuters, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, Gaza's Hamas authorities said they have broken up a counterfeiting ring that had printed millions of dollars worth of fake Israeli currency. Authorities uncovered the ring last week.
    (AP, 7/7/13)
2013        Jul 7, In Somalia journalist Liban Abdullahi Farah was gunned down in Galkayo, Puntland province. He was the 6th journalist to die violently in Somalia this year.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.44)(
2013        Jul 7, In Spain several thousand thrill-seekers tested their bravery by dashing alongside six fighting bulls through the streets of of Pamplona on the first day of the running of the bulls at the annual San Fermin festival. Only four people were treated for injuries and no one was gored.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2014        Jul 7, National Nude Recreation Week began in the US.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.27)
2014        Jul 7, Chicago authorities said the Fourth of July holiday weekend brought an explosion of gunfire to the city, with more than 50 people shot and nine killed.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 7, In southern California drivers in a long-running labor dispute with three trucking companies at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach began what they said would be an indefinite strike.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Washington state issued its first retail marijuana licenses.
    (SFC, 7/8/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 7, In Afghanistan former finance minister Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai led in the disputed presidential election, according to a preliminary tally. Ghani had about 4.5 million votes while Abdullah had 3.5 million votes. The Independent Election Commission acknowledged that vote rigging had occurred and promised to launch a more extensive investigation before final results are released.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, In northern Afghanistan a rocket fired by insurgents hit a home, killing five children in Kunduz province. Gunmen killed five policemen in a separate attack in Herat province.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Australia's government confirmed that it had handed over a boatload of asylum seekers to Sri Lankan authorities in a transfer at sea, drawing outrage from human rights groups who fear those on board could be persecuted in their home country.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Bahrain ordered US diplomat Tom Malinowski to leave the country after he met with a leading Shiite opposition group.
    (AP, 7/7/14)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.42)
2014        Jul 7, In the Central African Republic Muslim fighters attacked St. Joseph’s Cathedral compound in Bambari killing at least 17 people.
    (SFC, 7/9/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 7, Chile’s Pres. Michelle Bachelet announced that her government objects to the Int’l. Court of Justice’s jurisdiction to hear Bolivia’s suit over a land dispute that goes back to the 1879-1884 War of the Pacific.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 7, China’s state media said authorities have taken down more than 40 groups called "violent terror gangs" and arrested more than 400 people in the restive western region of Xinjiang since the government began a crackdown in May.
    (Reuters, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, In an open letter, more than 190 neuroscience researchers on called on the EU to put less money into the effort to "build" a brain, and to invest instead in existing projects. The 10-year $1.6 billion Human Brain Project is largely funded by the European Union.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Eduard Shevardnadze (86), a former president of Georgia and Soviet foreign minister, died in Georgia after a long struggle with illness.
    (Reuters, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Germany's transport minister announced plans to introduce a car toll that seeks to make money off foreign drivers for the maintenance of its roads.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, India’s Supreme Court ruled that Islamic courts have no legal authority in India, saying Muslims cannot be legally subject to a parallel religious authority.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, In Iraq Major General Najm Abdullah al-Sudani, the commander of the army's 6th division, was killed by hostile shelling in Ibrahim bin Ali in the Abu Ghraib area, just west of Baghdad. At least 7 people including four policemen were killed in northern Baghdad when a suicide bomber blew up a car packed with explosives at a checkpoint.
    (AFP, 7/7/14)(Reuters, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, An Israeli official said three suspects (ages 29,17,17) in the July 2 vigilante-style killing of Palestinian teenager Mohammed Abu Khdeir have confessed to the crime.
    (AP, 7/7/14)(Reuters, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 7, Italy’s navy said its search and rescue mission saved more than 2,600 migrants from boats in the Mediterranean over the weekend, as the number reaching Italy from Africa this year surged to a record.
    (Reuters, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, In Kenya thousands of people rallied in Nairobi against President Uhuru Kenyatta's rule, with some calling for him to step down because he had failed to improve the lives of Kenyans more than a year after he came to office.
    (AP, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 7, A Kuwaiti court freed prominent opposition leader Mussallam al-Barrak on bail after police fired tear gas and stun grenades to disperse a fifth straight night of demonstrations demanding his release.
    (AFP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Lebanon charged 28 people with planning to carry out suicide bomb attacks and belonging to the militant group Islamic State. Seven of the 28 charged by prosecutors were in custody.
    (Reuters, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, A magnitude-6.9 earthquake on the Pacific Coast jolted a wide area of southern Mexico and Central America. At least 5 people were killed, 2 in Guatemala and 3 in Mexico.
    (AP, 7/7/14)(SFC, 7/9/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 7, Militants in the Gaza Strip unleashed dozens of rockets on southern Israel late today, setting off air raid sirens and forcing hundreds of thousands of Israelis to stay indoors as the military rushed more forces to the border and warned that even heavier fighting looked likely. 8 Palestinian militants were killed in fighting, the highest death toll yet. Among the dead were 6 Hamas militants who Israel said were killed in an accidental blast in a tunnel packed with explosives.
    (Reuters, 7/7/14)(AP, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 7, In Saudi Arabia three mortar bombs landed near Arar, close to the northern border with Iraq, where Islamist militants have grabbed land in a lightning advance.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 7, Syrian troops advanced in and around Aleppo in what appeared to be an attempt to lay siege to rebel-held parts of the city.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Thailand's navy inaugurated a state-of-the-art headquarters and training center for its submarine squadron, even though it has no subs to command.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, In Ukraine three bridges on key roads leading into the Donetsk were blown up in an apparent attempt to slow down any possible assault by government forces on the rebel-held stronghold.
    (AP, 7/7/14)
2014        Jul 7, Pope Francis begged forgiveness in his first meeting with Catholics sexually abused by members of the clergy and vowed to hold bishops accountable for their handling of pedophile priests.
    (SFC, 7/8/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 7, A Vietnamese military helicopter on a parachute training mission crashed 24 miles west of to Hanoi, killing 16 people on board and critically injuring five others. 2 of the injured soon died.
    (AP, 7/7/14)(AP, 7/8/14)

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