Today in History - July 11

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1174        Jul 11, Amalric I, king of Jerusalem, died.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)

1216        Jul 11, Hendrik of Constantinople, emperor of Constantinople (1206-16), died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1244        Jul 11, The Khwarezmian Turks attacked Jerusalem. By August 23 they completely razed it and left it in ruins useless to both Christians and Muslims.

1274        Jul 11, Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (1306-1329), was born in Turnberry, Scotland.
    (HN, 7/11/01)(MC, 7/11/02)
1302        Jul 11, An army of French knights, led by the Count of Artois, was routed by Flemish pikemen.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1346        Jul 11, Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany. [see Jun 11]
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1533        Jul 11, Henry VIII, who divorced his wife and became head of the church of England, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)

1578        Jul 11, England granted Sir Humphrey Gilbert a patent to explore and colonize US.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1593        Jul 11, Giuseppe Arcimboldo (b.1527), Italian painter, died. Arcimboldo painted representations of objects, such as fruits and vegetables, on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. He painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II composed entirely of vegetables.
    (, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1644        Jul 11, A Florentine scientist described the invention of barometer.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1708        Jul 11, The French were defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1742        Jul 11, Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.
    (MC, 7/11/02)
1742        Jul 11, A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1754        Jul 11, Thomas Bowdler, the famous prude who bowdlerized Shakespeare, was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1766        Jul 11, Elisabeth Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1767        Jul 11, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), was born in Braintree, Mass.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)(PGA, 12/9/98)

1774        Jul 11, Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for this event.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1786        Jul 11, Morocco agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1796        Jul 11, Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time. Under provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1794, the British had agreed to give up control of Michigan and other parts of the Northwest Territory they had occupied since the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.

1798        Jul 11, The US Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act. US Pres. John Adams signed legislation that established the US Marine Band, composed of 32 drummers and fifers. Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)(HNQ, 8/1/99)(AP, 7/11/08)

1799        Jul 11, An Anglo-Turkish armada bombarded Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Alexandria Egypt. The attack was ineffective.
    (HN, 7/11/00)

1804        Jul 11, Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where Hamilton died. In 1999 Richard Brookhiser wrote "Alexander Hamilton: American." In 2001 Joanne B. Freeman edited his writings and published: Alexander Hamilton: Writings."
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(ON, 12/08, p6)

1810        Jul 11, The Australian-Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the uninhabited Macquarie island, half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, accidentally when looking for new sealing grounds. The island took its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821.

1816        Jul 11, Gas Light Co. of Baltimore was founded.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1836        Jul 11, Pres. Jackson, alarmed by the growing influx of state bank notes being used to pay for public land purchases, issued the Specie Circular shortly before leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer accept paper notes as payment for such sales. This led to the financial panic of 1837.
    (, p.6)

1838        Jul 11, John Wanamaker (d.1922), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)(ON, 12/05, p.6)

1862        Jul 11, President Abraham Lincoln appointed General Henry Halleck as general in chief of the Federal army.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1863        Jul 11, The Battle of Fort Wager began as Union forces assaulted the Confederate battery on Morris Island at the southern approach to Charleston Harbor.

1864        Jul 11, Confederate General Jubal Early's army arrived in Silver Spring, Maryland, on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and began to probe the Union line. Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an invasion of Washington, D.C., turning back the next day.
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)
1864        Jul 11, Battle of Laurel Hill, WV.
    (MC, 7/11/02)
1864        Jul 11, Battle of Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1870        Jul 11, 1st-stone Amstel Brewery opened in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1877        Jul 11, Los Angeles recorded a temperature of 112 degrees, but it was not recorded as an all-time-high because official recording only began 20 days later.
    (SFC, 6/11/09, p.D8)

1888        Jul 11, Bartomeo Vanzetti, executed with Nicola Sacco for several murders during a robbery, the trial created an international storm of protest, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1899        Jul 11, E. B. White (Elwyn Brooks White, d.1985), writer, author of "Charlotte's Web" and "The Elements of Style," was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)(PGA, 12/9/98)(MC, 7/11/02)

1909        Jul 11, Simon Newcomb, celestial mechanics authority, died.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1914        Jul 11, Babe Ruth debuted in the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox. He earned $2,900 in his rookie season.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1916        Jul 11, Dan Patch (b.1896), a record-breaking, Indiana-born, harness race horse, died and was buried in Minnesota. He was the first harness race horse to break the 2-minute mile. In 2008 Charles Leersen authored “Crazy Good: The True Story of Dan Patch, The Most Famous Horse in America." Here Leersen details the pharmacopoeia used in racing at the turn of the century. 
    (WSJ, 5/17/08, p.W9)

1917        Jul 11, The Allied assault on Flanders, Belgium, began and lasted to Nov 10, for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passchendaele. 9 major battles took place during this period in the Allied attempt to capture Passchendaele. In preparation for the attack the Allies fired some 4.2 million shells. In 2006 military teams around Flanders still retrieved 2-3 dozen shells per day.  
    (AM, 7/04, p.9)(WSJ, 5/24/06, p.A1)

1918        Jul 11, Enrico Caruso joined the war effort and recorded "Over There", the patriotic song written by George M. Cohan.
1918        Jul 11, German Prince Herzog von Urach (1864-1928) was elected King of Lithuania with the regnal name Mindaugas II. He never assumed the crown, however, as German authorities declared the election invalid. The invitation was withdrawn in November 1918.

1920        Jul 11, Yul Brynner, actor (The King and I, The Ten Commandments), was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1921        Jul 11, Mongolia gained independence from China (National Day). The holiday of Naadam, which originated in the time of Ghenghis Khan, was later fixed to July 11-13 to the anniversary of the Revolution.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F5)

1924        Jul 11, After 103 roll calls the Democrats bypassed New York governor Alfred E. Smith and William G. McAdoo of California and nominated John W. Davis of West Virginia and Charles Bryan, brother of William Jennings, to run against Calvin Coolidge. The Democrats won just 29% of the popular vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Senator Robert "Fighting Bob" LaFolette of Wisconsin who led the Progressive Party.
    (Hem., 8/96, p.87)

1927        Jul 11, Theodore H. Maiman, physicist, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/01)

1931        Jul 11, Tab Hunter, actor, was born in NYC, the son of Charles Kelm and Gertrude Gelien. In 2005 he authored “Tab Hunter Confidential," co-written with Eddie Muller.
    (, 11/7/05, p.C3)

1934        Jul 11, President Roosevelt became the first chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal while in office.
    (AP, 7/11/97)

1936        Jul 11, Triborough Bridge linking Manhattan, the Bronx and Queens opened.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1937        Jul 11, George Gershwin (b.1898 as Jacob Gershowitz), composer, died of a brain tumor at age 38 in Beverly Hills, Ca. His work included "Cuban Overture."  He wrote his first hit, "Swanee," in 1918 for the Broadway show, "Sinbad," starring Al Jolson. George Gershwin wrote the scores for such Broadway shows as "Funny Face," "Porgy and Bess" and "Of Thee I Sing" (his first musical to win a Pulitzer Prize [1932]). Gershwin played the piano at the premiere of his widely acclaimed "Rhapsody in Blue" in 1924, accompanied by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra. Gershwin’s song hits included "The Man I Love," "’S Wonderful," "Summertime" and "Love Is Here to Stay." The lyrics for many of his songs were written by his brother Ira. He was born September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, NYC, NY. to Russian Jewish immigrants.
    (, 12/4/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.38)

1939        Jul 11, Yanks hosted the 7th All Star Game. McCarthy started 6 Yanks, AL won 3-1.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1941        Jul 11, The 2nd great roundup of Jews of Amsterdam took place.
    (MC, 7/11/02)
1941        Jul 11, Vichy-French planes bombed Tel Aviv and killed 20 Jews.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1942        Jul 11, In the longest bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1943        Jul 11, Heinrich Himmler ordered the liquidation of Polish ghettos.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1945        Jul 11, Napalm was first used.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)
1951        Jul 11, Bonnie Pointer, singer, was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1952        Jul 11, The Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president. Theodore Roosevelt McKeldin (1900-1974), the governor of Maryland (1951-1959), gave the nominating speech.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.23)(

1953        Jul 11, Leon Spinks, world heavyweight boxing champ (1978), was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)
1953        Jul 11, "Amos 'n Andy," TV Comedy, also radio from '29; last aired on CBS.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1955        Jul 11, The new US Air Force Academy was dedicated at Lowry Air Base in Colorado.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(PGA, 12/9/98)

1958        Jul 11, Monument Valley, straddling the Arizona-Utah border, became the 1st Navajo Tribal Park.
    (SSFC, 10/6/02, p.C15)

1960        Jul 11, Katanga province, with the support of Belgian business interests and troops, broke away from the new Congolese government of Patrice Lumumba, declaring independence under Moise Tshombe leader of the local CONAKAT party. This led to five years of mayhem.
    (, 9/27/14, p.59)

1961        Jul 11, China and North Korea signed the Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance. This committed China to defend North Korea if attacked.
    (, 10/14/06, p.25)

1962        Jul 11, The Telstar I satellite carried the first transatlantic TV transmission. It picked up broadcast signals from France and bounced them down to an antenna in Maine, delivering the first live television picture from Europe to America.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)(
1962        Jul 11, Cosmonaut Micolaev set longevity space flight record -- 4 days.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1964        Jul 11, Queen Elizabeth ordered Beatles to her birthday party and they attended.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1966        Jul 11, Debbie Dunning (actress: Home Improvement), was born.
    (MC, 7/11/02)
1966        Jul 11, "I Am A Rock" by Simon & Garfunkel peaked at #3.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1969        Jul 11, David Bowie (b.1947), British musician, released his single “Space Oddity," supposedly in conjunction with the July 20 Apollo 11 moon landing.

1971        Jul 11, Chile’s Congress passed an amendment, submitted by President Allende, to nationalize all mines. On July 16 Chile by law nationalized the US-owned copper mines based on a calculation of the companies' "excess profits" from 1955 to 1970. It was determined that Chile owed American companies Anaconda and Kennecott Copper nothing for the mines.
    {Chile, M&A, USA}

1972        Jul 11, American forces broke the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1974        Jul 11, John W. Dean testified before the US House Judiciary Committee in the impeachment inquiry of Pres. Nixon.

1975        Jul 11, Archaeologists unearthed an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi). [see 210BC]
    (HN, 7/11/01)

1977        Jul 11, The Medal of Freedom was awarded posthumously to the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in a White House ceremony.
    (AP, 7/11/97)
1977        Jul 11, The CRAY 1-A was delivered to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). This was Cray Research's first official customer, paying US$8.86 million ($7.9 million plus $1 million for the disks).
1977        Jul 11, In Argentina Bishop Carlos Horacio Ponce de Leon (b.1914) died in a car accident while driving with Victor Oscar Martinez to deliver evidence of junta crimes to the Vatican’s representative. The evidence disappeared.
    (SFC, 4/21/11, p.A2)( 

1978        Jul 11, Christa Tybus of London set a 24 hrs hula-hoop record.
1978        Jul 11, In Spain 216 people were killed at a camping site when a tanker truck overfilled with propylene gas exploded on a coastal highway south of Tarragona.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(AP, 7/11/97)

1979        Jul 11, The abandoned 78-ton US space station Skylab made a spectacular return to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere and showering debris over the Indian Ocean and Western Australia. Solar storms were blamed for Skylab’s premature fall back.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(SFC, 6/3/00, p.A6)(SFC, 3/7/06, p.A5)
1980        Jul 11, American hostage Richard I. Queen, freed by Iran after eight months of captivity because of poor health, left Tehran for Switzerland.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)(AP, 7/11/01)   

1982        Jul 11, The Italian soccer team won its first World Cup in 44 years.

1985        Jul 11, Houston Astro's Nolan Ryan became the first pitcher to strike out 4000 batters as he fanned Danny Heep of the New York Mets.

1986        Jul 11, President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
    (HN, 7/11/98)
1986        Jul 11, Mary Beth Whitehead christened her surrogate Baby M (b.3/27/86), Sara.

1987        Jul 11, Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke won a third consecutive term, becoming the first Labor Party leader in the country's history to be elected to three straight terms in office.
    (AP, 7/11/97)

1988        Jul 11, Nine people were killed when three Abu Nidal terrorists attacked hundreds of tourists aboard a Greek cruise ship, the City of Poros, which was steaming toward a marina in suburban Athens.
    (AP, 7/11/98)(

1989        Jul 11, The American League won the 60th All-Star Game, defeating the National League 5-3 in Anaheim, Calif.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1989        Jul 11, Laurence Olivier (b.1907), British actor, director and producer, died in West Sussex, UK. In 1991 Donald Spoto authored the biography “Laurence Olivier." In 2005 Terry Coleman authored the biography “Olivier." In 2013 Philip Ziegler authored the biography “Olivier."
    (AP, 7/11/99)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M6)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.92)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.82)

1990        Jul 11, Leaders of the so-called "Group of Seven" nations concluded their summit in Houston by encouraging Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to enact reforms in return for Western aid.
    (AP, 7/11/00)

1991        Jul 11, A solar eclipse cast a blanket of darkness stretching nine-thousand miles from Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some places.
    (AP, 7/11/01)
1991        Jul 11, A Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, int'l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1992        Jul 11, Undeclared presidential hopeful Ross Perot, addressing the NAACP convention in Nashville, Tenn., startled and offended his listeners by referring to the predominantly black audience as "you people."
    (AP, 7/11/97)
1992        Jul 11, In Bosnia it was later alleged on Dutch TV that Dutch troops deliberately drove an armored vehicle into a Muslim blockade on this day and killed as many as 30 people.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A14)

1993        Jul 11, President Clinton wrapped up his visit to South Korea with a visit to the Demilitarized Zone separating South and North Korea; he then flew to Hawaii, where he placed a wreath at the site of the sunken battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor.
    (AP, 7/11/98)
1993        Jul 11, In Des Moines, Iowa, severe flooding shut down a water system serving 250,000 residents.
    (AP, 7/11/98)

1994        Jul 11, President Clinton, on his first official visit to Germany, urged his hosts to take on a stronger leadership role in global affairs.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1994        Jul 11, Shawn Eckardt was sentenced in Portland, Ore., to 18 months in prison for his role in the attack on figure skater Nancy Kerrigan.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1994        Jul 11, Gary Kildall (52), pioneer software writer, died in Monterey, Ca.
1994        Jul 11, Haiti's army-backed regime ordered the expulsion of international human rights observers.
    (AP, 7/11/99)

1995        Jul 11, Full diplomatic relations were established between the United States and Vietnam following an order by Pres. Clinton.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(HN, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.I6)
1995        Jul 11, Srebrenica, a UN declared "safe area," fell to the Bosnian Serbs. 7,000 Muslim men supposedly escaped but were never heard from again. Drazen Erdemovic (24) later admitted that he participated in killing 70 men at Srebrenica. Victims were shot in the back in groups of 10 by himself and fellow soldiers in the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Sabotage Detachment. He was told that he would be killed if he refused to follow orders. In 1998 the book "The Graves: Srebrenica and Vukovar" was published with photographs by Gilles Peress and text by Eric Stover.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 7/7/96, A10) (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.6)
1995        Jul 11, Videotape showed Gen. Ratco Mladic entering Srebrenica.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A8)
1995        Jul 11-1995 Jul 16, In the Srebrenica Massacre buses arrived to take women and children to Muslim territory, while the Serbs began separating out all men from age 12 to 77 for "interrogation for suspected war crimes". It is estimated that 23,000 women and children were deported in the next 30 hours while hundreds of men were held in trucks and warehouses. On 13 July killings of unarmed Muslims took place in one such warehouse in the nearby village of Kravica. By July 16 Early reports of massacres emerged as the first survivors of the long march from Srebrenica began to arrive in Muslim-held territory. Between July 11 and July 16 more than 7,000 unarmed Muslim men are thought to have been killed by Serbian forces.

1996        Jul 11, A report stated that Malaria infects 300 million people each year and kills 1.5 to 2.7 million. A drug, artemether, derived from a Chinese herb was appearing to be as effective as quinine.
    (SFC, 7/11/96, p.C1)
1996        Jul 11, An Air Force F-16 jet trying to make an emergency landing slammed into a house in Pensacola, Fla., setting the home on fire, killing a 4-year-old boy and badly burning his mother. The pilot ejected safely.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A1)(AP, 7/11/97)
1996        Jul 11, The Argentine minister of justice, Rodolfo Barra, resigned his post due to his past association as a teen-ager in the 60s with the anti-Semitic group, Tacuara.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A14)
1996        Jul 11, Two bombs ripped apart buses in Moscow and injured at least 23 people. A Chechen link was suspected but not proven.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)

1997        Jul 11, President Clinton was cheered by tens of thousands of people in Bucharest, Romania, where he raised hopes for NATO membership.
    (AP, 7/11/98)
1997        Jul 11, Uwatec Corp. was sold to Johnson Worldwide Assoc. (later Johnson Outdoors Inc.) for $33.5 million. A defect in the Aladin Air X Nitrox, an underwater diving computer, was not disclosed. Injuries and lawsuits followed and the product was pulled Feb 5, 2003.
    (SSFC, 5/25/03, p.A18)
1997        Jul 11, A Cuban An-24 passenger plane with 44 people plunged into the sea after take-off from Santiago de Cuba onroute to Havana.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A14)
1997        Jul 11, In India a riot broke out in Bombay after a garland of shoes - a grave insult - was draped over a bust of Babasaheb Ambedkar, a political leader from Hinduism’s lowest caste. Police killed ten people including two children on their way to school.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.C1)
1997        Jul 11, In Thailand a kitchen fire went out of control at the 450-room Royal Jomtien Hotel in Pattaya and killed 91 people with 64 injured.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)(AP, 7/11/07)

1998        Jul 11, Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie, a casualty of the Vietnam War, was laid to rest near his Missouri home after the positive identification of his remains, which had been enshrined at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, Va.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1998        Jul 11, From Australia it was reported that dingoes from Mount Archer National park near the central Queensland coast were stalking neighborhoods for food.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A8)
1998        Jul 11, Police in Cartagena, Colombia, seized 7 metric tons of cocaine in cargo containers bound for Europe.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A12)
1998        Jul 11, Some 600,000 people gathered in Berlin for the annual Love Parade, billed as the largest celebration of techno music.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A18)
1998        Jul 11, In Guinea-Bissau Radio Bombolon mixed music and junta rhetoric and featured the Iva and Ichy local hit duo.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 11, In Iran Mayor Karbaschi gave a 4-hour defense statement at the close of his trial in Tehran. He was accused of misappropriating public funds.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A17)
1998        Jul 11, It was reported that fires in southern Italy and Sicily burned 2,500 acres of forest and grassland.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A8)
1998        Jul 11, It was reported that tens of thousands of rotting fish were left when a section of the Llobregat River was drained too fast to fill a repaired canal.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A8)

1999        Jul 11, A US Air Force cargo jet, braving Antarctic winter, swept down over the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center to drop off emergency medical supplies for Dr. Jerri Nielsen, a physician at the center who had discovered a lump in her breast.
    (AP, 7/11/00)
1999        Jul 11, In London 2 Egyptian associates of Osama bin Laden were arrested. The fingerprints of Ibrahim Hussein Abdel Hadi Eidarous (42) and Adel Abdel-Meguid Abdel-Bary (39) were found on statements taking responsibility for the attacks against US embassies in Africa last August.
    (SFC, 7/13/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 11, In Colombia the leftist offensive continued. An army statement said 202 guerrillas, 19 policemen, 4 soldiers and 9 civilians had been killed. Rebel sources said 68 security force members were killed and 32 rebels.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A10)
1999        Jul 11, In Congo rebels dismissed the peace agreement signed by 6 countries involved in the war and said the war would continue and get worse.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)
1999        Jul 11, In India and Pakistan top commanders agreed to the withdrawal of Islamic militants from Kashmir along with a complete cease fire.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 11, In Gaza Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak met with Yasser Arafat and both promised to work for peace.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 11, In Iran some 10,000 students demonstrated in Tehran with protests in other major cities. Two security chiefs responsible for the raid on a student dormitory, that prompted the demonstrations, were fired.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 11, In Turkey a bomb exploded in Van and 16 people were injured.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

2000        Jul 11, In Cincinnati the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the nation’s oldest black church, elected Rev. Vashti Murphy McKenzie as its 1st female bishop in its 213-year history.
    (SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(AP, 7/11/01)
2000        Jul 11, The American League defeated the National League 6-to-3 in the All-Star Game.
    (AP, 7/11/01)
2000        Jul 11, A Middle East summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
    (AP, 7/11/01)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 11, In NYC a brownstone apartment building collapsed in Brooklyn and at least 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.A7)
2000        Jul 11, Robert Runcie, the former archbishop of Canterbury, died in Hertfordshire, England, at age 78.
    (AP, 7/11/01)
2000        Jul 11, In China it was reported that 6 members of a Uighur separatist group were executed.
    (WSJ, 7/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 11, In Kashmir Muslim militants killed 3 Buddhist monks at a vehicle check at Rangdum and escaped with Harfurth Rolf, a German tourist. Rolf’s body was found Aug 3 on a glacier in the Kishtwar mountain range.
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A11)
2000        Jul 11, In Russia Prime Minister Kasyanov warned business barons that the immunity they enjoyed under the Yeltsin government was over. Lukoil was charged with tax evasion and the offices of Gazprom and media-Most were raided in a fraud case. Also the head of RAO Norilsk Nickel was told to pay $140 million extra for his controlling stake.
    (WSJ, 7/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 11, In Uganda rival clans of the Karamojong tribe clashed and 63 cattle herders were killed.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.D2)

2001        Jul 11, The Democratic-led Senate voted to bar coal mining and oil and gas drilling on pristine federally protected land in the West, dealing a fresh blow to President Bush's energy production plans.
    (AP, 7/11/02)
2001        Jul 11, In NYC the city and police union made a tentative agreement to pay $9 million to settle a suit by Abner Louima over his 1997 police beating.
    (WSJ, 7/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 11, A wildfire in Washington state killed 2 male and 2 female firefighters in the Chewuch River Valley of the north Cascade Mountains.
    (SFC, 7/12/01, p.A3)
2001        Jul 11, A new African Union was born at the closing of the final summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) for all of Africa’s 53 countries. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) was set up as the economic development arm of the OAU.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.37)
2001        Jul 11, An Israeli soldier shot and killed a Palestinian woman after her taxi evaded a roadblock. Israeli police in Afula captured a Palestinian would-be suicide bomber.
    (SFC, 7/12/01, p.A12)
2001        Jul 11, In Russia Pres. Putin signed into law a plan to import spent nuclear fuel for reprocessing. The imports would be subject to approval by a commission chaired by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Zhores Alferov.
    (SFC, 7/12/01, p.A14)

2002        Jul 11, Lawmakers balked at moving the Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency into a new Homeland Security Department despite pleas from senior Cabinet officials to stick to President Bush's blueprint. Both agencies did end up being included in the new department.
    (AP, 7/11/03)
2002        Jul 11, US scientists financed by the Pentagon announced that they had synthesized a virus from scratch for the 1st time. They built a polio virus relying only on genetic sequence information publicly available.
    (SFC, 7/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 11, Bernardas Brazdzionis (95), Lithuanian émigré poet, died in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 7/19/02, p.A27)
2002        Jul 11, Former Argentina junta leader Leopoldo Galtieri was arrested for the torture and execution of leftists during the military dictatorship (1976-1983).
    (SFC, 7/12/02, p.A10)
2002        Jul 11, Lawmakers in Ontario passed back-to-work legislation to end a two-week strike by Toronto garbage collectors that covered the country's biggest city in mounds of rotting waste.
    (Reuters, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, In Colombia authorities confirmed that the mayors of 28 cities and towns resigned this week after leftist rebels threatened to kill mayors if they didn't step down.
    (AP, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, Typhoon Chata'an left 5 dead in Japan and moved north.
    (Reuters, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, President Kim Dae-jung picked South Korea's first female prime minister and replaced six other ministers in a reshuffle seen as a bid to boost the government's image before December presidential polls.
    (Reuters, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, Three members of the Lebanese army intelligence service were killed while trying to make arrests near Lebanon's largest Palestinian refugee camp, the Lebanese army said.
    (AP, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, Moroccan soldiers planted a national flag on Perejil Island (parsley in Spanish), 200 yards off the coast near Ceuta. Spain had claimed control since the 17th century. Moroccans called the 0.58-square mile rocky outcrop Leila (night in Arabic). Spanish troops swiftly dislodged the Moroccans without a shot being fired. Under a diplomatic resolution, both sides agreed to leave it as a no man's land.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A20)(SFC, 7/20/02, p.A10)(AP, 11/3/07)
2002        Jul 11, Peru's prime minister and finance minister said they resigned Thursday as part of a Cabinet shake-up designed to stem the plummeting popularity of President Alejandro Toledo's year-old government.
    (AP, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, Solomon Islands police reported that 10 men who went in search of a rebel warlord to capture him for a bounty payment had all been killed.
    (AP, 7/11/02)   
2002        Jul 11, Turkey's foreign minister resigned, dealing a harsh blow to Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, who was struggling to stay in power despite ill health and mass resignations from his party.
    (AP, 7/11/02)
2002        Jul 11, In Venezuela an estimated 600,000 people marched demanding that Pres. Chavez abandon the presidency.
    (AP, 7/12/02)(SFC, 7/12/02, p.A9)

2003        Jul 11, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Yoweri Museveni in Uganda. Bush and his wife Laura praised Uganda's aggressive prevention and treatment programs to combat HIV.
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/11/03)
2003        Jul 11, CIA Director George Tenet took blame for Pres. Bush's State of the Union discredited claim that uranium from Africa had been shipped to Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/18/03, p.A14)
2003        Jul 11, Thousands marked the anniversary of the 1995 massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia, burying 282 newly identified victims.
    (AP, 7/11/04)
2003        Jul 11, The Canadian government gave Air Canada the right to operate scheduled passenger flights to Cuba.
    (Reuters, 7/11/03)
2003        Jul 11, In China a mudslide left 50 people missing in Sichuan province.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2003        Jul 11, India and Pakistan resumed bus service, a transportation link that was disrupted 18 months earlier due to threats of war.
    (AP, 7/11/03)
2003        Jul 11, In Iran Zahra Kazemi (54), a Montreal-based journalist, died of brain hemorrhage from inflicted blows. [see Jun 23] Iran later admitted that she was murdered while under police custody. In 2004 a closed trial was held for a secret agent charged with the murder. Mohammad Reza Aghdam Ahmadi pleaded innocent on July 17 and the trial was abruptly ended the next day. The Tehran court acquitted Ahmadi.
    (AP, 7/13/03)(SFC, 7/17/03, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/19/04, p.A8)(AP, 7/25/04)
2003        Jul 11, Spain, a leading U.S. ally during the war to oust Saddam Hussein, agreed to send 1,300 soldiers to Iraq.
    (AP, 7/12/03)
2003        Jul 11, In western Sudan about 30 rebels and an undisclosed number of government troops were killed during fighting near the border with Chad.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2003        Jul 11, The World Trade Organization ruled that heavy duties on steel imports imposed by the United States violated global trade rules.
    (AP, 7/11/04)

2004        Jul 11, Joe Gold (82), founder of Gold’s Gyms fitness chain, died in LA.
    (WSJ, 7/13/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 11, Laurance Rockefeller (94), conservationist, philanthropist and venture capitalist died in his sleep in NY. He had a lifelong affinity for the rustic and left a legacy of parks from Wyoming to Vermont that were expanded on land he donated.
    (AP, 7/12/04)
2004        Jul 11, It was reported that Jonathan Keith Idema (1956-2012), former US special operations soldier, was recently arrested along with Brent Bennet and Edward Caraballo for running a vigilante anti-terrorism campaign in Kabul. They had posed as government officials and imprisoned innocent Afghan men. Caraballo was released April 30, 2006, after serving 21 months of a 2-year sentence. Idema and Bennet continued to serve their 5 and 3 year sentences.
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.A10)(SFC, 5/1/06, p.A8)(Econ, 2/4/12, p.98)
2004        Jul 11, A bomb exploded on a bustling street of Herat, Afghanistan, killing five people, and injuring 29.
    (AP, 7/11/04)
2004        Jul 11, A truck crashed into a house packed with guests at a wedding reception in Indonesia, killing 17 and injuring 13.
    (AP, 7/11/04)
2004        Jul 11, Insurgents ambushed 2 US military patrols north of Baghdad and killed 3 US soldiers and an Iraqi civilian.
    (AP, 7/11/04)(SSFC, 7/11/04, p.A8)
2004        Jul 11, Gunmen killed the head of a regional office of one Iraq's largest Shiite parties in a drive-by shooting south of the capital.
    (AP, 7/12/04)
2004        Jul 11, Suspected Muslim guerrillas sliced off the nose, ears and tongue of Mariam Begum, a 14-year-old girl in Indian Kashmir, believing her to be an informer for the Indian army. Elsewhere in Kashmir, 16 Muslim rebels and four soldiers were killed in separate gun battles over the weekend.
    (Reuters, 7/11/04)
2004        Jul 11, In Japan’s upper-house elections PM Junichiro Koizumi and his Liberal Democratic Party LDP won 49 seats, one seat less than the opposition DPJ. Koizumi and his Liberal Democratic Party-led ruling bloc held on to a majority.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.41)(AP, 7/11/05)
2004        Jul 11-14, Security forces raided five villages in Nigeria's oil-rich southern delta, leaving 15 people dead and homes ransacked and burned.
    (AP, 7/15/04)
2004        Jul 11, Palestinian militants set off explosives hidden in shrubs at a Tel Aviv bus stop, killing a female soldier and seriously wounding at least five people.
    (AP, 7/11/04)
2004        Jul 11, Boris Tadic (46) leader of the Serbian opposition Democratic Party, took office vowing to bring stability to the Balkan republic and push it closer to the EU and NATO.
    (AP, 7/11/04)
2004        Jul 11, The 15th Int’l. AIDS conference began in Bangkok, Thailand. UN chief Kofi Annan challenging world leaders to do more to combat the raging global epidemic.
    (SFC, 7/13/04, p.A1)(AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 11, Frances Langford (b.1913), singer and entertainer, died. The 1935 song “I’m in the Mood for Love" by Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh was her signature piece.
    (SFC, 7/12/05, p.B5)
2005        Jul 11, In Afghanistan 4 suspected terrorists escaped from the main US base, the first time anyone has broken out of the heavily guarded detention facility. Omar al-Farouq was one of the four suspected Arab terrorists to escape from the detention facility at Bagram. Born in Kuwait to Iraqi parents, he was considered one of Osama bin Laden's top lieutenants in Southeast Asia until Indonesian authorities captured him in 2002 and turned him over to the US. On Nov 2 Indonesian anti-terrorism official, Maj. Gen. Ansyaad Mbai, sharply criticized the US government for failing to inform him that al-Farouq was no longer behind bars.
    (AP, 7/11/05)(AP, 11/2/05)
2005        Jul 11-2005 Jul 12, Fighting between rebels and Afghan and American forces in Zabul province left 17 insurgents dead.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 11, Joao Batista Ramos da Silva, a Brazilian congressman and an ordained minister of the evangelical Christian Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, was detained with 6 other people as they tried to board a private jet with seven suitcases stuffed with cash. Ramos said the $2.6 million in Brazilian reals was from tithes collected during religious services
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, It was reported kidnappers in Brazil were targeting the mothers of top soccer players with 5 mothers kidnapped in the last 7 months.
    (SFC, 7/11/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 11, British investigators found the images of 4 young men carrying backpacks in King's Cross station at about 8:30 a.m., 20 minutes before the Jul 7 subway explosions.
    (AP, 7/13/05)(AP, 7/14/05)
2005        Jul 11, The Deh Cho First Nations of the Northwest Territories agreed to a deal with the Canadian government to get meaningful participation in the environmental assessment and regulatory review of the $5.7 billion Mackenzie Valley Pipeline for gas project.
    (WSJ, 7/12/05, p.A15)
2005        Jul 11, In China an explosion in the Shenlong Coal Mine in the far west Xinjiang region killed at least 76 miners. 7 were still reported missing.
    (AP, 7/12/05)
2005        Jul 11, In Iraq US troops killed 10 more insurgents in the northern city of Tel Afar. 6 civilians were reported killed in the Tal Afar fighting. Insurgents stormed an Iraqi army checkpoint north of Baghdad, killing 12 people, including 9 soldiers.
    (AP, 7/11/05)(Reuters, 7/11/05)(SFC, 7/12/05, p.A3)
2005        Jul 11, Deputy PM Shimon Peres said Israel is asking the US for $2.2 billion in additional aid to help fund its upcoming withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Bank.
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, A judge ordered the arrest and isolation of 3 senior officers of the Banco di Credito Cooperativo Sofige Gela, a small bank on Sicily’s southern coast. They had been under investigation for aiding and abetting the Mafia.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.72)
2005        Jul 11, Hugo Alberto Wallace (36), a divorced entrepreneur, was kidnapped as he left a movie theater in Mexico City. In 2007 Brenda Quevedo was arrested in Louisville, Kentucky, after Maria Isabel Miranda, the mother of Wallace, received a tip and tracked her down. Frustrated with investigators' lack of progress in her son's 2005 kidnapping, Miranda launched her own investigation, tracking down five suspects. In 2009 Quevedo was extradited to Mexico.
    (, 9/26/09)
2005        Jul 11, The Dutch market research firm, VNU, announced its acquisition of IMS Health, the leading supplier of research to pharmaceutical firms, for $7 billion.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.60)
2005        Jul 11, A boat rescuing flood-hit Pakistani villagers hit a power cable and 14 people, including eight children, were electrocuted.
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, Russian prosecutors said they have opened a criminal investigation into former PM Mikhail Kasyanov (Misha 2%), a potential presidential candidate, for abuse of office.
    (AP, 7/11/05)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.48)
2005        Jul 11, Russian news media reported that Rosoboronexport, Russia’s main arms exporter, has signed a $300 million deal to sell jet fighter engines to China.
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, In Russia at least 20 people were killed after arsonists set fire to a store in the northern city of Ukhta.
    (Reuters, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, A SA government report said more than 6.5 million of South Africa's 47 million people could be infected with HIV.
    (AP, 7/12/05)
2005        Jul 11, Kurdish guerrillas kidnapped a Turkish soldier after stopping dozens of cars at a makeshift roadblock in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, Thailand reported the discovery of 10 new cases of bird flu just as it was about to declare the country free of the disease.
    (AP, 7/11/05)
2005        Jul 11, In Trinidad a bomb exploded in a trash bin in downtown Port-of-Spain on Monday, injuring 14 people.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2006        Jul 11, The American League edged the National League 3-2 in the All-Star Game in Pittsburgh.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2006        Jul 11, The Bush administration pledged that detainees at Guantanamo will be accorded basic human rights protections under the Geneva Conventions.
    (SFC, 7/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 11, In Chicago, a Blue Line train derailed and started a fire during the evening rush hour, filling a subway tunnel with smoke and forcing dozens of soot-covered commuters to evacuate.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2006        Jul 11, It was reported that Nielsen Media Research will begin formal ratings for TV commercial breaks.
    (WSJ, 7/11/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 11, Kathy Augustine (50), Nevada state controller, died suddenly. Her husband, Chaz Higgs, said it was a heart attack and chalked it up to the stress of an uphill election battle for state treasurer. But just days after her death, Higgs tried to kill himself by slitting his wrists. On Sep 29 Police arrested Higgs in Hampton, Va., after toxicology tests found a drug in his wife’s system that would have paralyzed her. Higgs was convicted on June 29, 2007, of killing Augustine by injecting her with succinylcholine, a paralyzing drug. He was sentenced to life with a possibility of parole after serving 20 years.
    (AP, 7/21/06)(SFC, 9/30/06, p.A3)(
2006        Jul 11, Barnard Hughes (b.1915), film and theater actor, died in New York.
    (AP, 7/11/07)(
2006        Jul 11, Coalition and Afghan forces hunting a Taliban commander killed an estimated 30 extremists in a raid on a hide-out in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, In northern Bangladesh a train plowed through a bus at an unmanned railway crossing, killing at least 33 people and injuring about 15 others.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, The Bank of Canada held its key overnight interest rate steady, as expected, and gave no sign it was considering further hikes.
    (Reuters, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Central American presidents agreed on a plan to ease border controls and install a common customs system on the way to negotiating an eventual free-trade agreement with the EU. The agreement signed by Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize would allow residents to cross borders without passports or visas.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, EU finance ministers made Slovenia the 13th member of the euro zone. This gave Slovenia 5 months to print and mint euro notes to replace the tolar on January 1.
    (WSJ, 7/12/06, p.A10)
2006        Jul 11, A survey, sponsored by the German development agency GTZ, reported that breast ironing, the use of hard or heated objects or other substances to try to stunt breast growth in girls, is widespread in Cameroon. The age-old practice was said to be traditional in West and Central Africa, including Chad, Togo, Benin, Guinea-Conakry, just to name a few.
    (Reuters, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, China's president issued an unusual public appeal to a visiting North Korean official to avoid aggravating tensions with its missile test program, as the US and Japan urged Beijing to press its ally Pyongyang for concessions.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Andres Pastrana, Colombia's ambassador to the United States, resigned in anger over President Alvaro Uribe's selection of Ernesto Samper, a disgraced former Colombian leader (1994-1998) as ambassador to France.
    (AP, 7/12/06)
2006        Jul 11, Police in Kinshasa, Congo, fired tear gas to break up stone-throwing demonstrators who were alleging electoral irregularities ahead of the country's first presidential vote in four decades.
    (AP, 7/12/06)
2006        Jul 11, In India 8 explosions hit Mumbai's commuter rail network during the evening rush hour, killing over 200 people and wounding over 500. Police said Lashkar-e-Taiba was responsible.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.39)(AP, 7/11/07)(WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A6)
2006        Jul 11, Indonesia passed a law granting tsunami-ravaged Aceh province greater autonomy and paving the way for elections, cementing the terms of a landmark 2005 peace accord with separatist rebels. The law allowed local political parties and for the Acehnese to keep 70% of the revenues from their oil and gas reserves.
    (AP, 7/11/06)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.42)
2006        Jul 11, Sunni Arab representatives said they will end their boycott of Iraq's parliament following promises that a kidnapped colleague will be released and a call for reconciliation by a radical Shiite cleric. Gunmen in Baghdad intercepted a minivan carrying a coffin to the Shiite city of Najaf, killing all 10 people on board. Another five people were killed in a double bombing at a restaurant near the Green Zone. Bombings and shootings killed at least 50 people Baghdad. An al-Qaida-linked group posted a Web video purporting to show the mutilated bodies of two US soldiers, claiming it killed them in revenge for the rape-slaying of a young Iraqi woman by American troops from the same unit. The Mujahedeen Shura Council had previously claimed responsibility for killing the two soldiers, who were seized in a June 16 attack near the town of Youssifiyah. The bodies were found on June 20. Gunmen kidnapped Wissam Jabr al-Awadi, an Iraqi diplomat who specializes in relations with Iran, as he was driving near his home in Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/11/06)(SFC, 7/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 11, Israeli leaders ordered new incursions into the Gaza Strip after the Hamas leader said he would not free an Israeli soldier captured by Palestinian militants.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, In Italy Piaggio & C. SpA, the maker of the iconic Vespa scooter, defied weak market conditions that have derailed other planned public offerings recently to see its shares surge above the IPO price in their debut in Milan.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, In Kashmir a series of grenade attacks killed eight people and wounded more than two dozen in the Srinagar.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, An officials said Kyrgyzstan's Foreign Ministry has decided to expel two US diplomats for "inappropriate" contacts with nongovernment organizations.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, State Department official Paula Dobriansky held talks with Libyan PM Baghdadi Mahmudi and announced that the US has lifted sanctions on Libyan air transport.
    (AFP, 7/12/06)
2006        Jul 11, In Mexico a man was shot to death in front of Acapulco's City Hall and a naval officer was abducted, the latest violence in this resort city hit by a wave of drug-related crime. The 2 men slain were later identified as military officers responsible for the mayor's security.
    (AP, 7/11/06)(AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 11, With the release of hundreds of prisoners, wrestling matches and hordes of warriors on horseback, Mongolia began a once-in-800-year party in honor of its famed emperor Genghis Khan.
    (AFP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Nepal's Maoists revealed for the first time how many soldiers they have, 36,000, in published remarks.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, In northwestern Pakistan torrential rains triggered flooding that washed away homes in a village, killing 13 people and injuring about 300.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, President Mahmoud Abbas' office said it had received $50 million from the Arab League, the most international aid Palestinians have gotten since the Islamic militant group Hamas won legislative elections.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Hundreds of fighters who were battling Somalia's Islamic militia in Mogadishu surrendered after a surge of violence that killed more than 70 people and wounded 150.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, In South Korea more than 10,000 workers and activists rallied in the 2nd day of demonstrations aimed at blocking a free-trade agreement under discussion with the US.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Four Tamil Tiger rebels were killed when Sri Lanka's navy retaliated against an attacking rebel boat in the sea off Northern Jaffna peninsula.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Ukraine's newly created pro-Russian governing coalition proposed Viktor Yanukovych, a bitter rival of President Viktor Yushchenko, as the next prime minister, an appointment that would mark a humiliating defeat for the president.
    (AP, 7/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, The tiny nation of Vanuatu, one of the "happy isles of Oceania," has topped a new index, the UK-based New Economics Foundation (NEF), that measures quality of life against environmental impact, with industrial countries, perhaps unsurprisingly, faring badly.
    (Reuters, 7/11/06)

2007        Jul 11, Lady Bird Johnson (b.1912), widow of former US Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969), died in Austin, Texas.
    (SFC, 7/12/07, p.A2)(Econ, 7/21/07, p.85)
2007        Jul 11, In San Francisco Joseph Konopka, a neighborhood activist, died at his home on Ashbury St. in the midst of erotic asphyxiation. Terry Frazier was soon arrested and charged with murder, robbery and burglary. In 2010 Frazier pleaded guilty to manslaughter charges.
    (SSFC, 3/21/10, p.C2)
2007        Jul 11, In Algeria a suicide bomber blew up a refrigerated truck loaded with explosives at a military encampment outside Algiers, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 35.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Manol Velev, a Bulgarian businessman, was shot and left in a coma. Velev was married to Bulgaria’s sports minister and had paid for the 2006 re-election campaign of Pres. Georgi Parvanov. Velev was released from the hospital on December 6, 2007 and faced extensive rehabilitation.
    (, 8/11/07, p.42)
2007        Jul 11, In Canada "Honest Ed" Mirvish (92), a colorful Toronto character who restored theaters, produced musicals, and ran a brash and cavernous discount store, died.
    (Reuters, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, China's food and drug agency announced stricter rules for approving new drugs. The government also ordered small, loosely regulated food producers to clean up their act.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Nick Young, British editor of the newsletter China Development Brief, said officials had ordered the shut down of the newsletter for violating a 1983 law on gathering statistics. Young had founded the publication in 1995.
    (SFC, 7/12/07, p.A11)
2007        Jul 11, Three firefighters died while battling a blaze in a forest on the Greek island of Crete.
    (AP, 7/12/07)
2007        Jul 11, A passenger ship carrying 70 people disappeared off eastern Indonesia after reporting engine failure in stormy seas. The bodies of two children were found drifting in nearby waters along with several survivors.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Jordan's military court convicted and sentenced two militants to prison with hard labor for plotting to attack Americans living in the kingdom.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Kurdish leaders spoke out against a key oil law, raising further doubts over efforts to pass one of the political benchmarks sought by the United States.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Libya's Supreme Court upheld the death sentences of five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor convicted of infecting more than 400 children with the AIDS virus. But the verdict may not be the final word in the case.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, In western Mexico Honda, Hershey's and other multinational companies temporarily shut down their factories after rebels attacked a key natural gas pipeline.
    (AP, 7/12/07)
2007        Jul 11, Nigeria's anti-corruption agency arrested two former governors who had refused to present themselves for questioning.
    (AP, 7/12/07)
2007        Jul 11, Pakistani commandos cleared the warren-like Red Mosque complex of all its die-hard defenders, following an assault that ended a bloody eight-day siege and left more than 80 dead, including a pro-Taliban cleric.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Hamas boycotted the opening of the Palestinian parliament's new term, effectively allowing President Mahmoud Abbas to keep his moderate emergency Cabinet in power.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Rwanda’s state-run radio said the Senate has approved the abolition of the death penalty, a key step demanded by the international community to transfer genocide suspects to Rwandan courts.
    (AFP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Serbia rejected a new US-backed UN draft resolution on Kosovo, saying it would only lead to the province's independence.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, In southern Thailand suspected separatists over the last 24 hours shot dead 4 people including a government official, as the Thai premier began a two-day visit to the region.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 11, Turkey's ambassador to Washington said that US weapons have been turning up in the hands of Kurdish guerrillas staging attacks in Turkey.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2008        Jul 11, US banking regulators seized IndyMac Bancorp Inc., Pasadena-based mortgage lender, after withdrawals by panicked depositors led to the second-largest banking failure in US history. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac said that their finances were sufficiently sound to withstand the housing crisis as government officials scrambled to restore confidence in the country's two largest mortgage finance companies.
    (Reuters, 7/12/08)(SFC, 7/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 11, Gregg Bergersen (51), a former US Defense Department analyst, was sentenced in Virginia to 57 months in prison for passing classified information about Taiwan to a Chinese government agent.
    (Reuters, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, Apple introduced its next generation iPhone in 22 countries. Unprecedented demand caused initial service problems.
    (SFC, 7/12/08, p.C1)
2008        Jul 11, Oil prices touched $147 a barrel before beginning a decline.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.70)
2008        Jul 11, Dr. Michael DeBakey (b.1908), the world-famous cardiovascular surgeon, died. He pioneered such now-common procedures as bypass surgery and invented a host of devices to help heart patients. He was among the first to link lung cancer to smoking in a medical journal article in 1939.
    (AP, 7/12/08)(SSFC, 7/13/08, p.B6)
2008        Jul 11, In San Francisco Armando Estrada (30) of Rodeo, Ca., was shot and killed at 20th and Mission streets. In 2009 Jonathan Cruz-Ramirez and Guillermo Herrera, alleged members of the MS-13 street gang, were charged with the murder.
    (SFC, 10/23/09, p.A12)(
2008        Jul 11, In Australia the official program for the Catholic church's World Youth Day began, but was partly overshadowed by the launch of an investigation into sexual abuse allegations against a disgraced priest. Thousands of pilgrims converged on Sydney as it braced for the weekend arrival of Pope Benedict.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)(AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva promised to support East Timor during talks in Dili with Timorese leaders including President Jose Ramos-Horta.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, In Cambodia Khim Sam Bo (47), a journalist working for a pro-opposition newspaper, was killed along with his son (19) in a drive-by shooting in Phnom Phen. A gunman on a motorcycle shot five times at the victims as they were leaving a sports stadium on a motorcycle.
    (AP, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, Officials said the bodies of four Africans have been found in a small boat packed with migrants trying to reach Spain's Canary Islands. It was the third such tragedy in a week.
    (AP, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, President Raul Castro warned Cubans to prepare for a "realistic" brand of communism that is economically viable and does away with excessive state subsidies designed to promote equality on the island.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, The Czech Republic’s Industry and Trade Ministry announced that Russia has reduced its oil shipments to the country without providing an explanation. The cutback was announced three days after the nation signed a military agreement with Washington that the Kremlin strongly opposes. Russia later said the supplies dropped because 2 Russian firms had decided to refine more crude at home.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(WSJ, 7/15/08, p.A9)
2008        Jul 11, Ethiopia's Ogadeni rebels accused the regime in Addis Ababa of deliberately blocking international aid to their war-wracked and drought-stricken region.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, In Iraq the US military detained nine people suspected of involvement in the al-Qaida in Iraq group in raids in Baghdad and the cities of Beiji and Mosul.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Israeli police revealed stinging new allegations against PM Ehud Olmert, accusing him of pocketing tens of thousands of dollars by deceiving multiple sources into paying for the same trips abroad. Israeli troops killed a Palestinian gunman who opened fire in the early morning on an Israeli civilian driving in the West Bank.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(AP, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, International donors pledged more than half of the euro1.5 billion ($2.36 billion) in aid requested by Kosovo to build up its infrastructure and democratic institutions.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Lebanon's PM Fuad Saniora announced a new national unity Cabinet in which Hezbollah and its allies have veto power over government decisions.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, A fishing boat, carrying eight Taiwanese, one Chinese and six crew members from Madagascar, sank after reporting engine problems.
    (AP, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 11, In the Netherlands health authorities announced a Dutch woman, infected during a holiday to Uganda by the contagious Marburg virus, had died overnight. The Marburg virus is similar to Ebola and causes heavy bleeding. About 100 people who may have had contact with the woman were under surveillance.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, A senior military official said the Nigerian navy has arrested 15 Filipinos after intercepting a vessel carrying a significant quantity of stolen crude oil off the coast of the Niger Delta. Gunboats intercepted the MV Lina Panama in the waters off Brass, home to a major oil export terminal in the southern state of Bayelsa. One security source said the vessel was thought to be carrying tens of thousands of tons of stolen oil.
    (Reuters, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, A North Korean soldier fatally shot a South Korean woman tourist (53) at a mountain resort in the communist North, prompting the South to suspend the high-profile tour program. Park Wang-ja had strayed a half-mile into a fenced off military area and was shot twice from behind.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, In Serbia a bus carrying Polish tourists overturned north of Belgrade, killing six people and injuring nearly 40.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Somali troops shot and killed 7 civilians in southern Mogadishu after accusing them of being part of an Islamic insurgency.
    (SFC, 7/11/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 11, In southern Sri Lanka suspected rebel gunmen ambushed a crowded passenger bus as it traveled down a small rural road. The attack killed a boy and three women and wounded 25 others. Clashes broke out in the Mannar, Vavuniya and Welioya regions surrounding the rebel stronghold killed 17 rebels.
    (AP, 7/12/08)
2008        Jul 11, Thai prosecutors filed new corruption charges against ousted PM Thaksin Shinawatra for alleged abuse of authority to benefit his family business.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, A Turkish news agency reported that army troops clashed with Kurdish rebels in the southeast and that 10 of the rebels were killed.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, The UN commemorated World Population Day.
2008        Jul 11, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Colombia's Alvaro Uribe mended relations after months of sniping that threatened trade and unleashed a diplomatic crisis.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Zimbabwe’s opposition Movement for Democratic Change said a total of 113 MDC supporters have now been killed in politically-related violence. Zimbabwe's ruling party and opposition held a second day of talks in South Africa. A UN Security Council bid to pass sanctions against Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe was vetoed by Russia and China.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/12/08)

2009        Jul 11, In Afghanistan bomb blasts killed 2 US Marines in Helmand province. At least six police officers were killed by roadside bombs, two in southern Helmand province and at least four south of Kabul in Logar province. In a gunbattle in eastern Paktia province between insurgents and Afghan police, two militants and one police officer were killed.
    (AP, 7/12/09)(SFC, 7/13/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 11, It was reported that Brazilian police were investigating some 660 “secret acts" passed by the Senate since 1995 which have awarded jobs and pay raises members of staff.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.39)
2009        Jul 11, In Brazil the body of Arturo Gatti (37), former Canadian boxing champion, was found in a hotel room at the northeastern Porto de Galinhas resort. He was apparently strangled with the strap of a purse, which was found at the scene with blood stains. His wife, Amanda Rodrigues (23), was soon taken into custody after contradictions in her interrogation. A police inquiry later concluded that he committed suicide using the strap of a rucksack on a staircase in the early hours of the morning.
    (AP, 7/12/09)(Reuters, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 11, In Ghana US Pres. Obama met with Ghanaian President John Atta Mills. Obama praised and scolded the continent of his ancestors, asserting forces of tyranny and corruption must yield if Africa is to achieve its promise.
    (AP, 7/11/09)
2009        Jul 11, A ferry capsized off Haiti's southern coast, killing at least five people. Authorities said it wasn't clear how many people were on board, but as many as two dozen could be missing.
    (AP, 7/11/09)
2009        Jul 11, In India 2 boats capsized in the Wainganga River in western Bhandara district leaving 26 women drowned.
    (SFC, 7/13/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 11, In Indonesia an Australian working for the Indonesian subsidiary of US-based mining giant Freeport McMoRan was shot dead by unknown attackers in Papua.
    (AFP, 7/11/09)
2009        Jul 11, In Iraq a car bomb has exploded in Gugjeli a Shiite village in northern Iraq, killing at least four people. Another 6 people died in bombings in Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/11/09)(SSFC, 7/12/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 11, In Israel 2 religious Jews were stabbed and another was beaten in a fight with secular Jews in Jerusalem.
    (AP, 7/11/09)
2009        Jul 11, In Mexico gunmen boldly attacked federal forces across the western state of Michoacan following the capture of Arnoldo Rueda Medina, an alleged member of La Familia drug cartel. In Zitacuaro, a mountain town famous for its Monarch butterfly nesting grounds, 3 federal agents were killed, and two soldiers were fatally shot in the town of Zamora. Two federal agents were killed and three others were wounded along a highway between Morelia and the port City of Lazaro Cardenas when dozens of gunmen ambushed their patrol cars.
    (AP, 7/12/09)
2009        Jul 11, In central Pakistan police killed one suspected militant and seized a truckload of automatic weapons and explosives after a five-hour shootout at a religious school in Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab province. A clash with militants in South Waziristan killed a soldier. Gunmen killed 5 police officers and a forestry official responding to reports of a dead body in Mansehra.
    (AP, 7/11/09)(AP, 7/12/09)(SFC, 7/13/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 11, Peru’s President Alan Garcia shuffled his Cabinet following months of protests, replacing seven of 16 ministers and naming a new chief, the third person to hold the post in nine months.
    (AP, 7/12/09)
2009        Jul 11, In Somalia a foreign fighter and Nor Daqli, head of security for the capital, were among 16 people killed in fighting between UN-backed government forces and Islamist insurgents in the north of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2010        Jul 11, Avid Radiopharmaceuticals presented a study that demonstrated a new brain scan to detect the brain plaques in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
    (SFC, 7/13/10, p.A7)
2010        Jul 11, A total solar eclipse drew an 11,000-km (6,800-mile) arc over the Pacific, plunging remote territories into darkness.
    (AP, 7/12/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Afghanistan a US service member died following an insurgent attack.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In China new rules went into effect requiring officials in government and state companies to report personal details from assets to the whereabouts of spouses and children. The new regulations were similar to rules released in April governing senior Communist Party officials, but have been expanded to include everyone from midlevel officials and up. Nonparty members and those working for state-owned business would now also be required to submit their details.
    (AP, 7/12/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Colombia 10 soldiers were killed after entering a minefield in the northeastern province of Arauca. Pres. Uribe said 12 rebels, part of the security cordon for rebel leader Alfonso Cano, were killed in the southwestern mountains.
    (AP, 7/12/10)
2010        Jul 11, Iran said it has produced around 20 kg of 20% enriched uranium, in defiance of the world powers who want Tehran to suspend the controversial nuclear work.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Iran a judicial official said that the controversial death sentence by stoning for Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, an Iranian woman convicted of adultery, will not be implemented for now. She was first convicted in May 2006 of having an "illicit relationship" with two men following the death of her husband, for which a court in Tabriz, in northwestern Iran, sentenced her to 99 lashes. Later that year she was also convicted of adultery, despite having retracted a confession which she claims was made under duress.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, An Iraqi judge said a court has ordered the arrest of 39 members of members of the People's Mujahideen Organization of Iran (PMOI), an exiled Iranian opposition group, accusing them of crimes against humanity in helping Saddam Hussein to crush a revolt almost two decades ago.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Japan the center-left government of new PM Naoto Kan lost its majority in parliament's upper house in elections, spelling the threat of legislative paralysis.
    (AFP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Kashmir a rigid curfew was lifted from most of the country, but shops and businesses remained shut after separatists called for a strike to protest Indian rule in the Himalayan region.
    (AP, 7/11/10) 
2010        Jul 11, In Nigeria gunmen kidnapped 4 journalists traveling through the country's oil-rich southern delta. The kidnappers made a ransom demand of $1.67 million. The journalists were freed on July 18 with no ransom paid.
    (AP, 7/12/10)(AFP, 7/18/10)
2010        Jul 11, In South Africa President Jacob Zuma convened leaders from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Togo, Mozambique, the Netherlands and neighboring Zimbabwe at an education summit, before inviting them to join him at the World Cup final. The summit was the culmination of 1GOAL, a campaign supported by football's governing body FIFA to use the attention the World Cup commands to publicize the need to get more children into school.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In South Africa Spain beat Holland for soccer’s World Cup.
    (AP, 7/12/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Sudan peacekeepers said a total of 221 people died in tribal fighting and other violence in Sudan's Darfur in June, as the region's two main rebel groups continued to shun peace talks.
    (Reuters, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In Uganda twin bombings in Kampala hit crowds watching the World Cup final killing 76 people. One of the targets was an Ethiopian restaurant, a nation despised by Somali al-Shabab militants. On July 30 three were charged with terrorism and murder. By Aug 17 had officials charged 32 people in connection with the bombings. One suspect, Haruna Luyima, was supposed to set off a bomb at the dance club but changed his mind at the last minute. Luyima told a news conference in August that he did so because he didn't want to kill innocent people. Police later found his discarded mobile phone, a huge lead that helped unravel the plot.
    (AP, 7/12/10)(AP, 7/30/10)(SFC, 8/18/10, p.A2)(AP, 10/8/10)
2010        Jul 11, Yemen’s Interior Ministry said in a statement that police in Hadramut had arrested 10 militants suspected of being al-Qaida members.
    (AP, 7/11/10)

2011        Jul 11, In Maine an Amtrak train smashed into a tractor-trailer killing the truck driver and injuring several others. 200 feet of skid marks were left on the road to the tracks.
    (SFC, 7/12/11, p.A5)
2011        Jul 11, In NYC Leiby Kletzky (8), an Orthodox Jewish child, disappeared. On July 13 the body of the boy was found in the refrigerator of Levi Aron (35), who was arrested and charged with second-degree murder. On Aug 9, 2012, Aron pleaded guilty to charges of abducting and dismembering the boy. On Aug 29 He was sentenced to 40 years to life in prison.
    (AP, 7/14/11)(SFC, 8/10/12, p.A6)(SFC, 8/30/12, p.A5)
2011        Jul 11, Air Algerie cabin crew went on strike. They wanted a 106-percent pay rise and left thousands of angry travelers stranded in Paris, Marseille and Nice airports.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 11, In southeastern Bangladesh a vehicle packed with schoolchildren returning home from a soccer tournament crashed into a canal, killing 44 students.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, In northeastern Brazil a regional Noar Airlines plane crashed in Recife city, killing all 16 people on board.
    (AP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 11, Southern Cross, the financially-troubled owner of 752 care homes in Britain, said that it is to close, although its 31,000 residents will continue to receive care. The company said in a statement that it plans to cease operating and hand its homes over to its landlords.
    (AP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, The Cambodia Securities Exchange (CSX) was officially launched after the government delayed it several years. Finance Minister Keat Chhon said that trading was expected to begin by the end of the year and that three state-owned firms, including the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority, Telecom Cambodia and the Sihanoukville Autonomous Port have announced plans for listing.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.76)(
2011        Jul 11, Canada said it will boycott the UN Conference on Disarmament for the several weeks that North Korea is chairing it.
    (Reuters, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Cyprus a massive explosion ripped through a naval base after a brush fire detonated gunpowder stored in containers, killing 13 people, wounding 62. The Vasilikos power station was destroyed taking out half the country’s electricity supply. Defense Minister Costas Papacostas and the country's top military official, National Guard chief Brig. Gen. Petros Tsalikides, resigned over the incident. On Aug 2, 2013, Papacostas (74) was sentenced to 5 years in prison after he was found guilty of manslaughter and causing death through negligence.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/15/11)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.63)(Reuters, 8/2/13)
2011        Jul 11, Ethiopia said it needed $398 million to help millions of people in need of food aid due to a severe drought. It was estimated that a total of 4.5 million people will require humanitarian assistance during the remaining period of the current year.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, The European Union signed an agreement to provide 2.5 million euros ($3.5 million) to help care for rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Indonesia a man reportedly trying to show students how to make explosives was killed by a homemade bomb inside an Islamic boarding school on Sumbawa Island.
    (AP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Iraq 3 rockets slammed into Baghdad's heavily-fortified Green Zone, wounding a woman and her children, officials said, as US Defence Secretary Leon Panetta began the second day of a visit to press Iraqi leaders on security.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, Japanese scientists were reported to have found a "superbug" strain of gonorrhea that is resistant to all recommended antibiotics. They said it could transform a once easily treatable infection into a global public health threat.
    (Reuters, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, Kazakhstan police said nine gunmen have been killed in a special operation to detain an armed group suspected of being behind the killing of three Interior Ministry officers in June. One policeman died during last week's raid in the village of Kenkiyak. 16 prisoners died when they blew themselves up after an abortive attempt to break out a jail in the southern town of Balkhash. One prison guard was killed in the attempted breakout.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, Kyrgyzstan President Roza Otunbayeva approved an amendment to the criminal code to decriminalize libel.
    (AP, 7/19/11)(
2011        Jul 11, In Libya 4 rebels were killed and 22 wounded in overnight clashes against forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi in the western town of Zliten.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Nigeria numerous roads and highways were flooded following the heavy downpour which a day earlier and continued in Lagos, a city of some 15 million people. At least 29 people died from flooding in Katsina and Lagos. An explosive went off under a van as its driver slowed down at a military checkpoint in the city of Maiduguri. 3 people were killed.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Northern Ireland serious rioting erupted in Belfast injuring 22 officers, as tension mounted before the culmination of Northern Ireland's main Protestant marching season.
    (AFP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, In Pakistan suspected US missiles hit a house in Gorvak village in North Waziristan, killing at least 20 alleged militants. Other Pakistani intelligence officials put the death toll at 23.
    (AP, 7/12/11)
2011        Jul 11, Russia's Investigative Committee said a Tangara airline plane carrying 33 people crashed as it tried to make an emergency landing on the Ob river in Siberia, killing five people.
    (AP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, In South Africa some 70,000 workers at oil refineries and related industries joined a week-old strike, raising fears of potential fuel shortages.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, Spanish officials said a surgical team in Valencia, led by Dr. Pedro Cavada, has carried out the world’s first double leg transplant.
    (SFC, 7/12/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 11, Syrian troops stormed into Homs, the country's third-largest city with armored personnel carriers and heavy machine guns. At least 2 people were killed as a dialogue over possible government reforms moved into a second day in Damascus. The talks were boycotted by the main opposition factions. Pro-government mobs broke windows at the French and US embassies to protest a visit last week by the American and French ambassadors to the opposition stronghold of Hama.
    (AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/12/11)   
2011        Jul 11, Tunisian authorities arrested Bechir Tekkari, a former justice minister and charged him with corruption and abuse of power. He was charged with corruption and abuse of power over trade deals and the awarding of planning contracts.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2011        Jul 11, Uganda opened its first war crimes trial against a commander of the Lord's Resistance Army rebels. Thomas Kwoyelo (39) was charged before the International Crimes Division court in the northern town of Gulu with 53 counts of willful killing, hostage taking, destruction of property and causing injury.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2012        Jul 11, The US government formally eased sanctions on Myanmar.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 11, The United States Department of Agriculture declared natural disaster areas in more than 1,000 counties and 26 drought-stricken states, making it the largest natural disaster in America ever.
2012        Jul 11, Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first US secretary of state to visit Laos in more than five decades, gauging whether a place the United States pummeled with bombs during the Vietnam War could evolve into a new foothold of American influence in Asia.
    (AP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 10, In California the City Council of San Bernadino voted to authorize filing under Chapter 9 federal bankruptcy law, the 3rd California municipality to do so this year.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.C2)
2012        Jul 11, US federal prosecutors said 42 people connected to the Outlaws motorcycle gang were arrested during raids in Indianapolis. They faced charges that included drug trafficking and extortion.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A7)
2012        Jul 11, In Texas Dr. Joseph Sonnier III was killed. On July 16 police announced the arrests of Dr. Thomas Dixon of Amarillo and David Shephard. Dixon had paid Shepherd 3 bars of silver for the killing because Sonnier was dating Dixon’s ex-girlfriend. On Sep 16, 2013, Shepherd (52) was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/17/12, p.A8)(SFC, 9/17/13, p.A5)
2012        Jul 11, US astronomer Mark Showalter of the SETI Institute said he has detected a 5th moon around Pluto. Showalter used the Hubble Space Telescope and said the new moon, named P-5, is about 6-15 miles across. The moon was later named Styx.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.C4)(Econ, 7/11/15, p.70)
2012        Jul 11, In Bosnia some 30,000 Muslims traveled to a memorial center in Srebrenica to bury 520 newly identified victims, some of the thousands of Muslim men and boys slaughtered in July 1995 by Serb forces.
    (AP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, British police investigating corruption in the media (Operation Elveden) arrested two more journalists, both from rival tabloids to Rupert Murdoch's now-closed News of the World: Justin Penrose, a reporter for the Sunday Mirror tabloid, and Tom Savage, deputy news editor of the Daily Star Sunday.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, The British government and the Gates Foundation organized a summit on family planning. The last big UN conference on family planning took place in 1994.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.53)
2012        Jul 11, A Chinese ship, bow number 560, on "routine patrol" became stranded near Half Moon Shoal in the Spratly Islands, 60 nautical miles from the western Philippine island of Palawan. The ship was refloated on July 15.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)(AP, 7/15/12)
2012        Jul 11, Cuban public health officials said confirmed cholera cases have risen from 85 to 110, with the worst hit area in the province of Granma. Cholera had been eradicated in Cuba over 100 years ago. Haiti was suspected as the source of the new outbreak.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A2)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.32)
2012        Jul 11, Egypt's President Mohamed Morsi said he will respect a court ruling overturning his decree for the dissolved Islamist-dominated parliament to convene.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)
2012        Jul 11, In El Salvador a police investigator, wearing a ski mask to hide his identity, dug up 5 dead boys dead, the youngest 15, killed about 3 weeks earlier. Police said an MS-13 recruiter had probably tried to persuade the youths to join the group using the usual method: a big meal with cake and soft drinks. When they resisted they were stabbed to death.
    (AP, 9/8/12)
2012        Jul 11, Mali’s government said the military has arrested Col. Abidine Guindo, who directed a parachutist regime, also known as the Red Berets, that attempted to stage a countercoup in April. Members of Timbuktu's Arab community said they have set up an armed brigade to prevent further destruction of the tombs of ancient Muslim saints by Islamists occupying northern Mali.
    (AP, 7/12/12)(AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, New Zealand launched a search for hundreds of Chinese students who arrived in the country on fraudulently-obtained visas.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Russia’s parliament passed legislation imposing limits on the Internet, presented as a way to protect children.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A5)
2012        Jul 11, In northern Somalia 2 Kenyan aid workers and a Somali doctor were kidnapped. Police suspected pirates.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, South Korean authorities arrested Lee Sang-deuk (76), the elder brother of President Lee Myung-bak. He was taken to a detention center after a court approved a warrant on bribery allegations.
    (AP, 7/11/12)(Economist, 9/8/12, p.37)
2012        Jul 11, Spanish riot police fired rubber bullets at coal miners protesting in the streets of Madrid over subsidy cuts they fear will jeopardize their meager livelihood.
    (AP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Ibrahim al-Qosi, the former cook of slain Al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden, returned to his native Sudan. He had been held at the US-run Guantanamo prison since 2002.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Some 100 Sudanese university students armed with sticks and stones staged perhaps their largest protest since unrest sparked by inflation began nearly a month ago.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Sudan opened what it billed as Africa's largest sugar refinery, hoping to boost exports after the loss of billions of dollars in oil revenue when South Sudan separated. White Nile Sugar announced earlier that it aimed to produce 450,000 tons of sugar annually and 60 million liters (13 million gallons) of ethanol.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Syrian rebels and regime troops clashed in the Damascus district of Qadam as at least nine people were killed in violence across the country.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, Togo’s PM Gilbert Houngbo resigned.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 11, In Yemen a suicide bomber threw himself into a crowd of police cadets leaving their academy in Sanaa and detonated his explosives, killing at least 6 people. A separatist from the southern movement was killed and four other people were wounded, including two women, in clashes with police in the port city of Aden.
    (AP, 7/11/12)(AFP, 7/11/12)

2013        Jul 11, A US federal judge ordered the government to stop genital searches of Guantanamo Bay detainees who want to meet with their lawyers.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Afghanistan a twin bombing killed five people including 3 civilians whose car struck a roadside bomb and 2 police officers who had rushed to the scene to help the victims when the second bomb went off in Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Brazil tens of thousands of union demonstrators blocked roads and snarled traffic in dozens of cities in a one-day strike aimed at seizing the momentum of huge protests that swept the country last month.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Canada The Weston group’s Loblaw grocery chain agreed to buy Shoppers Drug Mart for $11.9 billion.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.58)
2013        Jul 11, China's police ministry accused executives of pharmaceutical supplier GlaxoSmithKline of conducting a large, long-running bribery campaign to persuade doctors to prescribe drugs.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In France two human rights groups filed a lawsuit in Paris seeking an investigation into whether the US National Security Agency violated French privacy laws by secretly collecting huge amounts of personal data.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Indonesia some 200 prisoners escaped from a maximum security prison in Medan after a protest over a lack of water and electricity turned violent.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Iraq gunmen opened fire on two checkpoints guarding oil installations on the road between Haditha and Baiji, killing 11 people. A suicide bomber rammed his explosives-laden motorcycle into a funeral tent for a Shiite family in the town of in Muqdadiyah,  killing 11     people. A car bomb in eastern Baghdad killed 4 people. Three roadside bombs targeted police patrols in the city of Tikrit, killing 3 policemen. In Mosul 3 suicide car bombs targeted checkpoints killing 4 policemen. The overall death toll reached 44.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)(AP, 7/12/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Kenya Joshua Walde, a US information management officer at the Nairobi embassy, rammed into a full mini-bus, killing a father of three whose widow is six months pregnant. Embassy officials rushed Walde and his family out of Kenya the next day leaving the crash victims with no financial assistance to pay for a funeral and for hospital bills for the eight or so others who were seriously injured.
    (AP, 8/2/13)
2013        Jul 11, Kosovo adopted an amnesty for minority Serbs who previously rebelled against the government, a significant step in settling relations with former master Serbia so both can move closer to the EU.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, The Lebanese Psychiatric Society said homosexuality is not an illness and does not need to be treated.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.45)
2013        Jul 11, Luxembourg’s PM Jean-Claude Juncker resigned amid a spying and corruption scandal following revelations that the nation’s former spy chief had taped official meetings with a recorder disguised as a wrist watch.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 11, Malta's PM Joseph Muscat called for a regional approach to tackle the flood of African immigrants landing on the shores on the tiny island after meeting EU and Libyan officials.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Myanmar 25 Buddhists were sentenced over the last two days to as many as 15 years in prison for murder and other crimes during a night of rioting, burning and killing in central Myanmar, following weeks in which it seemed only Muslims were being punished for sectarian violence aimed primarily at members of their own religion.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, New Zealand enacted a law to regulate synthetic drugs. The hidden dangers of synthetic drugs. In a 119-to-1 vote the country's parliament passed the Psychoactive Substances Bill, establishing a framework for testing, manufacturing and selling such recreational drugs.
    (, 8/3/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 11, In northwest Nigeria security forces engaged Islamic extremists in a five-hour gunbattle that killed one suspect in Sokoto city.
    (AP, 7/12/13)
2013        Jul 11, North Korea withdrew offers for talks with South Korea on reunions of separated families and resuming tours to a mountain resort.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, Oman police said they have seized 30,393 pistols aboard a tanker. Dubai-based newspaper Gulf News said the ship came from Turkey and was bound for Yemen. 9 Omanis were arrested in connection with the alleged shipment of pistols discovered in Sohar.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Pakistan a motorcycle packed with explosives blew up outside a mosque frequented by both Sunni and Shi'ite worshippers in the northwestern district of Kohat. Hours later another explosion ripped through a major border crossing lying on a NATO supply route between Pakistan and Afghanistan, killing two people.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, Portugal's Pres. Anibal Cavaco Silva threw the bailed-out euro zone country into disarray after rejecting a plan to heal a government rift, igniting what critics called a "time bomb" by calling for early elections next year.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)    
2013        Jul 11, A Moscow court found the late investment fund lawyer Sergei Magnitsky guilty of tax evasion in Russia's first posthumous trial. The court also convicted Magnitsky's former client William Browder, a Briton who has spearheaded an international campaign to expose corruption and punish Russian officials he blames for Magnitsky's death in a Moscow jail while awaiting trial in 2009.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, In Syria Al-Qaida-linked gunmen killed rebel commander Kamal Hamami in Latakia province, in a sign of increased tensions and infighting among groups battling the Damascus regime.
    (AP, 7/12/13)
2013        Jul 11, Ugandan rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces, a militia formed in the early 1990s by Ugandan Muslims, attacked the eastern Congolese town of Kamango, killing some people and forcing thousands of people to flee their homes.
    (AP, 7/12/13)
2013        Jul 11, Appeals judges at the UN Yugoslav war crimes tribunal at The Hague reinstated a genocide charge against Radovan Karadzic linked to a campaign of killing and mistreating non-Serbs at the start of the Bosnian war in 1992.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2013        Jul 11, Pope Francis overhauled the laws that govern the Vatican City State, criminalizing leaks of Vatican information and specifically listing sexual violence, prostitution and possession of child pornography as crimes against children that can be punished by up to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 7/11/13)

2014        Jul 11, US authorities said they have charged Chinese businessman Su Bin with hacking into the computer systems of US companies with large defense contracts, including Boeing, to steal data on military projects, including some of the latest fighter jets. He had worked in cahoots with two unnamed Chinese hackers to get the data between 2009 and 2013.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, In California Fred Buenrostro (64), former head of CalPERS, the California Public Employees Retirement System, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit bribery and fraud and agreed to tell all about his chief cohort’s role in the affair.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.D1)
2014        Jul 11, In California the Nicolls Fire began east of Bakersfield in the Sequoia National Forest. It burned 1,680 acres and caused $6.5 million in damage to public lands. On May 26, 2015, marijuana grower Edgardo Fournier (46) was sentenced to seven years in prison. He had admitted to setting the fire to fend off other pot growers.
    (, 5/28/15, p.D3)
2014        Jul 11, Michigan-based Whirlpool said will pay more than $1 billion for a controlling stake in Indesit, the appliance maker's counterpart in Italy.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Tom Erdelyi (b.1949), aka Tommy Ramone, founding drummer and last surviving member of the Ramones, a NY punk rock band, died in New York.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, p.A10)
2014        Jul 11, In Afghanistan an attack late today on a checkpoint in the Shindand district of Herat province killed 3 police officers. A suicide car bomber wounded three NATO troops in an attack in the Behsud district of eastern Nangarhar province.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 11, Aruba's PM Mike Eman and several legislators launched a hunger strike to protest what they say is meddling by the Dutch government in local financial affairs. This came after the Dutch government asked Aruba's governor to hold off on signing the 2014 budget into law pending an evaluation of it.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 11, The Canadian government of PM Stephen Harper added 14 individuals to a list of people facing economic sanctions and travel bans related to the Ukrainian crisis. This brings to 43 the number of Russians targeted by Canada in sanctions coordinated with the US and the EU. Thirty pro-Russian Ukrainians have also been hit with visa bans and other measures by Ottawa.
    (AFP, 7/12/14)
2014        Jul 11, In China Rui Chenggang, a celebrity anchorman for China Central Television (CCTV-2), was abruptly absent from the live cast of a nightly business news program. State prosecutors reportedly removed Rui from his workplace.
    (AP, 7/12/14)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.40)
2014        Jul 11, In Egypt clashes in Cairo between protesting supporters of ousted Pres. Morsi and local residents opposed to the Muslim Brotherhood left 2 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 11, A Paris court convicted nine people of belonging to a terrorist network that trained in Afghanistan and reportedly planned attacks in France. Three of the defendants were tried in absentia, with one in custody in Turkey and two at large.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Greek authorities said at least two people have drowned and about a further 20 are missing after a boat carrying immigrants trying to enter the country illegally sank off the Aegean Sea island of Samos.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, In northeast India four Muslim lemon traders were abducted by a rebel group in Assam state. The body of one was found July 12 and the bodies of three others on July 13.
    (Reuters, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 11, In Iraq clashes over the last 24 hours between Sunni militants and security forces near Anbar provincial capital Ramadi killed 11 police and wounded 24.
    (AFP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, In Jordan Maher Rahhal, head of the Liwa al-Mujahideen Brigade, one of the groups fighting the forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, "was shot twice and killed in Abu Nseir district" in Amman.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 11, In Kenya gunmen raided Pandanguo village in Lamu County where they locked up men praying in a mosque, looted medical supplies from a local dispensary and took six rifles from police reservists.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Kurdish forces seized two oilfields in north Iraq and took over operations from a state-run oil company, while Kurdish politicians formally withdrew from PM Nuri al-Maliki's government.
    (Reuters, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Macedonian authorities said a police helicopter crashed overnight during a training flight near the southern town of Strumica, killing all four people on board.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, In Morocco at least 13 people were killed and at least 53 were injured when three buildings collapsed in downtown Casablanca.
    (Reuters, 7/11/14)(AFP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 11, Pakistani security forces captured Adnan Rashid, a key Taliban commander linked to a 2003 assassination attempt on former President Pervez Musharraf.
    (AP, 7/16/14)
2014        Jul 11, The Palestinian death toll from Israel's massive air campaign in Gaza topped 100 people as rockets fired by militants reached deeper into Israel.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Peru enacted legislation after limited debate in Congress that stripped the 6-year-old environment ministry of jurisdiction over air, soil and water quality standards and eliminates the ministry’s power to establish nature reserves exempt from mining and oil drilling. It also re-established tax breaks for big mining multinationals.
    (SFC, 7/21/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 11, In the Philippines Robert Cerantonio (alias Musa), an Australian Islamic preacher, was arrested in Lapu-Lapu city on suspicion of links to Muslim extremists and rallying support for militants in Syria.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin arrived in Havana to begin a six-day Latin American tour seeking to boost trade and ties in the region.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, Save the Children said a cholera outbreak in South Sudan has infected over 2,600 people and left at least 60 people dead since the first cases were reported in Juba in May.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 11, In Thailand the manager of the conservation center said poachers have killed and sawed the tusks off Klao, a 50-year-old elephant that performed in Thai royal processions and was featured in Oliver Stone's 2004 movie "Alexander."
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, In Ukraine pro-Russia rebels fired missiles at government troops near the Russian border, killing at least 19 servicemen.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, The World Health Organization (WHO) reported 44 new cases of Ebola including 21 deaths. 539 deaths in Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone have been attributed to the outbreak.
    (AP, 7/14/14)

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