Today in History - July 13

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574        Jul 13, Pope John III died.
    (PTA, 1980, p.122)

1024        Jul 13, Henry II, the Monk, German King (1002-24), died.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1099        Jul 13, The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
    (HN, 7/13/99)

1534        Jul 13, Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1558        Jul 13, Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1568        Jul 13, Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, perfected a way to bottle beer.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/13/02)

1585        Jul 13, A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Roanoke Island near North Carolina became England's first foothold in the New World. Sir Walter Raleigh sent a detachment of 108 men to build a fort on the island. The detachment included two scientists, Thomas Hariot, a surveyor, mathematician, astronomer and oceanographer, and Joachim Gans, a metallurgist.
    (NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HN, 7/13/98)

1643        Jul 13, In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1657        Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell constrained English army leader John Lambert.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1754        Jul 13, At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1755        Jul 13, Edward Braddock (60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died. Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (died 1725).
    (www.nps.gov/fone/braddock.htm)

1772        Jul 13, Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1787        Jul 13, Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Northwest Ordinance, establishing rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1789        Jul 13, Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain. The mob plundered the armories and opened the prison gates of St. Lazare. The King at Versailles refused to withdraw his troops from Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1791        Jul 13, The bones of the greatest French satirist, philosopher, and writer, Voltaire (Jean-Marie Arouet) were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1793        Jul 13, John Clare, English poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1793        Jul 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris on charges of plotting with rebels against the French Revolutionary National Assembly.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1793        Jul 13, French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, who was executed four days later. In 1970 Marie Cher authored "Charlotte Corday, and Certain Men of the Revolutionary Torment."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(ON, SC, p.8)

1794        Jul 13, Robespierre boycotted the Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1798        Jul 13, English poet William Wordsworth visited the ruins of Tintern Abbey.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1821        Jul 13, Confederate cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in Tennessee's Bedford County.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1832        Jul 13, Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft came upon the lake where the Mississippi starts and intended to call it Veritas Caput, the Latin for "true head." The name was too long and got shortened at both ends to Itasca.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.E3)(HN, 7/13/98)

1854        Jul 13, US forces shelled and burned San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1858        Jul 13, Louis Martin and Zelie Guerin married in Alencon, France, and for 10 months refrained from sex in a “Josephite marriage." Assured by a priest that raising children was a sacred activity they went on to have 9 children, 5 of whom joined religious order. Their youngest daughter became famous as St. Theresa of Liseux, The Little Flower," canonized in 1925.
    (WSJ, 10/17/08, p.W11)

1861        Jul 13, Battle of Corrick's Ford, VA (Carrick's Ford): Union army took total control of western Virginia.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1862        Jul 13, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeated a Union army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. [see Aug 13]
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1863        Jul 13, Rioting against the Civil War military draft erupted in New York City; about 1,000 people died over three days. Antiabolitionist Irish longshoremen rampaged against blacks in the deadly Draft Riots in New York City in response to Pres. Lincoln’s announcement of military conscription. Mobs lynched a black man and torched the Colored Orphan Asylum. The 2003 film "Gangs of New York" focused on this event. In 2006 Barnet Schecter authored “The Devil’s Own Work," an account of the riots.
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(WSJ, 8/2100, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/18/06, p.D13)
1863        Jul 13-15, Battle of Tupelo, MS (Harrisburg).
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1864        Jul 13, Gen Jubal Early retreated from the outskirts of Washington back to Shenandoah Valley.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1865        Jul 13, Horace Greeley advised his readers to "Go west young man."
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1866        Jul 13, Great Eastern began a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States. Massachusetts merchant and financier Cyrus W. Field first proposed laying a 2,000-mile copper cable along the ocean bottom from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1854, but the first three attempts ended in broken cables and failure. Field's persistence finally paid off in July 1866, when Great Eastern, the largest ship then afloat, successfully laid the cable along the level, sandy bottom of the North Atlantic. As messages traveled between Europe and America in hours rather than weeks, Cyrus Field was showered with honors. Among the honors was this commemorative print referring to the cable as the Eighth Wonder of the World.
    (HN, 7/13/98)(HNPD, 7/29/98)

1868        Jul 13, Henry Clay Warmoth (1842-1931) began serving as the 23rd governor of Louisiana and continued to 1872.
    (www.helium.com/items/1728455-the-origins-of-mardi-gras-in-louisiana)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. Austria-Hungary and Britain, alarmed at the possibilities of growing Russian power, concluded the Treaty of Berlin, reducing the military and political gains Russia had made with the San Stefano treaty.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(HNQ, 2/23/01)

1886        Jul 13, Father Edward J. Flanagan, catholic priest, founder of Boys Town, was born in Roscommon, Ireland.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

1889        Jul 13, Vincent van Gogh painted "Moonrise." The exact date was determined in 2003 by a physicist using a computer and moon data from the painting.
    (SFC, 7/16/03, p.D2)

1890        Jul 13, John C. "Pathfinder" Fremont (76), US explorer, governor (Arizona, California), died. He was buried in obscurity in Sparkill, NY. Fremont (b.1830) was the 1st Republican presidential candidate in 1856. In 1999 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson, John C. Freemont and the Claiming of the American West." In 2002 Tom Chaffin authored “Pathfinder: John Charles Fremont and the Course of American Empire." In 2007 Sally Denton authored “Passion and Principle: John and Jessie Fremont, the Couple Whose Power, Politics and Love Shaped Nineteenth-Century America."
    (WUD, 1994, p.567)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.5)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M1)(SSFC, 7/1/07, p.M1)

1898        Jul 13, Guglielmo Marconi patented his radio.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1921        Jul 13, Ernest Gold, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1921        Jul 13, Charles Scribner Jr., music publisher (Scribner), was born.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1924        Jul 13, Alfred Marshall (b.1842), a founding father of modern economics, died in Cambridge, England. His book, “Principles of Economics" (1890), was the dominant economic textbook in England for many years.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, SR p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Marshall)

1925        Jul 13, Will Rogers, an Oklahoma cowboy, who had been standing in for W.C. Fields in the "Ziegfeld Follies," impressed the critics.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1928        Jul 13, Robert N.C. Nix, Jr., first African-American chief justice of a state supreme court, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1930        Jul 13, David Sarnoff reported in NY Times that "TV would be a theater in every home."
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1931        Jul 13, A major German financial institution, Danabank, failed, leading to the closing of all banks in Germany until August 5. By the end of the 1931, approximately six million Germans are out of work.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1933        Jul 13, David Storey, English novelist (The Sporting Life), was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1934        Jul 13, Wole Soyinka, Nobel Prize-winning Nigerian playwright, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1935        Jul 13, Jack Kemp, football player, vice-presidential candidate for the Republican party in 1996, was born.
    (HN, 7/13/98)
1935        Jul 13, Richard Strauss resigned as chairman of the Nazi Reichskulturkammer.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1935        Jul 13, In Iran worshippers at the Shrine of Imam Reza in Mashad protested a dress code that demanded Western-style brimmed hats. A riot broke out as troops opened fire.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A12)(www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=4388)

1939        Jul 13, Frank Sinatra recorded his first song, "From the Bottom of my Heart," with the Harry James Band.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1939        Jul 13, Howard Long was hanged at the New Hampshire State Prison for the sex-killing of 10-year-old Mark Neville Jensen of Alton.
    (http://venus.soci.niu.edu/~archives/ABOLISH/aug97/0184.html)

1940        Jul 13, Patrick Stewart, actor (Picard-Star Trek Next Generation), was born in England.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1941        Jul 13, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a mutual aid pact, providing the means for Britain to send war materiel to the Soviet Union. As their escorts turned away, the ships of the doomed Allied convoy PQ-17 followed orders and began to disperse in the Arctic waters.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1942        Jul 13, Harrison Ford, actor (Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Frantic), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1942        Jul 13, 5,000 Jews of Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were executed by Nazis.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1942        Jul 13, SS shot 1,500 Jews in Josefov, Poland.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1943        Jul 13, Greatest tank battle in history ended with Russia's defeat of Germany at Kursk. Almost 6,000 tanks took part and 2,900 were lost by Germany.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1944        Jul 13, Erno Rubik, inventor (Rubik's cube), was born in Budapest.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1946        Jul 13, Alfred Stieglitz (82), US photographer, art dealer (Camera Work), died. He was an art dealer, curator, publisher, proselytizer for modern art and for photography as an art. He also married Georgia O’Keeffe and promoted her art.
    (NH, 10/96, p.36)(www.fact-index.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.85)
1946         Jul 13, The first Karlovy Vary Int’l. Film Festival (Mezinárodní Filmový Festival Karlovy Vary) was held in Czechoslovakia. Its first two years were non-competitive showcases. The competition was started in 1948 and with the exceptions of 1953 and 1955 the festival was held annually until 1958. From 1960 on to 1992 it was alternating with the Moscow Film Festival, being celebrated annually again since 1994.
    (www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Karlovy_Vary_International_Film_Festival/)

1949        Jul 13, The militantly anti-communist Pope Pius XII excommunicated communist Catholics voters in Italy, an action aimed at the Italian Communist Party.
    (MC, 7/13/02)(AP, 5/5/06)

1951        Jul 13,    Arnold Schoenberg (b.1874), composer, died. He wrote the book "Style and Idea" and composed such works as the 21 songs of "Pierrot Lunaire" based on a poem by Albert Giraud translated into German by Otto Erich Hartleben, "Moses und Aron" and "Erwartung." In 2002 Allen Shawn authored "Arnold Schoenberg’s Journey."
    (LGC-HCS, 1970, p. 562-575)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)

1953        Jul 13, The 1st Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, organized by Tom Patterson, opened with Alec Guiness in Richard III.
    (WSJ, 7/18/02, p.D10)

1954        Jul 13, In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain and France reached an accord on Indochina, dividing Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.
    (HN, 7/13/99)
1954        Jul 13, Frida Kahlo (b.1907), artist, died in Mexico City. Her final painting was an incomplete portrait of Joseph Stalin. Hayden Herrera authored her biography in 1983. Raquel Tibol later authored "Frido Kahlo: An Open Life."
    (SFC, 4/22/01, p.D3)(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frida_Kahlo)

1955        Jul 13, Ruth Ellis, last English woman (murderess), was executed by hanging. Ten days before she had shot her husband, Ellis suffered a miscarriage after Blakely, the baby's father, punched her in the stomach.
    (MC, 7/13/02)(AP, 9/16/03)

1960        Jul 13, Massachusetts Sen. John F. Kennedy won the Democratic presidential nomination at his party's convention in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1967        Jul 13, Race-related rioting broke out in Newark, N.J.; by the time the violence ended four days later, 27 people had been killed.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1971        Jul 13, William Tolbert (1913-1980), vice-president of Lebanon 1951, succeeded William Tubman as president and continued Tubman’s policies until his own death in 1980.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_R._Tolbert,_Jr.)
1971        Jul 13, The Army of Morocco executed ten leaders accused of leading a revolt.
    (HN, 7/13/99)
1971        Jul 13-19, Jordanian troops proceeded to wipe out Palestinian guerrillas; some 1,500 prisoners were brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria broke off relations with Jordan.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1972        Jul 13, George McGovern claimed the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Miami Beach, Fla. McGovern defeated Scoop Jackson for the nomination. McGovern’s campaign was led by Jean Westwood (d.1997 at 73), the first woman to chair a major US political party. McGovern was nominated as candidate with Sen. Eagleton for vice-president. Sen. Eagleton later dropped out after it was learned that he suffered from a serious clinical emotional illness. The Democratic competition for president included Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, Sen. Ed Muskie, Gov. Terry Sanford, Sen. Henry Jackson, Mayor John Lindsay, and Rep. Shirley Chisholm.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)(AP, 7/13/07)

1973        Jul 13, In Chile a strike began that lasted until the September 11 coup. More than a million workers were on strike demanding that Allende go. American CIA funding was involved.
    (WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(http://foia.state.gov/reports/churchreport.asp)

1974        July 13, The US Senate Watergate Committee proposed sweeping reforms to prevent another Watergate scandal.
    (AP, 7/13/99)

1977        Jul 13, A 25-hour power blackout hit the New York City area and looters rampaged in the city after lightning struck upstate power lines. Some 9 million people were affected.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1977)(AP, 7/13/97)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A7)

1978        Jul 13, Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II. Iacocca later joined Chrysler as its president.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)(AP, 7/13/97)
1978        Jul 13, Walter Poenisch completed a "swim for peace" from Cuba to the US in 34 hours and 15 min. He used flippers and made the swim unassisted.
    (SFC, 5/13/97, p.A3)(http://www.swim4peace.com/)

1979        Jul 13, Teradata, a software company, was incorporated. It had started in a garage in Brentwood, Calif. The name Teradata was chosen to symbolize the ability to manage terabytes (trillions of bytes) of data.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teradata)
1979        Jul 13, A 45-hour siege began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey, as four Palestinian guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1981        Jul 13, Simon Gray's "Quartermaine's Terms," premiered in London.
    (www.haroldpinter.org/directing/directing_quartermaine.shtml)

1983        Jul 13, Chrysler under Lee Iacocca paid off the last of its guaranteed loans totaling $1.2 billion, 7 years ahead of schedule.
    (http://tinyurl.com/aabvq)

1985        Jul 13, Live Aid, an international rock concert in London, Philadelphia, Moscow and Sydney, took place to raise money for Ethiopia and Africa's starving people. It was organized by Bob Geldof of Ireland.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)(AP 7/13/97)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.56)
1985        Jul 13, Lt. Cmdr. Michael Gershon, a Navy Blue Angel pilot, was killed when 2 planes collided during an air show at Niagara Falls, NY.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnie_Cochran)

1987        Jul 13, Jury selection began in Washington for the perjury trial of President Reagan's former aide and longtime confidant, Michael K. Deaver. Deaver was later convicted of lying under oath about his lobbying business; he was fined $100,000 and ordered to perform community service.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1988        Jul 13, Final results of Mexico's recent presidential election were released, giving the victory to the candidate of the governing party, Carlos Salinas de Gortari. Opponents called election "stolen."
    (AP, 7/13/98)

1989        Jul 13, Washington, D.C. attorney Thomas L. Root was rescued after ditching his private plane in the Atlantic Ocean near the Bahamas; he had suffered a mysterious gunshot wound.
    (AP, 7/13/99)
1989        Jul 13, Cuba executed four military officers for conspiring to smuggle drugs to the United States. Antonio de la Guardia, a colonel in the Interior Ministry, was executed along with army general Arnaldo Ochoa and 2 other officers in a drug trafficking case. Gen’l. Patricio de la Guardia, Antonio’s twin, was sentenced to 30 years in prison. Patricio was released in 1997. Patricio had led an int’l. para-military brigade in Chile during the Allende years that was estimated at 15,000 men.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(AP, 7/13/99)
1989        Jul 13, Abdul Rahman Qassemlu, Kurd leader in Iran, was murdered.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ecm98)

1990        Jul 13, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev closed the Communist Party’s 28th congress by saying he would welcome Western aid without political strings.
    (AP, 7/13/00)

1991        Jul 13, Soviet and American negotiators meeting in Washington wrangled over a treaty to reduce long-range nuclear missiles.
    (AP, 7/13/01)

1992        Jul 13, Democrats opened their 41st national convention at New York's Madison Square Garden with speakers who taunted George H.W. Bush as a failed president ripe for defeat in November.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1993        Jul 13, The American League defeated the National League in the All-Star Game, 9-3, in Baltimore.
    (AP, 7/13/98)
1993        Jul 13, Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
    (AP, 7/13/98)
1993        Jul 13, A.K. Ramanujan (b.1929), Indian poet and scholar, died in Chicago. In 1999 his collected essays were published.
    (WSJ, 4/4/09, p.W8)(www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Ramanujan.html)

1994        Jul 13, President Clinton visited flood-stricken Georgia, where he announced more than $60 million in aid for Georgia, Alabama and Florida.
    (AP, 7/13/99)
1994        Jul 13, Tonya Harding's ex-husband, Jeff Gillooly, was sentenced in Portland, Ore., to two years in prison for his role in the attack on Nancy Kerrigan. He ended up serving six months.
    (AP, 7/13/99)

1995        Jul 13, President Clinton denounced a base-closing list for the damage it would do to California and Texas, but then approved the package while promising to save jobs in those states.
    (AP, 7/13/00)
1995        Jul 13, Just six days after the space shuttle "Atlantis" returned, the shuttle "Discovery" blasted off on a nine-day mission.
    (AP, 7/13/00)
1995        Jul 13, In Michigan six union locals, representing some 2,500 workers of the Detroit Free Press, Detroit News and Detroit newspapers Inc., went on a strike that lasted 19 months.
    (AP, 7/13/00)(www.pww.org/archives96/96-07-13-3.html)

1996        Jul 13, After battering the Carolinas, the weakened remnants of Hurricane Bertha moved north, spawning tornadoes and dumping rain from Maryland to Massachusetts.
    (AP, 7/13/97)
1996        Jul 13, Hollywood producer Pandro S. Berman (1905-1996) died. He produced Top Hat, Morning Glory, The Blackboard Jungle, Swing Time, The Gay Divorcee, Shall We Dance, Hunchback of Notre Dame, Gunga Din, Of Human Bondage, National Velvet, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Butterfield 8, Father of the Bride and Move.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C8)
1996        Jul 13, Mt. Merapi volcano in Java was about to erupt.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)
1996        Jul 13, Winter storms raged across South Africa and snowdrifts up to 8-feet high blocked the main road from Johannesburg to Durban.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)
1996        Jul 13, Tehran, Iran, was invaded by thousands of lizards and snakes over the past three months. Military exercises nearby or rising levels of groundwater have been cited as possible reasons.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)
1996        Jul 13-14, In Uganda more than 90 Sudanese refugees were killed in a camp 220 miles north of Kampala. The Lord’s Resistance Army was blamed.
    (WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A1)

1997        Jul 13, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright returned to her Jewish roots in the Czech Republic, finding names of family members killed by the Nazis inscribed on a Prague synagogue wall. News reports the previous February revealed that Albright, who'd been raised a Roman Catholic, had Jewish relatives, many of whom died in the Holocaust.
    (AP, 7/13/98)
1997        Jul 13, In Poland floods threatened the isle of Ostrow Tumski on the Oder River in the heart of Wroclaw, whose buildings date back to the 13th century. A 100-year flood swept through the Sudety Mountains.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.T8)
1997        Jul 13, In San Sebastian, Spain, Miguel Angel Blanco (29), a Basque town councilor and low-ranking member of the Popular Party of Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar, died of head wounds from the ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom, a Basque separatist group. Almost 800 people have died since the ETA began fighting in 1968.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A11)

1998        Jul 13, Thomas Martin Thompson (43) was executed at San Quentin, Ca., for the murder of Ginger Fleischli in 1981. In 2015 a federal appeals court judge that Thompson was likely innocent.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/2/15, p.D1)(SSFC, 6/7/15, p.E2)
1998        Jul 13, A jury in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., ruled that the Rev. Al Sharpton and two others had defamed a former prosecutor by accusing him of raping Tawana Brawley. Steven Pagones won a $345,000 judgment.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(www.cnn.com/US/9807/13/brawley.verdict.02/)
1998        Jul 13, Four young cousins in Gallup, N.M., died after becoming trapped in a car trunk.
    (AP, 7/13/99)
1998        Jul 13, In Azerbaijan Suret Huseinov, a former prime minister, went on trial for treason.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A11)
1998        Jul 13, Ten nations joined the EU in locking out the leaders of Belarus for the eviction of foreign ambassadors.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A9)
1998        Jul 13, The IMF announced a $17.1 billion rescue package for Russia.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 13, In Italy Silvio Berlusconi, former premier, was convicted for the 3rd time since Dec. This conviction was for illegal party financing in 1991. A prior conviction was for bribing tax inspectors.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 13, In Japan Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto resigned after voters rejected his Liberal Democratic Party.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 13, King Hussein of Jordan went to the US to receive treatment for cancer.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A12)
1998        Jul 13, In Chiapas, Mexico, a technical junior high school in Oventic was inaugurated by Commandante Ezequiel and Peter Brown of the US. Brown was deported 2 weeks later for violating Mexican laws, i.e. building a school on a tourist visa.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A18)
1998        Jul 13, In Norway delegates from 21 countries met to draft strategy to keep small arms out of the hands of terrorists.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A8)

1999        Jul 13, The American League won the All-Star game for the third straight time, defeating the National League 4-to-1 at Boston’s Fenway Park.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/13/00)
1999        Jul 13, Angel Maturino Resendiz, suspected of being the "Railroad Killer," surrendered in El Paso, Texas. He was subsequently tried, convicted and executed on July 27, 2006 at Huntsville Prison in Texas. He had been suspected of killings in 15 cases in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
    (AP, 7/13/00)   
1999        Jul 13, In Tehran police fired tear gas at thousands of protesters as street battles spread across the city for the sixth day. Tens of thousands of security forces countered the protesters.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/13/00)
1999        Jul 13, In Kashmir Islamic militants of the United Jihad Council said they would change positions but not pull out of the disputed region.
    (WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 13, In Russia Nikita Krivchun (20) stabbed Leopold Kaimovsky (52), director of the Jewish Cultural Center, numerous times in Moscow.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.C10)

2000        Jul 13, Fellow Democrat Bill Bradley endorsed Vice President Al Gore for president, four months after conceding their fight for the White House.
    (AP, 7/13/01)
2000        Jul 13, It was reported that the US and Vietnam had completed a trade agreement for generally unfettered commerce between the two countries.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.A12)
2000        Jul 13, In China a mudslide following heavy rains killed at least 119 villagers in Ziyang county in Shanxi province. The death toll was later raised to 213 with another 23 killed in the Liangshan area of Sichuan province.
    (SFC, 7/17/00, p.A13)(SFC, 7/21/00, p.B7)
2000        Jul 13, In Fiji the Great Council of Chiefs elected Ratu Josefa Iloilo as the new president.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.A13)
2000        Jul 13, In southern Sudan rebels reported the killing of at least 92 pro-government fighters of the Murahilin tribe after 2 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.D2)

2001        Jul 13, Pres. Bush ordered toughened enforcement of the sanctions against Cuba and promised to expand support for human rights activists there.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A11)
2001        Jul 13, It was reported that California was awash with methamphetamines produced by Mexican drug trafficking cartels. Prices were down to $20 per gram vs. $100 in the rest of the country.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.A3)
2001        Jul 13, A judge in San Jose, Calif., sentenced Andrew Burnett, the man who had tossed a fluffy little dog to its death in a bout of road rage, to the maximum three years behind bars.
    (AP, 7/13/02)
2001        Jul 13, In Missouri a private plane crashed into a home in Carterville and all 6 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A3)
2001        Jul 13, It was reported that record droughts persisted in Afghanistan northern China, North Korea, Mongolia and Tajikistan.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D4)
2001        Jul 13, The IOC awarded Beijing, China, the honor of hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 13, In Gaza and the West Bank 2 Islamic Hamas militants were killed. Israeli soldiers shot and killed one in Tulkarm. Fawaz Badran (27) was killed when his car exploded.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A10)

2002        Jul 13, US governors opened their summer meeting in Boise, Idaho, with high health care costs the main topic.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2002        Jul 13, Yousuf Karsh (93), photographer, died in Boston.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2002        Jul 13, A family of 4 were found stabbed to death in their home near Whittier, Ca. Jasmine Ruiz (8) was sexually assaulted before being killed. Alfonso Ignacio Morales (23) was arrested July 15.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A7)(SFC, 7/16/02, p.A4)
2002        Jul 13, A unanimous UN Security Council vote to exempt American peacekeepers from prosecution by the new war crimes tribunal for a year ended a U.S. threat to halt U.N. peacekeeping but angered many court supporters.
    (AP, 7/13/02)
2002        Jul 13, Dominican lawmakers voted to reform the country's constitution to allow presidents to serve two consecutive terms in office.
    (AP, 7/14/02)
2002        Jul 13, Outside Jammu, Kashmir, a grenade and gun attack on a Hindu slum that left 27 people dead, dozens wounded and rekindled fears of war with nuclear neighbor Pakistan.
    (Reuters, 7/14/02)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A12)
2002        Jul 13, It was reported that Dr. P.V. Rajiv in southern India saved three sick newborn babies using a cloned version of the anti-impotence drug Viagra. "We saved the babies by giving sildenafil citrate, also called Viagra," he said. Dr. Rajiv first gave the drug orally to a baby suffering pulmonary hypertension, after consulting international journals which reported its use to treat adults in a similar condition. Blue babies have a condition that contracts vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood to the lungs.
    (AP, 7/13/02)
2002        Jul 13, In southern Iraq 7 civilians were reported injured in U.S. air raids.
    (AP, 7/14/02)
2002        Jul 13, Police in northern Kenya opened fire on protesters outside a U.N. refugee camp, killing three people.
    (AP, 7/13/02)
2002        Jul 13, Morocco’s King Mohammed VI publicly celebrated his marriage to a 24-year-old computer engineer during two days of festivities that showed the 38-year-old king's desire to modernize the monarchy.
    (AP, 7/13/02)
2002        Jul 13, In Mansahra, northern Pakistan, 9 foreigners and three Pakistanis were hurt when an unidentified assailant hurled a hand grenade at a tourist party.
    (Reuters, 7/13/02)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A20)
2002        Jul 13, President Alejandro Toledo declared a state of emergency Saturday in southeast Peru, where snow and freezing weather has killed at least 18 people in less than two weeks.
    (AP, 7/13/02)

2003        Jul 13, Compay Segundo (95), a once-forgotten Cuban musician who gained worldwide fame with the "Buena Vista Social Club," died in Havana.
    (AP, 7/14/03)
2003        Jul 13, In Iraq a 25-member interim Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) of prominent Iraqis from diverse political and religious backgrounds was named at an inaugural meeting, the first national body since the fall of Saddam Hussein. The council abolished a number of old holidays and established April 9, the fall of Baghdad and Saddam's regime, as a new national holiday.
    (AP, 7/13/03)(WSJ, 4/19/04, p.A14)
2003        Jul 13, In Kashmir a bus skidded off a mountain road after hitting another vehicle and fell into a river, killing at least 16 people and injuring 19.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2003        Jul 13, Kuwait's emir, Sheik Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah (76), appointed his brother as prime minister, separating the post from the crown prince for the first time in a move seen as a step toward political reform.
    (AP, 7/13/03)
2003        Jul 13, Hashim Salamat (61), founder of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), died in the Philippines. In the 1960s he was sent to Egypt where he obtained an Islamic philosophy degree from Al Azhar college in 1967 and a masters degree two years later.
    (WSJ, 8/25/08, p.A6)(www.newsflash.org/2003/05/ht/ht003629.htm)

2004        Jul 13, The American League cruised past the National League 9-4 in the All-Star game.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2004        Jul 13, Ken Jennings (30), a software engineer from SLC, crossed the $1 million mark in a 30-game winning streak on Jeapardy.
    (USAT, 7/4/04, p.1A)
2004        Jul 13, In an Ohio court De Beers ended a 60-year impasse and agreed to pay a $10 million fine for the price fixing of industrial diamonds.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.60)
2004        Jul 13, American troops in Afghanistan numbered about 17,000 with some 140,000 serving in Iraq.
    (WSJ, 7/13/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 13, Police forces loyal to Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen forced the acting head of state Chea Sim out of the country in a purge of the ruling party.
    (AP, 7/13/04)
2004        Jul 13, Chechnya's acting president escaped injury in the Chechen capital when an explosion hit his motorcade, but one person was killed and three were wounded. A separate clash left 18 soldiers dead.
    (AP, 7/13/04)(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 13, It was reported that the bid price for a car license plate in Shanghai had surged to $4,133 in May.
    (WSJ, 7/13/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 13, Carlos Kleiber (b.1930), German conductor, died. He was buried in Slovenia next to his wife. He was considered as one of the great conductors of the 20th century.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/arts/news/obituary/0,12723,1265571,00.html)
2004        Jul 13, A confidant of Osama bin Laden (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harby) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2004        Jul 13, At least 13 people, eight Maoist guerrillas, two security men and three civilians, were killed in revolt-racked Nepal during the last 24-hour period.
    (AP, 7/13/04)
2004        Jul 13, The Philippines said it would withdraw its tiny peacekeeping force from Iraq as soon as it can. The Philippine government made a direct appeal to insurgents holding a Filipino hostage, pleading with them to show mercy for the man they threatened to kill if the country did not agree to pull its troops from Iraq early.
    (AP, 7/13/04)
2004        Jul 13, Overflowing rivers swamped villages in South Asia, leaving millions of residents stranded in their flooded homes and 272 people dead in the annual monsoon rains.
    (AP, 7/13/04)
2004        Jul 13, The US State Dept. announced that Uzbekistan had not passed the test for assistance this year.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.43)

2005        Jul 13, Bernie Ebbers (63), former CEO of WorldCom, was sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in fraud orchestrating the biggest corporate accounting fraud in US history.
    (WSJ, 7/14/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 13, In Virginia a federal judge sentenced Ali Timini (41), a prominent Muslim spiritual leader, to life in prison for inciting his followers for violent jihad against the US. Timini was convicted in April.
    (SFC, 7/14/05, p.A9)
2005        Jul 13, The National Hockey league and the players’ union reached an agreement in principle on a 6-year labor deal ending a lockout that canceled the last season. It included a team wage limit of $39 million and a 24% reduction in current salaries.
    (WSJ, 7/14/05, p.D1)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.36)
2005        Jul 13, The Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council issued a report that said more than 11,000 people caught some sort of infection in Pennsylvania hospitals last year and nearly 1,800 died from them.
    (Reuters, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, The White Holly, a retrofitted WW II Navy freighter, embarked from SF Bay on a 7,000 mile roundtrip cruise to study coral reef decay.
    (SFC, 7/14/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 13, A fuel gauge that mistakenly read full instead of empty forced NASA to call off the first shuttle launch in 2½ years.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2005        Jul 13, It was reported that a triple-star system, HD 188753, is located 149 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus. The primary star is like our Sun, weighing 1.06 solar masses.  The other two stars form a tightly bound pair, which is separated from the primary by approximately the Sun-Saturn distance.
    (www.space.com/scienceastronomy/050713_triple_sun.html)
2005        Jul 13, In Afghanistan a suspected Taliban gunmen killed Saleh Mohammed, a senior pro-government Muslim cleric in Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, PM John Howard said Australia will send 150 elite troops to Afghanistan by September to fight a growing tide of violence by remnants of the Taliban and al-Qaida.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, British police identified 3 of the July 7 bombers as Shahzad Tanweer (22), Mohammed Sidique Khan (30), and Hasib Hussain (19), the bomber on the N0. 30 bus. The 4th suicide bomber was identified the next day as Lindsey Germaine (19), a Jamaican-born Briton.
    (SFC, 7/30/05, p.A11)
2005        Jul 13, Opposition movements from across Egypt's political spectrum joined in opposition to President Hosni Mubarak with calls for a boycott of September's presidential vote.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, Egypt announced it was launching a campaign for the return of five of its most precious artifacts from museums abroad, including the Rosetta Stone in London and the graceful bust of Nefertiti in Berlin.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, Rudy Therassan, Haiti's former national police commander (2201-2003), was sentenced to almost 15 years in prison. He was accused of protecting Colombian cocaine shipments through his destitute homeland. He pleaded guilty in federal court in April to conspiring to import at least 22 pounds of cocaine into the US and laundering money.
    (AP, 7/14/05)
2005        Jul 13, In India an Islamic trust claimed ownership of the Taj Mahal and demanded a slice of tourist revenue from the 17th-century monument to love, but the government-run group charged with its upkeep vowed to challenge that claim in court.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, The US military filed charges against 11 US soldiers for assaulting detainees in Baghdad. A suicide car bomb exploded next to US troops handing out candy and toys, killing more than two dozen people, including 18 children and teenagers and an American soldier.
    (AP, 7/16/05)(AP, 7/13/06)
2005        Jul 13, Israeli troops reoccupied the West Bank city of Tulkarem early, killing a Palestinian policeman in a firefight and arresting five Islamic Jihad activists after the militant group killed four Israelis in a suicide bombing.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, In Brescia, Italy, a judge convicted two North Africans of belonging to an extremist cell alleged to have planned attacks, including one against Milan's subway. Moroccan Mohamed Rafik was sentenced to four years and eight months in prison and Tunisian Kamel Hamraoui to three years and four months.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, In Kenya in an apparent revenge attack, men believed to be from the Gabra tribe killed 10 members of the rival Borana tribe as they were being driven to a seminar in Marsabit, 250 miles northeast of Nairobi.
    (AP, 7/14/05)
2005        Jul 13, In southern Pakistan 3 trains collided in a deadly chain reaction after a train driver misread a signal, killing 133 people and injuring hundreds in the country's worst crash in more than a decade.
    (AP, 7/14/05)
2005        Jul 13, Thousands of Peruvians protested against a proposed US-trade pact that a UN investigator warned would put medicines out of reach of millions of poor people.
    (Reuters, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, Pressure grew for Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to quit as her opponents staged the largest rally against her so far.
    (AP, 7/13/05)
2005        Jul 13, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree stripping the security services of control over a number of detention centers, satisfying a long-standing request by Europe's top human rights body.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

2006        Jul 13, President Bush met with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in Stralsund, Germany, while on his way to the G8 summit in Russia.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, Former CIA officer Valerie Plame sued Vice President Dick Cheney, presidential adviser Karl Rove and other White House officials, saying they orchestrated a "whispering campaign" to destroy her career.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2006        Jul 13, Tongsun Park (71), a South Korean businessman accused of being an Iraqi agent and trying to influence the oil-for-food program, was convicted of conspiracy in New York federal court. Park, arrested last year, was the first person tried in the scandal. He will be sentenced in October and could face more than a dozen years in prison for his role in the decade-long conspiracy.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 13, The Massachusetts Turnpike authority said it found as many as 240 potential defects in ceiling bolts on Boston’s Big Dig tunnel. Gov. Mitt Romney filed emergency legislation and called for the resignation of the head of the Turnpike Authority in the wake of falling concrete slabs that killed a woman on July 10.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A4)
2006        Jul 13, Hazleton, Pa., passed Mayor Louis Barletta’s Illegal Immigration Relief Act in an effort to get rid of undocumented immigrants. In August federal lawsuits were filed against Hazleton and other local governments for attempting to regulate immigration. A 1976 US Supreme Court decision said regulation of immigration is exclusively a federal power. In 2007 a federal judge struck down the Hazleton anti-illegal immigration law.
    (SFC, 8/16/06, p.A5)(SFC, 7/27/07, p.A13)
2006        Jul 13, The Dow Jones fell 166 to 10846 and Nasdaq closed down 36 to 2,054. Crude oil for August delivery closed at a record $76.70.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.D1)
2006        Jul 13, The Sawtooth Complex fire in southern California grew to 40,000 acres and remained out of control. It looked to soon merge with the 2,500-acre Millard fire.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 13, Red Buttons (87), comic film and TV star, died at his home in Century City, Ca. His over 30 films included “Hatari" and “The Poseidon Adventure." Buttons was born as Aaron Chwatt in NYC on Feb. 5, 1919.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.B9)
2006        Jul 13, A collaborative effort to study malaria went public via the Web site Africa@home. Project leaders planned to use spare computing capacity to study malaria. By July 19 it reached the stable level of some 5000 computers needed at this stage for MalariaControl.net.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.79)(http://africa-at-home.web.cern.ch/africa%2Dat%2Dhome/index.htm)
2006        Jul 13, British and Afghan forces battled Taliban holdouts after repelling a brazen insurgent attack on a police headquarters a day earlier. Afghan and US-led coalition forces killed nine militants after suspected Taliban fighters attacked two army checkpoints in the latest fighting to rock southern Afghanistan. More than 30 enemy extremists were killed in an operation in Uruzgan province.
    (AP, 7/13/06)(AP, 7/14/06)(AFP, 7/15/06)
2006        Jul 13, In Belarus Alexander Kozulin (50), an opposition leader, was convicted of organizing an unauthorized rally against the disputed election of Pres. Lukashenko and sentenced to 5 1/2 years in jail.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, In Brazil gangs torched buses and attacked banks and police stations across Sao Paulo, deepening crime fears as a wave of rampant violence entered its third day.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, The NatWest British bankers David Bermingham, Gary Mulgrew and Giles Darby were extradited to the US for a $20 million fraud linked to the collapsed Enron Corp. Many viewed the March, 2003, US and British extradition treaty as imbalanced and favoring US interests.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.12, 56)
2006        Jul 13, The Guardian newspaper said PM Tony Blair wants China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa to join the G8 to secure multilateral deals on trade, climate change and Iran.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, Three Canadian military personnel were killed and four others injured on after their helicopter crashed into the Atlantic Ocean during a search and rescue training exercise off Canada's east coast.
    (Reuters, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, Canada confirmed its second case of mad cow disease in as many weeks, and the 7th since 2003.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, A Chinese reporter who posted essays on foreign Web sites criticizing the ruling Communist Party was sentenced to two years in prison on subversion charges.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, The EU criticized Israel for using "disproportionate" force in its attacks on Lebanon following the cross-border raid by Hezbollah guerillas who captured 2 Israeli soldiers.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, Indian police detained about 350 people for questioning in the Bombay train bombings amid suspicion that Kashmiri militants could be linked to the attacks that killed at least 200 people. Officials said they believe the bombings were the work of Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, a Pakistan-based Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 7/13/06)(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A17)
2006        Jul 13, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad shrugged off a decision by world powers to refer Iran to the U.N. Security Council over its atomic program, saying Tehran would never abandon its "right to exploit peaceful nuclear technology."
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, British and Australian forces handed over security duties for a relatively peaceful southern province to Iraqis in the first such transfer of an entire province. Gunmen killed the coach of Iraq's national wrestling team in a botched abduction attempt but a player escaped. A suicide car bomber struck a police patrol in the northern city of Mosul, killing five people and wounding five. At least 19 people were killed in attacks nationwide.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, An Israeli warplane bombed the Palestinian Foreign Ministry, collapsing part of the structure and causing widespread damage in the area.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, Israel unleashed a furious military campaign on Lebanon's main airport, highways, military bases and other targets, retaliating for scores of Hezbollah guerrilla rockets that rained down on Israel and reached as far as Haifa, its third-largest city, for the first time. The death toll in two days of fighting rose to 57 people. Lebanese guerrillas fired three rockets at the northern Israeli town of Safed, wounding seven people. Israel imposed a sea and air blockade on Lebanon to cut off supply routes to Lebanese militants. Israel hit hundreds of targets in Lebanon as part of its effort to force the release of two soldiers captured by Hezbollah guerrillas. Hezbollah’s Al-Manar Television broadcast pictures of the Iranian supplied 333mm Raad-1 rocket used in an attack on the Israeli army base near Safed.
    (AP, 7/13/06)(SFC, 7/14/06, p.A14)
2006        Jul 13, In the northern Philippines a powerful Asian storm strengthen to a typhoon after killing at least nine people.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, In Thailand a top court decided to accept a case that accuses PM Thaksin Shinawatra's ruling party and its main rival of electoral fraud.
    (AP, 7/13/06)
2006        Jul 13, The presidents of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia formally opened a pipeline designed to bypass Russia and bring Caspian oil to Europe, a route that President Bush said would bolster global energy security.
    (AP, 7/13/06)

2007        Jul 13, A US jury in Chicago found Conrad Black guilty of criminal fraud and obstruction of justice. Black and the others had been accused by US prosecutors of pilfering $60 million in payments that should have benefited Hollinger International, once the world's third-largest English language newspaper chain, and its shareholders. Black was sentenced to a 6 1/2-year sentence and began serving it at a federal prison in Florida.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)(AP, 7/13/08)
2007        Jul 13, In southern Afghanistan NATO-led and Afghan troops clashed with Taliban militants, leaving 10 suspected militants dead.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, A court in Brazil issued an arrest warrant for self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky on charges of money-laundering, but he denied any involvement. The case dates back to 2004, when MSI spent millions of dollars acquiring new players, which raised the interest of Sao Paulo state prosecutors. They wanted to know more about the investment group, its Iranian-born president, Kia Joorabchian, and the origin of the money he and his unidentified partners injected into the club. Brazilian prosecutors said they have also issued an arrest warrant for Joorabchian, a British citizen.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, began hosting the Pan American Games. An estimated 5,500 athletes from 42 countries participated in 38 sports. The games ended July 29.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Pan_American_Games)
2007        Jul 13, China’s General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine said on its Web site that frozen poultry products from Tyson Foods Inc., the world's largest meat processor, were found to be contaminated with salmonella. AQSIQ said other imports barred included frozen chicken feet from Sanderson Farms, Inc. tainted with residue of an anti-parasite drug, as well as frozen pork ribs from Cargill Meat Solutions Corp. containing a leanness-enhancing feed additive.
    (AP, 7/14/07)
2007        Jul 13, French legislators approved a measure lowering the cap on tax burdens to 50% of income, despite resistance from leftists and even within the ruling conservative coalition.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, A French gendarme shot a superior officer dead in a Paris suburb before killing his own twin children and finally turning the gun on himself.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, The International Atomic Energy Agency said Iran has agreed to answer lingering questions about its nuclear experiments and will let UN inspectors return to a plutonium-producing reactor it is building.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, In northern Iran at least 18 people were killed and 24 others injured in a road accident when a truck slammed into a bus full passengers.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, US forces battled Iraqi police and gunmen, killing six policemen, after an American raid captured an Iraqi police lieutenant accused of leading a cell of Shiite militiamen. 7 gunmen also died in the fight. A volley of at least four mortars were fired from the city's dangerous southern districts at the Green Zone. The mortars hit near the home of a senior Iraqi military official, killing two Iraqi soldiers. Khalid W. Hassan (23), an Iraqi journalist for The New York Times, was shot to death on his way to work. A US soldier was killed by small arms fire near Rusdi Mulla.
    (AP, 7/13/07)(AP, 7/19/07)
2007        Jul 13, A powerful typhoon pounded Japan's southern Okinawa island chain, cutting power to tens of thousands of households and grounding flights with winds up to 100 mph.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, In north Lebanon Islamic militants fired back volleys of rockets at the Lebanese army as troops pounded the remaining suspected hideouts of the Fatah Islam fighters holed up in a Palestinian refugee camp.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, Roman Robles-Cota (32), a police chief in the northern Mexican town of Sonoyta pleaded guilty to charges that he bribed a US Border Patrol agent in 2005 in an effort to help a smuggling operation.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, The main US development fund signed a $506.9 million aid agreement with Mozambique to promote economic growth and reduce poverty.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, In Nepal landslides in two mountainous districts killed at least 26 people and injured 17 more.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, In Pakistan Muslim protesters burnt effigies of Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf and American icon "Uncle Sam" in mass rallies against this week's deadly Red Mosque army raid.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, Some 4,000 Palestinians remained stuck on the Egyptian side of the border with trouble finding food and shelter, shortages they blamed on local authorities who are indifferent to their plight.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, The Great Canary Telescope, one of the most powerful in the world, began spying on the universe, using its 34-foot wide mirror to search for planets similar to our own from a mountaintop on one of Spain's Canary Islands. The Canary Island observatory said institutes in Mexico and the US collaborated in the project, involving more than 1,000 people in nearly 100 companies.
    (AP, 7/14/07)
2007        Jul 13, Andrew Natsios, the US envoy to Sudan, accused the country's government of resuming bombing civilian positions in its troubled Darfur region, and warned of a "disturbing" trend of Arab groups resettling in the area.
    (AP, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, UN officials said they are investigating allegations that Indian peacekeepers in Congo traded food and even military intelligence with Rwandan Hutu rebels in return for gold.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)
2007        Jul 13, Authorities in Zimbabwe announced the arrest of hundreds more retailers and executives as part of an ongoing price crackdown as it emerged the head of the central bank had warned against the blitz.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2008        Jul 13, The US Securities and Exchange Commission said it would immediately conduct investigations aimed at preventing the intentional spreading of false information intended to manipulate securities prices. the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department announced steps to brace slumping mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
    (Reuters, 7/14/08)(AP, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 13, Terry Childs (43), a San Francisco computer engineer, was arrested on felony charges for allegedly plotting to hijack the city’s computer system. Childs, who continue to draw his $127,735 annual salary, refused to provide passwords to the network system and was held in lieu of a $5 million bail. Mayor Newsom met with Childs on July 21, who provided system code. Cisco engineers had the system back under control by July 22. On April 27, 2010, Childs was convicted of felony computer tampering. On April 27, 2010, a Superior Court jury concluded that his crime cost the city over $200,000, making him eligible for a maximum state sentence of 5 years. On Aug 6, 2010, Childs was sentenced to 4 years in prison and ordered to pay $1.5 million. Hi conviction was upheld in 2013.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.B1)(SFC, 7/23/08, p.B1)(SFC, 4/28/10, p.C1)(SFC, 8/7/10, p.C2)(SSFC, 10/27/13, p.C2C3)
2008        Jul 13, Belgian-based brewer InBev announced it will buy Anheuser-Busch for $52 billion.
    (http://www.kansascity.com/382/story/703682.html)
2008        Jul 13, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber on a motorcycle blew himself up next to a police patrol killing 24 people in Uruzgan province. A two-day battle sparked by an insurgent attack killed at least 40 militants in Helmand province. A NATO soldier died in a roadside blast in Helmand province. In Kunar province, fighting erupted when militants attacked a NATO security force outpost. In eastern Logar province gunmen kidnapped parliament member Abdul Wali and his driver. Well-armed militants got inside a remote military outpost in the village of Wanat in the mountainous northeastern province of Kunar. 9 American soldiers were killed in the deadliest assault on US forces in Afghanistan in three years. In 2010 the US Army reversed a decision to punish three officers for command failures that led to the deadly firefight. In 2014 Sgt. Matthew Pitts was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in Wanat.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/14/08)(AP, 6/23/10)(AFP, 7/21/14)
2008        Jul 13, Algeria’s government newspaper El Moudjhaid said a consortium of British-based oil services company Petrofac and Indonesian engineering company IKPT provisionally won a contract to build an LNG plant in western Mediterranean port of Arzew.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, Pope Benedict XVI arrived in Sydney, after a stop in Darwin, for one of the largest Christian gatherings on Earth, starting a visit set to be marked by his apology for sexual abuse by priests in Australia.
    (AFP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, French President Nicolas Sarkozy urged the disparate and conflicted countries around the Mediterranean Sea to make peace as European rivals did in the 20th century as he launched an unprecedented Union for the Mediterranean. 43 nations, including Israel and Arab states, pledged to work for a Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction at the close of a summit to launch an unprecedented Union for the Mediterranean aimed at securing peace across the restive region.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 13, Iranian state TV said the country is exploring a newly discovered oil field believed to contain more than 1 billion barrels of crude oil.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, In Iraq gunmen attacked a soccer game near Duluiya killing a police officer and a Sunni Muslim allied with the US against al-Qaida. A roadside bomb in Fallujah killed 4 police officers. A bomb hit a truck near Baquba. The driver and his assistant died of their wounds at a nearby hospital. Some 70 women graduated in the first Daughters of Iraq, a group of female security volunteers.
    (SFC, 7/14/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 13, Thousands of Japanese rallied against the permanent basing of the nuclear-powered USS George Washington aircraft carrier near Tokyo, saying a recent onboard fire made it unsafe.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, In Indian Kashmir 10 people were hurt when police had to fire shots in the air and use tear gas to disperse a crowd that was attacking pro-India politicians.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, In Mexico gunmen opened fire on four cars on a busy street in Guamuchil, killing eight people. Among the victims were a girl (11), two 17-year-old boys and two women aged 18 and 19. On July 16 Mexico's government offered a reward of nearly US$100,000 for information leading to the capture of the gunmen.
    (AP, 7/14/08)(AP, 7/17/08)
2008        Jul 13, In Poland Bronislaw Geremek (76), former foreign minister (1997-2000), died in a car accident near Lubien. He was an icon in the struggle against communist rule and a founding member of the Solidarity trade union.
    (AFP, 7/13/08)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.98)
2008        Jul 13, In Sierra Leone a passenger plane loaded with 1,540 pounds of cocaine was found abandoned at the main airport.
    (SFC, 7/14/08, p.A11)
2008        Jul 13, A World Food Program contractor was gunned down in Somalia, the 5th agency worker to be killed this year.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.A15)(www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-07-15-somalia_N.htm)
2008        Jul 13, In Sudan thousands of protesters chanting "Down, Down USA!" rallied in Khartoum after reports that the International Criminal Court (ICC) may seek the arrest of Sudan's president for alleged war crimes. A stampede among crowds of people attending a military graduation ceremony killed 17 people at the al-Merriekh Stadium in Omdurman, the twin city of Khartoum. The dead were mostly women and children with 3 dozen others injured.
    (Reuters, 7/13/08)(AP, 7/14/08)

2009        Jul 13, The US Fisheries Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued a ban on krill fishing within 200 miles of the Pacific coast of California, Oregon and Washington due to concerns that commercial krill fishing threatened food sources for fish, whales and seabirds. 
    (SFC, 7/14/09, p.A4)
2009        Jul 13, In southern Afghanistan 2 US Marines were killed in a hostile incident. An insurgent attack in eastern Nuristan province killed a US soldier. The police chief of Jalrez district in Wardak province was killed along with 3 officers in a roadside blast.
    (AP, 7/14/09)(SFC, 7/14/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 13, British and Israeli officials said Britain has revoked several licenses granted to British companies to sell weapons parts to Israel because of concerns over their use in Israel's recent war in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, In China police shot dead two Uighur men and wounded a third on the streets of Urumqi, where tens of thousands of troops are stationed to restore calm a week after deadly ethnic riots.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, China's Health Ministry ordered a hospital to stop using electric shock therapy to cure youths of Internet addiction, saying there was no scientific evidence it worked.
    (AP, 7/14/09)
2009        Jul 13, In Cuba the body of Rev. Mariano Arroyo Merino (74) was discovered in his room at the parish he served in the coastal neighborhood of Regla, situated on Havana Bay across from the capital. Authorities were still investigating the death of another Spanish priest, the Rev. Eduardo de la Fuente Serrano, whose body was found in a remote, sparsely populated area just outside the capital in mid-February.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, In Germany retired auto worker John Demjanjuk was formally charged with 27,900 counts of acting as an accessory to murder, one for every person who died at Sobibor during the time he is accused of serving as a guard at the Nazi death camp.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, German automobile group Daimler said it sold 40 percent of its stake in US electric car maker Tesla Motors to United Arab Emirate's Aabar Investments group to boost development of low-emission vehicles.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Munich Re, the world’s largest reinsurance group, invited 20 large companies to join it in forming a consortium called Desertec to build a legion of solar power stations in Africa and Arabia and connect them to Europe.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.83)
2009        Jul 13, In Indonesia a policeman's body was found at the bottom of a ravine near the Indonesian operations of US mining conglomerate Freeport, raising the death toll from a series of weekend ambushes in restive Papua province to three.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Iraqi authorities imposed vehicle bans in two mostly Christian towns and increased security around churches in Baghdad after attacks targeting the Christian minority. An Iraqi soldier was killed when a bomb attached to his private vehicle exploded at noon in an area of northern Mosul.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Japan passed a law that will allow children to receive organ transplants for the first time, reversing a ban that doomed many young patients or forced them to seek medical care abroad.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Former Lebanese PM Amin al-Hafez (83) died. He served a turbulent two-month term in 1973 before he was forced to resign.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Mexican prosecutors said they found the bound, blindfolded and tortured bodies of a dozen people on a roadside near La Huacana in the western state of Michoacan. The 12 bodies were soon identified as federal agents investigating organized crime.
    (AP, 7/14/09)(AP, 7/15/09)(SFC, 7/15/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 13, Mexico and the US announced that they were working on a protocol for sharing information in arms trafficking cases.
    (AP, 7/14/09)(AP, 8/6/09)
2009        Jul 13, Pakistan began sending home about two million people displaced two months ago by the army's assault on Taliban militants in the Swat valley. An explosion in Punjab province destroyed a house used as a religious seminary, killing at least nine people, seven of them children, and leaving many others in critical condition.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, In Russia 5 suspected militants and two law enforcement officers were killed in separate attacks in the south. The militants were killed in two separate gunbattles in Chechnya, while Interior Ministry troops in Dagestan died in an ambush by insurgents.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, South Korea reported that North Korean leader Kim Jong Il (67) has life-threatening pancreatic cancer, days after fresh images of him looking gaunt spurred speculation that his health was worsening following a reported stroke last year.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)
2009        Jul 13, Uganda said it would arrest Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir if he enters the country, an unusual stance after a summit of African leaders denounced the international arrest warrant against al-Bashir.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, The UN’s highest court set travel rules for the Nicaraguan river that borders Costa Rica, affirming freedom for Costa Rican boats while upholding Nicaragua's right to regulate traffic.
    (AP, 7/13/09)
2009        Jul 13, In Zimbabwe militants from President Robert Mugabe's party disrupted the start of a national conference aimed at drawing up a new constitution.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2010        Jul 13, A US federal appeals court struck down the government’s long-standing prohibition against indecency on broadcast television and radio ruling that the policy was unconstitutionally vague.
    (SFC, 7/14/10, p.A5)
2010        Jul 13, The US Defense Department announced that Mohammed Odaini (26), a Guantanamo Bay prisoner, has been transferred to his homeland of Yemen. Odaini, also known as Mohammed Hassen, was 17 when he was first captured in Pakistan at an alleged al-Qaeda safe house in Faisalabad.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, US first-time adult passport fees rose to $135. Renewal fees rose to $100 from $75. The cost for an adult passport card rose to $55 from $45 for adults.
    (SFC, 7/10/10, p.D1)
2010        Jul 13, A US law enforcement official said the FBI's investigation into a Russian spy ring that operated in the United States has resulted in another Russian being detained, and he soon will be deported.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Oakland, Ca., laid off 80 police officers after negotiations between city officials and union leaders failed to agree on job security.
    (SFC, 7/14/10, p.A1)
2010        Jul 13, After securing a new, tight-fitting cap on top of the leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico, BP prepared to begin tests to see if it will hold and stop fresh oil from polluting the waters for the first time in nearly three months.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, George Steinbrenner (80), who rebuilt the NY Yankees into a sports empire with a mix of bluster and big bucks that polarized fans all across America, died in Tampa, Fl.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, A renegade Afghan soldier killed 3 British army Gurkha troops in a "suspected premeditated attack" in Helmand province. The attacker remained at large. A suicide attacker slammed a car bomb into the gate of the headquarters of the elite Afghan National Civil Order Police in Kandahar. Minutes later, insurgents opened fire with machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades. Three US troops, an Afghan policeman and five civilians died in the attack. Insurgents manning a makeshift checkpoint pulled Saleh Mohammad, a member of a local tribal council in Khas Uruzgan district, out of his vehicle and shot him dead in the road.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)(AP, 7/14/10)(AP, 7/15/10)
2010        Jul 13, Australian police said they have seized 240 kg (530 pounds) of cocaine worth 84 million dollars ($73 million) which was stashed in paving stones. 4 men including an American, a Mexican and two Australians were arrested over the haul, Australia's fifth biggest cocaine seizure, which was discovered in two shipping containers sent to Melbourne from Mexico.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, In western China landslides slammed into three mountain hamlets, killing 17 people and leaving 44 missing, while crews drained a fast-rising reservoir in another part of the country following heavy rains.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Seven former political prisoners from Cuba smiled and gave victory signs after they and their families arrived in Madrid, the first of 52 dissidents the Cuban government has promised to free in a historic policy shift.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, The Egyptian government released a Bedouin activist and blogger after three years of imprisonment as part of an effort to ease tensions in the Sinai Peninsula. Authorities detained Mosaad Suleiman Abu Fagr (41) in December 2007 and accused him of inciting Bedouins to protest against government discrimination.
    (AP, 7/14/10)
2010        Jul 13, Divers found bottles of champagne in a wreck near the Aland Islands between Finland and Sweden. 5 bottles of dark, foamy beer wee later recovered while salvaging the champagne. The shipwreck was believed to be from the early 19th century. In 2011 Finnish scientists said they hoped to re-brew an old ale after studying the ancient beer found in the shipwreck. On June 8, 2012, 11 bottles of the champagne were auctioned for over $156,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4kawd2n)(AP, 2/8/11)(SFC, 6/9/12, p.D3)
2010        Jul 13, German government sources said industrial group Siemens has won a major contract from Russian Railways to be signed during a visit by Chancellor Angela Merkel this week. The 2.2-billion-euro (2.8-billion-dollar) sale of regional trains is the second major coup for Siemens in Russia this year.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, In Iraq 3 people were killed by a device which blew up in a mock coffin during a demonstration. In Yusifiyah, 25 km (15 miles) south of Baghdad, gunmen killed a leader of the Sahwa militia, which has sided with US forces against Al-Qaeda, and four family members in their home. Two bombs exploded near a petrol station in Baghdad’s central district of Muhandicin, killing two and wounding five others. A man was killed in the western city of Fallujah when a "sticky bomb" attached to his car blew up.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Iraqi Oil Minister Hussain al-Shahristani said the cabinet had decided to summon representatives of the Kurdish regional government to discuss oil smuggling to Iran and "to put an end to it, as it harms Iraq's national and economic interests." Reports about the oil smuggling surfaced just over a week after the US imposed new sanctions barring the export of refined fuels to Iran.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Israeli bulldozers destroyed six buildings, including at least three homes, in contested east Jerusalem, resuming the demolition of Palestinian property after a halt aimed at encouraging peace talks.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, An Israeli military vessel confronted a Libyan aid ship trying to breach Israel's three-year-old Gaza blockade and ordered it to divert to an Egyptian port.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Italian police launched one of their biggest operations ever against the powerful 'ndrangheta crime syndicate, arresting 300 people including top bosses and seizing millions worth of property in pre-dawn raids.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Kazakhstan’s cabinet approved a crude-oil export tax of $20 per metric ton. Chevron, based in San Ramon, Ca., owns 50% of Tengiz Chevroil, which operates the biggest field in Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 7/14/10, p.D2)
2010        Jul 13, In Malaysia a police raid for stolen vehicles found 42 of them at a warehouse in Malaysia along with and hundreds of birds and other protected wildlife. Officers found some 700 birds and caged leopard cats, albino pygmy monkeys and other animals. They included about 20 protected species.
    (AP, 7/14/10)
2010        Jul 13, In Mexico 3 dead bodies were found hanging from pedestrian bridges in the central city of Cuernavaca. The bodies were accompanied by threatening notes signed by a drug gang. The three men escaped from a state prison last month. Gunmen killed three state police officers in two ambush-style attacks in the border city of Ciudad Juarez. Another officer was seriously wounded.
    (AP, 7/14/10)
2010        Jul 13, In Muzaffarabad, Kashmir, PM Raja Farooq Haider Khan, the top official in Pakistan-held Kashmir, vowed to fight India for control of the disputed territory in a speech to thousands of people assembled by a coalition of banned militant groups.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, In Nigeria the junior finance minister said the country’s corruption-ridden giant state oil firm NNPC is insolvent with debts of five billion dollars.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, In eastern Nigeria Christians and Muslims clashes, left eight people dead and 40 seriously wounded, with six mosques and one church also torched.
    (AFP, 7/14/10)
2010        Jul 13, Tanzanian lawyer Jwani Mwaikusa was shot in Dar es Salaam. He was a defense lawyer for a UN tribunal that tries suspects in Rwanda's 1994 genocide. Police said his nephew and a neighbor were also killed.
    (AP, 7/15/10)
2010        Jul 13, Turkey extradited a man identified only as Salih S. to Germany to face charges of supporting a terrorist organization and membership in a terrorist organization. The German citizen, a member of the radical Islamic Jihad Union, had trained at a terrorist camp in Pakistan. He was accused of procuring GPS devices, night vision goggles and other items for Adem Yilmaz, who was convicted with 3 others earlier this year of plotting a thwarted attack that a judge said could have killed large numbers of US soldiers and civilians in Germany.
    (AP, 7/14/10)
2010        Jul 13, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe vowed that the country would go ahead with diamond sales that were banned earlier this year because of rights violations at its largest mines. He said his nation will sell its massive stores of diamonds despite not receiving authorization from the world's diamond control body.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)(AP, 7/13/10)

2011        Jul 13, The US Bureau of Public Debt announced that it will no longer sell US savings bonds through banks and other financial institutions after Dec 31. Paper bonds would still be available by directing a federal tax refund into a Series I inflation-linked bond. The bureau said it will save $70 million over 5 years.
    (SFC, 7/14/11, p.D1)
2011        Jul 13, In Colorado a hail storm took almost a third of the Frontier Airlines Airbus fleet out of service forcing the airline to cancel numerous flights over the next week.
    (SSFC, 7/17/11, p.A7)
2011        Jul 13, The body of Rebecca Nalepa (32), the girlfriend of Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp chief executive Jonah Shacknai, was found dead at his mansion near San Diego, prompting an investigation by homicide detectives. Two days earlier the 6-year-old son of Shacknai fell down the stairs at the mansion. The boy died on July 17.
    (Reuters, 7/14/11)(SFC, 7/18/11, p.A5)
2011        Jul 13, In Salem, NY, 4 people were killed in a blast that destroyed a 2-story house. A 5th person, a baby girl, died the next day. A propane gas leak was suspected.
    (SFC, 7/15/11, p.A7)
2011        Jul 13, In Afghanistan 5 French soldiers were killed in a suicide bombing in the northeastern province of Kapisa. A NATO soldier in the south was killed in an insurgent attack.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, Media mogul Rupert Murdoch dramatically dropped his bid for control of pay-TV giant BSkyB, bowing to pressure from the British government over the phone-hacking firestorm at his newspaper empire.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, Egypt’s transitional military government announced the early retirement of 600 senior police officers in an effort to mollify protesters. 54 lower ranking officers were shifted to jobs where they no longer interact with civilians.
    (SFC, 7/14/11, p.A2)   
2011        Jul 13, In eastern England a powerful explosion at a suspected illegal alcohol distillery in Lincolnshire killed five men and seriously injured another.
    (AP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Angola and sparked controversy over an offer to sell six to eight patrol vessels to Luanda.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Guinea-Bissau health workers began a five-day strike to press demands pay bonuses and better working conditions in the west African country.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, A Honduran patrol boat located a semi-submersible craft used by drug traffickers to carry cocaine. Five crew members were detained. Divers recovered part of the cocaine aboard the craft. They estimate it was carrying as much as five tons.
    (AP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, In India a triple bombing killed at least 17 people in Mumbai, India's financial capital. By July 28 the death toll climbed to 25.
    (AP, 7/14/11)(AP, 7/16/11)(AFP, 7/19/11)(AFP, 7/23/11)(AFP, 7/29/11)
2011        Jul 13, Iran hanged a man convicted of raping and murdering a five-year old girl in a village near the southern port city of Bandar Abbas.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)
2011        Jul 13, Israel said it has given final approval to build its Museum of Tolerance over a centuries-old Muslim graveyard in the Jewish western half of Jerusalem.
    (AP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Israel hundreds of ultra-Orthodox Jews clashed with police in a conservative neighborhood of Jerusalem as tax officials tried to close down an illegal slaughterhouse.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, Israeli soldiers killed Ibrahim Sarhan (21), a member of Hamas, during a raid on a northern West Bank refugee camp. He was shot dead as he emerged from a mosque and tried to flee during an Israeli arrest operation in Al-Fara camp. Israeli jets bombed two sites in Gaza, wounding one woman, after Palestinians fired three rockets into southern Israel. Israeli aircraft targeted three tunnels, two used for smuggling in southern Gaza and one "used for terrorist activity" in the north of the Palestinian territory.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)(AFP, 7/16/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Japan radiation fears mounted after news that contaminated beef from a farm just outside the Fukushima nuclear no-go zone has been shipped across the country and probably eaten.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Libya Kadhafi forces caught rebels off guard and attacked Gualish, which the insurgents captured a week earlier, and seized nearly all of it. Rebels poured in from surrounding villages and drove the loyalists out. At least eight rebels were killed and around 30 wounded in the fighting. The Kadhafi regime said it was seeking to prosecute NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen in Libyan courts for "war crimes" over the alliance's air strikes.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, Mexican authorities said federal police have caught the top hitman for the Knights Templar drug gang in the western state of Michoacan. Police alleged that suspect Javier Beltran Arco oversaw murders for the meth-trafficking gang. Beltran Arco is known by the nickname "El Chivo," or The Goat. Federal police seized copies of the cartel's 22pp "The Code of the Knights Templar of Michoacan," during the arrest. Michoacan authorities also announced the seizure of 44 metric tons of chemicals used to produce methamphetamine. The material was found at the Lazaro Cardenas seaport in two containers that had been shipped from Shanghai in China.
    (AP, 7/13/11)(AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 13, Northern Ireland police said 40 officers have been injured during two nights of Catholic riots inspired by the mass parades of the province's Protestant majority. 27 people were arrested.
    (AP, 7/13/11)(AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Pakistan the city of Karachi reeled from fresh political violence that killed at least 14 people and added to the nation's instability after Zulfiqar Mirza, a senior member of the ruling Pakistan People's Party, called Altaf Hussain, chief of the city's powerful Muttahida Qaumi Movement, a murderer and an extortionist.
    (AP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, The Saudi-funded Asharq Alawsat daily reported that Saudi authorities have dismantled an Al-Qaeda-linked group of 16 people plotting to overthrow the regime. The group, which called itself the "project of the generation," also engaged in collecting funds under the guise of charitable activities, which were in fact destined for "suspicious foreign parties."
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, Sudan's parliament passed a law cancelling the Sudanese nationality of southerners, four days after their homeland proclaimed formal independence from the north.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, In Syria at least 7 people were killed during army raids in the Jabal al-Zawiya region in northern Idlib province. Security forces broke up a peaceful anti-government protest in Damascus, beating some protesters and arresting Syrian intellectuals, actors and artists.
    (AP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, Tunisian PM Beji Caid Essebsi painted a bleak picture of the national economy, which he blamed on repeated strikes that have paralyzed several companies.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)
2011        Jul 13, The United Nations made its first aid delivery to a rebel-held Somalia region after the insurgents lifted a ban on the operations of foreign aid agencies. The worst drought in 60 years affected over 10 million people in northern Kenya, south-eastern Ethiopia, southern Somalia and Djibouti.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.44)
2011        Jul 13, In Venezuela a prison uprising that caused seven deaths ended peacefully on its 27th day when hundreds of inmates emerged from the embattled Rodeo II prison after negotiations with officials.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2012        Jul 13, The United States announced charges against an Iranian citizen and Chinese resident for allegedly trying to export nuclear-related material to help Tehran enrich uranium. Iranian citizen Parviz Khaki (43), was arrested in May in the Philippines on request of the US. Chinese resident, Yi Zongcheng, remained at large.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, The US Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Funds reported a range of accounting weaknesses saying too much was wasted. Stuart Bowen’s office has spent over $200 million tracking some $51 billion in reconstruction funds.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.A3)
2012        Jul 13, A federal judge in Birmingham, Alabama, sentenced Ulugbek Kodirov (22) of Uzbekistan to 15 years in prison for plotting to kill Pres. Obama.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.A4)
2012        Jul 13, Colorado police found the body of Christina Cornejo (30) in Colorado Springs. She had been stabbed multiple times. On July 17 Suspect and boyfriend Brian Hedglin (40) was found dead having shot himself in the head after he crashed a plane at Utah’s St. George Municipal Airport.
    (SFC, 7/18/12, p.A8)
2012        Jul 13, Russell Wasendorf Sr. (64), founder of Peregrine Financial Group, was arrested. He admitted stealing at least $100 million from his Iowa-based firm. He was found on July 9 in front of his corporate headquarters in Cedar Falls following an attempted suicide.
    (SFC, 7/18/12, p.D3)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.64)
2012        Jul 13, In Iowa two cousins, aged 9 and 13, disappeared near a popular recreational lake in Evansdale, a city about 110 miles northeast of Des Moines. On Dec 5 it was reported that hunters had found the bodies of the girls in a wooded area of Black Hawk County.
    (AP, 12/6/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Missouri Ashley Key (22) and Britney Haarup (19) were killed. Police arrested Clifford Miller (31) on July 15 and he told investigators where to find the bodies. Miller said he was high on methamphetamine when he killed the sisters in Edgerton.
    (SFC, 7/17/12, p.A8)
2012        Jul 13, Celeste Holm (b.1917), American musical comedy star, died in NYC. She sang in the original Broadway staging of “Oklahoma" (1943) and won an Academy Award for her role in “Gentleman’s Agreement" (1947).
    (SFC, 7/16/12, p.C4)
2012        Jul 13, In western Afghanistan, Abdul Salam Rahimi, the mayor of Shindand district in Herat province, was assassinated by two gunmen on a motorbike. A civilian, who was wounded in the shooting, later died at a hospital. The Laghman provincial women's affairs director, Hanifa Safi, was killed when a bomb attached to her vehicle exploded, critically wounding her husband and daughter.
    (AP, 7/14/12)(AFP, 7/15/12)
2012        Jul 13, The British government launched an £80-billion initiative to provide the banking sector with cheap funding to stimulate lending and boost growth.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Cambodia the 10-member ASEAN group ended its latest meeting for the first time without a communique reflecting a rift between countries loyal to China and those contesting territory with China.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.35)
2012        Jul 13, In the Comoros archipelago at least seven people died and six people were missing after a ship carrying illegal immigrants capsized overnight off the Indian Ocean French overseas territory of Mayotte.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants against Bosco Ntaganda, a rogue Tutsi Congolese general, and Sylvestre Mudacumura, a Rwandan Hutu rebel leader based in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who Kigali and Kinshasa accuse each other of using as proxies in DR Congo.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, Egypt's new Islamist President Mohammed Morsi and Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki told reporters in Cairo that the two nations will rebuild ties after what he described as years of stagnant, routine relations.
    (AP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Egypt Bedouin men kidnapped two US tourists and their guide in the lawless Sinai. Police said that they were demanding the release of a jailed tribesman in exchange for the hostages. Rev. Michel Louis (61) and Lissa Alphonse (39) and their guide, Haytham Ragab, were released on July 16.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)(AP, 7/16/12)
2012        Jul 13, An Ethiopian court jailed journalist Eskinder Nga for 18 years for "terrorism" and 23 other reporters and activists for between eight years and life, in sentences condemned by rights groups.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In southern France three Americans, crew members of Universal Jet Aviation, died when a private plane crashed at Le Castellet airport.
    (AP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, Two of Hong Kong's richest tycoons and a former senior official were charged with corruption in the biggest graft scandal the regional banking hub has seen. Sun Hung Kai Properties co-chairmen Thomas and Raymond Kwok, two of Asia's wealthiest men, were among five people charged with eight offences.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Iraq 2 people were killed and 16 others wounded in five separate attacks.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, Israeli troops killed a Palestinian when they opened fire at him near the border in the northern Gaza Strip. Israeli border police killed a man and wounded another who had tried to cross the Egyptian border into Israel.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, Maldives police arrested at least 55 anti-government protesters following violent clashes with security forces in the capital Male.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In northern Mali a protest erupted after a young Islamist militant whipped a woman carrying a baby for not wearing what he considered to be an adequate veil. The baby fell and was injured. Angry citizens then marched toward the radicals' base in Goundam town and vandalized the premises.
    (AP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, Mexican police arrested Vincent Legrend Walters, one of the US Marshals Service's most-wanted fugitives, in the resort city of Cancun, after 24 years on the run. He was wanted in San Diego, California, on murder charges in the 1988 killing of a woman kidnapped as part of a drug deal. He also faces weapons and drug charges and is on the service's list of 15 most wanted fugitives.
    (AP, 7/15/12)
2012        Jul 13, An incomplete tunnel along Arizona's border with Mexico was found during an inspection of a drainage system on the Mexican side of Nogales in early stages of construction. This was the 4th tunnel found this week.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, In north Nigeria a suicide bomber tried to assassinate Umar Garbai el-Kanemi, a key Islamic leader and Shehu of northeastern Borno state, outside his mosque after Friday prayers but missed his target and killed five others.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, Pakistan's Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry ordered Baluchistan Frontier Corps commander Major General Obaidullah Khattak to produce 30 missing people in court, saying there was evidence troops were involved in their disappearance. The 30 people were allegedly abducted in Totak Khuzdar district in February 2011. A bomb exploded near a political rally in the southwestern city of Quetta, killing at least five people. Prisoners at a jail in Hyderabad city took 15 staff hostage and tried to break out of the facility. Guards killed one prisoner.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)(AP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, Papua New Guinea police said they have arrested 29 people accused of being part of a cannibal cult in the jungle interior and charged them with the murders of seven suspected witch doctors. The cult members allegedly ate their victims' brains raw and made soup from their penises.
    (AP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Saudi Arabia a gunman was killed during an attack on a police station in the Shiite town of Al-Awamiya. Two security forces' patrols came under gunfire from masked armed men on motorbikes in the town of Saihat, wounding four policemen.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In eastern South Africa a cargo train loaded with coal collided with a truck carrying farm workers at a crossing, killing at least 25 people in Mpumalanga. The driver of the farm truck was charged the next day with murder.
    (AP, 7/13/12)(AP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, Spanish civil servants, some dressed in mourning, took to the streets to protest the latest round of government austerity measures and their second wage cut in as many years.
    (AP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Sudan more than 30 people were arrested in Khartoum's twin city of Omdurman when police fired tear gas at the Wad Nubawi mosque, which has become a focus of Arab Spring-style protests.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)
2012        Jul 13, In Syria 118 people died including dozens of civilians gunned down by troops at anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)
2012        Jul 13, Thailand customs officials discovered a half ton of ivory hidden in crates aboard a flight from Kenya. One official estimated that the 158 pieces of ivory were from the tusks of around 50 elephants.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2013        Jul 13, A jury of six Florida women ranging in age from their 30s to their 60s found George Zimmerman not guilty of murdering unarmed teenager Trayvon Martin last year, in the process underscoring the high value at least these six jurors placed on self-defense.
    (SSFC, 7/14/13, p.A10)
2013        Jul 13, In Florida Jermaine McBean (33), a computer engineer, was shot as he walked through his apartment complex in Broward County with an unloaded air rifle propped across his shoulders. A photo by a nurse on the scene showed he was wearing earbuds. Earbuds were later found at the hospital in his pocket. In 2015 the FBI opened investigations as the image indicated deputies may have tampered with evidence and lied under oath.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o9gyynn)(SFC, 7/9/15, p.A5)
2013        Jul 13, In Canada Cory Monteith (31), the young actor who shot to fame in the hit TV series "Glee," was found dead in a hotel room in Vancouver. He was beset by addiction struggles so fierce that he once said he was lucky to be alive. A coroner said he died of an overdose of heroin and alcohol.
    (AP, 7/14/13)(SFC, 7/17/13, p.F2)
2013        Jul 13, Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood called for more mass demonstrations in support of ousted President Mohamed Mursi after a huge pro-Mursi march broke up peacefully before dawn, ending a week in which at least 90 people were killed.
    (AP, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, A tribunal in Guinea sentenced Alpha Oumar Diallo and Jean Guilavogui to life imprisonment for trying to assassinate President Alpha Conde in July 2011. Among six others sentenced were Badjar Fatou Diallo, a woman convicted of being an active accomplice, Almamy Aguibou Diallo and Mamadou Alpha Diallo who were sentenced to 15 years.
    (AP, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Ingushetia Mikhail Musikhanov was killed by security forces along with another militant in a shootout in the Sunzha region. He was the personal bodyguard of rebel leader Doku Umarov, Russia's most wanted insurgent, who has vowed to use "maximum force" to prevent President Vladimir Putin staging the 2014 Games in Sochi.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Iraq a bomb exploded outside two Sunni mosques in Baghdad, killing at least 23 people leaving prayers. A separate attack at a funeral northeast of the capital killed at least 3 others.
    (AP, 7/13/13)(Reuters, 7/15/13)
2013        Jul 13, Roberto Calderoli, vice president of Italy's Senate, said at a political rally in the northern town of Treviglio, "I love animals - bears and wolves, as everyone knows - but when I see the pictures of Kyenge I cannot but think of, even if I'm not saying she is one, the features of an orangutan." Cecile Kyenge, an Italian citizen born in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has been the target of repeated racial slurs since her appointment as integration minister in April.
    (Reuters, 7/14/13)
2013        Jul 13, Kazakhstan said the wife of fugitive former minister and oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov could not leave the country because she was under investigation. Ablyazov said his wife and daughter were in danger.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Northern Ireland 32 police officers were injured and 11 people arrested during overnight violence around traditional Orange Day parades.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Pakistan 2 suspected Arab nationals were killed in North Waziristan in a late night US drone strike.
    (Reuters, 7/14/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Russia 18 people were killed and 25 injured when a truck ploughed into a bus in a Moscow suburb.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Spain the penultimate bull run of the San Fermin festival left at least 23 people injured. Two of the injuries were gorings.
    (AP, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Sudan’s western region of Darfur seven Tanzanian peacekeepers were killed in an ambush. 17 others were wounded.
    (AP, 7/14/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Syria Western-backed opposition fighters and a faction of al-Qaida-linked rebels turned their guns on each other in Aleppo, battling for control of a key checkpoint in the latest eruption of infighting among the forces trying to topple President Bashar Assad's regime.
    (AP, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, Turkey’s state-run Anadolu news agency said the parliament has amended an internal armed forces’ regulation that further strips the military of its political influence.
    (SSFC, 7/14/13, p.A5)
2013        Jul 13, Turkish police fired water cannon and tear gas to disperse hundreds of protesters who gathered to march to Gezi Park, which has been at the heart of fierce unrest against PM Erdogan's rule.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Yemen gunmen killed two soldiers and wounded three in an ambush in Marib province where the military is battling al-Qaida.
    (AP, 7/13/13)

2014        Jul 13, Orbital Sciences Corp. launched its 3rd space station delivery for NASA from Wallops Island on the Virginia coast.
    (SFC, 7/14/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 13, American novelist Thomas Berger (b.1924), author of “Little Big Man" (1964), died in New York. He authored over 20 books and three were turned into movies: “Little Big Man" (1970), “Neighbors" (1981) and “Meeting Evil" (2012).
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.D5)
2014        Jul 13, In Afghanistan an overnight assault in Laghman province left 6 police officers and one soldier dead, while security forces killed 15 insurgents. Insurgents in Herat province attacked a police checkpoint early today, killing one police officer. 4 insurgents were killed in the assault in Shindand district.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, In Brazil 15 journalists were injured at an anti-World Cup protest including a Canadian, Peruvian and Italian and two Brazilians working for foreign news agencies. None of the 15 were seriously injured. Rio de Janeiro police department later suspended four officers caught on video beating the journalists.
    (AP, 7/16/14)
2014        Jul 13, In Central African Republic a spokesman said Michel Djotodia has been re-elected as head of the mostly Muslim movement previously known as Seleka during a meeting in the northern town of Birao. Rebels also adopted a new name: The Popular Front for the Rebirth of Central African Republic.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, In Egypt three small bombs exploded in a western Cairo suburb, targeting an electricity transmission pylon and cutting power to the area for nearly an hour.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, France said its military offensive that freed northern Mali from the grip of Islamists would be replaced by an operation spanning the wider, largely lawless Sahel region to combat extremist violence.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, Germany won its 4th World Cup title. Argentines celebrating their team's gutsy performance in a 1-0 loss to Germany in the World Cup finals in Brazil. In Buenos Aires Riot police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a group of rock-throwing vandals who disturbed a rally.
    (AP, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 13, Iraq's deadlocked parliament failed to overcome the deep divisions hampering the formation of a new government, making no progress on choosing new leaders. Insurgents barreled unopposed into the town of Duluiyah, some 80 km (45 miles) north of Baghdad. The Iraqi military launched a counterattack. 6 members of the security forces and 6 pro-government Sunni militiamen were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, Israel briefly deployed ground troops inside the Gaza Strip for the first time as its military warned northern Gaza residents to evacuate their homes, part of a widening offensive that has killed more than 160 Palestinians.
    (AP, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, In Libya at least 6 people were killed and 25 injured when rival militias battled for the control of the international airport in Tripoli. Civil aviation authorities announced the airport will be closed for three days because of security concerns. At least five people were killed and nine wounded in Benghazi after heavy fighting between security forces and rival militias erupted late today.
    (AP, 7/13/14)(Reuters, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 13, Russia threatened Ukraine with "irreversible consequences" after a man was killed by a shell fired across the border from Ukraine. Kiev said it had bombarded a convoy of 100 armored vehicles and trucks that had crossed into Ukraine carrying in rebel fighters from Russia. It also said 7 of its troops had been killed in attacks. The Donetsk city council said that 12 people had been killed at a mining settlement nearby. Municipal authorities in Luhansk said 6 people were killed in clashes there.
    (Reuters, 7/13/14)
2014        Jul 13, Slovenes voted in a second early election in three years amid political instability that threatened the small nation's bid to pull out of an economic downturn. Miro Cerar (50), a law expert and the son of Slovenian Olympic medalist Miroslav Cerar, won with 36 of the parliament’s 90 seats.
    (AP, 7/13/14)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.48)
2014        Jul 13, In South Africa Nadine Gordimer (90), a Nobel literature laureate (1991) and anti-apartheid activist, died at home in Johannesburg. Her work included 15 novels and volumes of short stories that explored the complex of relationships and racial conflict in apartheid-era South Africa.
    (AFP, 7/14/14)(SFC, 7/15/14, p.A3)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.78)
2014        Jul 13, Syria's Kurds approved compulsory military service for their men to help ward off a push by Islamic extremists in the predominantly Kurdish areas in northern Syria.
    (AP, 7/17/14)

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