Today in History - July 20

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833        Jul 20, Ansegis (Ansegius, 63), French abbot of Fontenelle, author, died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1304        Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch (d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism, was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw himself as a Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.131)(HN, 7/20/98)

1402        Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane "the Terrible," defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Beyazid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1573        Jul 20, Lancelot of Brederode (Netherlands), water beggar, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1588        Jul 20-22, The Spanish Armada, after month in Corunna, set sail for England. The Duke of Medina Sedonia sailed in the flagship San Martin with Admiral Juan Martinez de Recalde.
    (HN, 7/20/01)(ON, 3/02, p.2)

1591        Jul 20, Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her views, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1627        Jul 20, English fleet under George Villiers reached La Rochelle. [see Jul 10]
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1636        Jul 20, John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1715        Jul 20, The Riot Act went into effect in England.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/20/01)

1749        Jul 20, Earl of Chesterfield said: "Idleness is only refuge of weak minds."
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1752        Jul 20, John C. Pepusch (85), English composer (Beggar's Opera), died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1773        Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1785        Jul 20, Mahmud II, sultan of Turkey (1808-39), Westernizer, reformer, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1788        Jul 20, The governor of the French colony of Pondicherry, Vietnam, abandoned plans to place King Nhuyen Anh back on the throne.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1808        Jul 20, Napoleon decreed that all French Jews adopt family names.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1810        Jul 20, Colombia declared independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1824        Jul 20, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Brig. General Union volunteers, was born in Prussia.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1836        Jul 20, Charles Darwin climbed Green Hill on Ascension.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1847        Jul 20, Max Liebermann, German impressionist painter, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1850        Jul 20, John Graves Shedd, president of Marshall Field and Company, was born. He was the first Chicago merchant to give his employees a half-day off on Saturdays.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1861        Jul 20, The New York Tribune compared Peace Democrats to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning. During the American Civil War, Northerners who advocated restoration of the Union through a negotiated settlement with the South was referred to as Peace Democrats.
    (HNQ, 10/9/99)
1861        Jul 20, The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, Va.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1861        Jul 20, In the first major battle of the Civil War [see June 10], Confederate forces repelled an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run.  It was fought on Judith Carter Henry’s farm.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 5/10/02)

1862        Jul 20-Sep 20, A guerrilla campaign in GA (Porter's & Poindexter's) left US 580 and CS 2,866 casualties.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1864        Jul 20, Confederate General John Bell Hood attacked Union forces under General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta. Gen. Hood lashed out against the Union right wing north of the city. Repulsed but undaunted, Hood turned to strike the Federal left wing, Major General James B. McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee, east of Atlanta. He deployed Major General Benjamin F. Chatham’s corps northeast of the city and sent Lieutenant General William J. Hardee's corps around McPherson’s left flank with orders to crush the Army of the Tennessee on the morning of July 22. Both corps were then to assail the rest of Sherman’s host. Battle of Peachtree Creek was part of the Atlanta Campaign.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 7/19/01)(MC, 7/20/02)

1867        Jul 20, Imperial troops in Guizhou, China, killed 20,000 Miao rebels.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1868        Jul 20, The 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1870        Jul 20, Vladimir D. Nabokov, Russian jurist, minister of Justice (1918-19), was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1871        Jul 20, British Columbia joined Confederation as a Canadian province. Canada’s government promised BC a railroad link to the eastern provinces as it joined the nation.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(ON, 11/07, p.9)

1872        Jul 20, Mahlon Loomis patented a wireless radio.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1881        Jul 20, Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)

1890        Jul 20, Theda Bara, actress (Love Goddesses), was born as Theodosia Goodman in Cincinnati.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1894        Jul 20, 2000 federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1903        Jul 20, Pope Leo XIII died. He served 25 years, four months and 17 days.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

1911        Jul 20, Generals Henry Wilson and Auguste Dubail signed a plan for British Expeditionary army in case of war with Germany.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1914        Jul 20, Armed resistance against British rule began in Ulster.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1917        Jul 20, The US draft lottery in World War I went into operation.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1917        Jul 20, Alexander Kerensky became the premier of Russia.
    (HN, 7/20/98)
1917        Jul 20, The Pact of Corfu was signed between the Serbs, Croats & Slovenes to form Yugoslavia. [see Dec 1, 1918]
    (www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1917yugoslavia1.html)

1919        Jul 20, Sir Edmund Hillary, the first man reach the summit of Mount Everest, was born in New Zealand.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1920        Jul 20, Elliot L. Richardson, US Attorney General (1973), Sec of Defense (1973), was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1923        Jul 20, In Mexico Francisco Villa (aka Pancho Villa, b.1877) [Doroteo Arango], general and revolutionist, died in an ambush. In c1999 Friedrich Katz of the Univ. of Chicago published "The Life and Times of Pancho Villa." In 2001 Frank McLynn authored "Villa and Zapata."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1593)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A14)(MC, 7/20/02)

1931        Jul 20, The trial of Constance May Flood Gavin, an alleged illegitimate daughter, began in San Mateo, Ca., for a daughter’s share in James L. Flood estate. Before closing arguments Judge George Buck ordered a directed verdict in favor of the Flood family. 10 jurors refused to sign the verdict. Buck lost elections the following year to Maxwell McNutt, the lawyer for Constance. Gavin later received a $1.2 million out-of-court settlement.
    (SMMB)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)

1933        Jul 20, Nelson Doubleday, publisher (Doubleday), owner (NY Mets), was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1933        Jul 20, Cormac McCarthy, novelist (All the Pretty Horses), was born.
    (HN, 7/20/01)
1933        Jul 20, Vatican state secretary Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) signed an accord with Hitler.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1935        Jul 20, The 1st broadcast of "Gang Busters" played on NBC-radio.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1936        Jul 20, Turkey signed a treaty, the Montreux Convention, by which it agreed not to interfere with transit through the Bosporus. It granted ships unrestricted passage except in times of war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/6lyog2)

1937        Jul 20, Don Budge (22), American tennis player, defeated Baron Gottfried von Cram (28) of Germany at Wimbledon in a semi-final round to see who would face England. James Thurber later described the Budge-Cramm five-set marathon as “the greatest match in the history of the world.”
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W8)
1937        Jul 20, Guglielmo Marconi (b.1874), Italian engineer, inventor of wireless telegraphy, marquis (radio, Nobel 1909), died in Rome.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1938        Jul 20, Diana Rigg, actress (Emma Peel-Avengers, Hospital), was born in Doncaster, England.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1938        Jul 20, Natalie Wood (d.1981), (From Here to Eternity, West Side Story, Splendor in the Grass, Rebel Without a Cause), was born as Natasha Nikolaevna Gurdin.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1939        Jul 20, Judy Chicago, artist, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/01)
1939        Jul 20, Joseph Mendes da Costa, sculptor, died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1942        Jul 20, Time put Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch on its cover.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1942        Jul 20, The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), later known as WACs, began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
    (HN, 7/20/02)(AP, 7/20/02)

1944        Jul 20, President Roosevelt was nominated for an unprecedented fourth term of office at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1944        Jul 20, US 15th Air Force attacked Friedrichshafen and Memmingen. Flying Fortresses of US 8th Air Force attacked Leipzig and Dessau.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1944        Jul 20, US invaded Japanese occupied Guam. Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by US air attack.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1944        Jul 20, A heavy storm hampered a British offensive at Caen.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1944        Jul 20, A branch of the German resistance led by Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath the table where Hitler was standing at Hitler's Rastenburg headquarters in East Prussia that wounded but did not kill Hitler. This incited the Fuhrer to wipe out the Prussian aristocracy. This is covered in Otto Friedrich's book on the Moltke family: "Blood and Iron." [see 1800, Helmuth and/or 1840, James von Moltke]
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-21)(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)
        "In fact, although many of the conspirators were tortured, beheaded and strangled by piano wire hung from meat hooks... Col. Stauffenburg and three of his fellow officers were executed by firing squad in the courtyard of the Benderblock around midnight of that fateful day." Gen. Friedrich Olbricht was executed along with Gen. Ludwig Beck, chief Germany general staff. The 20th of July Special Commission of the Third Reich was created after the July 20, 1944, assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler to find and expose conspirators and other enemies of the regime. Some 400 investigators employed all of the Gestapo-designed methods of torture against enemies of the Nazis until the end of the war. Some 5,000 Germans were executed in the months following the assassination attempt for their part in the conspiracy or alleged sympathy with the conspirators.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-15)(HNQ, 12/3/98)(MC, 7/20/02)
        Ludwig and Kunrat Hammerstein-Equord participated in the plot to kill Hitler and went into hiding when the plot failed. 4 members of the family were taken to concentration camps, but were later freed by the allies.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)
1944        Jul 20, The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1945        Jul 20, Paul Valery (b.1871), French poet (Le cimetiere Marin, Mon Faust), died at age 73. He was buried in his home town of Sete.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1947        Jul 20, Carlos Santana, legendary guitar player, was born in Autlan, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 10/14/07, Par p.18)

1948        Jul 20, William Forster, US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1948        Jul 20, Syngman Rhee (b.1875) was elected president of South Korea. He served to 1960.
    (HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)(MC, 7/20/02)

1949        Jul 20, Israel's 19 month war of independence ended with a ceasefire agreement with Syria. According to Israel's Foreign Ministry, 6,373 people, or nearly 1 percent of the Jewish population, were killed during Israel's War of Independence.
    (www.wikipedia.org)(AP, 12/8/07)

1950        Jul 20, In one of the first American actions in the Korean War, the U.S. Army’s Task Force Smith was pushed back into the Naktong perimeter by superior North Korean forces.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1951        Jul 20, Jordan's King Abdullah Ibn Hussein was assassinated in Jerusalem by a Palestinian extremist. Prince Hussein (15) witnessed the murder. Talal became king with the assassination of his father, Abdullah ibn-Hussein, who ruled when Jordan was a British mandate.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)(MC, 7/20/02)

1953        Jul 20, USSR and Israel recovered diplomatic relations.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1954        Jul 20, An armistice for Indo-China was signed and Vietnam separated into North & South. [see Jul 21]
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1954        Jul 20, West German secret service head Otto John defected to German DR.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1956        Jul 20, Great Britain refused to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1958        Jul 20, King Hussein of Jordan broke off diplomatic relations with UAR.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1960        Jul 20, The submarine George Washington became the 1st submerged sub to fire a Polaris missile.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1962        Jul 20, Dmitri Shostakovitch completed his 13th Symphony.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1967        Jul 20, Race riots took place in Memphis, Tenn.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1967        Jul 20, Pablo Neruda received the 1st Viareggio-Versile prize.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1968        Jul 20, Joseph Keilberth (b.1908), German conductor (Bayreuth Festival), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Keilberth)

1969        Jul 20, Astronaut Neil Armstrong took his legendary "one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." He and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin made the first successful landing of a manned vehicle on the moon’s Sea of Tranquility when they touched down in Apollo 11. Armstrong stepped down from the ladder of the landing module Eagle to become the first man ever to walk on the moon. The two astronauts explored the moon's surface for 2 1/2 hours, with amazed TV audiences looking on. Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his accomplishments and his contributions to the space program. Edwin Aldrin became the second man to step foot on the moon shortly after Neil Armstrong hopped off the lunar lander Eagle at 10:56 p.m. Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the moon for about two hours during their 22-hour lunar stay. Thomas Kelly (d.2002 at 72) was the engineer who had overseen the building of the lunar module. In 2009 Buzz Aldrin authored “Magnificent desolation: The Long Journey Home from the Moon.”
    (AP, 7/20/97)(HNPD, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 9/14/00)(SFC, 3/29/02, p.A24)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.82)

1973        Jul 20, Bruce Lee (b.1940), [Lee Yuen Kam], American-born martial arts expert and film actor, died in Hong Kong 3 weeks before the opening of his new film "Enter the Dragon." He was born in San Francisco and raised in Hong Kong. In 2000 Davis Miller authored "The Tao of Bruce Lee, A Martial Arts Memoir."
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.4)(SFC, 7/21/03, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Lee)

1974        Jul 20, Turkey invaded Cyprus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_invasion_of_Cyprus)

1976        Jul 20, Hank Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off the California Angels' Dick Drago at Milwaukee County Stadium.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hank_Aaron)
1976        Jul 20, US Air Force Brigadier General Harry Aderholt lowered the American flag for the last time at Military Assistance Command Thailand headquarters on Bangkok’s Sathorn Road.
    (www.nationmultimedia.com/sunday/20060709/)
1976        Jul 20, The Viking I robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars and began taking soil samples.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)

1977        Jul 20, A flash flood hit Johnstown, Pa., killing more than 80 people and causing $350 million worth of damage.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
1977        Jul 20, The UN Security Council voted to admit Vietnam to the world body.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

1982        Jul 20, Irish Republican Army bombs exploded in two London parks, killing 11 British soldiers, along with seven horses belonging to the Queen’s Household Cavalry. On May 22, 2013, British police charged John Downey (61) from County Donegal in Ireland, over one of the bombings that killed four soldiers and 7 horses in Hyde Park.
    (AP, 7/20/00)(AP, 5/22/13)

1983        Jul 20, The US House censured Reps. Gerry Studds of Massachusetts and Daniel B. Crane of Illinois for having sexual relations with pages. Studds, a liberal Democrat who acknowledged having sex with a 17-year-old male page in 1973 and making sexual advances to two others, admitted an error in judgment but did not apologize. The first openly gay member of Congress went on to win re-election until his retirement in the mid-1990s. Crane admitted having sex several times with a 17-year-old female page in 1980. He apologized to the House in a quavering voice "for the shame I have brought down on this institution." The conservative Republican was defeated a year later.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_Congressional_page_sex_scandal)(AP, 9/30/06)

1984        Jul 20, James Fixx (b.1932), jogger and writer, died of a heart attack while running in Vermont. His books included “The Complete Book of Running” (1977).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Fixx)

1985        Jul 20, US divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha.
    (www.atochastory.com/)

1987        Jul 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to approve a U.S.-sponsored resolution demanding an end to the Persian Gulf war between Iraq and Iran, a move supported by Iraq and dismissed by Iran.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1988        Jul 20, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis received the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Atlanta.
    (AP, 7/20/98)
1988        Jul 20, Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini accepted a truce with Iraq, even though he said the decision was like drinking poison.
    (AP, 7/20/98)

1989        Jul 20, President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.
    (AP, 7/20/99)

1990        Jul 20, William J. Brennan (1906-1997), US Supreme Court Justice, one of the court’s most liberal voices, left office after serving over 33 years.
    (AP, 7/20/00)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/90/)
1990        Jul 20, A federal appeals court set aside Oliver North’s Iran-Contra convictions, reversing one outright.
    (AP, 7/20/00)

1991        Jul 20,    President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people in Ankara.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
1991        Jul 20, Lebanon joined Syria in agreeing to participate in Mideast peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
1991        Jul 20, Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin banned political activity in government offices and republic-run businesses, effectively curtailing the influence of the Communist Party.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1992        Jul 20, Vaclav Havel, the playwright who led the Velvet Revolution against communism, formally stepped down as president of Czechoslovakia after failing to halt the country's pending breakup into two entities. He was later elected president of the Czech Republic.
    (AP, 7/20/02)

1993        Jul 20, Vincent Foster Jr., deputy White House council, was found dead in a Virginia Park near Washington. His death was claimed to be a suicide. An eye-witness later claimed to see “suspicious-looking man" and a car with Arkansas license plates not far from the scene. His death was later concluded to be a suicide. Information relating to these events were later leaked by a source identified as "Deep Water."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A7)(SFC, 7/16/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A24)(AP, 7/20/98)
1993        Jul 20, A day after firing William Sessions as FBI director, President Clinton named federal judge Louis Freeh (b.1950) to replace him. Freeh served until June, 2001.
    (AP, 7/20/98)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.A4)

1994        Jul 20, OJ Simpson offered a $500,000 reward for evidence of ex-wife's killer.
    (www.courttv.com/news/flashback/july.html)
1994        Jul 20, Bosnian Serbs rejected an international peace plan sponsored by the United States, Russia, France, Britain and Germany.
    (AP, 7/20/99)

1995        Jul 20, Baseball Hall-of-Famers Duke Snider and Willie McCovey pleaded guilty in New York to tax evasion.
    (AP, 7/20/00)
1995        Jul 20, Leaders of the University of California voted to drop affirmative action policies on admissions and hiring.
    (AP, 7/20/00)

1996        Jul 20, At the Atlanta Olympics, Renata Mauer of Poland won the Games' first gold, in the 10-meter air rifle.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1996        Jul 20, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton paid tribute to America's Olympic athletes at the just-opened Atlanta games, as well as 16 high school students from Montoursville, Pa., who died in the crash of TWA Flight 800.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1996        Jul 20, A new sculpture museum was scheduled to open in Copan National Park, Honduras, with exhibits of Mayan work.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.25)
1996        Jul 20, In Spain the Basque separatist group ETA set off 3 bombs at tourist sites. One at the airport of Reus and 2 at the beach resorts of Cambrils and Salou.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.A18)
1996        Jul 20, In Uganda rebels of the Lord’s Resistance Army abducted some 80 people, half of them students, 125 miles north of Kampala.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A1)

1997        Jul 20, Seven people were arrested after New York City police found scores of deaf Mexicans kept in slave-like conditions and forced to peddle trinkets for the smugglers who had brought them to the United States.
    (AP, 7/20/98)
1997        Jul 20, From Qatar it was reported that as many as 30% of Qatari women work. Some 6,000 graduated each year from the Univ. of Qatar.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A20)
1997        Jul 20, Palestinian security forces arrested 4 Palestinian police officers who were accused of planning to attack Jewish settlers. Israel had arrested 4 Palestinian policemen a week earlier for planned attacks at the settlement of Har Bracha.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A8)
1997        Jul 20, Turkish troops killed 50 Kurdish guerrillas in the southeast. That raised the weekly total to 84.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A9)

1998        Jul 20, A smoky fire aboard the cruise ship Ecstasy just two miles from the Florida shore forcing its return to port.
    (AP, 7/20/99)
1998        Jul 20, In Nigeria Gen’l. Abubakar announced that elections would be held in 1999 and power passed to a civilian president on May 29.
    (SFEC, 7/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 20, Russia won an $11.2 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund to help avert the devaluation of its currency. Anatoly Chubais later admitted that he lied to the IMF about the state of the Russian economy to get a $4.8 billion loan released.
    (AP, 7/20/99)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 20, Saudi Arabia attacked a Yemeni island in the Red Sea and killed 3 guards. 3 islands and parts of the Empty Quarter, a vast desert with potential for oil, were under contention.
    (SFEC, 7/21/98, p.A7)
1998        Jul 20, In Tajikistan 4 UN employees were killed while on routine patrol.
    (SFC, 7/22/98, p.A12)

1999        Jul 20, In Tulia, Texas, an indictment was handed down for the arrest of 46 people on drug charges under the testimony of undercover agent Tom Coleman. A probe into the arrests was opened in 2002 and in 2003 Gov. Rick Perry pardoned 35 defendants. In 2004 45 of those arrested split a $6 million civil rights settlement. In 2005 Tom Coleman, former undercover drug agent, was sentenced to 6 years on probation for perjury in the bogus drug busts. In 2005 Nate Blakeslee authored “Tulia: Race, Cocaine and Corruption in a Small Texas Town.”
    (SFC, 6/3/03, p.A3)(SFC, 8/23/03, p.A3)(SFC, 1/15/05, p.A6)(SSFC, 11/6/05, p.M3)
1999        Jul 20, After 38 years at the bottom of the Atlantic, astronaut Gus Grissom’s "Liberty Bell Seven" Mercury capsule was lifted to the surface.
    (AP, 7/20/00)
1999        Jul 20, Algerian government sources said rebels had cut the throats of 9 villagers in Medea province.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.C2)
1999        Jul 20, In Belarus the term of Pres. Lukashenko expired. He had extended his term to 2002 but the US said it would no longer recognize him.
    (WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 20, In Kashmir 20 Hindus were killed in 3 separate incidents by Muslim insurgents.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.C2)

2000        Jul 20, The Mideast summit, resurrected only hours after its reported demise, moved forward with Secretary of State Madeleine Albright stepping in for President Clinton, who had left for an economic summit in Japan.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/20/01)
2000        Jul 20, A federal grand jury indicted two former Utah Olympic officials for their alleged roles in paying one million dollars in cash and gifts to help bring the 2002 games to Salt Lake City.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
2000        Jul 20, Willamette Industries of Portland was fined $11.2 million under the federal Clean Air Act plus $8 mil in contributions to environmental projects. It also agreed to install an estimated $74 million worth of pollution control equipment. The company estimated the new equipment at $28 mil.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 20, It was reported that an experiment at Princeton showed light traveling beyond its previous known limit.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/20/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 20, Britain’s Terrorism Act 2000 was the first of a number of general Terrorism Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It superseded and repealed the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 1989 and the Northern Ireland (Emergency Provisions) Act 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_Act_2000)(Econ, 8/24/13, p.53)
2000        Jul 20, In Egypt at least 15 people were killed when a 6-story factory building collapsed in Alexandria.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B10)
2000        Jul 20, In Japan Prime Minister Mori presided in informal discussions between G-8 leaders and 4 leaders from poor nations. Pres. Clinton arrived in Okinawa and went directly to the Cornerstone of peace Memorial where the names of 237,318 people, who died in the battle of Okinawa, are inscribed.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/21/00, p.A8)
2000        Jul 20, The Stock Trading Center of Vietnam (STC), located in Ho Chi Minh City, was officially inaugurated. Trading commenced on July 28, 2000.
    (http://chinese-school.netfirms.com/abacus-stocks-Vietnam-stock-exchange.html)

2001        Jul 20, Ira Einhorn, convicted in absentia of killing his girlfriend, was flown from France and handed over to Philadelphia police.
    (AP, 7/20/02)
2001        Jul 20, Vanessa Leggett, a fledgling crime writer, was jailed in Texas on contempt charges for refusing to hand over her research notes on Robert Angleton to a federal grand jury. Leggett was released Jan 4, 2002.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A17)(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A6)
2001        Jul 20, It was reported that China planned to buy 38 Russian Su-30 MKK ground attack jets worth $2 billion.
    (SFC, 7/20/01, p.D4)
2001        Jul 20, A G-8 economic summit, planned in Genoa, Italy, expected over 100,000 demonstrators. The summit opened with raging street battles between police and demonstrators; one protester was fatally shot by officers. Carlo Giuliani (23) was shot and killed by police while protesting at the G-8 summit. At least 100 people were injured. In 2008 a court convicted 15 Italian officials of abusing protesters held in at police garrison following violent demonstrations during the 2001 G8 summit in Genoa. In 2015 the European Court of Human Rights awarded Arnaldo Cestaro $48,900 and ruled that his unpunished police beating amounted to torture.
    (SFC, 7/17/01, p.A6)(AP, 7/20/02)(SFC, 7/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/15/08)(SFC, 4/8/15, p.A2)
2001        Jul 20, In Macedonia 2 int’l. monitors and their interpreter were found killed by a land mine near Tetovo.
    (SFC, 7/21/01, p.E1)
2001        Jul 20, In Sri Lanka thousands of demonstrators were blocked from marching into the capital to protest the suspension of parliament by Pres. Kumaratunga. 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/20/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 20, In the West Bank an explosion leveled the office of Yasser Arafat in Hebron and Rajai Abu Rajab, an activist in the Tanzim, was found dead.
    (SFC, 7/21/01, p.E1)
2001        Jul 20, The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) was formally adopted at the 37th session of the (OAU) Assembly of Heads of State and Government in Lusaka, Zambia.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.48)(http://www.nepad.org/2005/files/inbrief.php)

2002        Jul 20, Omar Bernal, rebel commander of the 63rd front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, surrendered Saturday to soldiers in southern Colombia, saying he had lost faith in the decades-old guerrilla uprising.
    (AP, 7/20/02)
2002        Jul 20, In Greece police arrested two more alleged November 17 terrorists, Iraklis Kostaris and Costas Karatsolis, both 36-year-old real estate agents. One was believed to be a hit man in four assassinations including those of a U.S. Air Force sergeant and a British brigadier.
    (AP, 7/21/02)
2002        Jul 20, A car exploded near a mosque in an Israeli Arab neighborhood of Tel Aviv, killing the driver.
    (AP, 7/20/02)
2002        Jul 20, The number of Japanese who have died after taking diet pills imported from China has risen to four and 124 have fallen ill, Kyodo news agency reported quoting a Health Ministry report.
    (Reuters, 7/20/02)
2002        Jul 20, Refugees in flight from Liberia's war surged to 200,000, and those reaching safety in neighboring Guinea spoke of worsening atrocities by President Charles Taylor's forces: looting, raping, burning and killing trapped villagers. Jubilant government troops strutted through heavily looted Tubmanburg after driving away rebel forces who had controlled it for close to three months.
    (AP, 7/20/02)(AP, 7/21/02)
2002        Jul 20, In southeastern Nigeria unarmed women occupying at least four ChevronTexaco facilities said they had freed their two hostages in return for a promise from oil executives to meet with them.
    (AP, 7/20/02)
2002        Jul 20, In Nigeria a huge fire broke out Saturday at ChevronTexaco's main oil terminal, days after unarmed village women ended a 10-day siege that crippled the oil giant's local operations.
    (AP, 7/20/02)
2002        Jul 20-22, In Nigeria dozens of villagers have been killed, many hacked to death, in three days of clashes between rival political factions battling for influence in an oil-rich area of the Niger Delta.
    (AP, 7/23/02)
2002        Jul 20, In Lima, Peru, 29 people, and a lion and tiger that were part of the show, died in a blaze started by bartenders who were doing tricks with fire at Utopia, an unlicensed night club.
    (AP, 7/20/03)
2002        Jul 20, In northeastern Sicily a passenger train derailed and apparently crashed into an abandoned house, killing at least eight people and injuring some 30 others.
    (AP, 7/21/02)
2002        Jul 20, Sudan signed a peace deal with southern rebels in Kenya.
    (WSJ, 7/22/02, p.A1)

2003        Jul 20, President Bush welcomed Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi to his Texas ranch for a two-day visit.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2003        Jul 20, American generals said a new Iraqi civil defense force would be created over the next 45 days with some 7,000 militia members. Gen. John Abizaid, the top commander of coalition forces in Iraq, predicted that resistance to U.S. forces in Iraq would grow in coming months as progress was made in creating a new government to replace the dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 7/21/03, p.A1)(AP, 7/20/04)
2003        Jul 20, Two soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division were killed and another wounded when their convoy came under rocket-propelled grenade and small arms fire in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/20/03)
2003        Jul 20, William Woolfolk (86), writer for cartoon characters like Batman and Captain Marvel, died. He coined one of Captain Marvel's signature lines: "Holy Moley," and authored the 1968 bestseller "The Beautiful Couple."
    (SFC, 8/11/03, p.A16)
2003        Jul 20, Ben Curtis, an unknown PGA Tour rookie in his first major championship, won the British Open.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2003        Jul 20, In France 2 explosions rocked central Nice, slightly injuring at least 16 people and damaging several government buildings.
    (AP, 7/20/03)
2003        Jul 20, The Israeli and Palestinian prime ministers held a two-hour meeting, kicking off 10 days of international diplomacy aimed at solidifying a fragile Mideast cease-fire.
    (AP, 7/20/03)
2003        Jul 20, In southern Japan weekend mudslides destroyed more than a dozen homes, killing 16 people.
    (AP, 7/22/03)
2003        Jul 20, In Liberia rebels advanced deeper into the war-ravaged capital, trading mortar, grenade and machine-gun fire with government troops.
    (AP, 7/20/03)
2003        Jul 20, In Puerto Rico Jose Antonio Rivera Robles, was beaten to death at a gas station after he reportedly stole a police car. In 2009 a jury in US federal court convicted four Puerto Rican police officers in the beating death. Two other officers previously pleaded guilty to felony federal civil rights charges in the case.
    (AP, 8/13/09)(www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2009/August/09-crt-803.html)

2004        Jul 20, Former national security adviser Sandy Berger quit as an informal adviser to Democrat John Kerry's presidential campaign after disclosure of a criminal investigation into whether he'd mishandled classified terrorism documents.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2004        Jul 20, Microsoft said it would make a one-time dividend payment of $32 billion and buy back up to $30 billion in company stock over the next 4 years.
    (WSJ, 7/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 20, In Afghanistan US forces killed one militant and captured 5 others including a brother of Taliban leader Mullah Omar.
    (SFC, 7/21/04, p.A9)
2004        Jul 20, Monsoon floods, tornadoes and rains roared through already inundated villages in South Asia, killing 42 more people. 15 died in Bangladesh and 27 in India. Fresh rains in Asia took the rainy season death toll to nearly 800.
    (AP, 7/21/04)(Reuters, 7/21/04)
2004        Jul 20, Britain's government backed long-standing plans to build a railway network linking east and west London at a cost of around 10 billion pounds.
    (AFP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, EU lawmakers elected a pro-European from Spain to be its next president as the expanded European Parliament met for the first time. The 732-member assembly chose Josep Borrell, a relatively unknown Spanish Socialist, to its top job.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, Former Guam Gov. Carl Gutierrez (1995-2003) was acquitted on charges he used government workers and public money to build and improve his cliffside ranch.
    (AP, 7/21/04)
2004        Jul 20, President Ricardo Maduro said he is sending troops to help police quell a clash between loggers and environmentalists in south-central Honduras.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, In Iran a prominent history professor twice condemned to death on blasphemy charges was informed of a three year jail sentence for insulting Islamic sacred beliefs.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, A Filipino truck driver held hostage in Iraq for nearly two weeks was freed, a day after his nation withdrew its final peacekeepers from Iraq.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, A bomb attack on an Iraqi minibus killed four civilians and injured two others near Baqouba.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, Israeli helicopter gunships and tanks fired on Hezbollah guerrilla positions in southern Lebanon, killing one guerrilla, Lebanese security officials reported. Hezbollah said it killed two Israeli soldiers.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, The U.N. General Assembly called for the structure to be torn down in compliance with a world court ruling. Israel's construction of its West Bank barrier continued.
    (AP, 7/21/04)
2004        Jul 20, In Nepal Communist rebels freed about 50 students and a dozen teachers.
    (AP, 7/20/04)
2004        Jul 20, Pakistani officials acknowledged the closing and bulldozing of 2 refugee camps Zarinoor 1 & 2 in South Waziristan. The government had decided to dismantle all camps within 3 miles of the Afghan border.
    (SFC, 7/21/04, p.A9)
2004        Jul 20, In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.
    (AP, 7/21/04)

2005        Jul 20, A day after being tapped by President Bush, Supreme Court nominee John Roberts paid courtesy calls on senators while a conservative group purchased TV ad time in support of his nomination and abortion rights groups staged protests.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2005        Jul 20, Eastman Kodak Co. said it is cutting as many as 10,000 more jobs as the company that turned picture-taking into a hobby for the masses navigates a tough transition from film to digital photography.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, SF Bay Area air quality officials imposed the toughest regulations in the nation to reduce flaring in the East Bay’s 5 oil refineries.
    (SFC, 7/21/05, p.B1)
2005        Jul 20, Actor James Doohan (85), who transported the crew of "Star Trek" through space on the command "Beam me up, Scotty," died. He has asked that his ashes be blasted into space.
    (AFP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 20, Two Afghans released from Guantanamo Bay claimed about 180 Afghans at the U.S. detention facility were on a hunger strike to protest alleged mistreatment and to push for freedom.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 20, Cambodia handed over some 107 Montagnards, a largely Christian hilltribe people, to Vietnamese authorities. More than 1,000 Montagnards fled to Cambodia after security forces put down demonstrations in Vietnam's Central Highlands in 2001 against land confiscation and religious persecution of ethnic minorities. In January, Vietnam, Cambodia and the UNHCR signed a memorandum of understanding to resettle or repatriate about 700 ethnic minority Vietnamese who were estimated at the time to be in Cambodia.
    (AFP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, Haitang was downgraded from a typhoon to a tropical storm as it moved into southeast China, leaving a trail of destruction. The death toll in Taiwan and in China rose to 15.
    (AFP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, Canada legalized gay marriage, becoming the world's 4th nation to grant full legal rights to same-sex couples.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, In India the Chattisgarh state government said it will begin supplying arms to tribespeople who have formed vigilante groups to protect themselves from attacks by Maoist rebels.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 20, Sunni Muslim members on a committee drafting Iraq's new constitution suspended their participation in the wake of a colleague's assassination, saying they need more security. A suicide bomber blew himself up outside an army recruiting center in central Baghdad, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, A Milan prosecutor sought arrest warrants for six more purported CIA operatives, accusing them of helping plan the kidnapping of an Egyptian radical Muslim cleric.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, In Kashmir a car bomb blew up an army jeep, killing 5 soldiers and at least one civilian and injuring 20 others near a school in an elite neighborhood of Srinagar.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, Japanese electronics giant Hitachi said it has become the first foreign company to win certification from US transport authorities for its bomb-detection equipment, opening up major new markets.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, In Kenya riot police beat demonstrators with truncheons and fired tear gas canisters as protests in Nairobi persisted over proposed constitutional amendments that critics say leave the president with too much power.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 20, In Lebanon PM-designate Fuad Siniora announced a cabinet of 24 ministers. The lineup for the first time included a member of the Hizb Allah movement. Mohammed Fneish became energy minister. Hizb Allah ally Tarrad Hamadeh retained the post of labor minister.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m8ctm)
2005        Jul 20, In Mexico more than 1,000 people marched through the streets of the colonial capital of southern Oaxaca state to demand that picketers disband a blockade that has trapped journalists inside a newspaper building for about a month.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 20, Hurricane Emily slammed into northeastern Mexico with 125 mph winds.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, In Palestine the ruling Fatah movement and the Islamic Hamas agreed to end several days of clashes in northern Gaza that took the lives of two bystanders.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, President Vladimir Putin said Russia won't allow foreign organizations to finance political activities in the country.
    (AP, 7/20/05)
2005        Jul 20, In Yemen at least 11 people were killed in clashes with police after rioters threw stones and set fires in streets to protest against subsidy cuts that nearly doubled petrol prices.
    (AP, 7/20/05)

2006        Jul 20, President Bush delivered his first address to the 97th annual NAACP convention after having declining invitations for five years in a row. He received mixed support. Bush said he knew racism existed in America and that many black voters distrusted his Republican Party; Bush promised to improve the GOP's rocky relations with blacks.
    (AP, 7/20/06)(SFC, 7/21/06, p.A4)(AP, 7/20/07)
2006        Jul 20, The US Senate voted 98-0 to renew the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act for another quarter-century.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2006        Jul 20, The US released new postage stamps featuring Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Supergirl and a half dozen other superheroes.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2006        Jul 20, The SEC filed criminal and civil charges against executives at Brocade Communications in San Jose, Ca., for back-dating stock options. Estimates had it that some 29% of 7,774 US companies may have backdated option grants from 1996-2002.
    (SFC, 7/22/06, p.C3)
2006        Jul 20, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger authorized $150 million in loans to the state’s stem cell agency. A day earlier Pres. Bush vetoed legislation that would have expanded federal funding for stem cell research.
    (SFC, 7/21/06, p.B1)
2006        Jul 20, In Afghanistan coalition forces killed 6 Taliban in the district of Garmser in Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/22/06)
2006        Jul 20, The UN food agency said China became the world's third-largest food aid donor in 2005, the same year it stopped receiving assistance from the World Food Program, while the US and the EU remained the top two contributors.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2006        Jul 20, German and US scientists began a 2-year project to decipher the genetic code of the Neanderthal.
    (SFC, 7/21/06, p.A6)
2006        Jul 20, India arrested three men in connection with last week's Mumbai bombings that killed more than 180 men.
    (Reuters, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 20, Iraq's top Shiite cleric urged his followers to refrain from reprisal violence against Sunnis, his strongest call yet for an end to increasing sectarian bloodshed that threatens to erupt into full-scale civil war. Car bombs in Baghdad killed 9 police officers and 6 civilians. A roadside bomb in eastern Baghdad killed 2. Police in Baghdad found 38 bodies, most of whom were shot in the head. A car bomb exploded at a village gas station in Tikrit, killing 13 people who had gathered around the vehicle after discovering a corpse inside. An explosion in Kirkuk killed 7 people. Gunmen assassinated a former official of Saddam's Baath party in Karbala.
    (AP, 7/20/06)(SFC, 7/21/06, p.A3)
2006        Jul 20, Israeli troops met fierce resistance from Hezbollah guerrillas as they crossed into Lebanon to seek tunnels and weapons for a second straight day, and Israel hinted at a full-scale invasion.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2006        Jul 20, Israeli forces killed 3 people and wounded six in the Gaza Strip. The army dropped leaflets on towns and villages warning that homes hiding weapons would be attacked.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2006        Jul 20, In southwest Pakistan 300 tribal militants surrendered to authorities, where President Pervez Musharraf says an insurgency is dying down. In a search near the former rebel stronghold of Dera Bugti, troops seized 10 surface-to-air missiles, 195 anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, 270 hand grenades, 205 rockets and 201 mortar shells.
    (AFP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 20, Residents of central Somalia said that hundreds of Ethiopian troops were patrolling the town of Baidoa in armored vehicles, less than a day after Islamic militants moved near the base of the weak, UN-backed government.
    (AP, 7/20/06)
2006        Jul 20, Bio Fuel Systems, a Spanish company, claimed to have developed a method of breeding plankton and turning the marine plants into oil, providing a potentially inexhaustible source of clean fuel.
    (Reuters, 7/20/06)
2007        Jul 20, On the Caribbean island of St. Maarten Georgia state athletes Randy Newton and Bryan Kilgore were killed. Michael Registe was later accused of the murders and faced extradition.
    (SSFC, 7/19/09, p.A6)
2006        Jul 20, Luis Jefferson Lira Rodriguez (20), a Venezuela soldier, massacred 8 people at Ranch Adi, but said he acted on orders from at least one other lieutenant who claimed there was a Colombian rebel camp nearby. Officials later said rape was the motive and that the soldier acted alone.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

2007        Jul 20, President Bush signed an executive order prohibiting cruel and inhuman treatment, including humiliation or denigration of religious beliefs, in the detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2007        Jul 20, Kevin Andre Smoot (43), a former executive of Eagle Global Logistics’ freight forwarding station in Houston, a company that shipped military cargo to Iraq, pleaded guilty to lying about a fraud scheme that bilked the government out of more than a million dollars. Smoot admitted that he lied to federal investigators who questioned him about a scheme to inflate invoices by adding a "war risk surcharge" of 50 cents for each kilogram of freight transported to Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 20, Purdue Pharma L.P., the maker of OxyContin, and 3 of its executives were ordered to pay a $634.5 million fine for misleading the public about the painkiller's risk of addiction.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 20, A 4.2 earthquake jolted San Francisco Bay area residents awake, breaking glass and rattling nerves, although there were no immediate reports of injuries.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, In Ohio an ambulance heading to a hospital was broadsided by a car in Crane Township and 5 people were killed including 3 EMT technicians and 2 patients.
    (SFC, 7/21/07, p.A3)
2007        Jul 20, Tammy Faye Messner (b.1942) died in Missouri. As Tammy Faye Bakker she had helped her husband, Jim, build a multimillion-dollar evangelism empire that collapsed in disgrace. She divorced her husband of 30 years, with whom she had two children, in 1992 while he was in prison for defrauding millions from followers of their PTL ("Praise the Lord" or "People that Love") television ministries. In 1993 she married Roe Messner, a former PTL contractor and chief builder of Heritage USA, a PTL theme park in South Carolina. In 1996 Messner was sentenced to 27 months in prison for federal bankruptcy fraud.
    (AP, 7/22/07)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.B7)
2007        Jul 20, Pete Wilson (b.1945), TV anchor for KGO-TV in SF, died one day after a heart attack suffered during hip replacement surgery at Stanford Hospital.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 20, Angola, Namibia and South Africa launched a joint commission designed to lay the groundwork for a sustainable and environmental approach of their shared fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (AFP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, An election committee said Bako Saakian, Nagorno-Karabakh's former security chief, won the presidency of the Armenian-controlled breakaway region with 85% of the vote.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Hundreds of thousands of people packed the streets of La Paz to protest efforts to relocate Bolivia's capital in one of the largest demonstrations in the history of the Andean country. La Paz backers said switching the capital from Bolivia's largest city, with a metropolitan population of 1.7 million, to Sucre, population 250,000, would be expensive and divisive.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Sen. Antonio Carlos Peixoto de Magalhaes (79), one of Brazil's most influential politicians, died. He had held on to power as the country came under a military dictatorship and returned to democracy.
    (AP, 7/21/07)(SFC, 7/23/07, p.D6)
2007        Jul 20, China said it had shut down several firms at the heart of food and drug safety scares, including a chemical plant implicated in the deaths of 94 people in Panama. China also said that it "strongly opposed" decisions by the United States to initiate anti-dumping and countervailing duty investigations on imports of some woven sacks and steel pipes from China. Total deaths in Panama reached 116 from contaminated medications.
    (AP, 7/20/07)(Reuters, 7/20/07)(AP, 5/10/08)
2007        Jul 20, In southern China a mentally ill man wielding a wrench wounded 18 children and a teacher in a kindergarten before fleeing on a motorcycle. Police nabbed the attacker at his home and sent him to hospital because he had stabbed himself in the stomach.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 20, A magnitude-6.1 quake hit far western Xinjiang's mountainous Tekes county. Chinese authorities relocated 8,250 people after the earthquake damaged and destroyed thousands of mud brick houses.
    (AP, 7/22/07)
2007        Jul 20, Aid officials said clashes between rival militia groups in eastern Congo have killed nine fighters and reduced dozens of houses to smoldering ruins. The fighting erupted a week ago in Minembwe, about 120 miles southwest of the eastern lakeside city of Uvira.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Ecuador's Pres. Rafael Correa overturned a ban on the sale of shark fins, which are popular in Asia, but stipulated they can only be sold if the sharks are caught by fishermen accidentally.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Ethiopia pardoned and freed 38 opposition politicians and activists following international condemnation of their imprisonment and days after US lawmakers took steps to criticize the country's human rights record.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, A heat wave sweeping central and southeastern Europe killed at least 13 people this week, with soaring temperatures sparking forest fires, damaging crops and prompting calls to ban horse-drawn tourist carriages.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Two suspects in the 1994 Rwandan genocide, a priest and a prefect, were arrested in France on a warrant from an international court investigating the massacres. Wenceslas Munyeshyaka, a Roman Catholic priest in Normandy, and Laurent Bucyibaruta, a former prefect, were jailed before possible extradition to Tanzania where the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is based.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, In Iraq 4 people were killed and three wounded when clashes broke out in the Shiite village of Ajemi near Khalis. A roadside bomb killed a U.S. soldier in Diyala province. Iraqi troops detained 46 suspected militants and killed five others in a new operation in eastern Diyala. A US airstrike killed six militants in Husseiniyah, according to US military, disputing claims by Iraqi officials and relatives of the victims that 18 civilians died in the attack.
    (AP, 7/20/07)(AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 7/22/07)
2007        Jul 20, Israel released more than 250 Palestinian prisoners, aiming to bolster embattled President Mahmoud Abbas in his power struggle with the Islamic militants of Hamas.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, The UN said that it had confined a group of peacekeepers to their base in Ivory Coast after receiving allegations of widespread sexual abuse, the latest in a string of accusations of sexual violations by UN forces around the world.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Suspected Islamic rebels attacked Hindu pilgrims with hand grenades for the second time in a week in India's portion of Kashmir, wounding 11 people.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 20, Lebanon’s army used loudspeakers to urge Islamic extremists inside a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon to surrender, as sporadic fighting continued.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Officials said Liberia's former House speaker and an ex-military commander have been charged with treason for their involvement in an alleged coup plot.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Nigeria filed a new lawsuit against US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer claiming some 6.5 billion dollars in damages for deaths allegedly stemming from drug trials. In Sokoto, Nigeria's main Islamic city, mobs burned down houses in Shiite neighborhoods in apparent reprisal for the murder this week of a radical Sunni Muslim cleric. In northern Nigeria at least one person died and about 100 were detained in a series of dawn raids following sectarian clashes sparked by the killing of a popular Sunni cleric In southern Nigeria Gunmen killed a Lebanese businessman in his home. Later in the day attackers tried to ambush a truck carrying several foreign workers in what appeared to be a kidnapping attempt.
    (AFP, 7/20/07)(AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Pakistan’s Supreme Court reinstated Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammed Chaudhry, ruling that his suspension by President Gen. Pervez Musharraf was illegal. Clashes broke out between Pakistani troops and militants in North Waziristan after a suicide car bomber hit a security checkpoint, killing four people. In northwestern Pakistan lightning and heavy rain caused landslides that destroyed homes in two villages, killing more than 70 people.
    (AP, 7/20/07)(AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 20, The WTO said Rwanda plans to import a generic HIV/AIDS medicine made in Canada, making it the first country to test a World Trade Organization waiver on drug patents.
    (Reuters, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Rade Terzic, Serbia's former state prosecutor, was arrested on suspicion he belonged to a criminal gang linked to former President Slobodan Milosevic.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, President Thabo Mbeki hailed the launch of a rolling news network in South Africa as an opportunity to break free of Western news agendas and give a more rounded picture of the continent.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2008        Jul 20, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged steadfast aid to Afghanistan in talks with its Western-backed leader and vowed to pursue the war on terror "with vigor" if he is elected. 9 policemen were killed in international military air strikes called in when police and troops clashed after mistaking each other for Taliban. International soldiers had moved into a district in Farah province without informing police, who thought they were militants. 3 children were killed in the southern province of Helmand when a bomb blew up a minivan. One NATO soldier was killed in Khost province. A precision missile strike by British aircraft killed Abdul Rasaq, a Taliban leader who led fighters in the Musa Qala area of Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/20/08)(AFP, 7/20/08)(SFC, 7/21/08, p.A7)
2008        Jul 20, In Australia Pope Benedict XVI said a "spiritual desert" was spreading throughout the world and he challenged young people to shed the greed and cynicism of their time to create a new age of hope for humankind.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, In central Bolivia a Venezuelan military helicopter often used to transport Bolivian President Evo Morales crashed. Four Venezuelan military personnel and a Bolivian officer were reported killed.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 20, Beijing started its most drastic pollution-control plan, restricting car use and limiting factory emissions in a last-minute push to clear smog-choked skies for the August Olympics.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, Well over a million Colombians, clad in white and shouting "No more kidnapping," marked their independence day with marches and concerts demanding freedom for hostages still held by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, In northern India a packed bus collided with a truck in Uttar Pradesh state, killing at least 17 people and wounding 35 others.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, Activists said Iran has sentenced eight women and one man convicted of adultery to death by stoning. The nine, who are between 27 and 50 years old, were convicted of adultery in separate cases in different Iranian cities.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, In Iraq a new airport opened in Najaf in what the prime minister said was a key step in the reconstruction of a country devastated by war. The government said an oil refinery in Iraq's western desert has resumed production. American soldiers killed two armed relatives of a provincial governor during a raid in Salahuddin province against al-Qaida in Iraq. 2 private security contractors were killed in a car bombing in Mosul. 8 Iraqis were injured in the blast.
    (AP, 7/20/08)(AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 20, In Israel British PM Gordon Brown, on his first official visit as prime minister, said that economic development was key to bringing peace to the Middle East. Brown demanded that Israel cease settlement construction and promised more money to jump-start the battered Palestinian economy.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, Barack Obama made a brief stop in Kuwait, a key US ally. The delegation met with the emir, Sheik Sabah Al Ahmed Al Sabah, and other senior officials.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 20, In Lebanon Shehadeh Jawhar, military commander of the Jund al-Sham group, died from wounds in the previous day’s clash with members of the mainstream Palestinian Fatah movement.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 19, Morocco's police seized more than 10 tons of drugs during raids in the north of the country and along its coasts.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 20, In Pakistan five militants died in a failed assault on the Tora Warai military fort near Hangu. The army said security forces had killed 15 militants and detained 60 others, in the first major action against insurgents under Pakistan's new government.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, In northern Spain 4 bombs exploded at popular seaside resorts in Cantabria, after warning calls from the Basque separatist group ETA. No casualties were reported.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, Sri Lankan government forces captured a Tamil Tiger rebel base in the north after a 48-hour battle that left at least 15 rebels dead. Air force jets destroyed six rebel boats.
    (AP, 7/20/08)
2008        Jul 20, A state newspaper reported that Zimbabwe will transfer ownership of all foreign-owned firms that support Western sanctions against President Robert Mugabe's government to locals and investors from "friendly" countries.
    (Reuters, 7/20/08)

2009        Jul 20, The United States and India agreed on a defense pact that takes a major step toward allowing the sale of sophisticated US arms to the South Asian nation as it modernizes its military. New Delhi also approved sites for two US nuclear reactors.
    (Reuters, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and four legislative leaders agreed to bridge a $26.3 billion gap between expenditures and the state's plummeting revenues. The agreement composed of cuts, borrowing and fund shifts was not expected to resolve California's financial problems as the economy continues to struggle and tax revenue lags far behind the level of the boom years.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Afghanistan 10 Taliban were killed and three other militants wounded while making bombs in a house in Ghazni province. A roadside bomb killed 4 US soldiers.
    (AP, 7/21/09)(SFC, 7/21/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 20, Algeria’s Ministry of Transport said the Chinese civil engineering group CCECC has won 3 contracts worth a total of 1.46 billion euros to build railways in Algeria.
    (AFP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Australia Adelaide-based Vaxine began swine flu vaccine trials with 300 subjects. Melbourne's CSL had 240 people in its seven-month trial, which started Jul 22. The companies said their trials are the first tests of a swine flu vaccine on humans.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 20, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 24 people, most of them civilians, were killed when rebels attacked an army base.
    (Reuters, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 20, In India Ajmal Kasab (21), the lone surviving gunman in the Nov 26, 2008, Mumbai attacks, pleaded guilty and gave a detailed account of the plot, his training in Pakistan and his role in the rampage that killed 171 people dead and paralyzed the city for three days.
    (AP, 7/20/09)(SFC, 7/21/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 20, Iran's supreme leader issued a tough warning to the opposition to back down after pro-reform former president Mohammad Khatami called for a referendum on the government's legitimacy.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Malaysia Kartika Sari Dewi Shukarno (32), a Muslim woman, was sentenced to six lashes and a fine of 5,000 ringgit ($1,400) for having a beer in a nightclub in Dec 2007. She would become the first woman in Malaysia to be given the punishment under Islamic law. Her caning was delayed on Aug 24 because of the holy month of Ramadan. On Mar 30, 2010, the state's sultan spared her the caning and instead ordered her to do 3 weeks of community service. 
    (AP, 7/21/09)(AP, 8/19/09)(AP, 8/24/09)(AP, 4/1/10)
2009        Jul 20, In Mexico 3 men were killed outside a bar before dawn in Ciudad Juarez, across from El Paso, Texas.
    (AP, 7/2o/09)
2009        Jul 20, Pakistani said clashes between security forces and militants have left 20 people dead in the northwest over the past 24 hours.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, A Palestinian official said more than 30 Israeli settlers, some of them on horseback, set fire to fields and olive trees and stoned Palestinian cars during a rampage in the West Bank. Two Palestinians were lightly injured.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, Peru’s former President Alberto Fujimori was convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to 7 1/2 years in prison after he admitted illegally paying his spy chief $15 million in government funds.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 20, The Russian rights group, where slain activist Natalia Estemirova worked, said it has suspended operations in Chechnya because of safety fears for her co-workers. Memorial said it will continue tracking human rights abuses in nearby Ingushetia. A spokesman for Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov, who has condemned the murder and promised to find those responsible, said a Moscow court had accepted a lawsuit from Kadyrov against Memorial head Oleg Orlov for libel after the group's chairman blamed Kadyrov for Estemirova's death.
    (Reuters, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Somalia Islamic insurgents with alleged links with al-Qaida looted two United Nations compounds in southern Somalia, and announced they will ban three UN agencies from operating in areas the militants control.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In South Africa 9 workers died when the roof of the mine shaft they were working in collapsed and trapped them about half a mile (1 km) underground in Rustenburg.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Thailand Southeast Asian foreign ministers (ASEAN) endorsed the region's first human rights watchdog, rejecting criticisms that the body would be powerless to tackle rogue members such as Myanmar. 2 assailants on a motorcycle shot and killed a Buddhist man who was traveling on a road in Pattani province.
    (AFP, 7/20/09)(AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, A UN war crimes court in the Hague convicted Milan Lukic and Sredoje Lukic, two Bosnian Serb cousins, for a "callous" 1992 killing spree that included locking scores of Muslims in two houses and burning them alive in Visegrad. He sentenced Milan to life in prison and Sredoje to 30 years.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, In Venezuela Alicia Torres, a judge handling one of Venezuela's most politically charged cases, said that she was fired after complaining about pressure to rule against an opponent of President Hugo Chavez. Torres said last week she was pressured by a superior to prohibit Guillermo Zuloaga, president and owner of the Globovision TV channel, from leaving the country.
    (AP, 7/20/09)
2009        Jul 20, Zambia's Catholic bishops and the International Press Institute condemned the arrest on obscenity charges of a newspaper editor who says she was trying to draw attention to the consequences of a health workers' strike. Chansa Kabwela, editor of the independent Post, was arrested last week after e-mailing pictures of a woman giving birth in the streets to policy makers and aid groups.
    (AP, 7/20/09)

2010        Jul 20, The Oakland, Ca., City Council adopted regulations permitting industrial-scale marijuana farms.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.C1)
2010        Jul 20, In northern Afghanistan 2 American civilians and an Afghan soldier were killed in a shooting on an Afghan military base. An Afghan soldier who trained others at the base outside Mazar-e-Sharif started shooting during a weapons exercise. The shooter was killed. The international community endorsed sweeping Afghan government plans to take responsibility for security by 2014, forge peace to end nine years of war and take greater control of aid projects. NATO forces detained a Taliban operative who had been in the final preparation stages for attacks against an int’l. conference.
    (AP, 7/20/10)(AFP, 7/20/10)(AP, 7/22/10)
2010        Jul 20, It was reported that at least 26 people have died in Argentina from exposure, carbon monoxide inhalation from heaters and other weather-related causes. A cold front across much of South America was linked to dozens of deaths, mounting losses for cattle ranchers and other hardships.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, The Australian Sex Party promised to spice up campaigning for next month's elections with a manifesto "unlike Australia had ever seen before." The party's policies include legalizing euthanasia, decriminalizing all drugs for personal use, and watering down strict anti-pornography laws.
    (AFP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, The Bank of Canada raised its key interest rate, as expected, but warned the domestic and global recovery will be slower than it had previously forecast, suggesting any further hikes may be gradual. Borrowing costs rose 25 basis points to 0.75%.
    (Reuters, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Paris-based International Energy Agency said China has overtaken the United States as the world's largest energy consumer. The IE said China's 2009 consumption of energy sources ranging from oil and coal wind and solar power was equal to 2.265 billion tons of oil, compared to 2.169 billion tons for the US.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Guinea's top court announced final results from last month's presidential election and confirmed that the top two finishers will face each other in a runoff. Former PM Cellou Dalein Diallo garnered nearly 44 percent of the vote, short of the simple majority needed to avoid a second round. Longtime opposition politician Alpha Conde won just about 18 percent, while another ex-premier, Sidya Toure came in third place with close to 13 percent of the vote.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Iran's parliament authorized tit-for-tat retaliation against countries that inspect cargo on Iranian ships and aircraft as part of new UN sanctions over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Iranian newspapers reported the hanging of 3 men in a prison in Kerman and one in public in the city of Ahvaz after they were convicted of drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Iraqi officials discovered that 4 al-Qaida-linked detainees escaped from Karkh prison in the Baghdad area, which was handed over by the US to Iraqi authorities a week ago. The four men were officially listed in a security report as Mohammed Hamid, Qais Azmi, Malik Nazzal and Hussein Ahmed. A car bomb near a roadside restaurant just north of Baghdad killed one person and wounded seven Iranian pilgrims heading to Karbala.
    (AP, 7/22/10)(AP, 7/23/10)   
2010        Jul 20, Israel canceled a warning to its people to avoid traveling to Turkey, citing an end to stormy protests over Israel's deadly raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Italian engineers launched a 3-month, 8,000-mile test drive of a robotic vehicle from Parma to China.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 20, Pakistani army guards shot and killed three suspected suicide bombers and two other militants as they tried to enter a sprawling military firing range in the northwest.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Kurdish rebels killed six Turkish soldiers and wounded 15 in an overnight raid on a military outpost along the border with Iraq. Another soldier died in a separate attack.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Seoul's mass-circulation Dong-a Ilbo newspaper said Kwon Ho Ung, North Korea's chief delegate from 2004 to 2007 for high-level talks with the South's then liberal government, has been executed by firing squad.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, A Somali human rights group said at least 53 civilians were killed over the past week in clashes between government forces and Islamic militants.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 20, Spain's Parliament rejected a proposal to ban women from wearing in public places Islamic veils that reveal only the eyes.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Sudan expelled three top Chadian rebel chiefs on the eve of a visit to Chad by Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir.
    (AFP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Taiwan’s Pres. Ma Ying-jeou announced the formation of a new commission to battle corruption and vote buying. A week earlier 3 high court judges and a prosecutor were detained amid allegations that they took bribes to fix the outcome of a high profile case.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.42)
2010        Jul 20, Uganda's government defended the forced repatriation of 1,700 Rwandan refugees, action that the UN refugee agency condemned for being heavy-handed. Two people died while trying to escape the roundup. The Rwandans were forced out of Uganda on July 14 because they had no refugee status and had become a security risk.
    (AP, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he would put a representative on the board of opposition television station Globovision, the leftist leader's boldest move yet against his fiercest media critic.
    (Reuters, 7/20/10)
2010        Jul 20, Yemeni tribal chief Sheikh Zaidan al-Moqannay, his son and four of his bodyguards were killed in a rebel ambush in Saada. Rebel spokesman Mohammed Abdul Salam denied that the rebels ambushed Moqannay, claiming that he was killed in confrontations which also resulted in the death of three rebels. Rebels said they welcomed a Qatari offer to help consolidate a truce.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2011        Jul 20, Basketball star Yao Ming (30) announced his retirement after a trailblazing career that made him China's best-known athlete and helped spur the game's global growth.
    (AFP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, In Arizona a new law went into effect requiring prisoner visitors to pay a one-time $25 background check fee. In August the Tempe-based Middle Ground Prison Reform filed a lawsuit seeking to have the fee declared a tax and any money paid so far returned to visitors.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Jul 20, Minnesota ended a state government shutdown after 20 days, millions in lost revenue and frustration on the part of residents and lawmakers.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A6)
2011        Jul 20, NYC authorities said a high-end prostitution ring catering to Wall Street clients, who often would spend over $10,000 for a night bingeing on sex and cocaine, has been busted and 17 people indicted.
    (Reuters, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, The Los Angeles passed a pioneering new law intended to protect bicyclists from harassment by motorists.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A6)
2011        Jul 20, Wells Fargo agreed to pay $85 million to settle Federal Reserve claims that it steered borrowers into costlier loans and falsified data in mortgage applications.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.D2)
2011        Jul 20, Zillow, an online real estate information site, went public at $20 per shares. Share value closed $35.77.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A1)
2011        Jul 20, NASA said that the Hubble Space Telescope has found a 4th moon circling Pluto. It was later named Kerberos.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Pluto)
2011        Jul 20, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber killed four people in Mazar-i-Sharif.
    (AFP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 20, In Bangladesh a Dhaka court indicted 430 people for serious crimes related to the February, 2009, mutiny among border guards.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 20, Lucian Freud (b.1922), Berlin-born realist painter, died in London. The grandson of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud was widely seen as Britain's top contemporary artist. In 2013 Geordie Greig authored “Breakfast with Lucian: The Astounding Lie and Outrageous Times of Britain’s Great Modern Painter.” 
    (AFP, 7/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Freud)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.94)
2011        Jul 20, Five Dominican Republic students set a world record after reading aloud for 300 straight hours to raise awareness about books. And they kept going. Guinness World Records recognized the university students for breaking the previous record of 240 hours set in 2009 by a group of women from Miami Dade College.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, In Ecuador a judge ordered Emilio Palacio, a former columnist for El Universo, and 3 of the paper’s directors, to pay Pres. Rafael Correa $40 million in damages for an article published in February, 2010, regarding a mutiny by police. Correa had asked for $80m. In September an appeals courts upheld 3-year prison sentences for the columnist and directors as well as $42 million in fines. On Feb 16, 2012, Ecuador's highest court upheld the criminal libel verdict.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.34)(SFC, 9/21/11, p.A2)(AP, 2/16/12)
2011        Jul 20, In Egypt Maj. Gen. Mamdouh Shaheen presented a new law barring foreign monitors for upcoming parliamentary elections. He said Egyptian election monitors will observe the process instead.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, In Haiti a man (18) was sexually assaulted by peacekeepers from Uruguay on a UN base along the southern coast. The alleged attack only became public in late August when a video taken by cell phone was circulated and the UN announced an investigation. The six Uruguayan marines were expelled from Haiti in September and jailed at home while military and civilian prosecutors investigated allegations. The former peacekeepers were freed in January, 2012, pending a military trial on charges of violating rules against fraternizing with civilians inside military bases.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(AP, 1/9/12)
2011        Jul 20, Iran's Revolutionary Guard said it has shot down an unmanned US spy plane that was trying to gather information on the underground Fordo uranium enrichment site.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Ireland’s lawmakers declared that the Vatican encouraged Catholic bishops not to tell police about suspected pedophile priests sabotaging the 1996 Irish bishops’ decision to begin reporting suspected cases of child abuse to police.
    (SFC, 7/21/11, p.A3)
2011        Jul 20, In Jamaica a mother and daughter were beheaded by attackers who invaded their home in Spanish Town, a gritty area outside Kingston, near where a wanted 18-year-old gang member was found with his head chopped off earlier this week. On August 2 police said three suspects had been arrested and investigators sought six more.
    (AP, 7/21/11)(AP, 8/2/11)
2011        Jul 20, Kenyan authorities burned five tons of contraband elephant ivory in hopes of raising awareness about rising levels of poaching. Africa had 1.3 million elephants in the 1970s but only 500,000 remained today.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, A magnitude-6.1 temblor centered in Kyrgyzstan hit shortly after midnight in a mountainous area some 20 miles (35 km) away from the eastern Uzbek city of Ferghana, which has a population of more than 200,000. The earthquake killed at least 14 people, including 13 in Uzbekistan and one in Tajikistan.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, In Malawi demonstrations in the commercial center of Blantyre, in the capital and other major towns turned violent as protesters also looted several shops belonging to ruling party officials and allies of President Bingu wa Mutharika. At least one person was killed and several others injured.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, The Mexican army in north-central state of Queretaro seized a cache of more than 926 tons (840 metric tons) of precursor chemicals used to make methamphetamines.
    (AP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 20, The Dutch government announced plans to equip 125 police officers with mobile devices that can scan detainees' fingerprints to check whether they are illegal immigrants.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Dutch prosecutors released some details about four Dutch citizens arrested on suspicion of involvement in cyber attacks as part of the loosely-knit hackers group known as "Anonymous." They said the suspects are thought to have belonged to a splinter group called AntiSec NL, which hacked the sites of dating service Pepper.nl and communications software maker Nimbuzz, among others.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Senegal’s Interior Minister Ousmane Ngom banned political protests in downtown Dakar, citing security reasons, just days before a mass rally planned to protest against the embattled regime.
    (AFP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Serbia arrested Goran Hadzic (52), the last major war crimes suspect from the 1990s Yugoslav conflicts, closing what its president called a "burdensome" page in the country's history. The Croatian Serb wartime leader had been indicted in 2004 for crimes against humanity during the 1991-95 Croatian war.
    (Reuters, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, Syrian security forces swept through restive neighborhoods, detaining dozens of people, including George Sabra, a key opposition figure. Authorities released prominent political activist Ali Abdullah of the Damascus Declaration opposition group, three days after he was taken from his home near Damascus.
    (AP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 20, The United Nations said it faces a $4.3 billion shortfall in helping the 50 million people worldwide in need of emergency food, shelter and other humanitarian aid. The UN declared famine in 2 regions of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 7/20/11)(SFC, 7/21/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 20, Yemeni police officials said a British man was killed when his car blew up in what was likely a bombing in the port city of Aden.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

2012        Jul 20, James Holmes (24) dressed in riot gear burst into a movie theater in Aurora, Colo., during the early morning showing of the Batman film "The Dark Knight Rises" and methodically began shooting patrons, killing at least 12 people and injuring at least 50.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, Yale University, one of the leading centers of liberal education in the United States, defended controversial restrictions on protests and political parties at its new Singapore campus. The first batch of students will start classes in August 2013 at an NUS facility before the new campus officially opens in 2015.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, Chicago lottery winner Urooj Khan (46) died weeks after winning a $1 million jackpot from the Illinois Lottery. Authorities later said he died from cyanide poisoning and in 2013 began exhumation proceedings.
    (SFC, 1/11/13, p.A6)
2012        Jul 20, In Massachusetts Rezwan Ferdaus (26), a Muslim American, admitted that he had plotted to use remote controlled model planes packed with explosives to blow up the Pentagon and the US Capitol.
    (SFC, 7/21/12, p.A5)
2012        Jul 20, In Texas instructor Staff Sgt. Luis Walker was found guilty on all 28 charges he faced including rape and sexual assault. He was among 12 Lackland Air Force Base instructors investigated for sexual misconduct toward at least 31 female trainees. The next day Walker was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (SFC, 7/21/12, p.A5)(AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, In Virginia Mohamad Soueid (48) was sentenced to 18 months in prison for acting as an unregistered foreign agent of the Syrian government. He had earlier admitted to spying on Syrian dissidents in the US.
    (SFC, 7/21/12, p.A5)
2012        Jul 20, In Bahrain thousands of anti-government protesters clashed with riot police firing tear gas during demonstrations against plans to limit political marches.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Sir Alastair Burnet (84), British veteran television newscaster, died. He was ITN's head anchor from 1967 to 1991, except between 1974 and 1976, when he anchored the BBC's coverage of the two 1974 general elections and edited the Daily Express. He edited The Economist from 1965-1974.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.82)
2012        Jul 20, In Brunei 12 military personnel including six cadets were killed in an air force Bell 212 helicopter crash while flying home after jungle training. 2 cadets survived.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Chile’s government announced that 14.4% of Chileans were living below the poverty line, down from 15.1% in 2009. The United Nation’s Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean had found the poverty rate to be 15%.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.40)
2012        Jul 20, A Beijing court rejected dissident artist Ai Weiwei's lawsuit over a $2.4 million fine imposed on his company for tax evasion. He said the case is part of an intimidation campaign to stop him from criticizing the government.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, In the Ivory Coast nine women were sentenced to two years in prison each for involvement in female genital mutilation, marking the first time such a case results in jail time in the West African nation.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, In the Ivory Coast seven people were killed and 13 wounded in an attack on a UN-protected displaced persons camp. Angry youths from Kokoma torched the displaced persons' camp at Niambly on the outskirts of town, populated mainly by Guere people.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Iraqi officials said hundreds of Iraqis had flown out of Syria over the past two days to escape an escalating civil war. They said an estimated 50 buses, some 3,000 people, had so far come through al-Walid.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, The African Development Bank gave impoverished Malawi $40 million in budget help, just days after two of the country's biggest donors, the World Bank and Britain unveiled new aid packages.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, In western Mexico a bus traveling to a beach went off a cliff killing at least 24 people in Tequepexpan.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 20, The Nepalese film "Highway" was released in Nepal. It had already become the first Nepali film to qualify for the Berlin International Film Festival's Panorama category for new directors. It was directed by Deepak Rauniyar (33) and co-produced by "Lethal Weapon" star Danny Glover.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)
2012        Jul 20, Nigeria's first lady was sworn into a senior government post in the oil-rich state of Bayelsa, an appointment tagged as scandalous by some opponents.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, Puntland security forces of the semi-autonomous region in northern Somalia seized a boat carrying weapons that were being smuggled from al-Qaida militants in Yemen to fighters in Somalia.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Saudi authorities warned non-Muslim expatriates against eating, drinking or smoking in public during Ramadan, or face expulsion. The monthlong sunrise-to-sunset fast began today for Sunni Muslims.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, Sierra Leone's health ministry said an outbreak of cholera in the west African country has killed 66 people and sickened more than 3,800 since January.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Finance ministers from the 17 countries that use the euro unanimously approved the terms for a bailout loan for Spanish banks of up to €100 billion ($122.9 billion).
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, Sri Lanka completed a $2.6 billion IMF bailout, but sought fresh loans to support an economy emerging from decades of ethnic war. The original July 2009 IMF bailout was secured when the island's foreign reserves had dropped to a dangerously low level of $1 billion.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, Syrian troops and tanks drove rebels from a Damascus neighborhood where some of the heaviest of this week's fighting in the capital left cars gutted and fighters' bodies in the streets. A fourth member of President Bashar Assad's inner circle, national security chief Gen. Hisham Ikhtiyar, died of wounds he suffered in the July 18 bomb blast. The death toll for the last 2 days was over 470 people.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(SFC, 7/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 20, In Turkey an explosion and fire shut down twin pipelines that carry oil from Iraq to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, The UN refugee agency said up to 30,000 Syrians have fled into Lebanon over the past 48 hours. The UN Security Council added a "final" 30 days to the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission, tasked with overseeing a ceasefire that was supposed to have taken effect in April but which has been violated daily.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 20, The United Nations' highest court ordered Senegal to prosecute former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre on torture charges "without further delay" if the country does not extradite him to Belgium.
    (AP, 7/20/12)

2013        Jul 20, Demonstrators took to the streets in dozens of US cities to vent their anger over the acquittal in Florida of the man who shot unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin to death and to call for federal charges in the racially tinged case.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, Helen Thomas (92), the first woman to head a White House news bureau, died.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.78)
2013        Jul 20, Afghan Pres. Karzai approved a new law governing next year's presidential and provincial elections. It defines the legal framework for the elections and was approved by parliament earlier this week.
    (AP, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, In China motorcycle taxi driver Ji Zhongxing detonated a homemade bomb at Beijing's main airport after eight years of frustration trying to seek redress for an attack by city guards that left him paralyzed and in debt. On Oct 15 Zhongxing was sentenced to six years in prison.
    (AP, 7/24/13)(SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)
2013        Jul 20, China’s central bank ended all restrictions on lending rates,which previously had a floor of 70% of the PBOC benchmark rate.
    (Econ, 7/27/13, p.61)
2013        Jul 20, In Colombia 19 soldiers were killed in two clashes blamed on the Marxist FARC guerrillas, the heaviest casualties the armed forces have suffered since the government began peace talks late last year.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 20, In Dubai 3 Britons jailed for more than a year on drugs charges were reported freed as part of an amnesty for the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, In France 6 people were arrested after overnight violence that erupted in Trappes near Versailles. The trouble began two days earlier when police checked the identity of a woman wearing a Muslim veil and engaged in a scuffle with her husband. It is illegal in France for women to wear full face veils in public but the law is contested in the mainly Muslim suburbs that ring major cities.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)
2013        Jul 20, An Indian court sentenced six men, convicted of the gang rape last March 15 of a Swiss woman, to life in prison.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, In Iraq a coordinated wave of 12 late-night car bombings and other attacks killed 57 people. These attacks and others around the country killed a total of 71.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 20, An Italian court convicted five employees of an Italian cruise company over the Jan, 2012, Costa Concordia shipwreck that killed 32 crew and passengers, handing down a maximum sentence of two years and 10 months reached in plea bargains. The ship's captain was denied a plea bargain and was being tried separately.
    (AP, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, Gunmen In Mali kidnapped four election workers and a deputy mayor in the remote northern town of Tessalit. All were free the next day.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 20, Myanmar’s Pres. Thein Sein lifted a state of emergency, declared last March 22, in the central part of the country.
    (SSFC, 7/21/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 20, In Russia G20 finance ministers, meeting in Moscow, said their countries consider strengthening economic growth and creating jobs to be top priorities.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 20, Syrian government forces bombed Saraqeb, a strategic rebel town in the country's north for the third straight day, pounding it with airstrikes that killed at least 5 people.
    (AP, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, In Turkey police fired water cannon and tear gas in downtown Istanbul to disperse anti-government demonstrators after barring them from entering a park where they had hoped to celebrate the wedding of a couple who met during last month's widespread protests.
    (AP, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 20, In Venezuela gunmen stormed a graduation party at a home in central Bolivar state and killed 8 people, including 6 teenagers in Caicara del Orinoco.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2014        Jul 20, An Int’l. AIDS opened in Melbourne, Australia, with a tribute to delegates killed in the July 17 shoot down of Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 over eastern Ukraine.
    (SFC, 7/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 20, A French rally against the deadly Israeli offensive in Gaza once again descended into chaos as protesters looted shops and riot police lobbed tear gas and rubber bullets into the crowds.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)
2014        Jul 20, In Iraq mortar rounds rained down on Shiite neighborhoods in the town of Mahmoudiya, killing 11 civilians and wounding 31. Islamic State (IS) fighters stormed Mar (Saint) Behnam, a 4th century monastery run by the Syriac Catholic church near the predominantly Christian town of Qaraqosh, and expelled its five resident monks.
    (AP, 7/21/14)(AFP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 20, Israel widened its ground offensive, sending more troops into Gaza after demolishing more than a dozen Hamas tunnels and intensifying tank fire on border areas. The first major ground battle in two weeks exacted a steep price with 65 Palestinians and 13 Israeli soldiers killed and thousands of terrified Palestinian civilians forced to flee the Shijaiyah neighborhood of Gaza City. In all, at least 432 Palestinians have been killed and more than 3,000 wounded in the past two weeks. The overall death toll on the Israeli side rose to 20, including 18 soldiers. Doctors said a son, daughter-in-law and granddaughter of senior Hamas leader Khalil al-Haya were killed early today when their house was hit by a tank shell in Gaza City.
    (AP, 7/20/14)(AFP, 7/20/14)
2014        Jul 20, Israel and Hamas agreed to observe an immediate two-hour humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza's Shejaiya neighborhood, halting a blistering bombing campaign in the area. A building in southern Gaza was reportedly hit by an Israeli airstrike this evening, killing 25 members of the same family.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)(AP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 20, Jamaica’s environment minister, Robert Pickersgill, said a severe drought is worsening and that water supplies are already well below normal. Temporary shutoffs in Kingston were taking place daily.
    (SFC, 7/22/14, p.A20)
2014        Jul 20, In Libya heavy fighting erupted around Tripoli International Airport, where rival militias have been battling for control, killing at least four people and forcing thousands from their homes.
    (Reuters, 7/20/14)
2014        Jul 20, In Nicaragua attacks on buses carrying supporters of the ruling Sandinista Liberation Front left 5 people dead and 28 wounded. Three men were soon charged with murder and organized crime.
    (http://tinyurl.com/p6uqf6u)(SFC, 7/25/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 20, Pakistan's military bombed six militant hideouts in Shawal village, North Waziristan, killing at least 28 insurgents.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)
2014        Jul 20, Palestinian Islamist militant group's armed wing reportedly seized Israeli soldier Shaul Alon in heavy fighting on the Gaza border. The next day Hamas spokesman Abu Ubaida displayed Alon's photo ID and serial number but showed no image of him in captivity.
    (Reuters, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 20, South Sudanese rebels and government soldiers clashed in the northern town of Nasir, adding to fears that a shaky ceasefire agreement signed in May could totally collapse.
    (Reuters, 7/20/14)
2014        Jul 20, Ukraine accused separatist rebels of hiding evidence that a Russian missile was used to shoot down a Malaysian airliner, while Britain said Moscow faced "pariah" status and the threat of further economic sanctions. Ukraine's Western-backed government said it had "compelling evidence" the Russian SA-11 radar-guided missile battery was not just brought in from Russia but manned by three Russians who had now taken it back over the border.
    (Reuters, 7/20/14)

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