Today in History - July 23

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306        Jul 23, Constantine was proclaimed Caesar of the west by the army, while Severus, the former Caesar, was proclaimed Augusta of the west by Galerius.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

636        Jul 23, Arabs gained control of most of Palestine from Byzantine Empire.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1253        Jul 23, Jews were expelled from Vienne, France, by order of Pope Innocent III.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1298        Jul 23, Jews were massacred at Wurzburg, Germany.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1373        Jul 23, Birgitta of Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1403        Jul 23, The Battle of Shrewsbury was fought by the Percys against King Henry IV. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur], was killed in the battle.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1558        Jul 23, Battle at Grevelingen: Gen. Lamoral van Egmont beat France. [see Jul 13]
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1562        Jul 23, Gottfried, Gotz von Berlichingen, German Knight of kingdom, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1568        Jul 23, Don Carlos (c23), son of Spanish king Philip II, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1588        Jul 23, English army assembles at Tilbury to repel invasion of England by Spanish Armada.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1595        Jul 23, Spanish soldiers landed at Cornwall, England, and burned Mousehold and Penzance before returning to their ships.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1599        Jul 23, Caravaggio received his 1st public commission for paintings.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1627        Jul 23, Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1631        Jul 23, Sweden's King Gustavus II repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1637        Jul 23, King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1664        Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
    (HN, 7/23/98)
1664        Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1726        Jul 23, Benjamin Franklin sailed back to Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1745        Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Edward_Stuart)

1757        Jul 23, Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (71), Italian composer (La Silvia), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1759        Jul 23, Russians under Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1785        Jul 23, Prussia's Frederick the Great formed Die Furstenbund (League of German Princes).
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1789        Jul 23, The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1793        Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1794        Jul 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1796        Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1803        Jul 23, Irish patriots throughout the country rebelled against Union with Great Britain. Robert Emmett led the insurrection in Dublin.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(MC, 7/23/02)

1829        Jul 23, William Austin Burt of Mount Vernon, Mich., received a patent for his "typographer," a forerunner of the typewriter.
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1834        Jul 23, James Gibbons, American religious leader and founder of Catholic University, was born.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1849        Jul 23, German rebels in Baden capitulated to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1850        Jul 23, French priest Jean-Baptiste Lamy (1814-1888) received notice of his appointment as bishop of the recently created Vicariate of New Mexico. He was dispatched by Rome to bring order and discipline to the New Mexican territory. In 1875 he was named Archbishop for the area. He was the subject of Willa Cather’s novel “Death Comes for the Archbishop” (1927).
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Lamy)

1851        Jul 23, Sioux Indians and US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1858        Jul 23, Jewish Disabilities Removal Act was passed by British Parliament.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1863        Jul 23, Bill Anderson and his Confederate Bushwackers gutted the railway station at Renick, Missouri.
    (HN, 7/23/99)

1865        Jul 2, William Booth (1829-1912), British Methodist preacher, held his first meeting for the Salvation Army in London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Booth)

1866        Jul 23, Francesco Cilea, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1870        Jul 23, In France Marx completed what will become known as his "First Address."
    (www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1875        Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1880        Jul 23, 1st commercial hydroelectric power planet began in Grand Rapids, Mich.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1883        Jul 23, Lord Allanbrooke (d.1963), English soldier, was born.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1885        Jul 23, Ulysses S. Grant (b.1822), commander of the Union forces at the end of the Civil War and the 18th president of the United States, died in Mount McGregor, NY, at age 63. He had just completed the final revisions to his memoirs, which were published as a 2 volume set by Mark Twain. In 1928 W.E. Woodward authored "Meet General Grant," and in 1981 William S. McFreeley authored "Grant: A Biography." His tomb was placed in the largest mausoleum in the US on a bluff over the Hudson River. In 1998 Geoffrey Perret published the biography "Ulysses S. Grant: Soldier and President." In 2004 Mark Perry authored “Grant and Twain.” In 2006 Edward G. Longacre authored “General Ulysses S. Grant: The Soldier and Man.” In 2011 Charles Bracelen Flood authored “Grant’s Final Victory: Ulysses S. Grant’s Heroic Last Year.”
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A7)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.20)(AP, 7/23/98)(ON, p.11)(ON, 12/00, p.7)(WSJ, 5/14/04, p.W10)(WSJ, 8/5/06, p.P9)(SSFC, 12/4/11, p.F5)

1886        Jul 23, Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7//2302)
1886        Jul 23, New York saloonkeeper Steve Brodie claimed to have made a daredevil plunge from the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River. However, few historians believe the jump actually occurred
    (AP, 7/23/07)

1888        Jul 23, Raymond Chandler, writer of detective stories, creator of the character Philip Marlow, was born.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1892        Jul 23, Haile Selassie (d.1975), Emperor of Ethiopia (1930-74), was born as Tafari Makonnen at Ejarsa Goro, near Harer. He pleaded with the League of Nations to halt the Italian invasion of his country. "Outside the kingdom of the Lord there is no nation which is greater than any other."
    (AP, 7/23/02)(www.imperialethiopia.org/history3.htm)

1894        Jul 23, Japanese troops took over the Korean imperial palace in Seoul.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(HN, 7/23/98)

1903        Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1904        Jul 23, By some accounts, the ice cream cone was invented by Charles E. Menches during the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. [see Sep 22, 1903]
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1906        Jul 23, Marston Bates, American zoologist and author of "The Nature of Natural History," was born.
    (HN, 7/23/98)
1906        Jul 23, Pogroms took place against Jews in Odessa.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1908        Jul 23, In Turkey Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) capitulated to the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)m which led a rebellion against the authoritarian his regime. The revolutionary organization was popularly known as the Young Turks. Since then, the term has been applied to other insurgent groups within organizations or political parties.
    (HNQ, 11/4/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Hamid_II)

1913        Jul 23, The "Second Revolution" broke out in south China.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1914        Jul 23, Austria and Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; the dispute led to World War I.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1920        Jul 23, King Faisal I's Arab Army was defeated at Maysaloun and Syria fell effectively under French.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1925        Jul 23, Gloria De Haven, U.S. actress, was born.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1930        Jul 23, Earthquake struck Ariano, Italy, and some 1,500 were killed.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1932        Jul 23, Alberto Santos-Dumont (b.1873), aviation pioneer, hanged himself in Guaraja, Brazil after hearing a bomber discharge its load on fellow countrymen. In 2003 Paul Hoffman authored "Wings of Madness: Alberto Santos-Dumont and the Invention of Flight."
    (SSFC, 6/28/03, p.M1)

1936        Jul 23, Don Drysdale, pitcher (LA Dodgers-Cy Young 1962), was born in Van Nuys, Calif.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1939        Jul 23, Nicholas Gage, journalist and author (Eleni), was born.
    (HN, 7/23/02)

1940        Jul 23, Don Imus, later radio personality, was born in Riverside, Ca.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, Par p.22)
1940        Jul 23, John Nichols, novelist and essayist (The Milagro Beanfield War), was born.
    (HN, 7/23/02)
1940        Jul 23, German bombers began the "Blitz," the all-night air raids on London.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1941        Jul 23, German and Romanian troops reoccupied Moldova as part of Operation Barbarossa.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1942        Jul 23, Harry James and his Orchestra recorded "I Had the Craziest Dream" in Hollywood for Columbia Records.
    (AP, 7/23/02)
1942        Jul 23, A 2nd Treblinka Camp opened for the extermination of European Jews, as the evacuation of the Warsaw ghetto began. Nearly 750,000 people died in the gas chambers of Treblinka.
    (www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/Camps/TreblinkaEng.html)

1943        Jul 23, Battle of Kursk, USSR, ended in Nazi defeat. 6,000 tanks took part.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1943        Jul 23, Meijer de Hond, [Emanuel Querido], rabbi of Sobibor, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1943        Jul 23, Emanuel Querido, publisher (Sobibor), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1944        Jul 23, Lisa Alther, novelist (Kinflicks), was born.
    (HN, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, US forces invaded Japanese-held Tinian.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Bernard M. Cohen, attorney, was killed at Belsen concentration camp.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Helmuth J. von Moltke, German earl (July 20th plotter), was executed.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Soviet troops took Lublin, Poland, as the German army retreated.
    (HN, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, A Ukrainian Self-Defense unit, directed to "liquidate all the residents" of Chlaniow, Poland, in a reprisal attack for the killing of German SS officer Siegfried Assmuss, killed 44 people including women and children. In 2013 Michael Karkoc (94), a retired Minnesota carpenter, was named as commander of the Nazi SS-led unit in the Chlaniov attack.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kk5e6s3)(AP, 11/18/13)

1945        Jul 23, French Marshal Henri Petain, who had headed the Vichy government during World War Two, went on trial, charged with treason. He was condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted; Petain died in prison on this date in 1951.
    (AP, 7/23/08)

1947        Jul 23, U.S. President Harry S Truman made the first Presidential surprise visit to Capitol Hill since 1789. "Give Em Hell Harry."
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1948        July 23, American pioneer filmmaker D.W. Griffith, the director of such films as "The Birth of a Nation," "Intolerance," "Way Down East" and "Orphans of the Storm," died in Los Angeles at age 73.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1951        Jul 23, French Marshal Henri Petain (b.1856), who had headed the Vichy government during World War Two, was shot by firing squad. In 2005 Charles Williams authored “Petain.”
    (AP, 7/23/00)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.84)

1952        Jul 23, General Mohammed Neguib seized power in Egypt. There was a revolution in Egypt, King Farouk I abdicated. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the monarchy and established Egyptian sovereignty after 2,300 years of foreign domination. The revolution was led by the group of Free Officers headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser and included Kamal Eddin Hussein.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(NG, May 1985, p.584)(HFA, '96, p.34)(TMC, 1994, p.1952)(SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)

1954        Jul 23, The Indochina settlement was approved by France's National Assembly.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1956        Jul 23, The Bell X-2 rocket plane set a world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1957        Jul 23, Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (b.1896), Sicilian aristocrat and writer, died. His classic novel “Il Gattopardo” (The Leopard), was published in 1958. It included the line: “If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change.” David Gilmour later authored the biography “The Last Leopard” (1991).
    (WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P24)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.61)

1958        Jul 23, Queen Elizabeth named four women to peerages, the 1st women to it in Britain's House of Lords.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1959        Jul 23, Vice President Richard M. Nixon flew to Moscow to open the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park, organized as a goodwill gesture by the USSR.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1961        Jul 23, Woody Harrelson, actor (Woody Boyd-Cheers), was born in Midland, Tx.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1962        Jul 23, In San Francisco a 10-ton granite and bronze monument to Robert Louis Stevenson was returned to Portsmouth Square as the 800-car underground parking garage was completed.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, DB p.42)
1962        Jul 23, The Geneva Conference on Laos forbade the United States to invade eastern Laos, site of the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1966        Jul 23, [Edward] Montgomery Clift (45), actor (From Here to Eternity), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1967        Jul 23-1967 Jul 30, Racial riots in the city of Detroit left 40 dead, 2,000 injured and 5,000 homeless in the worst riot of the summer. The rioting, looting and burning was quelled with the arrival of 4,700 paratroops dispatched by President Lyndon Johnson. Nearly all of America's large cities were wracked by racial violence during the 1965-'68 period. The event inspired Rev. William Cunningham (d.1997 at 67) to found Focus: Hope, a volunteer project that grew to become one of the largest programs in the country dedicated to feeding and teaching job skills to the urban poor.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.C4)(HNQ, 7/11/98)

1970        Jul 23, Sultan Said of Oman was overthrown by his son, Qaboos.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1972        Jul 23, NASA launched the Landsat-1 satellite. It viewed Earth at different wavelengths and opened a new era in sensing the planet’s resources and environment.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1973        Jul 25, Pres Nixon refused to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation.
    (www.cbc.ca/news/background/us-politics/watergate-timeline.html)
1973        Jul 25, Russia launched its Mars 5 Orbiter.
    (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1973-049A)

1974        Jul 23, Greece's military rulers announced they would turn the nation back to civilian rule. Constantine Karamanlis returned from 11 years of self-imposed exile and was sworn in as premier. Karamanlis later won a landslide election and served as prime minister until 1980. The Ioannides regime collapsed after plotting an aborted military takeover of Cyprus. The coup provoked a Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)

1976        Jul 23, Mario Soares (b.1924) became Prime Minister of Portugal.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1rio_Soares)

1977        Jul 23, A jury in Washington, D.C., convicted 12 Hanafi Muslims of charges stemming from the hostage siege at three buildings the previous March.
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1977        Jul 23, In Sri Lanka Junius Richard Jayewardene (1906-1996) was elected prime minister. Immediately thereafter, he drew up a national constitution which created an Executive Presidency with drastic and unchecked powers, and, on its adoption into law, became, in 1978, the first Sri Lankan Executive President.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junius_Richard_Jayewardene)

1978        Jul 23, Franklin Bradshow was killed in SLC, Utah. His daughter, Frances B. Schreuder (d.2004), had persuaded her son to kill her wealthy father due to "his stinginess." Schreuder was convicted in 1983.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.B6)

1979         Jul 23, A Miami jury convicted Theodore Bundy of first-degree murder in the slayings of Florida State University sorority sisters Margaret Bowman and Lisa Levy. In 1980 he was convicted of the murder and rape of Kimberly Leach (12). Bundy eventually confessed to more than 30 killings and was executed in 1989.
    (www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/bundy/14.html)

1980        Jul 23, The US Senate Judiciary Committee was reported to be officially joining those investigating allegations of misconduct in Billy Carter's relationship with Libya.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1980-7/1980-07-23-ABC-2.html)

1982        Jul 23, The Intl. Whaling Commission (IWC) voted for a total ban on commercial whaling starting in 1985.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whaling)
1982        Jul 23, Actor Vic Morrow and two child actors were killed when a helicopter crashed on top of them during filming of a Vietnam War scene for "Twilight Zone: The Movie." Director John Landis and four associates were later acquitted of manslaughter charges in connection with the deaths.
    (AP, 7/23/02)

1983        Jul 23, A regional struggle for independence by Tamil Tigers in the north escalated into a civil war when they killed 13 Sri Lankan Sinhalese soldiers. The nation's Sinhalese majority responded by killing thousands of Tamil civilians in the south.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)(AP, 7/23/97)

1984        Jul 23, Vanessa Williams became the first Miss America to resign her title, because of nude photographs published in Penthouse magazine.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1985        Jul 23, Bandleader Kay Kyser, known for his "Kollege of Musical Knowledge," died in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, at age 79.
    (AP, 7/23/00)

1986        Jul 23, Britain's Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey in London with the appellation Duke and Duchess of York. The couple divorced in 1996.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1987        Jul 23, Hussein Hariri (21), a Lebanese hijacker, commandeered an Air Afrique DC-10 flying from Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, to Paris. He was captured during a refueling stop in Geneva and was sentenced to life in prison for killing a passenger and seriously wounding a flight attendant. In 2004 he was released and deported to Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

1988        Jul 23, In his weekly radio address, President Reagan responded to the just-completed Democratic national convention by accusing Democrats of "singing the same sad song they sang four years ago."
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1988        Jul 23, Iran accused Iraq of pushing deep into Iranian territory and using chemical weapons. The March 16 Iraqi chemical attack at Halabja killed thousands and in 1999 was still causing genetic damage and deaths.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(USAT, 3/24/99, p.18A)

1989        Jul 23, Greg LeMond of the United States won the Tour de France.
    (AP, 7/23/99)
1989        Jul 23, Donald Barthelme (b.1931), US writer, died. His work included over a hundred short stories and 4 novels. In 2009 Tracy Daugherty authored “Hiding Man: A Biography of Donald Barthelme.”
    (WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Barthelme)
1989        Jul 23, Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party lost its majority in the upper house of the Diet in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1990        Jul 23, President George H.W. Bush announced his choice of Judge David Souter of New Hampshire to succeed retiring Justice William J.  Brennan on the US Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/23/00)
1990        Jul 23, As rebel forces closed in on presidential palace, Liberian President Samuel K. Doe refused to leave until the civil war was decided. Charles Taylor tried to take Monrovia in this year. He had begun the war in Liberia from the Ivory Coast in 1989.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)

1991        Jul 23, The US Senate voted to impose a long list of strict new conditions on renewal of China’s normal trade status in 1992; however, the 55-to-44 vote fell short of the two-thirds majority later needed to override President Bush’s veto.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
1991        Jul 23, The draft of a new platform for Soviet Communist Party was published, calling for private property, economic integration into world market and freedom of religion.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1992        Jul 23, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III, touring the Middle East, made a secret visit to Lebanon.
    (AP, 7/23/02)

1993        Jul 23, US Surgeon General-designate Joycelyn Elders stuck by her firm stands on sex education and AIDS prevention in a one-day confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill.
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1993        Jul 23, White House deputy counsel Vincent W. Foster Jr. was buried near Hope, Ark., three days after taking his own life in a Virginia park.
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1993        Jul 23, In South Carolina Larry Demery and Daniel Green came upon James Jordan sleeping in his car and proceeded to rob him. As Jordan awoke Green shot Jordan, the 56-year-old father of basketball star Michael Jordan.
    (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-3)
1993        Jul 23, British Prime Minister John Major survived a vote of confidence and a reluctant House of Commons approved a treaty of European union on his terms.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
1993        July 23, A handful of men shot and killed 6 children and teenagers at the Candelaria Cathedral and 2 more at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In 1996 one of the four men accused, former police officer Nelson dos Santos Cunha, confessed to having taken part. About 2,000 children roam Rio’s streets and in 1994, 936 youths under 18 were murdered. In 1996 a court cleared 2 policemen and another man in killings. Two other policemen were convicted earlier. In 1997 a court reduced the sentence of Cunha from 261 years to 18 years. In 1998 Marcos Aurelio Alcantara (30) was convicted and sentenced to 204 years in jail.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, A-14)(SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A14)
1993        Jul 23, The Russian government announced it would invalidate billions of pre-1993 rubles.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1994        Jul 23, Space shuttle Columbia returned to Earth after a 15-day mission which included experiments on the effects of weightlessness on aquatic animals.
    (AP, 7/23/99)
1994        Jul 23, Gambian soldiers proclaimed military government in Dakar, Senegal.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
1994        Jul 23, The Goodwill Games opened in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    (www.goodwillgames.com/Past_games/past_1994_Summary.htm)

1995        Jul 23, American amateur astronomers first reported the discovery of the comet bearing their names: Hale-Bopp. Reconstruction of the orbit indicated that the comet repeatedly enters the inner solar system every 3,000 years or so. It travels in an orbit perpendicular to the solar system in an elongated ellipse that is about 33 million miles from the sun at its farthest point. Its closest approach to Earth will be on March 23, 1997. The nearest pass will be on April 1.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.55)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.A17)
1995        Jul 23, The United Nations ordered the first combat unit from its rapid reaction force to Sarajevo to take out any rebel Serb guns that fire at U.N. peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1996        Jul 23, At the Atlanta Olympics, Kerri Strug made a heroic final vault despite torn ligaments in her left ankle as the US women gymnasts clinched their first-ever Olympic team gold medal.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
1996        Jul 23, The US Senate passed a welfare overhaul bill.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
1996        Jul 23, In Toronto, a police officer was charged with criminal negligence in the shooting of a protester who became the first Canadian Indian in modern times killed in a land dispute with the government.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
1996        Jul 23, Canadian researchers found a hormone, GLP-2, that stimulates growth of the lining of the small intestine.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.B6)
1996        Jul 23, Jessica Mitford (78), author of "The American Way of Death," died. The 1963 book was an expose of the funeral industry in the US. Her attorney husband, Robert Treuhaft, died in 2001. In 2001 Mary S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family." In 2006 “Decca: The Letters of Jessica,” edited by Peter Y. Sussman was published. In 2010 Leslie Brody authored “Irrepressible: The Life and Times of Jessica Mitford.”
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 11/12/01, p.A18)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(SFC, 11/3/06, p.E9)(SSFC, 11/14/10, p.F7)

1997        Jul 23, The US and Venezuela signed an agreement to allow authorities of both countries to board boats of each others flags if suspected of carrying drugs.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A11)
1997        Jul 23, The search for Andrew Cunanan, the suspected killer of designer Gianni Versace and others, ended as police found his body on a houseboat in Miami Beach, Fla., an apparent suicide.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/98)
1997        Jul 23, The ASEAN trade bloc admitted Laos and Burma but barred Cambodia.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A12)
1997        Jul 23, In Britain the government announced that tuition fees would be imposed for the first time on all college students.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A11)
1997        Jul 23, In Cuba Elio Reve Matos, salsa musician, died in a road accident. He developed the rhythm known as "charangon," a combination of salsa styles that included "changui" and "son."
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A24)
1997        Jul 23, In Serbia Slobodan Milosevic was sworn in as president of Yugoslavia and crowds reacted by throwing shoes at his motorcade, symbolizing the young people who have left Serbia due to his regime.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A10)
1997        Jul 23, Swiss banks published a list of 2,000 WW II-era dormant accounts that included assets of holocaust victims.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A8)

1998        Jul 23, The US Senate voted to shut down the online gambling industry.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 23, It was reported that the US Congress made the Air Force buy more C-130 transport aircraft against its wishes. Since 1978 only 5 of 256 C-130s sent to the Air National Guard and Air Reserve were requested by the Air Force. The planes were built in Georgia.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A8)
1998        Jul 23, The Pacific Stock Exchange announced an agreement to merge with the Chicago Board of Options Exchange.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 23, Odwalla Inc. agreed to pay a $1.5 million fine for contaminated apple-based juices.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 23, Scientists at the University of Hawaii announced they had turned out more than 50 carbon-copy mice, with a cloning technique said to be more reliable than the one used to create Dolly the sheep.
    (AP, 7/23/99)
1998        Jul 23, In Colombia Manuel Mejia Vallejo, novelist, died at age 75. His work included "It was Us," "The Marked Day," and "the House of the Two Palms."
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D5)
1998        Jul 23, In Chechnya Pres. Aslan Maskhadov received minor injuries from an assassination attempt in Grozny that killed 2 bodyguards. He had been cracking down on organized crime and Muslim militants.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 23, In Iran Tehran’s Mayor Karbaschi was convicted and sentenced to 5 years in prison for corruption.
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 23, In Kenya John Msafari, head of the revenue collection authority, was ordered arrested along with 15 other officials and businessmen on charges of defrauding the government of some $3.9 million.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D2)
1998        Jul 23, In Mexico three girls escaped capture by police in Mexico City. They had been held for 4 days and the two youngest were repeatedly raped. Sixteen officers were later arrested.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A8)
1998        Jul 23, Russia planned to sell its Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier to India for some $2 billion. The ship was launched in 1982 as the Baku.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D2)
1998        Jul 23, In Russia Vladimir Dudintsev (79), writer, died. His work included "Not By Bread Alone" and "White Garb." His work laid the foundation for a generation of dissident writers.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.D8)
1998        Jul 23, In Rwanda the army said that it had killed a top rebel commander. Colonel Leonard Nkundiye was killed along with at least 50 rebels on the Congo border.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.D2)

1999        Jul 23, The 3-day Woodstock '99 music festival began at the decommissioned Griffiss Air Force Base in Rome, NY, with some 225,000 people. The $35-38 million production ended in chaos with hundreds of concertgoers burning fires, looting and vandalizing.
    (USAT, 7/26/99, p.1D,5D)(SFC, 7/26/99, p.E3)(SFC, 7/27/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 23, After a 2 day delay the Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched from Cape Canaveral aboard the shuttle Columbia led by Commander Eileen Collins, the first woman to command a US space flight.
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.A3)(AP, 7/23/00)
1999        Jul 23, Members of the Kennedy family gathered in New York City for a private memorial Mass a week after John F. Kennedy Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, died in a plane crash off Martha’s Vineyard.
    (AP, 7/23/00)
1999        Jul 23, Jaquita Mack (11) was raped and strangled in Oakland’s Fruitvale district after she disappeared following a bike ride. Her body was found the next day in East Oakland, Ca. On Aug 8 police arrested Alex Demolle (24), a neighbor on Fruitvale Ave. In 2007 Demolle was convicted of 1st degree murder and was sentenced to death on Dec 14.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A13,15)(SFC, 8/9/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/4/07, p.B5)(SFC, 12/15/07, p.B3)
1999        Jul 23, Kelvin Lancaster, economist, died in NYC at age 74. He outlined "The General Theory of the Second Best" and analyzed consumer demand by looking at the underlying characteristics of consumer demand.
    (SFC, 7/28/99, p.C2)
1999        Jul 23, In Colombia a US anti-narcotics reconnaissance airplane crashed with 5 US Army personnel and 2 Colombians.
    (USAT, 7/26/99, p.7A)
1999        Jul 23, In Japan Yuzi Nishizawa (b.1970) attempted to hijack flight 61 from Tokyo and stabbed to death pilot Naoyuki Nagashima (51). The hijacker was overcome and the plane landed safely with 516 passengers. On March 23, 2005, Nishizawa was found to be guilty, but of unsound mind and thus only partly responsible for his actions. Presiding judge Hisaharu Yasui handed Nishizawa a life sentence in 2005.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANA_Flight_61)
1999        Jul 23, In Kosovo 14 Serb farmers were found shot dead near the village of Gracko.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)
1999        Jul 23, In Morocco King Hassan II died at age 70. He was succeeded by his son, Crown Prince Sidi Mohamed (36), who became King Mohammed VI.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/00)
1999        Jul 23, Russia ended a 4-month boycott on contacts with NATO.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.C1)

2000        Jul 23, Tiger Woods, at 24, became the youngest player to win the career Grand Slam with a record-breaking 19-under par in the British Open. Karrie Webb, 25, won the US Women’s Open.
    (SFC, 7/24/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/01)
2000        Jul 23, Lance Armstrong won the 21-day, 2,250-mile Tour de France for the 2nd year in a row.
    (WSJ, 7/24/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 23, President Clinton rejoined the troubled Middle East talks at Camp David after hurrying back from a four-day trip to Asia.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
2000        Jul 23, Leaders of the major industrial countries concluded their summit in Japan by announcing a campaign to slash the number of deaths worldwide from AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
2000        Jul 23, In Nigeria another pipeline fire broke out near the port of Warri and left 40 fuel scavengers dead.
    (SFC,7/25/00, p.A14)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)
2000        Jul 23, Ivory Coast voters cast ballots for a new constitution intended to restore civilian rule. The new constitution was approved overwhelmingly.
    (SFC, 7/24/00, p.A14)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

2001        Jul 23, Pres. Bush met with Pope John Paul II at Castel Gandolfo, Italy, and was urged to reject the use of human embryos for stem cell research.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/02)
2001        Jul 23, The US Pentagon shut down public access to its web sites due to a computer worm called the Code Red worm. It defaced web sites with the words "Hacked by Chinese."
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A2)
2001        Jul 23, Eudora Welty (92), Pulitzer Prize-winning writer, died in Jackson, Miss. Her work included the 1941 collection "A Curtain of Green and Other Stories" and the 1973 Pulitzer Prize winning "The Optimist’s Daughter." In 1998 Ann Waldron authored the biography “Eudora” against the writer’s wishes. In 2005 Suzanne Marrs authored the biography “Eudora Welty.”
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W6)
2001        Jul 23, In Bonn, Germany, negotiators from 178 nations, without the US, rescued the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and accepted rules to cut emissions of waste gases linked to global warming after marathon talks.
    (DFP, 7/24/01, p.3A)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/02)
2001        Jul 23, Anarchist groups in Europe retaliated for the death in Genoa of protester Carlo Giuliani.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 23, In Burundi Pres. Buyoya survived a coup attempt by Tutsi soldiers and sealed a power-sharing accord with Hutu politicians. The Arusha accord called for Buyoya to lead for 18 months followed by a Hutu president for another 18 months with elections to follow.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A6)
2001        Jul 23, In Colombia retired Gen. Rito Alejo del Rio was arrested on charges of helping create right-wing paramilitary groups.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A12)
2001        Jul 23, It was reported that flooding in India’s Orissa state had killed some 83 people and left over 600,000 stranded.
    (WSJ, 7/23/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/25/01, p.A9)
2001        Jul 23, In Indonesia Pres. Wahid declared a state of emergency. The military refused to carry out his orders and parliament met to remove him. The parliament ousted Wahid with a 591 to 0 vote and swore in Megawati Sukarnoputri as the country’s 5th president.
    (SFC, 7/23/01, p.A1)(DFP, 7/24/01, p.3A)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 23, In Iran a 19th woman was reported strangled in Mashad.
    (DFP, 7/24/01, p.3A)
2001        Jul 23, Israeli police killed a Palestinian who drove a would-be bomber toward Haifa. In Gaza Israeli soldiers killed a Palestinian teenager.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 23, In Macedonia security forces engaged ethnic Albanian rebels in fierce fighting around Tetovo. Macedonian mobs in Skopje, angered by Western efforts at mediation, attacked symbolic targets.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A6)
2001        Jul 23, Nepal’s new government declared a unilateral ceasefire and called on Maoist rebels to talk peace. In a recent skirmish guerrillas killed at least 17 police officers in Pandusen.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 7/31/01, p.A10)
2001        Jul 23, In Pakistan flash floods killed at least 150 people. In Islamabad 24 inches of rain broke a 100-year record.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/25/01, p.A9)
2001        Jul 23, In Sri Lanka Tamil separatists attack an air base, damaged a number of planes and shut down the Bandaranaike airport, the nation’s only int’l. airport. 7 soldiers and 8 guerrillas were killed. 3 jetliners and 8 warplanes were blown up in a suicide attack by 13 rebels.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/25/01, p.A1)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A12)

2002        Jul 23, Pres. Bush signed legislation designating Nevada's Yucca Mountain as the nation's nuclear waste repository.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, In California the Davis administration and Oracle Corp. agreed to cancel a $95 million DB software contract.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A18)
2002        Jul 23, In California a growing fire in Sequoia Nat'l. Park consumed 48,200 acres in 3 days.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, The DJIA fell 82 to 7702. The Nasdaq fell 53 to 1229.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.C1)
2002        Jul 23, Leo McKern (82), Australian actor, died in Bath, England. He played the barrister in the TV show "Rumpole of the Bailey."
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, Chaim Potok (73), rabbi and author of novels that included "The Chosen," died at his home in suburban Philadelphia. "Literature presents you with alternative mappings of the human experience."
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, William Pierce (d.2002), white supremacist author of the 1978 "Turner Diaries," died in Hillsboro, West Virginia.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, Maria Adela Gard de Antokoletz (90), one of the founding members of the Argentine human rights group Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, died.
    (AP, 7/23/02)
2002        Jul 23, A memo from 10 Downing St. described an earlier meeting of Sir Richard Dearlove, head of British Intelligence, with US officials in Washington in which he noted a shift in attitude in the Bush administration, which saw military action as inevitable in Iraq and that it would be justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD. The memo became public in 2005.
    (SFC, 7/4/05, p.B6)
2002        Jul 23, Welsh archbishop Rowan Williams was chosen to be the 104th archbishop of Canterbury, spiritual leader of the world's Anglicans.
    (AP, 7/23/03)
2002        Jul 23, A frail Pope John Paul II walked down the steps of his plane instead of using a lift after arriving in Canada to join thousands of young Catholic pilgrims for World Youth Day. Tens of thousands of exuberant young Catholics massed in Toronto to greet the Pope.
    (AP, 7/23/02)(Reuters, 7/23/02)
2002        Jul 23, In Colombia a bomb exploded in front of a Medellin restaurant where politicians and journalists traditionally gather, killing a former congressman and injuring nine other people.
    (AP, 7/23/02)
2002        Jul 23, An Israeli F-16 warplane dropped a one ton bomb that flattened a Gaza City apartment building, killing Salah Shehadeh, the leader of Hamas' military wing, and at least 14 other Palestinians, including nine children. Shehadeh was at the top of Israel's most wanted list. The dead included Shehadeh’s wife and 3 kids. In 2009 a Spanish judge began an investigation into seven current or former Israeli officials over the 2002 bombing. In 2011 an Israeli inquiry ruled the air strike legal and blamed faulty intelligence for the civilian deaths. 
    (AP, 7/23/02)(SFC, 7/23/02, p.A1)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)
2002        Jul 23, In Nepal floods and landslides triggered by heavy monsoon rains killed at least 11 people over the last 2 days, bringing to 67 the number of deaths caused by bad weather over the past two weeks.
    (Reuters, 7/23/02)
2002        Jul 23-24, In Turkey floods and lightning caused by summer storms have killed at least 18 people. Three other people were missing.
    (AP, 7/24/02)
2002        Jul 23, In Zimbabwe at least 15 people illegally mining gold were killed when an abandoned mine shaft in Mhondoro caved in.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2003        Jul 23, California's 1st statewide recall for Gov. Davis qualified for ballot, which was soon scheduled for Oct 7.
    (SFC, 7/24/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/25/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 23, Massachusetts' attorney general issued a report saying clergy members and others in the Boston Archdiocese probably sexually abused more than 1,000 people over a period of six decades.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2003        Jul 23, New York City Councilman James Davis (41) was shot to death by political rival Othniel Askew (31) at City Hall; a police officer shot and killed Askew.
    (AP, 7/24/08)
2003        Jul 23, A new audiotape, purported to be of toppled dictator Saddam Hussein, was broadcast by an Arab satellite station. It called on former soldiers to rise up against the American occupation.
    (AP, 7/23/03)
2003        Jul 23, In "Operation Helpem Fren" an Australian-led peacekeeping force poured into the Solomon Islands to keep the island chain from slipping deeper into anarchy.
    (AP, 7/24/03)(Econ, 8/9/03, p.34)
2003        Jul 23, Iran acknowledged that it was holding senior al Qaeda figures, but would not identify them.
    (WSJ, 7/24/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 23, In Peru 5 masked gunmen attacked a Canadian mining camp in the Andes, killing a Peruvian geologist, wounding another and stealing equipment.
    (AP, 7/24/03)
2003        Jul 23, In Sao Tome rebel leaders ended a weeklong bloodless coup after the president signed an accord promising to replace the government and give them amnesty.
    (AP, 7/24/03)
2003        Jul 23, In Uganda 2 passenger boats capsized in strong winds and rough waters on Lake Albert, and more than 20 people were believed to have drowned.
    (AP, 7/24/03)

2004        Jul 23, President Bush froze the assets of former Liberian President Charles Taylor, his family and top aides and accused them of undermining the country's transition to democracy.
    (AP, 7/24/04)
2004        Jul 23, The Pentagon released newly discovered payroll records from President Bush's 1972 service in the Alabama National Guard, though the records shed no new light on the future president's activities during that summer.
    (AP, 7/23/05)
2004        Jul 23, In Bosnia Britain's Prince Charles and other foreign dignitaries gathered to reopen the Mostar bridge over the Neretva River. The original was built in 1566.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2004        Jul 23, In northwest Colombia police seized 4 1/2 tons of cocaine with an estimated street value of $90 million.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2004        Jul 23, Gunmen in Mosul attacked a retired Iraqi general as he headed to a mosque to pray, killing him and another man. Maj. Gen. Salim Majeed Blesh (58) had worked for the former U.S. occupation government.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2004        Jul 23, Iraqi insurgents in Baghdad kidnapped Muhammad Mamdouh Qutb, a 3rd ranking official of the Egyptian Embassy, demanding his country abandon any plans it had to send security experts to Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/24/04, p.A13)(AP, 7/23/05)
2004        Jul 23, A van carrying Iraqi civilians collided with a U.S. tank near Baghdad, killing nine people and injuring 10.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2004        Jul 23, Joe Cahill (b.1920), a founding father of the modern Irish Republican Army who once narrowly avoided the hangman's noose, died in Belfast.
    (AP, 7/24/04)(SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)
2004        Jul 23, The Japanese government reported that suicides in Japan in 2003 surged to an all-time high topping 34,000 deaths in a trend fueled by health and financial troubles.
    (AP, 7/23/04)
2004        Jul 23, Leaders from the 2 main rebel groups in Sudan's western Darfur region agreed to participate in "substantive negotiations" for a political solution to the humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 7/24/04)

2005        Jul 23, Myron Florin (85), accordionist with Lawrence Welk, died in California.
    (WSJ, 7/25/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 23, In southern Afghanistan suspected Taliban militants fatally shot a district judge.
    (AP, 7/23/05)
2005        Jul 23, The man shot at the Stockwell subway station on July 22 was identified as Jean Charles de Menezes (27) of Brazil. London police acknowledged that Menezes had nothing to do with recent bombings on the city’s transit system. Brazil's government demanded an explanation for the fatal police shooting of a Brazilian citizen on a London subway car.
    (AP, 7/24/05)
2005        Jul 23, The Colombian government offered to buy farmers' illegal crops of coca, in the latest effort to stem illegal drug production in this South American nation. Pres. Alvaro Uribe said in a speech that farmers would have to sign a document promising to never again cultivate illegal crops in order to get the money. The government would destroy the purchased crop.
    (AP, 7/24/05)
2005        Jul 23, In Egypt a rapid series of car bombs and another blast ripped through a luxury hotel and a coffeeshop in the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik, killing at least 83 people. The Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades, a group citing ties to al-Qaida, claimed responsibility for the bombings. The previously unknown Mujahedi Masr or "Holy Warriors of Egypt" group disputed the claims of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades, al-Qaida, and said five of its own members died carrying out seven explosions.
    (AP, 7/23/05)(AP, 7/24/05)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.40)
2005        Jul 23, Kristina Miller (27) of Peachtree City, Ga., was the only American killed in the  blasts at the Egyptian resort at Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AP, 7/27/05)
2005        Jul 23, In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, unidentified assailants attacked two security force posts, sparking gunfights that reportedly killed at least four people.
    (AP, 7/24/05)
2005        Jul 23, A magnitude-6.0 earthquake shook the Tokyo area, injuring at least 27 people.
    (AP, 7/23/05)
2005        Jul 23, In Turkey a bomb exploded at an Istanbul cafe frequented by tourists, injuring at least two people.
    (AP, 7/23/05)
2005        Jul 23, In Umm Al-Quwain, UAR, a $3.3 billion deal for the Khor al-Beidah lagoon complex was signed. A few days later developers announced Umm Al-Quwain's desert interior would be the site for a new city that could eventually house as many as 500,000 people.
    (AP, 8/7/05)
2005        Jul 23, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe arrived in Beijing for a visit expected to include a plea for oil and food to aid his state's failing economy.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2006        Jul 23,  US cyclist Floyd Landis (31) won the 3-week, 2,267-mile Tour de France 57 seconds ahead of Oscar Pereiro of Spain. Reports on July 27 Landis said had tested positive for the male sex hormone testosterone.
    (SFC, 7/24/06, p.D1)(Reuters, 7/27/06)
2006        Jul 23, Tiger Woods won his 2nd consecutive British Open golf title.
    (WSJ, 7/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 23, In southern Indiana 2 sets of sniper attacks within hours of each other left one man dead, another wounded and four vehicles peppered with bullet holes. On July 25 police said a Gaston youth (18) confessed to weekend sniping.
    (AP, 7/24/06)(WSJ, 7/26/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 23, In Afghanistan 19 Taliban were killed and 17 fighters, including two Pakistani nationals, arrested in a raid by Afghan forces in southern Helmand province. Police said three policemen were killed and three others kidnapped in a Taliban attack on a police checkpoint in southeastern Ghazni province. Attackers hurled grenades into the home of a village postman in eastern Khost province, killing three of his daughters.
    (AFP, 7/23/06)(AFP, 7/24/06)   
2006        Jul 23, The 654-foot Singapore-flagged Cougar Ace, a cargo ship carrying 4,813 cars from Japan to Canada, began tilting to its port side late at night hundreds of miles off Alaska's Aleutian Islands. 23 crew members were rescued the next day. The ship was owned by Tokyo-based Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and listed for on its side for several weeks before being righted. 4,703 of the cars were new Mazdas valued at about $100 million. After a year of planning Mazda scheduled all the cars for complete reduction to scrap in Portland, Ore.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(SFC, 7/25/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 4/29/08, p.A9)
2006        Jul 23, In England a gust of wind blew an inflatable art exhibit from its moorings at a park in Durham, killing two people and injuring 12. Up to 30 people were on the "Dreamspace", an inflatable network of multicolored tunnels, when wind blew it 30 feet in the air.
    (AP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, Police in India raided a forest hideout for communist rebels in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh state, killing Burra Chinnaiah, a guerrilla chief, and at least 7 other people.
    (AP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, PM Al-Maliki left for Washington for talks on reversing the country's slide toward civil war. A suicide bomber detonated an explosives-laden minibus amid a crowd of day laborers seeking work in a crowded market in Baghdad's mainly Shiite district of Sadr City, killing at least 34 people. This was followed by a bomb attack in front of the area's town hall, which killed eight. Three hours later a one-ton car bomb exploded outside a courthouse in the mixed northern city of Kirkuk, leaving at least 22 dead and 100 injured.
    (AFP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, Israeli warplanes struck a minibus carrying people fleeing the fighting in southern Lebanon, killing three people, Lebanese security officials said, and Israel said it would accept a NATO-led international force to keep the peace along the border. Hezbollah rockets killed two civilians in northern Israel. Layal Nejim (23), a photographer working for a Lebanese magazine, was killed when an Israeli missile exploded near her taxi.
    (AP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, In Indian Kashmir 4 people were killed in three separate incidents.
    (AFP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, Palestinian militants in Gaza fired three rockets at Israel, despite reports that they had agreed to halt such attacks.
    (AP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza (18) of Puerto Rico was crowned as Miss Universe 2006. She hoped to someday star in US and Latin American films.
    (AP, 7/24/06)
2006        Jul 23, In Somalia a local rights group said gunmen have killed 682 civilians, including a foreign journalist, in executions over the past year.
    (AP, 7/23/06)
2006        Jul 23, Syria, one of Hezbollah's main backers, said it will press for a cease-fire to end the fighting between Israel and the Islamic militant group but only in the framework of a broader Middle East peace initiative.
    (AP, 7/23/06)

2007        Jul 23, In the first political debate of its kind, all eight Democratic Party contenders, appearing on CNN, fielded questions submitted by the public on the Internet video-sharing site YouTube.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2007        Jul 23, US congressional investigators said the Agriculture Department has sent $1.1 billion in farm payments to more than 170,000 dead people over a seven-year period.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, The US FDA said people should immediately throw away more than 90 different products, from chili sauce to corned beef hash to dog food, produced at a Castleberry plant in Augusta, Ga., linked to a botulism outbreak.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, In San Francisco Seu Kuka (28) was gunned down in the Sunnydale Housing projects of Visitacion Valley. In 2010 Jamal Trulove was convicted of 1st degree murder and sentenced 50 years to live in prison. Trulove had appeared on a VH1 reality show, “I Love New York 2,” just 3 months after the slaying.
    (SSFC, 10/17/10, p.C2)
2007        Jul 23, Jennifer Hawke-Petit and her two daughters were killed during a violent home invasion in Cheshire, Conn. Dr. William Petit, was badly beaten but escaped. His wife and one daughter were sexually assaulted. The girls, aged 11 and 17, were tied to their beds, doused in gasoline, and left to die in a fire. Steven Hayes (44) and Joshua Komisarjevsky (27), on parole at the time for other burglaries, were accused of their murder. Prosecutors later said they will seek the death penalty. On Nov 8, 2010, Hayes was sentenced to death. Komisarjevsky was convicted of murder in 2011 and was sentenced to death. In 2013 HBO aired “The Cheshire Murders,” a documentary based on the case.
    (AP, 7/23/08)(AP, 10/5/10)(SFC, 11/27/10, p.A5)(SFC, 10/14/11, p.A6)(SFC, 12/10/11, p.A6)(SFC, 7/22/13, p.E1)
2007        Jul 23, Zhenli Ye Gon was arrested in a Maryland restaurant, four months after police discovered $207 million at his Mexico City mansion in what US officials have called the world's biggest seizure of drug cash. Mexican officials had 60 days to file their legal arguments for Ye Gon's extradition. Ye Gon has claimed that $150 million of the money belonged to Mexico's ruling party, and that he was forced to store it for party officials in his mansion under threat of death during the 2006 presidential race. Ye Gon later told US prosecutors he had sold tons of a chemical used to make methamphetamine on the black market.
    (AP, 7/24/07)(AP, 10/23/09)
2007        Jul 23, Genial comic Drew Carey was tapped to replace legend Bob Barker on the CBS daytime game show "The Price is Right."
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2007        Jul 23, In San Francisco Seu Kuka (28) was gunned down in the Sunnydale Housing projects of Visitacion Valley. In 2010 Jamal Trulove was convicted of 1st degree murder and sentenced 50 years to live in prison. Trulove had appeared on a VH1 reality show, “I Love New York 2,” just 3 months after the slaying.
    (SSFC, 10/17/10, p.C2)
2007        Jul 23, In northern California a helicopter crashed while delivering water to firefighters in the Klamath National Forest, killing the pilot. More than 1,100 fire crews were battling a cluster of about 30 lightning-sparked fires covering 14 square miles near the Oregon state line. The fires started July 10 and had threatened up to 550 homes near the town of Happy Camp.
    (AP, 7/24/07)
2007        Jul 23, A wildfire in southern Idaho had covered more than 880 square miles, growing by about 200 square miles in just 24 hours during the weekend. Fire officials said it threatened tracking and radar facilities at Mountain Home Air Force bombing and firing range, which is used by pilots training for duty in Iraq and Afghanistan. Firefighters in central Utah faced a threat of strong wind gusts as they battled a huge wildfire, where several small communities were evacuated.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(SFC, 7/23/07, p.A5)
2007        Jul 23, John Gilman (65), developer of FieldTurf, an artificial grass that replaced AstroTurf, died at his home in Montreal. The FieldTurf technology was based on patents filed by golfer Freddie Haas Jr.
    (WSJ, 1/28/07, p.A6)
2007        Jul 23, Mohammad Zahir Shah (b.1914), the last king of Afghanistan (1933-1973), died. In 2002 he had returned from 3 decades of exile to bless his country's fragile course toward democracy. In southern Afghanistan troops killed at least 75 militants in three separate battles, while the Taliban extended the deadline for the lives of 23 South Korean hostages until the evening of July 24. Norway said one if its soldiers was killed in Logar province, and NATO said a soldier was killed in the south. A roadside blast killed 4 US soldiers in eastern Paktika province.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(AP, 7/24/07)(Econ, 7/28/07, p.88)
2007        Jul 23, It was reported that Rio police had killed 449 people since January, many in clashes with drug traffickers, while more than 60 police officers lost their lives.
    (SFC, 7/23/07, p.A13)
2007        Jul 23, Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, in his new capacity as a Mideast envoy, opened his mission to help Palestinians build solid foundations for their future state.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2007        Jul 23, Foreign Minister Peter MacKay said Canada will give the new Palestinian government C$8 million ($7.6 million) in direct aid and more could follow now that Hamas is no longer in the government.
    (Reuters, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, Fidel Castro suggested that a two-time Cuban Olympic boxing champion and his teammate had defected, blaming their disappearance at the Pan American Games in Brazil on American money.
    (AP, 7/24/07)
2007        Jul 23, The European Union took the first step towards sending forces to Chad and the Central African Republican to help the United Nations protect refugees trapped in the violent region bordering Darfur.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, A Greek firefighting plane crashed, killing one of its two-member crew while trying to stop a forest fire reaching homes on the island of Evia.
    (Reuters, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, Indian officials said dozens of plastic bags stuffed with body parts believed to be from aborted female fetuses or newborn girls killed because their families wanted boys have been found in an abandoned well in eastern India.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, Officials said flash floods and landslides in central Indonesia have inundated villages, destroyed bridges and roads, and sent thousands fleeing their homes with over 80 people killed.
    (AFP, 7/24/07)(AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 23, Three parked cars exploded within 30 minutes in a predominantly Shiite area in Baghdad, killing at least 12 people. Another car packed with explosives blew up on the main road about 200 yards from an entry point to the US-controlled Green Zone, killing at least 4 Iraqis. Also in Baghdad a bomb exploded on a minibus near a busy commercial area, killing one person and wounding nine others. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi army patrol near the Iranian border, killing five troops. Also near the Iranian border, gunmen ambushed a convoy of trucks loaded with goods being sent from major wholesale markets in Baghdad to Khanaqin, 90 miles northeast of Baghdad. Five people were killed and three others kidnapped. In western Anbar province at least two policemen were killed and 10 wounded when a woman hiding an explosives belt under her Islamic gown blew herself up as she was about to be searched at a checkpoint on the western outskirts of Ramadi. At least 59 people were killed or found dead nationwide.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(AP, 7/24/07)
2007        Jul 23, Israeli police said 9 Israelis suspected of trafficking in organs and humans have been arrested and remain in custody. The case was opened when an Israeli woman filed a police complaint charging that she was not paid after her kidney was removed in Ukraine.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, Nigerian police said at least 10 people were killed over the weekend and dozens sustained burns in the southern Delta state after adulterated kerosene they were using in their stoves exploded. In southwest Nigeria at least six people were killed and several trapped when a three-storey building under construction collapsed.
    (AFP, 7/23/07)(AFP, 7/24/07)
2007        Jul 23, In North Waziristan, Pakistan, 2 security posts came under rocket attack and an army convoy was attacked. At least 20 militants and two soldiers were killed in fighting.
    (AP, 7/23/07)(AP, 7/24/07)
2007        Jul 23, Abel Mutsakani, the editor of an independent Zimbabwean news service based in South Africa, was shot and seriously wounded in Johannesburg.
    (AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 23, Spain arrested Roberto Florez Garcia in Tenerife, the Canary Islands, for selling the identity of Spanish spies and other information about the intelligence agency from 2001 until he left the service in 2004. Police accused him of being a double agent for Russia.
    (AP, 7/24/07)(WSJ, 1/25/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 23, An attempt to break an aviation speed record went horribly wrong when a small "experimental" plane crashed through an apartment building in the Swiss city of Basel, killing the pilot and injuring at least three other people.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 23, The United Nations rejected Taiwan's application to become a member of the world body, citing UN adherence to the "one China" policy and its recognition of the Chinese government in Beijing.
    (AP, 7/24/07)

2008        Jul 23, Bill Gates, former boss of Microsoft, joined Michael Bloomberg, the mayor of NYC, in announcing a combined $500 million package to stamp out smoking.
    (www.usatoday.com/news/health/2008-07-23-smoking_N.htm)
2008        Jul 23, It was reported that Napa Valley’s Chateau Montelena, winner of a 1976 wine tasting event in France, was being purchased by Cos d’Estournel of Bordeaux, France.
    (SFC, 7/23/08, p.C1)
2008        Jul 23, In Louisiana an oil tanker and an oil barge collided near New Orleans creating a 12-mile oil slick and closing almost 100 miles of the Mississippi River. Over 400,000 gallons of fuel spilled into the river.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/25/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 23, Google unveiled a new service dubbed “Knol,” an Internet encyclopedia, in which contributing authors would share in ad revenue.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.C4)
2008        Jul 23, Two environmental groups estimated that cement kilns in the US annually released mercury compounds totaling some 23,000 pounds. Two of the worst emitters were located in northern California in Cupertino and Davenport.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.B1)
2008        Jul 23, In Afghanistan militants killed a district police chief in the eastern Nangarhar province after striking his convoy with a roadside bomb. Police clashed with Taliban fighters in Uruzgan province, killing three militants.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, The African Union said it was incapable of stabilizing the situation in Somalia and urged the UN take over peacekeeping operations in the lawless Horn of Africa country.
    (Reuters, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, Australia announced an extra $29 million in aid for survivors of Myanmar's May cyclone, but pressed its recalcitrant military junta to democratize quickly and respect human rights.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, The European Commission froze almost euro500 million ($800 million) in aid to Bulgaria, citing corruption, organized crime, severe spending irregularities and alleged vote-buying in a country that only joined the EU last year.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, In Democratic Republic of Congo at least 45 people were killed and another 100 were missing after a boat sank on a remote stretch of the Ubangi river.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 23, France passed a new law to let companies negotiate longer working hours with union representatives, all but squelching the 35-hour week.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.61)
2008        Jul 23, Iraq's Kurdish government has denounced a draft law paving the way for US-backed provincial elections and urged the presidential council to reject it. The 18-year-old son of the chief editor of a US-sponsored newspaper was shot to death as an American patrol passed nearby in the northern city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 7/23/08)(AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 23, US Presidential hopeful Barack Obama donned a Jewish skullcap at Israel's Holocaust memorial and vowed to preserve America's close ties with Israel in a dramatic visit to the Holy Land in which he also promised the Palestinians to push vigorously to win them a state.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, Hurricane Dolly toppled trees and sent billboards flying in the Mexican city of Matamoros, and authorities south of the US border warned of possible flooding. Dolly also hit south Texas, but by evening it had weakened to a tropical storm.
    (AP, 7/24/08)(SFC, 7/24/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 23, Opposition lawmakers walked out of a Mongolian parliamentary session before they were to be sworn in, saying they refused to participate because last month's election was fraudulent.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, Nigeria's main militant group threatened to destroy the nation's major oil pipelines within 30 days to counter allegations it had struck a $12 million deal with the government to protect them.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, An international rights group pressed Pakistan's new government to quickly investigate the disappearance of hundreds of people allegedly rounded up by security agencies as part of the anti-terror campaign.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, In Sri Lanka government forces killed 25 rebels in battles in the Vavuniya, Mannar, Jaffna and Welioya regions along the front lines.
    (AP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 23, In Sudan government planes bombed Karbala, a Darfur village, while Pres. Bashir was addressing cheering crowds in the nearby city of el-Fasher. according to a rebel faction 3 people were killed and 8 injured.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 23, Turkish warplanes bombed 13 Kurdish rebel targets in the Zab region of northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 23, Venezuela signed over three more oil fields to a joint venture with Belarus, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez declaring that the two nations were strongly united in their resistance to "US imperialism" and Washington's "lackeys."
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2009        Jul 23, US Vice President Joe Biden pledged Washington's full support for Georgia a year after its war with Russia and urged Moscow to abide by a ceasefire pact and pull its troops back from two rebel regions.
    (Reuters, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, US Border Patrol Agent Robert Rosas was killed near Campo, Ca. On July 25 Mexican federal police detained four men suspected of involvement in the killing of Rosas. Included was Ernesto Parra Valenzuela, identified as the suspected killer of Rosas. In 2009 Christian Daniel Castro Alvarez (17) pleaded guilty to murdering Rosas. On April 29, 2010, Alvarez was sentenced to 40 years in prison. A 2nd suspect, Marcos Manuel Rodriguez Perez, was arrested on April 11, 2011.
    (AP, 7/26/09)(http://texasfred.net/archives/4628)(SFC, 7/27/09, p.A4)(SFC, 11/21/09, p.A4)(AP, 4/29/10)(AP, 4/11/11)
2009        Jul 23, US counter-terrorism officials said that Saad bin Laden (27), the 2nd-eldest son of Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden, was apparently killed in a US missile strike inside Pakistan this year.
    (SFC, 7/24/09, p.A4)
2009        Jul 23, Federal prosecutors arrested over 40 people in New Jersey and New York as part of a major corruption and international money laundering conspiracy probe. They included New Jersey Assemblyman Daniel Van Pelt, Hoboken Mayor Peter Cammarano III, Secaucus Mayor Dennis Elwell and Jersey City Deputy Mayor Leona Beldini. Several rabbis in New York and New Jersey were also arrested. Some were accused of laundering tens of millions of dollars and of black-market trafficking of kidneys and fake Gucci handbags.
    (AP, 7/23/09)(AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, The Columbus Salame plant in South San Francisco, established in 1967, was devastated by fire.
    (SFC, 7/24/09, p.D2)
2009        Jul 23, In Michigan the last edition of The Ann Arbor News rolled off the presses After 174 years, with a three-word headline: "Farewell, Ann Arbor." It is being replaced by AnnArbor.com, an online news site that will produce a print edition twice a week.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, E. Lynn Harris (b.1955), pioneer of gay black fiction, died while promoting his latest book in Los Angeles. Long before the secret world of closeted black gay men came to light in America, Harris introduced a generation of black women to the phenomenon known as the "down low." His debut "Invisible Life" (1994) was a coming-of-age story that dealt with the then-taboo topic.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Afghanistan an operation conducted by US-led coalition forces in the Baidar area of Gelan district killed eight Taliban, five of them foreigners.
    (AFP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, Arab health ministers decided to ban children, the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions from attending the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia this year in effort to slow the spread of swine flu.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, Chinese researchers reported that they have produced living mice from connective tissue cells induced to revert to their embryonic state.
    (SFC, 7/24/09, p.A11)
2009        Jul 23, In China a landslide triggered by heavy rain hit a county in southwestern Sichuan province, killing at least four people and leaving 53 others missing.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, In China female panda You You (pronounced Yo Yo) gave birth to the new cub at the Wolong Giant Panda Research Center in southwestern Sichuan. This was the first successful birth of a panda cub from artificial insemination using frozen sperm, giving a new option for the notoriously poor breeders.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, Iceland formally applied to join the European Union but said it would not accept a "rotten deal" for its fishing industry, a key sector of the island nation's troubled economy.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, The wife of Iranian opposition leader Mir Hossein Mousavi said that her brother is among the hundreds arrested in Iran's postelection crackdown, and she warned authorities not to publish any "forced confessions" from him or other detainees.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, Israeli defense officials said tests of a missile-defense system meant to shield Israel from Iranian attack were aborted over the past week on three occasions because of various malfunctions.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Japan Jerry Yu (30), a US citizen who worked for a Japanese communications company in Tokyo, was found dead of probable hypothermia off a trail just below the peak of Mount Fuji. His colleague, Takeshi Nakamura (27), was found dead the next day.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev, the main opposition candidate, said he was no longer taking part in this day’s presidential election, citing widespread ballot-stuffing and the intimidation of election monitors. Pres. Bakiyev (59) won another 5-year term with 76% of the ballots. International monitors said the election was marred by ballot-box stuffing and widespread irregularities in vote counting.
    (AP, 7/23/09)(AP, 8/2/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Nigeria Wole Soyinka, 1986 Nobel laureate in literature, slammed Nigeria's handling of the crisis in the oil region and urged the government to adopt a "holistic" approach in tackling it. Excepts of the news conference were reported the next day on private Channels television.
    (AFP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Pakistan the Taliban denied claims that Maulana Fazlullah, architect of a brutal uprising in Pakistan's Swat valley, was wounded and threatened to unleash renewed holy war. Pakistan said on July 8 it had "credible" information that Fazlullah was injured during a blistering offensive designed to crush Taliban militants. Two policemen were killed and three others wounded when a roadside bomb exploded near a checkpoint in Shangla district. A bomb hidden in a supposed gift of a tape recorder killed another policeman at a checkpoint outside the town of Karak, which borders the Taliban-infested North Waziristan tribal district.
    (AFP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, The Philippine government ordered its military to stop offensives against Muslim separatist rebels in a bid to restart peace talks, a move welcomed by the guerrillas.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, In Poland say seven people died in violent storms.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 23, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma's new government warned protesters they must respect the law as violent demonstrations against shoddy public services spread across townships.
    (AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 23, Yemeni security forces opened fire on thousands of protesters in the south chanting anti-government slogans, killing 12 and wounding scores of others. Demonstrations by former army members in southern Yemen demanding political reforms have been occurring regularly since August, 2007.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2010        Jul 23, Jesus Quinonez, the international liaison for the Baja California state attorney general's office, was among 43 defendants named in a US federal racketeering complaint that alleges murder, kidnapping and other crimes. They were accused of working for Fernando Sanchez Arellano, widely considered the most-wanted drug kingpin in Tijuana. Quinonez (49) was arrested a day earlier in San Diego during a traffic stop.
    (AP, 7/24/10)
2010        Jul 23, In Bell, Ca., 3 administrators whose huge salaries sparked outrage in this small blue-collar suburb of Los Angeles agreed to resign. Chief Administrative Officer Robert Rizzo (56) was being paid $787,637 a year. Assistant City Manager Angela Spaccia made $376,288 a year, and Police Chief Randy Adams made $457,000. On July 26 the City Council voted to slash salaries by 90%.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(SFC, 7/27/10, p.A6)
2010        Jul 23, Work to permanently choke off BP's broken oil well stalled as Tropical Storm Bonnie raced toward the Gulf of Mexico and dozens of ships evacuated the area.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Daniel Schorr, veteran news reported died in Washington DC. In 1973 as a CBS reporter Schorr aired Pres. Nixon’s “enemies list,” finding his own name as #17 of 20. Schorr’s book included “Clearing the Air” (1978).
    (SFC, 7/24/10, p.C4)
2010        Jul 23, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb exploded inside a mosque, seriously wounding a candidate in upcoming parliamentary elections and at least 16 other people. Two American service members left their compound in Kabul and failed to return. They were believed to have been captured by insurgents somewhere in Logar province. Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid later said the pair drove into an area of Logar province that is under insurgent control. He says that during a brief gunfight, one American was killed and the other was captured. The body of Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Justin McNeley (30) was found on July 25. On July 28 the body of the 2nd sailor, Petty Officer 3rd Class Jarod Newlove (25) was recovered. In southern Helmand province at least 45 civilians, many women and children, were killed in a rocket attack  by the NATO-led foreign force. Alliance and Afghan troops came under attack about 6 miles (10 km) south of the village and responded with helicopter-borne strikes. Coalition forces reported six insurgents killed, including a Taliban commander.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(Reuters, 7/24/10)(AP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/26/10)(AP, 7/28/10)(SFC, 7/28/10, p.A3)(AP, 7/29/10)
2010        Jul 23, The African Union said its forces battling Al-Qaeda-linked rebels in Mogadishu will be boosted by a battalion from Guinea and could further swell to reach 10,000 troops.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, A Chinese court sentenced a Uighur journalist to 15 years in jail for critical writings and comments he made to foreign media after last year's deadly ethnic riots in China's western Xinjiang region. Halaite Niyaze was found guilty of "endangering national security" and sentenced following a one-day trial in Urumqi.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Typhoon Chanthu killed three people before weakening into a tropical storm after making landfall in southern China's Guangdong province.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, In the Dominican Rep. 8 people who allegedly spent $170 million on apartments, cars and other goods using money from Jose Figueroa, the Caribbean's top drug trafficker, were formally charged with money laundering and other crimes.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Seven out of 91 banks failed European stress tests, which were organized in hope of reviving investor confidence in Europe's embattled banking sector. German state-owned lender Hypo Real Estate, five regional savings banks in Spain and ATEBank of Greece failed the test of whether they could resist a new financial shock. All have been ordered to recapitalize or take state aid.
    (AFP, 7/24/10)
2010        Jul 23, EU police investigating corruption arrested Hashim Rexhepi, Kosovo’s central bank governor.
    (www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4b5155da-9666-11df-96a2-00144feab49a.html)
2010        Jul 23, In Indian Kashmir security forces fired teargas at stone-throwing protesters as fresh protests against Indian rule broke out. A minibus veered off a mountain road under construction and plunged into a river, killing at least 17 people.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(AP, 7/24/10)
2010        Jul 23, The Marshall Islands region of Ebeye, which has the unflattering reputation as the "slum of the Pacific" has now been damned in a US Army report as a health threat to residents.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, A Dutch court slapped a one million euro fine on Trafigura, a Swiss-based company whose chartered ship dumped hazardous waste the Ivory Coast says killed 17 people on its soil. It was also found guilty of concealing what the charge sheet referred to as the "harmful nature" of the waste on board the Probo Koala ship that arrived at the port of Amsterdam on July 2, 2006, but was redirected to the Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Pakistan’s government said 30 people had been killed in flash floods in Baluchistan province, mostly in Barkhan district.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, In South Africa a police helicopter crashed, killing seven officers on board, as it flew to the scene of a suspected hostage-taking northeast of Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Switzerland's popular Glacier Express tourist train derailed in the Alps, killing one person and injuring 42.
    (AP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 23, Thailand’s Culture Ministry said Facebook and Twitter are causing deteriorating language skills among Thai students and authorities want them to return to the bygone tradition of letter-writing.
    (AP, 7/23/10)

2011        Jul 23, In Texas Tan Do (35) opened fire at a child's birthday celebration at the Forum Roller World in Grand Prairie, killing five people, wounding four others and then killing himself as the private party turned to panic and some fled screaming in their skates. The dead included Do’s estranged wife, two of her sisters, her brother and her sister-in-law.
    (AP, 7/24/11)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A5)
2011        Jul 23, John Shalikashvili (b.1936), Polish-born former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993-1997), died in Washington state.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.C8)
2011        Jul 23, Asian football supremo Mohamed bin Hammam (62) was banned from the game for life after being found guilty of corruption following a two-day hearing of FIFA's ethics committee. The Qatari president of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), had been accused of trying to buy votes in the FIFA presidential election with $40,000 cash gifts to Caribbean football officials.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Afghanistan NATO troops handed control of the northern capital Mazar-i-Sharif to local forces. It was the sixth of seven areas to transition to Afghan control. A NATO helicopter attack wounded 5 children in Helmand province. On July 25 Britain took responsibility for the attack, voicing "deep regret" and saying an investigation was under way.
    (AFP, 7/23/11)(AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Bahrain cleric Seyyed Abdullah al-Ghoreifi said authorities have demolished 30 Shiite mosques during their 5-month-old crackdown in the Sunni-ruled Gulf kingdom.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Thousands of people marched through the streets of Derby protesting the British governments decision to award a contract for new trains to Siemens, German engineering company.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.51)
2011        Jul 23, Amy Winehouse (b.1983), the beehived soul-jazz diva whose self-destructive habits overshadowed a distinctive musical talent, was found dead in her London home. On Oct 26 an inquest was told she had suddenly drunk heavily after abstaining from alcohol for three weeks and was poisoned by alcohol.
    (AP, 7/24/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amy_Winehouse)(AFP, 10/26/11)
2011        Jul 23, Canada returned Lai Changxing (52) to China where he is accused of running a $10 billion smuggling ring that dealt in everything from cars to oil in a scandal touching the government's highest levels.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, In eastern China a crash involving two high-speed trains in Wenzhou city killed 40 people with 171 others injured. Rail officials later admitted that a Chinese-made signaling system was to blame and said the company that built it has apologized. 3 days after the crash legal authorities ordered lawyers not to take on cases from the families of victims. On Dec 28 a government report found 54 officials responsible for the crash.
    (AP, 7/24/11)(AFP, 7/30/11)(AFP, 8/11/11)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.34)(AP, 12/28/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Egypt groups of men armed with knives and sticks attacked thousands of protesters trying to march to the headquarters of the military rulers, setting off fierce street clashes and leaving more than 300 injured. The identity of the pro-army vigilantes could not immediately be determined.
    (AP, 7/23/11)(Econ, 7/30/11, p.41)
2011        Jul 23, In Iran gunmen firing from motorcycles killed Dariush Rezaeinejad (35), said to be an electronics masters’ student at Khajeh Nasir University in Tehran. Initial reports said a pair of gunmen firing from motorcycles killed Darioush Rezaei (35), a physics professor whose area of expertise was neutron transport. It was later reported that he participated in developing high-voltage switches, a key component that is crucial to setting off the explosions needed to trigger a nuclear warhead.
    (AP, 7/23/11)(AFP, 7/24/11)(AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Israel tens of thousands marched in the coastal city of Tel Aviv to protest against rising housing prices and social inequalities in the Jewish state.
    (AFP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Latvians voted by a large majority to sack their Parliament in a historic referendum, setting the stage for a snap election in September.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 23, Nguyen Cao Ky (b.1930), the flamboyant former air force general who ruled South Vietnam with an iron fist for two years (1965-1967) during the Vietnam War, died in Malaysia. In 2002 he authored "Buddha's Child: My Fight to Save Vietnam."
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Mexico 6 suspected cartel gunmen were killed in an overnight clash with soldiers in Ayotlan, Jalisco state. The army alleged that the men were members of the Zetas drug cartel, and said they found assault rifles, grenade launchers and ammunition at the scene. In Guadalajara a man was arrested trying to board a plane to Panama at the international airport carrying more than $290,000 in US currency hidden in a suitcase. In Acapulco two human heads were found on a highway bridge, wrapped in colorful plastic. The body of a third, 20-year-old man was found nearby riddled with bullets.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Mexican soldiers found a series of marijuana fields covering 148 acres (60 hectares) in the northern state of Durango. The army patrol also found 40 metric tons (44 US tons) of harvested marijuana at the plantation.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Nigeria a bomb exploded in a busy neighborhood in Maiduguri. A witness said at least eight people were killed. Amnesty International said the Nigerian Joint Military Task Force responded by shooting and killing at least 23 people, apparently at random.
    (AP, 7/24/11)(AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Pakistan an anti-Taliban militia killed 13 militants in 2 days of clashes in the northwestern Kurram tribal region. Gunmen riding on a motorcycle shot and killed five laborers at a construction site for a mosque in southwestern Baluchistan.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Rescuers in Scotland said they have guided 44 pilot whales stranded in an estuary back to sea, but 25 other whales from the pod did not survive the incident and died.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Senegal's opposition went ahead with a protest and thousands of demonstrators poured into a square after a last-minute change to the venue to skirt a ban on demonstrations issued by the government. They amassed at Place de l'Obelisque, just outside Dakar's downtown district, to demand the departure of President Abdoulaye Wade (85) who is attempting to run for a third term.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Spain several hundred people, angry about their country’s economic crises, protested on the outskirts of Madrid following a month-long march from their hometowns.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 23, In South Sudan rebel leader Gatluak Gai was shot and killed by his own men in oil-rich Unity state days after he signed a peace deal to integrate his forces into the southern army.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, Voters in Sri Lanka's northern Tamil heartland trickled to polling stations to elect local councils following the country's long civil war. Election monitoring group Campaign for Free and Fair Elections said in a statement that uniformed men suspected to be members of the military were forcibly collecting voting cards apparently to rig the elections. It reported such incidents took place in 20 villages.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, A Syrian passenger train derailed and caught fire near Homs, killing the driver and injuring 14 passengers, after "saboteurs" tore out part of the tracks.
    (AP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 23, President Hugo Chavez (56) returned to Venezuela after spending almost a week in Cuba to receive chemotherapy treatment for his cancer.
    (AP, 7/24/11)

2012        Jul 23, The US NCAA imposed penalties on Penn State and its football program related to the cover-up of pedophile charges against former defensive coach Jerry Sandusky. The penalties included $60 million and the abdicating of all wins since 1998.
    (SFC, 7/25/12, p.A10)
2012        Jul 23, Sally Ride (61), the first US woman to travel into space and an advocate for science education, died in Florida after a 17-month battle with pancreatic cancer. Ride first launched into space in 1983 aboard Challenger on the 7th mission of US space shuttle program.
    (Reuters, 7/24/12)
2012        Jul 23, An Afghan army soldier turned his gun on his NATO colleagues injuring two US troops in Faryab province. Gunmen killed 3 people in an ambush on a van in northern Parvan province, including an American electrical engineer who had lived in the country for decades.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)(AP, 7/24/12)
2012        Jul 23, China’s State-controlled CNOOC Ltd launched a takeover bids by agreeing to buy Canadian oil producer Nexen Inc for $15.1 billion, forcing Ottawa to decide whether national security concerns outweigh its desire for foreign investment in its energy resources.
    (Reuters, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, Egypt began to release detainees held by the military following a decree last week by President Mohamed Morsi.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, Egypt's ambassador to the West Bank Yasser Othman said transiting Palestinians can enter Egypt for 72 hours to arrange their own travel. A Palestinian official in Cairo said more easing of restrictions are being negotiated.
    (AP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, The European Union said it was ready to back the deployment of an African stabilization force under UN mandate in Mali, and threatened sanctions against those posing a threat to democratic change.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, The European Union promised to lift most of the sanctions slapped against Zimbabwe a decade ago if the country holds a "credible" vote on a new constitution.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, In Haiti 4 squatters were shot to death as police and other officials forced them to vacate a woodland in La Visite National Park. Haiti was down to about 2% of its original forest cover.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A4)
2012        Jul 23, India police said about 25,000 villagers have fled their homes in Assam state during clashes between Bodo tribal groups and Muslim settlers in which 15 people have been killed. Police issued shoot-on-sight orders in an attempt to quell ethnic violence in Assam state, after rioters burnt shops and houses and attacked rival gangs.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/24/12)
2012        Jul 23, In India Lakshmi Sehgal (b.1914), a top Indian female revolutionary, died following a heart attack. She had fought Allied forces during World War II.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)(Econ, 8/4/12, p.82)
2012        Jul 23, Iran’s semiofficial ISNA news agency reported that people had poured into the streets of Nishabur to protest a steep hike in the price of chicken.
    (SFC, 7/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 23, In Iraq bombings and shootings killed 115 people in the deadliest day this year. 29 coordinated attacks in 19 cities sent a chilling warning that al-Qaida is slowly resurging in the security vacuum created by a weak government in Baghdad and the departure of the US military seven months ago.
    (AP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/24/12)(AP, 7/26/12)(AFP, 8/1/12)(AP, 8/17/12)
2012        Jul 23, Liberia's President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf signed the Table Mountain Declaration, a pledge drawn up by global media rights bodies to boost press freedom and stop the criminal prosecution of journalists. the declaration was adopted by the World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN-IFRA) in Cape Town, South Africa in 2007. She became only the second African leader after Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou, to sign the declaration.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, In central Nigeria heavy rainfall overnight forced a dam to overflow, causing flooding that left at least 35 people dead and destroyed or damaged some 200 homes.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, In northwest Pakistan US drones fired missiles at a compound of militant commander Sadiq Noor killing 10 suspected insurgents.
    (SFC, 7/24/12, p.A2)(AFP, 7/29/12)
2012        Jul 23, Spain's market regulator says it has temporarily banned short-selling of shares on its stock indexes owing to volatility in Spanish and European markets. It noted that Italy took similar steps today.
    (AP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, Sudan turned down South Sudan's proposal of a higher oil transit fee and an $8.2 billion financial deal, ruling out any comprehensive settlement of outstanding issues by the August 2 deadline.
    (AFP, 7/23/12) 
2012        Jul 23, The Syrian regime threatened to use its chemical and biological weapons in case of a foreign attack, in its first ever acknowledgement that it possesses weapons of mass destruction. The Arab League offered Syrian President Bashar Assad and his family a "safe exit" if he steps down. EU foreign ministers began talks in Brussels with an agreement to freeze the assets of 26 Syrians and three firms close to the Assad regime in the 17th round of sanctions since protests erupted last year.
    (AP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, The WWF conservation group ranked Vietnam the worst country for wildlife crime in its first-ever report on how well 23 Asian and African countries protect rhinos, tigers and elephants.
    (AP, 7/23/12)

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