Today in History - July 25

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326        Jul 25, Constantine refused to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

975        Jul 25, Thietmar bishop of Merseburg, German chronicler, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1360        Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Breslau, Silesia.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1471        Jul 25, Thomas A. Kempis (91), [Thomas Hammerken von Kempen], German writer, monk, died. His popular "Imitation of Christ" went through 99 editions by the end of the century.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Internet)

1564        Jul 25, Maximillian II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1575        Jul 25, Christoph Scheiner, astronomer, was born in Germany.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1587        Jul 25, Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave. Although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(AP, 11/21/08)

1593        Jul 25, France's King Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1609        Jul 25, Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda. William Strachey (1572-1621), was also aboard the Sea Venture and later sent a letter to England that described the event. The letter is thought by many to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest." Strachey became secretary of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, after his arrival there on May 23, 1610. In 2009 Hobson Woodward authored: A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare’s “The Tempest."
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.29)(SFC, 8/18/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Venture)

1616        Jul 25, Andreas Libavius, German alchemist, died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1670        Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1729        Jul 25, North Carolina became a royal colony.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1759        Jul 25, British forces defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7 Years' War.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)

1775        Jul 25, Anna Symmes Harrison, 1st lady, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1775        Jul 25, Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1791        Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize the African Church. Richard Allen purchased a site for a church for the African-American community in Philadelphia. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church.
    (www.pbs.org)

1797        Jul 25, Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded Mission San Miguel Archangel, the 16th California mission. He took possession of the land on behalf of Viceroy Branciforte. The mission facilitated travel between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio.
    (SB, 3/28/02)

1799        Jul 25, On his way back from Syria, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottomans at Aboukir, Egypt.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1805        Jul 25, Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1814        Jul 25, British and American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane (Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1822        Jul 25, Gen. Agustin de Iturbide was crowned Agustin I, 1st emperor of Mexico.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1824        Jul 25, Costa Rica gained Guanacaste province from Nicaragua as the town people of Nicoya and Santa Cruz decided to join Costa Rica. In 2013 Nicaragua’s President Daniel Ortega warned Costa Rica that he may ask the International Court of Justice to restore to Managua the province he said it lost to "occupation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanacaste_Province)(AFP, 9/2/13)

1830        Jul 25, King Charles X of France signed the July Ordinances, also known as "The Ordinances of Saint-Cloud". These, among other steps, suspended the liberty of the press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies and excluded the commercial middle-class from future elections.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Revolution)

1832        Jul 25, The 1st US railroad accident was at Granite Railway, Quincy, Mass., and 1 died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1834        Jul 25, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (b.1772), English poet, died. He and his friend William Wordsworth were among the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and later identified, along with Robert Southey, as the Lake School of poets. Coleridge’s work included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," "Frost at Midnight" and "Kubla Khan." In his later life he authored the "Bibliographia Literaria," a work of literary theory. In 1999 Richard Holmes published "Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1804-1834," which focused on the poet's later life. His volume "Coleridge: Early Visions" was published in 1989. In 2007 Adam Sisman authored “The Friendship: Wordsworth & Coleridge."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Coleridge-Taylor)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/20/07, p.D8)

1840        Jul 25, Flora Adams Darling, founded Daughters of American Revolution, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1844        Jul 25, Thomas Eakins (d.1916), American painter, was born.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.E4)(WUD, 1994, p.447)(HN, 7/25/02)
1844        Jul 25, Louis Napoleon (b.1779), French king of the Netherlands (1806-10), died.
    (www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Louis-Napoleon-Bonaparte)

1845        Jul 25, China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France and the United States.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1848        Jul 25, Arthur James Balfour (d.1930), the First Earl of Balfour and prime Minister of Great Britain (1902-1905), was born: "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs."
    (AP, 11/14/97)(HN, 7/25/98)

1850        Jul 25, Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon, extending the quest for gold up the Pacific coast.
    (HN, 7/25/98)
1850        Jul 25, The clipper ship Frolic, enroute from Hong Kong to SF, wrecked on a reef at the north edge of what is now California’s Preserve off Point Cabrillo Light Station. It had run opium from India to China to trade for silver and merchandise. The crew escaped in small boats and though all trade goods were lost the area became recognized as ideal for a redwood sawmill.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G10)(www.pointcabrillo.org/frolic-history.htm)(WSJ, 12/15/07, p.W10)

1853        Jul 25, David Belasco, actor, playwright and producer, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/02)
1853        Jul 25, Joaquin Murrieta (b.1829), aka the Mexican Robin Hood or the Robin Hood of El Dorado, was shot and killed by California Rangers near Coalinga. A plaque (California Historical Landmark #344) near Coalinga at the intersection of State Routes 33 and 198 later marked the approximate site of the incident. His head was reportedly paraded around mining camps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquin_Murrieta)(SFC, 3/3/14, p.D2)

1860        Jul 25, The 1st US intercollegiate billiard match was between Harvard and Yale.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1861        Jul 25, The Crittenden Resolution, calling for the American Civil War to be fought to preserve the Union and not for slavery, was passed by Congress.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1865        Jul 25, Dr. James Barry (b.1795), British military medical officer and senior inspector general, died. It was soon revealed that Dr. Barry was likely a female. In 2003 Rachel Holmes authored “Scanty Particulars: the Scandalous Life and Astonishing Secret of Queen Victoria’s Most Eminent Military Doctor."
    (NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.21)(www.geocities.com/hotsprings/2615/medhist/barry.html)

1866        Jul 25, Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1867        Jul 25, President Andrew Johnson signed an act creating the territory of Wyoming. [see Jul 25, 1868]
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1868        Jul 25, Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory. [see Jul 25, 1867]
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1871        Jul 25, A carrousel was patented by Wilhelm Schneider in Davenport, Iowa.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1880        Jul 25, Morris Raphel Cohen, American philosopher and mathematician, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1883        Jul 25, Alfredo Casella, composer (La Giara), was born in Turin, Italy.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1884        Jul 25, Davidson Black, doctor of anatomy (identified Peking Man), was born in Canada.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1894        Jul 25, Walter Brennan, actress (Real McCoys, At Gun Point), was born in Swampscott, Mass.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1894        Jul 25, Japanese forces sank the British steamer Kowshing which was bringing Chinese reinforcements to Korea.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1896        Jul 25, An estimated 5,000 cyclists gathered in SF to demonstrate for better roads.
    (Ind, 8/2/03, p.5A)

1898        Jul 25, US Gen’l. Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925) landed troops at Guanica on the southern coast of Puerto Rico. Spain and the US came to terms at the Treaty of Paris and the US acquired Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico became a US territory. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1901. He retired from the army in 1903. His books include Personal Recollections and Observations (1896) and Serving the Republic (1911).
    (HT, 4/97, p.65)(SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)

1899        Jul 25, Ralph Dumke, actor (Movieland Quiz), was born in Indiana.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1901        Jul 25, A fire destroyed the Byron Hot Springs Hotel in Byron, Ca. A new hotel, designed by James and Merritt Reid, was built to replace it. It burned down in 1912 and was replaced in 1914 with a new design by James Reid.
    (SSFC, 11/9/08, p.A7)(www.byronhotsprings.com/TimeTable.html)

1902        Jul 25, Eric Hoffer (d.1983), American longshoreman, philosopher and author of "In Our Time," was born: "Our present addiction to pollsters and forecasters is a symptom of our chronic uncertainty about the future. ... We watch our experts read the entrails of statistical tables and graphs the way the ancients watched their soothsayers read the entrails of a chicken." "It almost seems that nobody can hate America as much as native Americans. America needs new immigrants to love and cherish it." "We do not usually look for allies when we love. Indeed, we often look on those who love with us as rivals and trespassers. But we always look for allies when we hate."
    (AP, 5/21/97)(AP, 10/28/97)(AP, 5/23/98)(HN, 7/25/02)

1903        Jul 25, In San Francisco Layman’s Folly, the German-style castle built on Telegraph Hill in 1883 by entrepreneur Frederick Layman, was destroyed by fire.
    (http://beta.shapingsf-wiki.org/index.php?title=Layman%27s_Folly)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.C2)

1905        Jul 25, Elias Canetti, Bulgarian-British novelist, essayist (Nobel 1981), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1907        Jul 25, Jack Gilford, actor (Save the Tiger, Cocoon, Arthur 2), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1907        Jul 25, Johnny Hodges, jazz musician, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/02)

1909        Jul 25, Draugas, "The Friend," a Lithuanian newspaper, began publishing in Chicago.
    (Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
1909        Jun 20, The first honeymoon in a balloon.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)
1909        Jul 25, French aviator Louis Bleriot (1872-1936) made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to the grounds of Dover Castle in a powered aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just under 36 minutes.
    (AP, 7/25/97)(HNPD, 7/25/98)(ON, 6/07, p.9)

1912        Jul 25, The Comoros were proclaimed to be French colonies.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1914        Jul 25, Russia declared that it would act to protect Serbian sovereignty.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1916        Jul 25, An explosion at the Cleveland Waterworks tunnel project trapped 12 men and 18 would-be rescuers. 8 men were saved and 10 bodies were recovered by a team led by black inventor Garrett A. Morgan (d.1963) dressed in his new Safety Hood.
    (ON, 3/02, p.12)

1918        Jul 25, Annette Adams of Calif. was sworn in as the 1st US woman district attorney.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1918        Jul 25, A race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left 3 blacks and 2 whites dead.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1924        Jul 25, Frank Church, Sen-D-Id, was born in Boise.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1924        Jul 25, Estelle Getty, actress (Sophia Petrillo-Golden Girls), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1924        Jul 25, Greece announced the deportation of 50,000 Armenians.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1925        Jul 25, Jerry Paris, director, actor (Jerry-Dick Van Dyke Show), was born in SF, Calif.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1927        Jul 25, Midge Decter, writer and editor, was born in St. Paul Minn.
    (HN, 7/25/02)

1930        Jul 25, Maureen Forrester, contralto (Resurrection Symphony), was born in Montreal, Canada.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1932        Jul 25, Paul J. Weitz, astronaut (Skylab 2, STS 6), was born in Erie, Pennsylvania.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1934        Jul 25, There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Nazis. Hitler murdered Austria's Chancellor Dollfus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.424,1682)(TMC, 1994, p.1934)(HN, 7/25/98)

1935        Jul 25, Barbara Harris, Tony award winning actress in The Apple Tree, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/98)
1935        Jul 25, Adnan Khashoggi, billionaire arms dealer, was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1935        Jul 25, Laurent Terzieff, actor (Pharaoh-Moses the Law Giver), was born in Paris, France.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1935        Jul 25, C. Jackson discovered asteroid #1641 Tana.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1936        Jul 25, The 115 acre Orchard Beach opened in the Bronx.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1936        Jul 25, G. Neujmin discovered asteroid #3761.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1940        Jul 25, John Sigmund began swimming for 89 hrs 46 mins in the Mississippi River.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1941        Jul 25, The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1943        Jul 25, Jim McCarty, rocker (The Yardbirds-For Your Love), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1943        Jul 25, Janet Margolin, actress (Take the Money & Run, David & Lisa), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1943        Jul 25, Benito Mussolini was dismissed as premier of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III and placed under arrest. Mussolini was later rescued by the Nazis and re-asserted his authority.
    (AP, 7/25/97)(HN, 7/25/98)(news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday)

1944        Jul 25, Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters recorded Cole Porter's "Don't Fence Me In" in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
    (AP, 7/25/99)
1944        Jul 25, Allied forces begin the breakthrough of German lines in Normandy.
    (HN, 7/25/02)
1944        Jul 25, The Messerschmitt 262 became the 1st jet fighter used in combat.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1945        Jul 25, Donna Theodore, Broadway singer (Hollywood Talent Scouts), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1946        Jul 25, The United States detonated a 2nd atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in the first underwater test of the device. [see July 1]
    (AP, 7/25/97)
1946        Jul 25, In Monroe, Georgia, 2 black couples were killed by Ku Klux Klansmen near Moore’s Ford Bridge in Walton County. Roger Malcolm had just been given bail after stabbing a white farmer. Pres. Truman ordered an FBI investigation and 55 suspects were named in the lynching of Roger and Dorothy Malcolm and George and Mae Murray Dorsey, but no one was ever charged. Dorothy Malcolm was pregnant.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A5)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.32)

1948        Jul 25, Steve Goodman, singer, songwriter (Somebody Else’s Trouble), was born in Chicago.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1950        Jul 25, Top staff officers of the US 8th Army, Muccio's representative Harold J. Noble and South Korean officials met and decided on a policy of air-dropping leaflets telling South Korean civilians not to head south toward US defense lines, and of shooting them if they did approach US lines despite warning shots. This information was in a letter from ambassador John J. Muccio to US Sec. of State Dean Rusk. The letter was declassified in 1982.
    (AP, 5/30/06)
1950        Jul 25, American soldiers In Korea ordered villagers away from Im Ke Ri and sent them on the road to Hwanggan.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A8)
1950        Jul 25, The Goethe Link Observatory discovered asteroids #1799 Koussevitsky, #1822 Waterman & #2842.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_asteroids_%281001-2000%29)

1951        Jul 25, L. Boyer discovered asteroid #1714 Sy.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1952        Jul 25, Goethe Link Observatory discovered asteroid #1788 Kiess.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1952        Jul 25, Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1953        Jul 25, A truce ended the Korean War. S.L.A. Marshall later authored "The River and the Gauntlet," a description of the slaughter the war brought to both sides. Clay Blair later authored "Forgotten War," and Roy Appelman wrote "East of Chosin" and "Disaster in Korea."
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.4)(WSJ, 8/6/99, p.W7)
1953        Jul 25, NYC transit fare rose from 10 to 15 cents and 1st use of subway tokens began.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1954        Jul 25, Lynn Frederick, actress (Schizophrenia), was born in Middlesex, England.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1954        Jul 25, Walter Payton, Chicago Bear football running back, was born in Columbia, Miss.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Payton)

1955        Jul 25, Iman, model, David Bowie's girlfriend, actress (Star Trek VI), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1956        Jul 25, Jordanians attacked the UN Palestine truce.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1956        Jul 25, The Italian luxury liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm in 200 feet of water 50 miles southeast of Nantucket Island, Mass. 46 people of its 1,706 passengers and crew were killed. The Dorea was headed from Genoa, Italy, to NY, and sank eleven hours after the crash.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/97)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A16)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D5)(AP, 1/14/12)

1957        Jul 25, The monarchy in Tunisia was abolished in favor of a republic. Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000) began serving as president and continued to 1987.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habib_Bourguiba)

1959        Jul 25, Dr. Isaac Halevi Herzog (71), chief rabbi of Israel (1936-59), died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1959        Jul 25, King Mutara III (b.~1912), monarch of Rwanda (1931 and 1959), died. Mutara was known for being the first Mwami to convert to Catholicism.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutara_III_of_Rwanda)

1961        Jul 25, Katherine Kelly Lang, actress (Brooke-Bold & Beautiful), was born in LA, Calif.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1963        Jul 25, The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space or underwater.
    (AP, 7/25/97)
1963        Jul 25, Ugo Cerletti (b.1877), Italian neurosurgeon, died. In the 1930s he and Lucio Bini pioneered the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), electric shock, to cure patients of depression.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.78)(www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/511.html)

1964        Jul 25, Beatles' "Hard Day's Night, A," album went #1 and stayed #1 for 14 weeks.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1964        Jul 25, There was a race riot in Rochester, NY.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1965        Jul 25, Bob Dylan played a Fender Stratocaster at the Newport Folk Festival, RI. In 2015 Elijah Wald authored “Dylan Goes Electric! Newport, Seeger, Dylan, and the Night that Split the Sixties."
    (SFC, 7/20/15, p.E2)

1966        Jul 25, Supremes released "You Can't Hurry Love."
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1966        Jul 25, Yankee manager Casey Stengel was elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1967        Jul 25, Construction began on SF MUNI Metro (Market Street subway).
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1967        Jul 25, US Navy Lt. Commander Donald Davis crashed his jet on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Searchers later recovered fragments of his remains for return to the US.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A4)

1968        Jul 25, H. Wroblewski discovered asteroid #1993 Guacolda on exposures by G. Plouguin and I. Belyaiev at the University of Chile, Cerro El Roble Station.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_Guacolda)

1969        Jul 25, Some 70,000 attended the Seattle Pop Festival. The music festival, organized by Boyd Grafmyrem, was held at the Gold Creek Park, Woodinville, Washington, from July 25 to July 28, 1969.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Pop_Festival)
1969        Jul 25, The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense [see Nov 3, 1969].
    (http://thenewnixon.org/2008/07/24/25-july-1969-the-nixon-doctrine/)
1969        Jul 25, A week after the Chappaquiddick accident that claimed the life of Mary Jo Kopechne, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy pleaded guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of an accident.
    (AP, 7/25/99)

1972        Jul 25, US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40 year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala. By this time 28 participants had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, at least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had contracted the disease at birth [see 1932].
    (www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2002/jul/tuskegee/)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1973        Jul 25, Pres Nixon refused to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation.
    (www.cbc.ca/news/background/us-politics/watergate-timeline.html)
1973        Jul 25, Russia launched its Mars 5 Orbiter.
    (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1973-049A)

1974        Jul 25, The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines. The case had originated in Detroit.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.32)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Milliken_v._Bradley)
1974        Jul 25, T. Smirnova, Russian astronomer, discovered asteroid #2345 Fucik.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4lx b4w)

1975        Jul 25, Jay R. Ferguson Jr., American actor (Taylor Newton-Evening Shade), was born in Dallas, Tx.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jay_R._Ferguson)
1975        Jul 25, "A Chorus Line," the longest-running Broadway show (6,137), premiered on Broadway. It had opened off-Broadway at The Public Theater on May 21, 1975.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Chorus_Line)

1976        Jul 25, Edwin Moses (b.1955), American track star, won an Olympic Gold Medal In Montreal in the 400-meter hurdles.
    (http://espn.go.com/sportscentury/features/00016369.html)

1978        Jul 25, Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through in-vitro fertilization. In 2004 Robin Marantz Henig authored "Pandora's Baby: How the First Test Tube Babies sparked the Reproductive Revolution.
    (TL, 1988, p.119)(AP, 7/25/97)(SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)
1978        Jul 25, The Viking 2 Orbiter to Mars was powered down after 706 orbits.
    (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html)

1979        Jul 25, In the Philippines Batas Pambansa No. 20 was enacted creating the Regional Autonomous Government in Western and Central Mindanao regions.
    (http://www.armm.gov.ph/armm-history/)

1980        Jul 25, In San Francisco the Red Vic repertory movie theater opened at Haight and Belvedere. In 1991 it moved to 1727 Haight. In 2011 it was set to close following a final birthday screening.
    (SFC, 7/7/11, p.A1)

1981        Jul 25, Ian Martin (69), Scottish-born film and TV actor (Uncle Bill-O'Neills), died in NYC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2vgz3w)(www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi)
1981        Jul 25, In El Salvador 45 farmers were allegedly massacred at the hands of the military in San Francisco Angulo. In 2014 the Supreme Court ruled that prosecutors must investigate the massacre.
    (SFC, 2/7/14, p.A2)

1983        Jul 25, The first nonhuman primate, a baboon, was conceived in a lab dish in San Antonio, Tx.
    (http://tinyurl.com/34c8hm)

1984        Jul 25, Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space. She carried out more than 3 hours of experiments outside the orbiting space station Salyut 7.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1985        Jul 25, A spokeswoman for Rock Hudson confirmed that the actor, hospitalized in Paris, was suffering from "AIDS." Hudson died the following October.
    (AP, 7/25/00)

1986        Jul 25, Marc Smith, NYC construction worker turned poet, held the first poetry slam at the Green Mill jazz club in Chicago. He pitted writers against one another in a test of writing skills and performance.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.83)(www.slampapi.com/new_site/background.htm)
1986        Jul 25, Vincente Minnelli (76), movie director known for such musicals as "Gigi," "An American in Paris" and "Meet Me in St. Louis," died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
 
1987        Jul 25, US Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige died of internal injuries he sustained while participating in a rodeo. He was succeeded by C. William Verity.
    (AP 7/25/97)
1987        Jul 25, The USSR launched Kosmos 1870, a 15-ton Earth-study satellite.
    (www.sciencepresse.qc.ca/clafleur/Spacecrafts-1987.html#Kosmos-1870)

1988        Jul 25, A judge in New York ordered the feuding San Diego Yacht Club and a New Zealand challenger to settle the battle for the America's Cup with a September race. The Americans used a two-hulled catamaran to easily defeat the New Zealanders' monohull, setting off a legal dispute that ended two years later in victory for the American team.
    (AP, 7/25/98)

1989        Jul 25, The pilot of the United DC-10 that crashed in Sioux City, Iowa, July 19, Alfred C. Haynes, appeared at a news conference in which he dismissed descriptions of himself as a hero after he and his crew managed to save 184 of the 296 people aboard the crippled aircraft.
    (AP, 7/25/99)

1990        Jul 25, Comedian Roseanne Barr sparked controversy with an off-key rendition of the "Star-Spangled Banner" during a double-header at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.
    (AP, 7/25/00)
1990        Jul 25, The US ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie, met with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to discuss Iraq’s economic dispute with Kuwait.
    (AP, 7/25/00)
1990        Jul 25, The US Senate formally denounced Senator Dave Durenberger (Republican, Minnesota) for financial improprieties.
    (AP, 7/25/00)

1991        Jul 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev urged Communist leaders at a Central Committee meeting to reject "outdated ideological dogmas" and embrace a market economy.
    (AP, 7/25/01)
1991        Jul 25, A deadline for Iraq to provide full details of its weapons of mass destruction passed, with US officials indicating military action was not imminent.
    (AP, 7/25/01)

1992        Jul 25, Opening ceremonies were held in Barcelona, Spain, for the 25th Summer Olympics.
    (AP, 7/25/97)
1992        Jul 25, A 68-foot high Mistos (Match-Cover) by Claes Oldenburg was built for the Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, in reference to the Olympic Torch. In the Olympics the Unified team of the former Soviet Union won 45 gold medals and the US won 37.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.81)(SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)
1992        Jul 25, Greg Spiers created the Lithuanian Basketball Team’s tie-died shirt featuring the Grateful Dead’s skeleton slam-dunking. He later sued for a share of the profits on the shirts.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, DB p.44)
1992        Jul 25, Actor-singer Alfred Drake died in New York at age 78.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1993        Jul 25, Israel launched its heaviest artillery and air assault on Lebanon since 1982 in an attempt to eradicate Hezbollah and Palestinian guerrilla threats. Guerrillas fired rockets into Israel. The fighting ended July 31 with a U.S.-brokered cease-fire. Israel and Hezbollah then agreed not to attack civilian targets, but the cease-fire was short lived.
    (AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1994        Jul 25, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordan's King Hussein signed a declaration at the White House ending their countries' 46-year-old formal state of war.
    (AP, 7/25/97) 

1995        Jul 25, A bomb exploded at the Paris subway St. Michel station, killing 8 people and injuring some 200. The Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility. In 1999 five people linked to Algerian militants were sentenced to 10-year prison terms for the attacks. 16 others received lesser sentences. In 2002 Boualem Bensaid and Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, Islamic militants, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombings. British police arrested Rachid Ramda (25) at the request of the French government due to his connections with Bensaid. In 2005 Ramda was still in Belmarsh prison awaiting extradition. In 2007 Ramda (38) was sentenced to life in prison with no possibility of parole for 22 years.
    (www.emergency.com/frncboms.htm)(AP, 7/25/00)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.61)(AP, 10/26/07)
1995        Jul 25, Two weeks after overrunning Srebrenica, Bosnian Serbs took over the safe area of Zepa.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
1995        Jul 25, Radovan Karadzic and Gen’l. Ratko Mladic and 22 other Serbs were indicted for genocide by the UN War Crimes Hague Tribunal for commanding forces responsible for sniping in Serajevo and for genocide and crimes against humanity. Also indicted was Milan Martic, Croatian Serb leader of rebel Serb forces, for ordering the shelling of Zagreb in May ‘95.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(AP, 7/25/00)

1996        Jul 25, Divers searching the wreckage of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, N.Y., recovered the flight data and cockpit voice recorders.
    (AP, 7/25/97)
1996        Jul 25, In Burundi the military seized power and named former president Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, as president. Hutu officials sought refuge in foreign embassies. Burundian Hutus fled to Zaire's South Kivu province, base of the National Council for the Defense of Democracy, an extremist Burundi Hutu movement backed by Zaire.
    (WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)
1996        Jul 25, Mexico said it will repay $7 bil of the remaining $10.5 bil borrowed from the US Treasury, partly through a $6 bil issue of securities.
    (WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A1)

1997        Jul 25, US immigration agents rounded up 17 deaf Mexicans in Sanford, North Carolina. This followed the revelation of 50 deaf Mexicans held in servitude in NYC and forced to sell trinkets on the streets. In Dec. Adriana Paoletti Lemus (29), also deaf and one of two alleged ringleaders, pleaded guilty.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A5)
1997        Jul 25, Autumn Jackson, the young woman who claimed to be Bill Cosby's out-of-wedlock daughter, was convicted by a federal jury in New York of trying to extort $40 million from the entertainer.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/98)
1997        Jul 25, In San Francisco some 5,000 bikers defied the city-approved route for the Critical Mass bike ride and struck out on their own. Some 250 were arrested for traffic violations. Numerous incidents of confrontations between bikers, police and commuters were reported.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A1)
1997        Jul 25, An FDA drug panel endorsed Rituximab, a drug designed to treat B-cell lymphoma. It was made by Genentech and IDEC Pharmaceuticals. In November Genentech and Idec (later Biogen Idec), received FDA approval for Rituxan for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A1)(www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/53059.php)
1997        Jul 25, In Elk Creek, Virginia, Louis Ceparano and Emmett Cressell Jr. doused Garnett Paul "G.P." Johnson with gasoline, set him on fire and cut off his head. They were both indicted for murder and robbery. Ceparano pleaded guilty to murder and was sentenced to life in prison in 1998.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.A3)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A4)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.A3)
1997        Jul 25, Ben Hogan (b.1912 in Dublin, Tx.), golf legend, died in Fort Worth, Texas, at 84. A 1996 biography by Curt Sampson was titled: "Hogan."
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.B1)(AP, 7/25/98)
1997        Jul 25, In Afghanistan police units of the Pashtun ethnic group raided minority neighborhoods as opposition forces gathered 12 miles outside Kabul.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
1997        Jul 25, In Albania the new Socialist led government was sworn in while a gang battle in Berat left 10 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
1997        Jul 25, In the Congo soldiers fired into a crowd of protestors in Kinshasa and killed at least 3 people. The protest was against Kabila’s ban on political activity.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
1997        Jul 25, In India Kocheril Raman Narayannan (1920-2005) was sworn in as president, becoming the first member of the "untouchable" Dalits caste to do so.
    (AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 11/10/05, p.B8)
1997        Jul 25, In Ireland Rev. Brendan Smyth (71) was sentenced to 12 years in prison for 74 instances of sexual abuse of 20 young people over 36 years.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)
1997        Jul 25, Thousands of German soldiers fought to contain the rain-gorged Oder River.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1998        Jul 25, Two government officials revealed that Pres. Clinton was subpoenaed by Independent Council Kenneth Starr to testify before a federal grand jury investigating Monica Lewinsky.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/99)
1998        Jul 25, The US Capitol was reopened, a day after a gunman killed two police officers; a wounded suspect, Russell E. Weston Junior, was charged with murder. Weston was later found unfit to stand trial because of paranoid schizophrenia. Weston refused to take any medications voluntarily. In May 2001, a federal judge authorized doctors to treat Weston involuntarily. A panel from a federal appeals court ruled in July 2001 that Weston could be forced to take the drugs which he was forced to do for 120 days. He remains incarcerated in a psychiatric center in the federal prison in Butner, North Carolina.
    (AP, 7/25/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Capitol_shooting_incident_(1998)#The_suspect)
1998        Jul 25, The new nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman, was commissioned by Pres. Clinton. The 97,000 ton ship cost $4.5 billion.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A2)
1998        Jul 25, It was reported that the US dropped secret plans to seize Radovan Karadzic and Gen’l. Ratko Mladic in Bosnia.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A17)
1998        Jul 25, It was reported that 5-7% of the drugs in Brazil were faked medicines mostly from India, China and Pakistan.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A20)
1998        Jul 25, It was reported that authorities in Split, Croatia, declared a natural disaster following an invasion of mice that devoured the region’s crops.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A8)
1998        Jul 25, In Japan some 60 people at a festival in the Wakayama prefecture were sickened after eating a curried rice dish. Four people died and police suspected that cyanide was mixed in the food. A district court convicted Masumi Hayashi in 2002 of deliberately lacing a pot of curry with arsenic and serving it to neighbors at the festival. In 2009 Japan's highest court upheld her death sentence.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A10)(AP, 4/21/09)
1998        Jul 25, The governor of Puerto Rico called for a December referendum on statehood.
    (WSJ, 7/27/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 25, Serb forces attacked rebel positions in Kosovo to clear major roads.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1999        Jul 25, The Woodstock ‘99 music festival in Rome, New York, ended in fires and looting.
    (AP, 7/25/00)
1999        Jul 25, Lance Armstrong won the Tour de France cycling race for his 1st time. In 2005 a French sports newspaper reported that frozen urine specimens indicated that Armstrong had used EPO (erythropoietin), a hormone drug that boosts production of red cells.
    (AP, 7/25/00)(SFC, 8/26/05, p.A1)
1999        Jul 25, The US and Vietnam agreed to normalize relations after 3 years of negotiations. Commercial ties were expected to follow.
    (SFC, 7/26/99, p.A8)
1999        Jul 25, Jack Gargan, a political activist from Florida, was elected chairman of the Reform Party in Dearborn, Mich.
    (USAT, 7/26/99, p.12A)
1999        Jul 25, In the Cincinnati area 7 people were reported dead over the weekend from sweltering heat.
    (SFC, 7/26/99, p.A7)
1999        Jul 25, In Iraq residents of Rumaitha and Khudur took to the streets over food and medicine shortages. 16 soldiers were killed and Saddam Hussein ordered a tank unit to quell the riots after which another 14 people died.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)
1999        Jul 25, Morocco held a funeral for King Hassan the Second.
    (AP, 7/25/00)
1999        Jul 25, In Nigeria ethnic fighting over the weekend killed at least 70 people in Kano.
    (WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 25, In Pakistan tens of thousands protested against Pres. Sharif for the pullback in Kashmir.
    (SFC, 7/26/99, p.A10)
1999        Jul 25, In Venezuela candidates from the Fifth Republic Movement, supported by Pres. Chavez, won over 80% of the 131 constituent assembly seats in preliminary results. Less than half the eligible voters cast ballots.
    (WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A19)

2000        Jul 25, Presidential candidate George W. Bush announced Former Defense Sec. Dick Cheney as his running mate.
    (SFC, 7/25/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 25, In France a NY bound Concorde jet crashed in Gonesse after takeoff and all 109 people aboard were killed along with 4 people on the ground. Passengers included 96 Germans, 2 Danes and an Austrian. Debris from a blown tire was later believed to have caused an engine fire. A 5th body was found in the rubble of the Hotelissimo. It was the first-ever crash of the supersonic jet. A final probe in 2002 attributed runway junk as the cause of the crash. A French accident inquiry concluded in December 2004 that the disaster was partly caused by the strip of metal that fell on the runway from the Continental plane that took off just before the supersonic jet. In 2010 Continental was ordered to pay a fine of 200,000 euros for the crash and to pay Concorde's operator Air France a million euros in damages. On Nov 28, 2012, a French appeals court overturned manslaughter convictions against Continental Airlines and a mechanic for the Concorde crash.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/27/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/29/00, p.A12)(AP, 7/25/01)(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A8)(AFP, 12/6/10)(AP, 11/30/12)
2000        Jul 25, The Israeli-Palestinian peace talks ended at Camp David with no success due to the difficulty over the issue of Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 25, In Jordan a US-made C-130 transport plane crashed and 13 soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)
2000        Jul 25, The Russian Zvezda space module docked with the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A11)
2000        Jul 25, In Seoul, South Korea, thousands clashed with police in the biggest anti-American protests in 2 years.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 25, In Zimbabwe at least 230 white farmers quit working along with some businessmen in Karoi to protest the breakdown in law and order.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

2001        Jul 25, The space shuttle Atlantis landed in Florida.
    (WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 25, India’s bandit queen, Phoolan Devi, was killed by masked gunmen in New Delhi. She had led a revolt against the abuse of low-class women and won a seat in parliament. Sher Singh Rana later confessed to the killing. 2 accomplices were later arrested.
    (WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A14)
2001        Jul 25, Israeli troops killed Salah Darwazeh, a Hamas militant, with antitank rockets as he drove near Nablus. Informant Ahmed Abu Issah, father of nine, was paid $50 for information on Darwazeh and was later condemned to death by a Palestinian court.
    (WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/11/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 25, Kim Jong Il of North Korea rode by rail into Russia for a meeting with Pres. Putin.
    (WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A11)

2002        Jul 25, Encouraged by a tinny tapping sound coming up from the depths, rescuers in Somerset, Pa., brought in a huge drill in a race to save nine coal miners trapped 240 feet underground by a flooded shaft.
    (AP, 7/25/03)
2002        Jul 25, Zacarias Moussaoui declared he was guilty of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, then dramatically withdrew his plea at his arraignment in Alexandria, Va.
    (AP, 7/25/03)
2002        Jul 25, In Canada Pope John Paul made his first appearance at a Catholic youth festival before as many as 200,000 young faithful eager to welcome the aging Pontiff with prayer and song.
    (Reuters, 7/25/02)
2002        Jul 25, Chinese police have formally arrested Liu Xiaoqing, one of the country's most famous film stars and 2-time winner of the prestigious Hundred Flowers Best Actress award, on suspicion of large-scale tax evasion. Liu was queen of Chinese cinema in the 1980s and is best remembered for playing Qing Dynasty Empress Dowager Cixi in the film "The Reign Behind the Curtain."
    (Reuters, 7/25/02)
2002        Jul 25, Some 5,000 women gathered from all over Colombia, traveling hours by bus, all with one message: They wanted an end to 38 years of civil war.
    (AP, 7/25/02)
2002        Jul 25, Israeli police said an Israeli policeman has been arrested on suspicion of selling ammunition to Palestinians, raising to ten the number of suspects detained in the case.
    (AP, 7/25/02)
2002        Jul 25, Torrential monsoon rains and overflowing rivers worsened flooding in eastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh and officials said 270 people have died and more than six million people have been left homeless during the last 5 days.
    (Reuters, 7/26/02)
2002        Jul 25, Hundreds of Nigerian women left ChevronTexaco pumping stations in canoes and on foot following an agreement with company executives.
    (AP, 7/26/02)
2002        Jul 25, Palestinian gunmen shot dead a Jewish rabbi settler in what militants called the first response to an Israeli air strike that killed 15 Palestinians including a top militant.
    (Reuters, 7/25/02)
2002        Jul 25, In Russia Pres. Putin signed into law a bill that allowed the sale of farmland, but not to foreigners.
    (SFC, 7/26/02, p.A17)
2002        Jul 25, The Spanish government welcomed a British proposal to turn its military base in Gibraltar into a NATO facility, a move that would open it to all alliance members including Spain. Spain and Britain came up with the idea of sharing sovereignty over the Rock. This was rejected resoundingly in a nonbinding referendum in Gibraltar.
    (AP, 7/25/02)(AP, 9/19/06)
2002        Jul 25, In Vietnam the National Assembly approved a 2nd term for PM Phan Van Khai (68).
    (SFC, 7/26/02, p.A17)

2003        Jul 25, Pres. Bush ordered a naval amphibious force from the Mediterranean to position itself off the coast of Liberia.
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 25, Palestinian PM Mahmoud Abbas met with Pres. George Bush in Washington DC. Abbas thanked Bush for his efforts in pursuit of a peaceful Middle East and for a recent grant of $20 million in direct aid to the Palestinian Authority.
    (AP, 7/26/03)
2003        Jul 25, John Schlesinger (b.1926), film director, died. His films included "Midnight Cowboy" (1969) and "Sunday Bloody Sunday" (1971).
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A22)
2003        Jul 25, In northeastern Congo thousands of tribal fighters attacked three villages with mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles, killing as many as 150 people.
    (AP, 7/29/03)
2003        Jul 25, In Haiti gunmen ambushed a delegation from the Interior Ministry on a central highway, killing 4 and seriously wounding one.
    (AP, 7/25/03)
2003        Jul 25, An Israeli soldier fired a tank-mounted machine gun at a pickup truck carrying a Palestinian family, killing a 4-year-old Palestinian boy and wounding two other children.
    (AP, 7/25/03)
2003        Jul 25, Japanese lawmakers voted to send military forces to Iraq to help with reconstruction.
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A3)
2003        Jul 25, In eastern Pakistan police commandos stormed a jail after five prisoners took nine visiting judges and 50 female detainees hostage, officials said. The raid ended the drama, but left three of the justices dead.
    (AP, 7/25/03)
2003        Jul 25, In Spain 2 top members of the outlawed Basque separatist group ETA were sentenced to 790 years in prison for a 1987 bombing that killed 21 people and injured 45.
    (AP, 7/26/03)

2004        Jul 25, The Warwick agreement came about as a compromise between Britain’s Labor Government and trade unions at the Labor Party's National Policy forum.
    (www.unionstogether.org.uk/articles/employment.html)
2004        Jul 25, Colombia's ELN rebel group kidnapped Misael Vaca Ramirez, the Catholic Bishop of Yopal, but planned to set him free bearing a political message for the government.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004        Jul 25, Lance Armstrong (32) became the 1st 6-time winner of the 2,107-mile Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 25, American and Iraqi forces clashed with insurgents in a battle that escalated from gunfire to artillery barrages north of Baghdad, killing 13 Iraqi militants.
    (AP, 7/25/04)
2004        Jul 25, Gunmen killed Brig. Khaled Dawoud, a former regional official who worked under Saddam Hussein's government, and his son in a drive-by shooting in Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/25/04)
2004        Jul 25, Tens of thousands of Jewish settlers and their supporters joined hands to form a human chain along a 55-mile route, serving notice they will fight Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's plan to withdraw from the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004        Jul 25, Israeli soldiers in the West Bank shot to death six members of the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades in a gunbattle in the town of Tulkarem.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004        Jul 25, In Kashmir a group of 9 militants barged into the home of Mohammed Shafi in a remote village in Rajouri district and beheaded him. They also killed his 22-year-old son and 15-year-old daughter.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004        Jul 25, Carmen Gutierrez, a doctor who won Mexico's Woman of the Year award (1997), was found dead in a canal on the outskirts of Mexico City. She was kidnapped Jul 22.
    (AP, 7/29/04)
2004        Jul 25, Pakistan arrested Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani, a Tanzanian al-Qaida suspect, wanted by the United States in the 1998 bombings at U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
    (AP, 7/29/04)
2004        Jul 25, A Spanish newspaper reported that Morocco had warned Spain earlier this month that it lost track of 400 Moroccan Islamist militants who trained in al Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, Bosnia or Chechnya.
    (AP, 7/25/04)
2004        Jul 25, The death toll from monsoon flooding in South Asia reached 944.
    (AP, 7/26/04)
2004        Jul 25, Central African Republic President Francois Bozize wrapped up a two-day visit to Sudan with a pledge to help his Sudanese counterpart Omar al-Beshir resolve the crisis in the western Darfur region.
    (AFP, 7/25/04)

2005        Jul 25, Corporal Dustin Berg, an Indiana National Guard soldier, pleaded guilty to negligent homicide in the death of an Iraqi police officer. He was later sentenced to 18 months in military prison.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2005        Jul 25, The Brotherhood of Teamsters and the Service Employees Int’l. Union broke from the AFL-CIO as 1,000 delegates gathered in Chicago for the federation’s 50th annual convention. They formed a coalition called Change to Win with 5 other unions with a mission to emphasize organizing rather than supporting like-minded politicians.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 25, Sony BMG Music Entertainment agreed to pay $10 million to non-profit entities and to stop paying radio stations to feature its artists. A 1960 federal law barred record companies from offering payola, undisclosed financial incentives for airplay.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.D3)
2005        Jul 25, Hershey Co. of Pennsylvania announced the acquisition of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker Inc. of Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.D1)
2005        Jul 25, Intel announced plans to build a $3 billion computer microprocessor fabrication plant in Arizona.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.D1)
2005        Jul 25, San Leandro, Ca., police officer Nels Niemi was shot and killed by a convicted methamphetamine user. Police arrested Irving Alexander Ramirez the next day in Daly City. In 2007 Ramirez was convicted of first-degree murder. On Aug 3 he was sentenced to die by lethal injection.
    (SFC, 7/27/05, p.A1)(SFC, 5/11/07, p.B1)(SFC, 8/4/07, p.B2)
2005        Jul 25, In Virginia 4 adult Scout leaders from Alaska were killed on the opening day of their Jamboree when a tent pole apparently struck a power line.
    (AP, 7/26/05)
2005        Jul 25, Ford Rainey (96), stage and screen actor, died in Santa Monica, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/28/05, p.B7)
2005        Jul 25, Fighting between Taliban rebels and U.S. and Afghan forces in Uruzgan province killed about 50 suspected militants, in the deadliest clashes in weeks ahead of crucial legislative elections. The fighting killed one US and one Afghan soldier.
    (AP, 7/26/05)(SFC, 7/26/05, p.A3)
2005        Jul 25, In Gonzaga, Brazil, hundreds of relatives and friends of Jean Charles de Menezes, the Brazilian shot to death in London after being mistaken for a terrorist, marched along the cobblestone streets of his hometown, demanding the arrest of the British police who fired the fatal shots.
    (AP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, British police identified 2 suspects in the July 21 bombings: Muktar Said Ibrahim (27) and Yasin Hassan Omar (24)
    (SFC, 7/30/05, p.A11)
2005        Jul 25, A wildlife charity warned that large carnivorous mice on the British-ruled island of Gough in the south Atlantic are eating seabird chicks alive in mass feeding frenzies, threatening several species' survival.
    (AFP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, Indian and Pakistani trucks laden with goods rolled across the border for the first time in 50 years.
    (AP, 7/27/05)
2005        Jul 25, Indian army said it had shot dead five militants in Kupwara district of Kashmir when they were trying to sneak into India from the Pakistani side.
    (Reuters, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, In India violence erupted when about 1,000 angry Honda workers protested the dismissal of four colleagues in Gurgaon, a suburb of New Delhi.
    (AP, 7/26/05)
2005        Jul 25, In Iraq Sunni Arab members of a committee drafting Iraq's new constitution ended their boycott, six days after they walked out to protest the assassinations of two fellow Sunni constitution framers. A US soldier was killed when a roadside bomb exploded under his vehicle near Samarra north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, Baghdad was hit by twin suicide car bombs that killed at least 8 people as Australian PM John Howard made a surprise visit there.
    (AFP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, Israel expressed outrage that Pope Benedict XVI failed to condemn terrorist attacks against Israelis. Pope Benedict urged dialogue with the best elements of Islam.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A3)
2005        Jul 25, An appeals court in Milan, Italy, issued arrest warrants for six more purported CIA operatives accused of helping plan the 2003 kidnapping of a radical Egyptian Muslim cleric.
    (AP, 7/26/05)
2005        Jul 25, Magistrates in Italy impounded BPI’s shares in Antonveneta. 2 days later Consob, Italy’s stockmarket regulator, froze BPI’s offer for up to 90 days. [see Jul 12]
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.57)
2005        Jul 25, Nepal's main political parties rejected an appeal by the country's Maoist rebels for talks to plan joint opposition to King Gyanendra's seizure of power, saying the guerrillas should stop killing civilians first.
    (Reuters, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, North Korean and US negotiators held a rare one-on-one meeting in Beijing amid a flurry of contacts between delegations to the six-nation talks aimed at persuading the communist nation to relinquish its nuclear program.
    (AP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, Opposition lawmakers in the Philippine parliament filed impeachment proceedings against President Gloria Arroyo, accusing her of vote-rigging and other allegations.
    (AP, 7/25/05)
2005        Jul 25, Saudi authorities arrested a number of suspected militants in Arar, Medina and Riyadh. Among those arrested Mohammed Saeed Mohammed al-Sayam al-Umari (25) was No. 10 on Saudi list of 36 most wanted terrorists.
    (AP, 8/27/05)

2006        Jul 25, President Bush was visited at the White House by Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki, who said he and Bush agreed that training and better arming Iraqi forces as quickly as possible was central to efforts to stabilizing his country. A Darfur rebel leader was in Washington to meet President Bush, who is trying to convince Khartoum to accept UN peacekeepers to quell the increasing violence in Sudan's remote west. President Bush pressed Darfur rebel leader Minni Arcua Minnawi to help implement a deal aimed at ending the violence in western Sudan.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(Reuters, 7/25/06)(AP, 7/25/07)
2006        Jul 25, In NYC 14 athletes competed in the 10th annual Self-Transcendence 3,100 Mile Race in Jamaica, Queens. The 51-day event was sponsored by followers of meditation master Sri Chinmoy.
    (Reuters, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, SF Supervisors gave final approval to a plan to provide health care coverage to the city’s estimated 82,000 uninsured residents.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.B1)
2006        Jul 25, Hewlett-Packard signed a $4.5 billion agreement to buy Mercury Interactive Corp., a maker of software for information technology networks.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.C1)
2006        Jul 25, The Afghan government, together with the UN, appealed for $76 million to head off an "imminent food crisis" due to drought. A roadside bomb exploded in Kabul, killing two Afghans riding in a taxi. US-led coalition troops killed seven suspected Taliban militants in southern Afghanistan. In Musa Qala district 10 militants were killed and 15 wounded by coalition and Afghan forces backed by airstrikes.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(AP, 7/26/06)
2006        Jul 25, Canada said it planned to pay a total of C$1.1 billion ($965 million) to around 5,500 people who had contracted hepatitis C from transfusions.
    (Reuters, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, Greek protesters toppled a statue of President Truman and clashed with police during demonstrations against the fighting in Lebanon.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, The first edition of a newspaper owned by the Iranian version of Hezbollah appeared on newsstands with messages of support for its Lebanese cousins in their fight against Israel.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, In Iraq police in Diyala province said five bodies were found on the streets in Muqdadiyah. Gunmen killed a police officer in front of his office in Mosul. 2 roadside bombs exploded in Baghdad, killing two civilians and wounding two bystanders and a policeman. 4 other civilians were shot dead around the capital. Two members of a Shiite family were killed and one was wounded when their removal van was sprayed with bullets. US and Iraqi soldiers captured six members of an alleged "death squad" in Baghdad, hoping to quell the rampant sectarian violence dividing the capital. Attacks elsewhere in Iraq left at least 34 people dead, including an American soldier.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(AFP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, Israeli troops sealed off the town of Bint Jbail, a Hezbollah stronghold in fierce fighting in south Lebanon. Warplanes struck Nabatiyeh and destroyed a house killing seven people, four from the same family. Guerrillas fired rockets at northern Israel, killing a girl. An Israeli airstrike killed 4 UN observers at a UNIFIL post in southern Lebanon. The observers were from Austria, Canada, China and Finland. Irish observers had warned that airstrikes were too close. UNIFIL was created in 1978 after Israel's first major invasion of southern Lebanon and has been there ever since.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(Reuters, 7/25/06)(WSJ, 7/27/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 25, Italian carmaker Fiat Group and India's Tata Motors Ltd. announced they have signed an agreement for a joint-venture in India to make passenger vehicles, engines and transmissions for Indian and overseas markets.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, The Slovak central bank raised key interest rates by 50 basis points.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.43)(www.slovakspectator.sk/clanok.asp?cl=24271)
2006        Jul 25, Sri Lanka, which at 80,000 has the largest contingent of expatriate workers in Lebanon, wants those trapped in the conflict to stay put and those who have fled the bombings to return, a minister said.
    (AFP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, Officials and news reports said the Swedish government knew in 2000 that Saddam Hussein's government demanded kickbacks from companies participating in the UN Oil-for-Food Program.
    (AP, 7/25/06)
2006        Jul 25, Thailand's three election commissioners, seen as close allies of embattled PM Thaksin Shinawatra, were convicted of allowing unqualified candidates to run in parliamentary elections and sentenced to four years in prison.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

2007        Jul 25, A US presidential commission urged broad changes to veterans' care that would boost benefits for family members helping the wounded, establish an easy-to-use Web site for medical records and overhaul the way disability pay was awarded.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2007        Jul 25, In the US over a dozen Muslims, including at least one Pakistani and several US citizens of Pakistani origin, were sentenced to imprisonment for their association with Lashkar-e-Taiba and for conspiracy to wage war against India.
    (WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A6)
2007        Jul 25, In Stockton, Ca., police arrested 51 alleged gang members and seized $400,000 worth of drugs following a 6-month investigation. Members and affiliates of the Norteno and south side Stockton gangs were arrested with state and federal warrants.
    (SFC, 7/27/07, p.B12)
2007        Jul 25, In SF faulty PG&E breakers caused a power outage that knocked out a number of Web sites.
    (SFC, 7/26/07, p.C1)
2007        Jul 25, In northern California the East Contra Costa County Habitat Conservation Plan was unveiled. It called for spending $350 million over the next 30 years to preserve 30,000 acres of open space around Mt. Diablo. It also listed some 12,000 acres for new development.
    (SFC, 7/26/07, p.B1)
2007        Jul 25, IBM Corp. announced the creation of the Global Citizen's Portfolio, a suite of investments and programs to help IBM employees enhance their skills and expertise, in order to become global leaders, professionals and citizens. The program included the Corporate Service Corps, a corporate version of the Peace Corps.
    (http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/21937.wss)(Econ, 10/30/10, p.73)
2007        Jul 25, In Alaska a sightseeing plane crashed leaving a pilot and 2 couples from a visiting cruise ship dead.
    (WSJ, 1/25/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 25, Afghan authorities found the bullet-riddled body Bae Hyung-kyu (42) in Qarabagh district of Ghazni province, where 23 South Koreans were abducted July 19. Bae, a deputy pastor and a founder of Saemmul Presbyterian Church, was killed on his birthday. Militants said the hostage was sick and couldn't walk, and therefore was shot. 22 South Koreans were still believed held but were not suffering health problems. A German journalist and two Afghans colleagues apparently kidnapped by Taliban militants in eastern Afghanistan were freed.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 25, Miguel Angel Moratinos, Spain’s Foreign Minister arrived in Algeria on a visit aimed at strengthening cooperation in energy and sorting out a row with Madrid's top gas supplier.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Tony Blair held talks on with the crown prince of Bahrain on his first regional tour as an international envoy for Middle East peace.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, British Defense Secretary Des Browne announced that Britain has agreed to let the US use a Royal Air Force base as part of its planned missile defense system. The British government said it will build two new aircraft carriers costing 3.9 billion pounds in a project which will support 10,000 British jobs over the next ten years.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, China said it will step up inspections on the use of antibiotics in fish farms, including chemicals that can cause cancer, after contaminants caused trading partners to block its seafood exports.
    (Reuters, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Human Rights Watch said the escalating use of land mines by Colombian rebels is killing and mutilating hundreds annually, making this nation the world leader in mine victims.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Ethiopian authorities ordered the International Committee of the Red Cross to pull out of the volatile Ogaden region within 7 days for allegedly interfering in political issues. Five opposition members imprisoned since 2005 pleaded guilty to attempting to overthrow Ethiopia's government, but asked the judge for a pardon.
    (AFP, 7/25/07)(AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, French President Nicolas Sarkozy headed for talks with Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi, a day after the release of six foreign medics, in a signal of normalized ties between Europe and Tripoli. France and Libya signed a memorandum of understanding to build a Libyan nuclear reactor for water desalination and clinched a raft of other deals.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(AFP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, India inaugurated Pratibha Patil (72) as its 1st female president. She promised to fight for the rights of women and an end to the widespread practice of aborting female fetuses. In northeastern India 2 domesticated elephants went on a rampage through several villages, killing eight people and wounding five before being shot dead by police.
    (AFP, 7/25/07)(AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 25, Iranian authorities announced new arrests in the cases of two Iranian-Americans held on charges of conspiring against the government, saying that an unspecified number of Iranians had been detained.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Iraq's largest Sunni Arab bloc said it has suspended its membership in PM Nouri al-Maliki's coalition government, dealing a new setback to the Shiite leader's efforts to achieve national reconciliation. The Iraqi Accordance Front, which has six Cabinet members as well as 44 of parliament's 275 seats, said it was giving al-Maliki a week to meet their demands or it would quit his 14-month-old Cabinet altogether. 2 suicide bombings killed at least 50 cheering, dancing, flag-waving Iraqis celebrating the national soccer team's semifinal victory in the Asian Cup tournament. A roadside bomb targeting a police patrol on the road between Hillah and Diwaniyah, killed 5 Iraqi officers and wounding 2 as they were on their way home from an operation with US forces. A joint US-Iraqi force backed with helicopter gunships clashed with suspected Shiite militiamen when they raided several homes in eastern Baghdad. Six people were killed and 10 wounded. A senior police officer in Karbala escaped an assassination attempt when a roadside bomb targeted his five-car convoy while he was on his way to work, but 3 of his guards were killed.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 25, The foreign ministers of Egypt and Jordan began a historic visit to Israel to formally present an Arab peace plan, saying they were extending "a hand of peace" on behalf of the region.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Lebanese army troops unleashed barrages of artillery and tank shells at Islamic militants in a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, The Nigerian government filed suit against three leading tobacco companies, seeking more than 40 billion dollars (29 billion euros) in damages for the cost of treating smoking-related diseases.
    (AFP, 11/7/07)
2007        Jul 25, A South Korean aid group said some 430 North Koreans have died of hunger in a northern region in the past month because of chronic food shortages.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, In northwestern Pakistan suspected militants fired four rockets into Bannu, killing 10 people as they slammed into houses and a mosque.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Sudanese papers reported that another 16 people died in clashes between the two tribes when Aballa men fell on a band of Torjum, killing nine.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 25, The UN governor in Kosovo called on major powers to set a clear roadmap to the final status of Serbia's breakaway province, whose independence bid is blocked by Russia. Serbia warned the US and the EU not to recognize Kosovo's independence without UN consent, saying that would prompt an immediate response from Serbian authorities and could destabilize the region.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, Vietnam’s lawmakers overwhelmingly re-elected PM Nguyen Tan Dung, in hopes that strong growth and economic reforms would continue under his leadership.
    (AP, 7/25/07)
2007        Jul 25, State television reported that Zimbabwe is to import 200,000 tons of the staple maize from Tanzania to avert widespread food shortages following a poor harvest. An international rights group said Zimbabwe's government routinely arrests and tortures women's rights activists as part of a crackdown on protests against President Mugabe and his policies.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2008        Jul 25, President George W. Bush signed an order expanding US sanctions against the "illegitimate" Zimbabwe government of President Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, US regulators took over two banks and sold them to Mutual of Omaha Bank, the sixth and seventh bank failures this year as financial institutions struggle with a housing bust and credit crunch. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency said it closed First National Bank of Nevada and First Heritage Bank NA of California.
    (Reuters, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, US Federal regulators formally approved the merger of Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. and rival XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc., the nation's only two satellite radio operators. The companies first applied for permission to combine in March 2007.
    (AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a bill banning trans fat in restaurants and food facilities, making California the first state to do so. The law takes effect in two stages: Jan 1, 2010 and Jan 1, 2011.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A1)(SSFC, 7/27/08, p.C1)
2008        Jul 25, Texas nurse Chere Lyn Tomayko, wanted by the FBI for international parental kidnapping, was awarded refugee status in Costa Rica and cannot be extradited to the US. In December 1996, a US judge gave joint custody of a daughter, Alexandria Camille Cyprian, to Tomayko and her ex-boyfriend Robert Cyprian, with the condition that Alexandria live in Tarrant County, Texas. Tomayko said she moved to Costa Rica because she had been physically abused by Cyprian.
    (AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, Harriet Burns (b.1928), the 1st woman hired to work as a designer for Walt Disney Imagineering (1955), died in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 7/31/08, p.B5)
2008        Jul 25, Harvey Houtkin (b.1948), self-proclaimed father of day trading, died in San Diego. He had opened All-Tech Direct Inc. in Suffern, NY, in 1988 and traded on the Small Order Execution System. He was suspended from trading in 2001.
    (WSJ, 8/2/08, p.A7)(www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20080801-9999-1n1sharp.html)
2008        Jul 25, Randy Pausch (47), a Carnegie Mellon University computer scientist, died at his home in Virginia. His "last lecture" in September 2007, about facing terminal cancer, has become an Internet sensation and a best-selling book.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, In southern Afghanistan a Danish soldier died in a roadside bomb attack. The death brings the number of Danish troops killed in Afghanistan since 2001 to 15. 3 Taliban militants died in a fight with police in the Gereshk district of Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, In Goiania, Brazil, Mohamed D'Ali Carvalho Santos stabbed to death and dismembered Cara Marie Burke (17), a British citizen, while high on crack cocaine. In 2009 Santos was sentenced to 19 years for the killing and two more for hiding the body.
    (AP, 5/14/09)
2008        Jul 25, British PM Gordon Brown suffered another serious blow to his leadership after Scottish nationalists won a longtime Labour seat in Glasgow.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 25, In Colombia police arrested Sen. Carlos Garcia, the head of one of Colombia's main governing parties, for alleged ties with far-right paramilitaries.
    (AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, Estonia urged the EU to take stronger action against Somali pirates attacking cargo ships bound for Europe, after an Estonian sailor was held hostage for 41 days.
    (AFP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, The EU and South Africa began their first-ever summit in the French city of Bordeaux. Brussels solidly backed Pretoria's mediating role in Zimbabwe as the only way of ending ruinous political chaos.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, US presidential hopeful Barack Obama met with Pres. Sarkozy during a short stop in Paris.
    (SFC, 7/26/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 25, German semi-conductor group Infineon posted a sharp quarterly loss and announced the loss of 3,000 jobs.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, India's high-technology capital Bangalore was rocked by 8 bomb blasts. One woman was killed and over 150 wounded.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.44)(WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A6)
2008        Jul 25, A bomb exploded outside a Gaza City cafe and another went off outside the home of a Hamas lawmaker. One person was killed. A mysterious beachside blast killed 3 Hamas members and a 6-year-old girl. 2 more Hamas activists died the next day.
    (AP, 7/25/08)(AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, In Lebanon clashes between Sunni Muslim gunmen and the Alawite broke out at dawn when a hand grenade was thrown toward a Sunni area. Fighting left one person dead.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, Energy companies in the three Baltic states and Poland agreed to set up a joint venture to develop a nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
    (Reuters 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, In Nigeria two oil workers, one Nigerian and one Filipino, were kidnapped in the Niger delta.
    (AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, In northwestern Pakistan militants blew up a girls school and 10 shops in 2 separate areas of the Swat valley. There were no casualties.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, A bomb exploded outside a Gaza City cafe and another went off outside the home of a Hamas lawmaker. One person was killed. A mysterious beachside blast killed 3 Hamas members and a 6-year-old girl. 2 more Hamas activists died the next day.
    (AP, 7/25/08)(AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, Somalia's new hard-line opposition leader, promised to pacify his shattered country through Islamic law, warning UN peacekeepers they will face attack if they deploy and support the government.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, the UN special envoy for Somalia, sounded the alarm about rampant illegal fishing and the dumping of toxic waste off the coast of the lawless nation.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, In Sri Lanka heavy fighting between Sri Lankan government forces and Tamil Tiger rebels along the front lines of their civil war killed 62 rebels and eight soldiers.
    (AP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, Sudan threatened to expel peacekeepers from Darfur if President Omar al-Beshir is indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Court.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, In eastern Yemen a suicide car bomber rammed a vehicle into the Interior Ministry's headquarters, killing a policeman and injuring eight others.
    (AP, 7/25/08)
2008        Jul 25, A UN official said as much as 25 percent of cyclone relief aid in Myanmar is being lost because of the military government's foreign exchange system.
    (AP, 7/25/08)

2009        Jul 25, In Afghanistan 7 suicide bombers tried to storm state targets in Khost, killing one civilian and wounding others in the third Taliban commando raid in a week. A British soldier was killed when a bomb exploded in southern Helmand province. A US service member died during a clash with insurgents in the south. Afghan elders struck the first local truce with Taliban insurgents in northwestern Badghis province after nearly three weeks of talks.
    (AFP, 7/25/09)(AP, 7/26/09)(AP, 7/27/09)
2009        Jul 25, In Algeria five Islamists were killed by the army about 15 km (nine miles) east of Tizi Ouzou.
    (AFP, 7/29/09)
2009        Jul 25, Brazil agreed to triple its compensation to Paraguay to operate the huge Itaipu hydroelectric dam on their shared border, ending a decades-long dispute between the neighbors. President Fernando Lugo persuaded Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to sign a deal tripling Brazil's payments from $120 million to $360 million a year. On Apr 6, 2011, Brazil's lower house of Congress finally approved the deal.
    (AFP, 7/25/09)(AP, 4/21/11)
2009        Jul 25, In Britain a new poll was released showing solid support for the right to die. The Royal College of Nursing said it was adopting a neutral stance on the issue after its research showed nurses were divided. The British Medical Association remained opposed.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, In eastern China more than 3,000 villagers of Shipu town, in Zhejiang province, blocked a highway and clashed with police while protesting alleged official corruption in a land compensation deal.
    (AP, 7/26/09)
2009        Jul 25, Chinese state television launched an Arabic-language channel beamed to the Middle East and Africa as part of efforts to expand the communist government's media influence abroad.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, In Colombia at least 16 suspected FARC guerrillas and one soldier have been killed in clashes over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, Iran's opposition leaders appealed to the top clerics in the holy city of Qom to pressure the ruling Islamic regime to release protesters and activists, who they say have been tortured following last month's disputed presidential election. Protesters across the world called on Iran to end its clampdown on opposition activists, demanding the release of hundreds rounded up during demonstrations against the country's disputed election.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, Iraqis voted in elections in the self-ruled Kurdish north. Regional Kurdish President Massoud Barzani, who has been a consistent critic of the central government, won re-election with almost 70% of the vote, while the leading candidate from the opposition party, Kamal Mirawdeli, received 25%. A coalition of the two ruling parties, Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party and Iraqi President Jalal Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, received a little over 57% of the vote for the 111-seat parliament, while the opposition Gorran, or Change, party took about 23%.
    (AP, 7/25/09)(AP, 7/29/09)
2009        Jul 25, Mexican police captured 11 suspected members of the La Familia cartel and seized a methamphetamine lab in the western state of Michoacan.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, In Pakistan a remote controlled bomb killed two Pakistani soldiers in the tribal Bajaur district. Troops retaliated killing three suspected Taliban militants.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson said it had penned a deal to buy a majority of Nortel Networks' North American wireless business for $1.13 billion.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, In Sweden a woman in her 40s and her five daughters were killed when they tried to escape an apartment fire in a Stockholm suburb.
    (AP, 7/26/09)
2009        Jul 25, Zimbabwe’s PM Morgan Tsvangirai said compensation must be considered for victims of political violence as the country held a weekend of national reconciliation.
    (AFP, 7/25/09)

2010        Jul 25, The US and South Korea launched a major naval exercise involving a nuclear-powered US aircraft carrier in the Sea of Japan despite North Korea's threats of nuclear retaliation.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, Ships and workers moved back into BP Plc's Gulf of Mexico oil spill site as seas calmed, and BP could begin pumping mud into the blown-out well later this week in a bid to plug the gusher.
    (Reuters, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Washington DC a storm downed electrical lines and left 4 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/27/10, p.A5)
2010        Jul 25, In Algeria a suicide bomber killed at least one person in the eastern Kabylie region by driving a car rigged with explosives into a building used by security forces. Al-Qaeda's branch in North Africa soon claimed responsibility for the suicide bombing.
    (AP, 7/26/10)(AFP, 7/29/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Brazil about 300 Amazon Indians prevented workers from entering or leaving the construction site of a hydroelectric plant that protesters say is on an ancient burial ground. Native Indians took some 100 workers hostage at the construction site. Indians from eight tribes taking part in the protest demanded compensation for losses caused by construction of the Dardanelos plant in the southern Amazon city of Aripuana. The hostages were released the next day.
    (AP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)(AP, 7/26/10)
2010        Jul 25, Former Nazi SS officer Erich Steidtmann (95), suspected but never convicted of involvement in World War II massacres, died from a heart attack at his home in Hannover. Steidtmann was investigated several times for his alleged involvement in killings at the Warsaw Ghetto in 1943 and two massacres in the Polish city of Lublin.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 25, Iran's official news agency said an explosion at a petrochemical factory at its Kharg island oil terminal has killed four people.
    (AP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, An Israeli military spokesman said Gaza-based militants fired four rockets into southern Israel over the weekend. None of them caused any casualties or damage.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Japan 5 people died when a rescue helicopter sent to help a party of climbers crashed in mountains near Tokyo.
    (Reuters, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Pakistan US missiles hit a compound in South Waziristan, killing four militants in a second drone attack in as many days in the region seen as al-Qaeda headquarters.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In the Philippines gunmen strafed the center of a southern township, killing an aide to Vice Mayor Rasul Sangki, a key witness to the Nov 23, 2009, mass killings.
    (AP, 7/26/10)
2010        Jul 25, Puerto Rico's Gov. Luis Fortuno declared a state of emergency for 17 flooded communities in the US territory due to a weather system that later turned into Tropical Storm Bonnie.
    (AP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Thailand a bomb at a bus stop in downtown Bangkok killed one person and wounded 11 shortly after polls closed in a parliamentary election that pitted a government candidate against a jailed leader of recent mass protests.
    (AP, 7/25/10)(SFC, 7/26/10, p.A2) 
2010        Jul 25, In Turkey foreign ministers of Turkey and Brazil urged Iran to be flexible and open in dealings with the West over its atomic program as Iran renewed its readiness to resume frozen nuclear talks. Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said Iran has expressed willingness to have talks with the European Union on its nuclear program after the month of Ramadan ends in early September.
    (AFP, 7/25/10)(Reuters, 7/25/10)
 2010        Jul 25, Uganda's president urged African Union leaders at a summit in Kampala to "sweep the terrorists" out of Africa.
    (AP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, In Yemen Al-Qaida militants attacked the patrol in the southern town of Aqla in Shabwa province with rocket propelled grenades and sprayed it with bullets killing 6 soldiers.
    (AP, 7/26/10)

2011        Jul 25, President Barack Obama addressed the nation and criticized a newly minted Republican plan to avert an unprecedented government default. He said congressional leaders must produce a compromise that can reach his desk before the Aug. 2 deadline.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, California Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a bill allowing illegal immigrants to receive privately funded scholarships to attend the state's public colleges and universities.
    (Reuters, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, In New Hampshire Celina Cass (11) disappeared from her house in West Stewartstown, a mile from the Canadian border. Divers found her body on August 1 near a hydroelectric dam that spans the Connecticut River between Stewartstown and Canaan, Vt.
    (AP, 7/27/11)(AP, 8/1/11)
2011        Jul 25, In Algeria three suspects, including two would-be suicide bombers, were killed by security forces around 60km (36 miles) east of Algiers following a tip-off. The dead included Abdelkahar Belhadj, the son of former Islamic leader Ali Belhadj.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)(AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 25, The Catholic Church in Australia apologized for the forced adoption of babies from young, unwed mothers in the 1950s, '60s and '70s, saying the practice was "deeply regrettable."
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, A court in Burundi found Frenchman Patrice Faye (58) guilty of raping five teenagers, giving him a 25-year jail sentence and a fine of 14,000 euros ($20,000). Faye was accused of raping five girls aged 13 to 17, students at a school he set up for poor children. He denied the charges and said a doctor had confirmed that three of his accusers were still virgins.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Guinea’s national communications council banned media from reporting on "the attack against the head of state, as well as any interactive broadcast of a political nature." The media ban was lifted on July 28.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)(AFP, 7/29/11)
2011        Jul 25, In India some 3,000 eunuchs met in Kolkata to draft a strategy to highlight the poverty, discrimination and sexual abuse faced by them. The term eunuch is used in India to describe transvestites, transsexuals and others who identify themselves as neither male nor female but as a members of a third gender.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Iranian forces shelled suspected rebel outposts in Iraq's semiautonomous Kurdish region, killing two Iraqi civilians.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Israeli security forces intercepted on the Dead Sea carrying assault rifles and ammunition from Jordan.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, In Jerusalem Christian, Jewish and Muslim leaders joined forces to launch a multi-faith environmental campaign, the Interfaith Centre for Sustainable Development, citing religious injunctions to protect the Earth across their three faiths.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Kosovo’s government sent special police units to the Serb-inhabited north to seize two border points which had been beyond its control since independence.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.43)
2011        Jul 25, The Libyan government showed foreign journalists a destroyed flu clinic in Zlitan and food warehouses it said had been hit earlier in the day by NATO airstrikes, killing eight people. NATO denied that it had targeted civilians and said it had only hit a number of military objectives in the area.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Maltese lawmakers have approved a law allowing citizens of this heavily Catholic Mediterranean island to divorce in their own country. The law takes effect in October, after Malta's president signs it. The ruling Nationalist Party had opposed divorce.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, In Mexico a gun battle in a rural area south of Mexico City led to the death of nine suspected gunmen. Police also reported two dead in Acapulco. They were found shot to death on a major avenue. 5 gunmen were killed in a firefight and car chase with soldiers on a highway in Nuevo Leon near Laredo, Texas. A deadly clash between two rival gangs erupted at the state prison in Ciudad Juarez when a group of inmates entered the preventive detention area and opened fire on inmates. At least 17 inmates were killed. Soldiers and federal and state police officers took control of the prison early the next day. In October police found three pistols, two machine pistols and an assault rifle hidden in cell blocks at prison.
    (AP, 7/25/11)(AP, 7/26/11)(AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Jul 25, Pakistani police said at least 16 people have died over the past 24 hours as renewed violence involving rival ethnic and sectarian groups continued to rock Karachi.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Saudi authorities blocked the website of Amnesty International inside the kingdom following criticism of a controversial new anti-terrorism draft law.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Senegal police detained Thiat, a member of the rap group Y An A Marre (the name means "We've had it"), which has been a leading force behind mass protests calling for the resignation of aging President Abdoulaye Wade.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Sierra Leone said it has launched a five-year plan to regulate the sale and use of small arms, which still abound a decade after the end of a civil war, causing insecurity.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, A Southern Sudanese official said northern Sudan has declared "economic war" by violating an agreement and issuing a new currency just weeks after the two countries split. He said the north had agreed not to issue a new currency until six months after the south did. The move will cost the southern government at least $700 million.
    (AP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Sudan jailed journalist Amal Habani for reporting the alleged rape of a female opposition activist by security forces.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Syrian security forces tightened their siege of neighborhoods in the city of Homs, sending military reinforcements and cutting mobile and land lines in the Khaldieh and Bayada districts. Troops shot dead three civilians in central and northern Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/11)(AP, 7/26/11)
2011        Jul 25, Taiwanese Major General Lo Hsien-che (51), lured by a honey trap into spying for China, was sentenced to life in prison by a military high court, in one of the island's worst espionage cases for half a century. He was indicted in May for spying and taking bribes from China beginning in 2004.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)
2011        Jul 25, Thailand's anti-corruption body filed complaints against three former Cabinet ministers and an ex-governor of Bangkok that allege wrongdoing in a 2004 contract to buy fire trucks and boats for the Thai capital.
    (AP, 7/26/11)
2011        Jul 25, Vietnam named Truong Tan Sang (62), a longtime rival of PM Nguyen Tan Dung, as its new president, a largely symbolic post in the communist nation.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)

2012        Jul 25, The Pentagon said it planned to sell 60 Patriot missiles to Kuwait in a deal worth an estimated $4.2 billion, as the emirate tries to bolster its defenses against the threat from Iran.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Argentina’s Pres. Cristina Fernandez revealed a new 100-peso note featuring the face of Eva Peron on the eve the 60th anniversary of her death. Peron’s the first woman to appear on any Argentine banknote.
    (SFC, 7/26/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 25, Britain’s the Department of Health said it is to extend its seasonal flu vaccination program to all British children, free of charge, becoming the first country in the world to do so.
    (Reuters, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Official figures showed Britain is suffering a far deeper recession than thought, in a development that is likely to increase the pressure on the government to ease up on its tough austerity approach.
    (AP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, The Olympics kicked off with a women's football match between Britain and New Zealand in Cardiff. The match in the Welsh capital comes two days before the July 27 opening ceremony at the main London stadium but marks the competitive sporting debut for the Games.
    (Reuters, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, In eastern CongoDRC M23 rebels allied with a local militia battled Congolese troops backed by UN peacekeepers, and allegedly fighting alongside rebels of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Rwanda. At least 2 civilians were killed.
    (AP, 8/5/12)
2012        Jul 25, In France a helicopter crashed in the Verdon Gorge and killed all 6 people on board. They were all employees of Eurocopter, an EADS-owned firm.
    (SFC, 7/26/12, p.A7)
2012        Jul 25, Indian police recovered 12 bodies from rice fields and roadsides in the remote state of Assam as the death toll from ethnic violence rose to 38 after four days of clashes.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Indian anti-graft activist Anna Hazare, whose hunger strike last year generated a nationwide outpouring of support, vowed to hold another fast to pile pressure on the government.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Top Iranian government officials and lawmakers agreed in a meeting to budget cuts in a bid to shore up an economy struggling with Western sanctions and inflation.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, The Islamic State of Iraq claimed responsibility for the July 23 attacks that left 113 dead in a statement posted on jihadist forum Honein.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, The International Monetary Fund announced it had reached a preliminary deal with Jordan for a $2 billion loan to steady the country's battered economy. Jordan currently is hosting more than 140,000 Syrians, and is building more camps to house the refugees.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Liberia's government welcomed the lifting of UN sanctions against 17 Liberians who were part of former warlord-turned-president Charles Taylor's regime.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Madagascan leader Andry Rajoelina and the man he toppled in 2009, Marc Ravalomanana, met on a remote Seychelles island to force a breakthrough in reconciliation efforts.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Mexican regulators said they have fined HSBC $28 million for failing to prevent money laundering through accounts at the bank. Mexico's National Securities and Banking Commission said the Mexico subsidiary of the London-based bank has paid the fines. Officials said HSBC in 2007 and 2008 sent about $7 billion in cash from Mexico to the US.
    (AP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Pakistan's government told the Supreme Court that it will not reopen an old corruption case against the president, defying a judicial order that has already brought down one prime minister and now threatens his replacement.
    (AP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, In Peru a pipeline carrying a toxic cocktail of copper concentrate laced with a periodic-table's mix of volatile compounds sprung a leak at a pumping station in Santa Rosa de Cajakay. The leak spilled 45 tons of slurry into the town, spreading toxic dust that left 42 people hospitalized for up to 11 days. Mine owner Antamina said little about the accident and was silent about the slurry's chemistry.
    (AP, 8/16/12)
2012        Jul 25, Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo walked out of a government hospital where she had been detained for nearly eight months on election rigging charges after a court found that evidence against her was weak and granted bail.
    (AP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Scotland’s government announced plans to bring forward legislation allowing same-sex couples to marry, making it the first part of the UK to do so.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, In Singapore Pastor Kong Hee of City Harvest Church appeared in court with 5 others on charges of misusing up to $40 million of church money to fund the music career of his wife, Sun Ho.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.36)
2012        Jul 25, The opposition Syrian National Council said 2 more Syrian diplomats, the envoy to Cyprus and her husband, the former ambassador to the UAR, have defected. Opposition activists said fighting raged through the night in many neighborhoods of Aleppo, bringing the conflict in Syria's largest city into its fifth day. At least 19 civilians, three rebels and an unknown number of soldiers died in fighting in Aleppo. The Observatory said 143 people were killed throughout Syria, including 75 civilians, 41 soldiers and 27 rebel fighters.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/26/12)
2012        Jul 25, Taiwan decided to levy capital gains tax on share trading, more than two decades after a previous attempt to do so sparked a plunge in the stock market and was eventually abandoned. The new measures, which will take effect in January, were passed by the 113-seat parliament, controlled by the ruling Kuomintang.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki pardoned 1,300 prisoners to mark national day, the 55th anniversary of the proclamation of the republic.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Turkey sealed its border with Syria to trucks, effectively cutting off a trade relationship once worth almost $3 billion with the embattled nation. A foreign ministry diplomat said 2 more Syrian brigadier generals crossed into Turkey, bringing to 27 the number of generals who have fled the unrest in Syria.
    (AP, 7/25/12)(AFP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Zanzibari authorities charged three people with manslaughter for the sinking of a ferry last week in which at least 104 people drowned, including the ship's owner and captain.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)

2013        Jul 25, President Barack Obama and Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang pledged to finish talks on a regional free-trade agreement by the end of the year. The two leaders clashed over human rights during their White House meeting.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, The US Justice Dept. said Halliburton has agreed to plead guilty to destroying evidence after the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.A7)
2013        Jul 25, US federal prosecutors unsealed an indictment against SAC Capital Advisors, a Connecticut-based hedge fund, led by billionaire Steven A. Cohen.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.C3)
2013        Jul 25, In San Francisco Barnaby Jack (35), a hacker who specialized in finding security flaws, was found dead. He had been due to give a presentation entitled “Implantable Medical Devices: Hacking Humans." Police ruled out foul play.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.52)
2013        Jul 25, Julian Assange formally inaugurated a new political party and declared his candidacy for a seat in the Australian Senate. He planned to lead his WikiLeaks campaign from the Ecuadoran Embassy in London.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 25, In Brazil Pope Francis urged young Catholics to shake up the church and make a "mess" in their dioceses by going out into the streets to spread the faith as he visited one of Rio's most violent slums and opened the church's World Youth Day on a rain-soaked Copacabana Beach.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Chile a group of demonstrators broke off from a largely peaceful protest calling for the legalization of abortion and stormed into the Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago, interrupting a homily. They painted walls with pro-abortion messages, broke ornaments and hauled pews all the way to the Plaza de Armas square in front of the cathedral.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, China charged disgraced senior politician Bo Xilai with bribery, abuse of power and corruption, paving the way for a potentially divisive trial that President Xi Jinping will want smoothly handled as he pushes major economic reforms.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Two Egyptian soldiers were killed and four were injured when gunmen opened fire on a military checkpoint near the North Sinai town of Sheikh Zuweid.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said Egypt has been detaining Syrian refugees without charge and threatening to deport them in a climate of growing hostility since the army seized power last month.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Strasboug-based European Court of Human Right dismissed claims that Russian tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky was prosecuted for political reasons, but said that some procedures during a trial against him were unfair.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Iraq militants ambushed a truck convoy with Iraqi Shiites in a remote area in the country's north and killed 14 drivers. At least 28 more people were killed in bombings and shootings across the country.
    (AP, 7/25/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, The Venice Film Festival marked its 70th edition with films starring George Clooney and Sandra Bullock as astronauts adrift in space, Scarlett Johansson as a seductive alien roaming the Scottish countryside and Judi Dench as a single Roman Catholic woman searching for a son she was forced to give up decades before.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In central Italy at least one person was killed and 3 seriously injured after a fireworks factory exploded in Picciano.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In central Kenya a small plane went missing. On July 27 three Swiss nationals were found dead along with the wreckage of their plane on Aberdares mountain.
    (AP, 7/27/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Libya unidentified assailants fired a rocket-propelled grenade at the United Arab Emirates embassy compound in Tripoli, the latest in a series of attacks on foreign targets in the North African country.
    (Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, New Zealand banned “Maniac," a horror film starring Elijah Wood as a scalp-collecting serial killer, from general release after the government deemed it too graphic and disturbing for the public. The film was a remake of the 1980 slasher film about a killer who scalps his victims.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Niger the body of a suspected stowaway fell from an Air France plane and was discovered lifeless in a western suburb of the capital, Niamey.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In northwest Pakistan gunmen ambushed a vehicle carrying Gul Wali Khan, deputy commander of the Frontier Reserve Police, wounding him and killing one of his guards and a driver in Peshawar.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Senegal removed national police director Abdoulaye Niang from his post amid allegations he was involved in drug trafficking.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, A United Nations reports said that Somali pirates have turned to a new business model: Transporting weapons and providing "security" for ships illegally plundering Somalia's fish stock.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In South Africa Sifiso Makhubo (42), accused of committing 36 rapes while being HIV positive, hanged himself using a prison blanket, before he was to stand trial for attempted murder, rape, robbery and kidnapping.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Switzerland a member of the notorious "Pink Panther" jewel thief gang escaped from prison after accomplices rammed a gate and overpowered guards with bursts from their AK-47s. Milan Poparic (34) fled with fellow inmate Adrian Albrecht (52) from the Orbe prison in the western canton (state) of Vaud.
    (AP, 7/26/13)
2013        Jul 25, Syrian warplanes bombed an office of the main al-Qaida-linked rebel group in the northern city of Aleppo. A car bomb killed at least 10 people and wounded around 62 when it exploded on the edge of Damascus.
    (AP, 7/26/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, Togo began voting in twice-delayed legislative elections in a test of whether mounting discontent with the West African nation's long-ruling family dynasty will translate into electoral gains for the opposition.
    (AP, 7/25/13)
2013        Jul 25, In Tunisia two gunmen on a motorbike shot dead Mohammed Brahmi (58), the leader of the leftist opposition People’s Party, outside his house. Thousands of Tunisians gathered in front of the Interior Ministry building in Tunis to protest against the assassination.
    (AP, 7/25/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.42)

2014        Jul 25, Subsidies for sporting stadiums across the US were reported to be increasingly financed by savings from worker pension cuts.
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.A14)
2014        Jul 25, A Florida judge overturned the state's ban on same-sex marriage in a ruling that applies to Miami-Dade County, agreeing with a judge in another county who made a similar ruling last week.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Thousands of people took to the streets of New York City to protest Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip and demand an end to the violence that has already killed nearly 850 Palestinians.
    (Reuters, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, In Philadelphia two men forced a woman into the back seat of her vehicle and drove off. They later lost control and plowed into a group of people near a fruit stand killing 3 children. Both men fled the scene.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A7)
2014        Jul 25, A Texas judge recommended that Michael Phillips (57) of Dallas be exonerated based on recent DNA evidence that absolved him of a 1990 rape for which he served 12 years in prison.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A7)
2014        Jul 25, In western Afghanistan Taliban insurgents halted minibuses, identified 14 Shiite passengers and shot them dead by the side of the road.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Chinese state media said the government has investigated more than 25,000 people for corruption in the first six months of 2014.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, In Egypt 2 high-ranking police and army officers were shot dead by unknown assailants in the Sinai region near the border with Israel.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, The European Union extended its Ukraine-related sanctions to target top Russian intelligence officials and leaders of the pro-Russia revolt in eastern Ukraine. The action brought the total number of people under EU sanction in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea and the revolt in eastern Ukraine to 87.
    (AP, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, Georgia's interior minister said that $400 million of heroin seized earlier this month, in the country's biggest ever drugs haul, belonged to the Taliban and was headed for Europe.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Campaigners on the Greek island of Crete launched a seaborne protest against the destruction of Syrian chemical agents in the Mediterranean. A US naval ship fitted with hydrolysis equipment, which helps break down lethal chemicals into a sludge, started the job of neutralizing the arsenal in international waters last week.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, In Indonesia Prabowo Subianto, the ex-general who lost the presidential election to Jakarta governor Joko Widodo, mounted a legal challenge to the result, alleging widespread electoral fraud and irregularities in vote counting.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Iranians took part in huge rallies across the country to show solidarity with Palestinians, urging them to keep up their struggle despite the Israeli assault on Gaza.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, In northern Iraq a series of blasts outside Shiite prayer halls killed four people and wounded 19 others in Kirkuk. Gunmen traveling in 10 black SUVs seized Riyadh al-Adhdah, a senior Sunni politician who had previously been jailed on terrorism charges, from his home in Baghdad.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(AP, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, Israeli aircraft struck 30 houses in the Gaza Strip early today, killing Salah Hassanein, a leader of the militant Islamic Jihad group, and two of his sons. Gaza officials said Israeli strikes killed 27 people. They put the number of Palestinian deaths in 18 days of conflict at 819, most of them civilians. US Secretary of State John Kerry pressed regional leaders to nail down a Gaza ceasefire. The dead also included 34 Israelis, among them 32 soldiers, and a Thai worker.
    (AP, 7/25/14)(Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe struck a series of energy deals with Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto at the start of a five-country Latin American tour.
    (AFP, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, Jordan’s air force shot down a drone near the Syrian border, but it was not clear where it came from.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A6)
2014        Jul 25, The Kyrgyzstan Supreme Court found former president Kurmanbek Bakiyev guilty of orchestrating the response to street protests in April 2010. He was convicted and sentenced in absentia to life in prison for his role in violently breaking up an opposition rally, resulting in 77 deaths.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Nigerian security forces say they have arrested Michael Ogun (44), a suspected internet fraudster, accused of stealing nearly $6 million from people who thought were paying fees to apply for government jobs.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Nigeria said that Ebola caused the death of a Liberian national who died in quarantine in Lagos, confirmation that the worst-ever outbreak of the virus has reached Africa's most populous country. Patrick Sawyer, a Liberian national who moved from Minnesota to Liberia to work for the country's ministry of finance, died in what health officials determined to be the first probable case of the Ebola virus in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(Yahoo News, 7/29/14)
2014        Jul 25, Eight Palestinians were killed in incidents near the West Bank cities of Nablus and Hebron.
    (AP, 7/25/14)(Reuters, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, In Pakistan two gunmen riding a motorbike opened fire on two police men, killing one, as they were on security duty on the outskirts of Quetta, Baluchistan province.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, A Russian security official said up to 40 mortar shells fired by Ukrainian forces fell on the Russian province of Rostov near the border with eastern Ukraine where Kiev is fighting pro-Russian separatists.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, The Russian agency in charge of agricultural products said it is banning imports of Ukrainian dairy starting because of numerous quality flaws found in its products. Russia is a key market for Ukrainian dairy products. Kiev dismissed the move as politically motivated.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Russia’s central bank said it has lifted its one-week auction rate by 0.5 percentage points to 8 percent. It cited "heightened geopolitical risks" that are likely to push down the Russian ruble, fueling consumer price inflation.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, South Korean police arrested Yoo Dae-gyun, the son of recently deceased Yoo Byung-eun, owner of the April 16 ferry disaster.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A3)
2014        Jul 25, In Syria an offensive by the jihadist Islamic State group against government-held territory killed at least 85 people in the past 24 hours mainly in Hasakeh and Raqa. Rebels decapitated most of the soldiers and hung several heads outside the base gates. Rebels shot down a helicopter gunship over Camp Nairab, a slum in Aleppo, killing 3 crew members and a child.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(AP, 7/26/14)(Reuters, 7/27/14)
2014        Jul 25, In southern Thailand a car bomb killed at least two people and injured 36 outside a hotel in Betong.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Turkey inaugurated a high-speed rail service linking the capital Ankara to Istanbul which will cut travel time between the country's main two cities by half.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, A Ugandan police official said nine bodies have been discovered buried under four different sites in an ongoing investigation of mass graves in a western part of the country that had tribal violence recently.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Ukraine government forces took the strategically-important city of Lysychansk. It also reported losing 13 soldiers in the past 24 hours. Local authorities in the region of rebel strongholds of Donetsk and Lugansk said 16 people have been killed. A military spokesman said troops were coming under increased fire from the Russian side of the border and that the Ukrainian military had shot down three Russian surveillance drones. The house of Andry Sadovy, mayor of the western city of Lviv, was hit by a rocket fired late today.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(SFC, 7/26/14, p.A4)(AFP, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, The World Health Organization the death toll in West Africa's Ebola outbreak has risen to 660, with the number of cases surpassing 1,000. In Guinea fatalities reached 314, with 127 in Liberia and 219 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, In Yemen Hawthi rebels handed over the provincial capital of Amran to the central government. The Shiite rebels had captured the city from their Sunni Hashid rivals earlier this month.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A2)

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