Today in History - July 28

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1165        Jul 28, Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic, philosopher, was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1488        Jul 28, Some 440 men from the Isle of Wight declared war on France. They were crushed in the Battle of St Aubin near Rennes. Over four hours some 5,000 Breton soldiers were beaten and stabbed to death. According to legend, just one lad made it back to the Island to pass on the appalling news.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.64)(www.iwbeacon.com/the-battle-of-st-aubin-1488.aspx)

1540        Jul 28, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed. The same day, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 2014 Tracy Borman authored “Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII’s Most Faighful Servant."
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(PCh, 1992, p.181)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.91)

1576        Jul 28, Martin Frobisher, English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to England that was found to be iron pyrite. Michael Lok, textile exporter, led the financing for the 1st expedition which was made to find a route to China. Lok was later sued for losses from 3 expeditions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(ON, 12/03, p.7)

1586        Jul 28, Sir Thomas Harriot introduced potatoes to Europe.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1615        Jul 28, French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1655        Jul 28, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
    (AP, 7/28/05)

1746        Jul 28, Thomas Heyward, soldier, signed Declaration of Independence, was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1746        Jul 28, John Peter Zenger, journalist involved in 1st amendment fight, died.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1750        Jul 28, Philippe Fabre d'Eglantine, poet, satirist, politician, was born in France.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1750        Jul 28, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (65) died in Leipzig, Germany. In 2000 Christoff Wolff authored the biography "Johann Sebastian Bach." In 2005 James Gaines authored “Evening in the Palace of Reasoning," a portrait of Bach in 1747. In 2013 John Eliot Gardiner authored “Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven."
    (AP, 7/28/00)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)(SC, 7/28/02)(WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W8)(Econ, 10/12/13, p.96)

1751        Jul 28, In France the 1st volume of the Encyclopedie, edited by Diderot and D’Alembert, was published with a print run of 1,625.
    (ON, 4/05, p.8)

1794        Jul 28, Maximilien Robespierre, a leading figure of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine. Robespierre had dominated the Committee of Public Safety during the "Reign of Terror." He asserted the collective dictatorship of the revolutionary National Convention and attacked factions led by men such as Jacques-René Hébert which he felt threatened the government‘s power. Factions opposed to Robespierre gained momentum in the summer of 1794.  Declared an outlaw of the National Convention, Robespierre and many of his followers were captured and he—along with 22 of his supporters—were guillotined before cheering crowds.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 11//00)

1808        Jul 28, Sultan Mustapha IV of the Ottoman Empire was deposed and his cousin Mahmud II gained the throne and ruled to 1839.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1821        Jul 28, Peru declared its independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1830        Jul 28, Revolution in France replaced Charles X with Louis Philippe.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1835        Jul 28, King Louis Philippe of France survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Maria Fieschi, who rigged 25 guns together and fired them all with the pull of a single trigger.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9034220&query=July%20Revolution)

1844        Jul 28, Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet and Jesuit priest, was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1849        Jul 28, Memmon became the 1st clipper to reach SF after 120 days out of NY.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1851        Jul 28, A total solar eclipse was captured on a daguerreotype photograph.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1859        Jul 28, Balington Booth, founder of Volunteers of America, was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1863        Jul 28, Confederate John Mosby began a series of attacks against General Meade's Army of the Potomac as it tried to pursue General Robert E. Lee in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby was known as "The Gray Ghost." The rather ordinary looking Mosby led his Partisan Rangers in guerilla warfare operations that continually confounded Union commanders in the Piedmont region of Virginia. Learn more about Mosby‘s Confederacy in Faquier and Loudoun counties.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 7/15/00)

1864        Jul 28, Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Ezra Church.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1866        Jul 28, Beatrix Potter (d.1943), English author of children's stories (The Tale of Peter Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/98)
1866        Jul 28, Metric system became a legal measurement system in US. It defined the meter as exactly 39.37 inches and was later superseded.
    (SC, 7/28/02)(SFC, 10/13/03, p.E2)

1868        Jul 28, The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, was certified in effect by Secretary of State William H. Seward. It gave freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws, however it did not spell out the extent of integration with white America. Framers expected the amendment’s Privileges or Immunities clause would protect US citizens’ rights against state infringement.
    (www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/recon/revised_1)(AP, 7/28/08)(WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W3)
1868        Jul 28, Pres. Johnson signed the Burlingame Treaty. It was negotiated by Anson Burlingame, who represented the interests of China, and committed the US to a policy of noninterference in Chinese affairs. It also established commercial ties and provided unrestricted immigration of Chinese to the US.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1874        Jul 28, Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher, educator (Essay on Man), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1883        Jul 28, Shocks, triggered by the volcano Epomeo (Isle of Ischia, Italy), destroyed 1,200 houses at Casamicciola killing 2,000.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1885        Jul 28, Moses Montefiore (b.1784), Italy-born British financier, banker, philanthropist and Sheriff of London (1837-1838) died. Abigail Green authored Moses Montefiore: Jewish Liberator, Imperial Hero."
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Montefiore)

1887        Jul 28, Marcel Duchamp (d.1968), French artist, was born. He is known best for "Nude Descending a Staircase," (1912) featured in the 1913 Armory Show in New York. Arturo Schwarz published his complete works in 1969 with a new edition in 1997. In 1996 Calvin Tompkins wrote "Duchamp: A Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)(HN, 7/28/01)

1892        Jul 28, Joe E. Brown, comedian (Buck Circus Hour), was born in Holgate, Ohio.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1896        Jul 28, The city of Miami, Fla., was incorporated.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1898        Jul 28, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of the Retired Colourman."
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1898        Jul 28, Spain, through the offices of the French embassy in Washington, D.C., requested peace terms in its war with the United States.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1900        Jul 28, The hamburger was created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1901        Jul 28, Alfred Renton Bryant Bridges (d.1990), aka Harry Bridges, American labor leader who headed the West Coast Longshoremen’s Union, was born in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A21)(HN, 7/28/98)
1901        Jul 28, Rudy Vallee, singer (Vagabond Dreams, My Time Is Your Time), was born in Vermont.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1902        Jul 28, Kenneth Fearing, poet and novelist (The Big Clock), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1907        Jul 28, Earl Silas Tupper, founder of Tupperware, was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)
1907        Jul 28, Vivian Vance, actress (Ethel Mertz-I Love Lucy), was born in Cherryvale, Ks.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1909        Jul 28, Malcolm Lowry, novelist (Under the Volcano), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1910        Jul 28, Bill Goodwin, announcer (Burns & Allen, Boing Boing Show), was born in SF, Calif.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1911        Jul 28, Ann Doran, actress (Longstreet, Shirley), was born in Amarillo, Tx.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1914        Jul 28, Foxtrot was 1st danced at New Amsterdam Roof Garden in NYC by Harry Fox.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1914        Jul 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, beginning World War I. The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 1/2 months.
    (CFA, '96, p.50)(HN, 7/28/98)
1914        Jul 28, World War I. Van Doren described the world of this time in four economic zones:
    1) Where the industrial force exceeds the number of people engaged in agriculture. This included Great Britain, the US, Germany, Belgium and Japan.
    2) The agricultural population continues to be about twice as large as the industrial force. This included Sweden, Italy and Austria.
    3) Those countries that had begun to industrialize but were still primarily preindustrial. This included Russia.
    4) Countries that still depended almost exclusively on handicrafts, artisanal work, and unskilled labor. This included most of the Third World.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.252, 284-285,290)

1915        Jul 28, The United States occupation of Haiti began as 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince on the authority of President Woodrow Wilson to safeguard the interests of US corporations. Roger Gaillard (d.2000 at 77), historian, later wrote a multi-volume chronicle of the US Marine occupation of Haiti from 1915-1934.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_occupation_of_Haiti)(SFC, 5/27/00, p.a26)
1915        Jul 28, 10,000 blacks marched on 5th Ave in NYC to protest lynchings.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1916        Jul 28, David Brown, director (Jaws, Planet of the Apes), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1916        Jul 28, Laird Cregar, actor (Charley's Aunt, Hangover Square), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1920        Jul 28, Revolutionary and bandit Pancho Villa surrendered to the Mexican government.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1922        Jul 28, Jacques Piccard, undersea explorer (bathyscaph Trieste), was born in Switzerland.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1922        Jul 28, A statement drafted by the Diplomatic Service of the USA specified in the concealed form temporariness of self-dependence of the state system of Lithuania and,  at the same time, Latvia and Estonia, as long as the Bolshevist Russia exists, as well as conditionality of the states by acknowledging their governments only, and not the states themselves.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ojrbvyl p.43)

1927        Jul 28, John Ashbery, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet (Self-Portrait in a Convict's Mirror), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)
1927        Jul 28, Baruch Blumberg, physician, medical researcher, was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1928        Jul 28, The Olympics opened at Amsterdam. Track and field events opened for women for the 1st time despite objections from Pope Pius IX. Germany was allowed to participate for the 1st time since WWI.
    (SC, 7/28/02)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)
1928        Jul 28, Mexico's Pres.-elect Alvaro Obregon was murdered. His assassin Juan Excapulario was captured.
    (SFC, 7/18/03, p.E5)

1929        Jul 28, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, wife of President John F. Kennedy and first lady from 1961 to 1963, was born in Southampton, N.Y.
    (AP, 7/28/98)(HN, 7/28/98)

1930        Jul 28, Darryl Hickman, actor (Human Comedy, Tea & Sympathy), was born in Hollywood, Cal.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1930        Jul 28, 114° F (46° C) at Greensburg, Kentucky, was a state record.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1931        Jul 28, Congress made "The Star-Spangled Banner" our 2nd national anthem.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1931        Jul 28, Clyde Panghorn and Hugh Herndon took off from Roosevelt Field, NY, in an attempt to set a round-the world speed record. They got delayed in Siberia and changed their plan to pursue a record non-stop flight from Japan to the US. Herndon's mother, an heiress of Standard Oil Company money, financed most of the trip.
    (ON, 1/03, p.10)
1931        Jul 28, Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, set out from England for Norway aboard the submarine Nautilus. The ship was the former US WW I vessel O-12. Wilkins planned to reach the North Pole but failed. [see Aug 28]
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1932        Jul 28, Under orders from Pres. Hoover shacks built in the shadow of the nation’s Capitol by World War I veteran demonstrators were burned. In 1924 Congress had enacted a law that provided compensation to veterans—those entitled to more than $50 would receive certificates maturing in 1945. However, because of the Depression, Congress proposed in 1932 that the certificates be redeemable immediately, as a bonus. Veterans groups began to gather in Washington, D.C., to march for their cause. When the bill was defeated, the veterans (nicknamed the Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF), "Bonus Army") refused to leave. Hoover resorted to using U.S. troops to force them to evacuate. One veteran was killed and 50 veterans and police were injured in the melee. In May 1933, newly elected President Franklin Roosevelt also opposed the bill, but he issued an executive order allowing 25,000 veterans to enroll in the Citizens’ Conservation Corps in lieu of getting bonuses. In 1971 Roger Daniels authored “The Bonus March." In 1994 Donald J. Lisio authored “The President and Protest."
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HNPD, 7/28/98)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)

1933        Jul 28, The NFL divided into two, 5 team divisions.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1933        Jul 28, The first singing telegram was delivered to vocalist Rudy Vallee for his birthday. It was the idea of George P. Oslin (1899-1996), a Western Union executive. He wrote "The Story of Telecommunications" in 1992.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)

1934        Jul 28, Jacques D'Amboise, dancer, educator (NYC Ballet Company), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1934        Jul 28, 118° F (48° C) at Orofino, Idaho was a state record.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1935        Jul 28, G. Neujmin discovered asteroid #1386 Storeria.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1937        Jul 28, Peter Duchin, pianist, bandleader (Peter Duchin Orch), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1937        Jul 28, Joseph Lee, father of Playgrounds movement, died.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1938        Jul 28, Robert Hughes [Studley Forrest], writer, critic, was born in Australia.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1938        Jul 28, K. Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1485 Isa.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1940        Jul 28, Phil Proctor, comedian (Firesign Theater), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1941        Jul 28, Riccardo Muti, conductor (Philadelphia Orch), was born in Napoli, Italy.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1941        Jul 28, A Japanese army landed in Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1942        Jul 28, Nazis liquidated 10,000 Jews in Minsk, Russia.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1943        Jul 28, Mike Bloomfield, blues musician (Analine), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1943        Jul 28, Bill Bradley, U.S. senator, professional basketball player, was born in Crystal City, Mo.
    (HN, 7/28/98)
1943        Jul 28, President Roosevelt announced the end of coffee rationing.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1945        Jul 28, Jim Davis, cartoonist (Garfield), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1945        Jul 28, Richard Wright, rocker (Pink Floyd-The Wall), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1945        Jul 28, The US Senate ratified UN charter 89-2.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
1945        Jul 28, A twin-engine U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building between the 78th and 79th floors and killed 14 people. The plane’s propellers severed elevator cables and sent one on a 38-story fall in which the operator survived.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/11/97, p.A1)(HT, 5/97, p.26)(AP, 7/28/97)

1946        Jul 28, Linda Kelsey, actress (Kate-Day by Day), was born in Minneapolis, Minn.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1947        Jul 28, Sally Struther, actress (Gloria-All in the Family), was born in Portland, Oregon.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1948        Jul 28, Georgia Engel, actress (Georgette-Mary Tyler Moore Show), was born in Wash DC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1948        Jul 28, In Ludwigshafen, Germany, the I.G. Farben chemical plant exploded due to a vapor explosion from dimethyl ether and 182/209 died.
    (HSAB, 1994, p.46)(SC, 7/28/02)

1949        Jul 28, Marilyn Quayle, wife of vice president Dan Quayle, was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1951        Jul 28, The UN members adopted the Convention on Refugees. It was not signed by Indonesia. This was the founding charter for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). It spelled out the entitlements of those who flee their country for fear of being killed or persecuted. A 1967 Protocol removed limitations to persons fleeing events occurring before 1 January 1951 and within Europe and thus gave the Convention universal coverage.
    (www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/o_c_ref.htm)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.43)(Econ, 9/6/08, p.67)

1954        Jul 28, Hugo Chavez, later president of Venezuela, was born in Sabaneta, Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 8/26/07, p.M2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Ch%C3%A1vez)

1957        Jul 28, The Situationist International (SI) was formed at a meeting in the Italian village of Cosio d'Arroscia with the fusion of several extremely small avant-garde artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus (an off-shoot of COBRA), and the London Psychogeographical Association. The groups came together intending to reawaken the radical political potential of surrealism. The group also later drew ideas from the left communist group Socialisme ou Barbarie.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situationist_International)
1957        Jul 28, The 6th World Youth Festival opened in Moscow with the motto “For Peace and Friendship." Some 34,000 participated from 131 countries. The 1st such conference was held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1947. This festival also marked the international debut of the song "Moscow Nights", which subsequently went on to become perhaps the most widely recognized Russian song in the world.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_World_Festival_of_Youth_and_Students)

1959        Jul 28, In preparation for statehood, Hawaiians voted to send the first Chinese-American, Hiram L. Fong, to the Senate and the first Japanese-American, Daniel K. Inouye, to the House of Representatives. Hiram Fong served 3 terms.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)

1960        Jul 28, Republican National convention selected Richard Nixon.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1961        Jul 28, Scott E. Parazynski, MD, astronaut, was born in Little Rock, Ark.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1962        Jul 28, 19 died in a train crash in Steelton, Pa.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1962        Jul 28, Mariner I, launched to Mars, fell into the Atlantic Ocean.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1964        Jul 28, Ranger 7 was launched toward the Moon. It sent back 4308 TV pictures.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1965        Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 "almost immediately."
    (HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)

1966        Jul 28, Operation Latchkey, a series of 38 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1966 and 1967, began with the Saxon blast at the Nevada Test Site. All but one of the tests took place in Nevada.
    (www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Operation_Latchkey)

1967        Jul 28, Pirate Radio Station 390 (Radio Invicta) in England, closed down.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1973        Jul 28, Bill Graham produced a rock festival in Watkins Glen, NY, that featured the Allman Brothers, the Band, and the Grateful Dead. The concert drew some 650,000 people, the single largest paying crowd in concert history.
    (www.superseventies.com/watkinsglen.html)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)
1973        Jul 28, Astronauts Alan Bean, Owen Garriott & Jack Lousma) launched to continue maintenance at Skylab 3.
    (www.astronautix.com/flights/skylab3.htm)
1973        Jul 28, In Czechoslovakia a retired major of the communist secret police heard 4 people singing an anti-communist song and called the police. They were convicted of hooliganism and sentenced to up to one year behind bars. In 2011 The Czech Supreme Court canceled the sentence. Ivan Martin Jirous, a poet and artistic leader of the Plastic People of the Universe, a nonconformist rock band banned by the communist regime, was among the four.
    (AP, 6/22/11)

1974        Jul 28, Truman Bradley (b.1905), host (Science Fiction Theater), died.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0103423/)

1975        Jul 28, The US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species in the lower 48 states under the US Endangered Species Act. Most of the bears in the lower US lived in and around Yellowstone National Park in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.
    (http://fieldguide.mt.gov/detail_AMAJB01020.aspx)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.88)

1976        Jul 28, Eldon Joersz set a world air speed record of 3,530 kph near Beale AFB in California.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_airspeed_record)
1976        Jul 28, In China a 7.8-8.2 earthquake in the northern city of Tangshan killed at least 242,000 people, according to an official estimate.
    (AP, 7/28/97)(SFC, 1/8/00, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangshan_earthquake)

1977        Jul 28, Roy Wilkins turned over leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to Benjamin L. Hooks (d.2010 at 85). Hoods continued as executive director to 1992. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor in 2007.
    (AP, 7/28/00)(SFC, 4/16/10, p.C8)
1977        Jun 28, The 1st Prudhoe Bay oil of the Alaska pipeline reached the port of Valdez as construction of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline was completed.
    (www.alyeska-pipe.com/pipelinefacts.html)

1978        Jul 28, Price of gold topped the $200 per oz level for 1st time. Spot gold closed at $201.30.
    (www.the-privateer.com/gold/week189.html)
1978        Jul 28, Perth Observatory discovered asteroid #3188 and #3422.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_asteroids_(3001-4000))

1979        Jul 28, Rachel Moncrief (50) was stabbed to death at Camino Camper in Santa Clara, Ca. In 2011 DNA evidence on a marijuana cigarette linked David Dixon (61) of Richmond, Ca., to the murder.
    (SFC, 8/19/11, p.C1)

1980        Jul 28, Fernando Belaunde Terry (1912-2002) became president of Peru for a 2nd term and held office to 1985. His first term ran from 1963-1968.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_Bela%C3%BAnde_Terry)

1984        Jul 28, The summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles for the second time. The Russians along with Cuba and Eastern Bloc countries boycotted the 23rd modern Olympic games. Iran and Libya also boycotted the games. Taiwan returned under the name Chinese Taipei. China appeared for the first time since 1952. The US won 83 gold medals, Romania was 2nd with 20. Women were allowed to compete in the Olympic marathon for the 1st time. Joan Benolt of the US won. The 1st Olympic Guide was published this year by David Wallechinsky. The 5th edition came out in 2000.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R6)(SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(WSJ, 7/28/00, p.W9)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.F1)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)
1984        Jul 28, Bess Flowers (b.1898), American film actress, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bess_Flowers)

1985        Jul 28, Grant Williams (b.1930), film and TV actor, died of toxic poisoning.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0930695/)
1985        Jul 28, In Peru Alan Garcia, leader of the American People’s Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), assumed the presidency and led until 1990. Under his rule much of the nation's external debt was not serviced and the period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, int’l. isolation and terrorist attacks.
    (WSJ, 10/31/95, p.C-17)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)

1986        Jul 28, NASA released the transcript from the doomed Challenger. Pilot Michael Smith could be heard saying, "Uh-oh!" as spacecraft disintegrated.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1987        Jul 28, Attorney General Edwin Meese told the congressional Iran-Contra committees that President Reagan was "quite surprised" the previous November when Meese told him about the diversion of Iran arms-sales profits for use by the Contra rebels.
    (AP, 7/28/97)
1987        Jul 28, James Burnham (b.1905), American author and philosopher, died at his home in Connecticut. His books included The Managerial Revolution" (1941) and “The Coming Defeat of Communism" (1949). In 2002 Daniel Kelly authored "James Burnham and the Struggle for the World: A Life."
    (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)(http://tinyurl.com/mca87)

1988        Jul 28, Both houses of Congress overwhelmingly approved some $6 billion in aid for drought-stricken farmers. The US drought shrank the corn harvest by 31%.
    (AP, 7/28/98)(WSJ, 8/4/05, p.A1)
1988        Jul 28, The Pentagon said that its precautions were enough to protect against accidents even though a safety review said that research into chemical and biological weapons could be dangerous to surrounding communities.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ouh6o)
1988        Jul 28, Jordan cancelled a $1.3 billion development plan in West Bank.
    (www.kinghussein.gov.jo/88_july31.html)

1989        Jul 28, Israeli commandos abducted a pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim Hezbollah cleric, Sheik Abdul-Karim Obeid, from his home in south Lebanon.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 7/28/99)

1990        Jul 28, A blackout hit Chicago.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1990        Jul 28, Political newcomer and upset winner Alberto Fujimori was sworn in as president of Peru.
    (AP, 7/28/00)

1991        Jul 28, Dennis Martinez pitched the 15th perfect game in major-league baseball history as the Montreal Expos beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-to-0.
    (AP, 7/28/01)
1991        Jul 28, Miguel Indurain of Spain won the Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1991        Jul 28, President Bush warned Iraq it would be making "an enormous mistake" if it failed to disclose its nuclear weapons program to United Nations inspectors.
    (AP, 7/28/01)

1992        Jul 28, Democrats counterattacked a day after aides to President Bush had accused Democrat Bill Clinton of lacking foreign policy expertise.
    (AP, 7/28/97)
1992        Jul 28, Iraq opened its Agricultural Ministry to U.N. weapons experts after a three-week standoff.
    (AP, 7/28/97)
1992        Jul 28, At the Barcelona Olympics, the U.S. women's 400-meter freestyle relay team won the gold medal.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1993        Jul 28, President Clinton declared himself ready to provide air power to protect peacekeepers in Bosnia if he received a request from the United Nations.
    (AP, 7/28/98)

1994        Jul 28, US Congressional negotiators agreed on a crime-fighting package that included hiring 100,000 new police officers, banning assault-style weapons, vastly expanding the death penalty and putting third-time felons behind bars for life.
    (AP, 7/28/99)
1994        Jul 28, In India 10 people died in a seven-hour gun battle when Indian police raided a camp run by Naga militants.
    (http://listserv.indnet.org/cgi/wa.cgi?A2=ind9407e&L=india-d&T=0&F=&S=&P=196)

1995        Jul 28, A jury in Union, South Carolina, rejected the death penalty for Susan Smith, sentencing her instead to life in prison for drowning her two young sons. Smith was eligible for parole after 30 years.
    (AP, 7/28/00)
1995        Jul 28, In Sri Lanka the Tamil Tigers lost some 400 guerrillas in a raid on Weli Oya army camp where only 2 soldiers died.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)

1996        Jul 26, President Clinton, addressing a veterans convention in New Orleans, called on Congress to pass expanded anti-terrorism measures.
    (AP, 7/28/97)
1996        Jul 28, Federal investigators reported "very good leads" in the hunt for the Olympic bomber, a day after the explosion in Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta.
    (AP, 7/28/97)
1996        Jul 28, In Kashmir, India, a guard shot at 2 people who refused to move a motor scooter and a bomb exploded that killed 6 and wounded 17 near the headquarters of a Muslim group.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 28, In the Philippines typhoon Gloria struck and killed at least 39 people on Luzon and left 16 missing.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 28, Turkey reached an agreement with prisoners to end a hunger strike after 12 inmates died. Elsewhere soldiers clashed with Kurds and 16 died along with 28 Kurdish rebels.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.D4)

1997        Jul 28, The Clinton administration and congressional leaders reached a tentative agreement on balancing the budget by 2002 while slashing taxes for millions of families, students and investors.
1997        Jul 28, A flash flood hit Fort Collins, Colo., following torrential rains. At least 5 people were killed and 40 or more injured.
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.A6)(AP, 7/28/98)
1997        Jul 28, In Santiago, Chile, nearly a million children stayed home when the government closed schools for 2 days due to high smog levels.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A10)

1998        Jul 28, During a day of official mourning, President Clinton praised two slain police officers at the U.S. Capitol as heroes whose sacrifice "consecrated this house of freedom."
    (AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 28, Monica Lewinsky struck a deal with independent council Kenneth Starr granting her blanket protection from prosecution in exchange for her "full and truthful testimony" to a grand jury on her relationship with Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 28, General Motors and the UAW agreed tentatively to settle an almost two-month strike at two parts plants in Flint.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 28, Bell Atlantic and GTE announced a $52 billion deal to create the second-biggest phone company.
    (AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 28, In Indiana explosions at the coal-fired generating plant of Southern Energy Co. in Hammond injured 16 people.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A3)
1998        Jul 28, In Chicago the body of Ryan Harris (11) was found. [see Jul 27]
    (SFC, 9/23/98, p.A6)
1998        Jul 28, In Cambodia Hun Sen claimed victory and preliminary results showed him with 67 seats, Ranariddh with 42 and Rainsy with 13.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 28, In Poland Zbigniev Herbert (b.1924), poet and essayist, died at age 73 in Warsaw. He insisted that civilization depended on artists’ staking out clear moral positions resistant to the winds of history and ideology. In 1999 John and Bogdana Carpenter translated "Elegy for the Departure and Other Poems," and "The King of the Ants: Mythological Essays."
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.B2)(SFEC, 3/28/99, BR p.8)
1998        Jul 28, The Ukraine faced a financial crises as $1 billion in bond payments came due and parliament rejected austerity measures.
    (WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A1)

1999        Jul 28, The US Senate opened debate on the Republicans’ $792 billion tax cut bill.
    (AP, 7/28/00)
1999        Jul 28, Surgeon General David Satcher declared suicide a serious national threat, saying, "People should not be afraid or ashamed to seek help."
    (AP, 7/28/00)
1999        Jul 28, Defense Sec. William Cohen announced that NATO commander Army Gen'l. Wesley Clark would be replaced by Air Force Gen'l. Joseph Ralston.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 28, In Florida Lionel Tate (12) flung Tiffany Eunick (6) around a living room in a session of play wrestling. Eunick died from severe injuries. Tate was convicted of 1st degree murder in 2001 and sentenced to life in prison. In 2003 an appeals court ordered a new trial and Tate agreed to a 2nd degree murder charge. Tate was released in 2004.
    (SFC, 1/26/01, p.A3)(SFC, 3/10/01, p.A1)(AP, 6/19/01)(SFC, 12/11/03, p.A3)(AP, 1/5/04)(SFC, 1/27/04, p.A2)
1999        Jul 28, In Afghanistan Taliban fighters launched an offensive to crush warlord Ahmed Shah Massood following weeks of preparations.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A12)
1999        Jul 28, In Brazil the army was ordered by Pres. Cardoso to clear the nation's highways from blockades set up by striking truckers protesting poor roads, high tolls and high gasoline prices.
    (WSJ, 7/29/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 28, The IMF approved a $4.5 billion financial package to help keep Russia afloat through Dec. parliamentary elections and presidential voting in June, 2000.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.A10)

2000        Jul 28, Pres. Clinton warned Yasser Arafat that relations with the US would be harmed if statehood was declared without a peace deal with Israel.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)
2000        Jul 28, Bank of America, which merged with NationsBank in 1998, announced the layoff of 10,000 people over the next year to cut costs.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 28, The US FDA approved Cipro for inhalational anthrax.
    (www.lewrockwell.com/orig/sardi8.html)
2000        Jul 28, In Afghanistan rulers ordered a complete ban on growing poppies. Defiers of the ban were threatened with jail.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A11)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A13)
2000        Jul 28, In Northern Ireland 78 prisoners were released from the Maze Prison as part of the Good Friday Peace Accord.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A12)
2000        Jul 28, In Peru violent protests took place as Pres. Fujimori was sworn in for his 3rd term and 5 people were killed in fires set by vandals.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)

2001        Jul 28, US Sec. of State Colin Powell met with China’s Pres. Zemin and reached agreement to restart a formal dialogue with the US on human rights and weapons proliferation.
    (SSFC, 7/29/01, p.A12)
2001        Jul 28, Joan Finney, whose populist beliefs and gift for connecting with voters helped her become the first woman governor of Kansas, died at 76.
    (AP, 7/28/02)
2001        Jul 28, Samir Ait Mohamed (32) was detained in Vancouver on immigration charges. On Nov 15 he was arrested on US charges for plotting to bomb the Los Angeles airport during millennium festivities. He was held in Canadian prisons until he was deported to Algeria on January 11, 2006.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.A10)(www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/01/13/deported-terrorist060113.html)
2001        Jul 28, An Israeli helicopter attack in the Gaza Strip destroyed a workshop making munitions and was followed by armed clashes.
    (SSFC, 7/29/01, p.A18)
2001        Jul 28, In Peru Pres. Toledo was inaugurated as the nation’s 1st president of Indian descent. He promised a government at the service of its people.
    (SSFC, 7/29/01, p.A14)
2001        Jul 28, Jamal Beghal (36), a French-Algerian, was arrested in Dubai, UAR, with a false French passport while traveling to Europe from Afghanistan. He was extradited to France in Sep 30. He told police of a plans to bomb the US Embassy in Paris on orders from Abu Zubaydah, a top bin Laden lieutenant.
    (WSJ, 10/3/01, p.A18)(SFC, 10/23/01, p.A5)

2002        Jul 28, Cycling champion Lance Armstrong won his fourth straight Tour de France.
    (AP, 7/28/03)
2002        Jul 28, In Somerset, Pennsylvania 9 coal miners, trapped July 24 by a flood 240 feet underground, were rescued after 77 hours underground in the Quecreek Mine.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/03)
2002        Jul 28, Police in Dallas found 2 bodies in a tractor trailer from which some 40 suspected illegal immigrants had escaped earlier.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A9)
2002        Jul 28, In Algeria Rachid Abou Tourab, the head of a violent Islamic group believed to have killed scores of civilians during a decade-long rebellion, was killed with 15 associates in a confrontation with government troops.
    (AP, 7/30/02)
2002        Jul 28, In Canada Pope John Paul ended the celebrations of World Youth Day for 800,000 people in Toronto's massive Downsview Park. Speaking publicly on the church abuse scandal for the first time, Pope John Paul II told young Catholics that sexual abuse of children by priests "fills us all with a deep sense of sadness and shame."
    (Reuters, 7/29/02)(AP, 7/28/03)
2002        Jul 28, Aircraft from U.S.-British air patrols over southern Iraq bombed an Iraqi communications site, the sixth strike this month in retaliation for what the Pentagon says were hostile actions by Iraq.
    (AP, 7/29/02)
2002        Jul 28, Jewish settlers went on a rampage as they returned home from the funeral of an Israeli soldier, shooting dead a 14-year-old girl and wounding several other Palestinians.
    (AP, 7/28/02)(SFC, 7/31/02, p.A12)
2002        Jul 28, Myanmar's military government released 32 political prisoners, among them 14 members of the opposition, ahead of the visit next month of top U.N. envoy Razali Ismail.
    (AP, 7/28/02)
2002        Jul 28, Torrential overnight rains set off more floods in eastern India as the death toll from floods in India, Nepal and Bangladesh passed 300.
    (Reuters, 7/28/02)
2002        Jul 28, A Russian Il-86 cargo plane crashed into a forest shortly after taking off from Moscow's Sheremetyevo-1 airport, killing 14 people. There were two survivors, officials said.
    (AP, 7/28/02)
2002        Jul 28, Serbs and ethnic Albanians voted for new, power-sharing local governments in a tense region near Kosovo.
    (AP, 7/28/02)

2003        Jul 28, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. agreed to pay $305 million to settle actions related to loans and trades made with Enron Corp. and Dynegy Inc.
    (WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 28, Aaron Bell, jazz bassist with Duke Ellington, died in NYC.
    (EntW, 12/03, p.94)
2003        Jul 28, Bangladesh became the second nation to ban the current issue of Newsweek's international edition over an article on new interpretations of Islam's holy book.
    (AP, 7/28/03)
2003        Jul 28, In Cambodia PM Hun Sen's party claimed victory in general elections, saying it expects to win around 73 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly. Hun Sen's party swept to victory, but apparently fell short of the two-thirds majority needed to govern outright.
    (AP, 7/28/03)(AP, 7/29/03)
2003        Jul 28, In northern China a blast ripped through a fireworks factory in Wangkou, killing 29 people and injuring at least 141.
    (AP, 7/29/03)
2003        Jul 28, In Liberia rebels captured the second-largest city of Buchanan, depriving embattled President Charles Taylor of his last significant port outside the besieged capital.
    (AP, 7/28/03)
2003        Jul 28, A mass grave was discovered in the mountainous Russian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, a poor mountainous region close to Chechnya, with the remains of men, women and children who died 10 to 20 years ago.
    (AP, 7/29/03)
2003        Jul 28, In Saudi Arabia 6 suspected militants were killed in a firefight with Saudi police, who raided a farm where they were hiding out. Two police also were killed.
    (AP, 7/28/03)

2004        Jul 28, Democrats in Boston made John Kerry their nominee for president as John Edwards, the vice-presidential nominee, promised the country “hope is on the way."
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 28, In California police in Irvine said they were looking for a man who may have witnessed the contamination of baby food jars with ground-up castor beans containing tiny amounts of the poison ricin. Notes were found in jars on May 31 and June 16.
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.A3)
2004        Jul 28, Francis Crick (88), British Nobel laureate who with American James Watson discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, died of colon cancer in San Diego, Ca.
    (AP, 7/29/04)(Econ, 8/7/04, p.71)
2004        Jul 28, A bomb exploded in a mosque where Afghans were registering for upcoming elections, killing six people including two U.N. staffers.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, In Colombia Marxist guerrillas freed a Roman Catholic bishop. 3 top commanders of right-wing death squads spoke before Congress under safe-conduct passes and professed commitments to peace talks.
    (AP, 7/28/04)(SFC, 7/29/04, p.A13)
2004        Jul 28, Francisco Reyes, former Guatemalan vice president (2000-2004), was arrested on charges of illegally taking over a government property worth $2.4 million.
    (AP, 7/29/04)
2004        Jul 28, Muslims and Hindus burned buildings and clashed with police in a third day of sectarian riots in the western Indian town of Verawal, throwing acid at officers who shot at the crowd. The unrest has left two dead and more than a dozen wounded.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, Iran's judiciary claimed that an Iranian-Canadian photojournalist died (Jul 10, 2003) in custody from a fall after her blood pressure dropped during a hunger strike.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, A suicide car bomb exploded on a downtown boulevard in Baqouba, shredding a bus full of passengers and nearby shops and killing 70 people, almost all Iraqi civilians.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2004        Jul 28, A fierce battle between insurgents and Iraqi soldiers fighting alongside multinational forces in the south-central city of Suwariyah left 7 Iraqi soldiers and 35 insurgents dead.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, The Italian parliament approved structural economic reforms that included raising the retirement age from 57 to 60 effective in 2008.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.44)
2004        Jul 28, The second wave in the biggest mass defection of North Koreans to South Korea arrived on a flight from an unidentified Southeast Asian country, bringing the total in the two-day airlift to nearly 460.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, Peru’s President Alejandro Toledo, facing allegations of corruption, invited government auditors to review all of his bank accounts.
    (AP, 7/30/04)
2004        Jul 28, Deaths from monsoon rains across South Asia reached 1,238.
    (AP, 7/28/04)
2004        Jul 28, The Ugandan army reportedly killed 120 rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) fighters during clashes in southern Sudan and narrowly missed capturing Joseph Kony, the insurgents' leader.
    (AP, 7/29/04)

2005        Jul 28, Assistant Secretary of State David Welch told the US House International Relations Committee said Iranian cadres are training Hezbollah fighters in Lebanon.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, The Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee sent a bill by Sen. Chuck Hagel to the then GOP-run Senate. The legislation would have regulated and trimmed Freddie Mac and its sister company, Fannie Mae. Shortly after this Freddie Mac began making payments to DCI, a Republican consulting firm. DCI undermined support for the bill in a campaign targeting 17 Republican senators in 13 states. The measure died at the end of the 109th Congress.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2005        Jul 28, A new clinical study reported that the herbal remedy echinacea does not ward off cold symptoms and does not help speed recovery from colds.
    (SFC, 7/28/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 28, Scientists reported that the variety of tuna, marlin, swordfish and other big ocean predators has declined up to 50 percent over the past half-century due to overfishing. The variety of species has dropped by as much as 50% in the past 50 years.
    (AP, 7/28/05)(SFC, 7/29/05, p.A4)
2005        Jul 28, NASA said space shuttle Discovery had escaped any serious damage from the potentially deadly piece of foam that broke off from the fuel tank during liftoff and looked safe to fly home in a week.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2005        Jul 28, Arthur Zankel, financier and philanthropist, fell to his death from his ninth-floor apartment on NYC’s Upper East Side. Police called it an apparent suicide. In 2006 details of his will indicated donations of $120 million that included some $40 million for Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, NY, and $22 million to Manhattan’s Carnegie Hall.
    (www.nysun.com/article/17769)(WSJ, 6/2/06, p.W2)
2005        Jul 28, Scientists from China, France, Japan and the USA reported their 1st detection of antineutrinos from deep within the Earth’s mantle. They used the KamLAND detector in Japan.
    (SFC, 7/28/05, p.A2)
2005        Jul 28, Stephen McCullagh (29), an assistant scoutmaster from St. Helena, and Boy Scout Ryan Collins (13) were killed by lightning in Sequoia National Park in the Sierra Nevada.
    (SFC, 8/6/05, p.B2)
2005        Jul 28, The main body of Canadian soldiers being deployed to Afghanistan has begun arriving in the treacherous Kandahar region. They're part of what will be a 250-strong provincial reconstruction team, the first such team Canada has sent to Afghanistan.
    (CP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, A team of anti-drug investigators, lawyers and judges will start prosecuting major narcotics cases in Afghanistan, the world's largest opium and heroin producer, as part of a new UN program.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Anti-terrorist officers arrested nine men in dawn raids in connection with the botched July 21 attacks on London's transit system, bringing to 20 the number of people police have in custody, including one of the alleged bombers.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Chechnya’s Shamil Basayev, linked to a dozen deadly attacks on civilians, admitted he was a terrorist in an interview being broadcast on ABC News' "Nightline." The Kremlin denounced the network's decision to run the interview, which was conducted by well-known Russian journalist Andrei Babitsky.
    (AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 28, President Hosni Mubarak announced his bid to run in Egypt's first multicandidate elections on Sept. 7, promising new legislation to "besiege" terrorism and replace the country's much-criticized emergency laws.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak called for an extraordinary Arab summit to be held in Sharm el-Sheikh on August 3, just days after the deadly attacks in the Red Sea resort.
    (AFP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, DaimlerChrysler said CEO Juergen Schrempp, architect of the controversial merger between Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corp., will step down and turn the top job over to Chrysler head Dieter Zetsche.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, In India opposition leader Lal Krishna Advani was charged in court with inciting religious riots that triggered the razing of a mosque in 1992 and left thousands dead.
    (Reuters, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Record-breaking rains paralyzed Bombay and its surrounding state. B.M. Kulkarni, head of Maharashtra state's police emergency control room, said that 273 people had died in Mumbai and at least 513 in other parts of the state.
    (AFP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, An explosion on a passenger train in northern India killed two people and injured at least 20 others.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Indonesia brushed off a call in a UN report for an international tribunal to try Indonesian and militia leaders blamed for a bloody 1999 rampage in East Timor.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, ICANN transferred the Internet .iq name to Iraq’s telecommunications regulator. InfoCom Corp., which sold computers and Web services in the Middle East, got the .iq assignment in 1997, but was indicted in 2002 for funneling money to a member of Hamas. InfoCom was convicted in April 2005.
    (SFC, 8/6/05, p.C2)
2005        Jul 28, Insurgents launched coordinated attacks against Iraqi army checkpoints northeast of Baghdad, killing 6 Iraqi soldiers, police said. Roadside bombs killed 2 US soldiers. A bomb ignited a train carrying fuel in the south of Iraq's capital and 2 people were killed. In western Iraq 2 US Marines were killed by insurgent gunfire and rocket-propelled grenades. The Marines reported killing 9 insurgents, 5 believed to be Syrians, during an engagement in the same small village.
    (AP, 7/28/05)(WSJ, 7/29/05, p.A1)(AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 28, Jamie Leigh Jones, a Halliburton/KBR employee in Baghdad, Iraq, was allegedly drugged, raped and held against her will at Camp Hope by seven KBR employees. On May 16, 2007, she filed a lawsuit against the company and the employees which the Department of Justice failed to act upon. On December 19, 2007, she testified before Congress. The Department of Justice had been subpoenaed to also testify; they failed to appear or send a reason for declining to appear. In 2011 Jones (26) lost her lawsuit against KBR.
    (www.jamiesfoundation.org/Jamie.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2tm4g4)(AP, 7/8/11)
2005        Jul 28, The Irish Republican Army announced it will renounce violence and resume disarmament in a dramatic declaration designed to revive Northern Ireland's peace process.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, In the Indian-controlled portion of Kashmir suspected Islamic militants raided the village of Dhoob, separated the villagers by religion and killed 5 Hindus by slitting their throats.
    (AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 28, The Concepcion Volcano on the island of Ometepe in southwestern Lake Nicaragua erupted at least four times. Concepcion has registered 17 eruptions since 1883. The last was in 1999.
    (AP, 7/28/05)
2005        Jul 28, Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf said all the estimated 1,400 foreign nationals studying in the country's madrassas would have to leave the Islamic seminaries.
    (AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 28, In Panama a 2-day summit started for 25 members of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Venezuela said it will continue offering crude on favorable terms, and even in barter trades, to countries in the region. Thirteen of the 15 members of the narrower Caribbean Community group, or Caricom, mainly island nations, have already signed onto Venezuela's oil initiative.
    (AP, 7/29/05)
2005        Jul 28, In Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Russia, 2 police officers were shot to death.
    (WSJ, 7/29/05, p.A11)
2005        Jul 28, An official reported anonymously that Haroon Rashid Aswat (31) has been arrested in the border town of Livingstone, having crossed into Zambia from Zimbabwe. Aswat was sought in connection with the July 7 attacks in London that killed 56 people.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2006        Jul 28, Actor-director Mel Gibson launched an anti-Semitic tirade as he was arrested on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, Calif., for driving drunk; Gibson later apologized and was sentenced to probation and alcohol treatment.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
2006        Jul 28, Clark McLeod, who had been chairman and chief executive of McLeodUSA, agreed to turn over $4.4 million in profits he was accused of receiving from the so-called act of "spinning." The former executive was accused by NY Attorney General Eliot Spitzer of directing more than $77 million of McLeodUSA's investment banking business to Salomon Smith Barney. In exchange, the company "secretly" gave McLeod shares of 34 stocks before its initial public offering, which resulted in a windfall of $4.8 million on the first day of public trading of the stock.
    (AP, 7/30/06)
2006        Jul 28, The Pfizer Board of Directors named Jeffrey B. Kindler Pfizer's chief executive officer. He succeeds Hank McKinnell, who will remain Pfizer's chairman of the board until his retirement in February, 2007. McKinnell vacated Pfizer’s CEO spot 19 months before he was scheduled to step down, under pressure from investors angered about his retirement package and a drop of as much as 40% in the company's stock price during his five years in charge. The company later disclosed in a filing with the SEC that the package totaled more than $180 million. It includes an estimated $82.3 million in pension benefits, $77.9 million in deferred compensation, and cash and stock totaling more than $20.7 million.
    (http://mediaroom.pfizer.com/index.php?s=press_releases&item=83)(AP, 12/21/06)
2006        Jul 28, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. said it is ending its loss-generating business in Germany just two months after leaving South Korea in what analysts welcomed as a move to focus resources on expanding in more profitable international markets like China and Latin America. Wal-Mart sold its 85 German stores to Metro, the local market leader.
    (AP, 7/28/06)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.54)
2006        Jul 28, In Seattle, Wash., gunman Naveed Afzal Haq (30) killed Pam Waechter (58) of Seattle and wounded five others at the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle. Haq said he was "angry at Israel." On June 4, 2008, a jury found him not guilty on one count of attempted murder (for victim Carol Goldman); on the remaining counts, the jury declared itself to be hung. The judge declared a mistrial.
    (AFP, 7/29/06)(AP, 7/30/06)(http://tinyurl.com/6myx9k)
2006        Jul 28, In New Orleans 4 men, 3 brothers and a friend, were killed in the Treme neighborhood as they sat on the porch of an abandoned house. The dead included 16-year-old twins, their brother (21) and a friend (39). Another shooting the next day put the year to date homicide number in New Orleans at 77.
    (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A15)
2006        Jul 28, Fourteen Taliban fighters were killed in a "clearance operation" in southern Helmand province's Garmser district. In the northeastern province of Kapisa, police killed four Taliban militants including a "famous commander" while also losing one of their own men. 2 policemen guarding an archaeological site in northern Balkh province were killed and another was wounded when unknown assailants attacked them overnight.
    (AFP, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, A US airman convicted of raping three teenage British girls was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Prosecutors said Staff Sgt. James Gardner took advantage of vulnerable girls who lived in a children's home near the US base at Menwith Hill in northern England.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, In eastern China an explosion at a chemical plant killed at least 22 people and prompted the evacuation of 7,000 others. 28 people were missing.
    (AP, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, In Haiti hundreds of people fled their homes in a hillside slum of Port-au-Prince to escape fierce fighting between gangs that has killed at least 30 people in the past 2 months.
    (AP, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, A bomb planted between a Sunni mosque and a youth center exploded during prayers, killing four people and wounding another nine. gunmen in Tikrit killed two civilians who were employed by US troops.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Israeli warplanes and artillery intensified strikes, hitting Hezbollah positions and crushing houses and roads in towns in southern Lebanon, killing as many as 12 people. Hezbollah announced it had fired a new rocket, called the Khaibar-1, striking near the northern Israeli town of Afula. Beirut said 600 people have been killed in Lebanon, with confirmed fatalities at 445, since fighting broke out, most of them Lebanese civilians. 33 Israeli soldiers have died in the fighting and 19 civilians were killed in Hezbollah's unyielding rocket attacks on Israel's northern towns.
    (AP, 7/28/06)(WSJ, 7/28/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 28, Hezbollah politicians, while expressing reservations, joined their critics in the government in agreeing to a peace package that includes strengthening an international force in south Lebanon and disarming the guerrillas.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, The UN decided to remove 50 unarmed observers (UNTSO and UNIFIL) from posts along the Israeli-Lebanese border and relocate them with lightly armed UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Israeli troops withdrew from northern Gaza after a bloody two-day sweep that killed 29 Palestinians.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, The Laos government and UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said an outbreak of the H5N1 strain of bird flu has killed more than 2,000 chicken on a poultry farm. The Xaythani district farm found 155 dead chickens on July 14, and about 2,000 dead birds the following day.
    (AFP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, In Nepal Communist rebels and the government have extended a cease-fire for another three months to allow talks aimed at ending a decade-long conflict to continue.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Dutch retail giant Ahold has announced that its 1.1 billion-dollar (941,000-euro) settlement with US and Dutch investors over the company's accounting scandal that broke in 2003 and sent share prices plummeting, is now final.
    (AFP, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, In Quetta, Pakistan, a bomb believed rigged to a motorcycle exploded outside a bank and wounded 21 people, one critically.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Alan Garcia returned to the presidency of Peru, pledging to battle poverty 16 years after ending his first term.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Poland's conservative President Lech Kaczynski vowed to campaign for a return of the death penalty in the European Union.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, In Russia Pres. Putin signed a law making slander of a public official a crime.
    (WSJ, 7/29/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 28, Hundreds of people rioted near the headquarters of Somalia's virtually powerless government after a Cabinet minister was fatally shot outside a mosque.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, South Korea sent a satellite into orbit primarily for making geographical surveys but also possibly for tracking military movements in North Korea, which raised regional security concerns by launching missiles on July 5.
    (Reuters, 8/1/06)
2006        Jul 28, The Spanish government approved a divisive bill allowing reparations for victims of the Spanish Civil War and the ensuing dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco.
    (AP, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, Sudanese government forces and allied militias attacked bases of a new rebel alliance in Darfur despite a ceasefire in the violent west.
    (Reuters, 7/29/06)
2006        Jul 28, Taiwanese prosecutors indicted a man for murder, alleging he helped his brother stage a train derailment that ultimately led to the death of his brother's wife, and said they will seek the death penalty. The wife of Lee Suan-chuan, a train-ticket seller, was injured when the train she was traveling on derailed and tumbled into a deep valley on March 27 in southern Taiwan's Pingtung region.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, The five permanent members of the UN Security Council reached a deal on a resolution that would give Iran until the end of August to suspend uranium enrichment or face the threat of economic and diplomatic sanctions.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
2006        Jul 28, Danilo Astori, Uruguay’s Finance Minister, said Uruguay will make an early debt payment of $900 million to the IMF due in 2007. The move will save about $40 million in interest payments. This would cancel about half its entire debt to the IMF.
    (WSJ, 7/31/06, p.A6)

2007        Jul 28, In California garbage workers in Alameda County approved a new contract with Waste Management ending a bitter 26-day lockout.
    (SSFC, 7/29/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 28, It was reported that over 4,000 Hazaras, a Shia Muslim ethnic minority concentrated in Afghanistan’s central highlands, had been displaced from Behsood district, Wardak province, over the last 2 months by bands of Kuchi nomads. Some 200 ethnic Pushtun and Sunni Muslim nomads, together with their families and livestock, emptied about 65 Hazara villages and left about a dozen people dead.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.43)
2007        Jul 28-2007 Jul 29, Nearly 12,000 people were displaced and one person died in western Ethiopia in flash floods over the weekend.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 28, In southern India police shot dead at least eight protestors after a political demonstration turned violent. Police opened fire after hundreds of protestors burned furniture in a government office in a small town in Andhra Pradesh state, where communist parties campaigned for distribution of government land to the rural and urban poor.
    (Reuters, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, A parked car bomb exploded in a busy shopping street in predominantly Shiite eastern Baghdad, killing at least four people and wounding 10. US troops captured 16 suspected insurgents during raids targeting al-Qaida in Iraq in raids in the northern cities of Samarra and Tarmiyah.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, The Liberian government said it had lifted a six-year moratorium on the diamond trade, put in place after former President Charles Taylor was accused of using "blood diamonds" to fuel civil war in neighboring Sierra Leone.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, Libya said the Czech Republic, Qatar and Bulgaria contributed to an international fund to support hundreds of children who contracted HIV at a Libyan hospital in the 1990s. Libya also denounced a decision by Bulgaria's president to pardon six medics from life jail terms in an AIDS case as a "betrayal" and an "illegal procedure."
    (Reuters, 7/28/07)(AFP, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, Palestinian officials said Israel has agreed to allow at least 627 Palestinians who have been stranded in Egypt for weeks to pass into the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, Serbian police arrested Nikola Radosavljevic (38), a man suspected of killing 9 people and injuring another two in a shooting spree hours earlier in an eastern Serbian village.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
2007        Jul 28, In Zimbabwe Arthur Mutambara, leader of the breakaway faction of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), said on that the country could not wait for outsiders to liberate them from on-going political and economic problems.
    (AFP, 7/28/07)

2008        Jul 28, Pres. Bush met with Pakistan’s new PM Yousaf Raza Gilani at the White House and they agreed to battle terrorists in Pakistan.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.A10)
2008        Jul 28, A senior Bush administration official said the budget deficit for this year will set a record in dollar terms, approaching $490 billion.
    (AP, 7/28/08)
2008        Jul 28, Sir Richard Branson and Burt Rutan unveiled their White Knight Two, the mothership of SpaceShip Two, at the Mohave Air & Space Port in California. Spaceship Two, the passenger rocket, was being built for Branson’s Virgin Galactic, which hoped to soon carry passengers into space.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.A5)
2008        Jul 28, The propeller-driven "Zephyr" aircraft, owned by QinetiQ Group PLC, began a flight over the Arizona desert and continued for an unofficial record of 83 hours and 37 minutes, more than doubling the official world record set by Northrop Grumman's "Global Hawk" in 2001. The 66 pound- (30 kilogram-) plane was launched by hand and flown by autopilot and via satellite.
    (AP, 8/24/08)
2008        Jul 28, Police in Alabama arrested Anthony Hopkins (37), a part-time evangelist, after finding a body in his home freezer. Police believed it was the body of his wife, Arletha Hopkins, who had not been heard of for 3 years.
    (www.wsbtv.com/news/17043437/detail.html)
2008        Jul 28, US-led coalition troops killed several militants during a raid in central Afghanistan, while a suspected bomb maker and his family died in an accidental blast in Kunar province.
    (AP, 7/29/08)
2008        Jul 28, Hernan Arbizu, former JPMorgan Chase & Co private banking executive, was arrested in Argentina following an indictment on charges of embezzling about $5.4 million. He fled to Argentina before being fired in June.
    (Reuters, 7/29/08)
2008        Jul 28, Tarek bin Laden signed a deal with Djibouti to build Noor City, the first of a hundred “Cities of Light" that the Saudi Binladen Group planned around the world. Plans called for the city to have 2.5 million people by 2025 and 4.5 million for its Yemeni twin.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.50)(www.railpage.com.au/f-p1093077.htm)
2008        Jul 28, In England hijackers made off with boxes of blank British passports worth a fortune on the black market in a raid on a delivery van in the Manchester suburb of Oldham. British policed later said the passports were "very secure" as they contained a micro-chip which had not been activated.
    (AFP, 7/29/08)(AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 28, Antoine Wendo Kolosoy (aka Papa Wendo, b.1925), Congolese riverboat mechanic, boxer and rumba singer, died at age 82. He cut his first records in 1947 for Olympia, a Belgian label.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.84)
2008        Jul 28, Lebanese singer Suzanne Tamim (30) was found stabbed and her throat slashed in Dubai. On August 8 Egypt banned news coverage of the brutal slaying following media reports in other papers that said a wealthy Egyptian businessman ordered 3 men to carry out the killing. On Sep 2 Hisham Talaat Moustafa, an Egyptian lawmaker and business tycoon, was arrested in the death Tamim. He was accused of paying a former police officer $2 million to kill her. On May 21, 2009, Moustafa was sentenced to death for ordering Tamim’s death. Former officer, Mohsen el-Sukkary, was also convicted and sentenced to death. In 2010 Moustafa was spared the death penalty after a retrial changed his original death sentence to 15 years in prison.
    (www.allaboutjazz.com/php/news.php?id=21342)(AP, 9/2/08)(AP, 5/21/09)(AP, 9/28/10)
2008        Jul 28, Pierre Beres (b.1913), king of the French booksellers, died.
    (SFC, 8/4/08, p.B3)
2008        Jul 28, In Iraq 3 female suicide bombers blew their explosive vests in the middle of pilgrims in Baghdad, moments after a roadside bomb attack, killing at least 32 people and wounding 102. In Kirkuk 25 people were killed and 185 wounded when a blast tore through a crowd of Kurds protesting a draft provincial elections law. A roadside bomb attack killed four civilians near Balad Ruz.
    (AP, 7/28/08)
2008        Jul 28, In central Japan 4 people died after being swept away in torrential rains that caused floods and mudslides and prompted an evacuation order for 50,000 people.
    (AP, 7/28/08)
2008        Jul 28, In Nepal protesters blocked traffic and held demonstrations to protest the decision by Paramananda Jha, the newly elected vice president, to take his oath of office in Hindi, which is not recognized as an official language.
    (AP, 7/28/08)
2008        Jul 28, Militants in Nigeria's Niger Delta said they had blown up two major oil pipelines belonging to Royal Dutch Shell, forcing the firm to halt some production and helping push world oil prices higher.
    (Reuters, 7/28/08)
2008        Jul 28, A suspected US missile strike on a Pakistani madrassa killed six people, including foreigners. Pakistani security officials said Al-Qaeda chemical weapons expert Midhat Mursi al-Sayid Umar (54) was believed to have been killed in the US missile strike in the South Waziristan tribal district. The Egyptian, also known as Abu Khabab al-Masri, had a five-million-US-dollar bounty on his head and allegedly ran terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. In Kohat a bomb rigged to a bicycle killed a teenage boy and wounded 12 policemen. Pakistani Taliban militants shot dead three intelligence officials near Mingora, the main town in Swat. The Taliban later confirmed that al-Masri had been killed along with 3 other commanders.
    (Reuters, 7/28/08)(AFP, 7/28/08)(AP, 7/28/08)(AFP, 7/29/08)(AP, 8/3/08)
2008        Jul 28, In the Philippines a packed commuter bus strayed into an oncoming lane and crashed head-on into another bus on a highway south of Manila, killing at least 11 people and injuring 29 others.
    (AP, 7/29/08)
2008        Jul 28, Navanethem Pillay, a judge from South Africa, was confirmed as the new UN chief of human rights.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.A3)

2009        Jul 28, The US government turned up the pressure on the interim government of Honduras to accept the return of exiled President Manuel Zelaya, suspending the diplomatic visas of four Honduran officials a month after a military coup.
    (AP, 7/29/09)
2009        Jul 28, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger cut a half billion more from the state budget and signed a package of legislation to wipe out the state’s $24 billion deficit. It was later reported that state lawmakers added 336 employees between January and the end of July adding about $14.4 million a year to the state payroll.
    (SFC, 7/29/09, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/9/09, p.A1)
2009        Jul 28, Tennessee state Sen. Paul Stanley (47) resigned in Nashville after his extramarital affair with an intern (22) was revealed by an investigation into an extortion case. McKensie Morrison’s boyfriend was charged with trying to extort $10,000 from the GOP lawmaker.
    (SFC, 7/29/09, p.A6)
2009        Jul 28, It was reported that scientists claimed to have created a form of aluminum that's nearly transparent to extreme ultraviolet radiation and which is a new state of matter.
    (www.livescience.com/technology/090728-new-state-matter.html)
2009        Jul 28, At the EAA AirVenture air show in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Aabar Investments, an Abu Dhabi-based sovereign wealth fund, and Virgin Galactic signed a strategic partnership in which Aabar would take a 32% stake in Virgin Galactic for $280 million. To date Virgin Galactic has been wholly owned and funded by Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Group.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/y8gtjad)
2009        Jul 28, Tony Rosenthal (b.1914), American artist and abstract sculptor, died in Southampton, NY. He created the Regent’s Cube located in the Regent’s Plaza at the Univ. of Michigan, his alma mater. Commissioned by the Class of 1965 and officially titled “Endover," the revolving cube is one of three designed Rosenthal. It was installed on Regents’ Plaza (the open space bounded by the LS&A Building, Michigan Union and Fleming Building) in 1968. The others are at home in New York City and Miami.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Rosenthal)(www.ur.umich.edu/0001/Nov06_00/6.htm)
2009        Jul 28, Richard Holbrooke, the US special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan, said in Brussels that Taliban militants are receiving more funding from sympathizers abroad than from Afghanistan's illegal drug trade. NATO military officials in Afghanistan have estimated that the Taliban raise between $60-$100 million a year from the trade in illegal narcotics.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, The top UN official in Afghanistan urged the Taliban not to disrupt elections, as militants killed nine people, ambushed a presidential campaign manager and fired rockets into a UN compound.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Algeria's coast guard arrested 19 illegal migrants in a dinghy off the western town of Arzew, near Oran, as they tried to reach Europe.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, In Australia Shane Kent (33), an Australian convert to Islam, admitted being part of a terror cell that plotted to kill thousands of people by bombing major sports events. The former forklift truck driver was about to face a retrial on the charges, which he previously denied, after a Supreme Court jury last September failed to reach a verdict.
    (AFP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, In Bangladesh the heaviest rain in 53 years battered the capital, Dhaka, leaving at least six people dead and stranding thousands in their swamped homes.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, A majority of people in Britain see the Afghan war as impossible to win, according to a new poll taken amid steeply rising casualties and growing government emphasis on finding a political solution to the conflict.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Britain said it will withdraw its remaining 100-odd troops in Iraq to Kuwait by the end of the month after the Iraqi parliament failed to pass a deal allowing them to stay to protect oil platforms and provide training.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, A court in southwest China accepted the country's first lawsuit filed by an environmental group against a local government. The All-China Environmental Federation had filed the suit on behalf of residents against the local land resources bureau in Qingzhen city in Guizhou province, which sold land to a drink and ice cream processing plant they allege is a threat to a scenic lake area.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 28, Fiji’s self-appointed PM Commodore Frank Bainimarama, who took power in a bloodless 2006 coup, said aged and ailing President Ratu Josefa Iloilo will retire on July 30.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, An Iranian parliament official said 140 people detained in Iran's postelection turmoil have been released from Tehran's main prison Evin.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Iraqi forces raided Camp Ashraf, an Iranian opposition settlement north of Baghdad. The standoff continued into the next day and left 11 people dead. A gang made up of members of the presidential guard and led by the head of security for the 2nd biggest Shia party robbed a bank in central Baghdad killing 8 security guards. Initially police said the gunmen made off with 8 billion Iraqi dinars ($6.9 million). Five members of Iraq's security forces charged in the bank robbery went on trial on Aug 23. They had allegedly made off with $4.8 million. On Sep 2 four members of the security forces, convicted of the robbery, were sentenced to hang. 
    (AP, 7/29/09)(SFC, 7/29/09, p.A2)(Econ, 8/8/09, p.43)(AP, 8/23/09)(SFC, 9/3/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 28, President Felipe Calderon said Mexico will start issuing nationwide identity cards for its citizens starting this year, and by 2012 everyone will have one. The body of Juan Daniel Martinez (48), a Mexican radio journalist, was found beaten, gagged and partially buried the resort city of Acapulco. Jose Ibarra, a federal agent who had been investigating the Nov 13, 2008, killing of Mexican journalist Armando Rodriguez, was shot dead at his home in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez.
    (AP, 7/28/09)(AP, 7/29/09)(AP, 7/30/09)
2009        Jul 28, In Morocco a man accused of leading a terrorist network was sentenced to life in prison for terror attacks in Morocco, holdups in Europe, large-scale money laundering projects and arms trafficking. Abdelkader Belliraj (51), a dual Moroccan-Belgian national, had faced the death penalty. 34 co-defendants were handed sentences ranging from 30 years in prison to one-year suspended sentences.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Nigerian authorities imposed curfews and poured security forces onto the streets of several northern towns after a two-day wave of Islamic militant attacks against police killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, In Pakistan the decapitated body of a Pakistani police constable was discovered in the Swat town of Sangota. The find was a sign that Taliban militants have not given up the fight for the northwestern valley, despite the nearly three-month-old army offensive there. A suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a checkpoint in North Waziristan tribal region, causing an explosion that killed 2 police and wounded 5 other security officials.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Somalis are preparing to cross the Gulf of Aden to Yemen after fleeing fighting around the capital of Mogadishu.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez recalled his ambassador from Bogota and threatened to halt Colombian imports after the neighboring country said anti-tank weapons found in a rebel arms cache came from Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2010        Jul 28, US District Judge Susan Bolton put most of Arizona’s new immigration law, SB1070, on hold in a key first-round victory for the federal government in a fight that may go to the US Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/29/10)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.25)
2010        Jul 28, In Arizona a medical helicopter crashed on a Tucson street killing all three people aboard.
    (SFC, 7/29/10, p.A6)
2010        Jul 28, California Gov. Schwarzenegger, citing an impending cash crises, ordered furloughs for 156,000 state employees, requiring them to take 3 unpaid days a month beginning on July 31. On Aug 12 a judge denied Schwarzenegger’s request pending a full hearing in September. On Aug 18 the state Supreme Court allowed the furlough program to resume as it continued to revue his authority to do so.
    (SFC, 7/29/10, p.C2)(SFC, 8/13/10, p.C1)(SFC, 8/19/10, p.C1)
2010        Jul 28, SF arrested 2 Bay Area women and charged them with embezzlement for allegedly writing $2.6 million in bonus checks to themselves from Autonomy Inc.
    (SFC, 7/29/10, p.C3)
2010        Jul 28, Aaron Cooper, an inmate at Red Onion State Prison in Pound, Va., was murdered by cellmate Robert Gleason. On Feb 11, 2011, Gleason (40), who already faced the death penalty for the May, 2009, murder of cellmate Harvey Watson Jr. (63), pleaded guilty to Cooper’s murder. Gleason was executed in the electric char on Jan 16, 2013.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.A6)(SFC, 1/17/13, p.A6)
2010        Jul 28, In southern Afghanistan a packed bus hit a roadside bomb killing 25 people aboard. An Afghan villager, who was said to be carrying a rifle, was killed by US soldiers in the volatile Arghandab Valley, a strategic area near Kandahar City. In central Uruzgan province 3 Afghan soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb. German Army Brig. Gen. Josef Blotz told reporters in Kabul that the Taliban's senior leadership ordered the assassination of multiple tribal elders in an area of Uruzgan.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, Argentina and Uruguay held a signing ceremony in Buenos Aires on an agreement to a joint environmental monitoring program along the shared Uruguay River, ending a seven-year pollution controversy over a Finnish paper mill on the Uruguayan side.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, Former Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic returned to Sarajevo and was greeted by hundreds of supporters a day after a British judge declared him a free man and rejected Serbia's request for his extradition to face war crimes charges.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, British PM David Cameron kicked off a much-hyped visit to India, pitching for investment and open trade to boost Britain's fragile post-recession recovery.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, British authorities found a suspect package "at a premises on Albert Embankment," the location of Britain's foreign intelligence agency. Another device was intercepted at a postal sorting office. Two men, aged 52 and 21, were later arrested in Wales on explosives charges and were being held on Aug 1 at a London police station.
    (AP, 8/1/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Bulgaria archeologist Kazimir Popconstantinov found a box while digging under the alta of an early Christian church off the coast of Sozopol. The box bore an inscription with the name of St. John the Baptist and allegedly contained some of his bone fragments.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.43)
2010        Jul 28, In northeastern China floods caused by heavy rains stranded tens of thousands of residents without power, as the worst flooding in more than a decade continued to besiege many areas of the country.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In eastern China a powerful blast caused by a suspected gas leak rocked a plastics factory, killing at least 12 people and seriously injuring more than a dozen others.
    (AP, 7/28/10) 
2010        Jul 28, The Galapagos Islands, 620 miles (1,000 kms) off Ecuador's coast, were removed from the UNESCO list of sites endangered by environmental threats or overuse.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy ordered authorities to expel Gypsy illegal immigrants and to dismantle their camps.
    (SFC, 7/29/10, p.A2)
2010        Jul 28, In northern France Dominique Cottrez (46) and her husband, Pierre-Marie Cottrez, were detained after two corpses were discovered in plastic bags by new owners in the garden of a house that had belonged to the woman's father in the town of Villers-au-Tertre. Under questioning, the woman admitted that there were six other corpses and told investigators that they were in plastic bags in the garage of her home where they were found. On June 25, 2015, Cottrez (51), a mother of two grown daughters, went on trial in the city of Douai.
    (AP, 7/29/10)(AP, 6/25/15)
2010        Jul 28, German prosecutors said Samuel Kunz (88) was informed last week of his indictment on charges including participation in the murder of 430,000 Jews at the Belzec death camp in occupied Poland, where he allegedly served as a guard from January 1942 to July 1943. Kunz (b.1921) was also charged with murder over "personal excesses" in which he allegedly shot a total of 10 Jews in two other incidents.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Iraq a sandstorm downed an Iraqi military helicopter, killing its five-man crew. Midmorning bombings in Baghdad killed 6 people.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, Japan hanged two convicted killers, including a man who burned six women to death, in the country's first executions in a year. The justice minister said she wants renewed debate on whether to continue the punishment.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, Japan’s Nissan said is new car models will feature air conditioners that pump breathable vitamin C and stress-reducing seats.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Mexico 3 men and a woman were gunned down at a pizzeria in Mexico City.
    (AFP, 7/29/10)
2010        Jul 28, In the waters off Oman an explosion damaged an oil tanker carrying 270,000 tons of oil, near the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Mitsui O.S.K. Lines said the blast on its tanker M. Star caused one minor injury but did not cause an oil leak. Officials said the damage was caused by a freak wave. Japan's ministry said "A crew member saw light on the horizon just before the explosion, so (Mitsui O.S.K.) believes there is a possibility it was caused by an outside attack." On Aug 4 an obscure al-Qaida-linked group said one of its suicide bombers attacked the Japanese oil tanker, a claim that, if true, would be the first time the terror network has attacked the Japanese. On Aug 6 the Emirates' WAM news agency quoted an unnamed government official as saying the investigation revealed traces of homemade explosives on the hull of the tanker.
    (AP, 7/28/10)(Reuters, 7/28/10)(AP, 8/4/10)(AP, 8/6/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Pakistan an Airbus A321 passenger jet, flight number ED202, crashed into the hills overlooking Islamabad amid poor weather, killing all 152 people on board and blazing a path of devastation strewn with body parts and twisted metal wreckage.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In northwest Pakistan flash floods and building collapses brought on by heavy rains killed 34 people.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Russia a band of 100 masked people staged a violent environmental protest in a quiet Moscow suburb, hurling Molotov cocktails and fireworks at city hall while objecting to plans for clearing a local forest for highway construction.
    (AP, 7/29/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Spain a bullfighting ban, passed in Catalonia's parliament, provoking passionate reactions throughout the country.
    (Reuters, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, South African wildlife authorities said poachers killed 152 endangered rhinoceros in the country so far this year, about 20 more than the number killed in the whole of 2009.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, In Sudan 3 people were killed during a gun battle between supporters of rival rebel groups in a camp for displaced people in west Darfur. 7 UNAMID peacekeepers on patrol in west Darfur were wounded when they were ambushed by unidentified armed individuals.
    (AFP, 7/29/10)
2010        Jul 28, A Turkish tour boat caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean. 18 tourists and five crew jumped into the water after flames engulfed the Kayhan-9 on its way from the Turkish resort of Marmaris to Fethiye. One Spanish tourist was missing.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2011        Jul 28, The Obama administration accused Iran of entering into a secret deal with an Al-Qaida offshoot that provides money and recruits for attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
    (SFC, 7/29/11, p.A7)
2011        Jul 28, In NYC the United States opened discussions with North Korea, in a move testing Pyongyang's willingness to negotiate giving up its nuclear arsenal.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, Scientists reported that they have found a single gene responsible for a disease called the Proteus syndrome, believed to been responsible for the disfigured “Elephant Man," who toured Europe in the 19th century.
    (SFC, 7/29/11, p.A8)
2011        Jul 28, Peter Berg, co-founder of the Diggers and founder of the Planet Drum Foundation, died in San Francisco. The Diggers were a radical community-action group of activists and Improv actors (1966-68), based in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood.    
    (SSFC, 8/14/11, p.C9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diggers_%28theater%29)
2011        Jul 28, In Afghanistan triple suicide blasts and shootings killed 21 people including a local BBC reporter in an ongoing attack on Uruzgan province. It was the deadliest to hit Afghanistan in more than a month. On September 8 NATO acknowledged that Afghan journalist Ahmed Omed Khpulwak (25) was accidentally killed by an American soldier, who mistook him for a suicide bomber.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)(AP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 9/9/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 28, Australian farmer Steve Marsh launched legal action against neighbor Michael Baxter after genetically modified canola blew onto his farm, prompting authorities to strip him of his organic license.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, Bahraini police raided a medical center operated by the Paris-based Doctors Without Borders (MSF) saying it was "unlicensed."
    (AP, 8/4/11)
2011        Jul 28, In northern Bangladesh a crowded bus collided head on with a truck, killing at least 17 people and injuring 30.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, Britain’s Business Secretary Vince Cable said he is to scrap a raft of "ridiculous" business regulations including alcohol licenses to sell chocolate liqueurs and age limits on buying Christmas crackers.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In CongoDRC more than 100 people were feared dead after a boat accident on the Tshuapa river in the northwest.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/29/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 28, Cyprus Pres. Demetris Christofias dismissed his cabinet.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.63)
2011        Jul 28, In Iraq a suicide bomber and a car bomb struck an Iraqi bank in Tikrit where policemen were picking up their paychecks, killing 12 and wounding 34 people. An Iraqi Kurd boy (10) was killed in shelling by Tehran's forces of Iranian Kurdish separatist bases in Battas, northern Iraq.
    (AP, 7/28/11)(AP, 7/29/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Jordan a military court convicted the Palestinian-born mentor of al-Qaida in Iraq's slain leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi on terrorism charges and sentenced him to five years in prison. Isam Mohammed Taher al-Barqawi, better known as Sheik Abu-Mohammed al-Maqdisi, was found guilty of "plotting terrorism" and recruiting militants in Jordan to join the Taliban in Afghanistan. Three other Jordanian-Palestinians, including a fugitive who was tried in absentia, were found guilty of the same charges.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Kosovo American and French peacekeepers under NATO took control of two customs posts on the northern border with Serbia after they were attacked by Serbs armed with firebombs.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In western Libya hundreds of rebels launched a broad offensive against government forces, seizing three small towns and advancing on others to secure a major supply route near the Tunisian border. Four rebel fighters were killed and several wounded. Abdel-Fattah Younis, the rebel military chief, was killed along with two aides while on route to Benghazi for questioning by rebel authorities. Younis was Gadhafi's interior minister before defecting to the rebels early in the uprising. Rebel minister Ali Tarhouni later said Younes was killed by the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade, which was mainly comprised of former prisoners of Gaddafi's notorious Abu Salim prison in the capital Tripoli, who had always distrusted Younes.
    (AP, 7/28/11)(AP, 7/29/11)(Reuters, 7/30/11)   
2011        Jul 28, Dozens of ethnic black Mauritanians rallied to denounce a census they feel aims at depriving them of their citizenship in a country riven by ethnic and racial strife.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, Mexico's Army seized five metric tons of marijuana near the US border in Puerto Penasco, a beach city popular with visitors from Arizona.
    (AP, 7/30/11)
2011        Jul 28, Mozambique’s official opposition party, the former rebel group Renamo, said it will build barracks for its demobilized soldiers to "defend democracy." The first barracks will be built in the northern provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa, and in the central provinces of Sofala and Zambezia, one-time Renamo strongholds.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, Palestinian police raided the West Bank home of a rival of President Mahmoud Abbas. The raid targeted Mohammed Dahlan, a former security chief in the Gaza Strip who was expelled from Fatah in June because of his repeated criticism of the president. Police arrested 23 guards and assistants, and confiscated 16 guns, a computer and two vehicles.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Peru Ollanta Humala, the leftist military man who won the presidency after abandoning a radical platform, promised in his inaugural address to make his priority the one in three Peruvians still mired in poverty.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In the Philippines Abu Sayyaf militants killed 7 marines, severing the heads of two of them, and wounded 27 others who were about to raid their jungle camp in southern Sulu province. The militants withdrew into the woods after 5 hours of fighting and government forces captured their hide-out.
    (AP, 7/28/11)(AFP, 7/29/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Somalia heavy fighting erupted in Mogadishu as African Union peacekeepers launched an offensive aimed at protecting famine relief efforts from attacks by al-Qaida-linked militants. At least six people were killed. The WFP said that it has a funding shortfall of $252 million for the famine relief efforts in the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, A South Korean Asiana Airlines cargo plane crashed in waters off southern Jeju resort island. South Korean pilot, identified by the airline as Choi Sang-ki, was flying a Boeing-747 with a co-pilot, transporting computers, semiconductors, resin solution and paint among other items to Pudong in China.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, South Sudan became the 54th member of the African Union (AU) after it received a majority vote from member states, including one from Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Sri Lanka Pattani Razeek, managing trustee of non-governmental organization the Community Trust Fund, was exhumed by police after a tip-off from two suspects arrested in relation to the case. The prominent human rights activist has been missing since Feb 2010.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Swaziland thousands of people participated in a second day of demonstrations over the handling of an economic crisis by King Mswati III.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, A global campaigning organization, Avaaz.org, said that one person disappears in Syria every hour and that almost 3,000 people have gone missing since the start of the uprising against President Bashar Assad more than four months ago.
    (AP, 7/28/11)
2011        Jul 28, In Yemen clashes with government troops in a mountainous area north of the capital killed at least eight anti-government fighters.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2061        Jul 28, 31st recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

2012        Jul 28, In Massachusetts Daryl Benway (41), who had recently separated from his wife, shot his two children, killing his 7-year-old daughter, before committing suicide.
    (AP, 7/29/12)
2012        Jul 28, In Afghanistan two NATO service members were killed in an insurgent attack in the east of the country.
    (AP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Australian media reported that Sri Lankan navy officials have urged Australia to deport the growing number of boatpeople arriving from their country, saying it was the "best way" to deter people smugglers.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Authorities in eastern China dropped plans for a waste water discharge project after thousands of protesters angry about pollution took to the streets in Qidong, Jiangsu province. On Jan 30, 2013, 14 defendants were prosecuted on charges of encouraging mass violence against government buildings and intentionally damaging property in Qidong. 
    (AP, 7/28/12)(AP, 1/31/13)
2012        Jul 28, In China serial killer Zhang Yongming (56) was sentenced to death for murdering 11 people in Jinning county between 2008 and 2012.
    (SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A6)
2012        Jul 28, In Indonesia a group of 150 youths, some as young as 13 and carrying swords and golf clubs, raided the De Most bar in south Jakarta late at night, smashing bottles of alcoholic drinks and damaging the property. Police arrested 62 people, most of them minors, who attacked the bar for serving alcohol during the holy Muslim month of Ramadan.
    (AFP, 7/30/12)
2012        Jul 28, Israeli troops arrested Abdallah Harouf (24), a member of the Islamic Jihad militant group, at his home in the West Bank city of Nablus. Local residents said that four other people were also arrested.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Jordan opened its first tent camp for Syrians fleeing violence in their country, as government officials said a surge of refugees left them no other choice. After 3 years the Zaatari Refugee Camp held 81,000 people and was counted as the ninth-biggest city in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/29/12)(SFC, 8/3/15, p.A2)
2012        Jul 28, In Nepal a vehicle crashed in the Palpa district killing 14 people on their way to cremate the body of a relative.
    (SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A6)
2012        Jul 28, North Korea’s state media said flooding across the country this month has killed 88 people, left tens of thousands homeless and devastated swathes of farmland.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, In Peru searchers found the bodies of two US mountaineers who apparently plunged to their deaths off a ridge after ascending a glacier-capped peak. Gil Weiss (29) and Ben Horne (32) fell an estimated 300 meters (nearly 1,000 feet) off a ridge after reaching the west summit of Palcaraju in the Cordillera Blanca range in mid-July.
    (AP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Philippine authorities arrested Ustadz Ahmadsali Asmad Badron, also known as Ammad or Hamad Ustadz Idris, a founding member of the Al-Qaeda-linked Abu Sayyaf group blamed for some of the worst terror attacks in the region.
    (AFP, 7/29/12)
2012        Jul 28, A 2nd day of Sudanese aerial bombing killed three civilians and wounded 21 in Blue Nile state bordering South Sudan. In South Kordofan state 6 civilians were killed in an attack against villages by Khartoum government forces before rebels battled the army, leaving the 17 soldiers dead.
    (AFP, 7/30/12)(AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 28, The Syrian army launched a massive assault on rebels in Aleppo amid growing world concern about the risks of reprisals against the civilian population. At least 10 soldiers and six rebels were killed in fierce fighting after the assault began. The Observatory said that nationwide violence killed at least 52 people, 22 civilians, 16 rebels and 14 soldiers.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Uganda government officials said an outbreak of Ebola virus in the western part of the country has killed 14 people, many in the past week.
    (SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A10)
2012        Jul 28, In Venezuela leaders from across Latin America and the Caribbean pledged closer ties to safeguard their economies from the world financial crisis as they formed a new 33-nation regional bloc (CELAC), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, including every nation in the hemisphere except the US and Canada.
    (AP, 7/28/12)
2012        Jul 28, Yemeni police said a booby-trapped parcel has killed Ali Dahab (14), the son of Yemeni tribal chief Sheikh Majed, in an attack suspected to be the work of Al-Qaeda. Thousands of people rallied in Sanaa urging authorities to release 117 protesters arrested during the year-long struggle to oust Pres. Saleh.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)(SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A6)

2013        Jul 28, NY-based Omnicom Group Inc. and Paris-based Publicis Groupe SA said they are combining in a "merger of equals" that will create the world's largest advertising firm, one worth more than $35 billion.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, Eileen Brennan (80), TV, stage and film star, died in Burbank, Ca. Her film work included “Private Benjamin" (1980), “Clue" (1985), “The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking" (1988).
    (SFC, 8/2/13, p.D7) 
2013        Jul 28, William Scranton (b.1917), former US ambassador to the UN (1976-1977) and the 38th governor of Pennsylvania (1964-1967), died in southern, California.
    (SFC, 8/2/13, p.D7) 
2013        Jul 28, In southern Afghanistan a late night bombing in Zabul province's Shahjoy district killed 11 people and wounded 12. Three of the dead were local police officers while the rest were women and children.
    (AP, 7/29/13)
2013        Jul 28, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa urged lawmakers to move ahead with proposed harsher measures against escalating attacks by Shiite-led opposition factions, including banning protest gatherings in the capital, after top government officials joined an emergency parliament session to discuss the Gulf nation's nearly 30 months of unrest.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In Brazil Pope Francis wrapped up a historic trip to his home continent with a Mass on Copacabana beach that drew a reported 3 million people.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In Burkina Faso thousands of protesters marched through the capital decrying a perceived attempt by President Blaise Compaore to extend his hold on power through the creation of a new Senate.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, Cambodia held general elections. The opposition appeared to make significant gains in parliament. The ruling party of PM Hun Sen claimed a victory with 68 of the national Assembly’s 123 seats.
    (AP, 7/28/13)(SFC, 7/29/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 28, Egypt's interim president gave the prime minister the power to grant the military the right to arrest civilians after a weekend of violence between supporters of the country's deposed leader and security forces.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In France some 40 million euro ($53 million) worth of diamonds and other jewels were stolen from the Carlton Intercontinental Hotel in Cannes by a single robber. A day later the value of the stolen jewels was raised to $136 million.
    (AP, 7/28/13)(AP, 7/29/13)
2013        Jul 28, In northern Iraq a suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a Kurdish security patrol killing 8. Attacks around the country killed at least 4 more people.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, Israel approved the release of 104 Arab prisoners in a move intended to facilitate the restart of peace talks with the Palestinians and end nearly three years of diplomatic standstill.
    (Reuters, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, An Italian tour bus plowed through cars, crashed through the side wall of a highway bridge and plunged into a ravine, killing at least 38 people near the town of Monteforte Irpino.
    (AP, 7/29/13)
2013        Jul 28, In Libya explosions in Benghazi targeted buildings used by the judiciary. 43 were people wounded. Hours later clashes erupted in the western Gwesha district between an armed group and military special forces.
    (Reuters, 7/29/13)
2013        Jul 28, Malians turned out in large numbers to vote in a presidential election.
    (Reuters, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, Mexican Vice Admiral Carlos Salazar was killed in an ambush on a rural road in the western state of Michoacan.
    (Reuters, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In Nigeria vigilante leader Aliko Musa said that his group stormed villages over the weekend to hunt Boko Haram members. He said they retaliated with big fire power and that 5 vigilantes and 20 civilians.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In Pakistan a suspected US drone strike killed five people in the Shawal area of North Waziristan.
    (AP, 7/28/13)
2013        Jul 28, In South Africa a 49-year-old worker was shot dead near Lonmin's Marikana mine, stirring worries of new labor tension in the troubled platinum mining belt that has been racked by a violent union dispute over the last year.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)
2013        Jul 28, Togo’s electoral commission said President Faure Gnassingbe's Union for the Republic party has won 62 of 91 seats, up from 50 of the legislature's 81 seats in 2007.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2014        Jul 28, A US federal appeals court upheld the government’s right to demand that gun dealers in southwestern border states tell authorities if someone buys more than two semiautomatic rifles in a five day span,
    (SFC, 7/29/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 28, California Gov. Jerry Brown with state and business leaders began a 3-day business trip to Mexico.
    (SFC, 7/30/14, p.C1)
2014        Jul 28, James Shigeta (b.1929), Honolulu-born American actor, died in Beverly Hills. He played the lead role in the lavish musical “Flower Drum Song" (1961). His other films included “Bridge to the Sun" (1961) and “Die Hard" (1988).
    (SFC, 7/31/14, p.D2)
2014        Jul 28, Nathaniel Kibby (34) of New Hampshire was arrested and charged with kidnapping 15-year-old Abigail "Abby" Hernandez more than nine months ago sometime after she left Kennett High School in Conway.
    (AP, 7/29/14)
2014        Jul 28, A US federal appeals court struck down Virginia’s same-sex marriage ban.
    (SFC, 7/29/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 28, The international Permanent Court of Arbitration ordered Russia to pay over $50 billion in compensation to the former majority shareholder of now-defunct oil producer Yukos over the expropriation of the company more than 10 years ago. Russia planned to appeal.
    (AP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, Britain’s Passport Office staff launched a 24-hour strike over staffing shortages and pay just weeks after extra workers were drafted in to tackle a backlog of tens of thousands of applications.
    (AFP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, In China at least 13 police officers and 20 Uighurs were killed and injured in an alleged "terrorist attack" in the far western Xinjiang region, home to the mainly Muslim Uighur minority. Chinese police shot dead dozens of knife-wielding attackers after they staged assaults on two towns in the Xinjiang region. On Aug 3 state media said that 37 civilians and 59 "terrorists" were killed in the attack in Xinjiang.
    (AFP, 7/29/14)(Reuters, 7/29/14)(SFC, 7/31/14, p.A6)(AP, 8/3/14)
2014        Jul 28, In China police took down the cross of the Longgang Huai En Church in the eastern city of Wenzhou, known as China’s Jerusalem, saying it violated height limits. Church leaders said the government is trying to suppress the fast growing Protestant religion.
    (SFC, 7/29/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 28, Egyptian troops killed 7 suspected militants and arrested five as part of an ongoing offensive in the volatile Sinai Peninsula. A girl (9) was killed when a rocket hit the ground outside a house in the town of Sheikh Zuwaid, northern Sinai.
    (AP, 7/29/14)(AFP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, An Iraqi government raid on jihadist targets in Jurf al-Sakhr, a flashpoint town southwest of Baghdad, killed 17 people, including at least 3 civilians. North of Baghdad 3 fighters from the Shiite militia Asaib Ahl al-Haq were killed and five wounded near Mansuriyah while defending the Hamrin dam from an IS attack. Attacks around Baghdad killed 10 people. 17 unidentified bodies with bullet wounds were found in different, mainly Shiite, districts of Baghdad over the last 24 hours.
    (AFP, 7/28/14)(AP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, Israel eased its offensive in the Gaza Strip and Palestinian rocket fire from the enclave declined sharply in a 24 hour truce to mark the Muslim holiday of Eid. Palestinian cross-border attacks killed 10 Israeli soldiers. A rocket strike on Gaza's Shifa hospital killed 10 and injured scores. Israel said it was caused by Hamas misfire; Hamas said it was an Israeli air strike.
    (Reuters, 7/28/14)(Reuters, 7/29/14)
2014        Jul 28, Japan said it is imposing more sanctions against Russia over its support for pro-Moscow rebels in Ukraine who are accused of shooting down a Malaysian jet.
    (AP, 7/29/14)
2014        Jul 28, In Nigeria two separate blasts by female suicide bombers killed 3 people and injured 13 in Kano.
    (AFP, 7/28/14)(SFC, 7/29/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 28, In the Philippines Abu Sayyaf gunmen attacked Filipino civilians traveling to celebrate the end of Ramadan with their families, killing 21, including at least six children in Sulu province. Among those killed were at least four members of a Talipao civilian security force called Barangay Police Action Team that has been helping the military fight the jungle-based militants.
    (AP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, Opposition activists said more than 2,000 Syrians — almost half of them pro-government forces — have been killed in just over two weeks of fighting in Syria, making it one of the worst death tolls in the country's civil war.
    (AP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, In southern Thailand a soldier and 3 suspected Muslim separatists were killed in a clash in Narathiwat.
    (Reuters, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, In eastern Ukraine heavy fighting raged around the Malaysia Airlines debris field, once again preventing an international police team charged with securing the site from even getting there. A government-supported volunteer battalion said in a statement that it lost 23 soldiers during fighting in a town called Lutuhyne. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said in a report that at least 1,129 people have been killed between mid-April, when fighting began, and July 26.
    (AP, 7/28/14)

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