Today in History - July 31

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904        Jul 31, Arabs captured Thessalonica of the Byzantine Empire.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1396        Jul 31, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Limburg, count, was born.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1498        Jul 31, During his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus arrived at an island he named Trinidad because of its 3 hills.
    (AP, 7/31/98)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v3.htm)

1556        Jul 31, St. Ignatius of Loyola (65), founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order of Catholic priests and brothers, died in Rome.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(MC, 7/31/02)

1629        Jul 31, Johann Jakob Lowe von Eisenach, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1703        Jul 31, English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire "The Shortest Way With Dissenters."
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1760        Jul 31, Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, foiled last French threat at Warburg and drove the French army back to Rhine River.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1777        Jul 31, The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
    (AP, 7/31/97)

1790        Jul 31, The first US patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process". This patent was signed by then President George Washington. The first 10,280 patents, issued between 1790 and 1836, were destroyed by a fire. The legal basis for the United States patent system (USPTO) is Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution wherein the powers of Congress are defined.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Patent_and_Trademark_Office)

1792        Jul 31, The foundation-stone was laid for the US Mint by David Rittenhouse, Esq. The property was paid for and deeded to the United States of America for a consideration of $4266.67 on July 18, 1792. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
    (http://tinyurl.com/per3q6f)
   
1803           Jul 31, John Ericsson, inventor of the screw propeller, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1811        Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1813        Jul 31, British invaded Plattsburgh, NY.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1816        Jul 31, George Henry Thomas (d.1870), Union general in the Civil War whose bravery at the battle of Chickamauga earned him the nickname "the Rock of Chickamauga," was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(MC, 7/31/02)

1830        Jul 31, Charles X of France was forcibly ejected from the French throne. [see Jul 28]
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1837        Jul 31, William Clarke Quantrill (d.1865), Confederate guerrilla leader, was born at Canal Dover, Ohio.
            (www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/QQ/fqu3.html)

1849        Jul 31, Benjamin Chambers patented a breech loading cannon.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1864        Jul 31, Ulysses S. Grant was named General of Volunteers.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1864        Jul 31, Louis Hachette (64), French publisher, died.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1867        Jul 31, S.S. Kresge, American businessman who owned five-and-ten stores across the country, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1875        Jul 31, Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States, died in Carter Station, Tenn., at age 66. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president to face impeachment proceedings.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(HN, 7/31/98)

1876        Jul 31, US Coast Guard officers' training school was established at New Bedford, MA.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1880        Jul 31, Fancy Farm in Kentucky announced in a local newspaper upcoming barn dance, picnic and gander pulling. The event grew to become a major event and its 1982 event was certified in the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s largest picnic.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.26)

1882        Jul 31, Belle and Sam Starr were charged with Horse stealing in the Indian territory. Myra Maybelle Shirley (Belle Starr) was neither a belle nor the star of any outlaw band and still remains a legendary wild woman of the Old West.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1886        Jul 31, Franz Liszt, composer, died in Bayreuth. His work included the symphonic poem "Les Preludes" and the "Faust Symphony." Cosima-von-Bulow was an illegitimate daughter of Liszt and married to Richard Wagner. A 3 volume biography of Liszt (1977, 1983, 1996) was written by Alan Walker, Vol 3 was titled: "Franz Liszt: The final Years." Deszno Legany of Hungary earlier wrote: "Liszt and His country: 1874-1866."
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1901        Jul 31, Jean Dubuffet, French sculptor and painter, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1904        Jul 31, The Trans-Siberian railroad connecting the Ural mountains with Russia’s Pacific coast, was completed. [see Jul 21]
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1911        Jul 31, George Liberace, violinist (Liberace Show), was born in Menasha, Wisc.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1912        Jul 31, Milton Friedman (d.2006), Nobel Prize winning economist (1976), was born. He became the premier spokesman for the monetarist school of economics. He argued that changes in money supply precede changes in the overall economic conditions. He argued that all social welfare programs should be replaced with a negative income tax. He held that there was a natural rate of unemployment that depended on the given economic structure.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1913        Jul 31, Bulgaria signed an armistice concluding the 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkan_Wars)

1914        Jul 31, Jean Jaures (b.1859), French Socialist leader, was assassinated by French nationalist Raoul Villain (29).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Jaur%C3%A8s)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.52)
1914        Jul 31, German Kaiser Wilhelm II threatened war and ordered Russia to demobilize.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1917        Jul 31, The third Battle of Ypres commenced as the British attacked the German lines.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1919        Jul 31, Curt Gowdy (d.2006), later leading sports announcer, was born in Green River, Wyo.
    (SFC, 2/21/06, p.B5)
1919        Jul 31, Primo Levi, Italian writer and scientist (Survival in Auschwitz), was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)
1919        Jul 31, Germany's Weimar Constitution was adopted by the republic's National Assembly. The Weimar Republic became Germany’s 1st democratic government.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1921        Jul 31, Whitney Young, Jr., civil rights leader and executive director of the National Urban League, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1922        Jul 31, Ralph Samuelson (18) rode the world's 1st water skis in Minn.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1925        Jul 31, An Unemployment Insurance Act was passed in England.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1928        Jul 31, Horace Silver, jazz pianist, composer and bandleader, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1932        Jul 31, The George Washington quarter went into circulation as a 200 year commemorative of G. Washington’s birth. It has been in use ever since.
    (WSJ, 7/12/96, p.B5B)(MC, 7/31/02)
1932        Jul 31, Adolf Hitler's Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis) doubled its strength in legislative elections. Nazi Party won 37.3% of the vote.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(www.germanculture.com.ua/july/july31.htm)

1937        Jul 31, The Russian Politburo enabled Operative Order 00447. This led to the execution of some 193,000 people.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1940        Jul 31, Reich's Kommissar Seyss-Inquart banned homosexuals.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1941        Jul 31, The U.S. Army established the Military Police Corps.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1942        Jul 31, At midnight the record studios fell silent in a struggle with James Caesar Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians. Petrillo insisted that the record industry pay a ¼ to ¾ cent royalty to the musicians union. Decca signed an agreement in Aug, 1943, and Columbia and Victor surrendered Nov 11, 1944.
    (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)
1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1944        Jul 31, A large number of children were deported to Auschwitz from France by Alois Brunner, deputy to Adolf Eichmann.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.A10)
1944        Jul 31, Antoine de Saint-Exupery (44), author of "The Little Prince," died in a plane crash during reconnaissance off Marseilles. In 1949 Nelly de Vogue, his longtime mistress, authored the 1st Exupery biography. In 2001 a memoir by his widow, Consuelo de Saint-Exupery (d.1979) titled "The Tale of the Rose: The Passion That Inspired the Little Prince," was published. Saint-Exupery's plane was found in 2004.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/5/01, DB p.63)(SFC, 4/8/04, p.A2)
1944        Jul 31, The Soviet army took Kovno [Kaunas], the capital of Lithuania.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1945        Jul 31, Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrendered to U.S. authorities in Austria; he was turned over to France, which later tried and executed him.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

1947        Jul 31, The Jewish underground Irgun Zvai Leumi said it hanged 2 British sergeants in Palestine.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)

1948        Jul 31, "Brigadoon" closed at Ziegfeld Theater in NYC after 581 performances.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1948        Jul 31, President Truman helped dedicate New York International Airport (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AP, 7/31/97)

1950        Jul 31, India and Nepal signed a treaty of peace and friendship.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mdf3sk5)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.32)

1951        Jul 31, Evonne Goolagong, Australian tennis player and first aborigine in an international sport, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1953        Jul 31, Sen. Robert A. Taft of Ohio (63), known as "Mr. Republican," died in New York. His successor was named by a Democratic governor.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.A14)

1954        Jul 31, Italians Lino Lacedelli (1925-2009) and Achille Compagnoni (1915-2009) first scaled Pakistan’s K-2, the world's second-highest mountain. In 2004 Lacedelli authored “K2: The Price of Conquest."
    (AP, 7/27/04)(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.C8)

1957        Jul 31, The Distant Early Warning Line, a system of radar stations designed to detect Soviet bombers approaching North America, went into operation.
    (AP, 7/31/07)

1958        Jul 31, There was an anti-Chinese uprising in Tibet.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1959        Jul 31, In Spain dissident student members of the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), inspired by Marxist-Leninist teachings, formally founded ETA, which stands for Euskadi ta Askatasuna, meaning Basque Fatherland and Liberty in the Basque language. Its founders focused on Gen. Francisco Franco's suppression of the Basque language and culture.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETA)(AP, 7/30/09)(www.cfr.org/publication/9271/)

1960        Jul 31, Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, called for a black state.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1961        Jul 31, Israel welcomed its 1,000,000th immigrant.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1964        Jul 31, The American space probe Ranger 7 transmitted pictures of the moon's surface.
    (AP, 7/31/97)

1965        Jul 31, J. K. Rowling, British writer, was born in Yate, Gloucestershire. She became famous for her Harry Potter fantasy series. By 2012 she was the world’s richest author with a net worth of some $910 million.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._K._Rowling)(http://tinyurl.com/8mvqqjl)

1966        Jul 31, Alabamans burned Beatle products due to John Lennon's remark that the Beatles are more popular than Jesus.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1968        Jul 31, The Beatle's recorded Hey Jude.
    (http://oldies.about.com/od/thebeatlessongs/a/heyjude.htm)
1968        Jul 31, In Boston 4 men were convicted for shooting Edward "Teddy" Deegan in a Chelsea, Mass., alley in 1965. In 2007 a federal judge in Boston ordered the government to pay a record nearly $102 million for the FBI's role in the wrongful murder convictions of the 4 men. Two of the men convicted, Louis Greco and Henry Tameleo, died behind bars. The others, Peter Limone (73) and Joseph Salvati (74) spent three decades in prison.
    (www.justicedenied.org/issue/issue_27/fbi%27s_legacy_of_shame.html)

1969        Jul 31, The Zodiac killer sent a poorly-spelled letter to the SF Chronicle, Examiner and Vallejo Times-Herald and took responsibility for the July 5 shootings along with a portion of a cipher.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A19)
1969        Jul 31, Gary Allen Hinman, a California musician and UCLA Ph.D. candidate, was found murdered at his home in Topanga Canyon, Ca.  Bruce Davis, a member of Charles Manson’s murderous cult, was later convicted for the murder of Gary Hinman as well as stuntman Donald “Shorty" Shea.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Brunner)(SFC, 1/29/10, p.A6)

1971        Jul 31, Apollo 15 astronauts (Dave Scott) took a drive on the moon in their land rover.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_rover)

1972        Jul 31, Thomas F. Eagleton was chosen by the Democratic Party convention and presidential candidate George McGovern on July 31, 1972 as the Vice presidential candidate. He withdrew from the 1972 Democratic Party ticket because of publicity surrounding his hospitalization for psychiatric treatment. The senator from Missouri was asked to withdraw by McGovern after reporters discovered and published information about his three hospitalizations for psychiatric disorders.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(HNQ, 4/25/00)
1972        Jul 31, George Wright, dressed as a priest and using an alias, hijacked a Delta flight from Detroit to Miami with four other BLA members and three children. They released 86 other passengers in exchange for a $1 million ransom and forced the plane to fly to Boston. There an international navigator was taken aboard, and the plane was flown to Algeria, where the hijackers sought asylum. Wright's associates were tracked down, arrested, tried and convicted in Paris in 1976.
    (www.edmontonsun.com/2011/09/27/us-fugitive-caught-after-41-years)
1972        Jul 31, The British army launched "Operation Motorman" to regain control of Catholic parts of Belfast and Londonderry that had been closed off by IRA road barricades since 1971.  An IRA attack followed in Claudy, Northern Ireland, and 3 car bombs killed 9 people. In 2002 a court case was reopened following allegations that Rev. Jim Chesney (d.1980), a deceased Roman Catholic priest, had led the Claudy attack. In 2010 a new report said the British government and the Roman Catholic church colluded to cover up the involvement of Rev. Jim Chesney.
    (AP, 10/1/02)(AP, 11/29/05)(AP, 8/24/10)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.46)

1975        Jul 31, The Bangkok Agreement was signed as an initiative of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). As Asia’s 1st preferential trade agreement between developing countries it aimed at promoting intra-regional trade through exchange of mutually agreed concessions by member countries. Five countries, Republic of Korea, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Lao People’s Democratic Republic, were the initial signatories. China joined in April, 2000. Thailand and the Philippines did not ratify the agreement due to their ASEAN commitments.
    (www.unescap.org/tid/apta.asp)(www.siamindia.com/scripts/Bankong.aspx)

1976        Jul 31, "Sugar" Ray Charles Leonard (b.1956), American boxer, won an Olympic gold medal in Montreal.
    (http://dcboxing.blogspot.com/2008/03/1976-olympic-final-sugar-ray-leonard-vs.html)

1979        Jul 31, Cesar Chavez began a 12-day march from SF to Salinas to dramatize the 6-month strike of the United Farm Workers.
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.F2)

1981        Jul 31, A seven-week-old Major League Baseball strike ended.
    (AP, 7/31/99)
1981        Jul 31, The leader of Panama, General Omar Torrijos, died in a plane crash. Michael Harari, a former Israeli Mossad agent, reorganized, renamed and trained the Panamanian Defense Forces when Gen. Manuel Noriega succeeded Torrijos.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)(AP, 7/31/99)(http://tinyurl.com/nmduqua)

1982        Jul 31, Jai Alai executive John B. Callahan (45) was fatally shot in Miami by mob hit man John Martorano. Callahan’s body was found Aug 2 in the trunk of his Cadillac. In 2008 former FBI agent John Connolly was convicted of 2nd degree murder for leaking information to mobsters that led to the shooting death of Callahan. In Jan, 2009, Connolly was sentenced to 40 years in prison.
    (SFC, 11/6/08, p.A9)(http://mafiatoday.com/?p=442)(SFC, 1/16/09, p.A2)

1987        Jul 31, Iranian pilgrims and riot police clashed in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government blamed Iranians for the resulting 402 deaths.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(AP, 2/1/04)

1988        Jul 31, The last US Playboy Club closed in Lansing, Mich.
    (www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/date/july03/07_31_1988.html)
1988        Jul 31, In a televised speech, Jordan's King Hussein called for an independent Palestinian state in the Israeli-occupied territories as he told the Palestinians to take affairs into their own hands. Hussein renounced claims to the West Bank, paving the way for new elections and reforms.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(AP, 1/23/13)

1989        Jul 31, A pro-Iranian group in Lebanon released a grisly videotape purportedly showing the body of American hostage William R. Higgins dangling from a rope, a day after his kidnappers threatened to kill him.
    (AP, 7/31/99)

1990        Jul 31, Pitcher Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers became the 20th major leaguer to win 300 games as he led his team to victory over the Milwaukee Brewers 11-to-3.
    (AP, 7/31/00)   
1990        Jul 31, Shoal Creek, a private club in Birmingham, Alabama, that drew criticism for being all-white, announced it had accepted a black businessman as an honorary member.
    (AP, 7/31/00)
1990        Jul 31, The Assembly of Bosnia-Herzegovina adopted constitutional amendments by which Bosnia-Herzegovina was declared a democratic state of equal citizens of the peoples of BH, Moslems, Serbs, Croats and others.
    (www.balkan-archive.org.yu/politics/chronology/chron90.html)

1991        Jul 31, A volleyball court was installed at People’s Park in Berkeley at a cost of over $1 million due to the ensuing 12 days of rioting and arrests. The city established a five year lease with the Univ. to manage the 2.3 acre park.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B3)
1991        Jul 31, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. The agreement included the deactivation and removal by May, 1995, of 150 Minuteman II missiles in Missouri. The treaty was set to expire in Dec, 2009.
    (AP, 7/31/01)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1991        Jul 31, The US Senate voted to allow women to fly combat aircraft.
    (http://library.osu.edu/sites/archives/glenn/collection/senate/speeches3.htm)
1991        Jul 31, Seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed near Camden, South Carolina.
    (AP, 7/31/01)
1991        Jul 31, Seven people were killed when a bus carrying Girl Scouts crashed in Palm Springs, California.
    (AP, 7/31/01)
1991        Jul 31, In Lithuania 7 border guards were shot to death and one was wounded as OMON commandos from the Soviet Interior Ministry raided the Medininkai checkpoint on the border of Lithuania and Belarus.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medininkai)

1992        Jul 31, Summer Sanders became the first American athlete to win four medals at the Barcelona Olympics as she won the gold in the women's 200-meter butterfly.
    (AP, 7/31/97)
1992        Jul 31, The space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a problem-plagued scientific mission.
    (AP, 7/31/97)
1992        Jul 31, In Italy the scala mobile wage index, which maintained a rigid link between Italian wages and prices, was scrapped after a long struggle.
    (www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/ITALY/SLIDINGSCALEMECHANISM-IT.htm)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.9)

1993        Jul 31, The Missouri River overflowed. It was just part of the massive flooding throughout the Midwest.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)
1993        Jul 31, A U.S.-brokered truce halted Israel's weeklong military offensive in southern Lebanon, which was launched in retaliation for guerrilla attacks that killed seven Israeli troops.
    (HN, 7/31/98)
1993        Jul 31, Belgium's King Baudouin I died at age 62; he was succeeded by his brother, Prince Albert.
    (AP, 7/31/03)

1994        Jul 31, The U.N. Security Council voted 12-0 with 2 abstentions to authorize member states to use "all necessary means" to oust the military leadership in Haiti.
    (AP, 7/31/99)(MC, 7/31/02)

1995        Jul 31, The Walt Disney Company agreed to acquire Capital Cities-ABC Inc. in a $19 billion deal. The deal included the ESPN sports cable network and made Disney the world’s largest media company.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(Econ, 9/18/04, p.70)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.65)

1996        Jul 31, After Pres. Clinton's announcement that he would sign it, 98 Democrats joined the House's Republican majority to pass a historic welfare overhaul bill. The White House won agreement with key Republican lawmakers on a package of anti-terrorism measures.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
1996        Jul 31, Mahmoud Jumayal died under interrogation by the Palestinian security forces. He was the 8th in 2 years.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8,10)
1996        Jul 31, In South Africa rush-hour crowds panicked when guards used electric prods to drive off fare-beaters. At least 15 died and 65 were injured in a stampede.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A1)

1997        Jul 31, In New York City, police seized five bombs believed bound for terrorist attacks on city subways. 2 potential suicide bombers were shot and wounded in an explosives laden Brooklyn apartment. Gazi Ibrahim Abu Mezer (23) and Lafi Khalil (22) were recovering from wounds. In 1998 Khalil was acquitted and Gazi Ibrahim Aby Mezer was convicted of plotting to bomb a subway station.
    (SFC, 8/1/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/4/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.A1)(HN, 7/31/98)
1997        Jul 31, Bao Dai (85), former emperor of Annam [now Vietnam] and chief of state of French Indochina, died in France.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)(MC, 7/31/02)
1997        Jul 31, Nigeria was named the most corrupt country in the world by business people in a report released by the German-based Transparency Int’l. Denmark was named the least corrupt.
    (SFC, 8/1/97, p.B3)

1998        Jul 31, President Clinton said he would "completely and truthfully" answer prosecutors' questions about Monica Lewinsky in testimony to be beamed by closed-circuit television to a grand jury.
    (AP, 7/31/99)
1998        Jul 31, IBM's Russian subsidiary agreed to pay $8.5 million in federal fines for selling powerful computers ultimately destined for a Russian nuclear weapons laboratory.
    (AP, 7/31/99)
1998        Jul 31, Bicycle production at the Huffy plant in Celina, Ohio, ended 44 years of production and 650 workers lost their jobs.
    (SFC, 8/6/93, p.A8)
1998        Jul 31, In Algeria 6 civilians were killed and 23 wounded in 2 overnight attacks. In Malakou village in Tiaret province 4 villagers had their throats cut and in Algiers a parcel bomb killed 2.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)
1998        Jul 31, The British government banned the manufacture, sale and use of land mines by its military.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)
1998        Jul 31, In China Chen Xitong, former mayor of Beijing, was sentenced to 16 years in prison for graft. The bribes were to be confiscated and handed over to the state treasury.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.D2)
1998        Jul 31, The Canadian dollar hit a historical low of 66.10 cents to $1US.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 31, In China it was reported that floods on the Yangtze River had killed 1,261 people in Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.D3)
1998        Jul 31, Talks between India and Pakistan broke down following border fighting in Kashmir that killed 50 people.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 31, In Italy over 10,000 members of the nation’s beach workers (bagnini) went on strike and closed their umbrella stands.
    (WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 31, In Japan Asa Takii, the oldest person in the country and a survivor of the Hiroshima blast, died at age 114.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)
1998        Jul 31, In Kosovo refugees fled Serb attacks one day after Serbia declared that the military offensive was over.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 31, In South Africa the Truth and Reconciliation Commission closed down after 2 years of hearings. A report was due in October.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A12)

1999        Jul 31, NASA controllers planned to send the $63 million Lunar Prospector crashing into the Mawson crater located in the Moon’s south pole. They hoped to churn up some water vapor for possible detection. Evidence of the crash at 2:51 PDT was not detected.
    (SFC, 6/3/99, p.A4)(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 31, Chicago authorities said as many as 46 more residents had died as a result of a relentless heat wave that enveloped much of the nation and produced the hottest July on record in New York City.
    (AP, 7/31/00)
1999        Jul 31, In Cottrellville Township, Mich., 10 people died from a skydiving plane crash shortly after takeoff from Marine City Airport, 40 miles north of Detroit.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.A5)
1999        Jul 31, Chinese authorities seized a Taiwanese freighter near the Taiwanese military post of Matsu Island with accusations of smuggling.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A10)
1999        Jul 31, The Ukraine and the US agreed to extend the nuclear weapon and ballistic missile dismantling program for 6 years.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.A20)

2000        Jul 31, The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia, with George W. Bush’s name put into nomination for president.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/31/01)
2000        Jul 31, William Maxwell (b.1908) novelist and editor for the New Yorker, died in NYC. In 2008 the Library of America published a 2-volume edition of his fiction.
    (WSJ, 9/5/08, p.W6)(www.answers.com/topic/maxwell-william-keepers-jr)
2000        Jul 31, US and British diplomats accused the Pres. Charles Taylor of Liberia and Pres. Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso of trading arms for diamonds and aiding the rebels in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A8)
2000        Jul 31, A Beijing court sentenced Cheng Kejie (66) to death for corruption. He was a former deputy chairman of the national legislature and headed the southern region of Guangxi from 1990-1998. Over the last week 48 people were executed for drug trafficking. Kejie was executed in Sept.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A10)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A14)
2000        Jul 31, In Israel Moshe Katsav of the opposition Likud Party was elected president over Shimon Peres. Prime Minister Barak survived an attempt to oust his government.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 31, North and South Korea agreed to reopen border liaison offices and reconnect a railway linking their capitals.
    (AP, 7/31/01)
2000        Jul 31, In Mexico aides of Vincente Fox announced plans to transform the police and judiciary and to demilitarize the anti-narcotics programs.
    (SFC, 8/1/00, p.A8)
2000        Jul 31, Yugoslavia announced that it had arrested 4 Dutch men for plotting to kidnap or kill Pres. Milosevic to win a $5 million US reward.
    (WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 31, In Zimbabwe Vice President Joseph Msika announced that 3,000 white-owned farms would be resettled by landless black families.
    (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A13)

2001        Jul 31, Pres. Bush issued Executive Order 13221. It instructed government agencies that used external standby power devices to purchase products that use no more than one watt in their standby power consuming mode.
    (www.ofee.gov/eo/eo.htm)
2001        Jul 31, The US House of Representatives voted 265-102 to criminalize all human cloning.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 31, Poul Anderson, science fiction writer, died at age 74.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 31, In Colombia 4 rebels and 2 soldiers were killed in fighting in southern and northwestern areas.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)
2001        Jul 31, In Indonesia at least 62 people were killed when a mudslide buried the village of Sambulu. At least 35 people were killed and some 200 missing.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)(AP, 7/31/02)
2001        Jul 31, In the West Bank Israeli gunships killed 8 people in Nablus including 2 Hamas leaders, Jamal Mansour and Jamal Salim, and 2 children.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/2/01, p.A7)
2001        Jul 31, Russian commandos freed 25 [41] hostages held by 2 hijackers in Mineralniye Vody, Chechnya.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A1)

2002        Jul 31, The US Senate rejected a Medicare drug-benefit bill but passed a bill to speed generic drugs to market.
    (WSJ, 8/1/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 31, US court papers alleged that Russia's Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov (53) used his influence with members of the Russian and French skating federations to fix the outcome of the pairs and ice dancing competitions at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics last February. Tokhtakhounov was arrested in Italy. Italy’s highest court denounced an extradition bid and freed Tokhtakhounov.
    (Reuters, 7/31/02)(SFC, 8/1/02, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alimzhan_Tokhtakhounov)
2002        Jul 31, In Chicago a mob beat Anthony Stuckey (49) and Jack Moore (62) to death after their van veered into over a curb and injured 3 women on the South Side. One woman later died from her injuries. On August 3, seven people were charged with 1st degree murder. In 2003 Antonio Fort (16) was cleared of 34 charges, including first-degree murder. Fort had been charged as an adult.
    (SFC, 8/1/02, p.A3)(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.A13)(http://tinyurl.com/59zyfm)
2002        Jul 31, In Brunei U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell met his North Korean counterpart for an informal chat, as easing inter-Korean tensions stole the spotlight at an Asia-Pacific security forum.
    (Reuters, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, Southeast Asian nations signed an anti-terror pact on with U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell ahead of his visit to Indonesia.
    (AP, 8/1/02)
2002        Jul 31, In Israel a bomb exploded in a crowded cafeteria at Hebrew University during lunchtime, killing 9 people including 5 Americans and wounding more than 70. Hamas claimed responsibility. The dead included a peace activist named Dafna, who was a close friend of Israeli novelist Avraham Yehoshua. His novel “A Woman in Israel," translated to English in 2006, was dedicated to Dafna.
    (SFC, 8/2/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/31/03)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.73)
2002        Jul 31, An Israeli man, his hands and feet bound, was found shot and killed in his factory office near the West Bank town of Tulkarem.
    (AP, 8/1/02)
2002        Jul 31, In Lebanon a disgruntled Education Ministry employee opened fire at colleagues at a ministry office in Beirut, killing eight people and wounding five before he was apprehended by police.
    (AP, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, Thousands of illegal immigrants headed for Malaysia's ports to meet a midnight deadline for them to leave the country or risk a caning.
    (Reuters, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, Pope John Paul II canonized Juan Diego, an Indian peasant to whom church tradition says the Virgin Mary appeared 500 years ago, in a ceremony in Mexico that drew more than 1 million believers into the streets.
    (AP, 8/1/02)
2002        Jul 31, In Mexico 6 masked gunmen kidnapped a federal congressman from a town in the Pacific coast state of Guerrero.
    (AP, 8/1/02)
2002        Jul 31, In eastern Niger disgruntled soldiers began a mutiny in N'gourti to protest months of unpaid salaries, seizing senior officials in the region and taking control of a radio station.
    (AP, 8/2/02)
2002        Jul 31, South Korean lawmakers vetoed the country's first female prime minister, dealing a blow to President Kim Dae-jung, who had nominated her to boost his beleaguered government's image in an election year.
    (Reuters, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, Sudanese rebels claimed that government troops using bombers and helicopter gunships attacked areas of a town in Sudan's oil-producing Western Upper Nile Province.
    (AP, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, Uruguay prepared to keep banks closed for a second day in an attempt to stanch the flow of capital in the midst of a growing financial crisis.
    (AP, 7/31/02)
2002        Jul 31, In Ukraine a coal mine blast killed 19 miners, 3,557 underground.
    (SFC, 8/1/02, p.A14)

2003        Jul 31, Two of ousted Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein's daughters and their nine children were granted refuge in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/31/04)
2003        Jul 31, The Israeli parliament voted to block Palestinians who marry Israelis from becoming Israeli citizens of residents. The legislation was enacted for one year.
    (SFC, 8/1/03, p.A20)
2003        Jul 31, In Nepal monsoon rains triggered landslides, killing at least 48 villagers over the last 2 days, burying houses and blocking a key highway.
    (AP, 7/31/03)
2003        Jul 31, The Vatican launched a global campaign against gay marriages, warning Catholic politicians that support of same-sex unions was "gravely immoral" and urging non-Catholics to join the offensive.
    (SFC, 8/1/03, p.A1)(AP, 7/31/04)

2004        Jul 31, Virginia Grey (87), American film actress, died in LA. She had appeared in over 100 films and 40 TV shows.
    (SFC, 8/7/04, p.B6)
2004        Jul 31, In southern Afghanistan gunmen killed a local government leader and four of his bodyguards in an ambush.
    (AP, 7/31/04)
2004        Jul 31, Gunmen killed the head of a state-run teacher's institute as he left a mosque after prayers, an attack in apparent retribution for his refusal to stop working for Iraqi authorities.
    (AP, 7/31/04)
2004        Jul 31, A 10-day manhunt for a murder suspect ended in a shootout near the Circus Maximus in central Rome. Luciano Liboni had allegedly killed a policeman July 22.
    (AP, 7/31/04)
2004        Jul 31, Laura Betti (70), Italian film actress, died. Her debut was in Fellini’s “La Dolce Vita" (1960).
    (SFC, 8/3/04, p.B6)
2004        Jul 31, In Poland some 200,000 people gathered for the 10th annual weekend concert called Woodstock in Kostrzyn.
    (AP, 7/31/04)
2004        Jul 31, Flood-weakened riverbanks in South Asia collapsed around villages, pushing the death toll from this season's monsoons above 1,500 and stranding more than 30 million people.
    (AP, 8/1/04)
2004        Jul 31, World Trade negotiators in Geneva broke months of deadlock and put together a framework for the rest of the Doha trade round.
    (Econ, 8/7/04, p.59)
2004        Jul 31, The Vatican issued a document denouncing feminism for trying to blur differences between men and women and threatening the institution of families based on a mother and a father.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

2005        Jul 31, The US Dept. of Justice released its 1st statistical report on rape behind bars. It estimated 8,210 allegations of sexual violence in American jails in 2004.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.25)
2005        Jul 31, The HMAS Brisbane, a decommissioned U.S.-built Australian naval destroyer (1966-2001), was scuttled with explosives off the coast of Queensland. The vessel sank evenly to its resting point about 115 feet beneath the surface to become an artificial reef and a major diving attraction.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, Police arrested seven people during a raid on an apartment in southern England, bringing to 21 the number in custody in the relentless hunt for accomplices in the failed July 21 transit bombings in London.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2005        Jul 31, Jeong Jang shot a 3-under 69 to win the Women's British Open by four strokes.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2005        Jul 31, Police in eastern Germany found the remains of nine newborn babies buried in a garden and arrested a woman (39) believed to be their mother.
    (AP, 8/1/05)
2005        Jul 31, A Honduran official said police had arrested Erlan Colindres, a 13-year-old gang member, and Manuel Romero, his teenaged bodyguard, for the July 29 killing of Timothy Markey, a US Drug Enforcement Administration agent, during an apparent bungled robbery.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, In India authorities warned residents to remain home after new heavy rains pounded Bombay and the surrounding state, as the official death toll from last week's record-breaking monsoon rains hit 910.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, Hasan Rowhani, Iran's top nuclear negotiator, said his European counterparts have proposed a guarantee that Iran will not be invaded if Tehran agrees to permanently halt uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, A car bomb exploded south of Baghdad, killing five civilians and wounding 10, including two policemen.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, In southern Mexico former soldier Oscar Flores (35) killed his wife, infant nephew and a police officer in a vicious rampage that left 10 people dead before being wounded by police and killed by an angry crowd.
    (AP, 8/1/05)
2005        Jul 31, Maoist rebels freed seven government officials they had seized in eastern Nepal, and all were safe and in good health.
    (AP, 7/31/05)
2005        Jul 31, John Garang (60), Sudan's vice president and former southern rebel leader, died when the helicopter he was flying in crashed into a mountain in southern Sudan in bad weather killing him and the other 13 people on board.
    (AP, 8/1/05)

2006        Jul 31, In California PM Blair and Gov. Schwarzenegger committed to a number of actions to fight global warming including a look for market-based ways to stem emissions of the gases believed to cause global warming.
    (WSJ, 8/1/06, p.A8)
2006        Jul 31, In Los Angeles 2 women, Olga Rutterschmidt (73) and Helen Golay (75), were charged with killing homeless men in hit-and-run car crashes in order to collect over $2 million in life insurance. In 2008 both women were convicted of murder and conspiracy. They were sentenced to spend the rest of their lives in prison.
    (SFC, 8/1/06, p.A3)(SFC, 4/18/08, p.B6)(SFC, 7/16/08, p.B5)
2006        Jul 31, SanDisk Corp. of Milpitas, Ca., agreed to buy M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers Ltd. of Israel for $1.56 billion in stock.
    (SFC, 8/1/06, p.D1)
2006        Jul 31, Scientists reported the development of a vaccine to control obesity in rats. The vaccine produced antibodies against ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates hunger and fat storage.
    (SFC, 8/1/06, p.A2)
2006        Jul 31, NATO took command of southern Afghanistan from the United States, and the new commander of the push to pacify the insurgency-wracked region vowed that he would not fail millions of Afghans seeking peace and stability. A bomb exploded outside a mosque in eastern Afghanistan during a memorial service for a mujahedeen commander, killing at least eight people and wounding 16.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Australian PM John Howard said he would seek a fifth straight term, ending his ambitious deputy's leadership hopes and cementing his place as one of the world's most successful conservative leaders.
    (Reuters, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, A lesbian couple lost a legal battle to have their Canadian marriage legally recognized in Britain.
    (Reuters, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, The Canadian Food Inspection Agency said two separate anthrax outbreaks in the Canadian Prairies have killed about 500 animals on an estimated 100 farms.
    (Reuters, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, In Colombia suspected rebels ambushed an army patrol, exploded a car bomb in Bogota and another bomb in the southwest, killing at least 18 people in a wave of attacks a week before the presidential inauguration.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Dozens of polling stations reopened in Congo’s second-largest city, offering citizens stymied by violence during their nation’s historic elections another chance to vote.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Cuban President Fidel Castro temporarily ceded power to his brother, Raul, after gastrointestinal surgery. In 2011 Fidel Castro said he resigned five years ago from all his official positions, including head of Cuba's Communist Party.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(AP, 3/22/11)
2006        Jul 31, France's agriculture minister condemned the destruction of two fields of genetically modified corn by activists in southwestern France.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Akbar Mohammadi (34) died in Tehran’s Evin Prison after a nine-day hunger strike to protest a lack of medical care. Mohammadi had been arrested for taking part in protests at Tehran University in July 1999, Iran's biggest anti-government demonstrations since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The EU later expressed grave concern regarding the harsh treatment of dissidents, opposition leaders, student activists and all human rights defenders in Iranian prisons.
    (AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Jul 31, In Iraq gunmen wearing military fatigues kidnapped 26 employees and customers from a mobile phone store in the main shopping area of Baghdad. Sectarian killings claimed 30 lives.
    (AP, 8/1/06)(WSJ, 8/1/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 31, Israeli warplanes carried out airstrikes in southern Lebanon, hours after agreeing to temporarily halt raids while investigating a bombing that killed nearly 60 Lebanese civilians. Israel accidentally killed a Lebanese soldier when it hit a car that it believed was carrying a senior Hezbollah official.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, In Indian Kashmir four rebels and a policeman were killed in three separate gunbattles in southern Poonch and Pulwama districts.
    (AP, 8/1/06)
2006        Jul 31, Every Kuwaiti citizen will get a $694 gift from the government after parliament unanimously backed the one-time payout. 2 million foreign workers, who make up the rest of Kuwait's population of 3 million, do not get the payment.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Malawi's top prosecutor said theft and corruption charges against the former president Bakili Muluzi have been dropped after Pres. Bingu wa Mutharika suspended the chief investigator in the case.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, In Mexico supporters of the country’s leftist presidential candidate paralyzed the Mexico City’s financial district and said they won’t leave until the top electoral court rules on their demands for a recount in the disputed race.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Mexican police found the body of a woman on a dirt road in the border city of Ciudad Juarez. Abigail Rodriguez (29), who apparently had been killed by a blow to the head and thrown out of a moving car, was the 14th woman found dead in Juarez so far this year.
    (AP, 8/1/06)
2006        Jul 31, Peru’s President Alan Garcia cut government salaries, including his own, three days after announcing a long list of austerity measures in his inaugural address.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Russian officials said more than 220 pieces, including jewelry and enameled objects worth about $5 million, stolen from the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, were not insured. The theft was discovered after a routine inventory check that began in October 2005 and was completed at the end of July.
    (AP, 8/1/06)(SFC, 8/1/06, p.A3)
2006        Jul 31, Serbia’s PM Vojislav Kostunica said in published remarks that Serbia will reject independence as a solution for Kosovo and continue to consider the province part of its territory.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, In South Korea Jeong Kyung-hak (48) was arrested on charges of being a spy for North Korea and having illegally arrived on Jul 27 with forged Philippines identity documents.
    (AP, 8/21/06)
2006        Jul 31, In northeastern Sri Lanka heavy fighting over control of a water supply killed 35 Tamil rebels and seven soldiers. A rebel leader declared the island nation's four-year-old cease-fire over.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Turkey named Gen. Yasar Buyukanit as the new military chief. He favored a tougher line against Kurdish rebels and negotiations on joining the EU.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, The UN passed Resolution 1696, which demanded that Iran suspend uranium enrichment by the end of August.
    (www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8792.doc.htm)
2006        Jul 31, The UN scrapped a meeting of nations that might contribute troops to help stabilize south Lebanon, a decision that reflected the deep divisions among key nations on how to end the three-week war between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 7/31/06)
2006        Jul 31, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez praised Vietnam for its battle against "imperialism" and pledged to help the communist country develop its nascent oil and gas industry during a two-day state visit.
    (AP, 8/1/06)
2006        Jul 31, Zimbabwe devalued its currency by 60% and slashed loan rates 550 points to 300%. 3 zeroes were off denominations amid 1200% inflation.
    (WSJ, 8/1/06, p.A1)

2007        Jul 31, A US government watchdog group called for the removal of GOP Sen. Ted Stevens from his Senate committees, less than 24 hours after the FBI and IRS raided the senator’s Alaska home in connection with a public corruption probe centered in the state.
    (www.cqpolitics.com/2007/07/ethics_flaps_could_stir_compet.html)
2007        Jul 31, The Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of the US Congress, issued a report saying it could not account for 190,000 AK-47 rifles and pistols given to Iraqi security forces in 2004 and 2005, or about half the weapons earmarked for soldiers and police.
    (Reuters, 8/6/07)
2007        Jul 31, The US Army censured retired three-star Lt. Gen. Philip Kensinger for a "perfect storm of mistakes, misjudgments and a failure of leadership" after the 2004 friendly-fire death in Afghanistan of Army Ranger Pat Tillman.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2007        Jul 31, In California Michael Schneider (44), a Hillsborough real estate broker, pleaded no contest in Santa Clara County to 173 felony counts related to bilking investors out of more than $43 million. He faced as much as 169 years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/2/07, p.B3)
2007        Jul 31, In northern California the governing board of Oakland’s troubled Univ. Preparatory Charter Academy closed the school leaving over 400 students in the lurch.
    (SFC, 8/1/07, p.A1)
2007        Jul 31, Johnson & Johnson said it would reduce its global work force by up to 4 percent, or up to 4,820 jobs, to cut costs due to slumping sales of heart stents and its No. 2 drug, plus looming patent expirations.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. was expected to reach a definitive agreement to buy Dow Jones & Co. Inc., capping his three-month pursuit of the publisher of the Wall Street Journal, as the Bancroft gave approval for Murdoch's $60-per-share bid.
    (Reuters, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, A new study reported that drinking wine or beer every day increases the risk of bowel cancer. The British Daily Telegraph reported 35,000 people are diagnosed each year with bowel cancer and that it kills 16,100 a year.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, Norman Cohn (92), English historian, died. He studied the links between apocalyptic Medieval sects and 20th century totalitarianism and genocide. His 1957 book: "Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages" drew parallels between millenarian movements in the Middle Ages and the rise of 20th-century totalitarianism.
    (AP, 8/27/07)
2007        Jul 31, In central Afghanistan police discovered the body of a second South Korean hostage, and the Taliban threatened to kill more captives if their demands were not met by a new deadline. A suicide car bomber blew himself up near a convoy of US troops on the outskirts of Kabul, leaving up to 7 civilians and three soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, ASEAN Plus Three foreign ministers gathered in Manila on the eve of high-level security talks. ARF, which includes the United States, European Union, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea and other countries, and will also hold talks here on Aug 1-2.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, The British army marked a milestone of peacemaking as it formally ended its 38-year mission to bolster security in Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Cambodia Kang Kek Ieu (alias Duch), a former Khmer Rouge prison chief, was charged with crimes against humanity and detained by Cambodia's UN-backed tribunal in the first legal action taken by the court against regime leaders.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Canada John Felderhof, the lone remaining key figure in the multibillion-dollar Bre-X gold fraud, was found not guilty. It took almost seven years to reach the not guilty verdict in the trial of the only person to be prosecuted in the massive Bre-X gold fraud, leading Canadians to ask once again if the country isn't too soft on corporate crime.
    (Reuters, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, China’s state media reported another 27 deaths from flooding and landslides in different parts of the country.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Egypt US Sec. of State Rice and Defense Secretary Robert Gates made a joint show of diplomatic force during two days of meetings with Arab allies, part of an 11th-hour effort to rally diplomatic and practical help for the US-backed Shiite-led government in Baghdad. The tour opened talks on a proposed US arms package for Arab states worth more than $20 billion. US officials extended a 10-year pledge to continue $1.3 billion in annual aid to Egypt’s military. Military aid to Israel was raised to $3 billion. Weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and 5 smaller monarchies was said to be $20 billion. Total US military aid to the region over the next decade amounted to $63 billion.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.39)
2007        Jul 31, An Indian anti-terror court sentenced Bollywood film star Sanjay Dutt to six years in jail for illegal weapons possession in connection with serial bombings in Mumbai in 1993. Dutt was freed on bail after 22 days in jail. In 2013 India's Supreme Court upheld the weapons conviction.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.38)(AP, 8/23/07)(AP, 3/21/13)
2007        Jul 31, In Iraq al-Maliki's government faced a threat by the main Sunni bloc in parliament to withdraw its Cabinet members if he doesn't meet a series of demands. At least 11 people were killed or found dead nationwide, including three Iraqi police in a drive-by shooting and one soldier in a roadside bombing. A teacher also was shot to death while driving to work in a mainly Sunni neighborhood in Baghdad. An explosively-formed penetrator, or EFP, detonated near a US soldiers' patrol during combat operations, killing 3 with 6 wounded. Another US soldier was killed by small arms fire in a separate incident. Two US soldiers were killed in a mortar or rocket attack.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(AP, 8/1/07)(AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Jul 31, Pro-government and independent candidates swept local elections in Jordan, including the first-ever vote for city mayors. The Islamist main opposition group withdrew from Jordan's first mayoral elections and accused the government of fraud.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Mexico the bodies of Josue Hernandez (32) and Anibal Sanchez (30), both agents with Mexico's Federal Agency of Investigation, were found in Guerrero state, where they were gathering intelligence on drug traffickers. The agents had taken part in a raid that discovered $205 million in cash in a Mexico City mansion.
    (AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Mozambique 5 soldiers were killed when an army truck carrying munitions that were about to be destroyed exploded near the country's main airport.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, In Nigeria Peter Ogwuma, a staff (member) of Elf Petroleum, was abducted as he was about to leave the church for home.
    (AFP, 8/2/07)
2007        Jul 31, In northwestern Pakistan government troops backed by helicopter gunships repelled an attack on a military checkpoint near Miran Shah, killing 18 Islamic militants. A local lawmaker said the 18 people killed were tribesmen and not militants.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(SFC, 8/1/07, p.A15)(AFP, 8/2/07)
2007        Jul 31, In northern Sri Lanka hundreds of ethnic Sinhalese civilians fled three villages, claiming the government had failed to protect them from attacks by Tamil Tiger rebels.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, A senior Sudanese official said floods and heavy rains have caused 23,000 mudbrick homes to collapse and killed at least 62 people across Sudan this month. In southern Darfur Mahria Arab tribesmen attacked Terjem Arabs killing over 60 Terjem. Conflict between Arab tribes was on the increase and included clashes between the Habanniya and Salamat tribes.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(SFC, 9/3/07, p.A16)
2007        Jul 31, The UN Security Council approved a 26,000 strong peacekeeping force for Darfur, to try to end 4 years of fighting that has killed over 200,000.
    (SFC, 8/1/07, p.A13)
2007        Jul 31, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced yet another higher denomination banknote as it grappled with runaway inflation which is rendering lower-value banknotes useless. The new 200,000-Zimbabwe dollar bearer check is worth 800 US dollars at the official rate and one US dollar at the parallel market rate.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)

2008        Jul 31, The US Congress approved legislation that will allow the State Department to settle all remaining lawsuits against Libya by US terrorism victims.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger ordered the layoffs of thousands of state workers along with steep pay cuts for most other state employees to ease the state’s budget gap of $17.2 billion.
    (SFC, 8/1/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 31, A US Virgin Islands hospital fired four board members after a US government audit found alleged financial mismanagement and the use of taxpayer money to fund lucrative pay packages for top administrators.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Booz Allen Hamilton, a consulting firm on cybersecurity, split from Booz & Co., in order to focus on the public sector. Booz & Co. continued focused on the private sector. Their non-compete agreement expired in August, 2011.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton)
2008        Jul 31, Exxon Mobil Corp. reported second-quarter earnings of $11.68 billion, the biggest quarterly profit ever by any US corporation, but the results were well short of Wall Street expectations and its shares fell.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Scientists reported that Phoenix spacecraft robot has confirmed the presence of frozen water lurking below the Martian permafrost.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Ivan Miranda (14) was killed in the SF Excelsior district in a gang motivated attack. Rony Aguilera (17), an illegal immigrant from Honduras, was charged in the sword attack. Aguilera had veen arrested in 2007 in an assault case, but was not referred to federal authorities under a recently discarded city sanctuary ordnance. In 2009 Walter Chinchilla-Linar (23) and Cesar Alvarado (19), alleged members of MS-13 street gang, were charged with the stabbing death of Miranda.
    (SFC, 11/14/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/23/09, p.A12)
2008        Jul 31, In Wisconsin a gunman opened fire on a group of young adults from Michigan killing 3, aged 17-19, along the Menominee riverbank in the town of Niagara. The next day police arrested Scott J. Johnson (38). He had a raped a woman near the same site the evening before the murders. In 2009 Johnson was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
    (AP, 8/2/08)(SFC, 5/22/09, p.A6)
2008        Jul 31, A small jet crashed while preparing to land at Degner Regional Airport in Minnesota killing 8 people including several casino and construction executives.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 31, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva launched the Amazon Fund to provide grants to projects intended to stop the Amazon rainforest from shrinking.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.37)
2008        Jul 31, Haitian lawmakers ratified Michele Pierre-Louis to be the country's prime minister, ending more than three months of political bickering and deadlock in Parliament.
    (AP, 8/1/08)
2008        Jul 31, At least 36 Hindu pilgrims from Nepal were killed when their bus plunged into a river in the mountainous northern Indian state of Uttarakhand.
    (AFP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, In Iraq a suicide car bomber rammed an explosives-laden vehicle into the wall of a police station near the northern city of Mosul, killing three policemen and wounding four. A judge died of wounds suffered in an attack the day before in Mosul. Insurgents clashed with US-allied Sunni Arab fighters and killed one of them near the village of al-Waib, south of Baqouba.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, A mortar shell hit a house in the Swat valley where Pakistani security forces are battling Islamic militants, killing a family of seven. Another 10 civilians died in fighting in the region. Militants torched a nearby girls school.
    (AP, 7/31/08)(SFC, 8/1/08, p.A10)
2008        Jul 31, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas ordered the release of all Hamas activists detained in recent days by his security forces.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev said that he had signed an anticorruption plan and that he was serious about clamping down on graft.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A6)
2008        Jul 31, South Korea's Constitutional Court overturned a ban on doctors telling parents the gender of unborn babies, saying the country has grown out of a preference for sons and that the restriction violates parents' right to know.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Sri Lanka’s army troops crossed into Kilinochchi district, where the rebels' de facto capital is located, in fighting for the first time in 11 years.
    (AP, 8/2/08)
2008        Jul 31, Sudanese courts sentenced another 22 alleged Darfur rebels to death over an unprecedented attack on the capital last May in which more than 222 people were killed.
    (AFP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, In Thailand the wife of ousted PM Thaksin Shinawatra was found guilty of evading millions of dollars in taxes and sentenced to three years in prison, dealing a staggering blow to a man who was once one of the richest and most powerful in Thailand.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Turkey’s Deputy PM Cemil Cicek signaled the government would not push for a fresh round of legislation to lift the head scarf ban.
    (AP, 7/31/08)
2008        Jul 31, Fourteen of the UN security council's 15 members voted in favor of Resolution 1828 to extend the mandate of the joint UN-African Union peacekeeping force in Darfur (UNAMID) for one year from this day, when it had been set to expire. The United States abstained in the vote because language added to the resolution noting concern that any indictment of Beshir might jeopardize the Darfur peace process.
    (AFP, 8/1/08)
2008        Jul 31, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said his government will nationalize Banco de Venezuela, the local unit of the Spanish banking giant Banco Santander.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A6)

2009        Jul 31, California authorities said the white striped fruit fly has been found in Southern California, marking the first detection of the Southeast Asian pest in the Western Hemisphere. Several thousand traps were soon placed in the La Verne area of eastern Los Angeles County, where 7 of the flies were found.
    (SFC, 8/1/09, p.A4)
2009        Jul 31, A jury ordered Joel Tenenbaum (b.1983), a student at Boston Univ., to pay damages of $675,000 for sharing 30 songs over the Internet. He was later ordered to destroy his illegal music files — but a judge declined to force him to stop promoting the activity.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, TQ p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Tenenbaum)(AP, 12/7/09)
2009        Jul 31, The space shuttle Endeavour returned to Florida after over 2 weeks aloft and a successful construction job that boosted the size and power of the international space station.
    (AP, 8/1/09)
2009        Jul 31, In Afghanistan a US service member died in the south of the country. In Geneva the UN issued a report stating that the number of civilians killed in conflict in Afghanistan has jumped 24% so far this year, with bombings by insurgent and airstrikes by international forces the biggest single killers.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, UN human rights experts asked Azerbaijan to stop curbing free speech and to protect journalists from harassment, violence and even murder.
    (Reuters, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, In southeastern Bangladesh landslides caused by heavy monsoon rains killed 10 people.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Britain's defense ministry said Sikh soldiers have begun guarding the monarch and her treasures. “Regiments take it in turn to stand in for the Household Division and it just happens that two of the soldiers this time round are Sikh."
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, In Colombia at least eight former officials of the domestic intelligence agency surrendered to face criminal charges for allegedly spying illegally on opponents of President Alvaro Uribe including judges, journalists and human rights workers.
    (AP, 8/1/09)
2009        Jul 31, Cuba suspended plans for a Communist Party congress and lowered its 2009 economic growth projection from 2.5% to 1.7%, as the island's economy struggled through a "very serious" crisis.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, An Indian court issued a warrant for the arrest of Warren Anderson, the former head of the American chemical company responsible for a gas leak that killed at least 10,000 people in Bhopal 25 years ago. Anderson was the head of Union Carbide Corp. when its factory in the central Indian city leaked 40 tons of poisonous gas on Dec. 3, 1984, in the world's worst industrial disaster. In 1989, Union Carbide paid $470 million in compensation to the Indian government and said officials were responsible for the cleanup. India said its efforts were slowed when Midland, Mich.-based Dow Chemical Co. took over Union Carbide in 2001, seven years after Union Carbide sold its interest in the Bhopal plant.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Iran detained 3 Americans after they mistakenly crossed the border from northern Iraq. They crossed into Iranian territory while hiking in a mountainous area near the town of Ahmed Awaa. Freelance journalist Shane Bauer, Sara Shourd and Josh Fattal, all graduates of the University of California, Berkeley, were detained after apparently straying across the border while hiking in Iraq's northern Kurdish region.
    (AP, 8/1/09)(AP, 11/9/09)
2009        Jul 31, In Iraq bombs exploded near five Shiite mosques in Baghdad, killing at least 29 people, in an apparent coordinated attack that targeted worshippers leaving Friday prayers. Iraqi police announced they had recovered millions of dollars stolen on July 28 from a state-run bank in a robbery that left eight guards dead.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, The Irish Times newspaper won a long-running legal battle to protect the identity of a key source who provided documents showing that former PM Bertie Ahern was under investigation for corruption. Colm Keena and Geraldine Kennedy had refused to comply with an October 2007 High Court judgment ordering them to identify their source for the confidential documents from a fact-finding tribunal into political corruption. The scandal spurred Ahern to resign in May 2008 after 11 years in power.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, In Mexico assailants gunned down five men and a woman in a pool hall in the border city of Ciudad Juarez.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Anuradha Koirala, the founder of Nepalese charity Maiti Nepal, said British actress Joanna Lumley has agreed to be its international ambassador. The charity helps victims of human trafficking.
    (AFP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Nigeria's national police claimed victory over a radical Islamist sect after its leader was killed by security forces. Experts warned revenge attacks could occur and a leading human rights group demanded a probe into the killing. At least 300 people were killed in violence that erupted in several states around northern Nigeria since July 26.
    (Reuters, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Pakistan's Supreme Court ruled that former Pres. Pervez Musharraf's imposition of emergency rule in 2007 was unconstitutional.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Turkey's navy commandos aboard a frigate captured seven pirates in the Gulf of Aden off Somalia's coast. Turkish commandos had captured five other pirates in a similar operation in the Gulf of Aden a week ago.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Venezuelan regulators revoked the broadcast rights of 34 radio stations for allegedly failing to submit the proper paperwork to the broadcasting regulator, deepening a rift between President Chavez's government and the private media. Venezuelan lawmakers approved an election law to redraw voting districts, a step that President Hugo Chavez's opponents say will give his party a big advantage in next year's congressional vote.
    (AP, 7/31/09)(AP, 8/1/09)(Econ, 8/8/09, p.32, 34)
2009        Jul 31, A new study by the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation and Vietnam's ministry of defense said more than one-third of the land in six central Vietnamese provinces remained contaminated with land mines and unexploded bombs from the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Global Witness, which monitors the exploitation of natural resources, backed calls for a ban on trading in Zimbabwe diamonds due to human rights abuses in mining of the gem.
    (AFP, 7/31/09)

2010        Jul 31, Mitch Miller (b.1911), musician, conductor and producer, died in New York. His TV show, “Sing Along With Mitch" aired from 1961-1964.
    (SFC, 8/3/10, p.C3)
2010        Jul 31, Afghanistan’s national disaster authority chief said flash floods have killed at least 65 people and affected more than 1,000 families.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, A Canadian waterbombing plane with 2 crew members crashed while fighting the blaze in British Columbia. 318 forest fires were burning across British Columbia, with the largest covering 25 square km (10 square miles).
    (AP, 8/1/10)
2010        Jul 31, In northern China an explosion ripped through a workers' dormitory area in Linfen city, Shanxi province, and killed at least 15 people at the Liugou mine, a coal mine notorious for mining disasters.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Across Indian Kashmir violence continued to rage with two people shot dead and five wounded after police in two towns opened fire on protesters who attacked their camps and pelted them with rocks.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, A senior Iranian official said China has invested around 40 billion dollars in the Islamic republic's oil and gas sector.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, In Iraq a roadside bomb killed four people, including three army soldiers, and wounded 11 people south of Baghdad.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Israeli warplanes fired missiles killing Issa Batran (42), a senior commander of the Hamas military wing, and wounding 11 people in five targets hit across Gaza overnight. Hamas said 8 of its supporters and 3 civilians were also wounded in the overnight airstrikes and vowed revenge.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, In southern Italy an apartment building collapsed in Afragola, a small town near Naples. Rescue workers said they have pulled the bodies of 3 people from the wreckage, including a little girl.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Mexican federal police rescued two kidnapped news cameramen in the northern city of Gomez Palacio, Coahuila state, five days after they were seized by drug traffickers in a bid to get their employers to broadcast cartel messages.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Mexico said it will send its ambassador back to Honduras next week, recognizing the government of Honduran President Porfirio Lobo a year after his predecessor was ousted by a military-backed coup.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Pakistani officials said flooding has killed more than 800 people in a week as rescuers struggled to reach marooned victims and some evacuees showed signs of fever, diarrhea and other waterborne diseases.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Qatar's emir made a high-profile visit to south Lebanon, a Hezbollah stronghold destroyed in a 2006 war with Israel and whose rebuilding the emirate is helping finance.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Russian police arrested a leading Kremlin opponent and dozens of fellow activists at a demonstration demanding freedom of assembly.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, In Russia raging wildfires spread across parts of western Russia, engulfing 30 percent more land in just 24 hours. PM Vladimir Putin described the situation as very difficult.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, Land mines began washing up on South Korean shores, apparently swept down from North Korea by torrential rains. One killed a man and wounded another.
    (AP, 8/1/10)
2010        Jul 31, The Tanzanian island of Zanzibar voted to form a unity government after October elections in an effort to avoid a repeat of previous electoral violence that killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 8/1/10)
2010        Jul 31, In Uganda more than 50 people died after a boat they were traveling in capsized on Lake Albert. The boat was carrying between 70 and 80 people, but only five survivors have been found and 17 bodies recovered.
    (AP, 8/2/10)
2010        Jul 31, UNESCO added seven cultural sites to its World Heritage List including Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, home to nuclear bomb testing in the 1940s and 1950s. Also added to the list were the Turaif District in Saudi Arabia; Australia's penal colony sites; the Jantar Mantar astronomical observation site in India; a shrine in Ardabil in Iran; the Tabriz historic bazaar complex, also in Iran; and the historic villages of Hahoe and Yangdong in South Korea.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2011        Jul 31, President Barack Obama and Republican congressional leaders reached historic agreement on a compromise to permit vital US borrowing by the Treasury in exchange for more than $2 trillion in long-term spending cuts. The Treasury's authority to borrow would be extended beyond the 2012 elections. No votes were scheduled in either house of Congress before Aug 1, to give rank and file lawmakers time to review the package.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, A top Afghan prosecutor said up to 40 people were allegedly involved in scams to bilk hundreds of millions of dollars from Kabul Bank, which nearly collapsed last year. Deputy Attorney General Rahmatullah Nazari said that nearly half the cases will be referred to Afghan courts next week.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, In Afghanistan 12 policemen and a child were killed when a suicide car bomber struck outside police headquarters in the southern city of Lashkar Gah. 3 foreign troops died “as a result of a non-battle related injury" in the west. Another ISAF soldier died after an insurgent attack in the south. A NATO airstrike in the Wama district of Nuristan province, near the border with Pakistan, killed four Afghan police officers at a checkpoint. Coalition forces detained 12 police officers following the airstrike.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)(AP, 8/1/11)
2011        Jul 31, Chinese police shot dead 5 terrorist suspects and 6 civilians in Xinjiang province, bringing to 18 the death toll in weekend violence in the troubled ethnic region. This followed a day of clashes in Kashgar that killed 7 people and injured 22. Minority Uighurs have been blamed for previous violence in the region.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(SFC, 8/1/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 31, In Dominica 3 masked men brandishing a machete, a hatchet and a plank of wood demanded money from the US couple outside their Pagua Bay House hotel and restaurant in Marigot. Irish national Joseph Costello was attacked when he rushed from his hotel room to help. He was pronounced dead at the scene.
    (AP, 8/4/11)
2011        Jul 31, In India B.S. Yeddyurappa (68), head of the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party government in Karnataka state, resigned. He was accused of being at the center of a $3.6 billion mining fraud.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, In India hundreds of protesters took to the streets of New Delhi for India's first "Slut Walk," to protest at an alarming rise in sexual assault cases and the growing sense of insecurity among women.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, In eastern Indonesia clashes between supporters of rival candidates in upcoming local elections killed 17 people and injured dozens in remote Papua province.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, Japan’s PM Naoto Kan criticized the country's nuclear safety agency for allegedly trying to plant questions aimed at supporting atomic energy at public forums. An estimated 1,700 people rallied in the capital of the Fukushima region, home to a crippled atomic power plant, calling for an end to nuclear energy.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, Libya's rebels overran the base of a rogue faction, members of the al-Nidaa Brigade, suspected of breaking pro-Gadhafi fighters out of an opposition prison. The violence came two days after suspected al-Nidaa members attacked two prisons in Benghazi, facilitating the escape of some 200 to 300 inmates, including mercenaries, pro-Gadhafi fighters and regime loyalists.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, Tropical storm Mufia, named after a Chinese flower, approached the Philippines. It had already left 2 people dead and caused the 2,400-ton MV Trans Asia Malaysia cargo ship to sink. All 155 aboard were rescued.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, Russian police detained dozens of antigovernment activists in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Opposition leaders have called for demonstrations on the last day of every month with 31 days in reference to the 31st Article of the Russian Constitution, which guarantees freedom of assembly.
    (SFC, 8/1/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 31, In Russia an overloaded motor boat crashed into the docked Oka barge on the Moscow River in pre-dawn darkness, killing nine of the 16 people on board.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, Serbia's parliament, after a heated 10-hour debate, passed a resolution calling for a peaceful resolution of the nation's worst crisis with Kosovo since the province declared independence three years go.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, In Somalia tens of thousands of famine-stricken refugees were cold and drenched after torrential rains pounded their makeshift structures overnight, leading to appeals for aid. The World Food Program said it cannot reach 2.2 million Somalis who live in al-Shabab controlled territory in south-central Somalia. Armed men in Mogadishu shot and killed Somali lawmaker Kalif Jire Warfa.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AFP, 8/1/11)
2011        Jul 31, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 74 people, including 55 in Hama, in an escalation of the crackdown on protests ahead of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. State-run news agency SANA said that gunmen in Hama and Deir el-Zour had erected barricades and sand barriers in the streets, and that extremists in Hama torched police stations and that 2 policemen, an officer and 2 soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 7/31/11)(AP, 8/1/11)
2011        Jul 31, In Uganda a huge fire gutted the largest market in central Kampala destroying merchandise worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. Much of the Owino market was destroyed by fire in 2009.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)
2011        Jul 31, In southern Yemen at least 15 suspected Al-Qaeda militants were killed in army air raids in and around the restive city of Zinjibar.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)
2011        Jul 31, In northern Zimbabwe 19 people were reported killed when the commuter bus they were traveling in lost a wheel and veered off the road in the town of Mvurwi.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)

2012        Jul 31, Timothy Hanretty (55), a former assistant superintendent of Woodside schools, pleaded no contest in San Mateo County, Ca., to misappropriating millions in public money and to billing another school district for remodeling work on his home. On Oct 22 Hanretty was sentenced to two years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/2/12, p.C2)(SFC, 10/23/12, p.C2)
2012        Jul 31, Gore Vidal (b.1925), American author, screenwriter and playwright, died at his home in Hollywood Hills. His 25 novels included “Lincoln" (1984) and “Myra Breckenridge" (1968).
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gore_Vidal)(Econ, 8/11/12, p.82)
2012        Jul 31, In eastern Afghanistan insurgents pulled four civilians off a minibus, shot them and left their bodies on the side of the road.
    (AP, 8/1/12)
2012        Jul 31, Australian police seized a record half a ton of methamphetamine and heroin worth up to A$500 million ($525 million) hidden in a shipment of terracotta pots from Thailand. Seven people, including four from Hong Kong, were arrested after a year-long investigation following a tip-off from US authorities.
    (Reuters, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, UN diplomats said CongoDRC government forces have abandoned villages to rebel M23 forces in the east after running out of ammunition, amid mounting concern over the new conflict.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, The French Parliament approved legislation making sexual harassment a crime.
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 31, In India a massive power failure hit the country for the second day running as three regional power grids collapsed, blacking out more than half the country in a crisis affecting over 600 million people.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, In Iraq twin car bombs in Baghdad targeted the security headquarters killing 21 people, while another attack west of the capital left two people dead.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)(AFP, 8/1/12)(SFC, 8/14/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 31, Israel's defense minister Ehud Barak instructed the military to start drafting ultra-Orthodox Jewish men as it does other Israelis, setting up a potential clash over an issue that has divided the country for decades. 60,000 ultra-Orthodox men of military age do not serve today. Only 1,300 ultra-Orthodox agreed to be drafted this year.
    (AP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, The Japanese operator of the nuclear power plant devastated in last year's disasters received a 1 trillion yen ($12.8 billion) bailout, putting it under government ownership, while international experts visited another plant that survived the tsunami's impact.
    (AP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, Several areas across Lebanon, including parts of the capital Beirut, witnessed power cuts as the national electricity company warned of a nationwide blackout following a strike by its employees.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, Malawi vowed to press on with oil and gas exploration on Lake Malawi, dismissing a demand by Tanzania, which claims half of the lake, to halt prospecting. Mozambique also owns part of the lake.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, Mexican prosecutors formally lodged drug charges against four high-ranking army officers.
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 31, In central Morocco a collision between a bus and a lorry killed at least 12 people and left one critically injured.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)
2012        Jul 31, Pakistan signed a deal with the United States allowing NATO convoys to travel into Afghanistan until the end of 2015, seeking to draw a line under a 7-month border blockade.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, In Poland US Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney said Poland's economy is a model of small government and free enterprise that other nations should emulate as they struggle with recession. This was his final stop on a three-nation tour designed to boost his foreign policy resume with voters back home.
    (AP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, Russian authorities charged Alexei Navalny (36), an anti-corruption crusader and critic of Pres. Putin, of organizing a scheme to steal assets from a state timber company totaling about half a million dollars.
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A5)
2012        Jul 31, Russian internet entrepreneur Yuri Milner announced that he will give $3 million each year to the most influential thinker in fundamental physics.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.70)
2012        Jul 31, In Somalia gunmen in Mogadishu shot dead Abdi Jeylani Malaq Marshale, a well-known comedian known for poking fun at Al-Qaeda linked Shebab insurgents.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)
2012        Jul 31, In Sudan at least eight people died as police and anti-regime protesters clashed in the South Darfur state capital Nyala.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)
2012        Jul 31, Syrian rebels attacked key military targets and overran two police stations in Aleppo, killing 40 officers, as fighting there stretched into its 11th day. In the southern province of Daraa, regime troops shelled a camp for displaced persons as the towns of Tafas and Al-Ghariyeh also came under shelling, leaving an unknown number of casualties.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)(AP, 7/31/12)
2012        Jul 31, Venezuela was officially welcomed into the Mercosur trade bloc as Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff hosted Argentina's President Cristina Fernandez and Uruguay's Jose Mujica along with Chavez for the one-day Mercosur meeting in Brasilia.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 31, In Yemen a firefight erupted between Yemeni security forces and gunmen, dressed in police uniforms, who had been surrounding the headquarters of the interior ministry. The gunmen, who were previously working unofficially in Yemen's police department, had been surrounding the ministry's headquarters in Al-Hasaba district of Sanaa since July 29, demanding that they be enrolled back into the impoverished country's police force. The clashes that left at least 15 people killed and 43 wounded.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)(AP, 7/31/12)

2013        Jul 31, A US federal appeals court ruled that football players can sue Electronic Arts, based in Redwood City, Ca., over the use of their images in video games.
    (SFC, 8/1/13, p.A10)
2013        Jul 31, The City Council of Oakland, Ca., ruled that clubs, spray-paint cans, hammers, sling-shots, fire accelerants and wrenches can no longer be carried during local demonstrations.
    (SFC, 8/1/13, p.A1)
2013        Jul 31, In Afghanistan NATO helicopter personnel mistakenly killed 5 Afghan police officers in Nangarhar province. A Taliban ambush left an official and 3 other people dead in the country's south. Taliban fighters shot and killed a tribal elder for allegedly cooperating with the Afghan government, sparking retaliation from the family and other villagers in the Sherzad district of Nangarhar province.
    (AP, 8/1/13)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A5)(AP, 8/3/13)
2013        Jul 31, The UN said that civilian casualties in Afghanistan had dramatically increased by 23% in the first six months of the year and blamed the insurgency for the vast majority of the dead and wounded.
    (AP, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa toughened penalties in anti-terrorism laws before planned anti-government protests this month, approving proposals that have alarmed human rights groups which fear a crackdown on the demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)
2013        Jul 31, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that a top-secret US national Security Agency program called XKeyscore allows an analysts to search with no prior authorization through vast databases containing e-mails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals. 
    (SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A4)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.23)
2013        Jul 31, Cambodia's long-serving leader, Hun Sen, said his party was ready to talk to the opposition after both sides claimed victory in the July 28 general election.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Cuba’s public health ministry said 7 people have died after drinking wood alcohol, or industrial methanol, they thought was rum. By Aug 2 the death toll rose to 11 with more than 40 people hospitalized.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)(Reuters, 8/2/13)
2013        Jul 31, Officials and bankers said Iran and Syrian authorities signed a deal this week to activate a $3.6 billion credit facility to buy oil products with long term payment terms.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, In Iraq a carload of gunmen sped through a commercial street in Baghdad's Shiite-dominated Ur district and opened fire apparently at random, killing 5 pedestrians and wounding nine others. In the suburb of Nahrawan, also a majority-Shiite area, drive-by shooters sprayed farmers in a pickup truck with bullets, killing 2 and wounded three. The attacks including bombings of Shiite and Sunni mosques left 26 dead.
    (AP, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Dissident Kazakh oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov (50), accused at home of embezzling more than $5 billion, was arrested near the French Riviera resort of Cannes. The next day he was told by a French judge that he faced extradition, but his family vowed to fight an expulsion it said was politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)
2013        Jul 31, A Kenyan court awarded compensation to 11 victims of the largest illegal deportation of terrorism suspects in Africa to countries with appalling human rights records. Their 2007 deportation from Kenya to Somalia and finally Ethiopia was ruled unlawful and unconstitutional.
    (AP, 8/1/13)
2013        Jul 31, In Libya Ahmed Ibrahim, a former minister in the government of Muammar Gaddafi, was sentenced to death for inciting violence against protesters during the uprising that led to the Libyan dictator's overthrow.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)
2013        Jul 31, Manila's foreign ministry said Washington will raise its military assistance to the Philippines by about two-thirds, helping its oldest security ally in Asia defend vast maritime borders against what it sees as Chinese assertiveness.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, In Russia police in Moscow detained 1,200 Vietnamese who were in the country illegally during a pre-dawn raid on a complex of small workshops.
    (AP, 8/1/13)
2013        Jul 31, Syrian government troops launched an assault to regain control of on Khan al-Assal, a village on the outskirts of Aleppo that was the site of an alleged chemical weapons attack earlier this year.
    (AP, 7/31/13)
2013        Jul 31, Zimbabwe held presidential elections.
    (AP, 7/31/13)

2014        Jul 31, Pres. Obama signed an executive order to require federal contractors to give their workers more rights in labor disputes.
    (SFC, 8/1/14, p.A8)
2014        Jul 31, US Secretary of State John Kerry and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced a 72-hour truce in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the most ambitious attempt so far to end more than 3 weeks of fighting.
    (AP, 8/1/14)
2014        Jul 31, The US CDC said a US aid worker, infected with the deadly Ebola virus while working in West Africa, will be flown to the US to be treated in a high-security ward at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Florida Richard McTear (26) was convicted of murder for tossing a 3-month-old boy out a moving car window in 2009 along an interstate, killing the infant instantly.
    (AP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Chicago Anthony DeFrances (60), a senior executive upset about a job demotion, gravely wounded ArrowStream CEO Steven LaVoie in a downtown office building and then fatally shot himself.
    (Reuters, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, The Wisconsin Supreme Court upheld Act 10, the 2011 law that effectively ended collective bargaining for most public workers.
    (AP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, Warren Bennis (b.1925) American pioneer on leadership studies, died. He produced about 30 books on leadership including his classic “On Becoming a Leader" (1989).
    (Econ, 8/9/14, p.57)
2014        Jul 31, Argentina’s stock fell sharply as the country defaulted on its bills for the 2nd time in 13 years.
    (SFC, 8/1/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 31, The European Court of Human Rights awarded awarded fhe shareholders of now-defunct oil producer Yukos $2.6 billion in compensation for Russia’s seizure of its assets in 2006.
    (Econ, 8/2/14, p.51)
2014        Jul 31, India's tough diplomacy blocked a landmark world trade treaty late today, despite last-ditch talks to rescue what would have been the first global trade reform since the creation of the WTO 19 years ago.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)   
2014        Jul 31, In Iraq car bomb attacks in Baghdad left 21 dead.
    (Reuters, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, Israel said it would not pull troops from Gaza until they finish destroying a network of cross-border tunnels, despite sharp United Nations criticism over the Palestinian civilian death toll.
    (AFP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta said a vast coastal zone nearly the size of Luxembourg around a proposed multi-billion dollar port area had been stolen “under dubious and corrupt circumstances" by 22 companies between 2011 and 2012, fueling a wave of massacres. Kenyatta said he ordered the lands ministry "to revoke and repossess these land parcels with immediate effect."
    (AFP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Libya 2 Egyptians were killed when Libyan guards opened fire to disperse them as they tried to cross the border to Tunisia.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)
2014        Jul 31, Mexican security forces rescued 70 Central American migrants, including children, who were being held captive in a house in the northern border state of Tamaulipas.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)
2014        Jul 31, Sierra Leone leader Ernest Bai Koroma declared a state of emergency and as the country struggled to contain the deadly Ebola epidemic.
    (Yahoo News, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Somalia a member of Parliament was assassinated by Shebab guerrillas in Mogadishu, the fifth this year.
    (AFP, 8/3/14)
2014        Jul 31, In Taiwan five late night explosions caused by a gas leak in Kaohsiung the country's second city killed 26 people, injured 267 and sent flames shooting 15 storeys into the air.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)(SFC, 8/1/14, p.A2)(SFC, 8/2/14, p.A3)
2014        Jul 31, In eastern Ukraine an international team of investigators reached the crash site of the Malaysia Airline Flight 17 for the first time.
    (AP, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, The World Health Organization said the deaths of 57 more people from Ebola in west Africa have pushed the overall fatality toll from the epidemic to 729, including 339 in Guinea, 156 in Liberia and 233 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/31/14)

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