Today in History - August 19

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1263        Aug 19, King James I of Aragon censored Hebrew writing.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1399        Aug 19, King Richard II of England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
    (MC, 8/19/02)(PC, 1992, p.138)

1493        Aug 19, Maximilian succeeded his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick III of Innsbruck (77), German Emperor (1440-1493), died.
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1524        Aug 19, Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1561        Aug 19, Mary Queen of Scots arrived in Leith, Scotland, to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1580        Aug 19, Andrea Palladio (b.1508), Renaissance architect, writer (Il Redentore, Venice), died. He designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vincenza just before his death. It was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio authored "The Four Books on Architecture." In 2002 Witold Rybczynski authored "The Perfect House," on the villas of Palladio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)(WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1587        Aug 19, Sigismund III was chosen to be the king of Poland.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1596        Aug 19, Elisabeth Stuart, English daughter of James I, was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1689        Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1692        Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned.
    (HN, 8/19/00)

1743        Aug 19, Marie Jeanne Becu Comtesse du Barry (d.1793), last mistress of Louis XV, was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1753        Aug 19, [Johann] Balthasar Neumann (66), German architect, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1772        Aug 19, Gustavus III of Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1779        Aug 19, Americans under Major Henry Lee took the British garrison at Paulus Hook, New Jersey.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1807        Aug 19, Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat arrived in Albany, two days after leaving New York.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

1812        Aug 19, The USS Constitution -- also known as Old Ironsides -- got its name when it defeated the British warship Guerriere off Nova Scotia in a slugfest of broadsides, when cannonballs were said to have bounced off her sides. The USS Constitution won more than 30 battles against the Barbary pirates off Africa’s coast in the War of 1812.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(AP, 8/19/97)

1821        Aug 19, There was a failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1822        Aug 19, Melchor Lopez Jimenez (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1839        Aug 19, At a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris a new photographic process was unveiled by Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. He "was able to capture images directly onto small, silvered plates; and in England where William Henry Fox invented what he called "photogenic drawing." This process produced a negative image on paper from which positive images could be made... but it took more than an hour to take a picture and the fuzzy prints were difficult to see. The daguerreotype enabled the photographer to create a highly detailed image. The process consisted of polishing a copper plate, using iodine to sensitize it, and developing it over mercury after exposing it to light in a camera. Daguerreotypes became so popular in the United States that New York City boasted more than 70 daguerreotype studios by 1850.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HNQ, 10/28/98)

1848        Aug 19, The New York Herald reported the discovery of gold in California.
    (AP, 8/19/97)

1856        Aug 19, Gail Borden (1801-1874) received a patent for condensed milk and opened a small factory for its production in Walcottville, Conn. At this time milk in NYC sold for 6-7 cents a quart.
    (ON, 5/04, p.5)(AP, 8/19/06)

1864        Aug 19, The 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1870        Aug 19, Bernard Baruch, U.S. representative to the U.N. Atomic Energy Commission, was born.  "Let us not deceive ourselves: we must elect world peace or world destruction."
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1871        Aug 19, Orville Wright (d.1948), aviation pioneer, was born in Dayton, Oh. His birthday is celebrated as National Aviation Day.
    (HN, 8/19/00)(WUD, 1994, p.1647)(MC, 8/19/02)

1872        Aug 19, Eugene-Prosper Prevost (63), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1876        Aug 19, George Smith (b.1840), British Assyriologist, died of dysentery in Syria. He was on his way home from a 3rd trip to Mesopotamia. Smith had completed the translation of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh in 1874.
    (ON, 11/07, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Smith_(assyriologist))

1881        Aug 19, Georges Enescu, composer (Romanian Dances), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1883        Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are no friends."
    (HN, 8/19/00)(AP, 7/26/99)

1902        Aug 19, Ogden Nash (d.1971), American author and humorist, was born in Rye, NY. Vanity, vanity, all is vanity/ That's any fun at all for humanity. "Winter comes but once a year, And when it comes it brings the doctor good cheer."
    (WUD, 1994 p.951)(AP, 10/24/97)(AP, 12/21/98)(HN, 8/19/00)(MC, 8/19/02)

1903        Aug 19, James Gould Cozzens (d.1978), US novelist, was born in Chicago. His novels included “Farewell to Cuba" and "Guard of Honor" for which he won a 1949 Pulitzer.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1905        Aug 19, Fitzhugh Lee, US pilot, vice-admiral (WW II, Navy Cross), was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1905        Aug 19, Roald Amundsen and his crew of 6 aboard Gjøe, a converted herring boat, made contact with the US Coast Guard cutter Bear, which confirmed their crossing the Northwest Passage following a 26-month journey. Amundsen continued by dogsled to the Yukon while his crew completed their journey at Point Bonita, California, just outside the Golden Gate. 
    (SFC, 4/17/00, p.D8)(WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A16)(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)

1906        Aug 19, Philo T. Farnsworth (d.1971), inventor (electronic TV), was born in Beaver County, Utah.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blfarnsworth.htm)

1909        Aug 19, The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened with a 2.5 mile race track. It was founded in 1906 and the 1st 500 race was held in 1911.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1910        Aug 19, The advance guard of the Barnum & Bailey Circus began arriving in San Francisco, claiming to be the biggest ever to visit the Pacific Coast. It included 1,280 people, 85 railroad cars, 700 horses and 400 elephants.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, DB p.42)

1912        Aug 19, Percy Aldridge Grainger's "Shepherd's Key," premiered.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1913        Aug 19, San Francisco’s Orpheum theater headlined W.C. Fields (1880-1946), a comedy juggler, as “the silent humorist."
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, DB p.42)

1914        Aug 19, Elmer Rice' "On Trial," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1914        Aug 19, The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) landed in France.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1915        Aug 19, Ring Lardner Jr., author and screenwriter (A Star Is Born), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1918        Aug 19, "Yip! Yip! Yaphank," a musical revue by Irving Berlin featuring Army recruits from Camp Upton in Yaphank, N.Y., opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

1919        Aug 19, Malcolm Forbes (d.1990), publisher of Forbes magazine, was born in Brooklyn, NY. "I don't waste too much time philosophizing about wealth, I just recommend it to everyone."
    (HN, 8/19/98)(Internet)
1919        Aug 19, Afghanistan established independence from the UK with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)

1921        Aug 19, Gene Roddenberry, television writer and producer, best known for the series "Star Trek," was born in El Paso, Texas.
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1923        Aug 19, Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (b.1848), French-Italian sociologist, economist and philosopher, died. In 1906 he made the famous observation that 20% of the population owned 80% of the property in Italy. This was later generalized by Joseph M. Juran and others into the so-called Pareto principle (also termed the 80-20 rule) and generalized further to the concept of a Pareto distribution.
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilfredo_Pareto)

1929        Aug 19, The comedy program "Amos 'n' Andy," starring Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll, made its network radio debut on NBC.
    (AP, 8/19/97)
1929        Aug 19, Sergei P. Diaghilev (b.1872), Russian dance master and leader of the Ballet Russes, died in Italy.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm1959850/bio)(SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)

1934        Aug 19, A plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler as Fuhrer. 38 million Germans voted to make Adolf Hitler the official successor to President von Hindenburg.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/00)

1936        Aug 19, A trial against Ljev Kamenev and Grigori Zinoviev, for alleged "Trotskyism," opened in Moscow.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1937        Aug 19, Hugo Black (1886-1971), US Senator from Alabama, was sworn in as associate US Supreme Court Justice.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/76/)

1941        Aug 19, The final German assault on Tallinn began.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_evacuation_of_Tallinn)

1942        Aug 19, 19 US Marines died during a commando raid on Makin atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The raid was 2,000 miles behind enemy lines and 9 Marines were left behind. The 1943 movie, "Gung Ho," was based on the raid and starred Randolph Scott as Lt. Col. Evans Carlson, leader of the raid. In 2001 the bodies of 13 Marines, who died on Makin, were reburied at Arlington National Cemetery.
    (SFC, 12/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.A3)
1942        Aug 19, About 5,000 Canadian and 2,000 British soldiers launched a disastrous raid against the Germans at Dieppe, France. Over 3,600 men perished in this battle. The information gathered from this landing was considered valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy, France.  Brit. Col. Pat Porteous (d.2000) received a Victoria Cross for his valor in the attack which was aimed at gaining experience for the later D-Day invasion.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/98)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.A22)(MC, 8/19/02)
1942        Aug 19, Gen. Paulus ordered the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1943        Aug 19, Belgian church excommunicated Nazi Leon Degrelle.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1944        Aug 19, In an effort to prevent a communist uprising in Paris, Charles DeGaulle began attacking German forces all around the city.
    (HN, 8/19/98)
1944        Aug 19, The last Japanese troops were driven out of India.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1944        Aug 19, US 90th and Polish 1st Division occupied Chambois, Normandy.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1946        Aug 19, Bill Clinton, US President from 1992-2000, was born as William J. Blythe III in Hope, Arkansas. He was the son of Virginia Cassidy Blythe and William Jefferson Blythe II. Clinton’s father was killed in a traffic accident prior to his birth. His mother married Roger Clinton when Bill was 4 years old.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.23)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)(WUD, 1994 p.1698)(HNQ, 1/1/02)

1947        Aug 19, J. Arens and D. van Dorpen synthesized vitamin A.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1948        Aug 19, Tipper Gore, wife of vice president Al Gore (1993-01), was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1950        Aug 19, Edith Sampson became the first African-American representative to the United Nations.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1953        Aug 19, Gen'l. Zahedi ousted PM Mossadegh and became the Premier of Iran in a bloody coup that left 300 dead. Britain and the US CIA under Allen Dulles planned a secret mission to overthrow the government. PM Mossadeq had sought to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. The US government made a formal apology for the coup in 2000. A 1954 CIA description of the coup was made public in 2000. In 1979 Kermit Roosevelt (d.2000) published “Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran," an account of his role in the coup. In 2010 Darioush Bayandor authored “Iran and the CIA: The Fall of Mossadeq Revisited."
    (SFC, 11/20/53, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/99, p.E6)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)(WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D6)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(Econ, 5/15/10, p.91)

1954        Aug 19, Ralph J. Bunche was named undersecretary of UN.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1955        Aug 19, US raised the import duty on bicycles 50%.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1955        Aug 19, Severe flooding in the Northeast caused by the remnants of Hurricane Diane claimed some 200 lives.
    (AP, 8/19/97)

1957        Aug 19, The first balloon flight to exceed 100,000 feet took off from Crosby, Minnesota. US Major David Simons reached 30,933 m. in a balloon.
    (HN, 8/19/00)(MC, 8/19/02)

1959        Aug 19, Jacob Epstein (78), US-English sculptor, painter, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1960        Aug 19, A tribunal in Moscow convicted American U2 pilot Francis Gary Powers of espionage. About 18 months later, the Soviets agreed to release him in exchange for Rudolph Abel, a Soviet spy convicted 5 years earlier. The CIA and the Senate cleared Powers of any personal blame for the incident.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Gary_Powers)
1960        Aug 19, Korabl-Sputnik-2 (Spaceship Satellite-2), also known as Sputnik 5, was launched. On board were the dogs Belka (Squirrel) and Strelka (Little Arrow). Also on board were 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants. After a day in orbit, the spacecraft's retrorocket was fired and the landing capsule and the dogs were safely recovered. They were the first living animals to survive orbital flight.
    (www.spacetoday.org/Astronauts/Animals/Dogs.html)

1963        Aug 19, NAACP Youth Council began sit-ins at lunch counters in Oklahoma City.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1963        Aug 19, Newsweek quoted Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu (1924-2011), official hostess of the South Vietnamese government, offering to light the match of the next Buddhist monk suicide.
    (http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Madame_Ngo_Dinh_Nhu)(NW 8/19/63)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A1)(AP, 4/27/11)

1964        Aug 19, The Beatles performed a concert at the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca. They played ten songs to a crowd of over 17,000. The Beatles returned there for another concert in 1965.
    (www.rarebeatles.com/photopg7/sf81964.htm)(SSFC, 8/17/14, DB p.42)

1965        Aug 19, U.S. forces destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuong, in South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/19/98)
1965        Aug 19, The Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1966        Aug 19, An earthquake struck Varko, Turkey, and some 2,400 were killed.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1967        Aug 19, Beatles' "All You Need is Love," single went #1.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1968        Aug 19, George Gamow (b.1904), physicist and writer, died. He popularized the idea of The Big Bang. His books included “One, Two Three… Infinity" (1947).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.335)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Gamow)

1969        Aug 19, Miles Davis and associates began a 3-day session recording the album "Bitches Brew" with Tony Williams on drums at Columbia's 30th Street Studio. Other players included Joe Zawinul, Wayne Shorter, Airto Moreira, Herbie Hancock, Bennie Maupin, John McLaughlin, Billy Cobham, Chick Corea and Lenny White. The album was released in the spring of 1970 and became a commercial success.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitches_Brew)

1970        Aug 19, George Wright and three other men escaped from the Bayside State Prison farm in Leesburg, New Jersey. He became affiliated with an underground militant group, the Black Liberation Army, and lived for a while in a "communal family" with several of its members in Detroit.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

1973        Aug 19, In Santa Cruz, Ca., Herbert Mullin (b.1947) was declared guilty of first-degree murder in the cases of Jim Gianera and Kathy Francis, because they were premeditated, while for the other eight murders he was found guilty of second-degree murder because they were more impulsive. His story was alter told by Donald T. Lunde and Jefferson Morgan in “The Die Song: A Journey in the Mind of a Mass Murderer."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Mullin)

1974        Aug 19, US Ambassador Rodger P. Davies was fatally wounded by a bullet that penetrated the American embassy in Nicosia, Cyprus, during a protest by Greek Cypriots.
    (AP, 8/19/04)

1976        Aug 19, President Ford narrowly won the Republican presidential nomination over Ronald Reagan at the party's convention in Kansas City. The convention was called to order by Mary Louis Smith, chair of the Republican National Committee and the first woman to organize and call to order the convention of a major US political party. In 2005 Craig Shirley authored “Reagan’s Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It all."
    (AP, 8/19/97)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.D8)(WSJ, 2/2/05, p.D10)

1977        Aug 19, Comedian Groucho Marx died in Los Angeles at age 86. In 1996 Steven Stolier authored "Raised Eyebrows." In 2000 Stefan Kanfer authored "Groucho: The Life and Times of Julius Henry Marx." Simon Louvish authored "Monkey Business: The Lives and Legends of the Marx Brothers."
    (SFC, 6/5/97, p.A26)(AP, 8/19/97)(WSJ, 5/12/00, p.W8)(SFEC, 6/25/00, Par p.16)

1978        Aug 19, The Cinema Rex in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze, killing over 400 individuals. The ruling government of Iran reported that Islamic militants set the fire, while the anti-Shah protesters blamed the intelligence service of the nation, SAVAK for setting the fire. Later it was disclosed that Islamic militants set the Cinema Rex fire.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_Rex_fire)

1979        Aug 19, In Cambodia a Phnom Penh court tried, convicted and sentenced Pol Pot and his deputy, Leng Sary, to death in absentia for genocide during the Khmer Rouge regime. A "Hate Day" was created to recall Khmer Rouge crimes. Denise Affonco’s testimony during the trial was later published as “To the End of Hell: One Woman’s Struggle to Survive Cambodia’s Khmer Rouge."
    (SFC, 9/15/96, p.A16)(WSJ, 7/19/00, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2onrxp)(Econ, 12/15/07, p.93)

1980        Aug 19, Willy Russell's "Educating Rita," premiered in London.
    (www.thisistheatre.com/shows/piccadilly105.html)
1980        Aug 19, San Francisco voters approved Proposition A, a measure to drop district elections for city supervisors. 69,632 voted for and 68, 036 voted against in the low turnout special election.
    (SFC, 8/19/05, p.F2)
1980        Aug 19, In Poland 65 people were killed when a freight train collided with a passenger train near Otloczyn. An additional two died later.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ot%C5%82oczyn_railway_accident)
1980        Aug 19, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency landing at the Riyadh airport.
    (AP, 8/19/99)
1980        Aug 19, Otto Frank (b.1889), the father of Anne Frank, died in Switzerland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Frank)

1981        Aug 19, Two U.S. Navy F-14 jet fighters shot down a pair of Soviet-built Libyan SU-22s in a dogfight over the Gulf of Sidra.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

1982        Aug 19, Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the second woman to be launched into space.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

1986        Aug 19, A car bomb killed 20 in Tehran, Iran.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_bomb)

1987        Aug 19, A third convoy of U.S. warships and reflagged Kuwaiti tankers slipped into the Persian Gulf before dawn and headed up the waterway behind a screen of mine-seeking helicopters.
    (AP, 8/19/97)
1987        Aug 19, In Britain Michael Ryan (27) shot 16 people dead in Hungerford, Berkshire. He wounded another 15 before turning the gun on himself.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungerford_massacre)

1988        Aug 19, During a news conference in his hometown of Huntington, Ind., Republican vice-presidential nominee Dan Quayle defended his service in the National Guard during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 8/19/98)

1989        Aug 19, In San Francisco Roderick "Cooley" Shannon (18) was beaten and shot to death at Leland and Rutland streets. Officers Earl Sanders and Napoleon Hendrix determined that J.J. Tennison and Anton Goff did the killing and withheld evidence in the case. Lovinsky Ricard later confessed to the murder, but refused to testify. Goff and Tennison were convicted in Oct, 1990. In 2003 a federal judge threw out the conviction and Scheduled Goff and Tennison for release. In 2004 Tennison sued SF, Earl Sanders and others for 13 years of wrongful imprisonment. In 2009 SF officials tentatively agreed to pay $4.6 million to Tennison and $2.9 million to Goff.
    (SSFC, 3/16/03, p.A13)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/30/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/28/09, p.C2)
1989        Aug 19, Mark MacPhail, an off duty police officer was killed in Savannah, Georgia. Troy Davis was convicted and sentenced to death in 1991 for killing MacPhail. In 2008 his execution was reprieved for a 3rd time after 7 of 9 witnesses had recanted their testimony.
    (SFC, 10/25/08, p.A3)(www.fop9.net/markmacphail/)(Econ, 11/29/08, p.35)
1989        Aug 19, The "Pan-European Picnic" helped precipitate the fall nearly three months later of the Berlin Wall. Members of Hungary's budding opposition organized a picnic at the border with Austria to press for greater political freedom and promote friendship with their Western neighbors. Some 600 East Germans got word of the event and turned up among the estimated 10,000 participants. They took advantage of the excursion to escape to Austria.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
1989        Aug 19, Polish President Wojciech Jaruzelski formally nominated Tadeusz Mazowiecki to become Poland's first non-Communist prime minister in four decades.
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1990        Aug 19, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein offered to free all foreigners detained in Iraq and Kuwait provided the United States promise to withdraw its forces from Saudi Arabia and guarantee that an international economic embargo would be lifted.
    (AP, 8/19/00)

1991        Aug 19, Yankel Rosenbaum (29), an Australian Hasidic scholar, was killed in rioting that erupted in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn following the traffic death of a black child. Earlier in the day Gavin Cato (7) had been hit and killed by a car in a Rabbi’s motorcade. On Oct 29, 1992, a New York City jury acquitted 17-year-old Lemrick Nelson of Rosenbaum’s murder. In February 1997, a jury convicted Nelson and Charles Price of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights. In 1998 Lemrick Nelson Jr. was sentenced to 19 and 1/2 years in prison. In 1998 the city settled a suit for $1.35 million brought by Jews who accused City Hall of insufficient protection during the riots. In 2002 Lemrick Nelson and Charles Price had their verdicts thrown out and a new trial scheduled. In 2005 NYC agreed to pay $1.25 million to settle a suit brought by the Rosenbaum family.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.A2)(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A3)(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.A3)
1991        Aug 19, A putsch began in Moscow. Soviet hard-liners, Gennady Yanayev (1937-2010) and the KGB, removed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev from power. Yanayev was one of 12 members of the so-called State Emergency Committee that announced Gorbachev was being replaced. In defiance Russian federation Pres. Boris N. Yeltsin called for a general strike. The coup collapsed two days later.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(AP, 8/19/04)(AP, 9/24/10)

1992        Aug 19, The third night of the Republican National Convention in Houston, billed as "family values night," featured first lady Barbara Bush and Marilyn Quayle, wife of Vice President Quayle, as speakers.
    (AP, 8/19/97)

1993        Aug 19, Mattel and Fisher Price toys announced a merger.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bxdjz)
1993        Aug 19, Dr. George Tiller was shot and wounded outside an abortion clinic in Wichita, Kan., by Rachelle Shannon. Shannon was later sentenced to eleven years in prison and also ordered to serve 20 additional years for arson and acid attacks at abortion clinics in Oregon, California and Nevada.
    (AP, 8/19/93)

1994        Aug 19, President Clinton abruptly halted the nation's three-decade open-door policy for Cuban refugees.
    (AP, 8/19/99)
1994        Aug 19, Linus Pauling (b.1901), 2-time Nobel Prize winner, died. In 1954 he won the NP for chemistry and in 1962 the NP for Peace.
    (http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1962/pauling-bio.html)

1995        Aug 19, Three top US diplomats heading to peace talks in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, were killed when their armored vehicle plunged off a muddy road and exploded.
    (AP, 8/19/00)

1996        Aug 19, Ralph Nader accepted the presidential nomination of the Green Party in Los Angeles, denouncing tax breaks for corporations and calling for a "political alternative" to the two mainstream parties.
    (AP, 8/19/97)
1996        Aug 19, A judge sentenced former Arkansas Gov. Jim Guy Tucker to four years' probation for his Whitewater crimes.
    (AP, 8/19/97)
1996        Aug 19, In Canberra, Australia, protestors stormed the parliament in opposition to changes in labor laws and proposed budget cuts to reduce the nation’s debt.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A10)
1996        Aug 19, In Haiti about 20 former soldiers attacked the Port-au-Prince police headquarters. One person, a shoeshine man, was killed and several injured.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A10)
1996        Aug 19, Jordan’s King Hussein said 2 days of rioting over higher bread prices was quelled.
    (WSJ, 8/19/96, p.A1)
1996        Aug 19, A Russian Ilyushin-76 carrying rescue flares and car wheels destined for Libya crashed at Belgrade’s airport and killed all 12 aboard.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A10)

1997        Aug 19, Missouri and Oklahoma withdrew inmates from a private Texas prison after the release of a video tape that showed guards using dogs and stun guns on prisoners made to crawl during a drug raid.
    (WSJ, 8/20/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 19, A New Hampshire man, Carl Drega (67) of Colebrook, killed 2 state troopers, a local judge and a newspaper editor in Colebrook. The shooting spree ended with his death near the Canadian border in Vermont. The issue was believed to be a grudge over a tax case.
    (WSJ, 8/20/97, p.A1)(SFC,11/3/97, p.A3)(AP, 8/19/98)
1997        Aug 19, In Cambodia 35,000 people fled across the border to Thailand to escape fighting between forces loyal to Prince Ranariddh and troops of coup leader Hun Sen.
    (WSJ, 8/20/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 19, In Honduras lawmakers voted to name Archbishop Oscar Andres Rodriguez to oversee the creation of a new civilian police force.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.A13)
1997        Aug 19, In Kenya some 300 kiosks were burned in Malindi.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.A12)
1997        Aug 19, In North Korea groundbreaking ceremonies were held for 2 nuclear power plants to be built by a US led Int’l. consortium.
    (WSJ, 8/20/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 19, In Sri Lanka government jets hit rebel positions and some 20,000 government troops met guerrillas en route to Puliyankulam where 7 soldiers and more than 50 rebels were reported killed.
    (SFC, 8/20/97, p.A9)

1998        Aug 19, President Clinton spent a quiet 52nd birthday with his family on Martha's Vineyard as controversy continued to swirl over his admissions to a grand jury concerning his relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
    (AP, 8/19/99)
1998        Aug 19, American interests were threatened by the Int’l. Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders in a statement sent to Cairo, Egypt. The threat was accompanied by others from the Islamic Army for the Liberation of Holy Shrines, which claimed responsibility for the embassy bombings in Africa.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 19, In Cleveland 49 prison guards, police officers and sheriff’s deputies pleaded guilty to conspiracy charges related to cocaine distribution from an FBI sting operation from Oct 1996 to Jan 1998.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A3)
1998        Aug 19, Asteroid 1998 QE2 was discovered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program near Socorro, New Mexico.
    (www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-163)
1998        Aug 19, In Afghanistan Mullah Mohamed Omar, supreme Taliban ruler, said that: "Even if all the countries of the world unite, we would defend Osama with our blood."
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)
1998        Aug 19, In Burma [Myanmar] Aung San Suu Kyi was in her 8th day of a roadside protest in her 4th attempt to travel to Bassein.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A16)
1998        Aug 19, In Chile the senate approved a bill to abolish the national holiday marking the 1973 coup against Pres. Allende. A Unity day was proclaimed instead to begin in 1999.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A16)
1998        Aug 19, In Colombia the Congress named Carlos Ossa to the post of comptroller general. he had reported links to Pastor Perafan, a convicted drug trafficker, and was opposed by Pres. Pastrana.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.D2)
1998        Aug 19, The Irish government announced plans to sharply tighten its anti-terrorist laws.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A14)
1998        Aug 19, In Italy the Assicurazioni Generali insurance company announced that it will pay $100 million to Holocaust survivors and the heirs of victims for life insurance and annuity policies that it refused to honor after WW II.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A7)
1998        Aug 19, In Jordan the cabinet resigned over polluted drinking water in Amman and King Hussein appointed Fayez Tarawneh to form a new administration. Hussein was at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester for lymphatic cancer.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A16)
1998        Aug 19, In Scotland Campbell Aird was to be fitted with a new bionic arm developed by the Prosthetics Research and Development Team at Princess Margaret Rose Orthopedic Hospital. It was to have the first fully powered electrical shoulder.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A17)
1998        Aug 19, In Lucerne, Switzerland, the new Kultur and Kongresszentrum designed by Jean Nouvel will open.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T5)

1999        Aug 19, Confronting questions about possible past drug use, Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush told reporters he had not used illegal drugs in 25 years, and added that if voters insisted on knowing more—quote—"they can go find somebody else to vote for."
    (AP, 8/19/00)
1999        Aug 19, The Evangelical Lutheran Church, 5.2 million members, agreed to establish formal ties with the Episcopal Church, 2.4 million members.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.a3)
1999        Aug 19, In Indonesia the government launched an inquiry over $80 million in government funds funneled by Bank Bali directors to PT Era Giat Prima, a finance and debt-collection company controlled by a senior official of the Golkar Party.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)
1999        Aug 19, Japan and Russia agreed to establish a military hotline.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.A19)
1999        Aug 19, Russian troops failed to take the village of Tando in Dagestan and lost another 18 soldiers and 3 helicopters.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.A18)
1999        Aug 19, In Belgrade, Serbia, some 50-150 thousand people demonstrated against Pres. Slobodan Milosevic.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.A1)
1999        Aug 19, In Venezuela the Constitutional Assembly declared a judicial emergency and gave itself new powers to overhaul the court system.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)

2000        Aug 19, Pres. Clinton signed the Global Aids and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000. It included a trust fund to care for African AIDS patients. AIDS was killing 6,000 people a day and had orphaned 15% of the children in the worst affected cities.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A5)(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.A7)
2000        Aug 19, In New Mexico a gas pipeline explosion near Carlsbad killed 10 people camping on the banks of the Pecos River. An 11th victim died 2 days later. Investigators found corrosion in the blown pipe wall. Amanda Smith (25), the 12th victim, died in Sept.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A3)(SFC, 8/22/00, p.A4)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A7)
2000        Aug 19, It was reported that 9 people had died in Ethiopia’s Afar region after the Awash River burst its banks and inundated the Danakil Lowlands. 30,000 people were left homeless.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.B12)
2000        Aug 19, In Monrovia, Liberia, four journalists for British TV were charged with espionage while filming for a 3-part documentary about Liberia, Mauritania, Mali and Angola. They were freed Aug 25.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/26/00, p.A9)
2000        Aug 19, Norwegian divers with video equipment went down to the sunken Russian submarine Kursk in a final attempt to find survivors trapped for a week, even though Russian officials said all 118 seamen aboard were probably dead.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2000        Aug 19, Hugo Chavez took the oath of office as president of Venezuela after a landslide re-election.
    (AP, 8/19/01)

2001        Aug 19, Davis Toms won the PGA Championship with a 1-under-par 69.
    (AP, 8/19/02)
2001        Aug 19, Soul singer Betty Everett died in Beloit, Wis., at age 61.
    (AP, 8/19/02)
2001        Aug 19, Donald Woods (67), former South Africa Daily Dispatch editor and apartheid opponent, died in Sutton, England.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)
2001        Aug 19, In Colombia thousands of soldiers pursued FARC rebels near San Jose del Guaviare. 20 guerrillas were reported killed including Urias Cuellar, a high-ranking commander.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A9)
2001        Aug 19, In the West Bank Israeli troops killed Mohammed Abu Arrar (14) at Rafah and Muin Abu Lawi (38) near Nablus. Samir Abu Zaid and his 2 sons were killed when their house was shelled in Rafah. Palestinians blamed Israeli missiles, while the Israelis blamed Palestinian mortar rounds. Israel later said Zaid and his children were killed by a bomb he was making.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A1)
2001        Aug 19, In Macedonia government shelled the rebel-held village of Neprusteno for 4 hours.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A6)
2001        Aug 19, In Ukraine a methane and coal dust explosion killed 55 miners at the Zasiadko mine in the Donetsk region.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A9)(AP, 8/19/02)

2002        Aug 19, In San Jose, Ca., an 8-alarm fire consumed about 25% of the new $500 million Santana Row shopping and residential complex along S. Winchester Blvd.
    (SFC, 8/20/02, p.A1)
2002        Aug 19, In Colombia rebels kidnapped over 2 dozen tourists inside Ensenada Utria national park. The ELN was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A10)
2002        Aug 19, Japan has launched a diplomatic offensive to foil South Korea's attempt to rename the ocean separating the Asian neighbors from "Sea of Japan" to the "East Sea", saying the weight of history is on the Japanese side.
    (Reuters, 8/19/02)
2002        Aug 19, An Islamic high court in northern Nigeria rejected an appeal by Amina Lawal, a single mother sentenced to be stoned to death for having sex out of wedlock.
    (AP, 8/19/02)(WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A1)
2002        Aug 19, An ailing and aging John Paul II bid a tearful farewell to his homeland as he concluded a four-day visit to the Krakow region of Poland.
    (AP, 8/19/03)
2002        Aug 19, A Russian Mi-26 military helicopter loaded with troops crashed in Chechnya. 127 were killed and 32 injured when the troop transport fell into a minefield in what Russian media called the nation's biggest military helicopter crash and the biggest single-day casualty count in the Chechen war. Chechen rebels claimed to have shot the helicopter down.
    (AP, 8/20/02)(WSJ, 8/23/02, p.A1)(AP, 8/21/03)(AP, 8/19/07)
2002        Aug 19, Eduardo Chillida (78), Basque sculptor, died. He created monumental works and promoted peace in the Basque region. His work included "The Comb of the Winds," an iron tangle in San Sebastian.
    (SFC, 8/21/02, p.A19)
2002        Aug 19, Swedish financier Jan Stenbeck (59), who developed an extensive network of media and telecommunications companies, died in Paris.
    (AP, 8/20/02)

2003        Aug 19, An Ohio auto-parts worker shot a woman to death and wounded 2 other employees in Andover.
    (WSJ, 8/20/03, p.A1)
2003        Aug 19, Afghanistan celebrated its Independence Day. An explosion ripped through the home of the brother of President Hamid Karzai.
    (AP, 8/19/03)
2003        Aug 19, In northeastern Brazil federal police and government inspectors freed about 800 slave workers from two farms in Bahia state. Another 200 were freed a week later. The Brazilian government estimated that some 25,000 people work in slavery conditions in Brazil, most of them in remote Amazon areas.
    (AP, 8/30/03)
2003        Aug 19, Royal Bank of Canada said it would get $195 million plus interest from Enron Corp. and others in a settlement agreement related to the sale of 11.5 million common shares of EOG Resources.
    (AP, 8/19/03)
2003        Aug 19, Fighting persisted in Chechnya, with six Russian servicemen killed and 11 others wounded.
    (AP, 8/20/03)
2003        Aug 19, It was reported that France had provided Alstom SA a $3.9 billion lifeline to save it from bankruptcy. The bailout was made against EU rules.
    (WSJ, 8/19/03, p.A1)
2003        Aug 19, Carlos Roberto Reina (77), a former political prisoner who rose to Honduras' presidency (1993), died at his home in Tegucigalpa. After his presidential term, he was a judge of the Interamerican Court of Human Rights and an ambassador to France.
    (AP, 8/20/03)
2003        Aug 29, A new Iraq Trade Bank was established to provide letters of credit for big shipments to Iraq.
    (WSJ, 10/28/03, p.A4)
2003        Aug 19, In Baghdad a car bomb exploded in front of the hotel housing the UN headquarters, collapsing the front of the building. UN Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello (55) of Brazil and 22 other people were killed. UNICEF said that its program co-coordinator for Iraq, Canadian Christopher Klein-Beekman, was among the dead. In 2008 Samantha Power authored “Chasing the Flame: Sergio Vieira de Mello and the Fight to Save the World." In 2010 a court sentenced two Iraqis to life in jail for taking part in the bombing and the kidnap of two French journalists a year later.
    (SFC, 8/20/03, p.A12)(AP, 8/21/03)(SSFC, 2/10/08, p.M1)(AFP, 9/22/10)
2003        Aug 19, Taha Yassin Ramadan, a former Iraqi vice president known as "Saddam's knuckles" for his ruthlessness and No. 20 on the US list of most-wanted Iraqis, was turned over to US forces in Mosul. Ramadan was tried and convicted in November 2006 of murder, forced deportation and torture, and sentenced to life in prison. The court agreed to turn it to a death sentence in March 2007. Ramadan was hanged before dawn on Tuesday, March 20, 2007, for his role in the killing of 148 Shia Iraqis in Dujail.
    (AP, 8/19/03)(SFC, 8/20/03, p.A13)(www.iraqupdates.com/p_articles.php/article/15720)
2003        Aug 19, A Hamas bus bombing in Jerusalem killed 22 people, including as many as six children.
    (AP, 8/20/03)(AP, 8/19/04)
2003        Aug 19, It was reported that women in Kenya had begun rebelling against a traditional "cleansing" ritual whereby new widows were required to sleep with a designated "cleanser" in order to be inherited by male relatives and freed of haunting spirits.
    (SFC, 8/19/03, p.A10)
2003        Aug 19, Morocco sentenced four men to death and 83 others to prison in a trial centered on deadly terror attacks that raised fears Islamic extremism is spreading.
    (AP, 8/19/03)
2003        Aug 19, South African police and the FBI arrested Craig Michael Pritchert, 41, and Nova Ester Guthrie, 28, in Capetown. The couple are suspected of armed robberies in Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Texas, and Oregon between 1993 and 1996.
    (AP, 8/21/03)

2004        Aug 19, Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry fought back against campaign al-legations that he had exaggerated his combat record in Vietnam, accusing President Bush of using a Republican front group "to do his dirty work."
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2004        Aug 19, Carly Patterson won gymnastics' premier event at the Olympics in Athens, be-coming the first U.S. woman to win the all-around title since Mary Lou Retton in 1984.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2004        Aug 19, Google, the Internet search engine, began trading shares at $85 per share. 14.1 million shares were recently sold in a Dutch Auction at $85 per share. Google shares closed up 18% at $100.33.
    (SFC, 8/19/04, p.A1)(SFC, 8/20/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 19, Amelie Delegrange (22), from Hanvoile, north of Paris, was battered to death in the southwest London neighborhood of Twickenham Green after a night out in a wine bar. In 2006 Levi Bellfield, former nightclub bouncer, faced trial for her murder and the February, 2003, murder of student Marsha McDonnell (19). Bellfield was convicted on February 25, 2008 of the two murders. The following day, he was sentenced to life imprisonment with a recommendation that he should never be released.
    (AFP, 6/9/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levi_Bellfield)
2004        Aug 19, In Hungary the Socialist Party effectively ousted Prime Minister Peter Medgyessy from office and said it would nominate his replacement next week.
    (AP, 8/19/04)
2004        Aug 19, In Iraq PM Allawi gave what he said was a final warning to cleric Muqtada al-Sadr to disarm and the leave the holy shrine in Najaf.
    (SFC, 8/20/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 19, It was reported that the Darfur refugee count in western Sudan had reached 11.2 million.
    (WSJ, 8/19/04, p.A1)

2005        Aug 19, A Texas jury awarded Carol Ernst, widow of Robert Ernst, $253 million charging Merck Corp. liable for the heart-related death of Robert Ernst. $229 million was in punitive damages. Texas caps on punitive damages reduced that figure to about $26 million; Merck planned to appeal.
    (WSJ, 8/22/05, p.A1)(AP, 8/19/06)
2005        Aug 19, Morgan Stanley said it will start trading Russian stocks, bonds and currency instruments as early as next month as top investment banks flock to the country to profit from its soaring markets.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2005        Aug 19, In California Skylar James Deleon (26), a former child actor, was charged with luring John Jarvi to Mexico in December of 2003, slitting his throat and leaving the body by the side of a road. Deleon was already facing trial for hijacking a yacht and throwing the owners overboard in Nov 2004.
    (Reuters, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 19, Some 4,430 mechanics at Northwest Airlines, based in Eagan, Minnesota, went on strike at midnight as a 30-day cooling off period expired. The airline called for $176 million in concessions including 2,000 job cuts.
    (SFC, 8/20/05, p.A4)(SFC, 8/26/05, p.C3)
2005        Aug 19, An Alabama gas station owner was run over and killed when he tried to stop a driver from leaving without paying a $52 gas bill.
    (SFC, 8/22/05, p.A3)
2005        Aug 19, Dennis Lynds (81), mystery writer, died in Santa Barbara, Ca. His Dan Fortune private eye series, written under the pseudonym Michael Collins, included some 20 books.
    (SFC, 8/26/05, p.B7)
2005        Aug 19, In Algeria Islamic militants killed six hikers in the forests of Ravin Bleu in the Batna region, 530 kilometers east of Algiers.
    (AP, 8/21/05)
2005        Aug 19, Antonio Palocci, Brazil’s finance minister, was accused of taking monthly payments from a rubbish collection firm when he was mayor of Riberao Preta in Sao Paulo state. The news caused speculators to dump Brazilian bonds, shares and the real.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.33)
2005        Aug 19, Indian troops opened fire on Bangladeshi workers and soldiers to stop them building a river embankment close to the border. Bangladeshi troops fired back.
    (AP, 8/21/05)
2005        Aug 19, In western Bangladesh 2 suspected Maoist rebels were killed while a bomb they were making exploded.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 19, Mo Mowlam (55), British politician, died after hitting her head in a fall in Canter-bury, England. Her no-nonsense negotiating as Northern Ireland secretary helped forge the province's landmark peace accord.
    (AP, 8/19/05)(AP, 8/19/06)
2005        Aug 19, Pierre Nkurunziza (40), a former Hutu rebel leader, was chosen by lawmakers as Burundi's president, culminating an internationally mediated effort that hopes to bring peace to a central African nation wrecked by a dozen years of ethnic war. Burundi’s 12-year civil war left as many as 300,000 people dead.
    (AP, 8/20/05)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.50)
2005        Aug 19, Eleven Colombian soldiers were ordered arrested in the killing of an Indian tribal leader who was dragged from his home and later found shot to death.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 19, The Danish pump-making company Grundfos said that two of its employees accepted bribes from Iraqi officials under the United Nations' tainted oil-for-food program.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 19, Ecuador’s defense minister quit.
    (WSJ, 8/22/05, p.A1)
2005        Aug 19, In Germany Mounir El Motassadeq (31), a Moroccan man accused of helping the Sept. 11 hijackers was convicted, of membership in a terrorist organization but was acquit-ted of direct involvement in the attacks on the US. He was sentenced to 7 years in prison.
    (Reuters, 8/19/05)
2005        Aug 19, Pope Benedict XVI warned of rising anti-Semitism and hostility to foreigners, winning a standing ovation from members of Germany's oldest Jewish community during a visit to a rebuilt synagogue that had been destroyed by the Nazis.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2005        Aug 19, India’s Wadia group, an industrial conglomerate best known for its textile brand Bombay Dyeing, said it will launch a low-cost airline in October and is in talks with Airbus and Boeing Co. to buy 50 new jets over the next five to seven years.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2005        Aug 19, In Iraq gunmen in Mosul abducted and publicly executed 3 Sunni Arab activists working to encourage voter participation.
    (SFC, 8/20/05, p.A7)
2005        Aug 19, Attackers fired at least three rockets from Jordan, with one narrowly missing a US Navy ship docked at Aqaba and killing a Jordanian soldier. It was the most serious militant attack on the Navy since the USS Cole was bombed in 2000.
    (AP, 8/19/05)
2005        Aug 19, A Kurdish rebel group fighting for autonomy in Turkey's southeast announced a one-month cease-fire and said it planned to pursue indirect negotiations with the government.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2006        Aug 19, In California explorers from the Cave Research Foundation discovered a large cave in Sequoia National Park, which they named Ursa Minor.
    (SSFC, 9/24/06, p.A1)
2006        Aug 19, Afghan police backed by NATO aircraft and artillery killed 71 suspected Taliban militant in fierce clashes that also left five Afghan forces dead in southern Kandahar province. 3 US soldiers were killed and 3 others wounded during a clash against Taliban militants in eastern Kunar province. In southern Uruzgan province, an American and an Afghan soldier were killed and 3 other Americans wounded in a four-hour clash with more than 100 insurgents. The latest violence came as the country celebrated the 87th anniversary of its independence from Britain.
    (AP, 8/19/06)(AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, Roger Deakin (b.1943), English writer and film-maker, died. His last book “Wildwood: A Journey Through Trees," was published posthumously in 2007.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.85)(http://books.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,,1860073,00.html)
2006        Aug 19, In East Timor rampaging youths set houses on fire in Dili, a reminder that stability has not yet returned to Asia's newest nation following months of violence.
    (CP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, In Germany a 21-year-old Lebanese was arrested in a police swoop on the rail-way station in Kiel as he tried to flee the city, where he was a student. He was one of two men suspected of planting bombs on German trains in a failed terrorist attack in July.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, At least 13 people were killed around Iraq, including four Iraqi soldiers in a roadside bomb explosion in Diwaniyah. An American soldier was killed in combat in Anbar province.
    (AP, 8/19/06)(AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, Israeli commandos raided a Hezbollah stronghold deep inside Lebanon, sparking a fierce clash with militants that left one Israeli soldier dead. Lebanon called the raid a "flagrant violation" of the UN-brokered cease-fire, while Israel said it was aimed at disrupting arms smuggling from Iran and Syria. A Lebanese civilian was killed when unexploded Israeli munitions from the offensive detonated in the village of Ras al-Ein, outside Tyre.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, Israeli soldiers in Ramallah arrested Nasser Shaer, the Palestinian deputy prime minister. He was the highest-ranking Hamas official rounded up in a seven-week-old crackdown against the ruling party.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, Ten bodies were found and about 20 other people were believed missing after a 2nd boat in 2 days carrying would-be immigrants sank off the Italian island of Lampedusa. Some 70 survivors were plucked from the water after the boat sank, several of whom said there had been 120 people on the boat.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, In Ivory Coast waste, which contained hydrogen sulphide, was unloaded from a Panamanian-registered ship, the Probo Koala, at Abidjan port and then dumped in at least eight open air sites, including the city's main rubbish dump. By mid-September 6 people had died and 16,000 had sought treatment. Dutch-based Trafigura Beheer BV, one of the world's leading commodities traders, said it had chartered the ship and said the material was a "mixture of gasoline, water and caustic washings" following the unloading of a cargo of gasoline in Nigeria. The sludge was later blamed for killing 15 people and sickening 100,000 more. In 2009 Green-peace said it had obtained internal e-mails and other documents that show Trafigura Beheer BV executives were aware the sludge was hazardous.
    (Reuters, 9/7/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.58)(AP, 9/17/09)
2006        Aug 19, French soldiers landed in Lebanon, the first reinforcements for an expanded UN peacekeeping force tasked with keeping the truce in the Israel-Hezbollah conflict. About 50 French troops, military engineers, were to prepare for the arrival of 200 more soldiers expected next week.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, Ten bodies were found and about 20 other people were believed missing after a 2nd boat in 2 days carrying would-be immigrants sank off the Italian island of Lampedusa. Some 70 survivors were plucked from the water after the boat sank, several of whom said there had been 120 people on the boat.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, Mexican prosecutors announced that they have charged two policemen with protecting the Arellano Felix drug trafficking gang. Mexican police said they had broken up a vote-buying scheme in Chiapas on the eve of state elections.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, Demonstrations erupted in Kathmandu, Nepal, after the government hiked fuel prices by as much as 25% in a bid to save state-owned Nepal Oil Corp (NOC) from bankruptcy.
    (AFP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, In Nigeria government troops arrested about 100 people in a search for militants suspected of taking oil industry workers hostage in the petroleum-rich south.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 19, Russia handed over the body of a Japanese fisherman killed by a Russian patrol boat that opened fire in disputed waters, sparking a diplomatic feud.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, In Sudan 2 African Union peacekeepers from Rwanda were killed and 3 were wounded when their convoy was ambushed in the Darfur region.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said that it had forced two Syria-bound Iranian planes to land and be searched for rockets and other military equipment, one on Jul 27 and the other on Aug 8, during the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah.
    (AP, 8/19/06)
2006        Aug 19, A suspected Kurdish rebel attack caused an explosion and huge fire on a natural gas pipeline in eastern Turkey.
    (AP, 8/19/06)

2007        Aug 19, US Customs seized a submarine-like vessel filled with hundreds of millions of dollars worth of cocaine off the Guatemalan coast.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 19, Elvira Arellano (32), an illegal immigrant who took refuge in a Chicago church for a year to avoid being separated from her American-born son, was deported from the US to Mexico, where she vowed to continue her campaign to change US immigration laws.
    (AP, 8/21/07)(AP, 8/19/08)
2007        Aug 19, The US space shuttle Endeavour departed hastily from the International Space Station, ending a construction mission a day early in order to land before Hurricane Dean threatens its Houston control center.
    (AP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, Fierce storms from the upper Mississippi to Texas since last week left 22 people dead. Six people died in floodwaters across Oklahoma after heavy rains from the remains of Tropical Storm Erin drenched the state. As much as 9 inches of rain fell across a wide swath of Oklahoma, leaving roadways under 5 feet of water. 8 people were reported dead in Texas and 6 dead in Minnesota.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)(SFC, 8/21/07, p.A6)(AP, 8/22/07)
2007        Aug 19, In southern Afghanistan, dozens of Taliban insurgents attacked an Afghan army compound, and the ensuing gunbattle left 10 suspected militants dead and 4 others wounded. A Canadian soldier was killed when his vehicle struck a roadside bomb near Kandahar.
    (AP, 8/19/07)(AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 19, Simultaneous grenade attacks were launched on the homes of five Burundian politicians who recently criticized the president, injuring three but failing to harm the targets.
    (AFP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, In China at least 36 people were killed as Typhoon Sepat hit the mainland after more 1.3 million people were evacuated as a precaution. In eastern China At least 14 people died and 59 were injured when a container spilled molten aluminum with a temperature of 1,650 degrees Fahrenheit at a factory.
    (AP, 8/19/07)(AP, 8/20/07)(AP, 8/22/07)
2007        Aug 19, In east Baghdad a mortar barrage slammed into a mainly Shiite neighborhood, killing 12 including women and children and wounding 31. French foreign minister Bernard Kouchner arrived in Baghdad on a groundbreaking visit after years of icy relations with the US over Iraq. In central Baghdad gunmen driving several cars waylaid a minibus headed for Sadr City, the capital's Shiite enclave, and abducted 15 passengers, A top US general said American forces are tracking about 50 members of an elite Iranian force who have crossed the border into southern Iraq to train Shiite militia fighters.
    (AP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, Israel said it would expel refugees from Sudan's war torn Darfur region, touching off hot debate over whether the Jewish state, founded after the Nazi genocide, has a duty to take in people fleeing persecution.
    (AP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, Israel opened a crossing with the Gaza Strip to let in fuel shipments, but tens of thousands of homes remained without electricity because fuel for a major Gaza power company hadn't arrived. The EU cut off vital funding to a Gaza power plant, forcing it to shut down the last of its generators and darken tens of thousands of Palestinian homes. Palestinian Information Minister Riad Maliki said the EU ceased payment "because Hamas took over the electric company and started collecting the revenues and taking them to its pocket."
    (AP, 8/19/07)(AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 19, The Israeli government and Holocaust survivors struck a deal on a special allowance for Israelis who lived through the Nazi genocide. It guaranteed Israelis who survived the Nazi ghettos and concentration camps a monthly stipend of $284.
    (AP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, Jamaicans headed inland and tourists fled the country as Hurricane Dean headed for a direct hit on the island. Dean hit Jamaica as a Category 4 storm.
    (AP, 8/19/07)(WSJ, 8/20/07, p.A1)
2007        Aug 19, President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom won an overwhelming victory in a referendum on the Maldives' future form of government, a poll seen as an informal vote of confidence in his three-decade rule of the tiny Indian Ocean nation.
    (AP, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, Pakistan army helicopter gunships killed at least 15 al-Qaeda militants, mostly Uzbeks, in a pre-dawn raid near the Afghan border. Intelligence officials in Mir Ali said two women and two children also died in the strike.
    (Reuters, 8/19/07)
2007        Aug 19, In Sudan armed raiders killed a policeman and wounded four others in an at-tack on a refugee camp in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 19, A new constitution for Thailand, that is to usher in December general elections and end military rule, was approved by millions of voters in the country’s first ever nationwide referendum. This was the 18th constitution since the end of absolute monarchy in 1932.
    (AP, 8/19/07)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.38)

2008        Aug 19, A US federal grand jury handed down a new indictment against Puerto Rico Gov. Anibal Acevedo Vila, charging him with four counts of wire fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit money laundering in connection with alleged campaign finance violations.
    (AP, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, US scientists said they have devised a way to grow large quantities of blood in the laboratory using human embryonic stem cells.
    (SFC, 8/20/08, p.A7)
2008        Aug 19, LeRoi Moore (46), versatile saxophonist, died of complications from injuries he suffered in an all-terrain vehicle accident. His signature staccato fused jazz and funk overtones onto the eclectic sound of the Dave Matthews Band.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 19, In Afghanistan a team of suicide bombers tried unsuccessfully to storm a US base near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. NATO said 3 suicide bombers detonated their vests and 3 more were shot dead and that 7 attackers in total were killed.
    (AP, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, A suicide car bomb attack east of Algiers killed 43 people and wounded 45. The attack targeted a paramilitary gendarmerie training school at Issers. Most of the dead were young men aged between 18 and 20.
    (Reuters, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, Aabid Khan (23), a Briton who recruited Islamist extremists online to stage holy war worldwide, including Britain's youngest terrorism convict, was jailed for 12 years. Sultan Muhammad (23), one of his accomplices, received a 10-year term.
    (Reuters, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, In Bolivia leaders in 5 opposition controlled states proclaimed a general strike. They sought greater autonomy and a larger share of royalties from local oil and gas.
    (SFC, 8/20/08, p.A14)
2008        Aug 19, Iraqi troops raided local government offices in the volatile Diyala province, arresting two people, including a university president. They then advanced to the provincial governor's office where exchanged fire with the government forces, prompting a gunfight that killed the governor's secretary, Abbas al-Tamimi, and injured four guards. Iraqi troops detained the son of a prominent Sunni leader during a raid in Baghdad.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 19, The Dutch Navy and a squad of US Coast Guard raiders seized 4.6 tons (4,200 kilograms) of cocaine from a Panamanian-flagged freighter that had set sail from Venezuela. The freighter was boarded on Aug 17 and it took 36 hours of searching to find the drugs.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 19, The 39th annual Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) opened in Niue. Members at the 2-day forum agreed to threaten Fiji with suspension unless elections are held as scheduled by March 2009.
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.34)(www.forumsec.org/event.cfm?cmd=list&sd=200808)
2008        Aug 19, Pakistan's ruling coalition met to discuss a replacement for President Pervez Musharraf. A suicide bomber killed 23 people at a hospital in a northwestern town in the first at-tack since Musharraf stepped down. 5 soldiers and 13 Taliban militants died in clashes in a tribal area bordering Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, A Palestinian rocket attack on southern Israel violated a truce and led Israel to close its cargo crossings with the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 19, Russian soldiers took 20 Georgian troops prisoner at a key port in western Georgia and commandeered American Humvees awaiting shipment back to the United States after taking part in earlier US-Georgian military exercises. Georgia and Russia exchanged prisoners captured during their brief war.
    (AP, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, Armed pirates seized the MT Bunga Melati Dua, a Malaysian palm oil tanker with 39 crew, off the coast of Somalia, the fourth hijacking in a month.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 19, Turkey's President Abdullah Gul urged Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir, during talks at a summit of African leaders, to act responsibly and to end the suffering in the devastated Darfur region. A suicide bombing wounded 13 policemen outside the southern city of Mersin.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 19, Vietnamese authorities freed British glam rocker Paul Gadd, aka Gary Glitter, after nearly three years in prison on child molestation charges, then moved immediately to de-port him.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(Econ, 8/36/08, p.36)
2008        Aug 19, Zambia's President Levy Mwanawasa (b.1948) died in France. He had been hospitalized at a French military hospital since suffering a stroke in June.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(SFC, 8/20/08, p.B4)

2009        Aug 19, US authorities in collaboration with Venezuela led to the seizure of about a ton of cocaine aboard a ship in the Caribbean Sea. Two Venezuelans and a Colombian were arrested.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 19, Don Hewitt (86), a TV news pioneer, died. He created the "60 Minutes" news hour in 1968 and produced the popular CBS newsmagazine for 36 years.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Afghan journalists rejected a Foreign Ministry demand that they suspend the broadcasting of news about attacks or violence on election day, accusing the government of unconstitutional censorship. Police stormed a bank in Kabul and killed three insurgents who had taken it over, while a wave of attacks killed at least six election workers around the country on the eve of the presidential election.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Australia celebrated the biggest trade deal in its history and said it proved vital ties with China had survived a series of bruising rows. PM Kevin Rudd said ExxonMobil's 41.3 billion US dollar liquefied natural gas contract with PetroChina would create up to 6,000 jobs and pump billions of dollars into the economy. PetroChina ordered 2.25 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) a year over two decades from ExxonMobil's share of the still-undeveloped Gorgon plant off Western Australia.
    (AFP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Brazilian prosecutors said Father Clodoveo Piazza, an Italian priest who ran an award-winning shelter for homeless children in Brazil, has been charged with sexually abusing boys for years and allowing visiting foreigners to exploit the children. Piazza, now working as a missionary in Mozambique, was charged along with another former director of the nonprofit group Fraternal Help Organization, a private group based in Salvador.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 19, London's Metropolitan Police said two men were arrested in the Aug 6 robbery of $66 million in jewelry. The Barnes Flying Squad, a specialist unit that deals with armed robberies and high value thefts, made the arrests.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 19, French police with Spanish help detained three suspected members of Basque separatist group ETA in a French Alps ski resort and seized material for making explosives, after a series of bombings claimed by the group on the Spanish island of Mallorca.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Germany launched a campaign to put 1 million electric cars on the road by 2020, making battery research a priority as it tries to position the country as a market leader.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Rights group Amnesty International alleged widespread abuse of protesters demanding the return of the Honduran president ousted in a coup, saying in a report that hundreds of people have been beaten and detained under the interim government.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad nominated Ahmad Vahidi as Defense Minister. Vahidi had commanded a unit of the Revolutionary Guard known as the Quds Force at the time of the July 18, 1994, attack on a Jewish cultural center in Argentina. The Quds Force is involved in operations abroad, including working with Lebanon's Hezbollah militant group, which is accused to carrying out the Buenos Aires attack.
    (AP, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 19, In Iraq a truck bomb tore through the Foreign Ministry, knocking out concrete slabs and windows and leaving a mass of charred cars outside killing at least 65 people and wounding 250. A suicide truck bomber took aim at the Finance Ministry complex causing part of a nearby overpass to collapse killing least 28 people. A wave of explosions around Baghdad killed at least 8 more people as mortars struck inside the Green Zone. The total death toll from the string of blasts was later set at 106. One of the suspected masterminds said in a confession broadcast on Aug 23 that attackers paid $10,000 to get a bomb-laden truck past checkpoints and next to the Finance Ministry. A US soldier died of a non-combat related injury.
    (AP, 8/19/09)(AP, 8/20/09)(AP, 8/23/09)(AP, 9/8/09)(AFP, 1/19/12)
2009        Aug 19, Philippine troops clashed with about 30 Muslim gunmen, who took over Mantangule islet in the southern part of Palawan Island, killing at least seven and capturing two.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Saudi authorities said they have arrested 44 suspected militants with al-Qaida links in a yearlong sweep that also uncovered dozens of machine guns and electronic circuits for bombs.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 19, In Sudan former enemies from the north and south signed a deal aimed at bolstering the 2005 peace deal that ended a 22-year civil war, the African continent's longest.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 19, Swiss banking giant UBS AG agreed to turn over to the IRS the details of 4,450 accounts suspected of holding undeclared assets by American customers, piercing Switzer-land's long-standing tradition of banking secrecy.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, Syrian President Bashar Assad opened talks with Iranian officials in a visit expected to include an appeal to free a French academic accused of plotting to overthrow the Islamic regime.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
2009        Aug 19, In Zimbabwe 10 lawmakers from PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party were arrested and charged with disturbing the peace as they headed into the Finance Ministry for a meeting.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2010        Aug 19, Neil P. Campbell, An Australian construction manager, was indicted Aug. 19 by a federal grand jury in Washington, D.C., on the charge of receiving a bribe while working for an organization receiving US government funds. On Oct 13 he was detained in India for allegedly taking a $190,000 bribe to allow a subcontractor to build a hospital and college in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/14/10)
2010        Aug 19, Authorities in eastern Arizona arrested John McCluskey (45) and his alleged accomplice Casslyn Welch (44) at a campsite in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest. McCluskey fled July 30 with two other inmates from a private prison in northwest Arizona and evaded authorities in at least six states before being caught. On Oct 7, 2013, McCluskey was convicted of murder in the August, 2010, killings of retirees Gary and Linda Haas in New Mexico.
    (AP, 8/20/10)(SFC, 10/8/12, p.A5)
2010        Aug 19, In San Francisco the city’s Recreation and park Commission voted 6-1 to oust Stow Lake Corp., the 67-year vendor at the Stow Lake snack bar and boat rental, and replace it with an out-of-state vendor. 3 more public hearings were scheduled prior to a vote by the Board of Supervisors.
    (SFC, 8/20/10, p.C1)
2010        Aug 19, Jonathan Lee of Ridgeland, Mississippi, returned from an 8-day visit to North Korea during which he was taken on a tour of the DMZ. He said officials there welcomed his idea for a "children's peace forest" in the demilitarized zone dividing North and South Korea, al-though they said it would only happen if the countries signed a peace treaty first.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, Chipmaker Intel announced a deal to buy security software maker McAfee Inc. for $7.68 billion, or $48 per share, a 60% premium over the stock’s closing price.
    {Computer, USA, M&A}
    (SFC, 8/20/10, p.A1)
2010        Aug 19, In Afghanistan one NATO soldier, several policemen and more than two dozen rebels were killed in attacks and counter-insurgency operations across the country. This day August 19 commemorates the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi in 1919, which granted Afghanistan full independence from Britain. An American soldier was killed in the south. At least 7 members of a road construction crew were killed when they were attacked by insurgents in Helmand’s volatile Sangin district. 25 security guards were killed in the clash with Taliban fighters with another 15 wounded. An assistant police chief was killed by a roadside bomb and three other policemen were injured when insurgents attacked a police post in the Dihrawud district of Uruzgan province. 3 civilians were killed in the same district by a bomb that was meant for an-other police official.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)(AFP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/20/10)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.A6)
2010        Aug 19, In Algeria storms left a trail of damage across the country killing at least seven people over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, An Australian Muslim woman, who sought permission to keep her face and head covered while she gives evidence at an upcoming trial, was told by a judge she would have to remove her veil. She is a prosecution witness in a case against the director of a company that ran a Muslim women's college in Perth. The director, Anwar Sayed, is accused of inflating the number of students at the school in 2006 and 2007 to claim hundreds of thousands of dollars in state and federal grants.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, In China an attacker riding a 3-wheeled vehicle struck a contingent of security volunteers killing seven people with 14 wounded in the far west region of Xinjiang, an area be-set by ethnic conflict and separatist violence.
    (AP, 8/19/10)(SFC, 8/20/10, p.A3)
2010        Aug 19, France deported nearly 100 Gypsies, or Roma, to their native Romania as part of a very public effort by conservative President Nicolas Sarkozy to dismantle Roma camps and sweep them out of the country.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, German federal prosecutors said they have charged two men with violating an arms embargo by working to export equipment that Iran wanted for its missile program. Heinz Ulrich K. (65) of Germany was charged with breaking export laws and Iranian Mohsen A. (52) with incitement to break them.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, In Iraq insurgents kept up a relentless campaign against the country's institutions and security forces, killing five Iraqi government employees in roadside bombings and other attacks. The 4th Stryker Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, officially designated the last com-bat brigade to leave Iraq under Obama's plan to end combat operations in Iraq by Aug. 31, headed home.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, In Indian Kashmir paramilitary soldiers fired live ammunition to disperse anti-India protesters and wounded 3 people after residents accused troops of attacking their homes.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, President Felipe Calderon said Mexico should consider appointing anonymous judges for drug trafficking trials, an unexpected proposal that he acknowledged contradicts the country's efforts to build a more open judicial system.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, Nigeria’s Health Minister Onyebuchi Chukwu said the death toll from a cholera outbreak in northern Nigerian has risen to 231 while 4,600 others have been infected.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, In South Africa police fired rubber bullets on protesting teachers throwing bricks and stones and nurses tore down a gate at a hospital as a the 2nd day of a nationwide civil servants' strike for higher wages took hold.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, South Korea said it has blocked North Korea's new Twitter account from being accessed in the South, saying the tweets contain "illegal information" under the country's security laws.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, Sri Lanka's ex-army chief called the government a "total dictatorship" and said that he will appeal his recent conviction by a military court, which he described as a political vendetta.
    (AP, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, The UN said more than 4 million Pakistanis have been made homeless by nearly 3 weeks of floods, making the critical task of securing greater amounts of aid more ur-gent.
    (Reuters, 8/19/10)
2010        Aug 19, The Yemeni Defense Ministry's weekly magazine said that Hazem al-Mujali had surrendered amid a government crackdown on the organization. Al-Mujali was accused of the 2002 bombing of a French oil tanker and imprisoned, but on his release apparently rejoined al-Qaida. He escaped a highly publicized raid late last year in northeast of San'a on al-Qaida cell suspected of plotting attacks.
    (AP, 8/19/10)

2011        Aug 19, William Walter Asher III (66), a convicted murderer who escaped from a California prison camp in 1975, was taken into custody without incident at a home in the Northern California town of Salida. Asher was originally arrested in Chicago in 1966, where authorities say he fled at the age of 20 after taking part in a San Francisco bar robbery in which the bartender was shot and beaten to death.
    (Reuters, 8/22/11)
2011        Aug 19, Phoenix, Az., cleaned itself up after a wall of dust 1,000 feet tall blanketed the city. It was the 3rd major dust storm to the Phoenix area since last month.
    (SFC, 8/20/11, p.A6)
2011        Aug 19, In Atlanta, Georgia, Jullian Jones (22), a mother of four, was gunned down. Police sought Javaris Crittenton, a former NBA player, for the murder. Authorities said Jones likely not the intended target when Crittenton fired shots from an SUV, retaliating for an April robbery in which he was a victim.
    (AP, 8/28/11)
2011        Aug 19, Bank of America said it is cutting 3,500 jobs. Recent bank layoffs indicated permanent structural changes.
    (SFC, 8/20/11, p.D3)
2011        Aug 19, SoloPower of San Jose, Ca., won final approval for a $197 million federal loan guarantee to expand its headquarters and open 2 new manufacturing facilities in Portland, Ore.
    (SFC, 8/20/11, p.D1)
2011        Aug 19, In Afghanistan at least 4 suicide attackers stormed a British compound in Kabul, killing 9 people in a series of explosions and a more than eight-hour gunfight on the anniversary of the country's 1919 independence from Britain. Two of the bombers were killed by police; the other two detonated their explosives. Two Germans citizens went missing at the south end of the Salang Pass, north of Kabul. On Sep 5 a rescue team reached their bodies in Parwan province and the two men had bullet wounds in their chests.
    (AP, 8/19/11)(AFP, 8/20/11)(AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 9/5/11)
2011        Aug 19, Belarus said it has suspended an effort to fully give up its Soviet-era stockpile of highly enriched uranium with US assistance in response to new American sanctions.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, In England Judith Richardson (77) was found battered to death with a hammer in Hexam, Northumberland. Graeme Jarman (47), serial sex attacker, was suspected in the murder. He went missing after failing to appear in court on a shoplifting charge on August 23.
    (AFP, 8/30/11)
2011        Aug 19, China banned 100 songs from being featured on websites, barring artists ranging from Lady Gaga to the Backstreet Boys apparently for being out of tune with the country's cultural authorities.
    (AFP, 8/25/11)
2011        Aug 19, In eastern India suspected Maoist rebels attacked a police patrol, fatally shooting nine officers and one civilian in Chhattisgarh state.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Al-Qaida in Iraq vowed to carry out "100 attacks" across the country, starting in the middle of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, to exact revenge for the death of Osama bin Laden. Aug 15 marked the middle of Ramadan.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, In Libya explosions shook Tripoli as NATO jets were heard circling overhead. Flames lit up the Tripoli skies near Gadhafi's Bab al-Aziziya headquarters and army barracks. Rebel spokesman Mahmoud Shammam said that Abdel Salam Jalloud, a close Moammar Gadhafi associate, had fled to a rebel-held area in the western mountains and was on his way to Europe.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Myanmar pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi held her first meeting with the military-dominated country's new President Thein Sein. It was her highest contact with the new government since her release from house arrest last November.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, In Nigeria 3 policemen and a civilian were shot and killed at a residence in Maiduguri by suspected members of the radical Boko Haram Muslim sect.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, In Pakistan a suicide bomber struck a Sunni mosque in the Khyber tribal region during prayers, killing 48 people and wounding 85 others in the deadliest attack in the country in recent weeks. 2 US missiles struck a house in South Waziristan killing 4 people.
    (AP, 8/19/11)(AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, Gaza militants launched barrages of rockets deep into Israel. Israeli aircraft struck targets in the Palestinian territory in the aftermath of the deadliest attack against Israelis in three years. Hamas said two children, 3 and 13, were killed in the Israeli strikes.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Papua New Guinea, 96% Christian, announced that it has named August 26 as the National Day of Repentence, a time for people to ask forgiveness for their sins.
    (SSFC, 8/25/13, p.M3)(http://tinyurl.com/lz8ba4x)
2011        Aug 19, Russia's Foreign Ministry cautioned the West against encouraging the Syrian opposition, and said it doesn't support Western calls for President Bashar Assad to resign.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Russia and North Korea both announced that Moscow will provide food assistance, including some 50,000 tons of wheat, to Pyongyang. North Korea might face another food crisis this year due to heavy rains.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, In South Sudan fighters loyal to rebel leader George Athor crossed the border from north Sudan and attacked a town in Upper Nile state. The violence left 60 people dead, including seven soldiers and 53 militia members. Soldiers managed to repel the attackers.
    (AP, 8/21/11)
2011        Aug 19, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI lamented what he called modern society's "amnesia" about God as he traveled to a famed Spanish monastery on the second day of his four-day visit for the church's world youth festival.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Syrian security forces fired at thousands of protesters who poured into the streets throughout the country, killing at least 29 people one day after the United States and its European allies demanded that President Bashar Assad step down.
    (AP, 8/19/11)(AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, Turkey's military hit 85 rebel targets with artillery fire. Warplanes bombed 20 suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq in a third day of cross-border strikes.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, The UN released the full text of its report on the Syrian crackdown. It said Syrian government forces may have committed crimes against humanity by conducting summary executions, torturing prisoners and targeting children. The release included rebuttals from the Syrian Foreign Ministry, offering a rare firsthand look into the regime's justifications for the crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, The UN said tens of thousands of people have already died in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. It warned that the famine has not peaked and that 12 million people in the area need food aid.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 19, Vietnamese officials said hand, foot and mouth disease has killed 81 children and continues to surge. PM Nguyen Tan Dung called for stepped up efforts for prevention.
    (SFC, 8/20/11, p.A2)

2012        Aug 19, In California prominent Hollywood film director Tony Scott (68), jumped to his death from a bridge in San Pedro, California. His signature works included "Top Gun."
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, The New York Times reported that Iraq is helping its neighbor Iran skirt international sanctions by smuggling oil and letting Tehran secretly move large amounts of cash through bank auctions.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In New York a small plane crashed into a residential street on Long Island killing 2 of the 3 people onboard.
    (SFC, 8/20/12, p.A4)
2012        Aug 19, In Afghanistan attackers killed two pairs of brothers in Helmand and Farah provinces with links to the government. NATO reported 3 service members killed in the east. An airstrike by coalition forces in the northeast killed as many as 50 Taliban fighters and a local insurgent leader in Kunar province. 2 Afghan policemen turned their weapons on US troops in Kandahar province, killing an American service member. One of the attackers was killed when the troops returned fire and the other escaped.
    (AP, 8/19/12)(AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, Gambian President Yahya Jammeh told his people that by the middle of September all those already sentenced to death for crimes will be executed.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Iraq Sunni religious leader Mehdi al-Sumaidaie, was critically wounded by a car bomb as the Eid al-Fitr festival began in Baghdad. 4 others were killed. He had called on Iraqis to fight US troops but has more recently advocated national reconciliation.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)(SFC, 8/20/12, p.A2)
2012        Aug 19, Japanese nationalists raised flags on an island at the heart of a corrosive territorial row, sparking street protests in China and an angry reaction from Beijing.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, Japanese officials said 7 people, most of them elderly women, died after eating pickles contaminated with E. coli in Sapporo. This was the country's deadliest mass food poisoning in 10 years.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, Jordan's government spokesman sternly criticized Syria for artillery shelling on its northern border that wounded a Jordanian girl and panicked other civilians. Four shells landed in Jordan during clashes between the Syrian military and rebel forces on the Syrian side of the border.
    (AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Libya two car bombs exploded in the capital, Tripoli, killing two people and injuring several others. Officials blamed loyalists of Moammar Gadhafi. Security services the next day announced the arrests of a number of people suspected to be behind the bomb attack.
    (AP, 8/19/12)(AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, Morocco’s King Mohammed VI granted partial or full pardons to 562 prisoners to mark the Muslim feast of Eid which follows the Ramadan holy month.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Nigeria two gunmen riding on motorcycles opened fire on troops at a military checkpoint in the northern city of Kano, injuring a soldier.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Pakistan US drones fired a flurry of missiles in North Waziristan, killing a total of 10 suspected militants.
    (AP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In southern Russia a suicide bomber blew himself up as policemen in Ingushetia gathered for the funeral of a slain colleague, killing at least seven of the policemen and badly wounding 12 other people. Gov. Yunus-Bek Yevkurov said militants had killed the police officer in the town of Malgobek to set up the suicide attack at the funeral.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In South Africa Platinum producer Lonmin ordered employees at its mine where police killed 34 people to return to work or risk dismissal but workers vowed to stay on strike.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, A Sudanese government helicopter crashed before landing in a remote town in the country's southern mountains, killing all 32 people on board. Its 26 passengers included the minister of endowment, a leading politician, two army generals and a TV crew.
    (AP, 8/19/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Syria at least 56 people died in violence on the first day of Eid al-Fitr. This included 6 children killed by shelling near their home in the rebel-held town of Maaret al-Numan in the northwestern province of Idlib. President Bashar al-Assad made a rare public appearance with top officials for Eid prayers at a Damascus mosque, while demonstrators took to the streets of the capital and other cities to vent their rage at the regime. The mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) expired at midnight.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)(AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 19, In Venezuela rival prison inmates waged a gunbattle that left 25 people dead.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Aug 19, In Vietnam Le Quoc Quan, who blogs on a range of sensitive topics including civil rights, political pluralism and religious freedom, was struck with a steel baton near his Hanoi home. He believed the police were behind the attack.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 19, A Yemeni security official said a suicide bomber blew himself up in the country's south, killing a leading member of a civilian militia that has fought alongside government troops to drive out al-Qaida militants from their southern strongholds.
    (AP, 8/19/12)

2013        Aug 19, In San Francisco demolition began on the Pagoda Palace, a North Beach theater built in 1908. The site will be used to remove boring machines that will dig the Central Subway.
    (SFC, 8/20/13, p.C4)
2013        Aug 19, New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie signed a bill barring licensed therapists from trying to turn gay teenagers straight. This made New Jersey the 2nd state to ban conversion therapy after California.
    (SFC, 8/20/13, p.A5)
2013        Aug 19, Cedar Walton (b.1934), esteemed jazz pianist, died at his home in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SFC, 8/22/13, p.D5)
2013        Aug 19, Anti-fracking protesters scuffled with police outside an oil exploration site in rural England and broke into the headquarters of the energy company which is pioneering shale gas exploration in Britain.
    (Reuters, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, Cameroonian police official Felix Ndalle Ngando was killed  by Seleka fighters loyal to Central African Republic's new president. This soon prompted Cameroon to shut its border with the CAR.
    (AP, 8/21/13)
2013        Aug 19, In Egypt at least 24 policemen were killed and three wounded in an ambush by Islamist militants near the Sinai town of Rafah.
    (Reuters, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, French police stormed a villa in the Provence town of Bedarrides and arrested Zoran Tomovic (47), a member of the notorious Pink Panther gang of jewel thieves. He had escaped from a Swiss prison earlier this year.
    (AP, 8/21/13)
2013        Aug 19, In eastern India a train ran over a group of Hindu pilgrims at a crowded station in Dhamara Ghat, Bihar state, killing at least 37 people. A mob infuriated by the deaths beat the driver severely and set fire to coaches.
    (AP, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, Iraq's Justice Ministry said that authorities have executed 15 Iraqis and an Egyptian convicted of terrorism for "carrying out crimes against Iraqi people." The last was convicted of another unspecified criminal offense. Two of those hanged were women. It didn't say when the executions were carried out.
    (AP, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, Pakistani PM Nawaz Sharif called for better relations with India in a conciliatory gesture on national television after weeks of increased military activity along the two nations' disputed border.
    (Reuters, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, In the Philippines torrential rains Manila to a standstill, submerging some areas in waist-deep floodwaters and making streets impassable to vehicles, while thousands of people in northern regions fled to emergency shelters.
    (AP, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, A South African court formally indicted Olympian sprinter Oscar Pistorius on charges of premeditated murder and illegal possession of ammunition in the Valentine’s Day death of his girlfriend, model Reeva Steenkamp. His will begin on March 3, 2014.
    (AP, 8/19/13)
2013        Aug 19, The cargo ship SMART, carrying 47,650 metric tons (52,525 tons) of coal, ran aground a few hundred meters off of South Africa's Richards Bay port. The ship broke in two and large parts went underwater.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)

2014        Aug 19, St. Louis, Missouri, officers shot dead an agitated man who yelled "kill me now" as he rushed at them with a knife during an apparent convenience store robbery.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 19, In Central African Republic fighting erupted between unidentified gunmen and French troops from the European Union's Eufor mission, which began deploying in April. 5 people were killed in the fighting between armed militants and French peacekeepers in Bangui.
    (AP, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 19, In China an explosion ripped through the Dongfang coal mine in the city of Huainan. On Nov 12 authorities confirmed the deaths of 21 missing miners who were trapped in the mine collapse, bringing the death toll to 27.
    (AP, 11/12/14)
2014        Aug 19, The UN said the spiraling crisis in war-ravaged South Sudan has sent nearly 200,000 refugees into Ethiopia, making it Africa's largest refugee-hosting country.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Air France said some of its flight crews were refusing to board planes bound for Guinea, Sierra Leone and Nigeria over fears of the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Iranian poet Simin Behbahani (87) died.
    (Econ, 8/30/14, p.78)
2014        Aug 19, Iraqi forces launched an offensive to drive Islamic State fighters out of Tikrit, home town of executed dictator Saddam Hussein.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Islamic State militants posted a video that showed the beheading of American journalist James Foley in revenge for US air strikes against the insurgents in Iraq. Foley (40) was kidnapped by armed men on Nov. 22, 2012, in northern Syria while on his way to the Turkish border. Prior to the execution militants had sent an e-mail demanding $132.5 million in exchange for Foley. Steven Sotloff, who appeared at the end of the video, went missing in northern Syria while reporting in July 2013.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)(SFC, 8/21/14, p.A3)
014        Aug 19, Japan’s Kyodo news agency reported that the Islamic State militant group has claimed responsibility for detaining Haruna Yukawa, a doctor and d a journalist, in Syria in a post on the Internet.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Fighters from Lebanon's Hezbollah reportedly killed Abu Abdullah al-Iraqi, a top jihadist from the Islamic State group in Syria, who allegedly planned bloody attacks in Lebanon.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Liberia’s health ministry said all the patients who fled a medical center on Aug 16 are now being screened at a hospital in Monrovia and those who tested positive are being treated. Officials also said three health workers being treated with the last known doses of ZMapp were showing signs of recovery.
    (AP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, A Malaysian top counter-terrorism official said police have foiled plans for a wave of bombings drawn up by radical Islamic militants inspired by Iraq's extremist jihad group ISIL. 19 suspected militants, arrested from April-June, were said to be formulating plans to bomb pubs, discos and a Malaysian brewery of Danish beer producer Carlsberg.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Statistics Netherlands said sanctions Russia has imposed on agricultural products from the EU will cut Dutch exports by "at least 300 million euros" ($400 million), based on 2013 figures.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Pakistan deployed soldiers to protect the seat of the country's government ahead of a planned march by thousands of anti-government protesters, the first military deployment in the capital under civilian leadership. Protesters in Islamabad broke through barriers protecting government buildings demanding that PM Nawaz Sharif resign.
    (AP, 8/19/14)(SFC, 8/20/14, p.A4)
2014        Aug 19, A driver and his helper were killed when gunmen opened fire on NATO supply tankers, while on their way back to Pakistan from Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 19, A ceasefire in the Gaza Strip collapsed, with Palestinian militants firing dozens of rockets at Israel. Israel launched at least four air strikes across Gaza and ordered its negotiating team back from truce talks in Cairo after three rockets hit the country's south. One of the Israeli air strikes killed the wife, Widad (27), and child, seven-month-old son Ali, of Hamas military leader Mohammed Deif. Rescue workers the next day pulled the bodies of a woman (48) and a boy (14) from the rubble.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)(AFP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 19, Poland said it has asked the European Commission to lodge a formal complaint to the World Trade Organization (WTO) over a Russian ban on EU food products that has hit Poland particularly hard.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, In eastern Syria government forces stepped up air strikes on Islamic State positions in and around the city of Raqqa. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the jihadist Islamic State has more than 50,000 fighters in Syria and recruited 6,000 last month alone.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)(AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Turkish President Abdullah Gul said that Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu is set to take over from Recep Tayyip Erdogan as the country's next prime minister.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, A Ukrainian military spokesman said 15 bodies have been recovered from the site of an artillery strike a day earlier on a refugee bus convoy in east Ukraine. Further recovery operations were suspended due to renewed fighting in the area. Government troops fought pro-Russian rebels in the streets of Luhansk and captured most of Ilovaysk town near the eastern city of Donetsk.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)(AP, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, Ukraine said it has blocked 14 Russian television channels from its cable networks to stop them spreading war propaganda.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)
2014        Aug 19, In Yemen hundreds of armed Shiite rebels staged sit-ins on the outskirts of Sanaa, where supporters are mobilizing in a campaign for the fall of the government by Aug 22.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)

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