Today in History - August 20

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573        Aug 20, Gregory of Tours was selected as the bishop of Tours.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

917        Aug 20, A Byzantine counter-offensive was routed by Syeon at Anchialus, Bulgaria.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1153        Aug 20, Bernard de Clairvaux, French saint, died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1191        Aug 20, Crusader King Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the "Lionheart"), executed some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1462        Aug 20, Castilian forces captured Gibraltar (Eighth Siege of Gibraltar).
    (SSFC, 5/30/10, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)

1494        Aug 20, Columbus returned to Hispaniola. He had confirmed that Jamaica was an island and failed to find a mainland.
    (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1534        Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin (Khair ad-Din) "Barbarossa" occupied Tunis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(PC, 1992, p.178)

1619        Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America aboard a Dutch privateer. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(HN, 8/20/98)(PC, 1992, p.224)

1625        Aug 20, Thomas Corneille, French playwright, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1667        Aug 20, John Milton published Paradise Lost, an epic poem about the fall of Adam and Eve.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1672        Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch "mob" after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johan_de_Witt)

1745        Aug 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1778        Aug 20, Bernardo O'Higgins was born in Chile. He later won independence for Chile.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1781        Aug 20, George Washington began to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1785        Aug 20, Oliver Hazard Perry, US Naval hero ("We have met the enemy"), was born in Rhode Island.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1794        Aug 20, American General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1795        Aug 20, Joseph Haydn returned to Vienna from England.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1804        Aug 20, Charles Floyd died, the only fatality of the Lewis & Clark Expedition. In 1901 a memorial was erected at his gravesite in Sioux City, Iowa.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1812        Aug 20, Czar Alexander gave Gen. Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (1745-1813) command of the Russian army.
    (www.climate4you.com/Text/Climate4you%20August%202009.pdf)

1833        Aug 20, Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd president of the United States (1889-1893) and grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio.
    (HN 8/20/97)(AP, 8/20/99)(MC, 8/20/02)

1847        Aug 20, General Winfield Scott won the battle of Churubusco on his drive to Mexico City. The Mexican War gave future civil war generals their first taste of combat.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1852        Aug 20, The steamer "Atlantic" collided on Lake Erie with the fishing boat Ogdensburg, and sank. An estimated 150-250 people were drowned.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1864        Aug 20, The 8th and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Va., left about 3900 casualties.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1865        Aug 20, Pres. Johnson proclaimed an end to the "insurrection" in Texas.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1866        Aug 20, President Andrew Johnson formally declared the Civil War over, even though the fighting had stopped months earlier.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1881        Aug 20, Nikolay Yakovlevich Myaskovsky, composer, was born in Poland of Russian military parentage.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1886        Aug 20, Paul Tillich, German-US theologian and philosopher who wrote "Systematic Theology," was born.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)

1890        Aug 20, H.P. Lovecraft (d.1937), author of horror tales, was born in Providence, RI.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

1893        Aug 20, Shechita (ritual slaughtering) was prohibited in Switzerland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1895        Aug 20, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Norwood Builder."
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1896        Aug 20, Dial telephone was patented.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1901        Aug 20, Fawcett committee visited Mafeking concentration camp in Cape Colony.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1904        Aug 20, Dublin’s Abbey Theatre was founded, an outgrowth of the Irish Literary Theatre founded in 1899 by William Butler Yeats and Lady Gregory.
    (HN, 8/20/00)

1905        Aug 20, Jack Teagarden, jazz trombonist, was born.
    (HN, 8/20/00)

1908        Aug 20, The American Great White Fleet arrived in Sydney, Australia, to a warm welcome.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1910        Aug 20, Eero Saarinen (d.1961), Finnish-US architect (IBM Building, MIT Chapel), was born in Rantasalmi, Finland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1910        Aug 20, The 1st shot fired from an airplane was during a test flight over Brooklyn's Sheepshead Bay.
    (WSJ, 5/20/03, p.D5)
1910        Aug 20-1910 Aug 21, The Great Idaho Fire killed 86 people and destroyed some 3 mil-lion acres of timber in Idaho and Montana. In 2009 Timothy Egan authored “The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Save America."
    (http://www.idahoforests.org/fires.htm)(SFC, 12/1/09, p.E8)

1912        Aug 20, The US Plant Quarantine Act went into effect.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1912        Aug 20, William Booth, English minister, founder (Salvation Army), died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1913        Aug 20, 700 feet above Buc, France, parachutist Adolphe Pegoud becomes the first person to jump from an airplane and land safely.
    (HN, 8/20/00)(MC, 8/20/02)

1914        Aug 20, Battle at Morhange: German troops chased French, killing 1000s.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1914        Aug 20, German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
1914        Aug 20, Russia won an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.
    (HN, 8/20/98)
1914        Aug 20-24, Battle of Boundaries: Lorraine, Ardennen, Sambre & Meuse, Mons.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1915        Aug 20, Paul Ehrlich (61), German genealogist (Chemotherapy, Nobel 1908), died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1918        Aug 20, Britain opened its offensive on the Western front during World War I.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1920        Aug 20, Pioneering American radio station 8MK in Detroit (later WWJ) began daily broadcasting.
    (AP, 8/20/97)
1920        Aug 20, A preliminary meeting was held in Akron, Ohio, to form the American Pro Foot-ball League.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1921        Aug 20, Jacqueline Susann, author (Valley of the Dolls), was born in Phila., Pa.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1926        Aug 20, There was an uprising against Reza Shah Pahlavi in Persia.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1931        Aug 20, Donald King, American promoter of boxing, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1934        Aug 20, Gangster Al Capone and 42 other prisoners traveled in steel barred railroad coaches to Alcatraz after being transferred the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Ga.
    (SSFC, 8/9/09, DB p.46)

1939        Aug 20, Russian offensive under Gen. Zhukov against Jap invasion in Mongolia.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1939        Aug 20, Soviet and German trade agreements were signed.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1940        Aug 20, Radar was used for the first time, by the British during the Battle of Britain.
    (HN, 8/20/00)
1940        Aug 20, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill paid tribute to the Royal Air Force, saying, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."
    (AP, 8/20/97)
1940        Aug 20, Ramon Mercador (Mercader) del Rio, a Spanish Communist, posed as a Canadian businessman (aka Frank Jackson) and fatally wounded Leon Trotsky with an alpine ax to the back of the head in Mexico City. Trotsky died the next day.
    (WSJ, 3/29/96, p.A-14)(TMC, 1994, p.1940)(SFC, 7/19/96, p.B1)(HN, 8/20/01)

1941        Aug 20, Slobodan Milosevic, premier of Serbia, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1941        Aug 20, Police raided the 11th district of Paris and took over 4,000 Jewish males.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1941        Aug 20, Adolf Hitler authorized the development of the V-2 missile.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1942        Aug 20, Isaac Hayes, composer (Shaft), was born in Covington, TN.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1942        Aug 20, Plutonium was first weighed. Glenn T. Seaborg was a co-discoverer of Plutonium.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A17)

1944        Aug 20, Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minster of India (1984-89), was born.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, "Anna Lucasta," opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, United States and British forces closed the pincers on the German 7th Army in the Falaise-Argentan pocket in France.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, The US liberty ship SS Richard Montgomery was wrecked off the Nore in the Thames Estuary, with some 1500 tons of explosives. As of 2008 it continued to be a hazard to the area. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Richard_Montgomery)
1944        Aug 20, Gen. de Gaulle returned to France.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1946        Aug 20, Connie Chung (Yu-Hwa) journalist: CBS Evening News, was born in Washing-ton, DC.
    (Internet)

1948        Aug 20, Robert Plant (Honeydrippers: Rockin' at Midnight; Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven, etc.), was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1948        Aug 20, The United States ordered the expulsion of the Soviet Consul General in New York, Jacob Lomakin, accusing him of attempting to return two consular employees to the Soviet Union against their will.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

1950        Aug 20, South Korean police and soldiers killed 210 people on the southern island of Cheju.
    (SFC, 4/21/00, p.A19)

1952        Aug 20, Russia's Stalin met China's Chou Enlai.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1953        Aug 20, The Soviet Union publicly acknowledged it had tested a hydrogen bomb.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1955        Aug 20, Hundreds of people were killed in anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1956        Aug 20, The Republican Convention opened at the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.4)
1956        Aug 20, The US state department reaffirmed its ban on travel to China.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1280)

1960        Aug 20, Senegal broke from Mali federation and declared independence.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1961        Aug 20, East Germany began erecting a 5' high wall along the border with the west to replace the barbed wire put up Aug 13.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1964        Aug 20, President Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act, a nearly $1 billion anti-poverty measure.
    (AP, 8/20/07)

1966        Aug 20, The Beatles were pelted with rotten fruit during a Memphis concert.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1968        Aug 20, Some 650,000 Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact troops began invading Czechoslovakia to crush the "Prague Spring" liberalization drive of Alexander Dubcek's regime. In 2015 Czech historians Prokop Tomek and Ivo Pejcoch authored “Black Book of the Soviet Occupation" in which they documented all known victims of the Soviet-led invasion and crackdown on the Prague Spring. A total of 135, more than originally thought, were killed in the 1968 in military operations. In following years, road accidents involving military vehicles killed 248, while 12 were murdered.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)(AP, 8/20/15)

1969        Aug 20, Arlo Guthrie released "Alice's Restaurant."
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0064002/)
1969        Aug 20, In San Francisco Perry Butler and his wife Katharine opened Perry’s, a well-lit New York style saloon, on Union Street. In 2009 they celebrated 40 years in business.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.A13)(SSFC, 8/8/04, p.F1)(SFC, 8/20/09, p.E1)

1971        Aug 20, FBI began a covert investigation of CBS journalist Daniel Schorr.
    (www.theatlantic.com/politics/polibig/wisepres.htm)
1971        Aug 20, The Cambodian military launched a series of operations against the Khmer Rouge.
    (HN, 8/20/98)
1971        Aug 20, Pakistani pilot Rashid Minhas (b.1951) foiled attempts by his instructor to defect with an air force plane to archrival India. To stop the escape, Minhas disabled the controls of the plane the two were flying, and died in the resulting crash.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashid_Minhas)
1971        Aug 20-1971 Aug 21, In Vietnam heavy rains flooded the Red River delta and some 100,000 people were killed.
    (www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001440.html)

1974        Aug 20, Pres. Gerald Ford selected Nelson Rockefeller as VP.
    (http://archive.rockefeller.edu/collections/family/nar/narvp.php)

1975        Aug 20, Viking 1, the first of 2 unmanned Viking landers, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to Mars. It reached Mars in the summer of 1976.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1977        Aug 20, The song "Best of My Love", by the Emotions, topped the US pop charts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_of_My_Love_(The_Emotions_song))
1977        Aug 20, The United States launched Voyager 2, an unmanned spacecraft carrying a 12-inch copper phonograph record containing greetings in dozens of languages, samples of music and sounds of nature.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.388)(MofE, 1978, p.41)(AP, 8/20/97)

1978        Aug 20, In New Jersey 5 teenage boys disappeared. In 2010 Lee Evans (56) and Philander Hampton (53) were arrested and charged with their murder. Prosecutors said the boys were herded into an abandoned building and burned to death in a dispute over some missing marijuana. On Aug 20, 2010, Evans was freed from jail after relatives put up $950,000 in bail. His cousin remained in jail. On Oct 3, 2011, Hampton (54) was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Under sentencing guidelines he was only required to serve 20% of the sentence. In 2011 a jury found Lee Evans not guilty of 10-murder related counts in the deaths of the teens.
    (SFC, 3/24/10, p.A7)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.A10)(SFC, 10/4/11, p.A5)(SFC, 11/24/11, p.A11)
1978        Aug 20, In London gunmen opened fire on an Israeli El Al Airline bus. 2 people died and 9 were injured.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/20/newsid_2546000/2546593.stm)

1979        Aug 20, Bob Dylan proclaimed his new born-again Christianity with his album "Slow Train Coming." The album won a Grammy award.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A3)(www.bobdylan.com/albums/slowtrain.html)
1979        Aug 20, Diana Nyad succeeded in her 3rd attempt to swim from the Bahamas to Florida.
    (AP, 8/20/99)(http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fam/bion1/nyad1.html)

1980        Aug 20, Reinhold Messner of Italy became the 1st to solo ascent Mt. Everest.
    (www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9052253)
1980        Aug 20, The UN Security Council condemned (14-0, US abstains) Israel’s declaration that all of Jerusalem is its capital.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_478)

1981        Aug 20, In Northern Ireland Pat McGeown (1956-1996) lapsed into a coma during the Maze Prison hunger strike. About 25 men went on strike and a 10th died when McGeown’s family agreed to medical intervention. This was the background for the 1996 film “Some Mother’s Son."
    (http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/hstrike/chronology.htm)(SFC, 10/5/96, p.A21)

1982        Aug 20, In Washington, DC, Mexican Secretary of Finance, Jesus Silva Herzog, declared that “Mexico did not have means to pay its due foreign debt and thus his Country was assuming a moratorium." US Fed Chairman Paul Volcker immediately established a severe control upon money flow and practically the immobilization of domestic or external credits. The crisis lasted 1,717 days. Volcker lent money to Mexico and arranged a moratorium on repayment of bank loans.
    (http://tinyurl.com/37xdmy)(WSJ, 8/30/07, p.A3)

1986        Aug 20, Postal employee Patrick Henry Sherrill (44) went on a deadly rampage at a post office in Edmond, Okla., shooting 14 fellow workers to death before killing himself. This incident is credited with inspiring the American phrase "going postal".
    (WSJ, 8/7/97, p.A12)(AP, 8/20/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Sherrill)

1987        Aug 20, A federal appeals court in Washington, D.C., rejected Lt. Col. Oliver North's argument that the independent counsel investigating the Iran-Contra affair was operating under an invalid Justice Department regulation.
    (HN 8/20/97)

1988        Aug 20, Eight British soldiers were killed by an Irish Republican Army land mine that destroyed a military bus near Omagh, County Tyrone, in Northern Ireland.
    (HN 8/20/98)
1988        Aug 20, A cease fire between Iran and Iraq took effect after 8 years of war.
    (www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/uniimogbackgr.html)

1989        Aug 20, Entertainment executive Jose Menendez and his wife, Kitty, were murdered in their Beverly Hills, Calif., mansion. Eric and Lyle Menendez stood accused of murdering their parents. In their first trial the jury deadlocked, but in 1996 they were convicted of first-degree murder. They based their defense on a history of parental abuse.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-1)
1989        Aug 20, British conservationist George Adamson (83) was shot and killed by bandits in Kenya. The husband of Joy Adamson was slaughtered at his Kora wilderness preserve. In 2000 the TV documentary “To Walk with Lions" dramatized his final days.
    (AP, 8/20/99)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W4)
1989        Aug 20, Fifty-one people died when a pleasure boat sank in the Thames River in London.
    (AP, 8/20/99)

1990        Aug 20, George Steinbrenner stepped down as NY Yankee owner.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bjbgt)
1990        Aug 20, For the first time since Iraq began detaining foreigners, President Bush publicly referred to the detainees as hostages, and demanded their release. Iraq moved Western hostages to military installations (human shields).
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1990        Aug 20, Three former Northwest Airlines pilots were convicted in Minneapolis of flying while intoxicated.
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1990        Aug 20, In Poland 16 people were killed in a collision involving two trains in the Warsaw suburb of Ursus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Poland_disasters_by_death_toll)

1991        Aug 20, More than 100,000 people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests against the Soviet coup increased. President Bush said he would never deal with the coup leaders.
    (AP, 8/20/01)

1992        Aug 20, In the early hours of Aug. 20, the Republican National Convention in Houston renominated President Bush and Vice President Quayle. On the evening of the 20th, Bush delivered a hard-hitting speech in which he attacked the Democrats and promised to seek across-the-board tax cuts if re-elected.
    (HN 8/20/97)

1993        Aug 20, Conjoined twins Angela and Amy Lakeberg were separated at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in an operation that scarified Amy, since the sisters shared a common heart and liver tissue. Angela died in June 1994.
    (HN 8/20/98)

1994        Aug 20, President Clinton slapped new sanctions on Cuba that included prohibiting payments by Cuban-Americans to their relatives in Cuba.
    (AP, 8/21/04)
1994        Aug 20, Benjamin Chavis Junior was fired as head of the NAACP after a turbulent 16-month tenure.
    (AP, 8/20/99)
1994        Aug 20, Buenos Aires Archbishop Quarracino called for a zone of exclusion for all homosexuals in Argentina.
    (http://tinyurl.com/b87et)

1995        Aug 20, The remnants of an American peace delegation headed home from Bosnia-Herzegovina with the bodies of three diplomats killed in an accident.
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1995        Aug 20, The Algerian government planned presidential elections for Nov. 16, but Muslim militants vowed to derail the plans. Some 40,000 people have been killed since the government cancelled elections in 1992.
    (WSJ, 8/21/95, p.A-1)
1995         Aug 20, In Firozabad, India, a speeding passenger train crashed into a train that had stalled after hitting a cow and some 358 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)(AP, 8/20/00)
1995        Aug 20, Liberian warlords agreed to end hostilities in six-year old civil war, which had killed 150,000 people.
    (WSJ, 8/21/95, p.A-1)
1995        Aug 20, A plebiscite declared the independence of Seborga (in Northern Italy) by a vote of 304 to 4. Giorgio Carbone was elected as Georgio I, Prince-for-Life.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T6)

1996        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton signed the federal minimum wage bill for an increase of .90 cents per hour in two steps to $5.15 per hour over 13 months. It was the first minimum-wage increase in five years. The bill included a $5,000 tax credit for the cost of adopting a child. He also signed a new retirement savings program for small-business workers.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A3)(AP, 8/20/97)
1996        Aug 20, Susan McDougal was sentenced in Little Rock, Ark., to two years in prison in a Whitewater fraud case. She served three months of that sentence, but also 18 months for con-tempt for refusing to answer questions about President Clinton.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
1996        Aug 20, In Germany officials arrested 2 businessmen suspected of smuggling computer technology to Libya that could be used to make lethal nerve gas.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A1)
1996        Aug 20, In Burundi Pierre Buyoya sacked his army chief, Jean Bikomagu, who was implicated in the 1993 assassination of the first Hutu president Melchior Ndadaye. He also fired 2 more powerful military officers.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A9)(SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)
1996        Aug 20, In Haiti two conservative politicians were killed in drive-by shootings.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A9)

1997        Aug 20, United Parcel Service drivers put away picket signs, put on brown shirts and shorts, and called on customers again as the delivery giant began to sluggishly recover from its costly strike.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
1997        Aug 20, NATO troops in Bosnia seized truckloads of weapons from police stations in Banja Luka. They moved to force out officers loyal to Karadzic.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 20, Israeli jets struck deep in Lebanon and bombed a guerrilla base and a power plant supplying electricity to Sidon.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 20, In Jamaica prison guards walked off their jobs after a commissioner suggested that guards and prisoners use condoms to prevent AIDS. Anti-gay violence broke out and within a week 16 inmates were killed and 20 injured at Kingston’s Gen’l. Penitentiary and St. Catherine District Prison.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A4)
1997        Aug 20, In Kenya police arrested 2 KANU politicians for instigating violence along the coastal region. Karisa Maitha and Omar Masumbuko lent credence that KANU officials were at-tempting to divert attention from the reformist movement.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.A12)
1997        Aug 20, Palestinian Pres. Arafat met with Islamic militant groups including Hamas and called for Palestinian unity against Israeli demands.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A1)

1998        Aug 20, The German heavy-metal band Rammstein was reported to be making a hit in the US with their "Sehnsucht" (yearning) album.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.B1)
1998        Aug 20, Monica Lewinsky went before a grand jury for a second round of explicit testimony about her White House trysts with President Clinton.
    (AP, 8/20/99)
1998        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan13 days after the deadly embassy bombings in East Africa. About 50 missiles were fired at the camp of Osama Bin Laden and some 25 missiles against a suspected chemical plant in Khartoum. The plant in Sudan was suspected of producing the chemical EMPTA, one of the ingredients in VX nerve gas, but also an ingredient in fungicides and anti-microbial agents.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)(AP, 8/20/99)
1998        Aug 20, It was reported that a $1 million reward was given by the Justice Dept. to David Kaczynski for providing information that led to the arrest of his brother Theodore, the Una-bomber.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 20, In Southampton, N.Y., townspeople met to express their concerns over the construction of a 110,000 square foot home by Ira Rennert, a businessman who bought troubled companies and leveraged them for the next purchase. The spread was to be the largest home in America.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A7)
1998        Aug 20, It was reported that new CMOS light sensors were giving competition to CCDs (charge-coupled devices) as the eye of digital cameras.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.B1)
1998        The Univ. of Calif. at Berkeley tied with the Univ. of Virginia as the best public university in the country according to a US News & World Report.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A24)
1998        Aug 20, In Canada the Supreme Court ruled that Quebec can’t secede unilaterally, but that if the province votes for secession, it must negotiate with the rest of Canada.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A12)
1998        Aug 20, In India 30,000 people were evacuated from 2 river valleys in Uttar Pradesh as landslides continued and the number of dead increased to about 300.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 20, In Hebron, Israel, settler Rabbi Shlomo Raanan (63) was killed by a suspected Palestinian assailant.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A10)
1998        Aug 20, In Sudan the US missile attack destroyed the Sugar Sweet and Candy factory of Mustafa S. Ismaeil and killed a guard there. The owner planned to sue the US for damages.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)
1998        Aug 20, In Venezuela the market plunged 9.5% on fears that the Bolivar would be de-valued.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.C12)

1999        Aug 20, In a highly unusual move, the CIA pulled the security clearances for former Di-rector John Deutch for keeping secret files on an unsecured home computer.
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1999        Aug 20, The Peregrine falcon was removed from the list of endangered species.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.A2)
1999        Aug 20, In Britain Tony Martin (54), a Norfolk farmer, killed burglar Fred Barras (16), who had broken into his home, nicknamed Bleak House. Martin was convicted of murder, but in 2001 this was reduced to manslaughter. In 2003 Martin was released from custody.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.62)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/norfolk/3087003.stm)
1999        Aug 20, Three Japanese banks announced a broad alliance plan that would create the world’s largest banking group with assets of well over one trillion dollars.
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1999        Aug 20, In Manila, Philippines, some 150,000 people protested economic changes in the constitution proposed by Pres. Estrada.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A11)
1999        Aug 20, In Russia Sergei Stepashin planned to speak as the leader of a new coalition to succeed Pres. Yeltsin that was to include Viktor Chernomyrdin and Sergei Kiriyenko, all former prime ministers. Stepashin announced the next day that the coalition failed and that he would run for a seat in Parliament.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A18)
1999        Aug 20, In Serbia leaders of the Alliance for Change announced that they would give Pres. Milosevic one month to resign and vowed to shut down the country with demonstrations if he does not.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A1)
1999        Aug 20, It was reported that tens thousands of refugees from Sierra Leone had fled to northern Liberia and that many were robbed and killed by retreating rebels.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)
1999        Aug 20, It was reported that government controlled banks forced Daewoo Group, South Korea’s 2nd largest conglomerate (chaebol), to sell all but 6 auto-related units among its 25 affiliates. Kim Woo Choong, the man who built the group into a global powerhouse, fled South Korea as the conglomerate collapsed. He returned in 2005 and was arrested. In May 2006 he was sentenced to 10 years in jail after being found guilty of charges including embezzlement and accounting fraud. 21 trillion won ($22bn) of his fortune was seized and he was fined an additional 10m won. On December 30, 2007, he was granted amnesty by Pres. Roh Moo-hyun.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D4)(WSJ, 6/14/05, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Woo-jung)
1999        Aug 20, In Turkey officials reported that over 10,000 bodies had been recovered from the quake and the injured list had risen to 34,000. Prime Minister Ecevit ordered that the dead be buried as soon as found.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A1)

2000        Aug 20, Tiger Woods won the PGA Championship in a playoff over Bob May, becoming the first player since Ben Hogan in 1953 to win three majors in one year. Woods, winner of four of the last five majors, won his first in a playoff. He became the first player to repeat as PGA champion since Denny Shute in 1937. Woods, with an 18-under 270, holds the scoring record in relation to par in every major championship.
    (AP, 8/20/01)
2000        Aug 20, Verizon Communications and unions representing 50,000 workers reached a tentative agreement on a new three-year-contract as a two-week strike neared an end.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2000        Aug 20, In Kenya 16 people were killed after 9 runaway train cars carrying liquefied gas derailed and exploded at the Athi River station. 9 of 37 injured died soon after.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/22/00, p.A12)
2000        Aug 20, Norwegian divers examined the Russian submarine Kursk as the British LR5 mini-submarine prepared for a rescue attempt. 118 Russian sailors were believed dead. In 2001 it was reported that the Kursk carried nuclear weapons when it sank, but Russia denied this. The ship was raised Oct 8, 2001. The severed bow was left for later recovery.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/5/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/6/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.B2)
2000        Aug 20, In Spain a bomb killed 2 Spanish Civil Guard officers in Sallent de Gallego. The ETA was blamed.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A8)
2000        Aug 20, At the Vatican some 2 million young people closed the 6-day World Youth festival dubbed the Catholic Woodstock.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A9)

2001        Aug 20, The US consumer group Public Citizen petitioned the government to give warning brochures to users of statins for reducing cholesterol due to some associated deaths from muscle cell destruction, arhabdomyolysis.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A5)
2001        Aug 20, Four oil companies (Chevron, Shell, Texaco and Unocal) agreed to clean up MTBE contamination in California caused by leaking storage tanks. 4 others (ARCO, Exxon, Mobil and Tosco) declined to settle the suit.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A3)
2001        Aug 20, Near Sacramento, Ca., Nikolay Soltys (27), a Ukrainian immigrant, stabbed to death his pregnant wife and 4 other relatives including 2 young cousins. He fled the area with his 3-year-old son. The body of Sergey Soltys (3) was found the next day in a blood-soaked carton in Placer County. Soltys was caught in his mother’s backyard near Sacramento Aug 30. Soltys committed suicide Feb 13, 2002.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/31/01, p.A1)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.A17)
2001        Aug 20, Actress Kim Stanley (76) died in Santa Fe, N.M.
    (AP, 8/20/02)
2001        Aug 20, Fred Hoyle (86), astro-physicist, died in Bournemouth, England. He was a proponent of the cosmological theory (1948) which holds that the universe has no beginning and has always existed in a steady state. He coined the term "Big Bang" but never accepted that theory for the origin of the universe His science fiction books included "The Black Cloud" (1957) and "Ossian’s Ride" (1958).
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.C2)(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.C4)(AP, 8/20/02)
2001        Aug 20, In China Wu Liangjie, an arrested Falun Gong member, died after falling from the window of a police office in Baicheng, Jilin province.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A10)
2001        Aug 20, In Congo Pres. Kabila met with his main rival leaders for the 1st time to establish a transitional government and end 3 years of war.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A7)
2001        Aug 20, European monitors in Hebron (TIPH) announced they would no longer patrol the city’s Jewish enclave due to attacks by settlers.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A7)
2001        Aug 20, It was reported that Vojvodina, a northern province of Serbia, was actively seeking autonomy. The area is home to 2 million people representing 20 ethnic groups.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A8)

2002        Aug 20, In Bangladesh the swollen Jamuna River broke through its mud embankments, flooding a dozen villages and cutting off thousands of residents.
    (AP, 8/20/02)
2002        Aug 20, In Germany 5 members of the Iraqi Opposition of Germany took over the Iraqi embassy. German police commandos freed two senior diplomats from armed men who had stormed the Iraqi embassy, bringing a bloodless end to a five-hour hostage drama by a previously unknown group opposed to Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 8/20/02, p.A7)(AP, 8/20/03)
2002        Aug 20, Indian troops killed 14 Muslim rebels trying to sneak into Kashmir from Pakistan.
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.A1)
2002        Aug 20, Indonesian police have arrested Ramli, a former soldier, and accused him of masterminding a series of deadly bombings in the capital over the past few years.
    (Reuters, 8/21/02)
2002        Aug 20, An Israeli soldier was killed by a Hamas sniper. Hamas vowed to undermine the new security agreement.
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.A1)
2002        Aug 20, Choking smoke from forest fires shrouded Indonesia's side of Borneo island, grounding planes and pushing air quality way above hazardous levels in parts of the vast region.
    (Reuters, 8/20/02)
2002        Aug 20, In Nepal army soldiers reportedly killed at least 30 Maoist rebels at a remote training camp.
    (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A10)
2002        Aug 20, Palestinian police were back on the streets of Bethlehem after Israeli forces left the town as part of a trial that could lead to further Israeli withdrawals in the West Bank.
    (AP, 8/20/02)
2002        Aug 20, In Russia an explosion tore through a residential building in Moscow, blowing open a 50-foot-wide section and collapsing five stories of apartments. At least 7 people were killed, and as many as 5 others were feared trapped in the rubble. A natural gas leak was suspected.
    (AP, 8/21/02)
2002        Aug 20, The Swiss government returned to Peru about $77.5 million linked to former Peruvian spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos, saying the money came from corrupt arms deals. The money includes assets of Gen. Nicolas de Bari Hermoza Rios, Peru's former armed forces chief, who also faces corruption charges. $33 million linked to Montesinos remained blocked in Swiss banks.
    (AP, 8/21/02)

2003        Aug 20, The US won the women's overall team gold medal at the World Gymnastics Championships in Anaheim, Calif.; Romania took the silver medal and Australia, the bronze.
    (AP, 8/21/04)
2003        Aug 20, In Australia Pauline Hanson, the right-wing firebrand known for her anti-immigration rhetoric, was sentenced to three years in jail for fraudulently setting up her One Nation political party and illegally using electoral funds.
    (AP, 8/20/03)
2003        Aug 20, In Chechnya fighting left 8 Russian soldiers and 12 rebels dead.
    (SFC, 8/22/03, p.A9)
2003        Aug 20, In the Dominican Republic police clashed with rioters who were protesting rising prices and electrical blackouts, leaving one man dead and a dozen arrested.
    (AP, 8/21/03)
2003        Aug 20, The G-20 (G20) was formed with Brazil as one of its leading member nations. The group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancun, Mexico from 10 September to 14 September 2003. The other members are Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, China, Cuba, Egypt, the Philippines, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, South Africa, Thailand, Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 9/10/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G20_developing_nations)
2003        Aug 20, Authorities in the Russian Far East lost contact with a helicopter carrying a regional governor and 16 other people over the volcanoes of the Kamchatka peninsula.
    (AP, 8/20/03)
2003        Aug 20, Opposition leaders turned in 2.7 million signatures to demand a referendum on ending Hugo Chavez's tumultuous four-year presidency in Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/20/03)

2004        Aug 20, Democrats labored to deflect attacks on John Kerry's war record with fresh television ads touting his fitness for national command.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2004        Aug 20, A bioethicist charged in The Lancet medical journal charged that doctors working for the U.S. military in Iraq collaborated with interrogators in the abuse of detainees at Baghdad's Abu Ghraib prison, profoundly breaching medical ethics and human rights.
    (AP, 8/21/04)
2004        Aug 20, In Brazil 4 homeless men were bludgeoned to death and six were in critical condition following early morning attacks by unknown assailants in downtown streets of Sao Paulo.
    (AP, 8/20/04)
2004        Aug 20, China said it would offer 10-year residency permits to “high-level" foreigners, who bring in important investments or business skills.
    (WSJ, 8/23/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 20, In Athens, Michael Phelps matched Mark Spitz's record of four individual gold medals in the Olympic pool with a stirring comeback in the 100-meter butterfly, then removed himself from further competition.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2004        Aug 20, Freelance French journalists Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot were kidnapped in an area south of Baghdad known as the "triangle of death." They were eventually released by the Islamic Army and returned home to Paris in December that same year.
    (AFP, 9/22/10)
2004        Aug 20, Tropical storm Megi swept out to sea beyond northern Japan, leaving behind an arc of destruction that killed 13 people.
    (AP, 8/21/04)
2004        Aug 20, Thailand’s PM Thaksin said he would overturn the country’s current ban on commercial production and trade in genetically modified food (GMOs).
    (WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A13)

2005        Aug 20, Northwest Airlines mechanics went on strike rather than accept pay cuts and layoffs; Northwest hired replacement workers.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2005        Aug 20, With a deafening boom, the ashes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson were blown into the sky above Woody Creek, Colo.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2005        Aug 20, Thomas Herrion (b.1981), San Francisco offensive lineman, collapsed in the locker room and died in Denver, shortly after the 49ers played the Denver Broncos in a preseason game. Herrion's was the NFL's first football-related death since Vikings tackle Korey Stringer died of heatstroke in 2001.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Herrion)(AP, 8/20/06)
2005        Aug 20, In southern Afghanistan at least 20 people were killed and 28 others injured when two buses collided on a highway.
    (AFP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, Bangladesh was hit by a nationwide strike called by the opposition to protest at a wave of bombings earlier in the week linked to an Islamic extremist group.
    (AFP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, Bangladeshi and Indian border guards negotiated a ceasefire, halting a gunbattle that flared over disputed construction work along the frontier.
    (Reuters, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, Protesters demanding the closure of an eastern China battery factory they say is spewing lead into the environment clashed with police, and dozens of people were injured.
    (AP, 8/21/05)
2005        Aug 20, In Colombia a leftist rebel group acknowledged that its fighters killed two Catholic priests earlier this week, but said the killing was a mistake and promised to punish those responsible.
    (AP, 8/21/05)
2005        Aug 20, Cuba and Panama restored diplomatic ties, one year after they were broken off in a dispute sparked by the decision by Panama's previous president to pardon four Cuban exiles accused of trying to assassinate Cuban President Fidel Castro.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, In Cuba the Latin American School of Medical Science, created as a regional initiative in 1998 after two hurricanes devastated Caribbean and Central American nations, graduated its first class of 1,500 students.
    (AP, 8/21/05)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.35)
2005        Aug 20, A bomb detonated by remote control killed at least three police officers in the troubled southern Russian region of Dagestan and wounded several more.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, Hundreds of German far right extremists marched through Berlin and gathered for a rally in former Nazi hotbed Nuremberg after a meeting to honor Adolf Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess was banned.
    (Reuters, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, In Haiti black-uniformed riot police ordered all participants to lie down and al-lowed hooded attackers to hack to death as many as 20 people during a soccer tournament in the slum of Martissant.
    (Econ, 9/3/05, p.36)
2005        Aug 20, Indian troops shot dead a Hindu fighting for the biggest Islamic separatist rebel group in Indian Kashmir.
    (AFP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, In Iraq a US soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Baghdad.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, General Mathias Doue, former head of the Ivory Coast armed forces, said that the departure of Pres. Laurent Gbagbo is the condition for a return to peace.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.40)
2005        Aug 20, Libya will free 131 political prisoners, including members of the Muslim Brotherhood, said Saif al-Islam, son of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who heads a foundation dedicated to improving the country's image.
    (AP, 8/21/05)
2005        Aug 20, Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas signed a decree appropriating Jewish settlement land and scheduled elections for Jan 25. In a challenge to Abbas, dozens of masked Hamas gunmen took over Gaza City's central square and announced they would not stop attacks on Israel, despite Israel's ongoing withdrawal from the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 8/20/05)(SSFC, 8/21/05, p.A13)
2005        Aug 20, Interfax reported that health officials in the western Siberian region of Omsk may have found the virus on a farm with up to 142,000 birds. Outbreaks were already con-firmed in 40 Russian villages across western Siberia, while 78 other small settlements had suspected cases.
    (Reuters, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, The 184-pound "Unspunnenstein," named after the site of Switzerland's most revered stone-throwing contest, was stolen from a hotel in the central Swiss city of Interlaken where it was on display before the competition scheduled for Sept. 3-4.
    (AP, 8/20/05)
2005        Aug 20, Paul Wolfowitz on his first visit to India as World Bank president said the World Bank would lend up to $3 billion a year over the next three years to India for various development programs. The Bank lent $2.9 billion to India in the financial year to June 2005, more than double $1.4 billion lent the year before, making Asia's third-largest economy the multilateral lending institution's largest borrower.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

2006        Aug 20, Robert K. Hoffman (59), one of the 3 founders of the National Lampoon magazine, died in Dallas, Texas. Hoffman, Henry Beard and Doug Kenney sold their interests in 1975.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 20, Joe Rosenthal (94), former Associated Press photographer, who had taken the iconic Iwo Jima flag-raising picture (2/23/1945) during World War II, died in Novato, Calif.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2006        Aug 20, In Afghanistan militants ambushed a police patrol in western Farah province, sparking a gunbattle that left one officer and 2 attackers dead. In Helmand province a clash with insurgents left one British soldier dead and three others wounded. A NATO airstrike killed nine militants including a local insurgent leader in Helmand province. A roadside bomb killed three Afghan policemen traveling on the main highway linking Murja and Lashkar Gah districts. Two roadside bombs targeting border police in southeastern Khost province killed two officers and wounded five others. Tens of thousands of health workers fanned out across Afghanistan in a polio vaccination campaign to immunize more than 7 million children under age 5.
    (AP, 8/20/06)(AP, 8/21/06)(AP, 8/22/06)
2006        Aug 20, President Joseph Kabila failed to win an outright majority in Congo's first elections in more than four decades. Kabila won 45% of the 16.9 million votes cast in the July 30 ballot; Bemba had 20%. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba will face Kabila in a second round of voting. Security-forces loyal to Kabila and Bemba fought gunbattles that killed at least two people.
    (AP, 8/21/06)
2006        Aug 20, Arab League foreign ministers convened in Egypt for an emergency meeting to discuss how to fund reconstruction in war-ravaged Lebanon and defuse Mideast tensions amid rising discord between moderate Arabs and Syria, a main backer of Hezbollah.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, In northern France a fire broke out in a run-down apartment building that mainly housed immigrants, killing five people and injuring 10.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, In India a Canadian was arrested with illegal drugs worth five million dollars in New Delhi in what was billed as a major effort to stop narcotics being shipped to the West. About 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of ephedrine, hashish and other illegal drugs were seized overnight from Girdish Singh Toor while he was leading a convoy of vehicles.
    (AFP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, Snipers firing from rooftops and a cemetery killed 20 people and wounded dozens in a series of attacks on a Shiite religious procession that drew hundreds of thousands of pilgrims to Baghdad. The "terrorist assaults" took place when the pilgrims were walking through Sunni areas on their way to the shrine of Imam Moussa Kadhim. 2 US Marines and a sailor were killed in the western province of Anbar.
    (AP, 8/20/06)(AP, 8/21/06)(Reuters, 8/21/06)
2006        Aug 20, Israeli troops detained Mahmoud al-Ramahi, secretary-general of the Hamas parliament, pushing forward with a crackdown on the Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, Lebanese PM Fuad Saniora called the Israeli bombing campaign "a crime against humanity," and Lebanon's defense minister warned any group that breaks the Middle East cease-fire will be dealt with harshly.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, Nepal’s government withdrew hikes in gasoline, diesel and cooking fuel prices after thousands of protesters clashed with police, blocked traffic and vandalized government vehicles.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, In New Zealand Tuheitia Paki (51), eldest son of the late Queen Te Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu, wore his mother's feather cloak as he was named the new Maori king in the village of Ngaruawahia.
    (AP, 8/20/06)
2006        Aug 20, At least 11 people were killed when militants engaged Nigerian troops in a fierce gun battle in the restive Niger Delta. Local press reports said 12 people, 10 militants, a Shell worker and a soldier, were killed during the shootout.
    (AFP, 8/22/06)

2007        Aug 20, The lawyer for Atlanta Falcons quarterback Michael Vick said Vick will plead guilty to federal dogfighting conspiracy charges. Vick could spend the next few American football seasons behind bars.
    (AFP, 8/20/07)(WSJ, 8/21/07, p.A1)
2007        Aug 20, In Minnesota divers discovered the body of Gregory Jolstad, a 45-year-old construction worker who was part of the crew resurfacing the Interstate 35W bridge when it fell Aug. 1 during the evening rush hour. The discovery brought the official death toll to 13. Gov. Tim Pawlenty said the emergency response costs alone would be more than $8 million.
    (AP, 8/21/07)
2007        Aug 20, The Nasdaq Stock Market, facing a challenge to its bid for a Nordic exchange, abandoned hopes to acquire the London Stock Exchange and said it will offload its 31% stake in the exchange.
    (AP, 8/20/07)(SFC, 8/21/07, p.C3)
2007        Aug 20, Leona Helmsley (87), the NYC hotelier who went to prison as a tax cheat and was reviled as the "queen of mean," died at her home in Greenwich, Conn.
    (AP, 8/20/07)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.79)
2007        Aug 20, In Kabul 4 suspected kidnappers were captured as Afghan police freed Christina Meier, a German aid worker who had been snatched from a restaurant while she ate with her husband.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, Britain eased restrictions on the movement of cattle and sheep to following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southern England.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Canada Mexican President Felipe Calderon, Canadian PM Stephen Harper and President Bush worked to craft a plan to secure their borders in the event of a terrorist strike or other emergency without creating traffic tie-ups that slowed commerce at crossings after the Sept. 11 attacks. Protesters and riot police clashed outside the posh Canadian resort where the leaders were meeting.
    (AP, 8/20/07)(Reuters, 8/21/07)
2007        Aug 20, In China Jia Youling, chief veterinary officer, said that the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), aka as blue-ear pig disease, head been brought under control. He said 257,000 pigs in 26 provinces had been infected. 68,000 had died from the disease and 175,000 were destroyed.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.41)
2007        Aug 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa for a working visit aimed at boosting relations with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AFP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Egypt 4 terror suspects were convicted by a security court and sentenced to life in prison for their involvement in 3 attacks that killed two French tourists and an American in April, 2005. Five other suspects, including two women, received jail sentences that ranged from one to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/21/07)
2007        Aug 20, Iraq's embattled PM Nouri al-Maliki came to Syria on his first visit here as prime minister amid efforts to garner neighbors' support for curbing violence at home. Syria said Iraq should set a timetable for the withdrawal of foreign troops. A roadside bomb killed Mohammed Ali al-Hassani (52), the governor of the predominantly Shiite Muthanna province, along with his driver and guard. Two bombings struck the Shiite district of Sadr City and a busy market district elsewhere in Baghdad, killing at least 7 people and wounding more than 20. Thousands rallied against the US in Sadr City, waving Iraqi flags and shouting "No, no to America."
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Okinawa, Japan, passengers used emergency slides to evacuate a China Airlines Boeing 737-800 just minutes before the plane burst into a fireball on the tarmac. All 165 people aboard escaped unhurt, including the pilot, who jumped from the cockpit at the last second.
    (AP, 8/20/07)(AP, 8/20/08)
2007        Aug 20, A report showed tiny fish farms have helped 1,200 poor families hit by AIDS in Malawi to raise their incomes and improve their diets in a scheme being expanded to other African nations.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, Tens of thousands of tourists fled the beaches of the Mayan Riviera as Hurricane Dean roared toward Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2007        Aug 20, A crowded bus veered off a mountainous road in western Nepal, killing at least 19 people.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In northwestern Pakistan a suicide bomber detonated his explosive-laden car at a roadside security post, killing at least three troops and wounding at least eight others. A passenger bus plunged off a mountain road into a river bank in northern Pakistan, killing 25 people and injuring eight.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul won most votes in the first round of a presidential election, but did not secure the two-thirds majority needed in parliament for an outright win.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)
2007        Aug 20, In Turkey Festus Okey (21), a Nigerian immigrant, was shot and killed while in police custody.
    (AP, 12/13/11)(http://www.hyd.org.tr/?pid=515)
2007        Aug 20, The UN Security Council authorized an African Union force in chaotic Somalia for another six months and asked the secretary-general to develop plans for a possible UN troop replacement.
    (Reuters, 8/20/07)

2008        Aug 20, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and her Polish counterpart signed a deal to build a US missile defense base in Poland, an agreement that prompted an infuriated Russia to warn of a possible attack against the former Soviet satellite. The deal included an American Patriot anti-aircraft and anti-missile battery in Poland.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.44)
2008        Aug 20, In Alabama five men were found killed, execution style in Shelby County. The killings were soon identified as a retaliation hit over drug money with ties to Mexico's notorious Gulf Cartel.
    (AP, 4/19/09)
2008        Aug 20, Stephanie Tubbs Jones (b.1949), Ohio’s first black congresswoman, died in Cleveland following a brain hemorrhage. She was first elected in 1998.
    (SFC, 8/21/08, p.A3)
2008        Aug 20, Gene Upshaw (b.1945), former NFL Hall of Famer and union leader, died near lake Tahoe.
    (SFC, 8/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Aug 20, In eastern Afghanistan the US-led coalition killed more than 30 insurgents in a battle whose fighters were said to be responsible for an attack that killed 10 French troops earlier this week. 3 Polish soldiers were killed when a roadside bomb exploded in the central province of Ghazni. 3 Canadian soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 8/21/08)(Reuters, 8/21/08)
2008        Aug 20, In eastern Algeria 2 car bomb attacks killed at least 11 people in Bouira with at least 31 people wounded. This followed a suicide bomber who killed 43 people a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, Bangladesh prosecutors formally lodged new charges against ex-premier Sheikh Hasina Wajed over her alleged role in a 130-million-dollar defense deal with Russia.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, In Beijing Rohullah Nikpai of Afghanistan won a bronze medal in taekwondo. This was Afghanistan’s first Olympic medal ever.
    (http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/summer08/news/story?id=3544339)
2008        Aug 20, Hua Guofeng (b.1921), who succeeded Mao Zedong as chairman of China's ruling Communist Party and briefly ruled the country (1976), died in Beijing.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, The Red Cross revised its emergency appeal for Ethiopia to five million euros (7.9 million dollars) as the situation in the drought-hit south of the country got worse.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, International and domestic flights were disrupted across India as thousands of airport employees went on strike to protest plans to privatize airports.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, Nigerian President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua named new military chiefs dropping nearly all appointees he inherited from his predecessor. MEND, the most prominent armed group in Nigeria's volatile oil-rich Niger Delta, accused the military of carrying out extra-judicial executions of 22 captured insurgents in the region. The insurgents had been captured the previous day.
    (AFP, 8/21/08)(AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, Pakistan’s security officials said missiles fired from Afghanistan hit a militant hideout in Pakistan's tribal belt, killing at least eight people including some foreign extremists.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, Panama’s President Martin Torrijos signed an executive order creating a new intelligence agency and a border police force to combat growing drug crimes. This prompted concerns of a return to its militarized past.
    (AP, 8/21/08)
2008        Aug 20, Abdurahman Macapaar (aka Commander Bravo) of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), the Muslim rebel commander behind deadly raids in the southern Philippines, declared an "all-out war" against the government, saying his fighters were willing to die in battle.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, Five people were killed as Typhoon Nuri slammed into the northern Philippines, triggering heavy rain and warnings of possible storm surges.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, A top Russian general said 64 of the country's soldiers were killed and 323 wounded in this month's fighting with Georgia. Russia informed Norway that it plans to suspend all military ties with NATO, a day after the military alliance urged Moscow to withdraw its forces from Georgia. Georgia later reported that 170 of its soldiers were killed in the war.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(AP, 8/21/08)(SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A10)
2008        Aug 20, Serbian publisher BeoBook said it has withdrawn a controversial book by American writer Sherry Jones because of protests from the local Islamic community. The book "Jewel of Medina" is about Aisha, one of the Prophet Muhammad's wives.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, A Spanair MD-82 bound for the Canary Islands caught fire while trying to make an emergency landing just after departing from Madrid airport leaving 153 people dead. This was the nation's worst air disaster in nearly 25 years. The toll rose to 154 on Aug 23 leaving 18 survivors. In 2010 authorities investigating the crash of Spanair flight 5022 discovered a central computer system used to monitor technical problems in the aircraft was infected with malware.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(AP, 8/21/08)(Reuters, 8/23/08)(http://tinyurl.com/2azr8zj)
2008        Aug 20, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson AB and Swiss chip-maker STMicroelectronics NV unveiled plans to create a 50-50 joint venture that will make a key component known as chipsets for mobile phones.
    (AP, 8/20/08)
2008        Aug 20, In Turkey Sudan's indicted president denied that his regime is orchestrating genocide in the troubled western region of Darfur, and offered hope for an end to the violence and the dawn of reconciliation by promising free and fair elections next year.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2009        Aug 20, In Colorado a Black Hawk helicopter crashed during training on Mount Massive, the state’s 2nd highest mountain. 4 soldiers were killed in the crash.
    (SFC, 8/21/09, p.A8)
2009        Aug 20, Afghans voted to elect a president for only the second time in history as fears emerged of poor turnout. Some $300 million was spent in organizational costs alone. Top security officials said 26 civilians and security forces have died in election-day militant attacks. Insurgents launched scattered rocket, suicide and bomb attacks that closed some polling sites. In northern Baghlan province, insurgent attacks closed 14 polling sites, and several police were reported killed. In southern Helmand province more than 20 rockets landed in the capital of Lashkar Gah, including one near a line of voters that killed a child. Initial election results weren't expected until Aug 22. Taliban militants cut off the nose and both ears of an Afghan father of 8 he tried to vote. The attack became the third confirmed report of the Taliban mutilating people who sought to cast ballots in the electoral contest. Some 400 insurgent incidents took place during the poll.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(AP, 8/31/09)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.35)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.40)
2009        Aug 20, Angola and South Africa signed a number of trade agreements including cooperation in the oil sector, following major bilateral talks aimed at strengthening economic relations.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Australia passed a clean energy law requiring the country to produce 20 percent of its power from renewable sources by 2020 in move that could draw billions of dollars of green investment.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, A French government-sponsored report was released saying that decomposing algae covering some beaches in Brittany represent a serious health risk and gases that can kill within minutes were detected on a beach where a horse died last month.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Usain Bolt of Jamaica set a world record of 19.19 seconds in the 200 meters at the world championships in Berlin, adding to the gold he won in the 100.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Diplomats said Iran has lifted a year-long ban and allowed UN nuclear inspectors to visit a nearly completed nuclear reactor as well as granting greater monitoring rights at another atomic site.
    (SFC, 8/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Aug 20, The Iraqi government announced the detention of 11 army and police commanders, accusing them of negligence in the previous day’s bombings. The government also decided to keep concrete blast barriers around potential targets. A bicycle bomb exploded near a restaurant in Baghdad killing two people. There were three bombings in Babil province, a region once so notorious for violence it was called the Triangle of Death. A bomb attached to a minibus killed three and wounded eight in Hillah, while two bombs at a market in Musayyib wounded 45.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(AP, 8/21/09)(SFC, 8/21/09, p.A4)
2009        Aug 20, Drug developer Warner Chilcott, which focuses on women's healthcare and dermatology, completed its move to Ireland from Bermuda.
    (AP, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 20, Italian customs found a boat with five Eritrean survivors of what it called a "shocking tragedy. Around 75 African migrants died in the Mediterranean after their stranded boat ran out of food and water.
    (Reuters, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 20, The Association of Parents of Disappeared People (APDP) said their workers have discovered several unmarked graves containing about 1,500 unidentified bodies in Indian Kashmir, and alleged that some of corpses were likely innocent people killed by government forces. APDP said at least eight of the graves held more than one body.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, In Mexico the body of leftist congressman Armando Chavarria was found in the passenger seat of a vehicle in Guerrero’s state capital of Chilpancingo. State police said three human heads were found in ice boxes in the municipality of Coyuca de Catalan. The mutilated bodies were in bags nearby. A message from alleged drug traffickers was also found.
    (AP, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 20, Pakistan's military said that about 60 militants had surrendered to authorities in northwest Swat valley, where the government claims to have eliminated Taliban extremists. Baluchistan authorities found the bodies of 10 policemen in a remote mountain pass. Earlier this week, the separatist Baluch Republican Army called local media organizations and said it had killed the remaining 10 of 25 police officers kidnapped last month.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(AP, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 20, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin ordered that key parts of Russia's aging infrastructure be checked and upgraded after a power plant accident in Siberia left scores feared dead and strained the vast region's power supply. The confirmed death toll in the power plant accident rose to 17 after three more bodies were found. 57 were still missing.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Russian authorities flew the suspected hijackers of the cargo vessel Arctic Sea to Moscow and took off them for interrogation, dismissing suggestions that the ship may have been carrying weapons.
    (Reuters, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Kenny MacAskill, Scotland’s justice secretary, freed Abdel Baset al-Megrahi (57), former Libyan intelligence agent and alleged Lockerbie bomber (Dec 21, 1988), on compassionate grounds after eight years in jail allowing him to go home to Libya to die. Al-Megrahi has terminal prostate cancer and has been given less than three months to live. In 2010 Professor Karol Sikora, who assessed for the Libyan authorities, told The Sunday Times it was "embarrassing" that he had outlived his three-month prognosis and that al-Megrahi could sur-vive for 10 years or longer. It was later reported that BP had promoted the deal in order to protect a $900 million oil and gas exploration deal off the Libyan Mediterranean coast.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.48)(AP, 7/03/10)(SFC, 7/16/10, p.A2)
2009        Aug 20, In central Somalia fighting between government soldiers and Islamic insurgents killed at least 40 people as the warring sides tried to gain ground in strategic towns.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(SFC, 8/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Aug 20, Swiss President Hans-Rudolf Merz and Libyan PM al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi signed an accord pledging to restore relations between the two countries and to have Hannibal Gadhafi July 15, 2008, arrest examined by a joint arbitration tribunal in London. The next day Merz defended his apology to Libya for the arrest of Moammar Gadhafi's son, saying it was the only way to secure the release of two Swiss citizens detained by Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/21/09)
2009        Aug 20, Taiwan's Cabinet approved a NT$100 billion ($3 billion) reconstruction budget after the island's worst typhoon in more than 50 years killed hundreds of people and wiped out roads and bridges in the mountainous south.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2010        Aug 20, US regulators shut down 8 more banks including 4 in California, one in Chicago, one in Virginia and two in Florida. This brought the total number of failed US banks to 118 for the year thus far.
    (SFC, 8/23/10, p.D2)
2010        Aug 20, In Afghanistan 2 NATO soldiers died in a roadside bombing.  A woman and two children died in an operation against Al-Qaeda-linked insurgents in western Farah province. 6 insurgents were killed and several suspected insurgents were detained. 6 police officers were killed by men who approached their post posing as guests and then opened fire in Nahri Sarraj district of Helmand province. 3 Afghan police were apparently killed as a result of a NATO airstrike in Jowzjan province.
    (AP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/21/10)(SSFC, 8/22/10, p.A6)
2010        Aug 20, Police in southeastern Brazil said Raimundo Gregorio da Silva, a school janitor, has confessed to killing two female students and dumping their bodies in an abandoned cesspool. Silva was arrested last week after the remains were found, and has confessed to killing Dimitria Vieira (16) in 2008 and another student, Iara Pacheco (19), reported missing since February.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 20, BHP Billiton Group announced commencement of all cash-offer to acquire Potash Corp. for $130 per share. On Nov 3 Canada blocked the Anglo-Australian mining giant’s $39 billion bid. The deal would have cost Saskatchewan an estimated C$200m a year in tax revenues.
    (Reuters, 8/20/10)(Reuters, 11/3/10)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.50)
2010        Aug 20, Charles Haddon, the lead singer of the British electro-pop group Ou Est Le Swimming Pool, committed suicide after performing at a rock festival in Belgium.
    (AFP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 19, Venezuelan Walid Makled Garcia (43), a prominent drug trafficking suspect who has been branded a major kingpin by the US government, was arrested in Colombia. He was implicated in Venezuela in two killings.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, The European Union's high court temporarily exempted Inuit hunters in Canada and Greenland from the bloc's new trade ban on seal products, while asking European Parliament and EU governments to justify the ban.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, France put about 100 Gypsies, or Roma, on a charter flight headed to their native Romania, the second day in a row that it has expelled Roma in a much criticized government crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, Singer Wyclef Jean's high-profile bid for Haiti's presidency ended after election officials on the earthquake-ravaged Caribbean nation disqualified his candidacy. The singer has not lived in Haiti for the past five years as required.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 20, India's Cabinet cleared a nuclear liability bill, a crucial step on the path to bringing foreign companies into its potentially vast nuclear energy market. The bill caps the liability of foreign firms at $320 million in the case of an industrial accident.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, Iran’s Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi announced that Iran has test fired a surface-to-surface missile, Qiam, a day before it is due to launch its Russian-built first nuclear power plant.
    (AFP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, In Indian Kashmir a teenager was shot dead by paramilitary forces in northern Sopore town. The death sparked further street protests in which a second man died in southern Bijbehara town.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 20, Kyrgyzstan's interim government suffered a humiliating blow as Osh Mayor Melis Myrzakmatov, a powerful opponent, refused to step down as mayor of the southern city devastated by deadly ethnic violence two months ago.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, In Mexico 6 city police officers were arrested in the killing of Santiago Mayor Edelmiro Cavazos. The suspects included the officer who guarded the house where Cavazos was kidnapped on Aug 15. A shootout in Santa Catalina, a suburb of Monterrey, left 3 security guards wounded. 2 slain guards were found the next day in the trunk of a car.
    (AP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/22/10)
2010        Aug 20, Mexican prosecutors added tax evasion charges to drug counts pending against for Zhenli Ye Gon, a Chinese-Mexican businessman who is fighting extradition from the United States. Ye Gon was jailed in the US more than two years ago on charges of smuggling methamphetamines from Mexico to the US.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, Mexican police detained six suspects on the southern Pacific coast with 3,756 illegally harvested eggs from protected sea turtles.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, Conny Mus (59), a veteran Dutch correspondent in the Middle East who covered conflicts from Romania's revolution to the wars in Iraq, died while on vacation in his home country.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, In northern New Zealand 47 pilot whales died after they washed onto an isolated beach. Rescue volunteers' initial efforts to refloat some survivors failed. The next day rescuers refloated 11 beached pilot whales. Some of the survivors still appeared to be in trouble.
    (AP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 20, Russia secured a long-term foothold in the energy-rich and unstable Caucasus region by signing a deal with Armenia that allows a Russian military base to operate until 2044 in exchange for a promise of new weaponry and fresh security guarantees.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, South African unions representing more than 1 million striking civil servants began talks with the government to end a stoppage that could damage Africa's largest economy if it drags on into next month.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, South Korean authorities arrested Rev. Han Sang-ryol, a religious activist, as he returned home across the heavily fortified border after an illegal trip to North Korea. South Korea’s government prohibits its citizens from joining pro-North Korean organizations or having unauthorized contact with the communist country. They also ban citizens from supporting or praising the North.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, In Sweden a prosecutor in Stockholm issued an arrest warrant for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange (39) on suspicion of rape. The move means police are ordered to seek his arrest as part of an investigation but doesn't necessarily mean that criminal charges will be filed. Authorities the next day revoked the arrest warrant saying a rape accusation against him lacked substance.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 20, A Thai appeals court ordered the extradition of suspected Russian arms smuggler Viktor Bout to the United States, angering Moscow but paving the way to put the man dubbed the "Merchant of Death" on trial.
    (AP, 8/20/10) 
2010        Aug 20, Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych said he is taking control of the case of Vasyl Klymentyev, an investigative reporter who has been missing for a week. Klymentyev reportedly was threatened after refusing to accept a bribe to halt publication of a story about a regional prosecutor accused of accepting bribes to close criminal cases.
    (AP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, UN agencies stepped up calls for donors to cash up pledges for Pakistan in order to prevent what UN chief Ban Ki-moon called a "slow-motion tsunami" from wrecking further catastrophe.
    (AFP, 8/20/10)
2010        Aug 20, In southern Yemen clashes began between troops and “terrorist elements" at a market in Loder. 19 people were killed, including 11 soldiers, 3 civilians and 5 Al-Qaeda members. Authorities said Adel Saleh Hardaba (27), whom they described as the Al-Qaeda second-in-command in Loder, was among the dead.
    (AFP, 8/20/10)(AP, 8/24/10)

2011        Aug 20, In New Jersey a sport utility vehicle carrying eight members of the Mainland Regional High School football team in Linwood crashed on the Garden State Parkway, killing four players and injuring four.
    (AP, 8/21/11)
2011        Aug 20, In New Jersey 2 small planes performing aerobatic maneuvers over Hammonton collided in midair killing one of the pilots.
    (SSFC, 8/21/11, p.A10)
2011        Aug 20, In southern Afghanistan a passenger bus careened off a road, killing 35 people. A string of insurgent attacks across the country killed five people.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, A British military Red Arrows jet crashed while taking part in an air show in Bournemouth. Lt. John Egging (33) was the first Red Arrows pilot to die since 1978, when two were killed in a training accident. The Red Arrows display team were formed in 1965.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Canada 12 people were killed when a Boeing 737, chartered by First Air, crashed near Resolute Bay in the far north of the Canadian Arctic, but three people survived.
    (Reuters, 8/21/11)(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.A6)
2011        Aug 20, Egypt said it would recall its ambassador from Israel to protest the deaths of at least 3 Egyptian troops killed in a shootout between Israeli soldiers and Palestinian militants.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Honduras the UN-backed 1st World Summit of African Descendants called on the UN to create a development fund to fight poverty and protect the human rights of Afro-descendants. Over 1,000 representatives from 70 nations gathered for the event. The 2nd World Summit was scheduled for 2014 in Madrid.
    (AP, 8/21/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Hong Kong about 300 reporters and photographers rallied against what they called the suppression of press freedom and freedom of expression during the visit earlier this week of China’s Vice Premier Li Keqiang's.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, Indian troops in Kashmir fought a deadly gunbattle with suspected rebels crossing the military Line of Control from Pakistani-controlled territory. One soldier and 11 suspected rebels were reported killed.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, India’s West Bengal state government said at least 11 people have died in the last 24 hours from flood-related causes, including drowning and injury from collapsed homes.
    (AP, 8/21/11)
2011        Aug 20, Iran's state TV reported that Americans Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal, already held for two years in Tehran, have been sentenced to 8 years in jail each on charges of espionage and illegal entry. They had 20 days to appeal the sentence.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In central Kenya a group of 23 relatives and friends were killed after their minibus lost control, hit the barrier of a bridge and crashed down a rocky slope before landing in a dry river bed 90 miles east of Nairobi.
    (AP, 8/21/11)
2011        Aug 20, Libyan rebels gained full control of the strategic western city of Zawiya, pushing Moammar Gadhafi's troops back on the road east to Tripoli. Rebel military spokesman Col. Ahmed Bani said fighters gained control of the industrial section of Brega, after having captured its residential areas last week.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Mexico 2 decapitated bodies and scalped heads were dumped outside a Sam's Club store in Acapulco while 3 headless corpses were found nearby on the resort city's main tourist strip. Authorities said they found the bullet-riddled bodies of nine men on a highway in the Pacific Coast state of Nayarit.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, Reclusive North Korea's autocratic leader Kim Jong Il crossed into Russia on his armored train to discuss with President Dmitry Medvedev the possible renewal of nuclear disarmament talks and the construction of a pipeline that will stream Russian natural gas to both Koreas.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Pakistan suspected militants ambushed a security convoy in the Aka Khel area of Khyber tribal region, killing two soldiers and wounding eight. Gunmen ambushed a police bus in Karachi, killing four officers.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In South Africa some 2,000 women draped sexy lingerie over their street clothes and marched through Cape Town, bringing the international "SlutWalks" campaign against the notion that a woman's appearance can excuse attacks to a country where rape is seen as a national crisis.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, In South Sudan Human Rights' representative Benedict Sannoh was severely beaten at his hotel in Juba. Sannoh, a Liberian, had refused to allow police to search his room and possessions before the assault. He was hospitalized for five days and received medical treatment outside the country.
    (AP, 8/26/11)
2011        Aug 20, In Spain Pope Benedict XVI said he would confer one of the Catholic Church's highest honors on St. John of Avila, an influential 16th-century Spanish saint, making a surprise announcement during a Mass at the church's world youth festival. Pope John Paul II added St. Therese of Lisieux to the list in 1997, the last time one was proclaimed, making her #33.
    (AP, 8/20/11)
2011        Aug 20, Syrian security forces dead two people in the town of Rastan, near the provincial capital of Homs. Troops also wounded at least 8 people in Homs, where a general strike was under way to protest the crackdown and most of the city's markets were closed. A Syrian military official said an "armed, terrorist group" ambushed a military bus in Homs, killing two officers and wounding three others.
    (AP, 8/21/11)

2012        Aug 20, US President Barack Obama warned Syria that Washington will not tolerate any deployment of chemical weapons.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, A Manhattan federal court found Doug Whitman (54), head of Whitman Capital LLC, guilty of insider trading. Prosecutors claimed he traded on illegal tips about Polycom Inc., Goggle Inc. and Marvell Tech.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.D3)
2012        Aug 20, Apple Corp. shares closed at $662.38 propelling the company’s value to $623 billion, the world’s highest market cap ever.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.D1)
2012        Aug 20, Comedian Phyllis Diller (95) died in her Los Angeles home. In 1966-67 she was the star of an ABC sitcom about a society family trying to stave off bankruptcy, "The Pruitts of Southampton." In 1968, she was host of a short-lived variety series, "The Beautiful Phyllis Diller Show." She also appeared in movies, including "Boy, Did I Get a Wrong Number" (1966) and "Eight on the Lam" (1967) with Bob Hope.
    (AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Maryland a CSX freight train derailed near midnight buried under coal and killed 2 college friends (19), who were sitting near the tracks.
    (SFC, 8/22/12, p.A6)
2012        Aug 20, In Afghanistan three Afghans from a politically connected family were killed when their car struck a roadside bomb in the eastern province of Paktia.
    (AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In London Turkish Cypriot tycoon Asil Nadir (71) was found guilty of theft in relation to the collapse of his Polly Peck business empire, one of a series of debacles that focused public attention on the corporate greed of 1980s Britain. On Aug 23 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 20, A Chinese court handed Gu Kailai, the wife of disgraced political leader Bo Xilai, a suspended death sentence for murder in a case that has rocked the Communist party ahead of a 10-yearly power handover. Zhang Xiaojun, an employee of the Bo family charged with helping Gu to poison Heywood, was found guilty and sentenced to nine years in jail while four police officers were convicted of attempting to cover up the murder.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, Meles Zenawi (b.1955), Ethiopia's long-time ruler, died of an undisclosed illness in Belgium. He was credited with economic gains, but blamed for human rights abuses, and was a major US counter-terrorism ally. Hailemariam Desalegn, who was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in 2010, became acting prime minister.
    (AP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Greece firefighters battled a major forest fire on the island of Chios as it ravaged groves of the island’s famed mastic trees for a 3rd day.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Aug 20, Mali's interim leaders announced a new government late today, months after a military coup unleashed political chaos.
    (AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, Myanmar abolished direct censorship of the media in the most dramatic move yet toward allowing freedom of expression in the long-repressed nation. But related laws and practices that may lead to self-censorship raise doubt about how much will change.
    (AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, Nicaraguan police stopped 6 vans driven by people posing as members of a Mexican television news crew. Police found $9.2 million in smuggled cash and 18 people were detained.
    (AP, 8/24/12)(AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Niger 4.7 inches of rain (119 millimeters) fell in the capital, pushing water under people's doors and causing rivers to rise to the highest levels since 1929.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 20, In northeastern Nigeria gunmen in Damagun, Yobe state, blew up part of a primary school overnight then attacked a Catholic church and police station before officers fought them off.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, Somalia's parliament held its inaugural session as the chief justice swore in 211 new members of parliament. Leaders were to have chosen 275 members of parliament and vote for a new president by today, the end of the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government. The process has been slowed by corruption and intimidation. Some seats were said to be sold for up to $25,000.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.37)
2012        Aug 20, A South African court convicted the last of 20 men accused of high treason for a plot to kill Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country, in a trial that spanned nearly a decade. The "Boeremag" organization had planned a right-wing coup in 2002 to overthrow the post-apartheid government by creating chaos in the country. Judge Eben Jordaan found that Kobus Pretorius was the group's "master explosives manufacturer" and "took the lead in the production process" throughout their bomb-making activity.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In South Africa only 27% of workers answered an ultimatum to return for morning shifts at the platinum mine where police shot and killed 34-44 striking workers last week. Lonmin PLC said they were enough for it to resume operations.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 20, Sri Lanka's navy stopped two Australia-bound trawlers carrying 83 would-be asylum seekers in the first detection since Canberra tightened restrictions on boat people.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Syria deadly fighting rocked Daraa, the birthplace of the Syrian uprising, as rebels doggedly resisted a regime onslaught. Government forces pummeled Aleppo with airstrikes and tanks and shelled parts of Damascus and southern Syria Monday, killing at least 100 people.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)(AP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Syria Mika Yamamoto (45), a veteran Japanese war reporter, died after she was shot in the neck when coming under fire from up to 15 apparently pro-government troops in Aleppo.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Turkey a car bomb in a southeastern Turkish city of Gaziantap left 9 people dead. Authorities blamed rebels of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) of being behind the powerful blast that went off close to a police station. The PKK denied the attack.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)
2012        Aug 20, In Vietnam Nguyen Duc Kien (48), a shareholder in some of Vietnam's largest financial institutions, was taken into custody after police raided his Hanoi home and seized documents. He was arrested for illegal business activities. Kien is a founder of Asia Commercial Bank (ACB), one of the largest banks in Vietnam, which counts global banking giant Standard Chartered as one of its "strategic partners." The banking tycoon and football fanatic was arrested and charged with failing to obtain proper licenses for three small investment firms that he chaired.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.32)

2013        Aug 20, The US deported Mexican drug smuggler Sandra Avila Beltran (52), known as the "Queen of the Pacific", after she served out a jail term, handing her over to authorities in Mexico to face separate money laundering charges. She was among 129 detainees turned over by US Immigration and Customs Enforcement to authorities in Mexico.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, The US said it has placed unprecedented sanctions on Jamia Taleem-Ul-Quran-Wal-Hadith Madrassa, also known as the Ganj Madrassa, an Islamic school in Peshawar, Pakistan, for allegedly training and financing fighters from al-Qaida and other militant groups.
    (AP, 8/21/13)
2013        Aug 20, The Al Jazeera America news program “America Tonight" was launched from NYC. Executives were informed that AT&T’s U-verse pay-TV system was dropping the network. A breech of contract suit was quickly filed.
    (SFC, 8/20/13, p.A6)(SFC, 8/22/13, p.A12)
2013        Aug 20, A jury in San Rafael, Ca., found Joseph Naso (79) guilty of murdering 4 northern California prostitutes in the lates 1970s and early 1990s.
    (SFC, 8/21/13, p.D5)
2013        Aug 20, Police in Las Vegas, Nevada, arrested David Allen Brutsche (42) and Devon Campbell Newman (67), members of the “sovereign citizens" movement, for plotting to abduct, torture and kill police officers.
    (SFC, 8/24/13, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/mt5ctzl)
2013        Aug 20, Elmore Leonard (b.1925), a former adman who later became one of America's foremost crime writers, died in Bloomfield Hills, Mi. His over 40 novels included "Out of Sight," ''Get Shorty" and "Be Cool," which were made into films.
    (AP, 8/20/13)(SFC, 8/21/13, p.D7)
2013        Aug 20, American film director Ted Post (95) died in Los Angeles. He  directed 13 films including “Hang ‘em High" (1968) and “Magnum Force" starring Clint Eastwood. His TV work included 56 episodes of “Gunsmoke" and 90 episodes of “Peyton Place."
    (SSFC, 8/25/13, p.C12)
2013        Aug 20, Mariam McPartland (95), renowned jazz pianist, died at her Port Washington home on Long Island, NY.
    (SFC, 8/22/13, p.D5)
2013        Aug 20, In Argentina 13 inmates escaped from the federal prison in Ezeiza, a suburb of Buenos Aires. Two were re-captured the next day.
    (SFC, 8/22/13, p.A2)
2013        Aug 20, A Chinese policeman was killed in an "anti-terrorism" operation in the restive region of Xinjiang. Overseas reports said 22 Uighurs were shot dead.
    (AFP, 8/29/13)
2013        Aug 20, Egypt's military-backed authorities arrested Mohammed Badie, the supreme leader of the country's Muslim Brotherhood. Badie’s son Ammar, was shot dead during violent clashes between security forces and Morsi supporters in Cairo on Aug 16. Egyptian journalist Tamer Abdel-Raouf, working for the state-run  Al-Ahram newspaper, was shot dead by soldiers at a military checkpoint.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, India launched its new food law aimed at giving 5 kilos of rice or wheat each month at a nominal price to some 80 million people. It was part of the welfare program launched on July 3.
    (Econ, 8/24/13, p.38)
2013        Aug 20, In western India Narendra Dabholkar (67) was shot and killed by men on motorbikes in Pune, Maharashtra state. In 1989 he had founded the Committee for the Eradication of Blind Faith (Mans).
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.98)
2013        Aug 20, In Iraq separate car bombings in three southern cities killed at least 10 people and wounded dozens.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, Israeli soldiers shot dead a Palestinian and wounded two others during a raid in the Jenin refugee camp in the occupied West Bank. Security forces arrested a suspected militant in Jenin and, after being attacked with live fire, home-made bombs and rocks, shot back.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, TEPCO, the operator of Japan's tsunami-crippled nuclear power plant, said that about 300 tons (300,000 liters, 80,000 gallons) of highly radioactive water have leaked from one of the hundreds of storage tanks there — its worst leak yet from such a vessel.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, In Mexico at least 3 people were killed by an ammonia gas leak from a pipeline owned by state oil monopoly Pemex. 1,500 people were evacuated from the area and taken to shelters in Oaxaca state.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)   
2013        Aug 20, In northern Nigeria suspected robbers in vehicles with sophisticated weapons targeted a police station and outgunned the officers there. At least 2 police officers were killed.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, A Pakistani court indicted former president and army chief Pervez Musharraf on murder charges in connection with the 2007 assassination of iconic Pakistani PM Benazir Bhutto.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, In Russia’s Caucasus region police killed 5 people in a clash in Dagestan. Among the dead was Bammatkhan Sheikov, a prominent warlord who was said to be competing to oversee all militant operations in Dagestan.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, In northeastern Syria Kurdish militias battled al-Qaida-linked rebel groups in the latest round of heavy fighting that has helped fuel a mass exodus of civilians from the region into neighboring Iraq.
    (AP, 8/20/13)
2013        Aug 20, In southern Thailand 87 Muslim Rohingya asylum-seekers escaped from an immigration detention center, highlighting the growing desperation of a stateless minority fleeing sectarian violence in Myanmar.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)

2014        Aug 20, The United States launched a new barrage of airstrikes against the Islamic State extremist group that beheaded American journalist James Foley and that has seized a swath of territory across Iraq and Syria.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Siluria Technologies of California said a $30 million fundraising round was led by Saudi Aramco. Siluria said it can make gasoline from gas for about $1 per gallon.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.C1)
2014        Aug 20, Missouri police overnight arrested nearly 50 protesters in Ferguson. US Attorney General Eric Holder planned to visit the suburb amid racially charged demonstrations over the killing of Michael Brown.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, The US Supreme Court agreed to delay an appeals court ruling striking down Virginia’s gay marriage ban.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.A4)
2014        Aug 20, Officials said Bank of America has reached a record $17 billion setlement to resolve a government investigation into its role in the sale of mortgage backed securities before the 2008 financial crises.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.C6)
2014        Aug 20, Afghan officials said as many as 700 heavily armed Taliban insurgents were battling government security forces in Logar, a key province near Kabul. A NATO soldier was stabbed to death on the streets of Kabul.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)(AFP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Afghanistan ordered NY Times correspondent Matthew Rosenberg to leave the country after he refused to reveal sources for an article saying government ministers and officials were threatening to seize power to end a stand-off over election results.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)(SFC, 8/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Aug 20, Democratic Republic of Congo said it has sent its health minister and a team of experts to the remote northern Equateur province after several people died there from a disease with Ebola-like symptoms.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Egypt 4 beheaded corpses were found by residents of Sheikh Zuwaid in the Sinai Peninsula. Residents found the bodies two days after the men were abducted by gunmen while travelling in a car in the town. Security sources blamed Islamist militants waging an insurgency against Cairo. On Aug 28 Sinai-based Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis said the four men had been spying for Israel's Mossad spy agency.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)(Reuters, 8/28/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Iraq scattered attacks killed at least 11 people in and near Baghdad. Shiite Turkmens of Amrili, besieged by Sunni militants, appealed to Iraq's military and the international community to intervene to end the siege. The UN refugee agency launched a massive air, road and sea 10-day operation to help the displaced, including a four-day airlift with Boeing 747 planes that will bring in aid from Aqaba, Jordan, to Iraq's northern Kurdish region.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Israeli warplanes continued to pound Gaza. News bloodshed pushed the Palestinian death toll to more than 2,030 since July 8 with 67 people killed on the Israeli side. Hamas said it fired two rockets at an Israeli gas installation about 30 km (19 miles) off the coast of Gaza.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)(Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Japan more than 50 people, including several children, were killed when landslides triggered by torrential rain slammed into the outskirts of the western city of Hiroshima. 28 people remained missing. On Aug 24 another landslide in the north killed 2 women.
    (AP, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Kenya suspected Shebab Islamist militants kidnapped a group of traders and took them to the dense Boni forest area in Lamu county. The militants released three of them who were Muslims and beheaded a Christian.
    (AFP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 20, Kuwait detained Hajjaj al-Ajmi, a prominent Sunni Muslim cleric, at the Gulf state's airport after the US included him on a sanctions list on suspicion that he is funneling money to militants in Iraq and Syria.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Liberian security forces sealed off the West Point area, a seaside slum in Monrovia, in the latest effort to stop the spread of Ebola, setting off protests by angry residents.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, New Zealand said it will ban the practice of shark finning.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Aug 20, Nigeria’s health ministry said a senior doctor who treated the country’s first Ebola patient has died, taking the death toll in Africa's most populous country to five.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Nigeria mutineers said dozens of soldiers have refused to deploy for an offensive against Boko Haram Islamists until they receive better weapons. Islamists attacked a training academy just outside the town of Gwoza. 35 police officers deployed to the academy were missing following the Boko Haram attack.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)(AFP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 20, Thousands of Pakistani protesters tried to blockade parliament after an anti-government cleric told them not to allow anyone in or out, with PM Nawaz Sharif inside at the time. The lawmakers left by a back entrance.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Northern Ireland police arrested four people in Londonderry suspected of organizing an IRA letter-bomb campaign.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.A2)
2014        Aug 20, In northwestern Pakistan a roadside bomb killed 6 people traveling to school in Tangi village, in the Bajaur tribal region, as the military reported further air strikes against the Taliban.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Russian police arrested four people who climbed a Moscow skyscraper and attached a Ukrainian flag to its spire. They were charged with vandalism and may face three years in jail.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, In Syria Islamic extremists fired rockets and tank shells at a the Taqba air base in the northeast, kicking off a long-anticipated offensive to seize the last position held by the Syrian government in Raqqa province, a stronghold of the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, A Ukrainian official said government troops have taken control of a large part of Luhansk (Lugansk) after days of street battles with rebels. A Ukrainian warplane was blown out of the sky over rebel-held territory as fierce clashes between government troops and pro-Russian insurgents left dozens of civilians dead. Clashes in and around the rebel stronghold of Donetsk killed 43 civilians in the past 24 hours.
    (AP, 8/20/14)(AFP, 8/20/14)

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