Today in History - August 23

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406        Aug 23, At the Battle at Florence the Roman army under Stilicho beat the Barbarians under Radagaisus.
    (PC, 1992, p.50)

1244        Aug 23, Khwarezmian Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem. Jerusalem’s citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered. The Turks ruthlessly decimated the population, leaving only 2,000 people, Christians and Muslims, still living in the city. This attack triggered the Europeans to respond with the Seventh Crusade.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarezmian_Empire)

1305        Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1514        Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1541        Aug 23, Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America and established a short-lived community there.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1553        Aug 23, John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, English Lord Admiral, premier (1551-53), was beheaded on Tower Hill in front of 10,000 onlookers.
    (ON, 5/00, p.5)(Internet)

1593        Aug 23, Fulvio Testi, Italian poet (Pianto d'Italia), was born.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1617        Aug 23, The 1st one-way streets opened in London.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1711        Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1754        Aug 23, Louis XVI (d.1793), King of France (1774-1793), was born at Versailles. During the French Revolution he met his fate at the guillotine. He was the grandson of Louis XV and married Marie Antoinette.
    (AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)

1755        Aug 23, Jean Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy, French geographer, was born.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1775        Aug 23, Britain's King George III refused the American colonies' offer of peace and proclaimed the American colonies in a state of "open and avowed rebellion."
    (HN, 8/23/98)(AP, 8/23/07)

1784        Aug 23, Eastern Tennessee settlers declared their area an independent state and named it Franklin; a year later the Continental Congress rejected it.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1813        Aug 23, At the Battle of Grossbeeren Prussians under Von Bulow repulsed the French.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1813        Aug 23, Alexander Wilson (b.1766), Scottish-born poet and naturalist, died in Philadelphia. He had completed 7 volumes of “American Ornithology" and was working on an 8th volume when he died.
    (AH, 10/04, p.23)(www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/PA_Env-Her/alexandar_wilson.htm)

1819        Aug 23, Oliver Hazard Perry, naval hero, died on his 34th birthday.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1821        Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)

1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

1838        Aug 23, One of the first colleges for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Mass., graduated its first students.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1839        Aug 23, British captured Hong Kong from China.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1850        Aug 23, The 1st national women's rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1858         Aug 23, "Ten Nights in a Bar-room," a play about the tragic consequences of consuming alcohol, opened in New York.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

1861        Aug 23, Union intelligence chief Allan Pinkerton placed Rose O’Neal Greenhow (1813/1814-1864) under house arrest for working as a southern spy working in Washington DC. She was sent to the Old Capitol Prison and then was banished to Richmond, Va., in May, 1963. She had supplied Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard with a warning that Union General Irvin McDowell was planning an attack on Manassas in July 1861. Greenhow, a 44-year-old widow with four daughters, was recruited in 1861 to be the operating head of the Confederacy’s first spy ring. A Washington socialite with many friends in high government circles, Rose was perfectly placed to gather intelligence about Federal troop strengths and movements. She drowned in a shipwreck on September 30, 1864.
    (ON, 12/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_O%27Neal_Greenhow)

1863        Aug 23, Union batteries ceased their first bombardment of Fort Sumter, leaving it a mass of rubble but still unconquered by the Northern besiegers.
    (HN, 8/23/00)

1864        Aug 23, Union troops and fleet occupied Fort Morgan, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1866        Aug 23, Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1868        Aug 23, Edgar Lee Masters (d.1950), poet, novelist, was born in Garnett, Kansas.
    (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/3088)

1872        Aug 23, The 1st Japanese commercial ship visited SF carrying tea.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1879        Aug 23, Governor-general Charles Gordon of Sudan returned to Cairo.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1883        Aug 23, Jonathan Wainwright, U.S. general who fought against the Japanese on Corregidor in the Philippines and was forced to surrender, was born.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1889        Aug 23, The 1st ship-to-shore wireless message was received in US in SF.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1899        Aug 23, Albert Claude (d.1983), biologist, was born in Belgium. He never graduated from high school and won the 1974 Nobel for his work on the sub-structure of the cell.
    (www.belgium.be)

1900        Aug 23, Booker T. Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1902        Aug 23, Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opened her School of Cookery in Boston.
    (HN, 8/23/00)
1902        Aug 23, Gold was discovered in Goldfield, Nv., near Tonopah. By 1907 Goldfield grew to 20,000 residents.
    (SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1903        Aug 23, William Primrose, violist (Method for Violin & Viola), was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1912        Aug 23, Gene Kelly, dancer and actor who starred in "An American in Paris" and "Singing in the Rain," was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Eugene Curan. Kelly debuted on Broadway in 1938 musical "Pal Joey" and in the film "For Me and My Gal" four years later
    (HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)

1914        Aug 23, Gen. von Hausen executed 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium. Felix Fivet (3 weeks old), Belgian baby, was among those executed by German troops.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1914        Aug 23, The Emperor of Japan sided with the Allies and declared war on Germany in World War I.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)

1915        Aug 23, Czar Nicolaas II took control of the Russian Army.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1920        Aug 23, M.R. Rinehart and A. Hopwood's "Bat," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1921        Aug 23, In the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, Turkey defeated the Greek Army.
    (www.allaboutturkey.com/ata_life.htm)

1923        Aug 23, Richard Adler, composer, songwriter (Damn Yankees, Pajama Game), was born.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1923        Aug 23, Wolfgang Sawallisch, conductor (Vienna Symph 1960-70), was born in Munich, Germany.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1926        Aug 23, The death of silent film actor Rudolph Valentino caused a worldwide frenzy among his fans. Valentino, who appeared in only 14 major films during his brief seven-year movie career, was idolized by countless women as the "Great Lover" of the 1920s. Born in 1895 in Castellaneta, Italy, Rodolfo di Valentina D’Antonguolla came to America in 1913 and worked as a gardener, dishwasher and vaudeville dancer until he moved to Hollywood and obtained his first important film role in 1921. In films like 1921’s The Sheik, Valentino mesmerized female fans with his sex appeal and exotic good looks. In New York for the 1926 premiere of Son of the Sheik, the 31-year-old Valentino became ill on August 15 and died of peritonitis on August 23. Valentino’s death caused worldwide hysteria, with several women reportedly committing suicide and riots breaking out in New York as thousands of fans tried to view the body. In 2003 Emily Leider authored "Dark Lover: The Life and Death of Rudolph Valentino."
    (AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)(HNPD, 8/29/98)(SFC, 6/16/03, p.D1)

1927        Aug 23, Italian-born anarchist immigrants Nicola Sacco (right) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, convicted of murder in 1921, were executed in Boston in spite of worldwide protests. On April 15, 1920, a paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory in Braintree, Massachusetts, were killed in a robbery. In the national climate of suspicion of anarchists, communists and foreigners in general, Sacco and Vanzetti, two admitted radicals, were arrested for the crime and convicted on flimsy circumstantial evidence in a trial presided over by the openly prejudiced Judge Webster Thayer. For six years, the two gained support as they attempted to obtain a new trial, but their request was denied even after a convicted killer confessed to the 1920 murders. In April 1927, Judge Thayer sentenced Sacco and Vanzetti to die in the electric chair. In 1977 Sacco and Vanzetti were vindicated when Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis established a memorial in the victims’ honor. In 2007 Bruce Watson authored “Sacco & Vanzetti."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1927)(AP, 8/23/97)(HNPD, 8/23/98)(HN, 8/23/98)(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P8)

1931        Aug 23, Hamilton O. Smith, molecular biologist, was born in NYC. He is credited with helping ‘open the door’ on genetic engineering.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/timeline/1970_Smith.shtml)

1934        Aug 23, Sonny (Christian) Jurgensen, professional football player and sports announcer, was born in North Carolina.
    (HN, 8/23/00)

1935        Aug 23, The US Banking Act of 1935 revised the operation of the Federal Reserve System.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1937        Aug 23, Albert Charles Paul Marie Roussel (68), French composer, died.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1939        Aug 23, Zane Grey (b.1872), American novelist, died. He best known for his popular adventure novels and stories that presented an idealized image of the rugged Old West. He authored over 90 books, some published posthumously and/or based on serials originally published in magazines. Grey was one of the first millionaire authors.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zane_Grey)
1939        Aug 23, Sidney Coe Howard (b.1891), US playwright and short story writer, died. He adapted “Gone With the Wind" into the 1939 film. "Half of knowing what you want is knowing what you have to give up to get it."
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 1/27/05, p.E1)
1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)

1940        Aug 23, German Luftwaffe began night bombing on London.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1942        Aug 23, Patricia McBride, ballerina (NYC Ballet Co), was born in Teaneck, NJ.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1942        Aug 23, The 1st US flights landed on Guadalcanal.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1942        Aug 23, German forces began an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad. From Aug. to Feb. 1943, The Battle of Stalingrad, 600 miles southeast of Moscow, was fought and ended with the encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army Group. Stalingrad has since been renamed to Volgograd. In 1998 Antony Beevor published "Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege." The German in charge was Gen’l. Friedrich Paulus. 600 Luftwaffe bombers killed some 40,000 people in the first week of fighting.
    (WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)

1944        Aug 23, Allied troops captured Marseilles, France.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, General George Leclerc's troops advanced towards Paris.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, A US B-24 crashed into a school in Freckelton, England, and 76 were killed.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, German SS engineers began placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Adolf Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuehrer’s order.
    (HN, 8/23/98)
1944        Aug 23, Romanian PM Ion Antonescu was dismissed by King Michael, paving the way for Romania to abandon the Axis in favor of the Allies. King Michael organized a coup against the pro-Nazi dictator, Marshal Ion Antonescu, but was double-crossed by Joseph Stalin and betrayed by the Allies who ceded the country to the Russians at the Yalta summit in 1945.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97)

1947        Aug 23, An audience at the Hollywood Bowl heard President Truman's daughter, Margaret, give her first public concert as a singer.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1948        Aug 23, Count Bernadotte asked for aid for fugitives to Palestine. [see Sep 17]
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1948        Aug 23, The World Council of Churches (WCC) was formed in Amsterdam to help reconcile differences among Christians. Delegates of 147 churches assembled to merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement. Church leaders had agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement organizations. Headquarters were later established in Geneva.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_of_Churches)

1950        Aug 23, Up to 77,000 members of the U.S. Army Organized Reserve Corps were called involuntarily to active duty to fight the Korean War.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1952        Aug 23, Arab League security pact went into effect.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1954        Aug 23, The small community of Charleston, Arkansas, became the first in the South to end segregation in its schools. This was in response to the May 17 US Supreme Court ruling on Brown vs. Board of Education.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.44)(http://ideas.aetn.org/productions/virtualtours/lrcentral/10)

1956        Aug 23, US Navy pilot Lt. James B. Deane Jr. was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight off the coast of China. The Martin P4M-1Q Mercator in which Deane and 15 other men were flying was shot down over the East China Sea. China later acknowledged that its jet fighters attacked the Mercator as it scooped up electronic intelligence on military radars and other sensitive Chinese systems. The remains of four crew members were recovered, two by the crew of a U.S. search vessel and two by China, which returned the bodies through British authorities in Shanghai. The other 12 were never found.
    (AP, 5/6/06)

1958        Aug 23, China resumed fire on Quemoi and Matsu.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1960        Aug 23, World's largest frog (3.3 kg) was caught in Equatorial Guinea.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1960        Aug 23, Broadway librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (65) died in Doylestown, Pa.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

1961        Aug 23, East Germany imposed new curbs on travel between West and East Berlin.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1962        Aug 23, A Colombian DC-3 plane crashed in the Choco jungle killing two Americans, the first Peace Corps volunteers to die in service, as well as 36 Colombians.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A3)(SFC, 7/31/14, p.A14)

1963        Aug 23, Beatles released "She Loves You" in UK.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1971        Aug 23, Shamu the Whale, the 1st of a number of Shamus, died at Sea World in San Diego, Ca., after 6 years in captivity.
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=8934865)
1971         Aug 23, South Korea's Silmido Unit, organized in 1968 to kill North Korea's Kim Il Sung, rebelled and murdered 18 of its 24 trainers. A film titled "Silmido" was released Dec 24, 2003.
    (AP, 12/25/03)

1972        Aug 23, The Republican National Convention, meeting in Miami Beach, Fla., nominated Vice President Spiro T. Agnew for a second term.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1973        Aug 23, The Intelsat 4 F-7 communications satellite was launched at Cape Canaveral.
    (www.astronautix.com/craft/intlsat4.htm)
1973        Aug 23, Gen'l. Augusto Pinochet was named commander-in-chief of the Chilean army by Pres. Salvadore Allende.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1973        Aug 23, A bank robbery-turned-hostage standoff began in Stockholm, Sweden; by the time the crisis ended, the four hostages had come to empathize with their captors, an occurrence that came to be known as "Stockholm Syndrome."
    (AP, 8/23/07)

1975        Aug 23, In Greece Col. Papadopoulos (d.1999 at 80) was sentenced to death for insurrection and high treason. He had refused to testify: "let history judge my action." The sentence was later commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Papadopoulos)
1975        Aug 23, In Laos Communists took over the administration of Vientiane city.
    (http://countrystudies.us/laos/39.htm)

1977        Aug 23, The Gossamer Condor 2 flew the first figure-of-eight, a distance of 2,172 meters winning the first Kremer prize at Minter Field in Shafter, California. It was built by Dr Paul B. MacCready and piloted by amateur cyclist and hang-glider pilot Bryan Allen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gossamer_Condor)
1977        Aug 23, Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro was imprisoned in German DR.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Bahro)

1979        Aug 23, Iranian troops entered Iraqi Kurdish territory.
    (www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2373658&printthis=1)
1979        Aug 23, Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defected while the Bolshoi Ballet was on tour in New York.
    (AP, 8/23/99)

1982        Aug 23, Lebanon's parliament elected Christian militia leader Bashir Gemayel president. His inauguration was scheduled for 23 September. Gemayel was assassinated some three weeks later.
    (AP, 8/23/97)(http://tinyurl.com/2nba4o)

1986        Aug 23, Gennadiy Zakharov, a Soviet physicist employed at the UN Secretariat, was arrested as he handed classified documents to a US defense contractor.
    (www.dss.mil/training/espionage/1986-87.htm)

1987        Aug 23, Seven Democratic presidential hopefuls traded gentle barbs at a debate in Des Moines, Iowa, with Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis repeatedly called upon to defend his claims of economic revival in his state.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1987        Aug 23, Two teenagers in Alexander, Arkansas, Kevin Ives and Don Henry were run over by a train. Fahmy Malak, the medical examiner of Gov. Clinton, ruled the Aug 23 deaths of the teenagers as accidental. Malak was investigated and cleared of improprieties. Later investigations indicated that they were murdered prior to being run over.
    (WSJ, 4/15/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 4/18/96, p.A-18)

1988        Aug 23, Some striking workers in Poland ended a walkout that had begun a week earlier, but 125 miners barricaded themselves in an underground shaft, vowing to stay until they'd won their demands.
    (AP, 8/23/98)

1989        Aug 23, In a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City, Yusuf Hawkins, a black teen-ager, was shot dead after he and his friends were confronted by white youths in a Brooklyn neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/23/99)
1989        Aug 23, Approximately two million people joined their hands to form an over 600 km (373 mi) long human chain across the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This original demonstration was organized to draw the world's attention to the common historical fate which these three countries suffered. It marked the 50th anniversary of August 23, 1939, when the Soviet Union and Germany in the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact divided spheres of interest in Eastern Europe, which led to the occupation of these three states.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Way)
1989        Aug 23, Hungary removed its physical border defenses with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall)

1990        Aug 23, David Rose (b.1910), composer (Holiday for Strings, Stripper), died.
    (www.classicthemes.com/majorComposers.html)
1990        Aug 23, Armenia declared independence.
    (www.armeniapedia.org/index.php?title=Soviet_Armenian_History)
1990        Aug 23, East and West Germany announced that they would unite Oct 3.
    (www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/1990/1990-2-1.htm)
1990        Aug 23, Iraqi state television showed President Saddam Hussein meeting with a group of about 20 Western detainees, telling the group—whom he described as "guests"—that they were being held "to prevent the scourge of war."
    (AP, 8/23/00)

1991        Aug 23, In the wake of a failed coup by hard-liners in the Soviet Union, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin acted to strip the Communist Party of its power and take control of the army and the KGB.
    (AP, 8/23/01)

1992        Aug 23, James A. Baker III bowed out as secretary of state after three-and-a-half years to become White House chief of staff.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1992        Aug 23, Hurricane Andrew slammed into the Bahamas with 120 mph winds.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1993        Aug 23, Former Detroit police officers Larry Nevers and Walter Budzyn were convicted of second-degree murder in the fatal beating of black motorist Malice Green. Both convictions were later overturned. On retrial, Budzyn was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and sentenced to time served; Nevers was convicted of involuntary manslaughter in April 2000, but had that conviction reversed by an appeals court in March 2003.
    (AP, 8/23/03)
1993        Aug 23, Los Angeles police confirmed that pop star Michael Jackson was the subject of a criminal investigation. Prosecutors began investigating Michael Jackson after a 13-year-old boy said Jackson had sex with him. An out of court settlement was reached for $15-20 mil. The boy’s father later filed suit against Jackson for violating a promise not to discuss the settlement.
    (AP, 8/23/98)(SFC, 6/12/96, p.E3)

1994        Aug 23, Republican senators threatened to thwart a $30 billion anti-crime bill unless Democrats accepted changes in the House-passed measure; President Clinton appealed for bipartisan cooperation.
    (AP, 8/23/99)

1995        Aug 23, During a memorial service at Fort Myer, Virginia, President Clinton eulogized three US diplomats killed in a road accident near Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and vowed to carry on the struggle for peace in the Balkans.
    (AP, 8/23/00)
1995        Aug 23, Alfred Eisenstaedt (96), "Life" magazine photographer, died on Martha’s Vineyard. His picture of a sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square became one of the best-known images of America's joy at the end of World War Two.
    (AP, 8/23/00)(www.cnn.com/EVENTS/year_in_review/passages/)

1996        Aug 23, President Clinton imposed limits on peddling cigarettes to children as he unveiled Food and Drug Administration regulations declaring nicotine an addictive drug. The same day, a jury in Indianapolis found cigarette companies were not responsible for the lung cancer death of a 52-year-old lawyer who began smoking at age 5.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1996        ~Aug 23, The Nation of Islam applied to the US Treasury Dept. for permission to accept a $1 bil donation from Col. Moammar Gadhafi that was promised to Rev. Louis Farrakhan in Jan. to help America’s black people.
    (WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A1)
1996        Aug 23, It was reported that British Petroleum signed a 3-year agreement with the defense ministry of Columbia for $60 mil.  for a battalion of soldiers to protect expansion and construction of new drilling sites.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)

1997        Aug 23, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton said he would ask Congress to renew his authority for speedy negotiation of trade agreements, saying the "fast track" approach would make U.S. companies more competitive worldwide. 
    (AP, 8/23/98)
1997        Aug 23, In Iran Pres. Khatami appointed the first woman vice-president and ended an 18-year ban on commercial flights to Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 8/25/97, p.A1)

1998        Aug 23, Retailers began marketing computers with the new 450 MHz Intel Pentium II.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.D3)
1998        Aug 23, In Congo rebels appeared to have seized Kisangani while government soldiers recaptured Kitona, a military base near the coast. Troops from Zimbabwe fought rebels advancing on Kinshasa. The capture of Kisangani effectively splitting Congo and cut off commerce with government-held territory and Kinshasa, the capital 900 miles downriver.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/18/03)
1998        Aug 23, In North Korea heavy flooding was reported with five times the annual rainfall. The rice crop was expected to decrease by 60%.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A10)
1998        Aug 23, Russia’s Pres. Yeltsin dismissed the government. He fired PM Kiriyenko (b.1962) and replaced him with Viktor Chernomyrdin the Soviet-style leader he'd fired five months earlier. The move was said to have been orchestrated by Boris Berezovsky, a wealthy financier.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/28/98, p.A12)(AP, 8/23/99)

1999        Aug 23, The Dow Jones industrial average soared 199.15 to a new record of 11,209.84.
    (AP, 8/23/00)
1999        Aug 23, US and British warplanes killed 2 people in northern Iraq after being fired upon by an Iraqi military radar station. The Pentagon later claimed that the 2 civilians were killed by Iraq's own anti-aircraft artillery.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A11)(SFC, 8/25/99, p.A16)
1999        Aug 23, It was reported that the US was training a 950-man Colombian army counter narcotics battalion to regain control of guerrilla controlled territory.
    (SFC, 8/23/99, p.A10)
1999        Aug 23, In Bolivia fires were reported to have destroyed 350,000 acres of farmland, at least 500 homes and much of the town of Ascencion de Guarayos. Thousands of residents were left homeless.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A11)
1999        Aug 23, In Jordan the National Popular Campaign for Ending So-Called Honor Crimes began efforts to get rights for women and harsher laws against men who kill female relatives for family honor.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A12)
1999        Aug 23, Fifty years after the German government moved to the capital of Bonn, Berlin reclaimed its role as a center of power in Germany with the arrival of Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder.
    (AP, 8/23/00)
1999        Aug 23, Militants from Tajikistan crossed into Kyrgyzstan taking hostages and claiming control of several villages. Some 1,000 religious fighters took a swath of land and 13 hostages that included a Kyrgyz general and 4 Japanese geologists.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A11)(SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA5)

2000        Aug 23, The Clinton administration released guidelines for federally funded scientists to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 23, Pres. Clinton ordered millions in relief funds for electricity users in southern California and an investigation into the state’s power market.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 23, The final winner of the "Survivor" TV contest set on Pulau Tiga island was broadcast to as many as 40-50 million viewers. Richard Hatch (39), a corporate trainer from Newport, R.I., won the $1 million grand prize. In 2006 Hatch was convicted on three counts related to tax evasion and was sentenced to 51 months in federal prison plus three years of supervised probation.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/4sna5j)
2000        Aug 23, Negotiators for Verizon and more than 35,000 telephone workers reached tentative agreement on a new contract, ending an 18-day strike.
    (AP, 8/23/01)
2000        Aug 23, Boeing made the first successful launch of its Delta III rocket.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A3)
2000        Aug 23, In Bahrain a Gulf Air Airbus A320 crashed on approach to Manama and all 143 people aboard were killed including 36 children.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 23, A boat from Indonesia capsized in the Strait of Malucca and Malaysian authorities rescued 7 of 100 passengers.
    (SFC, 8/26/00, p.A9)
2000        Aug 23, In Russia Pres. Putin took responsibility for the Kursk nuclear submarine disaster.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A12)
2000        Aug 23, In Sudan a boat capsized on the Blue Nile near Sinja and 35 people, mostly schoolchildren, died.
    (SFC, 8/25/00, p.D8)

2001        Aug 23, Modesto Democratic Rep. Gary Condit acknowledged on a TV interview with Connie Chung that he had made mistakes but that he had nothing to do with the disappearance of Chandra Levy.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Aug 23, Brian Regan (38), retired US Air Force master sergeant and cryptanalyst, was arrested by the FBI at Dulles Int’l. Airport on charges of spying. In 2002 Regan was accused of trying to spy for Iraq, Libya and China. On February 20, 2003, Regan was found guilty of three charges of attempted espionage. Regan was found guilty of two counts of attempted espionage related to attempts to sell information to Iraq and China, and one count of gathering national defense information. He was acquitted of attempting to provide US secrets to Libya. On March 20, 2003, Regan was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
    (http://cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Regan_1.htm)(SFC, 8/29/01, p.A6)(WSJ, 2/15/02, p.A1)
2001        Aug 23, Thierry Devaux (41), a French stuntman, got snagged on the Statue of Liberty arm while trying to land there using a motor-driven parachute. He was rescued and arrested.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A3)(AP, 8/23/02)
2001        Aug 23, Boyd Jefferies (70), founder of the Jefferies Group (1962) investment bank, died in Aspen Colo.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, p.71)(http://articles.latimes.com/2001/aug/24/local/me-37734)
2001        Aug 23, Peter Maas, novelist and non-fiction writer, died at age 72. His work included "The Valachi Papers" (1969), "Serpico," "The King of Gypsies," and "Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano’s Story of Life in the Mafia."
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.D7)
2001        Aug 23, Frank Emilio Flynn, blind pianist and Latin jazz pioneer, died at age 80 in Havana.
    (SFC, 8/30/01, p.C2)
2001        Aug 23, In Brazil Francisco de Assis Santana (56), a Xukuru Indian leader aka Chico Quele, was killed in an ambush near Pe de Serra in Penambuco state.
    (SFC, 8/25/01, p.A9)
2001        Aug 23, The Chinese government reported that some 600,000 people have been infected with AIDS with nearly as many from selling their blood as from sexual contact.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Aug 23, In Colombia a suspected ELN car bomb killed a woman and wounded over 20 people in Marinilla. Separately 15-20 suspected ELN members were killed when explosives in their truck went off in Santander state.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.D2)
2001        Aug 23, Israeli forces raided Palestinian neighborhoods in Hebron following the shooting of 2 young Jewish brothers. One Palestinian was reported killed and a dozen wounded. In Gaza Israeli forces killed Mahmoud Zourab (11), a Palestinian boy throwing stones.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A16)
2001        Aug 23, Japanese Novelist Ryu Murakami was featured in the WSJ and quoted to say: "Who cares about fitting into the system? Think for yourself."
    (WSJ, 8/23/01, p.A1)
2001        Aug 23, NATO soldiers streamed into Macedonia as part of a mission to help end 6 months of ethnic hostilities by collecting and destroying rebel weapons.
    (AP, 8/23/02)
2001        Aug 23, The Norwegian government established the Abel Prize in mathematics in honor of the Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829).
    (www.abelprisen.no/en/abelprisen/historie.html)

2002        Aug 23, U.S. warplanes bombed an air defense site in northern Iraq after being targeted by an Iraqi missile guidance radar system.
    (AP, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, The United States imposed symbolic sanctions on a North Korean company and the North Korean government for exporting medium or long-range missile components.
    (Reuters, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, New York publicist Lizzie Grubman pleaded guilty in a hit-and-run crash that injured 16 people outside a Hamptons nightclub. Grubman ended up serving 37 days of a 60-day sentence at the Suffolk County, N.Y., Jail, with time off for good behavior.
    (AP, 8/23/03)
2002        Aug 23, Canada confirmed prairie farmers' worst fears in a report that slashed crop production forecasts after one of worst growing seasons since the dust bowl of the 1930s.
    (Reuters, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, In southern Colombia a bus veered off a mountain road in Papagayo after one of its tires burst, plunging 1,000 feet and killing at least 12 people.
    (AP, 8/24/02)
2002        Aug 23, An anti-graft court in the Philippines froze the assets of former president Joseph Estrada in connection with charges that he illegally amassed over four billion pesos ($76.48 million) during his 31-month rule.
    (Reuters, 8/26/02)
2002        Aug 23, Pres. Shevardnadze accused Russia of bombing inside Georgia's border. One person was reported killed.
    (SFC, 8/24/02, p.A7) 
2002        Aug 23, North Korean leader Kim Jong Il capped his second visit to Russia in a year with a long meeting with President Vladimir Putin and a taste of the consumer delights that are in short supply in his country. Putin pressed North Korea on Friday to forge a new Asia-Europe freight route by extending Russia's trans-Siberian railway across the Korean peninsula to bypass China.
    (AP, 8/23/02)(Reuters, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, Pakistan accused India of launching a heavy ground an air attack on northern Kashmir.
    (SFC, 8/24/02, p.A8)
2002        Aug 23, Russian troops battled rebels for the fourth straight day outside a Chechen village, while eight soldiers were killed in the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, In Venezuela subway and bus workers in Caracas unexpectedly walked off the job, forcing more than a million people to find other ways to work.
    (AP, 8/23/02)
2002        Aug 23, In Yugoslavia thousands of ethnic Albanians gathered in Pristina to protest the recent arrests of rebel leaders who fought during Kosovo's 1998-1999 war.
    (AP, 8/23/02)

2003        Aug 23, Former priest John Geoghan (67), a convicted child molester, died after being attacked by Joseph L. Druce (37), a fellow inmate, at the Souza-Baranowski state prison in Shirley, Mass. Druce was convicted of murder in 2006.
    (SSFC, 8/24/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/06, p.A3)
2003        Aug 23, Taliban fighters ambushed a truck full of government soldiers in the southern province of Zabul. Gov. Hafizullah Khan said five soldiers and three Taliban were killed.
    (AP, 8/24/03)
2003        Aug 23, In Iraq a guerrilla attack killed 3 British soldiers and seriously wounded one in the southern port city of Basra.
    (AP, 8/23/03)(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.A6)
2003        Aug 23, Michael Kijana Wamalwa (58), Kenya's 8th Vice President, died of an undisclosed illness after several months of treatment in a hospital near London.
    (AP, 8/23/03)
2003        Aug 23, Emergency officials discovered the wreckage of a helicopter that crashed Aug 20 in the Russian Far East. All 20 people aboard were killed. Among the dead were Igor Farkhutdinov, governor of the oil-rich Sakhalin region, and top regional officials and business leaders.
    (AP, 8/23/03)

2004        Aug 23, President Bush criticized a commercial that had accused Democrat John Kerry of inflating his own Vietnam War record, more than a week after the ad stopped running, and said broadcast attacks by outside groups had no place in the race for the White House.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2004        Aug 23, New US rules on overtime pay went into effect. Under the new FairPay rules, workers earning less than $23,660 per year, or $455 per week, were guaranteed overtime protection.
    (SFC, 8/24/04, p.C1)(www.dol.gov/esa/WHD/regs/compliance/fairpay/)
2004        Aug 23, Researchers presented results on genetically engineered mice capable of running farther and longer than those bred naturally.
    (SFC, 8/24/04, p.A2)
2004        Aug 23, Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai arrived in Pakistan for talks with his Pres. Pervez Musharraf on eradicating Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters from their common border.
    (AP, 8/23/04)
2004        Aug 23, Antigua and Barbuda's prime minister and American officials signed an agreement extending the lease of the U.S. Air Force base in the Caribbean country until 2008.
    (AP, 8/23/04)
2004        Aug 23, Electricity went out across Bahrain, snarling rush hour traffic and leaving residents without air conditioning as temperatures climbed toward 130 Fahrenheit.
    (AP, 8/23/04)
2004        Aug 23, It was reported that China recorded its 1st ever agricultural trade deficit, $3.73 billion, for the 1st half of this year.
    (WSJ, 8/23/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 23, Azarias Ruberwa, prominent Tutsi and one of Congo’s 4 vice-presidents, announced that he and his party (RCD-Goma) were walking out of the transitional government.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)
2004        Aug 23, Israel announced plans for more than 500 new housing units in the West Bank, following an apparent US policy shift on Jewish settlements that has infuriated the Palestinians.
    (AP, 8/23/04)
2004        Aug 23, In Athens, Jeremy Wariner became the sixth consecutive American to win the Olympic title in the 400 meters, leading a US sweep of the medals. The US softball team won its third straight gold medal with a 5-1 victory over Australia.
    (AP, 8/23/05)

2005        Aug 23, President Bush said he understood the anguish of war protester Cindy Sheehan, but said fulfilling demands like hers for withdrawal from Iraq would weaken the US.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2005        Aug 23, The Bush administration announced new rules for the corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, first created in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 8/24/05, p.A1)
2005        Aug 23, NYC said it will install 1,000 surveillance cameras and 3,000 motion sensors in its subways and rail stations in a new deal with Lockheed Martin.
    (SFC, 8/24/05, p.A3)
2005        Aug 23, Brock Peters (b.1927), who gave a heartbreaking performance as the black man falsely accused of rape in "To Kill a Mockingbird," died. He began his Hollywood career in the landmark productions of "Carmen Jones" and "Porgy and Bess."
    (AP, 8/24/05)
2005        Aug 23, In Arizona 2 employees were gunned down outside a Wal-Mart store in Glendale, a Phoenix suburb. In 2009 Ed Liu, the accused gunman, was committed to a mental hospital instead of a trial on murder charges. Liu was accused of shooting Patrick Graham (35) and Anthony Spangler (18) as they collected shopping carts.
    (http://tinyurl.com/boc95v)(SSFC, 2/22/09, p.A8)
2005        Aug 23, In Richmond, Ca., Glenn Wilson (17) shot and killed Terence Lionel Martin, a maintenance worker for the West Contra Costa School District, after Martin tried to break up a fight between Wilson and his pregnant girlfriend. In 2007 Wilson was convicted of 2nd degree murder and faced up to 40 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/6/07, p.B3)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_/ai_n15813134)
2005        Aug 23, In Aruba a court ruled that lesbian couple has the right to register their marriage rejecting a government appeal in a case that has exposed a cultural rift between Holland and its former colony.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Australians who take drugs into Asia are stupid and should not expect to be bailed out by the Australian government, PM John Howard said after another two Australians were detained in Indonesia over drugs.
    (Reuters, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Australia’s government and moderate Muslim leaders pledged to join forces in the fight against terrorism and blend Australian values with Islamic teachings at mosques and schools.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, A British woman who can only move her head, eyes and mouth sailed across the English Channel and into the record books on board a modified boat she controlled by sucking or blowing into straws.
    (AFP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, China submitted legislation to cut income taxes on its poorest workers.
    (WSJ, 8/24/05, p.A9)
2005        Aug 23, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak vowed to work towards a long-envisaged free trade agreement with the US as he called for stronger economic ties with Washington.
    (AFP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, A week of heavy flooding in Western and Central Europe left at least 26 people dead.
    (WSJ, 8/24/05, p.A1)
2005        Aug 23, India’s Lok Sabha approved legislation which seeks to guarantee 100 days of employment a year to every rural household across the country.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, In India an apartment building collapse in downtown Bombay, killed 11 people, injured 17 and left more than a dozen trapped under the rubble.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Iraq's al-Qaida wing claimed responsibility for the Aug 19 rocket attack that barely missed U.S. warships docked in the Jordanian port of Aqaba.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, A US soldier, an American contractor and five Iraqis were killed when a suicide bomber detonated an explosive device in a city north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Israeli soldiers cleared 2 militant strongholds without major violence, completing the country's historic evacuation of 25 settlements in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Japanese electronics giants Sony and Toshiba said they would go ahead with incompatible formats for next-generation DVDs after talks to reach a common standard failed.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Stores across Japan started taking orders for the Roborior, a watermelon-sized eyeball on wheels that glows purple, blue and orange. Roborior can function as a virtual guard dog that can sense break-ins using infrared sensors, notify homeowners by calling their cellular phones, and send the owner's cell phone videos from its digital camera.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Officials said Nepal's main political parties will hold talks with Maoists on forming a broad front against King Gyanendra provided the rebels keep to their promise to stop killing civilians.
    (AP, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, TANS Peru Flight 204, a Boeing 737-200 with 100 people on board, split in two after an emergency landing during a fierce storm, killing at least 41 people. The pilot tried to land in a marsh to soften the impact but the landing split the aircraft in two. The plane was enroute from Lima to Pucallpa and landed 20 miles from Pucallpa.
    (AP, 8/24/05)
2005        Aug 23, UN officials called on African ministers meeting in Mozambique to declare TB and emergency in the area.
    (WSJ, 8/24/05, p.A1)

2006        Aug 23, In Alaska Republican Gov. Frank Murkowski finished last in a 3-day primary election. Sarah Palin, a former Wasilla mayor, won with over 50% of the vote.
    (SFC, 8/24/06, p.A3)
2006        Aug 23, Annie Donnelly (38) of Long Island, NY, pleaded guilty to stealing $2.3 million (1.2 million pounds) from her employers. She spent the money on lottery tickets, buying as much as $6,000 worth of tickets a day in a bid to hit the jackpot.
    (Reuters, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, The Citadel released the results of a survey in which almost 20% of female cadets reported being sexually assaulted since enrolling at the South Carolina military college.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2006        Aug 23, In Washington state Gov. Gregoire declared a state of emergency due to a group of southeastern wildfires that had covered 70 square miles near Dayton.
    (SFC, 8/25/06, p.A3)
2006        Aug 23, Maynard Ferguson (78), Canadian-born jazz trumpeter, died in Ventura, Ca.
    (SFC, 8/25/06, p.B11)
2006        Aug 23, The Afghan and Pakistani armies agreed to conduct coordinated and simultaneous patrols with the US alongside their volatile border. The accord was reached during the 17th meeting of Tripartite Commission. In southern Afghanistan 18 Taliban rebels and an Afghan soldier were killed in a clash that erupted after the militants attacked an army post in Zabul province.
    (AP, 8/23/06)(AFP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, Argentina announced an ambitious plan to expand its nuclear program to meet rising energy demands, including extending the life of existing plants and possibly resuming uranium mining.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, Vytautas Pociunas, a top Lithuanian spy posted to Belarus, was found dead in Brest. Some linked his death to feuds within the Lithuanian security service (VSD) over freight contracts. A parliamentary committee called for Arvydas Pocius, the VSD chief, to go.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.74)(www.data.minsk.by/belarusnews/092006/25.html)
2006        Aug 23, The Canadian Food Inspection Agency confirmed that a mature beef cow in the Prairie province Alberta tested positive for mad cow case. It was the 8th case since 2003.
    (Reuters, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, In western India 17 people were killed when a truck overturned and fell into a deep ditch. Victims were sitting on top of sacks of salt that the truck was transporting when it overturned into a ditch flooded from recent monsoon rains.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, Iran urged Europe to pay attention to what it called "positive" signals in its counterproposal to a nuclear incentives package aimed at persuading Tehran to roll back its nuclear program. Russia and China backed Iran's call for negotiations to end the standoff.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, A roadside bomb exploded in Baghdad and narrowly missed the interior minister's convoy, killing two civilians and wounding several traffic policemen. A suicide bomber blew himself up outside a police headquarters in Mosul, killing at least one person. An Iraqi army officer, 1st Lt. Hassanein Saadi al-Zerjawi (29) was gunned down in a drive-by shooting in Amarah. A roadside bomb missed a US military convoy in Fallujah, 40 miles west of Baghdad, killing two pedestrians and injuring 12. One US soldier was killed during a raid to capture "foreign terrorists." Two militants also were killed.
    (AP, 8/23/06)(AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, In Indian-controlled Kashmir a crowded bus swerved off a steep mountain road and plunged into a gorge, killing at least 16 people and injuring 35 others.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, A leader of Kurdish rebels battling Turkey's government said in a rare interview that his guerrillas will not give in to US pressure to disarm without a "political project" that fulfills their calls for autonomy. PKK party officials met with a group of journalists in the rugged, isolated Qandil Mountain in Iraq's northeast corner where the group is based.
    (AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, In southern Lebanon 3 Lebanese soldiers were killed while they dismantled an unexploded missile. An Israeli soldier was killed and three others wounded in southern Lebanon when their tank drove over a land mine.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, Assailants threw grenades at the offices of a newspaper in the resort city of Cancun in the latest in a series of attacks on news outlets across Mexico.
    (AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, In Oslo Villa Grande, a sprawling mansion used by Norwegian Nazi collaborator Vidkun Quisling during World War II, opened as a center to oppose the intolerance, hatred and treachery he represented.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, A previously unknown Palestinian group released the first video of two kidnapped Fox News journalists and demanded that Muslim prisoners in US jails be released within 72 hours in exchange for the men. Correspondent Steve Centanni and cameraman Olaf Wiig were later freed.
    (AP, 8/23/06)(AP, 8/23/07)
2006        Aug 23, Russia’s Gazprom threatened to cut off gas exports to Bosnia on Oct 1 if strides toward repaying $104.8 million in debts, incurred during wars that ended in 1995, were not met.
    (WSJ, 8/24/06, p.A6)
2006        Aug 23, Somalia’s seaport in Mogadishu reopened for the first time in 11 years, the latest sign that the city's Islamic fundamentalist rulers are trying to restore confidence after more than a decade of anarchy.
    (AP, 8/23/06)
2006        Aug 23, Sudan's ruling party rejected a proposed Security Council resolution to transfer peacekeeping duties in conflict-wracked Darfur to a UN force, saying it would violate national sovereignty.
    (AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, Syria opposed deployment of an international force along its border to prevent arms shipments to Hezbollah, and Israel called the situation in Lebanon "explosive." In southern Lebanon 3 Lebanese soldiers were killed while they dismantled an unexploded missile. An Israeli soldier was killed and three others wounded in southern Lebanon when their tank drove over a land mine.
    (AP, 8/23/06)(AP, 8/24/06)
2006        Aug 23, Taiwan's cabinet decided to increase military spending by nearly 30% next year as President Chen Shui-bian warned of rival China's continuing hostility towards the island.
    (AP, 8/23/06)

2007        Aug 23, Ohio’s Gov. Ted Strickland said more than 1,000 people were flooded out of their homes after heavy rain that swamped communities across the Midwest sent Ohio's rivers spilling over their banks.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, University of Minnesota astronomers announced that they have stumbled upon a tremendous hole in the universe. The cosmic blank spot has no stray stars, no galaxies, no sucking black holes, not even mysterious dark matter. The 1 billion light years across of nothing represented an expanse of nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, In southern Afghanistan a bomb dropped by a US fighter jet was believed to have killed 3 British soldiers in Helmand province. Two other soldiers were injured.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, Bangladesh's army-backed interim government briefly relaxed a curfew, allowing residents of the capital the chance to stock up on essentials and those stranded at airports and elsewhere to return home.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, In Ponte Nova, Brazil, at least 25 prisoners died after inmates broke out of a cellblock and set a fire in an apparent attempt to settle scores with a rival gang.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, The Montreal World Film Festival, which endured a near-death experience two years ago when key government subsidies were suspended, kicked off its 31st edition with a new lease on life.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, The government of Chad said it will adhere to a program designed to put pressure on countries to be open about revenues from exports of oil, natural gas and minerals.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, The Bank of China revealed that it held a $9.6 billion exposure to securities backed by American subprime mortgages.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.67)
2007        Aug 23, More than 800 Colombian refugees crossed over the border to Ecuador from the violence-ravaged department of Narino. The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
    (AP, 8/25/07)
2007        Aug 23, A shootout in Chechnya's capital left two policemen and a rebel dead. A group of about 30 camouflage-clad gunmen set on fire the houses of two police officers and the local administration building in the Chechen village of Yandi.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, In Dagestan, Russia, gunmen ambushed security forces, killing three people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, Hundreds of rampaging youths torched dozens of houses and clashed across East Timor, leaving at least two people dead, in violence sparked by the appointment of independence hero Xanana Gusmao as prime minister.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, The EU relaxed a ban on exports of British livestock, meat and dairy products that was imposed after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southeastern England earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, State-run TV reported that Iran has developed a new 2,000-pound "smart" bomb, the latest in a recent series of announcements heralding new weapons systems.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, Suspected al-Qaida fighters attacked the Sunni Ibrahim al-Yahya village east of Baqouba and killed a leader who had led the community in an uprising against the terrorist organization. A nearby Shiite village came under attack, again by suspected al-Qaida fighters, and a total of 17 people, including seven women, were killed. 7 people were kidnapped. Two of the abducted men were later found shot in the head on a road leading out of town. The rest of the captives were women, and their fate was unknown. 10 attackers were killed as villagers fought back. A police vehicle rushing to the attack scene crashed and 2 policemen were killed. 60 suspected al-Qaida in Iraq fighters hit national police facilities in a coordinated attack in Samarra, sparking two hours of fighting that saw three people killed and more than a dozen insurgents captured.
    (AP, 8/23/07)(Reuters, 8/23/07)(AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, A cluster bomb left over from last year's Hezbollah-Israel war exploded in southern Lebanon, killing a Lebanese mine-clearing expert and wounding three others who were trying to dismantle it.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, The remnants of Hurricane Dean dumped heavy rain across central Mexico, drenching mudslide-prone mountains as it pushed its way inland after slamming into the nation's Gulf Coast as a Category 2 storm. Thousands of Mayan Indians lost homes as Hurricane Dean blew through the Yucatan peninsula, but their real wealth was the trees, now scattered and broken in the storm's wake. Village after village is carpeted with fallen mangoes, oranges, guanabanas and mameys that will never be harvested. Across Mexico at least 10 people died from the storm.
    (AP, 8/23/07)(WSJ, 8/24/07, p.A1)
2007        Aug 23, In Myanmar defiant pro-democracy activists took to the streets for the third time this week, forming a human chain to try to prevent officers from dragging them into waiting trucks and buses.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, In Pakistan a Supreme Court ruling said former PM Nawaz Sharif, a key rival to President Gen. Pervez Musharraf, can return to Pakistan from exile.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, A Russian scientist said that fresh test results back his country's legal bid to take control of the Arctic. Russian geologists have previously estimated the Arctic seabed has at least 9 to 10 billion tons of fuel equivalent, about the same as Russia's total oil reserves.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, Rwanda's exiled opposition groups dismissed as insulting the appointment of General Kerenzi Karake, a Rwandan general, as deputy chief of a planned peace force for Sudan's war-torn Darfur region.
    (AFP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, Sudan summoned the envoy of the European Commission and the Canadian charge d'affaires and informed them they were considered persona non grata because they interfered in Sudanese affairs. The UN chief called on the Sudanese military to remove troops remaining in southern Sudan, expressing disappointment that a July 9 deadline was not met as called for in a 2005 peace deal.
    (AFP, 8/24/07)(AP, 8/24/07)

2008        Aug 23, Democrats coalesced around Barack Obama's selection of Delaware Senator Joe Biden (b.1942) as his running mate while Republicans quickly seized on the Delaware senator's past criticism of the presidential candidate's inexperience.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, In Utah a small plane crashed and burned shortly after takeoff from Canyonlands Field airport. All 10 aboard, including 9 employees of a Cedar City dermatology company, who traveled to remote areas to provide medical treatments.
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A2)
2008        Aug 23, Dr. Thomas Weller (b.1915) co-winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize in Medicine, died in Massachusetts. He shared the Nobel Prize with 2 co-workers for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/)(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.56)
2008        Aug 23, Azizabad villagers threw stones at Afghan soldiers who tried to give them food and clothes. The soldiers fired into the crowd and wounded eight people, including one child critically wounded. This was the village in Herat province where the day before a US-Afghan operation took place leaving many civilians dead.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, Public health officials in Canada said they have linked a deadly bacterial outbreak to recalled meat products from Maple Leaf Foods. At least 12 people died out of 26 confirmed cases of food poisoning.
    (AP, 8/24/08)(Reuters, 8/25/08)
2008        Aug 23, In Beijing Angel Matos, a Cuban taekwondo athlete, and his coach Leudis Gonzalez were banned for life after Matos kicked the referee in the face following his bronze-medal match disqualification.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, The US military released Ahmed Nouri Raziak (38), a cameraman for Associated Press Television News, without charges after detaining him for nearly three months. Gunmen in Basra killed Haider al-Saymari (38), a Shiite cleric and outspoken critic of sectarian militias, in an ambush on a car that also carried his wife, mother and sister, who were not harmed.
    (AP, 8/23/08)(AP, 8/24/08)
2008        Aug 23, In Italy a gang of men badly beat a Dutch couple and raped the woman while they camped in an isolated field outside Rome during a cycling tour of Europe. The attackers also stole some US$2,200. Two Romanian men were soon arrested.
    (AP, 8/23/08)(Reuters, 8/25/08)
2008        Aug 23, Environmental experts said Nigeria and South Africa are the main emitters of greenhouse gases in Africa, accounting for almost 90 percent of the emissions in the continent.
    (AFP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, Pakistani troops pounded Islamic militants in the volatile northwest, killing 37 in retaliation for suicide attacks that have put pressure on the new government to counter a growing extremist threat. 2 soldiers were killed. A civilian and her four children were killed when security forces fired a mortar that accidentally hit a home in Khar, near the Afghan border. A car packed with explosives rammed into a police station in Swat, a former tourist destination, killing six officers and injuring several others. A roadside bomb in the nearby village of Bari Kot killed one civilian and injured four.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, Two boats carrying dozens of international activists sailed into the Gaza Strip in defiance of an Israeli blockade, receiving a jubilant welcome from thousands of Palestinians. Israel said it would permit the boats to dock in Gaza after determining the activists did not pose a security threat. The group delivered a symbolic shipment of hearing aids and balloons.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, The Philippine government said at least 48 soldiers and civilians and scores of Muslim rebels have been killed in the southern Philippines in a week of fighting triggered by the collapse of a peace deal. Muslim rebels urged the Philippine government to halt a military offensive they say threatens a years-long peace process and escalates violence in the archipelago's troubled south.
    (Reuters, 8/23/08)(AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, A top Russian general said his country's forces will keep patrolling the key Georgian Black Sea port of Poti even though it lies outside the areas where Russia claims it has the right to station soldiers in Georgia.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, Pirates fired on a Japanese-operated cargo ship off Somalia and attempted to board the vessel but failed to seize it.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, In Somalia 2 Western reporters were kidnapped near Mogadishu. The next day the National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ) named them as Amanda Lindhout, a Canadian reporter based in Baghdad but freelancing for French television and Canada's Global National News, and Nigel Brennan, a freelance Australian photojournalist. Both were released after 15 months and arrived in Kenya on Nov 25, 2009. Brennan’s family mortgaged their house to raise his ransom.
    (Reuters, 8/24/08)(AP, 11/26/09)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.61)
2008        Aug 23, Sri Lanka staged local elections under tight security as troops pushed deeper into Tamil Tiger territory, closing in on the rebel capital in the war-ravaged north. The defense ministry said a total of 28 rebels and two soldiers were killed in clashes over the last 24 hours across the island's north.
    (AFP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, left Paris on a flight bound for New Delhi after concluding a 12-day visit that fuelled tensions between Paris and Beijing.
    (AP, 8/23/08)
2008        Aug 23, A Tunisian court convicted 13 Islamic militants on charges linked to plots to carry out attacks in the north African country. 6 more were convicted on Aug 26 for establishing a military camp in Tunisia's northeastern Kef region designed to train fighters to be sent to Iraq.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2009        Aug 23, Afghan former Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah, President Karzai's main challenger, said he had evidence last week's election had been widely rigged by the incumbent and that he had lodged more than 100 complaints. The Election Complaints Commission (ECC) said it had received 225 complaints of which 35 had been labeled a priority. An American service member died in an insurgent attack. Two Estonian soldiers were killed after their unit stumbled on a roadside bomb in southern Helmand province.
    (Reuters, 8/23/09)(AP, 8/24/09)
2009        Aug 23, NATO military commanders told US President Barack Obama's envoy on that they needed more troops and other resources to beat back a resurgent Taliban, particularly in eastern Afghanistan near the Pakistan border.
    (Reuters, 8/23/09)
2009        Aug 23, In the Bahamas Stefania Fernandez (18), Miss Venezuela, was the fairest of them all once again, winning the 2009 Miss Universe crown for the second year straight and the sixth time since the pageant's creation.
    (AP, 8/24/09)
2009        Aug 23, A Chinese state news agency reported that a drought in the north has left nearly 5 million people short of drinking water and damaged crops, while dry weather in the south could cause more shortages.
    (AP, 8/23/09)
2009        Aug 23, In Greece a raging fire bore down on Athens' northern suburbs, prompting panicked residents to battle the flames with tree limbs and buckets, and police to order 10,000 people to evacuate one town immediately. The fires ignited late on Aug 21; by today they were reported across an area more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) wide.
    (AP, 8/23/09)
2009        Aug 23, The Iraqi military broadcast the confession of a Sunni man, Wisam Ali Khazim Ibrahim (57), identified as the mastermind of one of two Aug 19 suicide truck bombings targeting government buildings in Baghdad. In northern Iraq gunmen attacked a police checkpoint in Mosul, killing one police officer. An American soldier died of injuries sustained during an attack on a US patrol in the Iraqi capital.
    (AP, 8/23/09)
2009        Aug 23, Mexican army soldiers captured Luis Ricardo Magana. Prosecutors described him as a leading member of the violent La Familia drug cartel. A team of top US law enforcement officials began a three-day visit to Mexico to explore ways to improve efforts against arms smuggling into Mexico as part of joint efforts to combat drug gangs.
    (AP, 8/24/09)
2009        Aug 23, In Pakistan a suicide bombing on the outskirts in the northwestern city of Peshawar killed three people and wounded 15 others. Police in Karachi arrested seven members of the banned Lashkar-e-Jhangvi movement in a raid. The al-Qaida-linked movement is blamed for two failed assassination attempts against former President Pervez Musharraf and the beheading of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
    (AP, 8/23/09)(AP, 8/24/09)
2009        Aug 23, In Zimbabwe a cabinet retreat by the unity government collapsed this weekend as President Robert Mugabe's ministers walked out after the deputy prime minister said last year's polls were fraudulent.
    (AP, 8/23/09)

2010        Aug 23, A US district court issued a preliminary injunction stopping federal funding of human embryonic stem cell research, in a slap to the Obama administration's new guidelines on the sensitive issue.
    (Reuters, 8/24/10)
2010        Aug 23, California Attorney Gen’l. Jerry Brown sued Roni Deutch for $34 million for allegedly swindling thousands of people. Deutch, who billed herself as the “tax lady," has appeared in nationwide TV ads to help people with tax problems.
    (SFC, 8/24/10, p.C3)
2010        Aug 23, In Las Vegas Mexico's Jimena Navarrete (22) was crowned Miss Universe in an upset victory that stunned a pageant world which had predicted a winner to emerge from Ireland, Venezuela or the United States.
    (AFP, 8/24/10)
2010        Aug 23, In Afghanistan roadside bombs killed four members of the international security force in Afghanistan, including an American, two French marines, and a Hungarian soldier. US troops fired warning shots to disperse a protest near Bagram air base over the arrest of a religious leader suspected of a rocket attack.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Gareth Williams (31), an employee of code-breaking agency GCHQ, was found dead at a flat near the agency's headquarters in the upmarket Pimlico area of London. His naked and decomposing body was found inside a padlocked sports bag. Williams was working on attachment for Britain's Secret Intelligence Service MI6 when he died. In 2012 a coroner concluded at an inquest that another person was probably involved in Williams's death.
    (Reuters, 8/25/10)(AP, 2/15/11)(AP, 3/30/12)(AFP, 11/13/13)
2010        Aug 23, China cut 13 non-violent crimes from the list of 64 offences punishable by death. State media said flooding has forced the evacuation of more than a quarter-million people in northern China along its border with North Korea.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.35)(AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, President Raul Castro ordered Max Marambio, a Chilean businessman, to return to Cuba for questioning about bribery and fraud at Rio Zaza, which was shut down earlier this year. For years the company had enjoyed a near monopoly on sales of packaged fruit juice and milk. Marambio declined the offer.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.29) 
2010        Aug 23, In Dagestan at least 3 people were wounded in other attacks, while four suspected militants died when explosives they were transporting by car unexpectedly blew up.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Iran media reported the suspension of three senior judiciary officials over last year's torture deaths of three imprisoned anti-government protesters. On Aug 30 they were identified as former prosecutor Saeed Mortazavi and two judges.
    (AP, 8/23/10)(AP, 8/30/10)
2010        Aug 23, Iran kicked off mass production of two high-speed missile-launching assault boats, warning its enemies not to "play with fire" as it boosts security along its coastline.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, In Iraq unknown attackers in a speeding car threw a grenade in the mixed Sunni-Shiite eastern neighborhood of New Baghdad. The blast killed one policeman and wounded another.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Mexican police in the border city of Tijuana found two bodies on the outskirts of town and were searching for more. Baja California state prosecutors said recently arrested suspects told authorities at least four more bodies had been buried in the same area. A judge ordered the released of 13 Tijuana city police officers who were arrested by soldiers and sent to prison more than a year ago on charges of protecting drug traffickers. The judge ruled there wasn't enough evidence.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, In the Netherlands the monumental chestnut tree that cheered Anne Frank while she was in hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam was toppled by wind and heavy rain.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Officials said the United States has granted Nigerian airlines permission for direct US flights.
    (AFP, 8/24/10)
2010        Aug 23, In Pakistan 3 bomb attacks in the northwest killed at least 36 people. A bomb exploded inside a school during a meeting of elders in Kurram tribal region, killing seven people. An attack on the outskirts of Peshawar killed the leader of an anti-Taliban militia, Israr Khan, and two aides as he passed through a market in the village of Matni. The deadliest blast was a suicide attack at a mosque inside a religious school in South Waziristan that killed 26 people and injured 40 more.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Philippine police stormed a bus in downtown Manila after shots were heard from the hostage-taker of 15 Chinese tourists. Former Senior Inspector Rolando Mendoza (55), armed with a M16 rifle, had seized the busload of Hong Kong tourists to demand his reinstatement in the force. 8 tourists were killed along with Mendoza. Ken Leung died trying to subdue the gunman, who then killed his two daughters, Doris (21) and Jessie (14). The only survivors were the mother, Amy, and son Jason (18), who fell into a coma after suffering a head wound. Jason awoke from his coma around mid October. On Dec 16 Manila said it will pay compensation to the families of 8 Hong Kong tourists killed during the botched hostage rescue.
    (AP, 8/23/10)(AP, 8/24/10)(AP, 10/20/10)(AFP, 12/16/10)
2010        Aug 23, Saudi low-cost private airline Sama, launched in 2007 to serve Gulf and other Arab states, said it is to suspend services from Aug 24 due to financial problems.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, South African President Jacob Zuma flew to China on a three-day trip aimed at strengthening business ties. Zuma was accompanied by a delegation of over 370 business representatives - the biggest ever for a South African leader's visit abroad.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11067072)
2010        Aug 23, South Africa deployed soldiers to 37 hospitals to help keep basic health services running, as a nationwide strike by more than one million public workers entered its sixth day.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, Two Spanish aid workers held by al Qaeda's North African wing were freed in Mali, ending a kidnapping that lasted nearly nine months, the longest period of captivity in the Sahara desert. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) said it seized Albert Vilalta and Roque Pascual while they were traveling through Mauritania with a relief aid convoy last November.
    (AP, 8/23/10)
2010        Aug 23, The southern Sudan finance minister said the fledgling economy is being "deliberately" weakened by former civil war enemies in the north who are paying Juba's share of oil revenues in local currency.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)

2011        Aug 23, The most powerful earthquake to strike the East Coast in 67 years shook buildings and rattled nerves from South Carolina to Maine. Frightened office workers spilled into the streets in New York, and parts of the White House, Capitol and Pentagon were evacuated. The magnitude 5.8 earthquake and was centered 40 miles northwest of Richmond, Va. The Washington Monument obelisk closed indefinitely due to earthquake damage.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(SFC, 9/27/11, p.A7)
2011        Aug 23, A NYC judge ordered the dismissal of all sexual assault charges against former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn. The order was stayed until an appellate court decides whether a special prosecutor should be appointed. The judge cited credibility issues with Nafisssatou Diallo (33), the hotel housekeeper who had filed the initial charges.
    (SFC, 8/24/11, p.A5)
2011        Aug 23, In Afghanistan two gunmen on a motorcycle fired at a member of the Nawa district council in Lashkar Gah, the provincial capital of Helmand province. The councilman was rushed to a hospital but died of his wounds. 2 Afghan policemen died when their vehicle hit a roadside mine in Chimtal district of Balkh province.
    (AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 23, In China at least 15 people were killed when a blaze ripped through a dormitory building belonging to a ceramics factory in the Shengfeng Ceramics Factory in Foshan city.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, In China 15 people were hurt and cars were damaged after more than 30 relatives of a patient who died at the hospital in Jiangxi province forced their way inside the building. Patient Fan Runyin was admitted to the hospital on August 19 after suffering a brain hemorrhage. Relatives said he died on the operating table.
    (AFP, 8/25/11)
2011        Aug 23, German police said 11 more cars were burned overnight in Berlin, the latest in a string of attacks that have seen more-than 300 cars damaged since the beginning of the year. 401 cars were torched in 2009 and 250 in 2010.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(Econ, 8/27/11, p.45)
2011        Aug 23, The Indian government opened talks with aides to fasting anti-graft activist Anna Hazare, as Premier Manmohan Singh offered concessions to persuade the 74-year-old to end his hunger strike.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Liberia's first constitutional referendum in 25 years was marred by error after the National Election Commission said it had distributed defective ballot papers. It failed to achieve the required two-thirds of votes cast in a poll in which only 34 percent of registered voters showed up and many ballots were invalid.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AFP, 9/1/11)
2011        Aug 23, In Libya fierce fighting erupted around Moammar Gadhafi's main military compound in Tripoli, hours after the Libyan leader's son and heir apparent turned up free to thwart Libyan rebel claims he had been captured and rally supporters. 64 NATO airstrikes turned the Bab al-Azizya military compound to rubble. A representative from Sirte on the rebels' National Transitional Council said that the situation in the city was extremely volatile because Gadhafi brigades had retreated to the city after fleeing the Brega oil terminal. Loyalist guards in Tripoli opened fired at some 130 civilian detainees in a lockup, a hangar, and fired again when prisoners tried to flee.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/28/11)
2011        Aug 23, In Mexico gunmen hung a man from a pedestrian bridge over a busy avenue in the city of Monterrey and shot him to death in front of dozens of motorists. In Acapulco two teenage boys of about 15 years of age were shot to death by unidentified assailants. Police also found a man's dismembered body in a car in another Acapulco neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, In northern Nigeria the flood-related death toll rose to 15 as a river in the town of Numan overflowed during a five-hour rainstorm.
    (AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 23, Pakistani politicians, industrialists and citizens stepped up calls for the army to intervene to quell violence destabilizing Karachi, where more than 100 have been killed in a week.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, The Philippines' largest Muslim rebel group, Moro Islamic Liberation Front, rejected a government proposal for autonomy in the country's south as inadequate but said they will continue talks.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Russian investigators arrested Lt. Col. Dmitry Pavlyuchenkov, a retired police officer, on suspicion of organizing the 2006 killing of journalist Anna Politkovskaya, who was gunned down in the elevator of her Moscow apartment building.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, In southern Russia an explosion of old ammunition at the Ashuluk military base in the Astrakhan region killed six soldiers and wounded 12.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Thousands of Somalis attended a rally to celebrate the withdrawal of Islamist rebels from bases in Mogadishu, Al-Shabab militants executed two men and a 16-year-old boy by firing squad after accusing them of spying in a de facto court.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/26/11)
2011        Aug 23, In South Africa a new study on the country’s renowned wine and fruit farms said workers face unfit housing and exposure to pesticides and are blocked from forming labor unions. Industry groups criticized HRW's research methods, accusing the organization of bias.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Sri Lanka police carried out mass arrests in the northern Jaffna region after residents clashed with troops alleged to have protected so-called "grease devil" sex offenders.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir declared a two-week ceasefire in South Kordofan state which has been rocked since June by violent clashes between the Sudanese army and Nuba rebels.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Swaziland King Mswati III asked his Cabinet for a $57 million cut from a rescue loan South Africa has extended to his country in exchange for his efforts to secure the funds. While the national budget faced drastic cuts, the king's budget was boosted in March from $24 million to $30 million.
    (AFP, 8/27/11)
2011        Aug 23, The Geneva-based Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria said it is lifting the freeze on funding to China to ensure AIDS work in the country continues while it works with government officials, representatives from United Nations' agencies and private groups to resolve the dispute.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, Turkey's military said air strikes on suspected Kurdish rebel targets in northern Iraq this week have killed an estimated 90 to 100 guerrillas and warned that it would press ahead with offensives against the group both inside Turkey and across the border.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, The UN's top human rights body voted overwhelmingly to demand that Syria end its crackdown and cooperate with an international probe into possible crimes against humanity. The opposition took steps toward forming a national council, but serious divisions and mistrust among the members have prevented them from presenting a unified front against Assad's regime.
    (AP, 8/23/11)(AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 23, In Venezuela a judge ordered a weekly newspaper strongly critical of President Hugo Chavez and his allies to temporarily stop publishing while prosecutors proceed with slander charges against its director. Dinorah Giron, director of Sexto Poder, was accused of committing the crimes by allowing the Aug. 20 publication of photo montage that ridiculed several female public officials by likening them to cabaret dancers.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, In Yemen the body of a suspected suicide bomber was torn into pieces when a booby-trapped motorbike he was riding exploded in Lawder.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)

2012        Aug 23, The US Anti-Doping Agency said it will strip Lance Armstrong of his unprecedented seven Tour de France titles after he dropped his fight against drug charges that threatened his legacy as one of the greatest cyclists of all time.
    (AP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Illinois authorities in Washington Park, a village next to East St. Louis, raided a house where a teenage girl (17) had been held captive and repeatedly sexually assaulted for over 2 years. Police took into custody a 24-year-old man and his mother. They also recovered the teen's young child, which the girl said was the result of rape by her captor.
    (AP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, James Fogle, author of “Drugstore Cowboy," died in prison in Washington state. His autobiographical crime novel led to a 1989 film starring Matt Dillon.
    (SFC, 8/25/12, p.A5)
2012        Aug 23, In eastern Afghanistan insurgents kidnapped three Afghan soldiers and another man from a bus and killed all four in Paktia province. 6 civilians were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb as they traveled in the southern province of Kandahar.
    (AP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, A Bahrain appeals court acquitted activist Nabeel Rajab (48), who had been sentenced to three months in jail for alleged insults issued via Twitter, but he must still serve a three-year term for taking part in protests.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Chile's state-owned copper company Codelco and British firm Anglo American PLC settled their long-running conflict over control of a promising copper mine with a multi-billion dollar deal that includes major new Japanese investments in Chile.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, A Cairo court ordered Islam Afifi, the chief editor of the privately-owned el-Dustour daily newspaper, detained pending trial on charges of insulting Egypt’s president and "spreading lies." Afifi was released from jail just hours later after Pres. Morsi issued a law banning the imprisonment of journalists accused of media-related offenses.
    (AP, 8/23/12)(AP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Germany more than 900 police officers raided homes and clubhouses of suspected neo-Nazis in a crackdown in North Rhine-Westphalia, seizing far-right propaganda material, computer hard drives and a wide variety of weapons.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, A cholera epidemic in Guinea and Sierra Leone has left 250-300 people dead. 846 deaths were reported this year in the 14 countries of West and Central Africa. Sierra Leone's health ministry said that deaths from a cholera outbreak had reached 220.
    (SFC, 8/23/12, p.A5)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Indian officials said heavy rains over the past two days have killed at least 27 people and left thousands homeless in western Rajasthan state.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Israel's foreign ministry summoned South Africa's envoy to formally protest Pretoria's decision to place "Occupied Palestinian Territory" labels on goods from Jewish settlements.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Italy a gunman shot and killed Gaetano Marino (48), a boss from the Neapolitan Camorra, clad in a swimsuit as he walked from a beach to join his family at a hotel in a resort town south of Rome. Marino had lost both hands in an explosion while planting a bomb in the 1990s.
    (AP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, Jordan's Paralympic committee said it has withdrawn three members from a pre-Games training camp in Northern Ireland over charges of sex offences.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Kenya's government said it will conduct a countrywide operation to disarm all communities with illegal weapons.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Lebanon fresh fighting erupted in the northern city of Tripoli leaving one dead and two wounded, despite a truce to halt days of violence between pro- and anti-Damascus gunmen.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, A Libyan security official said a conflict between 2 armed tribes in Zlitan left 12 people dead and dozens injured.
    (SFC, 8/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Aug 23, In Mexico a falling out between the leaders of the hyper-violent Zetas cartel appears to have put the gang in the hands of Miguel Angel Trevino Morales. The brutal and feared gangster has been blamed for an eruption of bloodshed in the once relatively calm central states.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Niger at least 44 people have been killed by severe flooding that has affected the country since mid-July, according to the UN's humanitarian affairs office.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Pakistani officials said heavy monsoon rains that triggered flooding in the country's north have caused at least 26 deaths.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Philippine police said they arrested more than 350 people over a major telephone scam that swindled people out of millions of dollars in Taiwan and mainland China.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Slovenia a hot air balloon carrying 32 people, including children, was swept up in a storm and crashed in a fireball outside Ljubljana. 6 people died and 26 others were injured.
    (AP, 8/23/12)(AP, 2/26/13)
2012        Aug 23, Sri Lanka’s education minister shut down indefinitely the country’s state universities and institutes following recent strikes. Academics were angry that the country spent only 1.9% of GDP on schools and universities.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.43)
2012        Aug 23, In Sri Lanka the rusting 15,000-ton Thmothrmopolyseara, a Cyprus-flagged carrier, went down after remaining anchored outside a Colombo harbor since 2009 following a dispute over its cargo of steel. An oil slick from the vessel reached the coast of Colombo on Aug 25 and threatened a beach resort popular with foreign tourists.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Switzerland the Green Climate Fund, which aims to channel $100 billion a year in aid to poor countries, selected as leaders Zaheer Fakir, head of international relations for South Africa's environment agency, and Ewen McDonald, deputy head of Australia's international development agency.
    (AP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, Syrian military planes crossed into Iraqi airspace in order to carry out air strikes against the border town of Albu Kamal, which is held by rebel forces. Rebels waged fierce battles with regime troops in a town along the Iraqi border, capturing a string of security posts and the local police headquarters despite heavy government shelling and bombing runs by warplanes. The Syrian army recaptured Christian areas in Aleppo. Artillery and helicopters hammered the Sunni Muslim town of Daraya for 24 hours, killing 15 people and wounding 150, before soldiers moved in and raided houses. A total of 149 people were killed across the country, including 14 children.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)(AP, 8/23/12)(Reuters, 8/23/12)(AFP, 8/24/12)
2012        Aug 23, Turkish media reported that Kurdish rebels have ambushed a military convoy in the southeast, setting off clashes that killed 16 militants and five soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)

2013        Aug 23, In Texas a jury of military officers convicted Major Nidal Hasan (42) for the deadly Nov 5, 2009, shooting rampage at Fort Hood. On Aug 28 Hasan was sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 8/24/13, p.A6)(AFP, 8/29/13)
2013        Aug 23, Thousands of Bahrainis were allowed to march peacefully outside Manama calling for democratic reforms, 10 days after police cracked down on scattered protests organized by an online group inspired by recent demonstrations in Egypt.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, The Belgian prosecutor's office said a three-nation investigation (Belgium, Netherlands, Poland) has led to one of the biggest seizures of synthetic drugs in Europe, a haul of core products to create Ecstasy pills with a street value of 1.3 billion euros ($1.75 billion).
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, In Benin kidnappers snatched Mike Ozekhome, a Nigerian human rights lawyer. He was held and tortured for 20 days before being released During his abduction 4 policemen who tried to squash the kidnappers’ mission were killed in a gun battle.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/o4zfhll)
2013        Aug 23, In Bolivia 30 people were killed, many burned to death, in a battle among rival gangs for control of part of the overcrowded, maximum-security Palmasola prison outside the city of Santa Cruz. Another inmate died the next day raising the toll to 31.
    (AP, 8/24/13)(SSFC, 8/25/13, p.A5)
2013        Aug 23, Chinese security forces killed at least 12 men and wounded 20 others during a raid on an alleged terrorist facility in Jigdejay village near Kashgar in the far western Xinjiang region.
    (SFC, 9/19/13, p.A4)
2013        Aug 23, Congo's government accused Rwanda of supporting a rebel attack on the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, In Egypt several thousand demonstrators joined at least three marches in different parts of Cairo to protest the ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi.
    (AFP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, In Iraq violence killed 37 people. This included a suicide bombing that killed 25 people in a Baghdad park.
    (AFP, 8/24/13)(Reuters, 8/25/13)
2013        Aug 23, In Lebanon twin explosions outside two mosques killed at least 47 people and wounded hundreds in apparently coordinated attacks in the northern city of Tripoli. Suspect Sheik Ahmad al-Ghareb was arrested the next day.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)(AP, 8/24/13)(SSFC, 8/25/13, p.A5)
2013        Aug 23, The Lebanese government said its troops captured a truck carrying gas masks near the Syrian border.
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, In Libya gunmen killed an army colonel in a drive-by shooting after he left a mosque in Benghazi.
    (AFP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, Philippines’ Pres. Aquino said leaks will be plugged in a controversial fund set aside for legislators' pet projects.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, Four people were killed when a helicopter carrying 16 oil workers and two crew crashed off Scotland's Shetland islands, the fourth incident in the area involving different models of the widely used aircraft in just over four years. The Super Puma L2, made by EADS unit Eurocopter, was operated by CHC Helicopter for France's Total.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)
2013        Aug 23, Syrian troops and opposition fighters clashed during fierce battles in suburbs of Damascus.
    (AP, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, Tunisia's secular opposition said that the governing Islamists must quit power before they would join negotiations to resolve the country's worst crisis since its Arab Spring revolt, declaring otherwise the talks would be a waste of time.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)
2013        Aug 23, In eastern Yemen a suicide bombing killed 2 soldiers and wounded six others. Al-Qaeda militants were blamed for the attack.
    (AFP, 8/23/13)

2014        Aug 23, In California an earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 6.0 shook the northern SF Bay area early today. It was centered about 10 miles northwest of American Canyon, about six miles southwest of Napa.
    (AP, 8/24/14)
2014        Aug 23, Michael Pimente, the police chief of Elmendorf, Texas, was shot dead during a traffic stop. Joshua Manuel Lopez, 24, was taken into custody on charges of capital murder of a police officer.
    (Reuters, 8/24/14)
2014        Aug 23, In Bahrain thousands of Shiites protested against what they say are attempts by the Sunni authorities to tip the kingdom's demographic balance in their favor by naturalizing foreigners.
    (AFP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, Chinese state media reported the execution of eight people convicted on terrorism charges in the restive western region of Xinjiang, including three men authorities say were behind a deadly attack in the heart of Beijing in which an SUV plowed through a crowd.
    (AP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, Chinese authorities blocked the annual Beijing Independent Film Festival from opening, seizing documents and films from organizers and hauling away two event officials in a sign that Beijing is stepping up its already tight ideological controls.
    (AP, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 23, Egypt called on Israel and the Palestinians to halt fire and resume peace talks, but violence continued unabated with Israeli air strikes in the Gaza Strip and Hamas militants firing rockets at the Jewish state. The Israeli military said Palestinian gunmen had fired almost 500 rockets at Israel since the talks broke down and Gaza health officials said 65 Palestinians had been killed in Israeli air strikes since then. Israel took the Gaza war to a new level by flattening a 13-storey apartment tower.
    (Reuters, 8/23/14)(Reuters, 8/24/14)
2014        Aug 23, Several thousand people formed a human chain across the German-Polish border to protest the expansion of mining for brown coal, aka lignite, in the region.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)
2014        Aug 23, Iceland said its Bardarbunga volcano has begun erupting under the ice of Europe’s largest glacier, prompting the country to close the airspace over the volcano. Iceland the next day said no eruption took place, but that one remained imminent following increased seismic activity.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A10)(SFC, 8/25/14, p.A2)
2014        Aug 23, India and Pakistan traded gunfire in the disputed Kashmir region, killing two villagers on each side and wounding several others.
    (AP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, In Iraq a suicide bomber hit an Interior Ministry building in central Baghdad, killing at least 11 people. Explosions rocked the northern city of Kirkuk, killing at least 42 people and injuring dozens.
    (AP, 8/23/14)(SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A7)
2014        Aug 23, A rocket fired from Lebanese territory hit the Upper Galilee in northern Israel on the 47th day of a war against the Islamist movement Hamas in and around Gaza.
    (AFP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, In Libya unidentified war planes attacked positions of an armed faction in Tripoli. They were later identified as aircraft based in Egypt and flown by pilots from the UAE. 15 fighters were reported killed and dozens wounded. Islamist fighters in the Fajr Libya (Libyan Dawn) coalition said they have captured Tripoli's battered international airport. Fighting erupted between renegade general Khalifa Haftar’s troops and allied army special forces with Islamists in two Benghazi suburbs, killing 8 soldiers and wounding 35. Egypt denied any air operations in Libya.
    (AP, 8/23/14)(AFP, 8/24/14)(Reuters, 8/24/14)(SFC, 8/25/14, p.A2)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.44)
2014        Aug 23, Niger's agriculture minister, Abdou Labo, was arrested on suspicion of involvement in a baby-trafficking network. 17 people, including his wife and the spouses of other politicians, were arrested in June as part of a police investigation.
    (Reuters, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, The Philippine government said that it would bring home its 331 peacekeeping forces from the Golan Heights amid the deteriorating security in the region and withdraw its 115 troops from Liberia because of the Ebola outbreak.
    (AP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, Hundreds of trucks from a disputed Russian aid convoy to rebel-held eastern Ukraine rolled back across the border into Russia but questions about alleged Russian artillery in Ukraine still remained.
    (AP, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 23, In Syria jihadists from the Islamic State group seized Tabqa military airport. 346 Islamic State fighters were killed and more some 200 members of the security forces died in five days of fighting over the base.
    (Reuters, 8/27/14)(AFP, 8/28/14)
2014        Aug 23, Yemen's government offered to resign within a month and to review an unpopular decision to cut fuel subsidies, in an attempt to end protests by the Shi'ite Houthi movement. Separate bomb attacks by Al-Qaeda suspects killed a senior army officer and 3 soldiers across the south and southeast.
    (Reuters, 8/23/14)(AFP, 8/23/14)

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