Today in History - August 31

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12BCE    Aug 31, Caligula (Gaius Caesar), 3rd Roman emperor (37-41 AD), born.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

161CE    Aug 31, Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, emperor of Rome (180-92), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.297)(MC, 8/31/01)

1057        Aug 31, Leofric, count of Mercia and husband of Lady Godiva, died. His wife, the Countess Godgifu (Godiva), had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it. The priory probably ran a market that would have formed the nucleus of the growing town. Such a market would bring fees and taxes to the priory and the Earl while flooding the district with goods and money. Godiva may well have ruled the settlement between Leofric’s death and her own in 1066.
    (HNC, 12/2/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1158        Aug 31, Sancho III, King of Castilia, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1218        Aug 31, Al-Malik ab-Adil, Saphadin, Saif al-Din, brother of Saladin, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1303        Aug 31, The War of Vespers in Sicily ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1385        Aug 31, English King Richard the Second invaded Scotland with a force estimated at 80-thousand men.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1422        Aug 31, Henry V, King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1512        Aug 31, Giuliano de Medici became the new governor of Florence.
    (ON, 11/04, p.3)

1521        Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs."
    (HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1535        Aug 31, Pope Paul II deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1667        Aug 31, Johann Rist, composer, died at 60.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1707        Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanisław Leszczyński (1677-1766).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Altranst%C3%A4dt_%281707%29)

1741        Aug 31, Johann Paul Aegidius Martini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1751        Aug 31, English troops under sir Robert Clive occupied Arcot, India.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1756        Aug 31, The British at Fort William Henry, New England, surrendered to Louis Montcalm of France.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1778        Aug 31, British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1795        Aug 31, Franxois-Andre Danican Philidor, composer, died at 68.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1802        Aug 31, Captain Meriwether Lewis left Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1804        Aug 31, Lewis and Clark held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern North Dakota.
    (ON, 4/12, p.9)

1811        Aug 31, Théophile Gautier, French poet, novelist and author of “Art for Art's Sake," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1819        Aug 31, A naval battle took place between United States Revenue Cutter Service cutters and one of Jean Lafitte's pirate ships off southern Florida.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_31_August_1819)

1822        Aug 31, Fitz John Porter (d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1829        Aug 31, Gioacchino Rossini's final opera "William Tell" was produced in Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1832        Aug 31, Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer, composer, died at 53.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1834        Aug 31, Amilcare Ponchielli, composer (La Gioconda), was born in Paderno, Italy.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1835        Aug 31, Angry mob in Charleston, South Carolina, seized US mail containing abolitionist literature and burned it in public.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1842        Aug 31, US Naval Observatory was authorized by an act of Congress.
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1842        Aug 31, Micah Rugg patented a nuts & bolts machine.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1851        Aug 31, The Yankee clipper ship Flying Cloud set a record for sailing from NY to San Francisco around South America in 89 days.
    (http://tinyurl.com/n7evjm4)

1864        Aug 31, At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan was nominated for president. [see Aug 28]
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1864        Aug 31, Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1865        Aug 31, The US Federal government estimated the American Civil War had cost about eight billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than one-million killed or wounded.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1867        Aug 31, [Pierre-]Charles Baudelaire (46), French poet (Journaux Intimes), died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1870        Aug 31, Maria Montessori (d.1952), educator and physician, was born in Chiaravalle, Italy. She opened her 1st Montessori school in San Lorenzo, Italy in 1907.
    (HN, 8/31/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori)

1876        Aug 31, Abdul Hamid II succeeded Murad V as the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman House of Osman. His ruled continued to April 27, 1909.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_V)

1880        Aug 31, Queen Wilhelmina of Netherlands (d. Nov 28, 1962 at 82) was born. She reigned from 1890-1947.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(YN, 8/31/99)

1881        Aug 31, The first U.S. tennis championships (for men) were played, in Newport, R.I.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

1885        Aug 31, Duboise Heyward, novelist, poet and dramatist best know for “Porgy" which was the basis for the opera “Porgy and Bess," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1886        Aug 31, South Carolina bore the brunt of the largest-ever earthquake on the East Coast, a 7.3 magnitude earth-shaker that killed at least 60 people in post-Civil War Charleston.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1886_Charleston_earthquake)

1887        Aug 31, Inventor Thomas A. Edison received a patent for his Kinetoscope," a device which produced moving pictures. [see Apr 14, 1894]
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1888        Aug 31, Mary Ann Nicholls, a 42-year-old prostitute, was found murdered in London's East End. She is generally regarded as the first of at least five murder victims of "Jack the Ripper." [see Aug 6]
    (AP, 8/31/99)(YN, 8/31/99)

1889        Aug 31, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Cardboard Box."
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1897        Aug 31, Thomas Edison patented his movie camera (Kinetograph).
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1897        Aug 31, General Kitchener occupied Berber, North of Khartoum.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1899        Aug 31, Paul E. Garber, US founder and 1st curator of National Air & Space Museum, was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1899        Aug 31, Lynn Riggs, writer, was born. Her book “Green Grow the Lilacs" was adapted by Rodgers and Hammerstein to become “Oklahoma."
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1900        Aug 31, British troops overran Johannesburg.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1902        Aug 31, Mathilde Wesendonk (73), German author and poetess, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1903        Aug 31, Arthur Godfrey, radio and television personality, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1903        Aug 31, Bernard Lovell, radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank, was born in England.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1905        Aug 31, Sanford Meisner, influential acting teacher, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1907        Aug 31, William Shawn, longtime editor of The New Yorker, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/00)
1907        Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1908        Aug 31, William Saroyan (d.1981), American writer, was born outside Fresno, Ca., to Armenian parents. “He was a prolific and bombastic writer who never threw anything away." He was a native of Fresno, Ca. and his unpublished materials, held by the Saroyan Foundation, were turned over to Stanford Univ. in 1996. His work included “The Human Comedy."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(SFC, 5/23/96, p.A1)(WUD, 1994, p.1269)(HN, 8/31/00)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M1)

1909        Aug 31, The A.J. Reach Co. patented the cork-centered baseball.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1910        Aug 31, Theodore Roosevelt laid out his progressive philosophy as he delivered the "New Nationalism" speech at Osawatomie, Kansas, effecting a split in the Republican Party. The speech was interpreted as an assault upon the conservatism of the Taft administration. In the speech, Roosevelt proclaimed that the New Nationalism "maintains that every man holds his property subject to the general right of the community to regulate its use to whatever degree the public welfare may require it."
    (HNQ, 12/22/99)(Economist, 10/13/12, p.23)

1911        Aug 31, Anthony Fokker's demonstrated the aircraft "Snip."
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1912        Aug 31, Ramon Vinay (d.1996), Chilean operatic tenor and baritone, was born in Chillan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ram%C3%B3n_Vinay)
1912        Aug 31, In Ecuador Leónidas Plaza was inaugurated for a 2nd term as president. Gen. Plaza had received 98% of the vote in the presidential election. His 1st term was from September 1, 1901 to August 31, 1905.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lcz7q6c)(http://tinyurl.com/o676glm)

1914        Aug 31, Germany defeated Russia at the battle at Tannenberg. Some 30,000 Russians died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1916        Aug 31, Daniel Schorr, broadcast journalist (CBS), was born in NYC.
    (www.nndb.com)
1916        Aug 31, In Indonesia the Surabaya Zoo  was established based on Acceptance Letter of the general Dutch Governor, by the name of “Soerabaiasche Planten-en Dierentuin" (the Botany Garden and the Surabaya Animal) on the merit of a journalist named H. F. K. Kommer who had the hobby of gathering the animal.
    (www.surabaya.go.id/eng/tourism.php?page=zoo)

1918        Aug 31, Alan Jay Lerner, playwright and lyricist, was born. His work included “Brigadoon" and “Camelot."
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1919        Aug 31, John Reed formed the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"
    (HN, 8/31/98)(YN, 8/31/99)(MC, 8/31/01)
1919        Aug 31, The Ukrainian (Petlyura) Army recaptured Kiev. Petlyura's Ukrainian Army killed 35 members of a Jewish defense group.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1923        Aug 31, Mussolini's troops occupied Korfu.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1928        Aug 31, James Coburn (d.2002), actor (Our Man Flint, Magnificent Seven), was born in Laurel, Nebraska.
    (YN, 8/31/99)(SFC, 11/19/02, p.A2)
1928        Aug 31, Brecht and Kurt Weill’s “The Threepenny Opera" opened in Berlin.
    (HN, 8/31/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1935        Aug 31, Eldridge Cleaver, political activist and author of “Soul on Fire," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1935        Aug 31, President Roosevelt signed an act prohibiting the export of U.S. arms to belligerents.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1936        Aug 31, Marva Collins, innovative educator who started Chicago's one-room school, Westside Preparatory, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1939        Aug 31, There was a staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to "provoke" war, an excuse for Germany to invade Poland the next day to start World War II.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1940        Aug 31, US National Guard assembled.
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1940        Aug 31, Jack Thompson of Australia, actor (Breaker Morant), was born.
    (YN, 8/31/99)
1940        Aug 31, Joseph Avenol stepped down as Secretary-General of the League of Nations.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1940        Aug 31, 56 U-boats were sunk this month (268,000 ton).
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1940        Aug 31, Fighter Command lost 39 and the Luftwaffe lost 41 airplanes.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1941        Aug 31, The radio program "The Great Gildersleeve," a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly, made its debut on NBC.
    (AP, 8/31/97)(MC, 8/31/01)
1941        Aug 31, Alan Lomax, musicologist for the US Library of Vongress, traveled to Mississippi, introduced himself to McKinley Morganfield, aka Muddy Waters, and began recording his Delta Blues songs.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.4)
1941        Aug 31, Marina Tsvetaeva (b.1892), Russian poet and writer, died. She wrote six plays in verse and narrative poems, including The Tsar Maiden (1920), and her epic about the Civil War, The Swans' Encampment, which glorified those who fought against the communists.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marina_Tsvetaeva)

1942        Aug 31, The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeated Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1944        Aug 31, A US B-24-J bomber crashed into Maoer Mountain in China after having completed its bombing mission over the port of Takao in Taiwan. All 10 men onboard were killed. The wreckage was not discovered until Oct, 1996.
    (SFC, 1/17/97, p.A13)
1944        Aug 31, The British Eighth Army penetrated the German Gothic Line in Italy.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1944        Aug 31, The French provisional government moved from Algiers to Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1945        Aug 31, Van Morrison, singer (Here Comes the Night), was born in Belfast, Ireland.
    (YN, 8/31/99)
1945        Aug 31, Itzhak Perlman, violinist, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/00)

1949        Aug 31, Richard Gere, actor (Breathless, Cotton Club), was born in Phila., Pa.
    (YN, 8/31/99)
1949        Aug 31, Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attended the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1950        Aug 31, Three North Korean divisions opened an assault on UN lines on the Naktong River in a push to take Pusan.
    (SSFC, 11/7/04, Par p.4)

1951        Aug 31, The former enemies of the world war reconvened in San Francisco to finalize negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II. Japan agreed to pay the Int’l. Red Cross about $15 per POW while the allies agreed not to bring charges against it.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)
1951        Aug 31, The 1st Marine Division began its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle resulted in 2,700 Marine casualties.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1951        Aug 31, The 1st 33 1/3 (LP) album was introduced in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1954        Aug 31, Hurricane Carol hit the northeastern United States, resulting in nearly 70 deaths and millions of dollars in damage.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1955        Aug 31, 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, Ill.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1957        Aug 31, The Federation of Malaya (Malaysia) gained independence from Britain (National Day). Malaysia established itself as a constitutional monarchy. Article 11 in the constitution gave every person “the right to profess and practice his religion." Pro-bumiputra (sons of the soil) discrimination was laid down in the constitution to ease Malays’ fears of being marginalized by Chinese and Indian migrants. A 1988 amendment denied the regular courts all jurisdiction over matters dealt with by the Muslim sharia courts.
    (YN, 8/31/99)(SFC, 11/22/01, p.A29)(AP, 8/31/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.11)

1958        Aug 31, Edwin Moses, track star, was born. Olympic Gold Medalist [1976, 1984] & Hall of Famer: 400-meter hurdles: the first athlete to use 13 strides between hurdles; 1983 winner of Sullivan Award: the U.S. outstanding amateur athlete.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1959        Aug 31, Australia defeated the US for tennis' Davis Cup.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1961        Aug 31, A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East and West Germany, it would be called the Berlin wall.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1962        Aug 31, The Caribbean nation of Trinidad and Tobago became independent within the British Commonwealth. Eric Williams, a Marxist historian, led the country to independence.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(AP, 8/31/97)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.29)

1963        Aug 31, George F. Braque (81), cubist painter, died in Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1965        Aug 31, The Beatles returned to the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca., for another concert.
    (www.geocities.com/bratbear_51/cowpalacebeatles.html)

1965        Aug 31, The US House of Reps joined Senate to establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1966        Aug 31, In China a response to Mao’s call for a Cultural Revolution led to a massacre in Hongsheng, one of 13 communes in Beijing’s Daxing district, that left 110 people dead. The official death toll for all 13 communes was put at 324. Over 2 weeks some 2,000 Beijing residents were killed.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, p.43)

1967        Aug 31, Ilya G. Ehrenburg (76), Russian poet and propagandist ("Russians, get your German!"), died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1968        Aug 31, In northeast Iran some 7-12 thousand people died in the 7.8 Dashte Bayaz earthquake, which also destroyed 60,000 buildings.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(www.bssaonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/59/5/1751)

1969        Aug 31, Andrew Phillip Cunanan, serial killer, was born. His victims included fashion designer Gianni Versache.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Cunanan)
1969        Aug 31, Boxer Rocky Marciano died in a light airplane crash in Iowa, the day before his 46th birthday.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1971        Aug 31, John Lennon left UK for NYC, never to return.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lennon)

1972        Aug 31, At the Munich Summer Olympics American swimmer Mark Spitz won his fourth and fifth gold medals, in the 100-meter butterfly and 800-meter freestyle relay.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
1972        Aug 31, Olga Korbut (b.1955) of Belarus, USSR, won Olympic gold medal in floor exercises and the balance beam.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olga_Korbut)(AP, 8/31/02)

1973        Aug 31, John Ford (b.1894), US film director, died. He directed some 140 films including “Mary of Scotland" (1936) and “Stagecoach" (1939).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ford)

1976        Aug 31, George Harrison (1943-2001) was found guilty of plagiarizing "My Sweet Lord."
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0365600/bio)(http://nfo.net/calendar/aug31.htm)

1977        Aug 31, Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, won the Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodesia_general_election%2C_1977)

1978        Aug 31, Emily and William Harris, founding members of the SLA, pleaded guilty to 4 charges related to the 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst. On Oct 4 they were sentenced to prison terms.
    (SFC, 10/3/03, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbionese_Liberation_Army)
1978         Aug 31, Imam Moussa al-Sadr, the spiritual leader of Lebanon's Shiite Muslim community, disappeared along with 2 companions during a visit to Libya. In 2008 a Lebanese prosecutor charged Moammar Khadafy and 6 other Libyan officials in the disappearance.
    (AP, 9/3/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_al-Sadr)(SFC, 8/28/08, p.A7)

1979        Aug 31, Sally Rand (b.1904), exotic dancer and actress, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally_Rand)

1980        Aug 31, Poland's Solidarity labor movement was born with an agreement signed in Gdansk that ended a 17-day strike. The Communist government signed an agreement with the Strike Coordination Committee in Gdansk, Poland, to allow legal organization, but not actual free trade unions.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-Enterprise_Strike_Committee)(AP, 8/31/97)

1981        Aug 31, Joseph H. Hirschhorn (b.1899), Latvia-born US art collector and founder the Hirschhorn Museum in Washington, DC, died at 82.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_H._Hirshhorn)(http://tinyurl.com/34mcwt)

1983        Aug 31, In Fairfield, Ca., Kyle Stracner (15) returned home after visiting with friends and found his mother, Priscilla Strole (40), naked and beaten to death on the floor. In 2014 investigators used DNA evidence to identify Robert Hathaway (48), a childhood friend of Kyle, as the murderer. Hathaway hanged himself on Feb 15, 2014.
    (SFC, 3/6/14, p.D2)

1984        Aug 31, San Francisco 19 plainclothes police officers raided Lord Jim’s bar at 1500 Broadway and arrested the owner. Patrons and employees were detained for up to 90 minutes as police checked for warrants. Attorney William Barfield, one of those detained, later filed 5 of six damage claims totaling 375,000 against the city. Proposed settlements in 1988 included $63,500 for a dozen people in the first batch of lawsuits.
    (SSFC, 9/20/09, DB p.50)(SSFC, 10/13/12, DB p.46)
1984        Aug 31, In southern California Ebora Alexander (57), the mother or 49ers star Kermit Alexander, was shot dead along with his sister and two nephews. Tiequon Cox, a member of the Rollin’ 60 Crips, was later convicted of the murders and sentenced to death. Two others were sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiequon_Cox)

1985        Aug 31, Richard Ramirez, later convicted of California's "Night Stalker" killings, was captured by residents of an East Los Angeles neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1986        Aug 31, Aeromexico flight 498 with 64 passengers collided with a light plane as it approached Los Angeles and crashed to the ground where an additional 15 people were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board blamed flaws in the overloaded traffic control system. 82 people were killed when an Aeromexico jetliner and a small private plane collided over Cerritos, Calif.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A20)(AP, 8/31/97)
1986        Aug 31, The Soviet passenger ship Admiral Nakhimov collided with a merchant vessel in the Black Sea, causing both vessels to sink; up to 448 people reportedly died.
    (AP, 8/31/97)
1986        Aug 31, Henry Moore (b.1898), English sculptor and cartoonist, died. In 1998 John Hedgecoe published "A Monumental Vision: The Sculpture of Henry Moore."
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Moore)

1987        Aug 31, The US Justice Department challenged the constitutionality of the 1978 Ethics in Government Act, which provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law.
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1988        Aug 31, Arbitrator George Nicolau ruled sports owners conspired against free agents.
    (www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/chronology/1988AUGUST.stm)
1988        Aug 31, Fourteen people were killed when a Delta Boeing 727 crashed during takeoff from Dallas-Fort Worth Airport.    
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1988        Aug 31, A 5-day power blackout of downtown Seattle began. 
    (YN, 8/31/99)
1988        Aug 31, In South Africa the Khotso House was bombed. Police chief Johan van der Merwe was instructed to blow up the Johannesburg headquarters of the South African Council of Churches, called Khotso House, for harboring anti-apartheid groups. The bombing injured 21 people. He said in 1996 that the instructions came from Law and Order Minister Adriaan Vlok, who told him that the order came directly from Pres. P.W. Botha. In 1997 a document submitted by Vlok said the order to destroy the headquarters came from Pres. Botha. Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he was called in by a police general to blowup Khotso House. Vlok testified in 1998 that Botha dictated the bombing. Vlok and van der Merwe were given amnesty in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/22/98, p.A11)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A14)

1989        Aug 31, Arbitrator Thomas Roberts ordered Major League sports owners to pay $105 million for collusion against free agents after the 1985 baseball season.
    (www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/chronology/1989AUGUST.stm)
1989        Aug 31, Britain's Princess Anne and husband Mark Phillips announced they were separating.
    (AP, 8/31/99)

1990        Aug 31, East & West Germany signed a treaty to join legal & political systems.
    (http://tinyurl.com/omusa)
1990        Aug 31, UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar met twice with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz in Amman, Jordan, trying to negotiate a solution to the Persian Gulf crisis.
    (AP, 8/31/00)

1991        Aug 31, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/31/01)

1992        Aug 31, White separatist Randy Weaver surrendered to authorities in Naples, Idaho, ending an 11-day siege by federal agents that claimed the lives of Weaver's wife, son and a deputy U.S. marshal. [see Aug 21]
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1993        Aug 31, Mideast peace talks resumed in Washington amid hopes that a historic agreement to establish Palestinian autonomous areas would be concluded within days.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Hurricane Emily hit North Carolina's Outer Banks, killing three people.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Russia withdrew its last soldier from Lithuania, the first Baltic nation to eject all former Soviet troops.
    (AP, 8/31/98)
1993        Aug 31, Venezuela’s Congress officially removed President Andres Perez (b.1922) from office. Perez had served 2 terms as presidents (1974-1979, 1989-1993). He was impeached following a scandal on the alleged mishandling of US$17 million from the presidents' special secret fund, used to help Violeta Chamorro's government in Nicaragua.
    (www.expat-today.com/venezuela/expat1.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/orkso)

1994        Aug 31, In the London Intel Speed Chess Grand Prix a Pentium computer beat world chess champ Gari Kasparov.
    (www.correspondencechess.com/campbell/apctcol/c9411.htm)
1994        Aug 31, The Irish Republican Army (IRA) announces a "complete cessation of military operations," opening the way to a political settlement in Ireland for the first time in a quarter of a century.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)(AP, 8/31/99)(HN, 8/31/99)
1994        Aug 31, Russia officially ended its military presence in the former East Germany and the Baltics after a half-century.
    (AP, 8/31/99)

1995        Aug 31, At the O.J. Simpson trial in Los Angeles, Judge Lance Ito ruled the defense could play only two examples of police detective Mark Fuhrman’s racist comments from taped conversations with a screenwriter.
    (AP, 8/31/00)
1995        Aug 31, NATO planes and UN artillery blasted Serb targets in Bosnia for a 2nd day in response to the market attack in Serajevo.
    (SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
1995        Aug 31, In India blast a bomb killed 18 people, including Beant Singh (b.1922), chief minister of the northern state of Punjab. Singh had become chief minister of Punjab, home to most Indian Sikhs, in 1992, and began crushing a Sikh militant movement that sought a separate homeland. Gurmeet Singh was one of six Sikh militants convicted in the attack. He fled a high-security prison in 2004 before being sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment in 2007. In 2015 Thai authorities extradited him back to India.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beant_Singh_%28chief_minister%29)(AP, 1/16/15)

1996        Aug 31, Three adults and 4 children drowned at John D. Long Lake in Union, South Carolina when their car rolled into the lake by accident. They had gone to see a monument to the sons of Susan Smith, who drowned her 2 sons on Oct 25, 1994 when she let her car roll into the lake.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.D5)(AP, 8/31/97)
1996        Aug 31, New York City police found the body of 4-year-old Nadine Lockwood in her family's apartment; she'd been starved to death. The girl's mother, Carla Lockwood, was later sentenced to serve at least 15 years in prison. Nadine's father, Leroy Dickerson, was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
1996        Aug 31, In Austria the country’s first gay wedding took place in the Evangelical Church in Vienna’s Simmering district.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A4)
1996        Aug 31, In Colombia the armed forces went on alert after a series of rebel attacks on government targets that killed about 100 people. The attacks were in response to a US government backed campaign to eradicate coca plots. A rebel column overran an army base in Las Delicias and killed 27 soldiers.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A15)(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)
1996        Aug 31, Over the past week torrential rains threatened Sudan and Egypt with floods. More than a million Pakistanis were displaced by fierce floods. The central Punjab Province had 4.5 million acres of crops swamped.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A4)
1996        Aug 31, Rival Kurdish forces under leaders Jalal Talabani of the Patriotic Union and Massoud Barzani of the Kurdish Democratic Party clashed. Barzani’s forces participated with Sadam Hussein’s troops in taking Irbil, a Talabani stronghold. Talabani’s forces were reportedly assisted by Iran.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.A8)
1996        Aug 31, More than 100 members of the Iraqi National Congress in Irbil were captured by Iraqi secret police and apparently executed. The Congress was set up by the US in 1992 as an alternative to Saddam Hussein. Thousands of opposition members made it to Turkey and were flown to Guam by the US and promised asylum in the US.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, p.A13)(SFC, 10/12/97, Z1 p.5)
1996        Aug 31, Ljuba Welitsch (83), Bulgaria-born opera singer, died.
    (www.ucis.pitt.edu/opera/OFB/stars/wel01.htm)

1997        Aug 31, In Phoenix, Az., bounty hunters in search of a bail jumper killed a couple that apparently knew nothing about the sought bail jumper. Chris Foote (23) and Spring Wright (20) were killed by 5 bounty hunters. Matthew Brackney (20), his father David Brackney (45) and Michael Martin Sanders (40) were in custody and 2 others were sought by authorities. Arizona laws allow bounty hunters to break down doors and use guns to bring bail jumpers back to jail without a court order, warrant or license. There were an estimated 2,000 bounty hunters nationwide. Brian Jay Robbins and Ronald Eugene Timms were arrested on Sep 3. On October 30, 1998 Michael Martin Sanders was judged guilty of murder, and nine other felonies including burglary, aggravated assault and unlawful imprisonment. Co-defendant Ronald Timms pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and testified against Sanders, saying the men planned to break into Foote's home because they mistakenly believed there would be a large amount of drugs and cash there. The rest were charged with second degree murder and various counts of felonious assault.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.A3)(SFC, 9/4/97, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/lp6bs)

1997        Aug 31, Prince Charles brought Princess Diana home for the last time, escorting the body of his former wife to a Britain that was shocked, grief-stricken and angered by her death in a Paris traffic accident. Princess Diana (36) and Egyptian billionaire Dodi al-Fayed (42) were killed along with the car’s driver in a car crash in Paris while trying to evade paparazzi photographers. A bodyguard was severely injured but expected to survive. It was later learned that the driver had 3 times the legal alcohol limit and was driving at about 110 mph.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/2/97, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/98)
1997        Aug 31, In Peru 2 small planes collided at the Nazca archeological site and 12 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/1/97, p.A14)
1997        Aug 31, Vitaly Schmidt (47), Russian oil tycoon, died in Moscow. Much of his fortune came from a group of small offshore energy companies he oversaw on behalf of himself and a few fellow executives of OAO Lukoil.
    (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.A1)

1998        Aug 31, President Clinton left for a summit in Russia, which was in a state of political chaos over lawmakers' rejection of Boris Yeltsin's candidate for prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin.
    (AP, 8/31/03)
1998        Aug 31, The DJIA fell 512 points, 6.37%, while the NASDAQ fell a record 140 points to 1499 amid news of political chaos in Russia and North Korea's apparent firing of a missile over part of Japan.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/99)
1998        Aug 31, In Gaithersburg, Md., boxer Mike Tyson assaulted 2 motorists following a minor chain-reaction collision. In 1999 he was convicted of assault and sentenced to one year in jail.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A1)
1998        Aug 31, An explosion in Algiers killed at least 17 people.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A9)
1998        Aug 31, In Angola the ruling party expelled Unita deputies from parliament.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 31, Congo’s Kabila declared victory over the Tutsi-led rebels near Kinshasa and in the southwest.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 31, In Latvia the Skrunda radar base, the last Russian military outpost in the Baltic states, was closed.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A9)
1998        Aug 31, North Korea fired a ballistic missile into the Sea of Japan. They later claimed that it was a rocket to launch a satellite. The US later agreed that it was a failed satellite launch.
    (SFC, 8/31/98, p.A1)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A11)(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A1)
1998        Aug 31, In Spain Jose Antonio Ardanza, 14-year president of the Basque country, dissolved the regional parliament and set elections for Oct 25. He urged ETA extremists to lay down their arms.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A9)

1999        Aug 31, Detroit’s teachers went on strike, wiping out the first day of class for 172-thousand students in one of the largest teachers’ strikes in years. The walkout lasted nine days.
    (AP, 8/31/00)
1999        Aug 31, In NYC 5 police shot twelve times and killed Gideon Busch (31), a Jewish man and former medical student, who refused to drop a hammer he’d used to threaten neighborhood children. The officers were brought up on charges and, on November 17, 2003, a federal jury cleared the officers of civil wrongdoing in the fatal shooting.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/qcxba)
1999        Aug 31, In Argentina the online-auction site DeRemate was launched. In 2002 daily visits averaged 160,000 as Internet users climbed to 2.7 million.
    (WSJ, 9/4/02, p.B5A)
1999        Aug 31, In Argentina 72 people were killed, including 5 on the ground, when a Lapa Airlines Boeing 737 crashed after takeoff from Jorge Newberry airport in Buenos Aires. There were 26 survivors.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/00)
1999        Aug 31, In Colombia rebels seized a hydroelectric plant near Buenaventura and held 100 employees on the 1st day of a nationwide strike. 1.5 million workers protested government austerity moves.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)
1999        Aug 31, Congolese rebels signed a cease-fire in Zambia.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)
1999        Aug 31, In Russia a bomb exploded in a video game parlor in the Manezh shopping mall near the Kremlin and at least 30 people were injured. A leaflet was left by the Union of Revolutionary Writers that said in part: "Consumer, we do not like your way of life…"
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A18)
1999        Aug 31, In Somalia clan gunmen killed 14 people and wounded 20 in a bus attack outside Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)
1999        Aug 31, In Turkey a 5.2 aftershock earthquake hit Izmit and killed one man and injured 166.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A12)

2000        Aug 31, President Clinton vetoed a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest Americans while threatening the nation's financial well being.
    (AP, 8/31/01)
2000        Aug 31, It was reported that computer scientists had created a robot to design and build other robots almost entirely without human help.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 31, It was reported that malaria researchers had identified the mechanism by which the parasite feeds on blood cells.
    (WSJ, 8/31/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 31, A meeting of South American presidents opened in Brasilia. They expressed concern over the civil war in Colombia and planned to discuss the creation of a South American trade block.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.A16)
2000        Aug 31, In France the government announced a package of tax reductions worth $16.5 billion over 3 years.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.D2)
2000        Aug 31, In Indonesia Suharto claimed illness and failed to show up for the 1st day of his corruption trial.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.A18)
2000        Aug 31, In Mexico retired Gen. Francisco Hermosillo and Brig. Gen. Mario Arturo Acosta Chaparro were arrested for collaborating with the Juarez drug cartel.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.A14)
2000        Aug 31, In Ukraine Pres. Kuchma declared 4 villages near Mykolaiv an ecological disaster zone due to illnesses of some 400 residents since July 4. Chemical poisoning from Soviet era rocket fuel leaks was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.D5)

2001        Aug 31, Little League star Danny Almonte's perfect game and his Bronx, N.Y., team's third-place World Series finish were ruled invalid after officials in the Dominican Republic, where Danny was born, determined he was 14 years old, not 12.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2001        Aug 31, It was reported that scientists at Lucent Tech. achieved superconductivity with carbon-60 (buckyballs) at minus 249 degrees by combining the carbon molecules with compounds of chloroform and bromoform.
    (SFC, 8/31/01, p.B3)
2001        Aug 31, In Montana a helicopter assigned to the 25,500-acre Fridley fire crashed and 3 crewmen were killed.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.D1)
2001        Aug 31, In Saudi Arabia Prince Turki al-Faisal resigned as head of the General Intelligence Directorate and Prince Nawwaf took over.
    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)
2001        Aug 31, Brazil withdrew its threat to make a generic version of the Nelfinavir AIDS drug after Roche Pharmaceuticals agreed to produce the drug locally and cut the price by 40% next year.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A7)
2001        Aug 31, Israeli troops battled Palestinian gunmen and 19 Palestinians were wounded.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A6)
2001        Aug 31, Ministers of New Zealand and Nauru announced that they would take the Afghanistan asylum seekers stranded in Australian waters.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A6)
2001        Aug 31, In Thailand officials reported that AIDS accounted for 16% of all deaths in 1998.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A10)   
2001        Aug 31, The UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance began in Durban, South Africa. Yasser Arafat accused Israel of "racist practices" against the Palestinian people.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/02)

2002        Aug 31, The Los Angeles Sparks beat the New York Liberty 69-66 to defend their WNBA championship.
    (AP, 8/31/03)
2002        Aug 31, The Burning Man was put to flames at Black Rock, Nev. Some 29,000 people attended the event, which featured a 78-foot Temple of Joy, created by David Best, that was burned down Sep 1.
    (SFC, 8/31/02, p.A3)(SFC, 9/2/02, p.A1)
2002        Aug 31, Lionel Hampton (94), American jazz icon, died in New York City. He pioneered and popularized the vibraphone as a jazz instrument in a musical career that spanned six decades beginning in the 1920s.
    (AP, 8/31/03)
2002        Aug 31, George Porter (81), who shared the 1967 Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work on light-driven chemical reactions, died in London. He had built a device to study gaseous free radicals and combustion. Among the practical results of his research was the development of ways to stop dyes from fading.
    (AP, 9/3/02)
2002        Aug 31, Sheldon H. Harris, historian, died. His work included the 1994 book: "Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945, and the American Cover-Up."
    (SFC, 9/9/02, p.A22)
2002        Aug 31, In Indonesia unidentified gunmen shot dead three people, including two Americans, and wounded up to 14 others in an attack on a vehicle convoy near a giant gold mine in Papua province. Killed in the 30-minute assault were Rick Spier, 44, of Littleton, Colo., Ted Burgon, 71, of Sunriver, Ore., and an Indonesian teacher. Indonesian soldiers were later implicated in the attack. In 2006 Antonius Wamang (31), a separatist rebel, was sentenced to life in prison and his accomplices up to seven years.
    (Reuters, 8/31/02)(SSFC, 10/27/02, p.A20)(AP, 11/7/06)
2002        Aug 31, At least 13 people died and scores more were rescued when an Indonesian ferry carrying more than 100 passengers caught fire and exploded after leaving Baubau in southern Sulawesi province.
    (Reuters, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, Israeli soldiers arrested Hasan Yousef, the Islamic militant group Hamas' top political leader, in the West Bank town of Ramallah. An Israeli helicopter fired three missiles at a Palestinian car, killing three men inside and two children standing nearby.
    (AP, 8/30/02)
2002        Aug 31, Five Kurdish migrants were found dead in the back of a cargo truck after they apparently suffocated during a harrowing ferry crossing from Greece to Italy.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, Kuwait will buy 16 attack helicopters from Boeing in a deal worth $886 million. Defense Minister Sheik Jaber Mubarak Al Hamad and U.S. Ambassador Richard Jones signed the deal.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, Malaysia said it has agreed to temporarily halt deportation of Filipino workers and their families amid public outrage over reports of their mistreatment.
    (Reuters, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, It was reported that Mexican police had arrested Juan Heriberto Carrillo Olivas, a Mexican citizen, headed a gang in El Paso, Texas, that used a fleet of tractor-trailers to transport cocaine to other U.S. cities.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, The justice minister of the Netherlands Antilles said Colombian assassins are behind a series of execution-style slayings in Curacao, which has seen drug seizures soar in recent years. There have been 28 killings since the beginning of the year.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, A Palestinian gunman opened fire in a Jewish settlement in the West Bank, seriously wounding two people before being shot dead.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, A Russian helicopter was downed by a missile in Chechnya, killing two.
    (AP, 8/31/02)
2002        Aug 31, In South Africa some 10,000 people marched from a township of tin shacks and open sewers to the glittering venue of a U.N. development summit to protest that world leaders are not doing enough to fight poverty.
    (AP, 8/31/02)

2003        Aug 31, In Gerlach, Nevada, the "Temple of Honor" by David Best went up in flames. Some 30,500 people attended the weeklong "Burning Man" event.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.A1)
2003        Aug 31, The burned body of Katie Sepich (22) was found at an old dump in Las Cruces, NM. She had been raped and strangled earlier that same day. In 2006 DNA evidence identified Gabriel Adrian Avila, already in prison for burglary and assault, as her killer.
    (SFC, 2/28/07, p.B5)(http://tinyurl.com/yvb63k)
2003        Aug 31, In Afghanistan 2 US soldiers were killed in Paktika province.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.A3)
2003        Aug 31, It was reported that Congo tribal fighters killed at least 200 people over the last month and abducted scores more during a series of attacks that destroyed, Fataki, a northeast town once controlled by a rival tribe.
    (AP, 8/31/03)
2003        Aug 31, Vowing revenge and beating their chests, more than 300,000 Shiites marched behind the rose-strewn coffin of a beloved cleric, Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim, who had been assassinated in a car bombing in Najaf, Iraq.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2003        Aug 31, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi said a second agreement over compensation has been reached between his country and the families of 170 victims of a French airliner that exploded in 1989.
    (AP, 9/1/03)
2003        Aug 31, At least 675,000 people in Malawi urgently need food aid despite the country's good harvest, the UN World Food Program reported.
    (AP, 8/31/03)
2003        Aug 31, In Taiwan a fire engulfed an apartment building on the outskirts of Taipei before dawn, killing at least 13 people and injuring dozens.
    (AP, 8/31/03)

2004        Aug 31, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Laura Bush spoke on the 2nd night of the Republican Convention in NYC as police arrested nearly 1,000 demonstrators.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, A report was filed with the SEC that said Conrad Black and associates systematically looted Hollinger Int’l. of more than $400 million from 1997-2003. In 2007 Black (62) was convicted in Illinois U.S. District Court. He was sentenced to serve 78 months in federal prison, pay Hollinger $6.1 million and a fine of $125,000. Black was guilty of diverting funds for personal benefit from money due Hollinger International when the company sold certain publishing assets and he obstructed justice by taking possession of documents to which he was not entitled. Black's three co-defendants, former Hollinger International vice presidents John Boultbee (64) of Vancouver and Peter Y. Atkinson (60) of Toronto and attorney Mark Kipnis (59) of Chicago were all found guilty of three counts of mail fraud.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.C3)(WSJ, 9/1/04, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Black)
2004        Aug 31, Apple introduced its 3rd generation iMac with the computer built into the monitor.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.C1)
2004        Aug 31, US astronomers reported finding 2 planets orbiting distant stars. One was near 55 Cancri, 41 light-years away; the other was near Gliese 436, 33 light-years away.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 31, Tropical Storm Gaston flooded Richmond and other parts of central Virginia with a foot or more of rain. Five people were killed.
    (AP, 8/31/04)(WSJ, 9/1/04, p.A1)
2004        Aug 31, In southern Guatemala landless farm workers resisted police attempts to remove them from a farm they had occupied and at least four police officers and three farmers died in the battle.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, A video purporting to show the methodical, grisly killings of 12 Nepalese construction workers kidnapped in Iraq was posted on a Web site linked to a militant group operating in Iraq.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, In northern Iraq Ibrahim Ismael, head of Kirkuk’s education department, was killed in a driveby shooting as he drove to work.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, In Beersheba, Israel, Palestinian suicide bombers exploded two buses almost simultaneously, killing at least 16 people and wounding more than 80.
    (AP, 8/31/04)(AP, 9/1/04)
2004        Aug 31, In Mexico suspects beat to death Francisco Arratia Saldierna (55), a newspaper columnist and dumped his body outside the offices of the Red Cross in the border city of Matamoros.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, A woman strapped with explosives blew herself up outside a busy Moscow subway station, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2004        Aug 31, The Sudanese government said rebels in Darfur had kidnapped 22 health workers in the strife-torn region, following the abduction of eight Sudanese nationals working for international aid groups.
    (AFP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, An official said Turkish troops had killed 11 Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey during the past three days.
    (AP, 8/31/04)
2004        Aug 31, The WTO ruled that the Byrd amendment of 2000 is a violation of its trade rules. The amendment authorized that money collected from anti-dumping tariffs be disbursed to US companies hit by unfairly, low-priced imports.
    (WSJ, 9/1/04, p.A3)

2005        Aug 31, The Bush administration said it will release oil from federal petroleum reserves to help refiners affected by Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin said there was a significant number of dead bodies in the water'' following Hurricane Katrina; Nagin ordered virtually the entire police force to abandon search-and-rescue efforts and instead stop thieves who were becoming increasingly hostile. President Bush pledged to do all in our power'' to save lives and provide sustenance but cautioned that recovery of the Gulf Coast would take years.
    (AP, 8/31/05)(AP, 8/31/06)
2005        Aug 31, At least 25,000 of Hurricane Katrina's refugees, a majority of them at the New Orleans Superdome, began traveling in a bus convoy to Houston and will be sheltered at the 40-year-old Astrodome, which hasn't been used for professional sporting events in years. New Orleans Mayor Nagin called for a total evacuation. He said hundreds were dead and ordered police to stop looters.
    (AP, 8/31/05)(SFC, 9/1/05, p.A1)
2005        Aug 31, Theodore Sarbin (b.1911), noted UC Berkeley psychology professor, died. In 1990 he co-wrote the report “Gays in Uniform: The Pentagon’s Secret Reports," which prompted Pres. Clinton’s policy of “don’t ask, don’t tell."
    (SFC, 9/3/05, p.B4)
2005        Aug 31, Militants kidnapped David Addison, a British engineer, and his interpreter after an attack in western Afghanistan that left at least three policemen dead. Addison’s body was found Sep 3.
    (AP, 9/1/05)(Reuters, 9/3/05)
2005        Aug 31, Joseph Rotblat (b.1908), Polish-born British physicist and Nobel Peace Prize winner (1995), died in London. In 1957 he helped found the Pugwash Conference on science and world affairs. His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution to the agreement of the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963). In 2012 Andrew Brown authored “Keeper of the Nuclear Conscience: The Life and Work of Joseph Rotblat."
    (SFC, 9/2/05, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Rotblat)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.94)
2005        Aug 31, The Chinese government signed an agreement with the UN human rights agency to collaborate on reforming China's legal system in preparation for adopting a key UN treaty on civil and political rights.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, A government newspaper reported that China is suspending production at 7,000 coal mines, nearly one-third of the nationwide total, in a safety crackdown on the accident-plagued industry.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Indonesia's President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said the government needs to cut fuel subsidies, in effect raising gasoline prices for the public, to lift the nation's beleaguered currency and stave off an economic crisis.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Indonesia released hundreds of Acehnese rebel prisoners, honoring a major concession in a recent peace deal and triggering tearful reunions as the former inmates returned to their tsunami-devastated homeland.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, In Iraq panic engulfed thousands of Shiites marching across a bridge in a religious procession after rumors spread that a suicide bomber was about to attack, triggering a stampede that killed over 960 people. Hundreds of thousands of Shiites had been marching across the bridge, which links Baghdad's Shiite Kazimiyah district with heavily Sunni Azamiyah. They were heading for the tomb of Imam Mousa al-Kadhim (d.799), an 8th century Shiite saint, about a mile from the span.
    (AP, 9/1/05)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4203784.stm)
2005        Aug 31, In Iraq a US soldier was shot to death in Iskandariya.
    (SFC, 9/3/05, p.A3)
2005        Aug 31, In the Ivory Coast a UN peacekeeper was killed in a knife attack in a northern rebel stronghold of the war-divided country.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, A new report said police last January in Papua New Guinea had collared a teen suspected of picking the pocket of a soldier and dispensed their own justice. The officers beat him, slammed his head into a truck and burned him.
    (AP, 9/1/05)
2005        Aug 31, In the Philippines a congressional committee voted to quash all impeachment complaints against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo with the opposition boycotting.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, In Russia Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the billionaire oil tycoon who was sentenced to nine years' imprisonment in a politically charged trial this year, said he will run for a seat in the national parliament.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Some 200 Somalis and Ethiopians left Somalia's semiautonomous Puntland region in two boats. Smugglers making the illegal crossing from Somalia to Yemen forced passengers into the Red Sea at gunpoint 10 miles from the Yemeni coastline, leaving at least 57 dead and about 100 missing.
    (AP, 9/5/05)
2005        Aug 31, A South African inventor unveiled a new anti-rape female condom that hooks onto an attacker's penis and aims to cut one of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world.
    (Reuters, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Conservationists in South Africa unveiled a $30 million plan to save the great apes of Africa, which are under threat of extinction from man and disease. The plan designated 12 sites in five countries for emergency programs: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, and Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, In Spain tens of thousands of people armed with 100 tons of plum tomatoes took part in the "Tomatina," joyously splattering each other in the town of Bunol.
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Orhan Pamuk, a Turkish novelist, was charged with insulting his country's national character and could face prison. In February Pamuk was quoted as saying in an interview with a Swiss newspaper magazine: "Thirty-thousand Kurds and one million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it."
    (AP, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Zimbabwe state television said the country has paid back 120 million dollars of its 300-million-dollar (245-million-euro) debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which had threatened to expel Harare for arrears.
    (AFP, 8/31/05)

2006        Aug 31, President George Bush, speaking in Salt Lake City, predicted victory in the war on terror, likening the struggle against Islamic fundamentalism with the fight against Nazis and communists.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2006        Aug 31, The United States carried out a subcritical nuclear experiment successfully at an underground test site in Nevada, the 2nd this year and the 23rd such test since 1997.
    (http://iraqwar.mirror-world.ru/article/100778)
2006        Aug 31, In California Tony J. Daniloo (32) of Turlock was indicted on 122 charges of fraud and money laundering for allegedly embezzling $7 million from homeowners in the East Bay and the Central Valley.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.B12)
2006        Aug 31, NASA awarded a multibillion contract to Lockheed Martin Corp. to send astronauts to the moon and maybe on to Mars. The projected Orion crew exploration vehicle program will cost an estimated $7.5 billion through 2019.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.A7)
2006        Aug 31, In southern Montana a wildfire burned 20 houses and 15 other buildings as it spread over some 156,000 acres.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.A3)
2006        Aug 31, In New York 2 state troopers were shot while staking out the property of a former girlfriend of escaped convict Ralph Phillips. Trooper Joseph Longobardo (32) died from his wounds on Sep 3. Phillips, a 44-year-old career thief who has spent 20 of the past 23 years in state prison, surrendered Sep 8 without firing a shot.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.A3)(AP, 9/9/06)
2006        Aug 31, J.S. Holliday (b.1924), California historian, died. His book included “The World Rushed In" (1981), a history of the California gold rush.
    (SFC, 9/2/06, p.B1)
2006        Aug 31, In Afghanistan Taliban militants attacked Naw Zad in Helmand province, sparking intense fighting with government troops that left two insurgents dead. In Zabul province a suicide attacker plowed his explosives-filled car into a police convoy traveling on the main road, wounding three officers. A Dutch F-16 fighter jet crashed in the Ghazni province in central Afghanistan, killing the pilot.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, In Argentina tens of thousands gathered in the central square of Buenos Aires for one of the biggest anti-crime rallies ever seen there. It was organized by Juan Carlos Blumberg, a businessman and leader of the law-and-order movement.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, p.39)
2006        Aug 31, A minister said Bangladesh has bowed to demands from protestors and cancelled a 734 million pound (1.4-billion dollar) plan by British firm Asia Energy to build an open-pit coal mine.
    (AFP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Heng Pov, former Phnom Penh police chief, was arrested at a hotel in Singapore when a clerk brought food for him. A Cambodian court warrant had been recently issued against him accusing him of involvement in a number of crimes such as the killing of Phnom Penh judge Sok Sethamony, assassination attempts on general Sao Sokha and judge Uk Savuth, as well as a number of other criminal cases. Pov claimed that he was being framed for refusing orders to kill Hok Lundy, the internal security chief.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gtumm)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.46)
2006        Aug 31, A Chinese court sentenced Ching Cheong, a Hong Kong reporter, to five years in prison on spying charges in a case that prompted outcries by press freedom groups. In Hunan Province a mine gas explosion killed at least nine people.
    (AP, 8/31/06)(Reuters, 9/3/06)
2006        Aug 31, Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., visited a sprawling tent camp in eastern Ethiopia for people displaced by devastating floods earlier this month, saying the US military will continue to help the region.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Sexus Politicus, by co-authors Christophe Dubois and Christophe Deloire, was published in France. It revealed decades of philandering, adultery and seduction at the heart of the French state, with politicians of all colors apparently sharing the same passion for extra-marital sex.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Guyana’s elections commission said President Bharrat Jagdeo won re-election and his ruling People's Progressive Party increased its majority in Guyana's parliament. The PPP received 183,887 votes, or about 55%, and increased its seats in parliament by two to 36.
    (AP, 9/1/06)
2006        Aug 31, In eastern India at least 30 people drowned when a crowded boat capsized in the rain-swollen Ganges River in the state of Bihar.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Indian officials said more than 11,000 Tamil refugees have fled to India since January to escape renewed fighting between the Sri Lankan army and separatist rebels and more are likely to come.
    (AFP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Iran defied a UN deadline to stop enriching uranium.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2006        Aug 31, PM Nouri al-Maliki said Iraqi security forces will take over Dhi Qar province in September, and will take over the control of more provinces during the rest of the year. A suicide car bomb targeting a line of cars waiting at a Baghdad gas station killed two people and wounded 13. A barrage of coordinated attacks across eastern Baghdad neighborhoods killed at least 64 people and wounded 286 within half an hour. The dead included at least 13 women and a dozen children. A total of 85 people were killed across the country.
    (AP, 8/31/06)(AP, 9/1/06)(SFC, 9/1/06, p.A3)
2006        Aug 31, The Israeli army said that it has transferred control over a portion of the Israel-Lebanon border to Lebanese and international troops for the first time in two decades.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Israeli soldiers searching for tunnels and explosives withdrew from the outskirts of Gaza City, ending a five-day operation that Palestinians said left 20 people dead and heavily damaged houses, streets and farmlands. Palestinian militants fired five homemade rockets into Israel, defying the calls by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to halt the attacks.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, Kenya stepped up criticism of US Senator Barack Obama, accusing him of insulting the Kenyan people and trivializing their achievements during a visit to his father's homeland. Obama had rebuked Kibaki's government for failing to address corruption and said Kenya's democratic progress "is in jeopardy... being threatened by corruption."
    (AP, 9/1/06)
2006        Aug 31, Hurricane John pummeled Mexico's resort-studded Pacific Coast with wind and rain.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, The UN Security Council passed a resolution that would give the United Nations authority over peacekeepers in Darfur as soon as Sudan's government gives its consent, which it has so far refused to do.
    (AP, 8/31/06)
2006        Aug 31, An internal investigation concluded that a UN official steered millions of dollars in contracts to a company owned by the government of his native India in exchange for favors that included low-rent apartments.
    (AP, 9/1/06)
2006        Aug 31, In southern Thailand nearly two dozen bombs exploded almost simultaneously inside commercial banks, killing two people in a region bloodied by a Muslim insurgency.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

2007        Aug 31, President Bush met privately at the Pentagon with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who conveyed their concern about a growing strain on troops and their families from long and repeated combat tours in Iraq. Bush also announced a set of modest proposals to deal with an alarming rise in mortgage defaults.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2007        Aug 31, Mike Nifong, the disgraced former district attorney of Durham County, N.C., was sentenced to a day in jail after being held in criminal contempt of court for lying to a judge when pursuing rape charges against three falsely accused Duke University lacrosse players.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2007        Aug 31, A federal appeals court allowed the US Navy to resume underwater sonar blasts in anti-submarine warfare tests off of Southern California, saying military needs come before whales. A federal judge ruled that giant pumps in northern California supplying water to southern California were killing smelt and would have to be shut down for much of the year.
    (SFC, 9/1/07, p.B3)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.36)
2007        Aug 31, In Iowa Polk County Judge Robert Hanson cleared the way gay marriage when he ruled that a state law allowing marriage only between a man and woman violated the constitutional rights of due process and equal protection. County attorney John Sarcone said the county would appeal to the state Supreme Court, and he immediately sought a stay that would prevent gay couples from seeking a marriage license until the appeal is resolved.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, The 34th annual Telluride Film Festival opened in Colorado.
    (SFC, 9/3/07, p.E1)
2007        Aug 31, The World Trade Organization opened a formal investigation into allegations by the US and Mexico that China is providing illegal subsidies for a range of industries.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, In eastern Afghanistan a barrage of rockets missed a US-led coalition base but hit houses in the nearby village of Babul, killing 10 civilians and wounding seven. Outside the gates of the Kabul airport, a suicide car bomber targeting a patrol of German soldiers killed two Afghan soldiers and wounded 10 others. A senior Afghan official close to the negotiations alleged the South Koreans paid a ransom for their released hostages. In southern Helmand province, a combined police and US-led coalition patrol came under attack with mortar, rocket-propelled grenade and small-arms fire. In the fight that ensued, "almost two dozen" insurgents were killed. More than 20 insurgents were killed and 11 others were detained, while officers also discovered a bomb-making factory in the remote Pitigal Valley border region. Afghan police attacked a group of Taliban who were planning to strike security forces in the central Afghan province of Ghazni, killing 18 and arresting six others.
    (AP, 8/31/07)(AP, 9/1/07)
2007        Aug 31, Australia and India agreed to study the possibility of a free trade agreement. Trade Minister Warren Truss said it was a natural result of New Delhi's rising economic power.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, In Vienna, Austria, negotiators from 158 countries reached basic agreement, at a UN conference on climate, on rough targets aimed at getting some of the world's biggest polluters to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases blamed for global warming.
    (AP, 8/31/07)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.A1)
2007        Aug 31, China officially put in place systems to recall unsafe food and toys, one of its strongest steps yet to deal with recurring quality problems. At least 12 miners were missing after an explosion in central China. Authorities continued their efforts to reach 181 workers trapped in flooded coal shafts for two weeks.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Colombia's Alvaro Uribe and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agreed to allow a representative of Colombia's largest guerrilla group to travel to Caracas for talks aimed at freeing dozens of rebel-held hostages, including three U.S. defense contractors.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, In Finland representatives of feuding Sunni and Shiite groups in Iraq began a 2-day meeting at a seminar behind closed doors to discuss ways of ending the bloodshed.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Officials in Greece said all major blazes were under control, and firefighters were working to extinguish smaller fires in the southern part of the country. The fires cost the country at least $1.6 billion and left 67 people dead. The government provided 13,000 euros to those suffering losses.
    (AP, 8/31/07)(AP, 9/8/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.47)
2007        Aug 31, As of today at least 3,737 members of the US military have died since the beginning of the Iraq war in March 2003. The figure includes seven military civilians. At least 3,061 died as a result of hostile action. Iraqi health officials said up to 10 people have died from cholera in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 9/1/07)(SFC, 9/1/07, p.A6)
2007        Aug 31, Israeli divers found the bodies of two sailors missing in the Mediterranean Sea, 12 hours after their cargo ship sank in a collision with a passenger liner.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Leading Japanese mobile phone carrier NTT DoCoMo Inc. said it will tie up with broadband provider ACCA Networks to introduce ultra-fast mobile WiMAX technology.
    (AFP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Lebanese army helicopters stepped up raids on al-Qaida-inspired Islamic militants barricaded in a Palestinian refugee camp in the country's north after five soldiers were killed over the last 2 days.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, In southern Nepal tainted liquor killed at least 15 people and sickened several others on the outskirts of Janakpur over the last 2 days.
    (AP, 9/1/07)
2007        Aug 31, In Gaza a protest of Hamas rule by Fatah supporters turned violent when Hamas men began forcefully dispersing the crowd, firing in the air and beating demonstrators and reporters. Five people were wounded in the clashes, including two French journalists.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, A car bomb exploded near a police vehicle in Russia's troubled North Caucasus region, killing four police officers in Nazran, Ingushetia.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Russia will accept a partition of Serbia's Kosovo province if that is the solution agreed by Belgrade and Kosovo's ethnic Albanian majority. Both Serbia and the Kosovo Albanians have said they oppose partition but they have shown no sign of reaching agreement on the central issue of independence for Kosovo.
    (Reuters, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, In northwest Sri Lanka government forces and Tamil Tiger rebels traded artillery fire, with each side claiming heavy casualties against the other as well as among civilians.
    (AP, 9/1/07)
2007        Aug 31, The Thai government said it has lifted a four-month ban on YouTube after the popular video-sharing Web site's operator agreed not to allow videos that violate the country's laws or are deemed offensive to Thai people. 3 people including a state railway worker were shot dead in separate attacks in the restive Muslim-majority south.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, Turkey's PM Erdogan laid out a policy vision for the next five years that focuses on pursuing EU membership and defending the state's secular and democratic principles.
    (AP, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, State media said Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe has banned all pay rises without authorization and given himself extra powers in a new bid to curb the world's highest inflation rate.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2008        Aug 31, John McCain, GOP presidential nominee, directed party officials to drastically scale back plans for their convention, set to begin Sep 1 in St. Paul, Minn., and refocus efforts on helping potential victims of Hurricane Gustav.
    (SFC, 9/1/08, p.A1)
2008        Aug 31, Estimates from distributor Warner Brothers said "The Dark Knight" had become the second movie in Hollywood history to top $500 million at the domestic box office, raising its total to $502.4 million. "Titanic," the biggest modern blockbuster, remained No. 1 on the domestic charts with $600.8 million.
    (AP, 9/1/08)
2008        Aug 31, SF closed vehicle traffic to 4.5 miles of its waterfront streets for the city’s first Sunday Streets day encouraging thousands to come out for the 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. event.
    (SFC, 9/1/08, p.A1)
2008        Aug 31, Cubans returned from shelters to find flooded homes and washed-out roads, but no deaths were reported after a monstrous Hurricane Gustav roared across the island and into the oil-rich Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Allianz, a Germany-based insurer, sold Dresdner, a German bank, to Commerzbank for $14.2 billion.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.88)
2008        Aug 31, Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon promised to adopt several proposals from civic groups who led more than 100,000 Mexicans in marches against daily kidnappings and killings.
    (AP, 9/1/08)
2008        Aug 31, Pakistan said it will suspend its military operations against insurgents in a tribal region along the Afghan border in honor of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Pakistani Taliban said they will continue attacks during Ramadan. A missile fired from an unmanned aircraft hit a house in the North Waziristan tribal area, killing six people including a woman and a young girl.
    (AP, 8/31/08)(Reuters, 8/31/08)(AFP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas rejected Israel's idea of an interim peace agreement at a summit, insisting on an all-or-nothing approach that virtually ruled out an accord by a January target date.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Paraguay’s Pres. Fernando Lugo said Paraguay will reverse its historic support for Taiwan (since 1957) at the upcoming UN General Assembly, and also is reconsidering its relations with communist regimes. In return for Paraguay's 51 years of support, Taiwan has sent millions of dollars to the impoverished country for low-income housing, agricultural development and scholarships.
    (AP, 9/1/08)
2008        Aug 31, President Dmitry Medvedev says Russia will follow the recognition of Georgia's breakaway provinces with agreements on economic and military aid.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Police arrested Magomed Yevloyev, the owner of the Ingushetiya.ru web site, taking him off a plane that had just landed in Ingushetia province. Police whisked Yevloyev away in a car and later dumped him on the road with a gunshot wound in the head. Yevloyev died in a hospital shortly afterward.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, In South Africa strong winds fanned runaway fires across the country killing at least 16 people, including two children.
    (AFP, 9/1/08)
2008        Aug 31, Sri Lanka’s defense ministry said troops killed 12 rebels in the north, while three soldiers also died in combat.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Thailand's Parliament convened an emergency session at the request of the country's prime minister, who acknowledged that his administration cannot control spiraling anti-government protests.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Venezuela rejected US requests to resume cooperation in the war on drugs, saying it has made progress despite an alleged fourfold gain in the amount of Colombian cocaine now passing through its territory.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Zimbabwe's rival parties returned home from talks in South Africa with no sign of a power-sharing deal to resolve the country's bitter political crisis.
    (AFP, 8/31/08)

2009        Aug 31, In southern California fashion designer Anand Jon Alexander was sentenced to 59 years to life in prison for sexually assaulting aspiring models he lured to Los Angeles.
    (AP, 9/1/09)
2009        Aug 31, In southern California a massive fire in the Angeles National Forest nearly doubled in size overnight, threatening 12,000 homes in a 20-mile-long swath of flame and smoke and surging toward a mountaintop broadcasting complex. 2 firefighters died a day earlier when their vehicle rolled down a mountainside amid the flames.
    (AP, 8/31/09)(SFC, 8/31/09, p.A4)
2009        Aug 31, Florida’s Gov. Crist signed a 20-year gambling pact with the Seminole Indian tribe, which agreed to pay Florida $12.5 million a month for 30 months for running, currently illegal, slot machines and blackjack games.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.40)
2009        Aug 31, Deere & Co., the world's largest agricultural-equipment maker, said its board of directors has approved a plan to establish a new manufacturing and parts center in Russia.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, The Walt Disney Co. said it is buying Marvel Entertainment Inc. for $4 billion in cash and stock, bringing such characters as Iron Man and Spider-Man into the family of Mickey Mouse and WALL-E.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, In Afghanistan 2 bombings killed two US service members, the last day of the deadliest month of the war for US forces.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, In China a demonstration occurred when angry villagers from Fujian province's Fengwei town confronted 2,000 riot police over a wastewater treatment plant that had fouled local air and water. At least 10 people were injured when the demonstrations turned violent and riot police fired warning shots.
    (AP, 9/1/09)
2009        Aug 31, Egyptian police found the entrances to four tunnels and two tons of explosives hidden near the border with Gaza. A day earlier they had thwarted an attempt to smuggle 500 kg (1,100 lb) of explosives into Gaza.
    (AP, 9/1/09)
2009        Aug 31, The European Commission said an EU-wide transition of power-draining light bulbs to more energy efficient ones will start Aug 1. The new rules follow an agreement reached by the 27 EU governments last year to phase out the traditional incandescent light bulb over three years starting this year to help European countries lower greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, A Georgian court sentenced a Turkish cargo ship captain to 24 years in prison for smuggling and border violations.
    (AP, 9/3/09)
2009        Aug 31, A Guatemalan court convicted and sentenced a former paramilitary to 150 years in prison for the forced disappearance of six people who were abducted and presumably killed during the country's civil war. The sentence against Felipe Cusanero represents 25 years for each victim who disappeared between 1982 and 1984 from the village of Choatalum.
    (AP, 9/2/09)
2009        Aug 31, Muhsin Mohammed Muhsin (11) was kidnapped around noon on his way home from a neighbor's funeral in Baghdad's eastern Shiite district of Sadr City. Kidnappers demanded $100,000, but the father of six said he only had $10,000. 3 days later police found the boy dumped in the garbage with his head and hands chopped off. His body showed burns and marks of torture.
    (AP, 9/22/09)
2009        Aug 31, African leaders gathered in Libya for a special summit to discuss the continent's trouble spots, on the eve of celebrations to mark 40 years of Moamer Kadhafi's rule.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, Mexican authorities said they have arrested four men accused of killing at least 211 people for the Juarez cartel. The men allegedly belong to La Linea, a gang of hit men for the Juarez cartel. One of the men alone was accused of killing 97 people and another 87.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, Thousands of Myanmar refugees headed home from China as fighting between government troops and a rebel militia that left more than 30 people dead appeared to be over.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, Nepal's PM Madhav Kumar Nepal opened the first climate change conference of Himalayan nations with a warning about the dangers of melting glaciers, floods and violent storms for the region.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, The Nigerian anti-graft agency filed charges against 16 bank chiefs arrested for incurring billions of dollars in bad loans for five ailing banks.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, The Pakistani army said it killed at least 45 Taliban militants over the last 24 hours in scattered gunbattles across the northwestern Swat Valley.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, In Sri Lanka reporter J.S. Tissainayagam, singled out by President Barack Obama as an example of persecuted journalists around the globe, was sentenced to 20 years in prison on charges of violating the country's harsh anti-terror law. He was arrested in March, 2008, and indicted five months later under the anti-terror law.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, Turkmenistan President Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov said a base will be built at the Caspian Sea port city of Turkmenbashi to help "effectively fight smugglers, terrorists and any other forces." Turkmenistan is locked in a dispute with Azerbaijan, on the opposite shore, over several oil and gas fields.
    (AP, 8/31/09)

2010        Aug 31, President Barack Obama marked the symbolic end of US combat operations in Iraq. Vice President Joe Biden presided over the formal end to US combat operations in Iraq. Biden made a new appeal to Iraqi leaders, including PM Nouri al-Maliki, to end the political deadlock and seat a new government. Since the US invasion in March, 2003, almost 5,000 American and allied soldiers lost their lives as well as some 150,000 Iraqis. Over 2 million Iraqis fled the country.
    (AFP, 8/31/10)(AP, 8/31/10)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.37)
2010        Aug 31, Police in Richmond, Ca., shot and killed Efren Valdemoro (38) following a high speed chase across the East Bay. At least 4 people were killed since Aug 25 in a tangle of violence centering on Valdemoro. A 5th person, Frederick Sales (35), was missing. On Sep 9 police found Frederick’s body at 1066 Crepe Myrtle Drive in Hercules, the site where Ricardo Sales (73), the father of Frederick Sales, was found on Aug 28.
    (SFC, 9/2/10, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/10, p.C3)(SSFC, 9/12/10, p.A16)
2010        Aug 31, In Arkansas a medical helicopter crashed in Van Burn County killing 3 crew members trying to reach a person injured in a traffic accident.
    (SFC, 9/1/10, p.A7)
2010        Aug 31, In Afghanistan 6 US soldiers were killed, including 4 in an IED attack.
    (AFP, 8/31/10)(AP, 9/1/10)
2010        Aug 31, British aid group Oxfam said it had suspended operations in a northern Afghan region after two employees and a local volunteer were killed there on Aug 28.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)(AP, 9/1/10)
2010        Aug 31, Indonesian police killed five villagers as dozens of people ransacked a station in central Buol district to protest a person's death in custody. The protest followed a motorist's death in police custody on Aug 30. It was unclear why he was detained, but the protesters suspected he was tortured by police.
    (AP, 9/1/10)
2010        Aug 31, Libya freed 37 prisoners, including at least one former detainee at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, who had been jailed for links to radical Islamist groups but have since renounced violence.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)
2010        Aug 31, In Mexico 6 women and two men died in a fire at a bar frequented by locals in the resort of Cancun. Bar employees told police that unidentified men tossed gasoline bombs at the establishment. Police soon arrested six suspects, who said a drug gang hired them to throw gasoline bombs at the bar, presumably in an attempt at extortion.
    (AP, 8/31/10)(AP, 9/3/10)
2010        Aug 31, Pakistani government airstrikes killed eight suspected insurgents in the Khyber tribal region bordering Afghanistan. Two intelligence officials confirmed the airstrikes but said 30 insurgents were killed.
    (AP, 8/31/10)(AP, 9/1/10)
2010        Aug 31, A West Bank gunman opened fire on a passing vehicle in Hebron, killing all four Israeli passengers inside, two men and two women from settlements in the area. The dead included a married couple with five children.
    (AP, 9/1/10)
2010        Aug 31, Russian police detained Kremlin critic Boris Nemtsov and several other people at a protest in Moscow in defense of the right to free assembly, which activists say is restricted by the Russian government.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)
2010        Aug 31, South Africa’s public service ministry said it was increasing its salary hike offer from 7 to 7.5 percent and housing allowance from 700 rand ($96) to 800 rand ($110). Workers were demanding an 8.6 percent raise and 1,000 rand ($137) for housing.
    (AP, 8/31/10)
2010        Aug 31, Spanish police said that for the first time they have broken up a human trafficking gang that brought men to the country to work as prostitutes, providing them with Viagra, cocaine and other stimulant drugs to be available for sex with other men 24 hours a day. Authorities arrested 14 people, mainly Brazilians, on suspicion of running the organization and another 17 alleged prostitutes for being in Spain illegally.
    (AP, 8/31/10)
2010        Aug 31, The army of Southern Sudan has been looting food convoys and carrying out other attacks on aid groups, officials of those groups alleged, and a top military officer warned that the humanitarian groups could be expelled if the complaints get too "harsh." South Sudan health officials said floods have forced nearly 60,000 people from their homes, warning that the situation could worsen.
    (AP, 8/31/10)(AFP, 8/31/10)

2011        Aug 31, Nebraska governor Dave Heineman urged Pres. Obama's administration to deny a key permit for TransCanada's Keystone XL crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada to the Gulf Coast of Texas on the grounds that the line could put the Ogallala Aquifer at risk.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, The US Justice Dept. sued to block AT&T’s proposed $39 billion takeover of T-Mobile, saying the deal would lessen competition in the wireless market.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.D1)
2011        Aug 31, In Fremont, Ca., solar-cell maker Solyndra announced that it will close its remaining plant, layoff 1,100 employees and file for bankruptcy. Solyndra received $535 million in 2009 to build its 2nd factory in Fremont.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.A1)
2011        Aug 31, In North Miami Beach, Florida, a man carrying what was later determined to be a toy rifle was shot and killed by police.
    (AP, 9/1/11)
2011        Aug 31, Federal investigators in Detroit said a Michigan man and others stole rental vehicles and sold them to Iraq after spiriting them across the US-Canada border. Adnan Hana was arrested this week along with 12 others capping an almost 2-year investigation.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.A8)
2011        Aug 31, Vermont emergency airlift operations brought ready-to-eat meals and water to residents left isolated from Hurricane Irene. The storm was blamed for at least 45 deaths in the continental US, one in Puerto Rico and 7 more in the Dominican Rep. and Haiti.
    (AP, 8/31/11)(SFC, 9/1/11, p.A10)
2011        Aug 31, Australia's High Court dealt a heavy blow to the government by blocking its plans to send asylum-seekers to Malaysia, ruling they could not go to a nation lacking legal safeguards.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, In Bahrain hundreds of demonstrators made their boldest attempt in months to reclaim control of a central square in the capital Manama, which was the symbolic hub of the protest movement after it began in February. Riot police used buses to block roads and flooded streets with tear gas to drive back the marchers before dawn. Ali Jawad Ahmad (14), died after being hit by a tear gas canister fired at close range by police.
    (AP, 9/1/11)(AP, 9/2/11)
2011        Aug 31, Britain's biggest retailer Tesco announced that it is pulling out of Japan after eight years and putting its 129 small supermarkets on sale to focus on other operations in Asia.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Guinea-Bissau Pres. Malam Bacai Sanha was (64) evacuated to neighboring Senegal for medical care.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)
2011        Aug 31, In Iraq car bomb parked outside a shopping area in southwestern Baghdad killed 5 people and wounded 22.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Libyans delighted at Muammar Gaddafi's downfall celebrated the end of Ramadan feast, even though the ousted leader remains on the run and forces loyal to him defied an ultimatum set by Libya's interim council.
    (Reuters, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, In western Myanmar 7 people, including 2 children, were killed when a World War II bomb they found in a river exploded in Rakhine state.
    (AP, 9/1/11)
2011        Aug 31, Mexican police arrested Jean Baptiste Kingery (40) of the US for smuggling American grenade parts into Mexico for use by the Sinaloa cartel. Kingery had been detained in Arizona in June 2010 and then released, purportedly because officials wanted to use him as an informant or in a sting operation.
    (AP, 9/6/11)(WSJ, 9/6/11)
2011        Aug 31, The New Zealand Press Association, the country's national news agency, closed its doors after 131 years, the latest victim of media consolidation in the digital age.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, The Nigerian Red Cross said flash flooding in the country's southwest this week has killed at least 102 people.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, In southwestern Pakistan a suspected suicide car bomb attack killed at least 11 people in Quetta, as the country celebrated the Muslim festival of Eid al-Fitr.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Three Pakistani soldiers were killed and one Indian trooper was hurt in an exchange of fire by the rival militaries across their sensitive border in divided Kashmir.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, In Puerto Rico former Arecibo police officer David Gonzalez Perez was found guilty of providing security to drug dealers.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Russian bailiffs raided the offices of BP in Moscow to uncover documents over its failed deal with Rosneft. The search came less than a day after Rosneft and ExxonMobil agreed to a stunning Arctic exploration deal overseen by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, In Spain tens of thousands of people pelted each other with 120 tons of ripe tomatoes in an annual battle that left the eastern town of Bunol awash in red pulp. The event has its roots in a food fight between childhood friends back in 1945.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Syrian troops backed by tanks raided houses looking for activists in two main districts of the city of Hama. Troops shot dead one villager, Hazem al-Shihadi, at a checkpoint overnight near the northwestern border town of Kfaruma. Dozens of people were arrested at Qadam and Qabun in the Damascus region, and at Zabadani. Other arrests occurred at Jizeh in the southern region of Daraa, at Hama and at Al-Jura and Quriyya. Hama province attorney general Adnan Bakkour appeared on video declaring his resignation to protest President Bashar Assad's crackdown, saying security forces killed hundreds of people in the restive city of Hama and arrested thousands of "peaceful protesters." Bakkour said security forces killed 72 prisoners on July 31 and another 420 people during a military siege on Hama, the main city in the province of the same name, in August.
    (AP, 8/31/11)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AP, 9/1/11)

2012        Aug 31, The US Fish and Wildlife announced the end of protections for wolves in most of Wyoming. Protections remained in some areas such as Yellowstone National Park.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A4)
2012        Aug 31, In New Jersey ex-Marine Terence Tyler (23) opened fire with a hand gun and an assault rifle at a supermarket in Old Bridge Township and killed 2 co-workers before killing himself.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A1)
2012        Aug 31, The Ohio state Dept. of Health said a woman’s death this week was related to H3N2v, a new strain of swine flu. 12 new cases were reported in the US during the week.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A4)
2012        Aug 31, Afghan officials said that a 16-year-old boy accused by the Taliban of spying for the government was beheaded and skinned in late July.
    (Reuters, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Angola held its 2nd general election in 20 years. The ruling party was expected to easily hang onto power despite accusations it is corrupt and has mismanaged the country’s oil and diamond riches. President Jose Eduardo dos Santos' ruling party won 72 percent of the national vote assuring his government, in power for 32 years, another five years in power. The electoral commission later said 40 percent of voters abstained.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AP, 9/3/12)(AP, 9/4/12)
2012        Aug 31, Argentina tightened its grip on credit card purchases in an effort to stem capital flight and tax evasion. One measure added a 15 percent tax every time people make a purchase outside Argentina using a peso-denominated credit card. Another required card-issuers to report every purchase to the government.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Armenia broke off diplomatic ties with Hungary after an Azerbaijani military officer sentenced to life in prison here for killing an Armenian officer was sent back to his homeland and, despite assurances, immediately pardoned and freed. Lt. Ramil Safarov (35) was given a life sentence in 2006 by the Budapest City Court after he confessed to killing Lt. Gurgen Markarian of Armenia while both were in Hungary for a 2004 NATO language course.
    (AP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, In London self-exiled tycoon Boris Berezovsky (64) lost his multibillion-dollar legal battle against fellow Russian mogul Roman Abramovich (45) after a British judge ruled that he didn't tell the truth in the clash over vast oil wealth.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Cameroon’s state-run broadcasting reported that at least 14 people are confirmed dead and over 22,000 other affected by flood waters in the Far-North and North Regions. Prolonged rainfall combined with the release of water by the Lagdo hydroelectricity dam caused the Benoue River to burst its banks into nearby residential areas.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Chinese dissident Wang Xiaoning (62), convicted based on evidence provided by US Internet giant Yahoo!, was released from prison after serving a 10-year term for subversion.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Egyptian police found the decapitated head in Sinai of Manazil Bereikat, kidnapped by Islamist militants, reportedly for his role in assassinating an extremist. He was from the same tribe of Ibrahim Ouda Bereikat, an extremist killed in a mysterious explosion near the Israeli border on August 26.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Germany Lufthansa flight attendants walked off the job for eight hours at Frankfurt airport, causing the cancellation of more than 220 flights. Their union warned of more stoppages unless the airline gives in to its demands.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Germany Grunenthal chief executive Harald Stock  said in a speech that his company, the maker of thalidomide, was "very sorry" for its silence towards the victims of the drug, which was sold to pregnant women as a cure for morning sickness in the 1950s and early 1960s. An estimated 10,000 children worldwide were born with defects -- including missing limbs. It was pulled from the market in 1961.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Guinea a flat-bottomed boat used by fishermen and for transport, capsized a few minutes after setting off for Kassa Island, several km (miles) from the capital Conakry. About 30 people were believed drowned after the overloaded boat sank. 27 survived.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, Indian gangster-politician Arun Gawli, who rose from the working classes to be called "daddy" by his adoring followers, was sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering a local rival in 2008. A court earlier this week found Gawli and 10 others guilty of killing right-wing Hindu politician Kamlakar Jamsandekar four years ago in India's financial capital.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Indonesian fishermen rescued 43 starving, dehydrated Sri Lankans who had been adrift in a boat for nine days after their engine broke down while trying to reach Australia to seek asylum.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Indonesia 2 suspected militants were killed in a shootout with police in central Java’s Solo town. The shooting also left one officer dead. Police were attempting to capture a group responsible for the death of a policeman a day earlier.
    (SSFC, 9/2/12, p.A7)
2012        Aug 31, Iran’s sole reactor at the country's Bushehr nuclear power plant reached full capacity.
    (AP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, An Iranian opposition organization said that a final convoy of 680 of its members will leave Camp Ashraf on September 12 for the new Hurriya transit center near Baghdad.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Iraq gunmen shot dead four Shiite worshippers in three separate attacks in Baghdad.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In northern Mali a man accused of rape in received 100 lashes, as the Islamists controlling the city continue to mete out punishments under Shariah law. He was identified as a Burkina Faso citizen named Boubacar El-Bourkinabiyoune.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Mexico’s highest electoral court declared Enrique Pena president. Leftist presidential candidate Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said that he is refusing to recognize the results of the presidential election.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(SFC, 9/1/12, p.A2)
2012        Aug 31, Mexico extradited Eduardo Arellano Felix (55), the top advisor to his brother’s Tijuana-based drug cartel, to the US.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A9)
2012        Aug 31, Mozambican police killed Orquilio Nhassengo, the suspected kingpin of a kidnapping ring that has targeted wealthy Muslims in Maputo, during a raid in which six were also arrested.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)
2012        Aug 31, Niger emergency officials said that 52 people have died after heavy rains caused rivers to overflow and buildings to crumble.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In northern Nigeria 2 speeding buses collided head-on and burst into flames killing at least 29 people and injuring 16 others in Yobe state.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In northwestern Pakistan a car bomb exploded in a market, killing at least 11 people in Mattani bazaar near the city of Peshawar.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, A 7.6-magnitude quake struck off the eastern coast of the Philippines, killing at least one person in a house collapse, knocking out power in several towns and generating negligible tsunami surges.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Rwanda announced it was pulling out 280 of its soldiers from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where they had been working with DR Congo troops fighting rebel militia there.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Spain’s FROB, a bank rescue fund set up to help the deeply troubled financial sector, said it will immediately inject financial aid into Bankia after the troubled lender announced losses of €4.4 billion ($5.6 billion) in the first half of the year.
    (AP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, Syrian rebels said they have begun a major operation in the Aleppo region. According to the Observatory there were 125 people killed in violence nationwide including 74 civilians, 29 soldiers and 22 rebels.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AFP, 9/1/12)
2012        Aug 31, Syrian troops fired at least 25 shells overnight striking a Lebanese Christian village on the northern border, wounding one person and causing damage.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In Thailand militants in the Muslim-majority south carried out a wave of coordinated attacks, wounding several soldiers and hoisting the Malaysian flag across the restive region.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)
2012        Aug 31, In eastern Yemen a suspected US drone airstrike hit a vehicle carrying suspected militants traveling in Hadramawt, killing eight in the third such strike this week. Khaled Batis, wanted in connection with the attack on the Limburg off the coast of Yemen that killed one person, was among five militants riding a vehicle struck by a drone.
    (AP, 8/31/12)(AFP, 9/2/12)

2013        Aug 31, President Barack Obama said that he would seek Congress approval for a military strike on Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/1/13)
2013        Aug 31, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber detonated his explosives near a police checkpoint and a bank in Kandahar leaving 6 people dead. A NATO service member was killed by insurgents in the country's east. A roadside bomb killed 8 Afghan employees of a private mining company in Parwan province.
    (AP, 8/31/13)(AP, 9/1/13)(SSFC, 9/1/13, p.A7)
2013        Aug 31, Veteran British journalist and broadcaster David Frost (74), who won fame around the world for his TV interviews with former President Richard Nixon, died aboard the Queen Elizabeth cruise ship, where he was due to give a speech.
    (AP, 9/1/13)
2013        Aug 31, In China an ammonia leak from a cold storage unit at a food company in Shanghai killed 15 people and sickened dozens.
    (AFP, 8/31/13)
2013        Aug 31, In China a 5.8 magnitude earthquake hit a remote part of Yunnan province near the popular tourist area of Shangri-La, killing 5 people and injuring 24 more.
    (AFP, 8/31/13)
2013        Aug 31, An Indian teenager was sentenced to three years in juvenile detention for the December gang rape of a trainee physiotherapist, the first verdict in a case that sparked debate over whether India is too soft on young offenders. The woman died in a Singapore hospital two weeks after the December 16 attack.
    (Reuters, 8/31/13)
2013        Aug 31, In Iraq hundreds of protesters took to the streets of Baghdad as well as central and southern Iraq against generous pension payments to lawmakers as many still struggled to get jobs and basic services. A bombing and shootings in and west of Baghdad killed 13 people. A car bomb killed 12 people and wounded at least 20 other in Ramadi.
    (Reuters, 8/31/13)(AP, 8/31/13)(SSFC, 9/1/13, p.A5)
2013        Aug 31, In northwest Pakistan a US drone killed at least 4 militants in a missile strike targeting a compound in North Waziristan.
    (AFP, 8/31/13)
2013        Aug 31, Somalia’s capital, Mogadishu, hosted TEDx talks. Academics, activists artists and entrepreneurs gathered to challenge the negative images of the infamously dangerous and war-ravaged city.
    (AFP, 8/31/13)

2014        Aug 31, In Colorado a Piper PA-46 airplane crashed near an airport north of Denver killing all 5 people onboard.
    (AP, 9/1/14)
2014        Aug 31, In western Afghanistan a van slammed into a fuel tanker, killing 23 people in Herat province.
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, PM Tony Abbott said Australia will drop military equipment and aid to Kurdish forces fighting Islamic State militants in northern Iraq in response to a request from the United States.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, China's legislature ruled out allowing open nominations in inaugural elections for Hong Kong's leader, saying they would create a "chaotic society." Democracy activists in the Asian financial hub responded by saying that a long-threatened mass occupation of the heart of the city "will definitely happen."
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, In France a four-story building in a northeastern Paris suburb collapsed after an explosion. At least 7 people were killed.
    (Yahoo News, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, Iraqi forces broke through to the jihadist-besieged Shiite town of Amerli, where thousands of people have been trapped for more than two months with dwindling food and water supplies. The US announced that it carried out three air strikes in the Amerli area, expanding its air campaign outside the far north for the first time, while Australian, British, French and US aircraft dropped relief supplies for the town. Two suicide bombers detonated explosives-rigged vehicles near positions of security forces in the city of Ramadi, killing 13 people and wounding 17. Iraqi troops and militia looted and burned homes and destroyed villages after breaking the Islamic State group's months-long siege of Amerli.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)(AFP, 3/18/15)
2014        Aug 31, Israel announced it will expropriate 400 hectares (988 acres) of Palestinian land in the occupied West Bank, angering the Palestinians and alarming Israeli peace campaigners.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, A Libyan coast guard official said a boat carrying over 100 migrants capsized off the coast near Tripoli.
    (SFC, 9/1/14, p.A2)
2014        Aug 31, Mexican officials said Mario Alberto Arce Moreno (31), a leader of the violent Los Zetas drug cartel, has been arrested in the northwestern state of Tamaulipas.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, In Pakistan thousands of anti-government protesters tried to raid the official residence of PM Nawaz Sharif overnight, sparking clashes with police that killed 3 people and wounded nearly 400 amid cries for the premier to step down.
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, A magnitude-6 earthquake struck northern Pakistan, though there were no immediate reports of injuries or damage.
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for immediate talks on "statehood" for southern and eastern Ukraine, although his spokesman said this did not mean Moscow now endorsed rebel calls for independence for territory they have seized.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, Slovakia's PM Robert Fico slammed EU sanctions on Russia as "meaningless and counterproductive" and threatened to veto additional measures, highlighting the internal divide within the EU over its tough stance on Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, In Somalia Islamist rebels blew up a car bomb and gunmen attacked a national intelligence site in Mogadishu where suspected militants were held, in an assault that left at least 7 Shebab militants and 4 others dead.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)(AFP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitoring group said at least 42 children have been killed in government air strikes and shelling across Syria in the last 36 hours.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, In Syria 40 Filipino peacekeepers escaped their besieged outpost in the Golan Heights after a seven-hour gunbattle with Syrian rebels. Al-Qaida-linked insurgents still held captive 44 Fijian troops.
    (AP, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, A Ukraine naval vessel in the Azov Sea came under artillery attack from the shore today, in what pro-Russian rebels claimed as the first sea victory of their separatist war.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 31, In southern Yemen 11 soldiers were killed in three separate attacks that included suicide bombings by suspected al Qaeda militants in Shabwa province.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)

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