Today in History - September 13

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81CE        Sep 13, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, emperor of Rome (69-81), died at 42.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

122        Sep 13, Building began on Hadrian's Wall.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1515        Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1549        Sep 13, Pope Paul III closed the first session of the Council of Bologna.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1556        Sep 13, Charles V and Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1564        Sep 13, On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet was scattered by a devastating storm.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1592        Sep 13, Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, French philosopher (L'Amiti), died at 59.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1598        Sep 13, Philip II (71), King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller armadas, but they all failed.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1625        Sep 13, 16 Rabbis (including Isiah Horowitz) were imprisoned in Jerusalem.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1663        Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1739        Sep 13, Grigory Potemkin (d.1791), Russian army officer, statesman, Catherine II's lover, was born. [see Sep 24]
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1743        Sep 13, England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia signed the Treaty of Worms.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1751        Sep 13, Henry Kobell, Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1755        Sep 13, Bertrand Barere, French Revolutionist, was born in Tarbes.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1759        Sep 13, During the final French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought. British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe (32) landed 3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the French. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by results, it was one of the great battles of the world." On this rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, "Do not weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy." By the time the rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP, 9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)

1774        Sep 13, Tugot, the new controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1775        Sep 13, Gotthold Lessing's "Die Juden," premiered in Frankfurt-am-Main.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1782        Sep 13, The British fortress at Gibraltar, under siege by French and Spanish forces since 1789, held off a heavy attack of battering ships.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(ON, 7/01, p.9)

1788         Sep 13, The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors (electoral college) in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
    (AP, 9/13/97)(HN, 9/13/00)

1789        Sep 13, Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(WSJ, 10/1/03, p.B1)
1789        Sep 13, Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1791        Sep 13, France's King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1803        Sep 13, Commodore John Barry, considered by many the father of the American Navy, died in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1813        Sep 13, John Sedgwick (d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1814        Sep 13, British ships bombarded Ft. McHenry under the command of General Armistead. Francis Scott Key detained on a British ship watched the bombing. The British used red glaring Congreve rockets and air bursting bombs during the war.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.392)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1819        Sep 13, Clara Josephine Schumann, [nee Wieck], pianist and composer, was born in Leipzig, Germ.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1835        Sep 13, Ladd & Co. began the 1st sugar cane plantation in Hawaii.
    (www.laddfamily.com/Files/Hawaii.htm)

1847        Sep 13, General Winfield Scott took Chapultepec, removing the last obstacle to U.S. troops moving on Mexico City.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1848        Sep 13, Dr. John Martyn Harlow treated Phinneas Gage in Vermont for a head injury from a tamping iron that had pierced the man’s skull during a blasting accident. Gage survived until 1860, but with definite personality changes that Dr. Harlow tracked.
    (ON, 10/02, p.9)(Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.3)

1851        Sep 13, Walter Reed (d.1902), U.S. Army doctor, was born in Gloucester County, Va. In 1900 he went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 9/13/02)

1857        Sep 13, Milton S. Hershey, chocolate manufacturer and philanthropist, was born in Dauphin County, Pa.
    (www.hersheys.com/about/milton.shtml)(AP, 9/13/07)

1859        Sep 13, In San Francisco David C. Broderick, a US Senator, faced David S. Terry, Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, in a duel at Lake Merced. Broderick was hit in the chest and died after 60 hours. Terry resigned his position and was charged with murder, but not convicted.
    (PI, 5/30/98, p.5A)

1860        Sep 13, John J. Pershing (d.1948), aka "Black Jack," was born in Laclede, Missouri. He led the campaign against Pancho Villa in Mexico and commanded the American Expeditionary Force in France during World War I.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1861        Sep 13, In the 1st naval battle of Civil War, Union frigate "Colorado" sank privateer "Judah" off Pensacola, Fla.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1862        Sep 13, Union troops in Frederick, Maryland, discovered General Robert E. Lee's attack plans for the invasion of Maryland wrapped around a pack of cigars. They gave the plans to General George B. McClellan who did nothing with them for the next 14 hours.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1863        Sep 13, The Loudoun County Rangers routed a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
    (HN, 9/13/99)
1863        Sep 13, Franz von Hipper, German naval commander at the Battle of Jutland in World War I, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1867        Sep 13, Gen. E.R.S. Canby ordered South Carolina courts to impanel blacks as jurors.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(www.tsha.utexas.edu)

1869        Sep 13, Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to control the US gold market.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1874        Sep 13, Arnold Franz Walter Schonberg, 12-tone composer, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1876        Sep 13, Sherwood Anderson (d.1941), author, poet and publisher (Winesburg), was born in Winesburg, Ohio. "Sometimes I think we Americans are the loneliest people in the world. To be sure, we hunger for the power of affection, the self-acceptance that gives life. It is the oldest and strongest hunger in the world. But hungering is not enough."
    (AP, 9/28/00)(MC, 9/13/01)

1881        Sep 13, Lewis Latimer invented and patented an electric lamp with a carbon filament.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1881        Sep 13, Ambrose Everett Burnside, US Union general, died at 57.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1882        Sep 13, British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir.
    (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/battles/egypt/egypt3.htm)

1886        Sep 13, Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1890        Sep 13, Cecil Rhodes' colonies hoisted the Union Jack in Mashonaland and Salisbury.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1894        Sep 13, J.B. Priestley (d.1984), British novelist and playwright, was born. "The weakness of American civilization, and perhaps the chief reason why it creates so much discontent, is that it is so curiously abstract. It is a bloodless extrapolation of a satisfying life. ... You dine off the advertiser's 'sizzling' and not the meat of the steak."
    (AP, 9/13/98)(HN, 9/13/00)
1894        Sep 13, Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier, French composer (Espana, L'etoile), died at 53.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1898        Sep 13, Hannibal Goodwin (1822-1900) patented celluloid photographic film.
    (http://www.plastiquarian.com/goodwin.htm)
1898        Sep 13, 20,000 Paris construction workers went on strike.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1899        Sep 13, The first reported fatal car accident in the US was in Ohio when Henry H. Bliss, a "real estate dealer" was hit by an electric taxi as he exited a trolley on West 74th Street and Central Park West.
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.A21)

1903        Sep 13, Claudette Colbert (d.1996), actress, was born in France as Lily Claudette Chauchoin. She won an Oscar for "It Happened One Night."
    (HN, 9/13/00)(www.concise.britannica.com)

1905        Sep 13, U.S. warships headed to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1907        Sep 13, The RMS Lusitania arrived in New York, completing its maiden voyage from England.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

1909        Sep 13, Herbert Berghof, actor (Belarus File), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1911        Sep 13, Bill Monroe, musician and the Father of Bluegrass, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/00)

1915        Sep 13, In San Francisco bank robber Charles Nelson was killed at his lodging on the corner of Oak and Buchanan after holding off some 100 police officers overnight.
    (SSFC, 9/6/15, DB p.50)(SSFC, 9/13/15, DB p.50)

1916         Sep 13, Roald Dahl (d.1990), son of Norwegian immigrants, was born in Llandaff, Wales. He is best known for his children’s books such as "James and the Giant Peach."
    (www.bbc.co.uk/arts/books/author/dahl)

1918        Sep 13, U.S. and French forces took St. Mihiel, France, in America's first action as a standing army.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1921        Sep 13, Ludwig-Alexander von Battenberg [Mountbatten], WW I admiral, died at 67.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1922        Sep 13, A major fire began to ravage Smyrna, Greece, shortly following occupation by Turkish troops under Mustafa Kemal. The fire lasted 4 days.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Fire_of_Smyrna)
1922        Sep 13, In El Azizia, Libya, a temperature of 136.4 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) was the hottest ever measured on Earth.
    (AP, 7/23/03)

1924        Sep 13, Maurice Jarre, composer (Dr. Zhivago-Acad Award 1966), was born in Lyons, France.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1932        Sep 13, Paul Gorguloff, the murderer of French Pres. Doumer, was beheaded.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1934        Sep 13, Judge Landis sold the World Series broadcast rights to Ford for $100,000.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1939        Sep 13, Joyce Arleen Auger, US soprano (Songs of the Auvergne), was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1939        Sep 13, Igor Sikorsky invented the 1st helicopter. [see Sep 14]
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1940        Sep 13, Buckingham Palace was hit by German bombs causing superficial damage.
    (http://www.raf.mod.uk/bob1940/september13.html)

1941        Sep 13, David Clayton-Thomas (singer: group: Blood Sweat and Tears: You Made Me So Very Happy, Spinning Wheel), was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1942        Sep 13, Battle of Edson's Ridge began at Guadalcanal.
    (http://www.gnt.net/~jrube/indx2.html)

1943        Sep 13, Chiang Kaishek became president of China.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1943        Sep 13, Germans counter attacked at Salerno.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1943        Sep 13, The Scottish-built S.S. Terra Nova sank off the Greenland after being damaged by ice. It had gained fame by taking the explorer Robert Scott and a crew to the Antarctic in 1910 in an effort to become the first to reach the South Pole. Her crew were saved by a United States Coast Guard cutter Southwind. Wreckage of the ship was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 8/18/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Nova_%28ship%29)

1944        Sep 13, Jacqueline Bisset (actress: Rich and Famous, The Deep, Airport, Bullitt, Wild Orchid, Murder on the Orient Express, Choices), was born in England.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1944        Sep 13, US 28th Infantry division opened an assault on the Siegfried line, Westwall.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1944        Sep 13, Heath Robinson (b.1872), English cartoonist, died. He is best known for drawings of eccentric machines and "Heath Robinson" has entered the language as a description of any unnecessarily complex and implausible contraption.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heath_Robinson)

1945        Sep 13, Iran demanded the withdrawal of Allied forces.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1947        Sep 13, WPVI TV channel 6 in Philadelphia, PA (ABC) began broadcasting.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1948        Sep 13, Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine was elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1949        Sep 13, The Ladies Professional Golf Association of America was formed in New York City with Patty Berg as its first president.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1949        Sep 13, Theodor Heuss (1884-1963) began serving as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany following WWII and continued to 1959.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Heuss)

1951        Sep 13, In Korea, U.S. Army troops began their assault in Heartbreak Ridge. The month-long struggle would cost 3,700 casualties.
    (HN, 9/13/98)
1951        Sep 13, Lt. Daniel J. Marini led 40 marines to capture Hill 712 in Korea near Imjin River. He received a Silver Star in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/97, p.A18)
1951        Sep 13, American Lt. Alvin Earl Crane was shot down while on a reconnaissance flight over North Korea. His remains were returned by North Korea in 1990, but positive identification by DNA only took place in 2005.
    (SSFC, 5/14/06, p.B6)
1951        Sep 13, Arthur Szyk (b.1894), Poland-born American-Jewish artist, died of a heart attack after being Investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee for being an assumed member of a Communist front organization.
    (http://szyk.org/szykonline/chrono.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Szyk)

1952        Sep 13, John Melville, federal housing administrator, announced that all adults living in San Francisco Bay Area federally aided public housing will be asked to sign a loyalty affidavit under the Levering Act. Refusal would be grounds for eviction.
    (SFC, 9/13/02, p.E2)

1953        Sep 13, Nikita Khrushchev (b.1894) was elected First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee. [see Sep 12]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Sep 13, Stravinsky's "Canticum Sacrum," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1956        Sep 13, IBM introduced the Model 305 computer capable of storing 20 megabytes of data. Reynold B. Johnson (d.1998 at 92), IBM lab leader, developed a way to store computer data on a metal disk instead of on tape or drum. The first commercial disk drive, called RAMAC (random access method of accounting and control), was developed by IBM and sold for $50,000. It used 50 disk platters, each 2-feet in diameter. Together they held 5 megabytes of data. His Random Access Method of Accounting Control began the disk drive industry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/k3rzf)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 8/22/06, p.B3)

1960        Sep 13, VP Richard Nixon campaigned in San Francisco and 40,000 came to Union Square as he promised to keep the US military as the strongest in the world.
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, DB p.50)
1960        Sep 13, The US Federal Communications Commission banned payola. The scandal included Alan Freed a popular DJ at WABC, he lost his job for allegedly accepting gifts and money for playing certain records for money. There was substantial evidence was uncovered to prove that the payola practice was widespread.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1960        Sep 13, Leo Weiner, Hungarian composer (Toldi), died at 75.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1961        Sep 13, An unmanned Mercury capsule was orbited and recovered by NASA in a test for the first manned flight.
    (HN, 9/13/98)
1961        Sep 13, Battles took place between UN and Katanga troops in Congo.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1962        Sep 13, Pres. John F. Kennedy signed a bill into law creating the Point Reyes National Seashore. Boyd Stewart, a Marin, Ca., cattleman, helped create the Point Reyes National Seashore on 70,000 acres of grassland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Reyes_National_Seashore)(SFC, 1/1/05, p.A14)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.A2)

1963        Sep 13, "Outer Limits" premiered on ABC TV.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1963        Sep 13, The last bucket of concrete was poured on the Glen Canyon Dam (Arizona) on the Colorado River to form Lake Powell. It marked the beginning of a 290 mile stretch of the river from the dam through the Grand Canyon to Lake Mead. It was built to provide power to six Western states. The lake filled by 1980. [last source says the lake filled within 5 years]
    (SFC, 4/12/96, p.E-3)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A1)(NH, 9/97, p.40)

1965        Sep 13, Ben Gazzara (1930-2012) starred for two seasons, 1965 to 1968, on the NBC prime-time drama "Run for Your Life." He played a wealthy, successful lawyer, Paul Bryan, who quits his practice after learning he has a terminal illness and then embarks on a globe-trotting quest for adventure before he dies.
    (Reuters, 2/4/12)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0058844/episodes?year=1965)
1965        Sep 13, The Beatles released "Yesterday."
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1968        Sep 13, Albania officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Albania had condemned the August Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (http://countrystudies.us/albania/153.htm)

1969        Sep 13, John Lennon and his wife, Yoko Ono, presented the Plastic Ono Band in concert for the first time at the Toronto Peace Festival (Lennon's first in four years). The 1st hit by the new group, "Give Peace a Chance," made it to number 14 on the charts.
    (www.musicdirect.com/product/83704)

1970        Sep 13, The supersonic airliner Concorde landed for the 1st time at Heathrow airport.
    (www.aviation-news.co.uk/concordeChronology.html)

1971        Sep 13, State troopers and prison guards stormed Attica Correctional Facility in New York. The four-day inmates' rebellion over poor living conditions claimed 43 lives, including 11 guards and 32 prisoners. Inmate Frank Smith (d.2004) was beaten tortured and abused by guards. In 1997 a federal jury awarded him $4 million. Another 1,280 inmates sought $2.8 billion in damages against the state. In 2000 a federal court described the guards' reaction as an "orgy of brutality" and ordered the state to pay $8 million to inmates who were tortured after the uprising.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)(AP, 9/13/97)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A5)(SFC, 8/3/04, p.B6)
1971        Sep 13, Lin Biao (b.1907) died in a plane crash in Mongolia as he was trying to flee to the Soviet Union after the unsuccessful plot to assassinate Mao. He was once designated as Mao's "closest comrade in arms" and hand-picked to be the chairman's successor.
    (AP, 7/16/07)(www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/LinBiao.html)

1973        Sep 13, Israel shot down 12 Syrian aircraft to1 Israeli loss when IAF jets were attacked during a reconnaissance mission over Syrian territory.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/intel73.html)

1974        Sep 13, The "Rockford Files," starring James Garner, was first broadcast on NBC-TV. It continued to 1980.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0071042/)(SFC, 7/21/14, p.A6)
1974        Sep 13, In the Netherlands the French embassy at the Hague was taken over by Haruo Wako and 2 other Japanese Red Army militants. A 4-day standoff ended with the release of comrade Yutaka Suyaka from a French jail. The attack was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 2005 a Tokyo District Court sentenced Wako to life imprisonment.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(http://my-my-miyuki.blogspot.com/)

1975        Sep 13, Shiko Munakata (b.1903), renowned Japanese artist and printmaker, died in Tokyo from liver cancer.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/397376/Munakata-Shiko)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.D9)
1949        Sep 13, Theodor Heuss (1884-1963) began serving as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany following WWII and continued to 1959.
    (Econ, 1/12/12, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Heuss)

1976        Sep 13, The United States announced it would veto Vietnam's UN bid.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1977        Sep 13, General Motors introduced 1st US diesel auto, the Oldsmobile 88.
    (http://blog.wired.com/cars/2007/09/today-in-hist-2.html)
1977        Sep 13, Kilauea volcano began erupting in Hawaii.
    (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/erz/kiai.html)
1977        Sep 13, Leopold Stokowski (b.1882), conductor, died in Hampshire, England. He was the founder of the New York City Symphony and The American Symphony Orchestra. He conducted the music for and appeared in Disney’s Fantasia.
    (WSJ, 8/6/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/13/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_Stokowski)

1978        Sep 13, The US Navy's F-18 Hornet makes its public debut during rollout ceremonies in St. Louis, Mo.
    (www.boeing.com/defense-space/military/fa18/fa18_milestones.htm)

1981        Sep 13, In the 33rd Emmy Awards winners included Taxi, Hill St Blue, Judd Hirsh & Isabel Sanford.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0355161/)
1981        Sep 13, William Loeb (b.1905), publisher of Manchester Union Leader, NH, died at 75.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Loeb)

1982        Sep 13, In Sweden Marcus Wallenberg Jr. (b.1899), former tennis champion and banker, died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yebq39)

1984        Sep 13, Simon Peres formed an Israeli government with Likud. A national unity government (Likud and Labor) was formed.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(http://tinyurl.com/2vs7e2)

1987        Sep 13, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze arrived in Washington for talks aimed at a possible superpower summit; Shevardnadze carried with him a letter from Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev to President Reagan.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1988        Sep 13, As Hurricane Gilbert made its way toward Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, forecasters reported the barometric pressure of Gilbert's center measured a low of 26.13 inches, making it the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere.
    (AP, 9/13/98)

1989        Sep 13, Fay Vincent was named commissioner of Major League Baseball, succeeding the late A. Bartlett Giamatti.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1989        Sep 13, Desmond Tutu led the biggest anti-apartheid protest march in S. Africa.
    (www.iie.com/research/topics/sanctions/southafrica.cfm)

1990        Sep 13, NBC’s cop-courtroom drama "Law & Order" premiered on NBC.
    (AP, 9/13/00)
1990        Sep 13, The Senate Judiciary Committee opened its first day of confirmation hearings for Supreme Court nominee David H. Souter, who firmly refused to discuss his views on abortion.
    (AP, 9/13/00)
1990        Sep 13, The UN Security Council at its 2939th meeting adopted Resolution 666, regarding foodstuffs to be supplied to the civilian population in Iraq or Kuwait in order to relieve human suffering.
    (www.caabu.org/press/documents/unscr-resolution-666.html)

1991        Sep 13, President Bush, who had suffered an irregular heartbeat because of a thyroid condition, was pronounced in "incredible physical condition" after a checkup by his doctors.
    (AP, 9/13/01)
1991        Sep 13, Virginia Gov. L. Douglas Wilder declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 9/13/01)

1992        Sep 13, Stefan Edberg defeated Pete Sampras to win the U.S. Open title in New York, a day after Monica Seles beat Arantxa Sanchez Vicario to win her seventh Grand Slam title.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1992        Sep 13, Lou Jacobs, US clown (1966 US postage stamp), died.
    (www.clown-ministry.com/History/Lou-Jacobs.html)

1993        Sep 13, In a historic scene at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat shook hands after signing an accord granting limited Palestinian autonomy. It gave Arafat control of most of the Gaza Strip and 27% of the West Bank. In 2002 Neal Kozodoy edited ""The Mideast Peace Process: An Autopsy."
    (AP, 9/13/97)(WSJ, 2/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1994        Sep 13 President Clinton signed into law a $30 billion anticrime bill. It included a 10 year ban on assault weapons, which expired in 2004.
    (AP, 9/13/99)(SFC, 9/10/04, p.A1)
1994        Sep 13, Bob Blackbull, Blackfoot Indian, received his first shipment of mustangs in Browning, Montana, and revived a piece of their culture.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)
1994        Sep 13, In Cyprus 3 British soldiers abducted tour guide Louise Jensen (23). Her body was found 2 days later. In 1996 they were sentenced to life imprisonment after being convicted of abducting, conspiring to rape, and killing Louise Jensen. In 2006 the former soldiers were released and deported to Britain after serving only 12 years.
    (www.hri.org/news/cyprus/cmnews/1998/98-06-17.cmnews.html)(AP, 8/22/06)
1994        Sep 13, Some 180 nations at a U.N.-sponsored conference in Cairo, Egypt, adopted a 20-year blueprint for slowing the world's population growth.
    (AP, 9/13/99)

1995        Sep 13, The FBI made at least a dozen arrests, capping a nationwide two-year investigation of pedophiles and pornographers using the America Online computer network.
    (AP, 9/13/00)
1995        Sep 13, "The Drew Carey Show" premiered on ABC television.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
1995        Sep 13, The hole in the Earth's ozone layer was growing fast and was twice the size it was in 1994. It now reached about the size of Europe.
    (WSJ, 9/13/95, p.A-1)

1996        Sep 13, The stock market hit a new record of 5,838.52 on the Dow.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A1)
1996        Sep 13, Gillette unveiled an agreement to buy Duracell in a $7.3 billion stock deal.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)
1996        Sep 13, Hurricane Hortense headed north with winds at 140 mph.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)
1996        Sep 13, Rap star Tupac Shakur (b.1971) died of gun shot wounds in Las Vegas after he was wounded Sep 7 in a drive-by shooting as he was leaving a Mike Tyson fight in Las Vegas. He had just finished filming "Gang Related" later retitled "Criminal Intent." He was buried at Stone Mountain, Georgia.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A1)(AP, 9/13/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupac_Shakur)
1996        Sep 13, Subaru Takahashi (14) in his boat "Advantage" became the youngest person to complete a solo sail voyage across the Pacific Ocean. He did the 6000 mile journey in 54 days.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A1,7)
1996        Sep 13, In Mexico Juan Francisco Ealy, editor of El Universal, was arrested on allegations of tax fraud. His paper had recently begun strong criticism of the Zedillo government.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A10)

1997        Sep 13, Katherine Shindle of Illinois was crowned Miss America in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A2)
1997        Sep 13, It was reported that a monster hurricane named Linda was moving up the Pacific coast.
    (SFC, 9/13/97, p.A1)
1997        Sep 13, Victor Szebehely, a theorist of celestial mechanics, died in Texas. He wrote or edited some 18 books including: "Theory of Orbit," and "Adventures in Celestial Mechanics."
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.A23)
1997        Sep 13, In Algeria security forces killed 8 suspected Muslim militants in a rocket attack on a mosque in a suburb of the capital. Earlier a Muslim cleric was assassinated by suspected militants in Constantine.
    (WSJ, 9/15/97, p.A1)
1997        Sep 13, In Bosnia municipal elections were held under NATO escort. There was a high voter turnout.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A22)(SFC, 9/15/97, p.A10)
1997        Sep 13, A German military transport, a Soviet-made Tupelov-154 jet, was reported crashed with 24 people off the coast of Angola. A midair collision with a USAF C-141 Starlifter cargo plane from Namibia was reported and the total dead reached 32. Poor communications and faulty regional traffic control were cited as the cause. On Mar 31, 1988 the German government reported that the German crew was at fault for flying in airspace reserved for west-bound traffic.
    (SFC, 9/15/97, p.A1)(SFC, 12/16/97, p.B1)(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.A5)
1997        Sep 13, Funeral services were held in Calcutta, India, for Nobel peace laureate Mother Teresa.
    (AP, 9/13/98)
1997        Sep 13, In Lebanon six soldiers were killed in a rocket attack by Israeli helicopters.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A22)
1997        Sep 13, In Mexico City a national Zapatista civilian movement was inaugurated.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A24)
1997        Sep 13, From New Zealand it was reported that the government approved the release of the rabbit calcivirus to eradicate the rabbit pest problem.
    (SFC, 9/13/97, p.A20)
1997        Sep 13, In the Philippines the Mount Pinukis volcano, 120 miles east of Zamboanga City, erupted after being dormant since 1985.
    (SFC, 9/13/97, p.A20)

1998        Sep 13 NBC's "Frasier" won a record fifth consecutive Emmy as TV's best comedy series; ABC's "The Practice" was honored as best drama.
    (AP, 9/13/99)
1998        Sep 13 Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs hit his 61st and 62nd home runs of the sea-son, passing Roger Maris' record and pulling into a tie with St. Louis' Mark McGwire.
    (AP, 9/13/99)
1998        Sep 13 Patrick Rafter won his second consecutive U.S. Open tennis title, beating fellow Australian Mark Philippoussis 6-3, 3-6, 6-2, 6-0.
    (AP, 9/13/99)
1998        Sep 13, George Wallace (79), former governor of Alabama, died in Montgomery.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A1)
1998        Sep 13, Algerian security forces said 27 people were killed in Zougala in Ain Defla province. Other sources said 38 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.C2)
1998        Sep 13, In Afghanistan Taliban forces captured the last major opposition stronghold of Bamiyan.
    (SFC, 9/14/98, p.A12)
1998        Sep 13, In Albania opposition supporters burned the Tirana office of Premier Nanos and sent the prime minister and his cabinet fleeing.
    (SFC, 9/14/98, p.A12)
1998        Sep 13, In Ukraine Victor Verloo (64), a Peace Corps volunteer from Sacramento, was stabbed to death by robbers in Chernihiv, north of Kiev.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A3)

1999        Sep 13, Sotheby's in Chicago held its first motorcycle auction.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A24)
1999        Sep 13, Researchers reported that gene therapy restored vigor to aged brains in experiments with monkeys.
    (WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 13, Hurricane Floyd with winds at 150 mph stretched out for 700 miles and approached the Florida coast as over a million people were ordered to evacuate the coast.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 13, In Bangladesh one person was killed and 50 injured on the 1st day of a general strike called by opposition parties.
    (WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 13, In Gaza Israelis and Palestinians opened talks on a final peace accord.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)(AP, 9/13/00)
1999        Sep 13, Indonesia agreed to an int'l. commission to investigate possible atrocities in East Timor and to create no obstacles to the deployment of a foreign peacekeeping force.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 13, In Moscow a suspected bomb blast destroyed an apartment building and at least 28 people were killed. Rescuers later pulled 118 bodies from the ruins of the 8-story building. [see Dec 29, 2003]
    (SFC, 9/13/99, p.A10)(SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)(SFC, 9/15/99, p.A14)
1999        Sep 13, In New Zealand Asia-Pacific (APEC) leaders ended their 3-day conference and called for the abolition of all agricultural export subsidies.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A14)
1999        Sep 13, In Turkey a 5.8 aftershock at Golcuk left at least 7 people dead and over 420 injured.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)
1999        Sep 13, In Zimbabwe AIDS activists gathered in Lusaka for a 4-day conference on the disease that had already killed 11 million Africans. 5 Africans were being infected every 2 minutes.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)

2000        Sep 13, With the US government all but abandoning its case against him, former Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee pleaded guilty in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to a single count of mishandling nuclear secrets; he was then set free with an apology from U.S. District Judge James Parker, who said the government's actions had "embarrassed our entire nation."
    (AP, 9/13/01)
2000        Sep 13, In Indonesia a car bomb exploded in the garage of the Jakarta stock exchange and at least 13-15 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.C2)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A1)
2000        Sep 13, In South Africa the government announced war with the Muslim vigilante group, PAGAD, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs, following a series of bombings.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.C7)
2000        Sep 13, In Spain masked police raided the EKIN offices, the fund-raising wing of the ETA. 20 people were arrested.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.C5)

2001        Sep 13, Pres. Bush asked Congress for powers to wage war against an unidentified enemy. Bush called the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington "the first war of the 21st century" as his administration labeled fugitive Osama bin Laden a prime suspect. The United States promised to wage all-out retaliation against those responsible and any regime that protected them. Jetliners returned to the nation's skies for the first time in two days, carrying nervous passengers who faced strict new security measures.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A1)(AP, 9/13/02)
2001        Sep 13, The US requested that Pakistan grant air and land space for military actions in Afghanistan. US Special Forces arrived in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A1)(NW, 8/26/02, p.38)
2001        Sep 13, The data flight recorder for United Flight 93 was found at the Pennsylvania crash site. In the Sep 11 terrorist attack, 18 hijackers were identified as ticketed passengers.
    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 13, A graphic list of the companies that operated in the NYC WTC was published.
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.D8)
2001        Sep 13, US airports opened with limited service under heavy security. Private planes were still grounded.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)
2001        Sep 13, A private Lear jet with 3 Saudi passengers flew from Tampa, Fla., to Lexington, Ky., as part of an effort to help prominent Saudis, who feared reprisals over the Sep 11 attack by al-Qaida in NYC.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)
2001        Sep 13, In Utah Amtrak’s California Zephyr train crashed into a freight train near the Nevada border. 6 people were injured.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A23)
2001        Sep 13, Actress Dorothy McGuire (85) died in Santa Monica, Calif.
    (AP, 9/13/02)
2001        Sep 13, In Estonia the death toll from tainted alcohol, consumed in or near the seaside resort of Parnu, rose to 51. At least 85 more remained hospitalized and methanol was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)
2001        Sep 13, An Indonesian boat with 129 people, mostly from Iraq, refused to change course and landed at Australia’s Ashmore Reef. The UN issued Australia a warning that it could be breaching its int’l. obligations toward refugees by mounting a blockade.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)
2001        Sep 13, Israeli forces entered Jenin and Jericho and Palestinian officials reported that 10 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.A12)
2001        Sep 13, Peru issued an int’l. arrest warrant for former Pres. Alberto Fujimori on charges that he shared responsibility for 25 death-squad slayings in the early years of his rule.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)

2002        Sep 13, President Bush said it was "highly doubtful" that Saddam Hussein would comply with demands that he disarm and avoid a confrontation with the world community. And he mocked Democrats and other lawmakers who wanted UN action before a congressional vote on confronting Saddam.
    (AP, 9/13/03)
2002        Sep 13, Argentine police arrested Luis Ramirez Pineda (77), a retired Chilean army general, at a Buenos Aires hotel on an international warrant for alleged involvement in human rights abuses stemming from the 1973 coup in Chile.
    (AP, 9/13/02)
2002        Sep 13, It was reported that political theater in Brazil had taken on a new grassroots form called the Theater of the Oppressed, wherein spectators stepped into scenes in "interventions" to take the part of the underdog.
    (WSJ, 9/13/02, p.A1)
2002        Sep 13, In Guatemala Miguel Angel Orozco (33), a policeman who had shot a woman, was seized and burned to death by an angry mob in Coatepeque. Radio stations quoted witnesses as saying Orozco had been drunk at the time.
    (AP, 9/14/02)
2002        Sep 13, Four Palestinians were killed in Gaza, including three in an explosion at a home believed to harbor a bomb workshop. Elsewhere, a Palestinian gunman died in a firefight with Israeli soldiers.
    (AP, 9/13/02)
2002        Sep 13, Iraq will pay up to $5,000 each to Palestinians whose home is demolished in the Israeli campaign against suspected militants, a pro-Iraqi group said Friday, hinting also that Iraq is supplying weapons to the Palestinians.
    (AP, 9/13/02) 
2002        Sep 13, A top Iraqi official said Baghdad opposes the return of U.N. weapons inspectors and President Bush's speech to the United Nations was "full of lies." Iraq will attack Israel if it takes part in a U.S. strike against President Hussein's government, an Iraqi minister said in published remarks.
    (AP, 9/13/02)
2002        Sep 13, In Nepal 9 police officers were killed when their jeep drove over a land mine. The 6-year Maoist insurgency has left nearly 5,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A10)
2002        Sep 13, Peru's Pres. Alejandro Toledo signed a $50 million loan agreement with World Bank to provide fresh water and sanitation facilities to more than a million people in rural areas of Peru.
    (AP, 9/13/02)
2002        Sep 13, Foreign ministers of the U.N. Security Council's permanent five nations said that Iraq's refusal to obey past U.N. resolutions "is a serious matter and that Iraq must comply." Russia, Europe and key Arab states piled pressure on Iraq on Friday to readmit U.N. weapons inspectors to avert possible U.S.-led military action.
    (AP, 9/13/02)(Reuters, 9/13/02)
2002        Sep 13, In South Africa the Italian ship, the Jolly Rubino, that ran aground  within the boundaries of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, began leaking oil and was in danger of breaking up, according to conservation officials and a salvage company.
    (AP, 9/13/02)

2003        Sep 13, In Las Vegas, Sugar Shane Mosley beat Oscar De La Hoya, winning a close but unanimous decision to take the WBC and WBA 154-pound titles.
    (AP, 9/13/04)
2003        Sep 13, The California Democratic Party voted to endorse Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante while continuing to support Gov. Gray Davis in the Oct. 7 recall election.
    (AP, 9/13/04)
2003        Sep 13, Frank O'Bannon (73), Indiana Gov. since 1996, died. He had suffered a massive stroke in his Chicago hotel room on Sep 8. He was succeeded by Lt. Gov. Joe Kernan.
    (SFC, 9/9/03, p.A3)
2003        Sep 13, In Indian-controlled Kashmir suspected Islamic rebels killed a former lawmaker as gunbattles and other violence escalated across Indian-controlled Kashmir, leaving 20 people dead and 37 wounded.
    (AP, 9/13/03)
2003        Sep 13, Angry mourners swarmed Fallujah, Iraq, a day after eight Iraqi police were killed in a friendly fire incident involving U.S. troops; the U.S. military apologized for the deaths.
    (AP, 9/13/04)
2003        Sep 13, In the southern Philippines soldiers killed two suspected members of the Muslim extremist Abu Sayyaf group and seized pictures of al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden and documents in Arabic language after storming a rebel camp.
    (AP, 9/13/03)

2004        Sep 13, Oprah Winfrey celebrated the premiere of her 19th season by surprising each of her 276 audience members with a new car.
    (AP, 9/14/04)
2004        Sep 13, Oakland posted a 7-6, 10 inning win over the Rangers in a game that was delayed in the ninth inning after Texas reliever Frank Francisco hurled a chair and hit two fans at the Coliseum; the chair hit a man in the head and broke a woman's nose.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2004        Sep 13, A Sony Group-led consortium struck a deal to buy MGM for $3 billion.
    (WSJ, 9/14/04, p.A3)
2004        Sep 13, Colorado became home to the country's newest national park as Interior Secretary Gale Norton officially reclassified the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. The dunes' foundation was laid about 25 million years ago through erosion of the San Juan Mountains. The sand dunes were declared a national monument in 1932 by President Herbert Hoover.
    (AP, 9/12/04)(SFC, 9/15/04, p.A3)
2004        Sep 13, The US ban on assault rifles, signed in 1994 by Pres. Clinton, expired. The expiration means firearms like AK-47s, Uzis and TEC-9s can now be legally bought.
    (SFC, 9/10/04, p.A1)(AP, 9/13/04)
2004        Sep 13, Scientists reported a new type of cancer-influencing gene that can either suppress or trigger tumors.
    (SFC, 9/13/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 13, US warplanes pounded a suspected hideout of al-Qaida-linked militants in the Sunni insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing 20 people including women and children.
    (AP, 9/13/04)(SFC, 9/14/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 13, Two Australians and two East Asians have been kidnapped in Iraq, said a statement purportedly from the Islamic Secret Army handed out in the Sunni Muslim insurgent bastion of Samarra. A video posted on a Web site in the name of the militants purportedly showed the beheading of a kidnapped Turkish truck driver.
    (AP, 9/13/04)(AP, 9/13/05)
2004        Sep 13, An Israeli helicopter fired a missile at a car in the West Bank town of Jenin, killing three Al Aqsa men. Israeli police shut down six Palestinian elections offices in east Jerusalem after seizing voter registration lists.
    (AP, 9/13/04)(WSJ, 9/14/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 13, Pres. Putin announced a series of measures that would enhance Kremlin power. These included presidential selection of the governors for Russia’s 89 regions.
    (Econ, 9/18/04, p.55)

2005        Sep 13, Pres. Bush said he accepted responsibility for shortcomings in the federal government’s response to Hurricane Katrina.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.A1)
2005        Sep 13, Pres. Bush met briefly with Chinese Pres. Hu Jintao in NYC on the sidelines of the opening session of the UN General Assembly. Bush sought China's help to stop nuclear weapons programs in North Korea and Iran and won a pledge from President Hu Jintao to step up pressure on Pyongyang.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.C1)(AP, 9/13/06)
2005        Sep 13, It was reported that nearly 40 more detainees have joined a hunger strike at the Guantanamo Bay prison camp for terror suspects, bringing the total to 128.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Louisiana authorities charged the owners of a New Orleans area nursing home with negligent homicide in the deaths of 34 patients in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The state death toll was raised to 423.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.A10)
2005        Sep 13, The New Orleans Airport resumed commercial operations.
    (AP, 9/14/05)
2005        Sep 13, In Afghanistan the bodies of 7 men, killed by suspected Taliban rebels, were found in the central Afghan province of Uruzgan, along with the cards that entitled them to vote in upcoming parliamentary and provincial elections.
    (AP, 9/14/05)
2005        Sep 13, Sredoje Lukic, a top Bosnian Serb war crimes suspect, surrendered to the Serb authorities in Bosnia. He was indicted by a UN tribunal in 2000 for some of the worst atrocities in the Bosnian war.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Julio Cesar Turbay (89), former Colombian President (1978-1982), died. He negotiated the release in 1980 of dozens of diplomats held hostage by leftist rebels for 61 days.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Iwan Darmawan Mutho, alias Rois (30), an Indonesian Islamic militant, vowed revenge after he was sentenced to death for plotting a deadly bombing at the Australian embassy which was allegedly funded by Osama bin Laden.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, US forces along the Euphrates River attacked the insurgent stronghold of Haditha, capturing a militant with ties to al-Qaida in Iraq and killing four others.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, The Dutch government said it plans to open an electronic file, effective Jan 1, 2007, on every child at birth as a tool to spot and protect the troubled kids of the future.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Negotiations aimed at ending North Korea's nuclear weapons program resumed in Beijing after a month-long recess, but prospects for progress were uncertain as Pyongyang remained insistent on its right to use civilian atomic technology.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Norway's PM Kjell Magne Bondevik, who presided over four years of unprecedented prosperity fueled by high oil prices, said he will resign after a left-wing opposition bloc won parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, Tens of thousands of people filled the center of Gaza City for the biggest Hamas demonstration ever seen here, celebrating Israel's pullout and listening to Hamas leaders vowing to continue the fight until Israelis leave the rest of the Palestinian areas.
    (AP, 9/13/05)
2005        Sep 13, The customs chiefs at Moscow's international airport and the Pacific port of Nakhodka were suspended pending a smuggling investigation. Sheremetyevo Airport chief Igor Volkov and Nakhodka port chief Alexei Kotlyarov were suspended for a month.
    (AP, 9/15/05)
2005        Sep 13, The UN General Assembly approved a watered-down, 35-page reform document after months of hard bargaining. The current text refers the issue back to the president of the General Assembly for further negotiations “with the aim of establishing the mandate, modalities, functions, size, composition, membership, working methods and procedures for the council." 
    (AP, 9/14/05)(http://tinyurl.com/lfzje)
2005        Sep 13, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez extended a preferential oil trade deal to 13 Caribbean countries in what he says is part of a plan to challenge U.S. economic domination of the region. The plan includes a $50 million fund to pay for social programs across the Caribbean, similar to those Chavez has started at home with rising oil profits.
    (AP, 9/14/05)
2005        Sep 13, The World Bank proposed a new accounting method that includes natural and human wealth.
    (www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=30267)

2006        Sep 13, A letter from the office of IAEA chief Mohamed ElBaradei, sent to the head of the US House of Representatives' Select Committee on Intelligence, said an August 23 committee report contained serious distortions of IAEA findings on Iran's nuclear activity.
    (AP, 9/14/06)(SFC, 9/14/06, p.A15)
2006        Sep 13, In California water users and environmentalists announced a settlement that requires Friant to release 364,000 to 462,000 acre-feet of water in normal years to the San Joaquin River, the state’s 2nd longest river.
    (SFC, 9/13/06, p.B1)
2006        Sep 13, The SEC froze trade in the shares of Indigenous Global Development Corp. (IGDC), run by Deni Leonard, a Native American businessman. An SEC suit said Leonard claimed to have struck deals with Canadian tribes to develop and purchase natural gas to be sold to power plants, but no deals were made.
    (SSFC, 11/26/06, p.A1)
2006        Sep 13, Ann Richards (b.1933), former Texas Gov. (1990-1994), died after a battle with cancer. As governor, Richards appointed the first black University of Texas regent, the first crime victim on the state Criminal Justice Board, the first disabled person on the human services board and the first teacher to lead the State Board of Education. Under Richards, the fabled Texas Rangers pinned stars on their first black and female officers.
    (AP, 9/14/06)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.96)
2006        Sep 13, US financier George Soros pledged to invest 50 million dollars in a development project that aims to show how targeted investment can end extreme poverty in African villages. The Millennium Villages project is involved in 79 villages in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (AP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, Afghan President Hamid Karzai, while opening a road linking to Pakistan, said Pakistan and Afghanistan must unite to save their people from the menace of terrorism.  Afghan and US-led coalition forces killed as many as 30 Taliban in raids on three villages in Ghazni province. In southern Helmand province police killed 16 Taliban in a mountainous area outside the town of Garmser. NATO announced that suicide bombings have killed 173 people in Afghanistan this year. 151 of the year's suicide attack victims were Afghan civilians, including children.
    (AP, 9/13/06)(AFP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, NASA scientists said the ice in the Arctic Sea is melting in winter as well as in summer, likely due to global warming. The ice was reportedly melting at 9% a decade.
    (SFC, 9/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 9/9/06, Survey p.6)
2006        Sep 13, The presidents of Brazil and South Africa, at a trilateral trade meeting in Brasilia, said they supported changes in international rules to allow India to buy nuclear fuel and reactors from the United States and other countries. The trio created the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) in 2003 to promote the interests of their emerging markets.
    (Reuters, 9/13/06)(AFP, 9/14/06)
2006        Sep 13, A man in a black trench coat opened fire at a downtown Montreal college, slaying a young woman, Anastasia De Sousa (18), a student at Dawson College, and wounding at least 19 other people before police shot and killed him. Officials soon identified the killer as Kimveer Gill (25), resident of a Montreal suburb.
    (AP, 9/13/06)(Reuters, 9/14/06)
2006        Sep 13, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao vowed to continue his vast country's opening up to the international community, notably rejecting suggestions Beijing is set to crack down on foreign media.
    (AFP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, International police deployed to East Timor in the wake of unrest in May formally handed over their authority to the UN at a ceremony in the capital. A battle between rival gangs armed with machetes killed one fighter and injured five others in Dili.
    (AFP, 9/13/06)(AP, 9/14/06)
2006        Sep 13, The EU's foreign policy chief and Iran's top nuclear negotiator abruptly postponed talks on easing tensions over the refusal of the Tehran regime to suspend uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, In Iraq police found the bodies of 65 men who had been tortured, shot and dumped, most around Baghdad. Car bombs, mortar attacks and shootings killed at least 39 people around Iraq and injured dozens more.
    (AP, 9/13/06)(WSJ, 9/14/06, p.A1)
2006        Sep 13, In Jordan a military court convicted 10 suspected militants in two separate terrorism cases that included conspiracies to kill Americans. Lawmakers approved a measure that would only allow a state-appointed council to issue religious edicts, a move aimed at denying Islamic hard-liners a forum for disseminating extremist ideology. The measure will become law with the expected approval of the upper house of Parliament and the king.
    (AP, 9/13/06)(AP, 9/14/06)
2006        Sep 13, The Palestinian Cabinet resigned to clear the way for a new unity government, and President Mahmoud Abbas said he plans to send a delegation to the UN to try to revive a Mideast peace plan.
    (AP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, Andrei Kozlov (41), the top deputy chairman of Russia's Central Bank, was shot in Moscow along with his driver, by unidentified assailants. The driver was killed immediately and Frankel died the next morning. Officials suggested the attack was prompted by his efforts to clean up the country's banking system. In October officials arrested 3 Ukrainian citizens, who were allegedly hired to kill Kozlov. In Jan 2007 Alexei Frankel, whose license was revoked by Kozlov in 2004, was charged with organizing the murder. On Oct 28 a Moscow jury found Frankel guilty of organizing the murder. 
    (AP, 9/14/06)(WSJ, 9/22/06, p.A1)(SFC, 10/17/06, p.A15)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.76)(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A14)
2006        Sep 13, A helicopter crashed in Siberia, killing three of the four people aboard, an emergency official said. The MD-600 helicopter crashed about 12 miles from the city Novokuznetsk in the Kemerovo region about 1,850 miles east of Moscow.
    (AP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, In South Korea hundreds of workers bulldozed homes in a village to make way for the expansion of a US military base set to become the Americans' new headquarters, despite strong objections from protesters.
    (AP, 9/13/06)
2006        Sep 13, Zimbabwe police arrested trade union leaders and blocked streets and the main square of the capital to thwart an anti-government march, and the main labor federation apparently called off a planned nationwide strike at the last minute.
    (AP, 9/13/06)

2007        Sep 13, Pres. Bush in a nationwide address said the US engagement in Iraq would stretch beyond his presidency. Bush said he wanted gradual US troop withdrawals from the country and that 5,700 US forces in Iraq would be home by Christmas and at least 21,500 would return by July, 2008.
    (SFC, 9/14/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/13/08)
2007        Sep 13, Bill Allen (70), former head of VECO Corp., testified in a federal corruption trial in Anchorage, that he had bribed 3 Alaska legislators, including the son of US Sen. Ted Stevens.
    (SFC, 9/14/07, p.A9)
2007        Sep 13, In Philadelphia police chief Sylvester Johnson acknowledged that police alone could not quell the city’s deadly violence and planned to introduce “Call to Action: 10,000 Men," an effort to get volunteers on the streets as of Oct 21.
    (SFC, 9/14/07, p.A5)
2007        Sep 13, The NFL fined New England Patriots coach Bill Belichick $500,000 and the team $250,000 for spying on the New York Jets during a game.
    (AP, 9/13/08)
2007        Sep 13, In Florida Shawn Sherwin Labeet (25) opened fire on 4 Miami-Dade county police officers during a traffic stop killing officer Jose Somohano (37). Labeet was found and killed hours later.
    (SFC, 9/14/07, p.A6)
2007        Sep 13, Crude oil futures finished at their 3rd record in a row rising 18 cents to close above 80 for the first time at $80.09 a barrel.
    (WSJ, 9/14/07, p.A1)
2007        Sep 13, Humberto, the first hurricane to hit the US Gulf Coast in two years, sneaked up on southeast Texas overnight and crashed ashore with heavy rains and 80 mph winds. One man died when a carport collapsed on him.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, The X PRIZE Foundation and Google Inc. announced the Google Lunar X PRIZE, a robotic race to the Moon to win a remarkable $30 million prize purse, so long as the task is completed by 2012.
    (www.googlelunarxprize.org/)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.100)
2007        Sep 13, Afghan police in Helmand province shot and killed a would-be suicide bomber before he could detonate his explosives.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, In London, England, Ian Strachan (30) and Sean McGuigan (40) were charged with blackmail. The two suspects had approached an unidentified royal family member in August and demanded $100,000 not to publicize a video allegedly showing the royal engaged in a sex act. The charges did not become public until Oct 28.
    (AP, 10/30/07)
2007        Sep 13, In central China a man threw six children from a balcony of their school. A girl (9) was killed and 2 others badly hurt.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.58)
2007        Sep 13, The UN said the repatriation of Congolese refugees from neighbouring Zambia was suspended, due to insecurity in the small town of Moba where they are headed.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, Three powerful earthquakes jolted Indonesia in less than 24 hours, triggering tsunami alerts and sending panicked residents fleeing to high ground. At least 10 people were killed in the tremors.
    (Reuters, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, Abdul-Sattar Abu Risha, the most prominent figure in a US-backed revolt of Sunni sheiks against al-Qaida in Iraq, was killed with two of his bodyguards by a bomb planted near his home in Anbar province, 10 days after he met with President Bush. In a helicopter assault mission in Karmah, Anbar province, three suspected insurgents were killed and three American soldiers were injured.
    (AP, 9/13/07)(AP, 9/14/07)
2007        Sep 13, The Jewish New Year of 5768 began and marked a year of agricultural sabbatical, known in Hebrew as "shmita." The commandment requires Jewish farmers in Israel to let their fields rest every seventh year, just as Jews are required to rest every seventh day. Israeli aircraft fired a missile at a car in a Gaza refugee camp, injuring two members of the violent Islamic Jihad group.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, In Italy consumer groups held nationwide protests to draw attention to the burden placed on families by the rising cost of food, especially Italians' beloved staple, pasta.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, In the Marshall Islands legislation was introduced aiming to open up the communications sector by removing the telecom agency's exclusive rights. This was likely to become an issue ahead of national elections in November.
    (AFP, 9/16/07)
2007        Sep 13, In Mozambique a non-governmental organization working with the disabled said at least 440 sites are still heavily infested by landmines near residential districts in 3 provinces.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, In Pakistan militants attacked a military base near the Afghan border, sparking a battle that drew in army helicopters and left about 30 insurgents and two soldiers dead. In fighting near Razmak, a town in South Waziristan, army forces repelled repeated militant attacks, and tribesmen informed officials that up to 50 rebels died in counter-strikes. Two soldiers were killed and eight wounded. A suicide attacker penetrated Ghazi Tarbela base, a high-security military base about 60 miles south of Islamabad, and detonated an explosive-laden vehicle, killing 16 soldiers from an elite counterterrorism task force.
    (AP, 9/13/07)
2007        Sep 13, In Moscow Shamil Burayev, the former head of a district in Chechnya, was arrested on suspicion of organizing the execution-style murder of investigative journalist Anna Politkovskaya.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2008        Sep 13, Hurricane Ike ravaged the Texas coast with 110 mph winds, flooding thousands of homes and businesses, shattering windows in Houston's skyscrapers and knocking out power to millions of people. Ike left at least 37 people dead in Texas, including 5 on Galveston Island, and 35 more dead across 10 states. Galveston later requested $2.2 billion in disaster relief. This amounted to about $36,000 per resident. Officials later estimated that damages from Ike could exceed $50 billion.
    (SFC, 9/15/08, p.A6)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.A8)(SFC, 9/23/08, p.A3)(SFC, 10/13/08, p.A2)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.34)
2008        Sep 13, In San Francisco Tong Van Le left his store in Bernal Heights and headed home to Novato where 5 men, who had followed him, shot him dead with a high-powered rifle. They had allegedly been told to get rid of Tong Le by Larry Blay Jr. (19), who was in jail on charges of robbing the Nasser Market on Crescent Ave. Sep 13. With no witness the case against Blay was dismissed in October. In June, 2009, an indictment accused Blay and 4 of the 5 defendants of murder and conspiracy.
    (SFC, 6/17/09, p.B1)(SFC, 7/29/09, p.D3)
2008        Sep 13, The Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation announced Stanley Falkow (74), Stanford microbiologist, was the winner of a $300,000 Lasker award for Special Achievement in medical Science. His work helped to explain how pathogens cause human diseases.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.B2)
2008        Sep 13, In Afghanistan Mohammad Jan Abdullah Wardak, the governor of Logar province and a former cabinet minister, was killed with 3 others in a bomb attack near Kabul claimed by Taliban rebels and condemned by President Hamid Karzai. A British soldier was killed in an explosion in Helmand province. Taliban militants in Ghazni province ambushed and killed 4 police. 3 more were wounded and died the next day.
    (AP, 9/13/08)(AP, 9/14/08)(AFP, 9/14/08)
2008        Sep 13, A fiery bus crash in China's Sichuan province killed 51 people.
    (AP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, Hundreds of Russian forces packed up and withdrew from positions in western Georgia. A Georgian official said Russia had met a deadline for a partial pullout a month after the war between the two former Soviet republics. A Georgian policeman at a post near Abkhazia was killed by gunfire that came from the direction of a position where Abkhazian and Russian forces have been based. Some 1,200 Russian servicemen still remained at 19 check-points and other positions, 12 outside South Ossetia and seven outside Abkhazia.
    (AP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, In India a coordinated series of bombings struck crowded shopping areas across New Delhi, killing 21 people with over 100 wounded. 5 bombs exploded and 3 were defused. India blamed a group with ties to Lashkar-e-Taiba. A Muslim extremist group claimed responsibility for the explosions.
    (AFP, 9/14/08)(WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A6)(WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A6)
2008        Sep 13, Bombs and shootings killed at least 16 people in Iraq, including four employees of an Iraqi television station. They were abducted in Mosul while filming a program about the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. At night in western Baghdad a bomb exploded in the car of Fuad Ali Hussein, killing him and his deputy and two bodyguards. Hussein was head of a neighborhood awakening council.
    (AP, 9/13/08)(AP, 9/14/08)
2008        Sep 13, Nepalese police said at least six people have been killed in southern Nepal in rampages by wild elephants in the last two days.
    (AFP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, A MEND statement said the armed forces of Nigeria had begun a full scale aerial and marine offensive on the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) positions and neighboring Ijaw communities in Rivers state.
    (AFP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, At least 24 Islamic militants were killed in fierce fighting with Pakistani government troops hunting Taliban fighters across Bajaur near the Afghan border.
    (AGFP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, A Palestinian stabbed a 9-year-old Israeli boy in a West Bank settlement outpost, setting off clashes that left injured six Palestinians. Israeli troops fatally shot Hassan Hmeid (16), a Palestinian teenager during a clash near Bethlehem. Witnesses said the troops opened fire when a patrol entered Tekoa and were pelted with a hail of stones thrown by local young people.
    (AP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers accused the government of planning a genocidal campaign against Tamils as UN agencies pulled out of rebel-held regions in the island's north. Violence in the last 24 hours killed eight Tiger rebels and two troops.
    (AP, 9/13/08)
2008        Sep 13, In Sudan an army spokesman said troops had entered the North Darfur area to arrest armed bandits.
    (Reuters, 9/14/08)
2008        Sep 13, Typhoon Sinlaku lashed Taiwan with powerful winds and heavy rains, disrupting flights and train services as well as celebrations for a major holiday.
    (AFP, 9/13/08)

2009        Sep 13, Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden described President Barack Obama as "powerless" to stop the war in Afghanistan and threatened to step up guerrilla warfare there in a new audiotape released to mark the anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks in the US.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, It was reported that the hoki fish, harvested in the deep waters around New Zealand, had declined substantially. Hoki, the main ingredient in McDonald’s Fillet-O-Fish sandwich, was also used by Denny’s and Long John Silver’s restaurants. From 1996 to 2001 some 275,000 tons were harvested by factory trawlers. The allowed catch was reduced to 100,000 tons in 2007 and 2008.
    (SSFC, 9/13/09, p.A20)
2009        Sep 13, The Afghan health ministry said it has so far recorded 673 cases of cholera countrywide in almost a third of the country's 34 provinces, including Kabul. No deaths have been reported. A British soldier was killed in an attack on a foot patrol in Helmand province. A 2nd NATO service member died in a bomb blast in the south.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)(AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, Bolivia's Pres. Evo Morales began a visit to Spain. His plans to nationalize Bolivia’s electricity sector and how this might affect Spanish companies will be among the top items on his agenda.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, In southern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 14 people were dead and another 34 missing after their boat sank in an isolated stretch of the Lualaba river.
    (Reuters, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, In Hong Kong a construction platform inside an elevator shaft collapsed, sending 5 workers 20 stories down to their deaths inside a skyscraper. One worker was injured.
    (AP, 9/13/09)
2009        Sep 13, In Iraq gunmen broke into the home of a Kurdish policeman in Kirkuk, killing his wife and three children execution-style with shots to the head as they slept. Two separate police patrols were hit with roadside bombs in southern Kirkuk, wounding six policemen. Four people were killed in an area about 60 miles (100km) south of Mosul in a tribal dispute. A civilian contractor was shot and killed on an American military base in Tikrit. A US soldier was detained in connection with the incident. US and Iraqi forces killed one fighter, captured another and seized a truck loaded with weapons in Mosul, an area of that remains an insurgent stronghold. Later Iraqi policemen searching for the gunman who escaped clashed with insurgents. Two policemen and two insurgents were killed.
    (AP, 9/13/09)(AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, In Israel Capt. Asaf Ramon (21), the son of Ilan Ramon, Israel's first and only astronaut, was killed when his F-16 warplane crashed on a routine training flight. Ilan Ramon was one of seven crew members killed when the Columbia exploded as it re-entered the atmosphere in 2003.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, In southeast Kazakhstan 37 people were killed when a fire ripped through a decrepit drugs treatment facility in Taldykorgan.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)
2009        Sep 13, In Pakistan a bomb blast killed 3 paramilitary troops in the Mandiknas area of the Khyber region. A suicide bomber was killed as he tried to attack a security post in the Swat Valley.
    (SFC, 9/14/09, p.A2)
2009        Sep 13, In central Russia 5 soldiers died in a fire at a military base in Tambov. A state news report said the blaze may have destroyed sensitive security documents.
    (SFC, 9/14/09, p.A2)
2009        Sep 13, In southern Thailand suspected Muslim insurgents shot and killed five paramilitary troops in Yala province.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said Russia has opened a $2.2 billion line of credit for Venezuela to purchase weapons including armored vehicles and surface-to-air missiles.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 13, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai accused President Robert Mugabe of violating a fledgling power-sharing deal. The EU said ties with Zimbabwe would only normalize once a unity accord is properly implemented, but pledged a further 90 million euro this year to assist the troubled nation.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)

2010        Sep 13, The US government and the chocolate industry pledged $17 million to help end child labor — some of it forced and dangerous — in Ghana and the Ivory Coast, where much of the world's cocoa is grown.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/20100913/wl_mcclatchy/3626030)
2010        Sep 13, US House members began an impeachment trial against Louisiana District Judge Thomas Porteous (63) on grounds of corruption.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A4)
2010        Sep 13, US health officials reported that an infectious-disease nightmare is unfolding: Bacteria that have been made resistant to nearly all antibiotics by an alarming new gene have sickened people in three states and are popping up all over the world.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, US EPA officials said that a leak in an oil pipeline in Reomeoville, Illinois, has stopped. The volume spilled in the Chicago suburb was unknown. The pipeline was owned by Enbridge Energy Partners.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A4)
2010        Sep 13, In California PG&E said it will spend as much as $100 million to help rebuild the San Bruno neighborhood recently devastated by the Sep 9 rupture of a gas line. The relief fund would be independent of legal claims and the cost of replacing homes damaged by fire.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A1)
2010        Sep 13, Hewlett-Packard announced a $1.5 billion deal to buy ArcSight Inc, a provider of computer network security.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.D1)
2010        Sep 13, Photos of a Louisiana waterway, its surface completely covered with dead sea life were distributed to local media by Plaquemines Parish President Billy Nungesser. This stretch of coastal Louisiana was hit hard this summer by oil from BP's busted Gulf well.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2bhqnhe)
2010        Sep 13, William Coblentz (88), California power broker, died. He had served for 16 years as a regent of UC, including 2 years as chairman.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.93)
2010        Sep 13, Afghan and NATO troops killed 23 insurgents in southern Helmand province.
    (AP, 9/14/10)
2010        Sep 13, The Belgian Roman Catholic church acknowledged widespread sexual abuse over years by its clergy and pleaded for time to set up a system to punish all abusers and provide closure for victims.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, British trade unions voted overwhelmingly to back rare coordinated strikes as they were urged to "stand up and fight" government austerity cuts at their congress.
    (AFP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, A Canadian police study said human trafficking groups have exploited Canada's visa rules to bring victims from Europe and Asia to work in the illegal sex trade.
    (Reuters, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, The Cuban Workers Federation said Cuba will lay off more than 500,000 state employees by March and expand private employment to give them work in the biggest shift to the private sector since the 1960s.
    (Reuters, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, India’s PM Manmohan Singh again voiced his willingness to talk to Kashmiris and to respond to their demands, but the government has not yet responded to a proposal by the separatists for peace talks. Indian forces killed 18 protesters and wounded scores of others in confrontations across Kashmir fueled in part by a report that a Quran was desecrated in the United States. A police officer was also killed.
    (AP, 9/13/10)(AP, 9/14/10)
2010        Sep 13, In India Maoist guerrillas killed two policemen and five civilians as the rebels began a two-day shutdown across the east of the country.
    (AFP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, In Indonesia Yusuf Sipakoly (52), a political prisoner being detained in Ambon, Maluku, died while under police custody. His family claimed that he was tortured by police.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/3533o26)   
2010        Sep 13, Iran's internal battles over the handling of American detainee Sarah Shourd flared again as the mouthpiece of the powerful Revolutionary Guard led the backlash against a decision to free her on $500,000 bail.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Amnesty International said tens of thousands of detainees are being held without trial in Iraqi prisons and face violent and psychological abuse as well as other forms of mistreatment.
    (AFP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Officials said Israel will begin deporting families of illegal migrants in coming weeks as an emotional debate rages over the ballooning numbers of foreign workers that some fear could threaten the country's Jewish identity.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Staff at Israel's Ben Gurion International Airport near Tel Aviv went on strike, grounding all flights and leaving arriving passengers without their luggage.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Japan freed 14 crew members of a Chinese fishing ship nearly a week after their vessel and two Japanese patrol boats collided near disputed southern islets. But China lashed out at Tokyo's decision to keep the captain in custody.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, In Malaysia Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra was proclaimed the new sultan of northern Kelantan state following a decision by the Council of Succession, which determines who ascends to the throne. Faris has been embroiled in a public dispute with his brother, Tengku Muhammad Fakhry, since their father, Tengku Ismail Petra, fell ill more than a year ago. 9 of Malaysia's 13 states are ruled by hereditary royal families, who are widely respected among the Muslim Malay majority though their responsibilities are largely ceremonial. The executive power lies with elected state and national representatives.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Nicaragua celebrated a special national holiday called by the Sandinista Party. As the country was on vacation the party ordered the printing of a rewritten (but bogus) constitution.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.45)(http://tinyurl.com/29lqnzq)
2010        Sep 13, In Nigeria unknown attackers brandishing machetes stormed the home of Garba Bello, a senior intelligence official, and hacked him and four members of his family to death in an apparent targeted killing.
    (AFP, 9/14/10) 
2010        Sep 13, South African police fatally shot Nontsikelelo Anna Nokela (17) who was part of a group protesting that a teachers strike gave them insufficient time to prepare for exams. Investigators the next day arrested a police officer after determining "the shooting was premeditated." Investigators said the officer had earlier threatened to hurt the students if they protested.
    (AP, 9/14/10)(AP, 9/15/10)
2010        Sep 13, South Korea announced plans to send 5,000 tons of rice and other aid to flood-stricken North Korea in a sign of easing tension between the divided countries.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, The UN court that settles disputes among member states swore in 2 new female judges, one from the United States and one from China to join the 15-member bench. Russia's Yury Fedotov took office as the UN's new drugs and crime czar. He replaced Italy's Antonio Maria Costa as the head of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime and will also oversee the UN office in the Austrian capital.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, The head of the UN nuclear watchdog agency warned that Iran's selective cooperation with his inspectors means that he cannot confirm that all of Tehran's atomic activities are peaceful.
    (AP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, In eastern Venezuela a plane carrying 51 people crashed in a steel mill yard. 17 people on board were killed leaving 34 survivors.
    (AP, 9/13/10)(AP, 9/14/10)

2011        Sep 13, A federal order for one of the nation's largest American Indian tribes to restore voting rights and benefits to about 2,800 descendants of members' former slaves threw plans for a special election for a new Cherokee Nation chief into turmoil. The tribe said that it would not be dictated to by the US government over its move to banish African Americans from its citizenship rolls.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(Reuters, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, The Census Bureau released its annual report. It said that the ranks of America's poor swelled to almost 1 in 6 people last year, reaching a new high as longterm unemployment left millions of Americans struggling and out of work. The number of uninsured edged up to 49.9 million, the biggest in more than two decades. A 2010 income of $11,139 defined the poverty level for an individual or $22,314 for a family of four.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(Econ, 9/17/11, p.29)
2011        Sep 13, An online 200-page paper by Project CLAMER, a collaboration of 17 European marine institutes, said the rising temperature of ocean water is causing a proliferation of the Vibrio genus of bacteria, which can cause food poisoning, serious gastroenteritis, septicemia and cholera.
    (AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Afghanistan Taliban gunmen with suicide bombs and heavy weaponry launched coordinated attacks in Kabul targeting NATO's headquarters and the US embassy, killing at least six people.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, Former Argentine President Carlos Menem (81) and 17 members of his government were acquitted of charges that they violated international weapons embargoes on Ecuador and Croatia in the 1990s.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Argentina 11 people were killed and over 200 injured in Buenos Aires in a rush-hour crash involving two passenger trains and a bus whose driver who drove around barriers in an attempt to beat them across the tracks.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, Australian lawmaker Nick Xenophon named Catholic priest Monsignor Ian Dempsey as having allegedly raped Anglican Archbishop John Hepworth in violent attacks dating back about 50 years.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Austria a 35-nation meeting of the UN nuclear agency adopted a post-Fukushima nuclear safety plan, despite gripes by influential member nations that it to too timid for making compliance voluntary.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, Benin President Thomas Boni Yayi held talks in China with his counterpart Hu Jintao on further Chinese investment in the West African nation.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, Westfield Stratford City, Europe's biggest urban shopping center, opened in a deprived area of east London where it will act as the gateway to the 2012 Olympics.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, British pop art pioneer Richard Hamilton (b.1922) died. His work ranged from images of consumer culture to parodies of political leaders. One of his best-known works was the plain white cover for the Beatles’ "White Album" of 1968.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Hamilton_%28artist%29)
2011        Sep 13, China held trials in Kashgar and Hotan and convicted 6 Uighur men of being behind the summer bloodshed in the Xinjiang region that left dozens. 4 men were sentenced to death and 2 were given 19-year prison sentences.
    (SFC, 9/16/11, p.A7)
2011        Sep 13, In Germany Nuremberg prosecutors said they have charged a 69-year-old man with 497 counts of rape over allegations that he abused his daughter for 34 years and fathered three sons by her.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, An Iranian court set bail of $500,000 each for two American men, Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal, arrested more than two years ago and convicted on spy-related charges, clearing the way for their release a year after a similar bail-for-freedom arrangement for the third member of the group. Iran hanged five people, three of them for drug trafficking and two in public for murder.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Indian-administered Kashmir at least 22 people were killed and 18 others injured when an overcrowded passenger minibus plunged into a deep gorge.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Liberia 11 people were killed after an ambulance crashed into a crowd in Vonzula, who had been waiting all day to see a visiting presidential candidate.
    (AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Libya NATO warplanes pounded targets in a number of strongholds of support for fugitive dictator Moammar Gadhafi, as an offensive by revolutionary forces on Bani Walid, a key loyalist town, stalled.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Mexico placards were left with two disemboweled bodies of a man and a woman in Nuevo Laredo. They warned that the same fate awaits others who send information on social media regarding gang activity.
    (SFC, 9/16/11, p.A6)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.38)
2011        Sep 13, Myanmar said it has released about 20,000 prisoners this year as of the end of July under an amnesty program.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Nigeria suspected members of the Boko Haram radical Muslim sect attacked an army patrol in Maiduguri, wounding four soldiers. The soldiers later arrested 15 people on suspicion of being sect members, with some of them carrying weapons and ammunition.
    (AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Nigeria Kindreck Dion Lee (34), one of Britain's most wanted drug and firearm suspects, was arrested in Lagos. He was wanted for his alleged involvement in bringing cocaine, cannabis, firearms and ammunition into the country from Amsterdam.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)
2011        Sep 13, Nine North Koreans who spent five days at sea in a small wooden boat were towed to a Japanese port after they were spotted off the coast of central Japan.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In northwestern Pakistan Taliban gunmen attacked a school van on the outskirts of Peshawar, killing four children and the driver in an assault they said was carried out to punish local Matani tribesman for resisting the insurgent movement.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, In Puerto Rico a 14-year-old girl went on a playground rampage with a hypodermic needle, stabbing 37 classmates in the southern coastal town of Arroyo. On Dec 2 she was sentenced to two years of probation.
    (AP, 9/15/11)(AP, 12/2/11)
2011        Sep 13, Romania signed a deal to host a crucial part of a US missile defense system. Romania's President Traian Basescu announced the deal after meeting with President Obama in Washington. Under NATO plans, a limited system of US anti-missile interceptors and radars planned for Europe include interceptors in Romania and Poland as well as radar in Turkey.
    (AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, A Sri Lankan minister led a protest march that forced organizers to abandon an annual Hindu sacrifice ritual in which hundreds of goats were due to slaughtered. The grisly ritual, in which goats are decapitated in public using a large hatchet, was first banned in the 1980s but was revived as locals believe the animals' blood grants favors from the gods.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, Syrian security forces riding in vehicles mounted with machineguns raided neighborhoods outside the capital, Damascus, before dawn as Turkey's PM Erdogan said he was concerned Syria could descend into a sectarian civil war. Pro-democracy activists called a "day of anger" across Syria to protest against Russia's backing for President Bashar al-Assad. More than 20 people were reported killed throughout Syria. Syrian troops fired tear gas at a gathering of mourners just hours after U.S. Ambassador Robert Ford and other Western diplomats expressed their condolences to the family of a rights advocate killed last week.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)(AP, 9/14/11)
2011        Sep 13, Taiwan's Defense Ministry searched for three pilots aboard two reconnaissance F-5 aircraft which crashed on a training flight. The remains of the three pilots were recovered from a mountain crash site.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14913785)
2011        Sep 13, A Thailand court ordered the military to stop labeling transgender people as being mentally ill in a decision praised by activists.
    (AP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, Hundreds of thousands of Yemenis poured into the streets of major cities and towns across the country to protest the latest attempt by their embattled president to evade pressure to step down. 5 tribesmen were killed in clashes between tribal fighters in Arhab opposed to President Saleh and an elite military unit loyal to him.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)

2012        Sep 13, US federal authorities identified Nakoula Basseley Nakoula (55), a southern California man once convicted of financial crimes, as the key figure behind the anti-Muslim film, "Innocence of Muslims," that ignited mob violence against US embassies across the Mideast.
    (AP, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, A Ku Klux Klan chapter sued the state of Georgia for rejecting the white supremacist group's application to "adopt" a stretch of highway.
    (Reuters, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Nevada a motorist “under the influence" plowed into a Las Vegas bus stop killing 4 pedestrians and injuring 8 others.
    (SFC, 9/14/12, p.A8)
2012        Sep 13, In Argentina tens of thousands protested in Buenos
Aires clanging pots in opposition to government economic policies.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.39)
2012        Sep 13, British insurers launched a register of insurance fraudsters after calculating that bogus claims rose 5 percent last year, adding 50 pounds to the average policyholder's bill.
    (Reuters, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, Cambodia's UN-backed tribunal issued a statement saying that Ieng Thirith (80) suffers from a progressive, degenerative illness that is likely Alzheimer's disease and which diminishes her mental capacity. The court ruled that she was medically unfit to stand trial for genocide during the Khmer Rouge's 1975-79 rule, a decision survivors called shocking and unjust. Ieng Thirith was freed on Sep 16.
    (AFP, 9/13/12)(AP, 9/16/12)
2012        Sep 13, From the Czech Rep. it was reported that at least 19 people have died and 24 hospitalized after drinking cheap vodka and rum laced with methanol.
    (SFC, 9/13/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 13, An Egyptian court convicted former prime minister Ahmed Nazif on corruption charges and sentenced him to three years in prison. Nazif was also fined 4.5 million Egyptian pounds, or about $750,000. Nazif was already serving a seven-year term for his role in awarding contracts for supplying new car license plates without going through legal procedures.
    (AP, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Egypt Alber Saber was arrested after neighbors complained he had shared on Facebook the amateur film made in the US that sparked protests across the Muslim world. His arrest came during a wave of public outrage over the film, produced by an Egyptian-American Copt. On Dec 12 a Cairo court convicted and sentenced Saber to three years in prison for blasphemy and contempt of religion.
    (AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Guatemala the Volcan del Fuego, or Volcano of Fire, erupted in a ferocious lava flow 6 miles from Antigua.
    (AP, 9/14/12)
2012        Sep 13, Mexican prosecutors said they were investigating a 16-year-old suspected hitman who was believed to have participated in at least 50 murders while working for a drug gang. The teenager, identified as Francisco Miguel N., was part of a gang known as Los Mazatlecos, a criminal group attached to the Beltran Leyva drugs cartel.
    (Reuters, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Pakistan gunmen killed seven road construction workers in Mastung district in Baluchistan province.
    (AP, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Uganda British producer David Cecil appeared in court charged with "disobeying lawful orders" from the Uganda Media Council, which says he staged "The River and the Mountain," a play about being gay in Uganda, in Kampala last month despite orders to the contrary.
    (AP, 9/13/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Vietnam a record numbers of people visited the dissident blog sites and the bloggers pledged to keep up their struggle for freedom of expression. Vietnam's government has vowed to crack down on three dissident blogs.
    (AP, 9/14/12)
2012        Sep 13, In Yemen hundreds of protesters, angered by an anti-Islam film, chanted "death to America" and stormed the US Embassy compound in Sanaa and burned the American flag. At least 5 Yemenis were killed as state security repulsed the attack. Pres. Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi apologized to Pres. Barack Obama for the attack on the US Embassy.
    (www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAiOEV0v2RM)(AP, 9/13/12)(SFC, 9/14/12, p.A2)

2013        Sep 13, In western Afghanistan Taliban militants unleashed car bombs at the US Consulate in Herat, triggering a firefight with security forces in an attack that killed at least 3 Afghans.
    (AP, 9/13/13)(Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Australian man Tom Denniss (52) completed a grueling run that looped the world, having done the equivalent of a marathon a day for more than 20 months in what he hopes is a record. Denniss began his endurance test on December 31, 2011 at the Sydney Opera House and since then has travelled more than 26,000 km (16,200 miles) over five continents.
    (AFP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, London police arrested 12 men involved in a bold attempt to take control of a bank's computer in order to rob the institution. 4 men were charged the next day with trying to steal millions of pounds from Santander Bank by hacking into its computer system. 8 others were released on police bail pending further enquiries.
    (AP, 9/13/13)(Reuters, 9/14/13)
2013        Sep 13, Burundi opened an investigation into claims that a former ethnic Hutu rebel leader ordered the massacre of Congolese refugees in an attack almost a decade ago. The Banyamulenge, an ethnic Tutsi tribe from neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, in August accused Agathon Rwasa of ordering the killing of 166 Banyamulenge seeking refuge inside a camp in Burundi in 2004.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Central African Republic's new president Michel Djotodia said he was dissolving the Seleka rebel alliance that swept him to power, a group that has since been blamed for a wave of violence.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Egyptian soldiers backed by attack helicopters swept through several villages in the strategic Sinai peninsula, part of an offensive aimed at driving out al-Qaida-inspired groups.
    (AP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, An Indian court sentenced to death four men for the December gang rape and murder of a young New Delhi woman, ordering them to the gallows.
    (AP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, In India a homemade bomb exploded at a market in Imphal, the capital of Manipur state, killing at least 8 people.
    (SFC, 9/14/13, p.A3)
2013        Sep 13, In Iraq a bomb struck a Sunni mosque during prayers in Umm al-Adham village, on the outskirts of Baqouba, killing at least 30 people.
    (AFP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Lithuania made a formal protest to Russia over extra border checks imposed over the last month that are hampering trade as the countries spar over trade relations with Ukraine. Russia and the EU, of which Lithuania holds the rotating presidency, are each trying to convince Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine to join their respective trade blocs.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, In Malawi Paul Mphwiyo, an official at the national treasury, suffered gunshot wounds outside his home. Pres. Joyce Banda said he was attacked to stop him from exposing high-level fraud.
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.50)
2013        Sep 13, In Mexico police used tear gas and water cannon to disperse demonstrators in the main square of Mexico City, arresting 31 people, as the government took control of the historic center after weeks of protests by teachers.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, In southwestern Pakistan suspected militants fired rocket-propelled grenades at trucks carrying NATO oil supplies, killing a driver.
    (AP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, In Russia a fire killed 37 people in a psychiatric hospital in Luka, a provincial village north of Moscow. This was the second deadly blaze at such a facility this year.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, In Rwanda one person was killed and 14 wounded in a grenade blast in a market in Kigali, the latest in string of such attacks over the past few years.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, South African construction workers ended a three week strike after reaching a 12 percent wage hike deal with employers.
    (AFP, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Human Rights Watch said South Sudan's army has killed almost 100 members of a small tribe, executing some of them in cold blood, during seven months of fighting with rebels in Jonglei state.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, UN investigators said Syrian government forces are bombing and shelling hospitals in rebel-held areas to stop sick and wounded people getting treatment, acts which constitute war crimes.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, It was reported that at least five Venezuelan newspapers have temporarily stopped publishing in recent weeks for lack of paper.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2014        Sep 13, In California the King Fire broke out west of Lake Tahoe. By Sep 25 it had scorced 93,000 acres and was only 38% contained.
    (SFC, 9/25/14, p.A8)
2014        Sep 13, Univ. of Virginia student Hannah Graham (18) went missing. Police later identified Jesse Leroy Matthew Jr. (32) as a suspect. He was returned to Virginia on Sep 27 after being found in Texas. Matthew was also linked to the 2009 murder of Virginia Tech student Morgan Harrington (20). Graham’s body was found on Oct 18.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/mk4k2ac)(SSFC, 9/28/14, p.A10)(SFC, 10/1/14, p.A12)(SSFC, 10/19/14, p.A8)
2014        Sep 13, French police detained Kemi Seba (aka Stellio Capo Chichi), a convicted anti-Semite and radical black power activist, after he arrived in Paris to promote a new book. Seba had been living in Senegal.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 13, Indonesia's elite anti-terrorism squad arrested 7 suspected militants, including 4 Turks believed to be planning to join a jihadist group in eastern Indonesia with possible links to the Islamic State group. Four of the suspects were members of China's ethnic Uighur minority community.
    (AP, 9/14/14)(AP, 9/15/14)
2014        Sep 13, Islamic State militants publicly executed 8 Sunni men in a small northern Iraqi village over the last 24 hours for allegedly plotting against the group.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 13, The Islamic State released a video showing the beheading of British subject David Haines and threatening the life of another British hostage.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 13, Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf sacked 10 senior officials because they failed to heed a warning to return from overseas travel to help the government's fight against an Ebola epidemic.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 13, In the Philippines rescuers plucked at least 110 survivors from dangerously shifting waters and recovered at least 3 bodies from the M/V Maharlika II, which listed and sank at nightfall.
    (AP, 9/14/14)
2014        Sep 13, A Russian convoy of more than 200 white trucks crossed the border to deliver humanitarian aid to Luhansk, a move made without Kiev's consent yet met with silence by Ukraine's top leaders.
    (AP, 9/13/14)
2014        Sep 13, In Serbia a German man (27), taking part in a gay rights conference, suffered life-threatening brain injuries when he was severely beaten in Belgrade.
    (SSFC, 9/14/14, p.A6)
2014        Sep 13, Ugandan police arrested 19 suspected Islamist Shebab insurgents who planned to carry out bomb attacks in Kampala and other towns.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)

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