Today in History - September 20

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480 BC    Sep 20, Themistocles and his Greek fleet won one of history's first decisive naval victories over Xerxes' Persian force off Salamis. Persia under Xerxes attacked Greece. Athens got burned but the Athenian fleet under Themistocles trapped and destroyed the Persian navy at Salamis. Phoenician squadrons were at the heart of Xerxes’ fleet; the king of Sidon was among his admirals.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.49)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(HN, 9/20/98)

19BC        Sep 20, The Roman poet Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, b.70BC) died. His epic "The Aeneid" became one of the great classics of Western literature. The story it tells runs from the end of the Trojan War to the start of the Roman Empire.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1587)(MC 9/20/01)

451        Sep 20, Roman General Aetius defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne (Battle of the Catalaunian Plains). Many sources date this on Jun 20.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6vaxufu)

622        Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1168        Sep 20, Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, died.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1258        Sep 20, The Cathedral of Salisbury, begun in 1220, was inaugurated.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)

1378        Sep 20, The election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the Catholic church.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1519        Sep 20, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN, 9/20/98)

1530        Sep 20, Luther advised the Protestant monarch compromise.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1561        Sep 20, Queen Elizabeth of England signed a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Conde. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding Bourbon against the Catholics of France.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1565        Sep 20, A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were later thrown into question.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.31)(Arch, 1/06, p.25)

1586        Sep 20, Anthony Babington, page and conspirator to Mary Stuart, was executed at 24.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1593        Sep 20, Gottfried Scheidt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1604        Sep 20, After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)

1645        Sep 20, Louis Joliet, French-Canadian explorer in the New World, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1664        Sep 20, Maryland passed the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women and black men.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1697        Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg, 1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.
    (www.caribbeanguides.net/hispaniola.htm)(www.jacobite.ca/documents/1697ryswick.htm)

1746        Sep 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France from Scotland. [see Oct 1]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1776        Sep 20, American soldiers, some of them members of Nathan Hale’s regiment, filtered into British-held New York City and stashed resin soaked logs into numerous buildings and a roaring inferno was started. A fourth of the city was destroyed including Trinity Church. The events are documented in the 1997 book "Liberty by Thomas Fleming."
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.W13)

1777        Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at Paoli, Pa. Prior to launching a surprise night attack on Anthony Wayne’s Continental division at Paoli, General Charles Grey ordered his troops to rely entirely on their bayonets. To ensure that his troops obeyed, he had his men remove the flints from their weapons so they could not be fired.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(HNQ, 8/19/02)

1784        Sep 20, Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appeared on the streets.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1797        Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1803        Sep 20, Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, was executed.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1806        Sep 20, Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark passed the French village of La Charette, the first white settlement they had seen in over two years.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1820        Sep 20, John Fulton Reynolds, Major General (Union volunteers), was born. He died in 1863 on first day at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1828        Sep 20, Gioacchino Rossini’s opera "Le Comte Ory," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1830        Sep 20, The National Negro Convention convened in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing slavery.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1833        Sep 20, Petroleum V. Nasby (David Ross Locke), humorist, was born. His work was enjoyed by Abraham Lincoln.
    (HN, 9/20/00)
1833        Sep 20, Charles Darwin rode a horse to Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1842        Sep 20, Lord James Dewar, physician who invented the vacuum flask and cordite, the first smokeless powder, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1848        Sep 20, The American Association for the Advancement of Science was founded to replace the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists. The Association of American Geologists had been founded in 1840 and in 1842 it became the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)(www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1848aaas.html)

1850        Sep 20, The slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished as a provision of Henry Clay's Compromise of 1850. Because each state had its own slavery code when the District of Columbia was founded in 1800, Washington had adopted Maryland's laws. Although the 1850 legislation made the slave trade illegal, slavery itself was still legal. Nevertheless, Washington became a haven for free blacks. By 1860, free blacks outnumbered slaves almost four-to-one. President Abraham Lincoln put an end to Washington's slavery altogether in 1862, freeing about 2,989 African Americans who were then slaves according to the slavery code.
    (HNPD, 9/20/98)(HN, 9/20/98)

1853        Sep 20, The Allies defeated the Russians at the battle of Alma on the Crimean Peninsula.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1857        Sep 20, Delhi, India, fell to British forces.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

1859        Sep 20, George Simpson patented the electric range.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1861        Sep 20, Lexington, Missouri, was captured by Union forces.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1863        Sep 20, Union troops under George Thomas prevented the Union defeat at Chickamauga from becoming a rout, earning him the nickname "the Rock of Chickamauga." Thomas stayed and fought even after his commander, William Rosecrans, retreated to Chattanooga. President Abraham Lincoln later appointed Thomas as Rosecrans‘ successor. Armed with their new, lethal seven-shot Spencer rifles, Wilder’s Lightning Brigade was all that stood between the Union Army and the looming disaster at Chickamauga Creek. The bloody battle of Chickamauga was the costliest two-day battle of the entire war.
    (HN, 9/20/98)(HN, 11/4/98)(HNQ, 9/29/00)
1863        Sep 20, Jakob Grimm, writer, died at 78.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1870        Sep 20, Mayor William Tweed was accused of robbing the NY treasury.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1870        Sep 20, Italian troops under Victor Emmanuel II took control of the Papal States from France, leading to the unification of Italy. Pope Pius IX surrendered.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A6)(SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)(AP, 9/20/97)(MC, 9/20/01)

1873        Sep 20, A financial panic hit the NY Stock Exchange when the high-flying bond dealer, Jay Cooke, granted too many loans to the railroads. Panic spread to Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days. The economy went into a 6 year depression. Philadelphia banker and newspaperman Anthony Drexel teamed up with J.P. Morgan to depose a rival bank run by Jay Cooke. They published allegations to undermine confidence and cause a run that led to a panic.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1874        Sep 20, Gustav Holst, composer of "The Planets," was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
   
1878        Sep 20, Upton Beall Sinclair (d.1968), muckraking author, was born. His work included "The Jungle," which exposed the horrible conditions in the meat packing industry and calling for reforms.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1330)(HN, 9/20/98)(MC, 9/20/01)

1881        Sep 20, Chester A. Arthur was sworn in as the 21st president of the United States, succeeding James A. Garfield, who had been assassinated.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1884        Sep 20, Maxwell Perkins, editor, was born. He was the first to publish F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway and Thomas Wolfe.
    (HN, 9/20/00)
1884        Sep 20, The Equal Rights Party was formed during a convention of suffragists in San Francisco. The convention nominated Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood of Washington, D.C., for president and Marietta Snow as her running mate.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(MC, 9/20/01)

1891        Sep 20, Lamine Gueye, Senegalese political leader, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1897        Sep 20, Alberto Santos-Dumont successfully flew his repaired motorized dirigible around the Zoological Gardens in Paris.
    (ON, 3/03, p.10)

1898        Sep 20, Theodore Fontane (b.1819), German novelist and poet, died. He is regarded by many to be the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Fontane)

1904        Sep 20, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a circle in their Flyer II.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1908        Sep 20, Alexander Mitscherlich, German psychotherapist, was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1908        Sep 20, Pablo Martin Melitou de Sarasate y Navascuez, composer, died at 64.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1914        Sep 20, Kenneth More, English actor (39 Steps, Doctor in the House), was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1917        Sep 20, Arnold "Red" Auerbach, second winningest basketball coach in history with 1,037 victories for the Boston Celtics, was born.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1927        Sep 20, NY Yankee Babe Ruth hit his record 60th HR of season off Tom Zachry. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1928        Sep 20, Joyce Brothers, pop psychiatrist ($64,000 question winner), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1932        Sep 20, Gandhi began a hunger strike against the treatment of untouchables.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1934        Sep 20, Sophia Loren, actress (Desire Under the Elms, Black Orchid), was born in Rome.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1934        Sep 20, Bruno Hauptmann was arrested for the kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby. [see Sep 19]
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1938        Sep 20, Emlyn Williams’ "Corn is Green," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1939        Sep 20, After sinking trawlers off the northern Hebrides, German U-27 was located and sunk by destroyers "Fortune" and "Forester."
    (www.naval-history.net/WW2CampaignsUboats.htm)

1945        Sep 20, German rocket engineers began work in US.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1946        Sep 20, The first Cannes Film Festival was held.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1946        Sep 20, President Harry S Truman asked Sec. of Commerce Henry A. Wallace to resign, due to Wallace’s comments about Russia on September 12.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1946        Sep 20, Churchill argued for a "US of Europe." [see Sep 19]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1947        Sep 20, Former Republican New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia (1933-45) died. "The devil is easy to identify. He appears when you're terribly tired and makes a very reasonable request which you know you shouldn't grant." He amassed huge debts in the course of infrastructure improvements that lasted to the end of the century. In 2002 H. Paul Jeffers authored “The Napoleon of New York: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiorello_La_Guardia)(AP, 1/8/98)(AP, 9/20/97)(AH, 2/03, p.60)

1951        Sep 20, Swiss males voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1952        Sep 20, Scientists confirmed that DNA holds hereditary data.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1953        Sep 20, Jimmy Stewart debuted in "The Six Shooter" on NBC.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1953        Sep 20, The "Loretta Young Show" (A Letter to Loretta) premiered on NBC TV and ran for 8 years.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.B10)

1954        Sep 20, The live TV drama "Twelve Angry Men" was presented as an episode of CBS' "Studio One" anthology series.
    (AP, 9/21/04)
1954        Sep 20, The 1st FORTRAN computer program was executed.
    (MC, 9/20/01)
1954        Sep 20, Roger Bannister awarded Britain’s Silver Pears Trophy for cracking the 4-minute mile.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1957        Sep 20, "M Squad," starring Lee Marvin, premiered on NBC-TV.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
1957        Sep 20, Jean Julius Christian Sibelius (b.1865), Finnish composer (Finlandia), died. He had published no music for the last three decades of his life.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Sibelius)(Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.20)

1958        Sep 20, Rev. Martin Luther King was stabbed by Izola Curry, a deranged woman, during a book signing on 125th St. in Harlem. Dr. Aubre De Lambert Maynard (d.1999 at 97) performed a successful operation on King who had a knife embedded in his sternum. Curry was later found mentally incompetent.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.C3)(AP, 9/20/08)

1960        Sep 20, David Park (b.1911), a SF Bay Area figurative painter, died at 49. His work included: "Man in a T-Shirt" and “Untitled" (1958), "Torso" (1959). He made the 1st serious break with Abstract Expressionism in his 1950 painting "Kids of Bikes." In 2012 Nancy Boas authored “David Park: A Painter’s Life."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)(SFEM, 9/21/97, p.31)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/12, p.F7)

1961        Sep 20, James Meredith was refused access as a student in Mississippi. [see Sep 20 1962]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1962        Sep 20, Black student James Meredith was blocked from enrolling at the University of Mississippi by Governor Ross R. Barnett. Meredith was later admitted. A Life Magazine photograph around this time showed 7 sheriffs gathered at Ole Miss to keep Meredith out. In 2003 Paul Hendrickson authored "Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy," in which he uncovered the lives of the 7 sheriffs.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M1)

1963        Sep 20, In a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, President Kennedy proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet expedition to the moon. Pres. Kennedy stayed at New York’s Carlyle Hotel and received a "leggy babe" under Secret Service escort.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A17)
1963        Sep 20, California’s legislature passed the Rumford Fair Housing Act, the state’s first law prohibiting racial discrimination in housing. It was authored by Assemblyman Byron Rumford (d.1986) of Oakland. The Proposition 14 referendum on November 3, 1964, saw a 2-to-1 vote in favor of repeal of the Rumford Act. It was restored in 1966 when the California Supreme Court ruled that Proposition 14 was illegal.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oe2tz73)(SFEM, 11/17/96, p.20)(SFC, 7/27/15, p.E2)

1965        Sep 20, Seven U.S. planes were downed in one day over Vietnam.
    (HN, 9/20/98)
1965        Sep 20, The India-Pakistani war was at the point of stalemate when the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution that called for a cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on September 23. The Indian side lost 3,000 while the Pakistani side suffered 3,800 battlefield deaths.
    (http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr65/fkashmir1965)

1966        Sep 20, Allen Cohen (1940-2004), published the 1st edition of the SF Oracle underground newspaper. The San Francisco Oracle featured visionary art by such renown artists as: Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, David Singer, Stanley Mouse, alongside writing firmly steeped in the past with such Beat era writers as: Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, and Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Cohen was arrested earlier in 1966 for selling a collection of erotic poetry called "The Love Book" by Lenore Kandel. Cohen was convicted and fined $50. The SF Oracle folded in 1968 following the publication of issue #12.
    (SFC, 5/1/04, p.B7)(www.sfheart.com/cohen_bio.html)

1967        Sep 20, The 963-foot passenger ship Queen Elizabeth II was launched. The RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 was christened by Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in Clydebank, Scotland.
    (www.cunard.co.uk)(AP, 9/20/07)

1968        Sep 20, The TV show "Name of the Game" premiered with Gene Barry and Tony Franciosa. It was written and produced by Leslie Stevens (d.1998) and ran to 1971.
    (SFC, 4/29/98, p.C2)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0062591/)

1970        Sep 20, Pres. Nixon’s aide, Charles W. Colson, stated in a memo to Chief of staff H.R. Haldeman: "(the networks) are very much afraid of us and are trying hard to prove they are ‘good guys.’"
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)
1970        Sep 20, The Soviet Luna 16 landed on Moon’s Mare Fecunditatis and drilled a core sample.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_16)

1971        Sep 20, The American League Ok'd the Washington Senator move to Arlington, where they became the Texas Rangers.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Washington_Senators_season)
1971        Sep 20, George Seferis (b.1900), Nobel Prize-winning (1963) Greek poet, died. In 2003 Roderick Beaton authored "George Seferis - Waiting for the Angel: A Biography."
    (HN, 3/13/01)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgos_Seferis)

1972        Sep 20, The NBC TV series “Madigan" premiered with Richard Widmark (1914-2008).
    (SFC, 3/27/08, p.A2)

1973        Sep 20, In their so-called "battle of the sexes," tennis star Billie Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in straight sets, 6-4, 6-3, 6-3, at the Houston Astrodome.
    (AP, 9/20/97)
1973        Sep 20, Jim Croce (b.1943), American singer-songwriter, died in an airplane crash near Natchitoches, La., just as he was beginning to capitalize on his success. Maury Muehleisen and four others also died as their plane crashed into a tree while taking off for a concert in Sherman, Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Croce)(AP, 9/20/98)

1974        Sep 20, Gail A. Cobb (24), a member of the Metropolitan Police Force of Washington, D.C., became the first female police officer to be killed in the line of duty. Cobb was murdered by a robbery suspect in an underground garage in downtown Washington.
    (http://mpdc.dc.gov/mpdc/cwp/view,a,1231,q,538639.asp)

1975        Sep 20, The Kansas City Lyric Opera premiered Jack Beeson’s "Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines." It was commissioned to celebrate founder and director Russell Patterson’s 40th and final year with the company.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Jinks_of_the_Horse_Marines)

1976        Sep 20, Playboy magazine released an interview in which Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter admitted he'd "looked on a lot of women with lust." Carter was interviewed for the November issue of Playboy and he admitted that he had committed "lust in my heart."
    (AP, 9/20/01)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A11)

1977        Sep 20, The first wave of Southeast Asian "boat people" arrived in San Francisco under a new U.S. resettlement program.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1978        Jul 24, The Beatles’ animated film "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" premiered in the US.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0078239/)
1978        Sep 20, John Vorster, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa since 1966, announced his resignation.
    (AP, 9/20/03)

1979        Sep 20, John Riccardo stepped down as Chrysler’s chairman and was succeeded by Lee Iacocca.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)(www.scripophily.net/chcoca19.html)
1979        Sep 20, In the Central African Republic Jean-Bedel Bokassa was toppled in a French-backed coup. 700 French paratroopers took control of Bangui while Bokassa was away on a state visit to Libya.
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A9)(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A22)(AP, 9/20/99)

1980        Sep 20, "Spectacular Bid," ridden by Bill Shoemaker, ran as the only entry in the Woodward Stakes at Belmont Park in New York after three potential challengers dropped out in horse racing's first walkover since 1949.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

1984        Sep 20, The TV sitcom "Cosby Show" with Bill Cosby premiered on NBC-TV.
    {TV, USA}
    (SSFC, 2/11/01, BR p.1)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0086687/)
1984        Sep 20, In Maine a fire killed an adult and 4 children in Hartland.
    (www.centralmaine.com/2014/11/01/four-dead-in-portland-house-fire/)
1984        Sep 20, A suicide car bomber attacked the US Embassy annex in north Beirut. 24 people were killed including 2 US soldiers.
    (http://beirut.usembassy.gov/lebanon/beirut_memorial.html)(AP, 9/20/97)(SFC, 9/12/01, p.A7)

1987        Sep 20, "Big River: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" closed at the Eugene O’Neill Theater in NYC after 1005 performances.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_River_(musical))
1987        Sep 20, The 39th Emmy Awards winners included: LA Law, Bruce Willis & Sharon Gless.
    (www.popculturemadness.com/Trivia/Emmies/Top-1987-E.html)
1987        Sep 20, Pope John Paul II concluded an 11-day visit to North America as he celebrated Mass for thousands of Indians at Fort Simpson in Canada's Northwest Territories.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1988        Sep 20, Greg Louganis of the United States won the gold medal in springboard diving at the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, a day after he injured his head on the board in the preliminary round.
    (AP, 9/20/98)
1988        Sep 20, The 43rd General Assembly opened at the United Nations.
    (AP, 9/20/98)

1989        Sep 20, The musical "Miss Saigon," premiered in London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alain_Boublil)
1989        Sep 20, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev pulled off a major shake-up of the Soviet Communist Party, dropping three Politburo members.
    (AP, 9/20/99)
1989        Sep 20, F.W. de Klerk (b.1936) was sworn in as president of South Africa. Frederik Willem de Klerk was the last president (1989-1994) of Apartheid-era South Africa.
    (AP, 9/20/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederik_Willem_de_Klerk)

1990        Sep 20, Demanding equal time, Iraq asked US networks to broadcast a message by President Saddam Hussein in response to President Bush’s videotaped address to the Iraqi people.
    (AP, 9/20/00)

1991        Sep 20, On Capitol Hill, the Senate concluded hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 9/20/01)
1991        Sep 20, U.N. weapons inspectors left Bahrain for Iraq to renew their search for Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 9/20/01)

1992        Sep 20, The space shuttle Endeavour landed at the Kennedy Space Center.
    (AP, 9/20/97)
1992        Sep 20, Leanza Cornett of Florida was crowned "Miss America" in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (AP, 9/20/97)
1992        Sep 20, French voters narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty on European union.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1993        Sep 20, QVC Network Inc. proposed a $9.5 billion stock and cash merger with Paramount Communications Inc.; however, Viacom eventually won the battle to acquire Paramount.
    (AP, 9/20/98)

1994        Sep 20, Space shuttle Discovery and its six astronauts landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California after an 11-day mission.
    (AP, 9/20/99)
1994        Sep 20, Jule Styne (88), Broadway composer (Gypsy, Funny Girl), died in New York.
    (AP, 9/20/99)

1995        Sep 20, The US House voted to drop the national speed limit and let states decide how fast people should drive.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
1995        Sep 20, In a move that stunned Wall Street, AT&T Corporation announced it was splitting into three companies.
    (WSJ, 9/21/95, p.B-2)(AP, 9/19/00)
1995        Sep 20, Rene Anselmo (b.1926), founder of PanAmSat (1984), died. “Truth and technology will triumph over bullshit and bureaucracy."
    (http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/individual/629772)(Econ, 10/04/08, p.86)
1995        Sep 20, Bosnian Serb rebels pulled back enough heavy weapons from around Sarajevo to keep NATO airstrikes at bay.
    (AP, 9/19/00)

1996        Sep 20, President Clinton announced his signing of a bill outlawing homosexual marriages, but said it should not be used as an excuse for discrimination, violence or intimidation against gays and lesbians. The actual signing came a little after midnight.
    (AP, 9/20/97)
1996        Sep 20, Paul Weston, bandleader, died at 84.
    (www.spaceagepop.com/weston.htm)
1996        Sep 20, Paul Erdos, Hungarian-born mathematician, died. He founded the field of discreet mathematics and had more than 1500 papers to his name. He lived devoted to his subject and had no home or job.
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.B2)
1996        Sep 20, In Columbia leftist guerrillas unleashed a wave of bombings that included 4 against banks and electricity lines in Cartagena. 18 coal trucks were torched in northern Cesar province and a truck with 31 tons of ammonium nitrate, base material for explosives, was hijacked.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)
1996        Sep 20, In Columbia more than 8 lbs. of heroin were found on Pres. Samper’s presidential jet as it was preparing for a flight to New York. Eleven Air Force personnel were later arrested.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A12)
1996        Sep 20, In Estonia Pres. Lennart Meri was re-elected to a second term in the largely ceremonial post.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)
1996        Sep 20, Murtazza Bhutto, brother of Benazir Bhutto, and 6 followers were killed in a clash with police in Karachi, Pakistan. He led the Shaheed Bhutto faction of the Pakistan People's Party.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)

1997        Sep 20, President Clinton's attorneys insisted no laws were broken as it was disclosed that Attorney General Janet Reno had taken a first step toward seeking a special prosecutor to investigate the president's 1996 fund-raising activities.
    (AP, 9/20/98)
1997        Sep 20, Nicholas Traina (19), the son of novelist Danielle Steel, died in SF of a drug overdose.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A1)
1997        Sep 20, Jimmy Witherspoon (b.8/23/23 in Gurdon, Ark.), blues singer, died at age 74 in LA.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1997        Sep 20, In Niger it was reported that about 71,000 villagers were threatened by famine in the southwestern areas around Oualam.
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.A19)
1997        Sep 20, In the Philippines Pres. Ramos announced that he would not run for re-election. A mass protest was staged the next day anyway to prevent a change in the constitution that would allow a 2nd term.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A1)

1998        Sep 20, Mark McGwire his 65th home run against the Milwaukee Brewers.
    (WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Sep 20, In Baltimore Cal Ripken sat out a game against the New York Yankees after playing 2,632 consecutive games, a record that began May 30, 1982.
    (SFC, 9/20/98, p.A1)(AP, 9/20/99)
1998        Sep 20, In Palo Alto, Ca., the 2nd annual Sand Hill Challenge, a soapbox derby for the Peninsula Community Foundation, was held. The world’s largest accordion band was scheduled to set a Guinness record. The band of over 500 played "Lady of Spain."
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.A18)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A21)
1998        Sep 20, Muriel Humphrey Brown, widow of Vice President Hubert Humphrey and his brief successor in the U.S. Senate, died in Minneapolis at age 86.
    (AP, 9/20/99)
1998        Sep 20, Rosh Hashana, the Jewish new year began at sundown.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, p.C1)
1998        Sep 20, In Afghanistan Russian-made opposition missiles were shot into Kabul and 180 people were killed or wounded.
    (SFC, 9/20/98, p.A14)
1998        Sep 20, In Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim (51) was jailed following charges of sexual hijinks. His arrest coincided with protests calling for the resignation of the prime minister and with the end of the competition of the Commonwealth Games and a state visit by Queen Elizabeth II.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, p.A12)
1998        Sep 20, In Sweden the Social Democrats led by Prime Minister Goran Persson won the elections with 36.5% of the vote vs. 22.7% for the opposition Moderates led by Carl Bildt.
    (SFC, 9/20/98, p.A12)

1999        Sep 20, Lawrence Russell Brewer became the second white supremacist to be convicted in the dragging death of James Byrd Junior in Jasper, Texas. Brewer was later sentenced to death.
    (AP, 9/19/00)
1999        Sep 20, Factories in Beijing were closed down to clear the air as part of the $13 billion preparations for the 50th anniversary of Communist rule.
    (SFC, 9/29/99, p.A10)   
1999        Sep 20, In East Timor the first wave of int'l. peacekeepers, known as Interfet, landed and established control over Dili. They cleared the way for the rest of a UN-approved force charged with restoring order.
    (SFC, 9/20/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.A10)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.A12)(AP, 9/19/00)
1999        Sep 20, In Kosovo NATO and the KLA agreed on a transformation of the KLA into a civil defense group named the Kosovo Protection Corps.
    (SFC, 9/21/99, p.A10)
1999        Sep 20, In Russia Raisa Gorbachev, wife of last Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, died at age 67 after a battle with leukemia.
    (SFC, 9/21/99, p.A11)(AP, 9/19/00)
1999        Sep 20, In Taiwan a 7.6 earthquake killed an estimated 2,161 people and injured over 3,500. 2,600 people were believed to be buried alive. Aftershocks the next day registered at 6.8 and 100,000 people were homeless.
    (SFC, 9/21/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/22/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A1) (http://nisee.berkeley.edu/taiwan/)

2000        Sep 20, Robert Ray, the independent counsel who succeeded Kenneth Starr, ended the $52 million Whitewater probe ended without charges against the Clintons, saying there was insufficient evidence to warrant charges against Pres. Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton.
    (AP, 9/20/01)(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Sep 20, Prosecutors charged a Manhattan immigration lawyer with helping run a smuggling ring for Chinese immigrants. Robert Porges (61) collected as much as $13 million in fees for helping transport as many as 7,000 illegal immigrants from China to the US.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.A3)
2000        Sep 20, The space shuttle Atlantis returned after hauling in 3 tons of equipment for the int’l. space station.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Sep 20, A report by the UN Population Fund said the discrimination and violence against women "remain firmly rooted in cultures around the world."
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.C4)
2000        The euro hit a 20-month low of 84.44 to the dollar.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.C2)
2000        Sep 20, In London a small missile hit the M16 intelligence agency at Vauxhall Cross and exploded on the 8th floor with minor damage. A rocket-propelled grenade launcher was later found near the scene.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.A12)(SFC, 9/22/00, p.A18)
2000        Sep 20, In Colombia ELN rebels released 12 of 55 hostages seized near Cali. They still held 43.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.A13)
2000        Sep 20, In Indonesia Pres. Wahid fired Gen. Fachrul Razi, the deputy commander of the armed forces, due to the slow pace of reform in West Timor. Some 120,000 refugees in West Timor faced hunger due to the withdrawal of aid groups.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.C3)
2000        Sep 20, In the Philippines 2 French television journalists were rescued from Abu Sayyaf rebels. 7 rebels were reported killed and 20 captured after 5 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 9/20/00, p.A14)
2000        Sep 20, In Russia gunmen seized at least 4 hostages in the southern town of Lazarevskoye. They demanded $30 million and a helicopter. The gunmen surrendered after 2 days and the incident was believed to have been faked and started on a drunken whim.
    (SFC, 9/22/00, p.A17)(SFC, 9/23/00, p.A11)
2000        Sep 20, Former Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov died at age 65.
    (AP, 9/20/01)

2001        Sep 20, Pres. Bush addressed Congress and the nation and promised that "justice will be done." The NYC death toll was raised to 6,333 missing to include citizens missing from foreign countries. The total Sep 11 death toll reached 6,807. On Nov 20 the official count was reduced to just below 3,900.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A1,3)(SFC, 11/21/01, p.A2)
2001        Sep 20, Pres. Bush named Gov. Tom Ridge (56) of Pennsylvania to direct the new office of Homeland Security.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A16)
2001        Sep 20, Pictures of most of the Sep 11 hijackers were published along with some personal data.
    (SFC, 9/20/01, p.A3)
2001        Sep 20, The FBI arrested Nabil Al-Marabh (34), a suspected bin laden associate, in the Chicago area.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A3)
2001        Sep 20, A chartered flight left the US with members of the sprawling bin Laden family. The FBI interviewed 22 of the 26 people aboard.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)
2001        Sep 20, The DJIA fell 382 to 8,386. The Nasdaq fell 56 to 1,470.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A1)
2001        Sep 20, In Afghanistan Muslim clerics issued an edict that suggested Osama bin Laden be persuaded to leave the country.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A5)
2001        Sep 20, An Israeli woman, Sarit Amrani (25), was killed in a drive-by shooting by the Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. A Palestinian man was killed in Gaza following a grenade assault. Another Palestinian police officer was killed, possibly by militants he was trying to restrain near Hebron. The violence threatened the recent truce.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D2)
2001        Sep 20, In Macedonia NATO troops began the 3rd stage of Essential Harvest.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D3)
2001        Sep 20, In Russia the State Duma approved private ownership of urban and industrial land, about 2% of the country.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.D3)

2002        Sep 20, President Bush appealed to a reluctant Russian President Vladimir Putin to back a new U.N. resolution that would threaten Iraq with war if it did not disarm; Russian officials indicated there might be room for compromise.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2002        Sep 20, It was reported that cancer in Melanoma patients went into remission following injections of their own T-cells.
    (WSJ, 9/20/02, p.A1)
2002        Sep 20, Scientists urged stronger warning labels for aspirin, ibuprofen and similar painkillers due to the risk of ulcers.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A3)
2002        Sep 20, William Rosenberg (86), founder of the Dunkin' Donuts chain, died in Mashpee, Mass.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2002        Sep 20, A riot in an overcrowded Dominican prison left 30 inmates dead and 48 others injured, 12 critically. Most of the deaths were by smoke inhalation.
    (AP, 9/20/02)(AP, 2/16/12)
2002        Sep 20, In India one man was killed and 5 others injured when police opened fire to disperse groups of Hindus and Muslims fighting in western Gujarat state.
    (Reuters, 9/20/02)
2002        Sep 20, Israel tightened its siege on Yasser Arafat, using tanks to destroy a stairwell in his compound, digging a deep trench and running coils of barbed wire around his offices.
    (AP, 9/20/02)
2002        Sep 20, Rebel soldiers dug in at two Ivory Coast cities, reinforcing positions with heavy weapons and handing out uniforms and guns to recruits, a day after the government said it had crushed a bloody coup attempt.
    (AP, 9/20/02)
2002        Sep 20, In southern Russia a collapsing glacier triggered an avalanche of ice and mud, burying the village of Nizhny Karmadon in the southern republic of North Ossetia, and killing as many as 100 people.
    (AP, 9/21/02)
2002        Sep 20, Necdet Kent (91), Turkish diplomat in France (1941-1944), died in Istanbul. He gave Turkish citizenship to dozens of Turkish Jews living in France who did not have proper identity papers to save them from deportation to the Nazi gas chambers.
    (AP, 9/20/02)
2002        Sep 20, In Yemen 2 suspected members of al-Qaida were killed in a gunbattle and three others were arrested after security forces raided several homes looking for members of the terrorist network.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

2003        Sep 20, In Atlantic City, NJ, Miss Florida Ericka Dunlap beat out 50 rivals to be crowned Miss America.
    (AP, 9/21/03)
2003        Sep 20, A Grand Canyon sightseeing helicopter crashed and all 7 aboard were killed.
    (WSJ, 9/23/03, p.A1)
2003        Sep 20, In Oakland, Ca., Cha Cha Hill (3) died of multiple injuries following numerous beatings by his father, Chazarus Hill Sr. In 2007 the father (27) was sentenced to 26 years to life in prison following a conviction of assault causing death.
    (SFC, 3/9/07, p.B4)
2003        Sep 19, Five of six children riding on an all-terrain vehicle in Coffee County, Ga., were killed when they were hit by a motorist.
    (AP, 9/21/04)
2003        Sep 20, In central Iraq 3 American soldiers were killed and 13 injured in a mortar attack and a bombing.
    (AP, 9/21/03)
2003        Sep 20, In Iraq gunmen attacked and wounded Aquila al-Hashimi, one of three women on Iraq's Governing Council and a leading candidate to become the country's representative at the United Nations.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2003        Sep 20, Japan's ruling party entered the final phase of voting to choose its leader. PM Junichiro Koizumi easily won re-election as head of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2003        Sep 20, The Indian army said it killed six suspected separatist guerrillas from a Pakistan-based group after a fierce battle in Indian-controlled Kashmir.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2003        Sep 20, Latvians endorsed membership in the EU.
    (AP, 9/21/03)
2003        Sep 20, In central Pakistan a train slammed into a bus, killing 27 people and injuring 6.
    (AP, 9/20/03)
2003        Sep 20, The semi-annual meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund began in Dubai, UAR.
    (AP, 9/21/03)
2003        Sep 20, Zimbabwe Vice President Simon Muzenda (81), a long time loyal aide of Zimbabwe's autocratic leader Robert Mugabe, died.
    (AP, 9/20/03)

2004        Sep 20, CBS News apologized for a "mistake in judgment" in its story questioning President Bush's National Guard service, saying it could not vouch for the authenticity of documents featured in the report.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2004        Sep 20, The diocese of Tucson, Arizona, filed for bankruptcy protection in seeking relief from debt due to sex-abuse settlements.
    (WSJ, 9/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 20, A small plane with 5 aboard crashed in Montana’s Glacier National Park. 2 survivors were found 2 days later.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.A2)
2004        Sep 20, In southeastern Afghan province 2 US soldiers were killed in a firefight with insurgents.
    (AP, 9/20/04)
2004        Sep 20, India's space agency said it successfully launched the nation's first satellite for educational services.
    (AP, 9/20/04)
2004        Sep 20, In Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono held a commanding lead over Incumbent President Megawati Sukarnoputri in partial official results.
    (AP, 9/20/04)
2004        Sep 20, A car bomb exploded in the northern Iraq city of Mosul, killing three people. Gunmen killed a Sunni Muslim cleric as he entered a mosque in Baghdad to perform noon prayers. At least two people were killed and three wounded in explosions that rocked the rebel-held city of Fallujah. An Islamic group posted a video showing the beheading of US contract employee Eugene Armstrong.
    (AP, 9/20/04)(SFC, 9/21/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 20, An Israeli helicopter blew up a car in Gaza City, killing Khaled Abu Shamiyeh (30), a Hamas militant who was involved in making and firing rockets at Israeli towns.
    (AP, 9/20/04)
2004        Sep 20, Russia's embattled Yukos oil giant raised the stakes in its bitter standoff with the Kremlin as the company slashed supplies to China in a move analysts said was designed to cause maximum embarrassment in Moscow.
    (AP, 9/20/04)

2005        Sep 20, Pres. Bush made his 5th visit to Katrina’s disaster zone on the Gulf Coast.
    (WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Sep 20, The White House said Pres George W. Bush has named his homeland security adviser, Fran Townsend, to lead an internal inquiry into the much-criticized federal response to Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, The US Federal Reserve raised its short-term interest-rate target for the 11th consecutive time a quarter point to 3.75%. The DJIA fell 76.11 to 10481.52.
    (WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Sep 20, The Sacramento Monarchs won their first championship with a 62-59 victory over the Connecticut Sun in Game 4 of the WNBA Finals.
    (www.wnba.com/about_us/greatest_moments_020508.html)
2005        Sep 20, Rita strengthened into a growing hurricane as it lashed the Florida Keys with heavy rain and strong wind, threatening the island chain with a storm surge of up to 6 feet and sparking fears the storm could eventually bring new misery to the Gulf Coast.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Federated Department Stores announced that it would convert all of its 62 Field’s stores to the Macy’s name. Federated acquired May Dept. stores, the parent of Marshall Field’s, earlier in the year.
    (WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A15)
2005        Sep 20, A new study said an ingredient in green tea that researchers think might fight cancer may also protect the brain from the memory-destroying Alzheimer's disease.
    (Reuters, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, President Hamid Karzai challenged the need for major foreign military operations in Afghanistan, saying air strikes are no longer effective and that U.S.-led coalition forces should focus on rooting out terror bases and support networks.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Simon Wiesenthal (96), the Holocaust survivor who helped track down Nazi war criminals following World War II, then spent the later decades of his life fighting anti-Semitism and prejudice against all people, died in Austria. In 2010 Tom Segev authored “Simon Wiesenthal: The Life and Legends."
    (AP, 9/20/05)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.102)(SSFC, 10/3/10, p.F5)
2005        Sep 20, In Bolivia a fire that has devoured more than 247,000 acres of Amazon forest burned out of control near the Brazilian border.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Canada’s Federal Fisheries Minister Geoff Regan said Canada is trying to build international momentum to combat overfishing.
    (CP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, In Chechnya gunmen launched two separate attacks, killing one police officer and wounding four others.
    (AP, 9/21/05)
2005        Sep 20, Croatia issued an international arrest warrant for Milivoj Aschner (92), a former police chief in eastern Croatia and requested that Austria extradite him. Aschner allegedly enforced racist laws in 1941-1942 under Croatia's World War II Nazi puppet regime, which persecuted tens of thousands of Jews, Gypsies and Serbs.
    (AP, 9/22/05)
2005        Sep 20, Carla Del Ponte, chief prosecutor of the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), told the Daily Telegraph that she believed General Ante Gotovina was being sheltered in a Franciscan monastery in Croatia. The Vatican denied any knowledge.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Egyptian police stopped Palestinians from returning to Gaza, causing a crowd of more than 1,000 people to gather near the crossing here, as officials from the two sides met to discuss the border situation.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, A US Air Force officer taking part in a military exercise was killed in a road accident in northern Egypt.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Hundreds of Ethiopians who claim their ancestors were forced to convert from Judaism began a three-day hunger strike at a prayer house to press the Israeli government to let them migrate to the Jewish state.
    (AP, 9/21/05)
2005        Sep 20, Top politicians on both sides of Germany's political standoff agreed a bipartisan "grand coalition" linking Gerhard Schroeder's Social Democrats and challenger Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats would be the best way out of the post election muddle.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, A Guyana jury convicted Patricia Alves (43) of manslaughter for killing a friend during an exorcism ritual. Alves was found guilty of killing Kamille Seenauth (34) on Feb. 15, 2002. She allegedly beat Seenauth in an attempt to drive evil spirits out of her. On Sep 28 Alves was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/21/05)(AP, 9/29/05)
2005        Sep 20, In Iraq a child died and another was injured when terrorists used them as human shields during Coalition raids of three terrorist safe houses in Mosul. The bureau chief of an Iraqi daily newspaper and a woman working for Iraq's state-run television were shot and killed by assailants in separate attacks in Mosul. An angry mob of insurgents attacked a convoy of American contractors when they got lost in Duluiyah, a town north of Baghdad, killing four and wounding two. A US soldier died in a roadside blast north of Baghdad. Total US troop deaths reached 1,904.
    (AP, 9/20/05)(AP, 9/21/05)(AP, 10/23/05)
2005        Sep 20, Fiat of Italy struck a deal with Zastava of Kragujevac, Serbia, to make up to 16,000 cars a year. Zastava’s arms plant made a recent $3.8 million contract with Iraq. 
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.47)
2005        Sep 20, Nepalese police arrested more than 400 people in protests against King Gyanendra's rule.
    (AFP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, In Nigeria dozens of soldiers and police arrested Moujahid Dokubo-Asari, the main militia leader in Nigeria's south, at his office in the oil city of Port Harcourt. A militia with a history of violence in Nigeria's oil-rich south threatened to blow up oil installations if the government did not release its arrested leader.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, North Korea insisted it won't dismantle its nuclear weapons program until the US gives it civilian nuclear reactors, casting doubt on a disarmament agreement reached a day earlier during international talks.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, Sudanese soldiers inflicted "heavy casualties" in driving off rebels who overran a town in the troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 9/21/05)
2005        Sep 20, Ukraine’s Pres. Viktor Yushchenko failed to win support for his candidate as premier. Yuri Yekhanurov, a middle-of-the-road technocrat and ally of the president, won 223 votes, three short of the required majority in the 450-seat assembly.
    (AP, 9/20/05)
2005        Sep 20, In Tashkent 15 men pleaded guilty to participating in an uprising in eastern Uzbekistan in May that led to what human rights groups say was a government crackdown that left more than 700 dead.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

2006        Sep 20, Pres. Bush met with Palestinian leader Abbas in a bid to restart Mideast peace efforts.
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.A1)
2006        Sep 20, A US federal judge overturned a Bush administration rule that would have allowed roads to be built through nearly 60 million acres of national forest land.
    (SFC, 9/21/06, p.A1)
2006        Sep 20, California sued 6 major auto makers for greenhouse-gas inaction.
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.A1)
2006        Sep 20, The second annual Clinton Global Initiative, on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly, kicked off in Manhattan and collected over $2 billion in pledges in funds and programs on its 1st day to combat global ills. A day later British mogul Richard Branson pledged to spend $3 billion in the next decade on projects to combat global warming and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The 3-day summit raised $7.3 billion in pledges.
    (SFC, 9/21/06, p.A3)(AFP, 9/21/06)(SFC, 9/23/06, p.A2)
2006        Sep 20, In Florida Clarence Hill was executed for the 1982 murder of a Pensacola police officer. He had argued that Florida’s use of lethal injections amounted to cruel and unusual punishment, but the US Supreme Court denied him another stay of execution.
    (SFC, 9/21/06, p.A3)
2006        Sep 20, Dean Everett Wooldridge (93), scientist and co-founder of Ramo-Wooldridge (1953), died. In 1958 Ramo-Wooldridge merged with Thomas Products to become TRW Corp. Wooldridge helped develop the US intercontinental ballistic missile program. He also authored 4 books on neuroscience and predicted the rise of artificial intelligence.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A4)
2006        Sep 20, In Salt Lake City a 2-year-old boy died from kidney failure due to an E. coli infection attributed to spinach.
    (SFC, 10/6/06, p.A3)
2006        Sep 20, In southern Afghanistan police clashed with militants who tried to set fire to an oil tanker, killing four suspected members of the Taliban. Authorities found the body of a Turkish national who was kidnapped last month along with another Turk whose body was already recovered.
    (AP, 9/21/06)
2006        Sep 20, The African Union (AU) agreed to extend the mandate of its peacekeepers in Sudan's troubled Darfur region for three months until December 31 after receiving promises of financial and logistical support from the United Nations and Arab states.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, In Australia arrested 5 Canadian men after cocaine worth A$35 million ($26 million) was found hidden inside computer monitors. This was believed to be Australia's fifth-largest illegal drugs seizure.
    (Reuters, 9/21/06)
2006        Sep 20, EU regulators fined 30 companies a total of $399.1 million for fixing prices for copper-pipe fittings.
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.A8)
2006        Sep 20, Henri Jayer (84), a master of balanced pinot noir, died in Dijon, France. He was viewed by many connoisseurs to be the finest Burgundy winemaker of his generation.
    (AP, 9/21/06)
2006        Sep 20, Hungarian PM Ferenc Gyurcsany vowed to crack down on rioters. Police blaming the violence on football hooligans and extreme right-wing groups. Thousands of protesters demonstrated for a 4th day demanding that PM Gyurcsany resign.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)(SFC, 9/21/06, p.A3)
2006        Sep 20, An Iraqi police headquarters in Baghdad was hit by a suicide truck bomb, killing at least 7 people. Rebels killed at least 16 people in Iraq in a series of bombings and shootings.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Israeli forces raided the West Bank cities of Nablus and Jenin, destroying five foreign exchange depots and a bank and taking funds the army said were earmarked for terrorism. Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip fired two rockets at an Israeli town, wounding a 15-year-old boy and another person.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Nationalist candidate Shinzo Abe won the race for Japan's ruling party leader, all but clinching next week's election as prime minister and pledging to make his country a more robust force on the world stage.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, In northern Kazakhstan a methane explosion tore through a coal mine, killing 41 miners. Seven miners were pulled out alive and hospitalized after it ripped through the Lenin mine in the town of Shakhtinsk.
    (AP, 9/20/06)(AP, 9/21/06)
2006        Sep 20, The UN's International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) acquitted former Rwandan education minister Andre Rwamakuba of murder and incitement charges related to the country's 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Gen. Sondhi Boonyaratkalin, the army commander who seized Thailand's government in a quick, bloodless coup, pledged to hold elections by October 2007. He received a ringing endorsement from the country's revered king.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, In South Africa a judge dismissed corruption charges against Jacob Zuma after the prosecution said it was not ready to proceed against a powerful, populist politician who could be South Africa's next president.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Sven Nykvist (b.1922), Swedish cinematographer, died. He began working with Ingmar Bergman in 1953, eventually became his full-time cinematographer, pushing the director's work in a new direction. Nykvist won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for two Bergman movies, Cries and Whispers (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sven_Nykvist)
2006        Sep 20, In eastern Ukraine a methane blast ripped through a coal mine, killing 13 miners and injuring 36 others.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez took his verbal battle with the US to the floor of the UN General Assembly, calling President Bush "the devil." "The devil came here yesterday," Chavez said. "He came here talking as if he were the owner of the world."
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, In Vietnam Pham Xuan An (79), journalist and spy, died. He led a remarkable and perilous double life as a communist spy and a respected reporter for Western news organizations during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 20, Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh faced a serious challenger at the polls for the first time. Roughly 5 million of the 9.2 million eligible Yemenis cast ballots. Saleh has ruled since 1978, first as president of North Yemen and then as head of the unified state after the 1990 merger of the North and South.
    (AP, 9/20/06)

2007        Sep 20, President Bush cited "some unsettling times" in the US housing and credit markets as he sought to assure jittery Americans that the economy basically is in good shape despite worries about a recession.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, A new US five-dollar bill with high-tech security features and new colors made a digital debut, the first time the US government has exclusively used the Internet to unveil its paper money.
    (AFP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Some 20,000 people gathered in Jena, Louisiana, to protest what they considered to be the overzealous prosecution of 6 black high school students charged with beating a white schoolmate last December.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A3)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.33)
2007        Sep 20, The SF Giants told Barry Bonds, a 15-year baseball star with the Giants, that his career with the Giants would end with the conclusion of the 2007 season. The decision was made public the next day.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A8)(SSFC, 9/23/07, p.A1)
2007        Sep 20, In SF Supervisor Ed Jew (47) was charged with one count of mail fraud in an extortion scheme against immigrant operators of tapioca drink shops.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A1)
2007        Sep 20, Borse Dubai and Nasdaq, rivals to take over Nordic market operator OMX, said they had joined forces to acquire it together in a deal that gives Borse Dubai 19.99 percent of US-based Nasdaq and 28 percent of the London Stock Exchange.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, It was reported that Arizona Prof. Piere Balthazard planned to use data from brain scans of visionary leaders to plot a map of a “leader’s" brain. He then planned to use the map to help train others use their brains similarly.
    (WSJ, 9/20/07, p.B1)
2007        Sep 20, Univ. of California regents voted substantial pay raises to faculty and sharply increased fees students pay at the university’s law, medical and other professional schools.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.B1)
2007        Sep 20, NASA released satellite data that showed sea ice in the Arctic had shrunk one million square miles more this summer that the average melt over 24 years. This represented an area larger that Alaska and Texas combined. Arctic sea ice shrunk to a record 1.59 million square miles since NASA started recording satellite data in 1979.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A1)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.A2)
2007        Sep 20, In Oakland, Ca., police Sgt. Pat Gonzales shot and killed Gary King Jr. (20). Officers found a loaded gun on King after the shooting. King was shot in the back. In 2009 Oakland was expected to pay $1.5 million to settle a federal civil rights suit filed by King’s family.
    (SFC, 9/12/09, p.C2)
2007        Sep 20, A gunbattle between Afghan police and insurgents left 20 suspected militants and four officers dead in Badghis province bordering Iran and Turkmenistan. A suicide bomber on a bicycle detonated his explosives near Afghan army soldiers in Ghazni province, wounding two soldiers.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, The British competition watchdog accused British supermarkets and dairies on of colluding to fix prices, resulting in customers being overcharged 270 million pounds (386 million euros, 542 million dollars) for dairy products.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, The Canadian dollar rose above parity with the US dollar for the first time in 31 years. The Canadian currency's commodity-fueled rise was helped by a sharply falling dollar.
    (Reuters, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Typhoon Wipha weakened as it slammed China with strong winds and torrential rains. At least nine people were reported killed as the storm destroyed thousands of homes and triggered landslides.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Estonia decided it will not allow a German-Russian consortium to conduct a survey of its exclusive economic zone in the Baltic Sea for a planned underwater gas pipeline.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, In a nationally televised interview, Pres. Sarkozy went further, saying he wants France to adopt immigration quotas by regions of the world and by occupation. With three months left in the year, police have caught at least 11,800 immigrants, less than half the 25,000 target, ordered by Pres. Sarkozy, who has ordered officials to pick up the pace.
    (AP, 9/22/07)
2007        Sep 20, Floyd Landis lost his expensive and explosive case when two of three arbitrators upheld the results of a test that showed the 2006 Tour de France champion had used synthetic testosterone to fuel his spectacular comeback victory. Landis forfeited his Tour title and was subject to a two-year ban, retroactive to Jan. 30, 2007.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2007        Sep 20, A clash between Georgian and separatist Abkhazian forces too place some 330 yards inside Abkhaz-held territory. Several Abkhaz soldiers were wounded and 2 former Russian military officers were killed.
    (SFC, 10/30/07, p.A6)
2007        Sep 20, German low-cost carrier Air Berlin said it would buy the carrier Condor from travel giant Thomas Cook, after swallowing two national rivals in less than a year.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, A UN decision awarded Guyana, rather than Suriname, most of a disputed area of coastal Atlantic Ocean, which may hold a large amount of undiscovered oil.
    (Econ, 9/29/07, p.44)
2007        Sep 20, Officials in India said torrential rains and thunderstorms over the last 4 days have killed at least 63 people in southern India, and flooded dozens of villages.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Iranian air force pilots made successful test flights in two of Iran's new domestically manufactured fighter jet. The Saegheh jet is a new generation of the Azarakhsh class of fighter planes. Both Azarakhsh and Saegheh mean lightening in Farsi.
    (AP, 9/21/07)
2007        Sep 20, Iraqi soldiers arrested Col. Thamir Mohammed Ismail Husseini (Abu Turab), a high-ranking federal police official on suspicion of targeting Sunni Arabs in Baghdad for arrest and torture on behalf of radical Shiite militias.  An Iranian officer accused of smuggling powerful roadside bombs into Iraq was arrested. The suspect, a member of the Quds Force, an elite unit of Iran's Revolutionary Guards, was detained in the Kurdish city of Sulaimaniyah. A car bombing at an Iraqi checkpoint in Baghdad's Sadr City neighborhood killed two Iraqi soldiers and a civilian, and wounded seven others. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi police patrol near a stadium in eastern Baghdad, killing one officer and wounding 5 people. The chief judge of the mostly Shiite Karrada district court and his driver were shot by masked gunmen in eastern Baghdad. Both died of their wounds later in a hospital. The US military said 7 Shiite extremists were detained following a pre-dawn raid by Iraqi special forces and US troops in Sadr City. Residents claimed a civilian and a 5-year-old boy were killed in the raid. An American soldier was killed in an explosion in Diyala province.
    (AP, 9/20/07)(AP, 9/21/07)(SFC, 9/20/07, p.A11)
2007        Sep 20, Japan's Sharp Corp. said it had agreed to become the top shareholder in its financially troubled rival Pioneer Corp. as part of a broad business tie-up in response to growing competition.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Almost 1,000 Buddhist monks, protected by onlookers, marched through Myanmar's biggest city for a third straight day and pledged to keep alive the most sustained protests against the military government in at least a decade.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, In Niger Moussa Kaka, a reporter for Radio France International and director of a private radio station that has reported heavily on the Tuareg rebellion, was taken into custody for "conniving with the enemy" in his conversations with members of the Tuareg rebel group, the Niger Movement for Justice.
    (AP, 9/22/07)
2007        Sep 20, A Nigerian government spokesman said Governor Adebayo Alao-Akala has sacked the entire 34,000-strong workforce in his Oyo state for refusing to heed a call to suspend their one-month-old strike over pay.
    (AFP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden called on Pakistanis to rebel against President Pervez Musharraf in a new recording, saying his military's siege of a militant mosque stronghold this year makes him an infidel.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Spain’s Interior Ministry said Spanish police and the FBI had arrested two Pakistani nationals in a joint operation in Madrid and Barcelona on suspicion of being involved in financing international terrorism. The men, identified as Anar Muhammad Shan and Preces Mehmood Sandhu, were also held on suspicion of belonging to a terrorist organization.
    (AP, 9/21/07)
2007        Sep 20, Uganda declared a state of emergency in the worst flood-affected areas of the country as humanitarian workers tried to reach villages that have been cut off by water.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Zimbabwe lawmakers voted unanimously in favor of a constitutional amendment that critics say further consolidates ruling party power, but is hailed by the government and opposition as a breakthrough in easing the political and economic crisis.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

2008        Sep 20, Arkansas State Police troopers raided the 15-acre complex of evangelist Tony Alamo (74), searching for evidence of child pornography. FBI Agents arrested Alamo five days later in Flagstaff, Ariz. Alamo later pleaded not guilty to a 10-count federal indictment.
    (AP, 7/10/09)
2008        Sep 20, The California Coastal Commission sponsored its annual coastal cleanup. Some 55,634 volunteers collected over 742 thousand pounds of debris.
    (SSFC, 9/21/08, p.B1)
2008        Sep 20, In Washington state Shawn Roe (36) killed police officer Kristine Fairbanks (51) during a traffic stop. He has also killed Richard Ziegler (59), a retired California corrections employee, whose pickup he was driving. Roe was killed in a shootout with sheriff’s deputies.
    (SFC, 9/22/08, p.A3)
2008        Sep 20, A soldier from the US-led coalition and two Afghan civilians were killed when a bomb hit their vehicle in southern Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said he will cease all dialogue with Western countries if they fail to recognize the ex-Soviet state's parliamentary election.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, In southern China a fire and subsequent stampede at the Dance King nightclub in Shenzhen killed 44 people and left 88 injured. In 2010 two bosses of the club were sentenced to 15½ years in prison. Club general manager Lu Jinghuang was ordered jailed for three years. 14 other club managers received jail terms ranging up to six years. In Hubei province a migrant worker stabbed 12 people, seriously inuring 2 of them in Shiyan city.
    (AFP, 9/21/08)(SFC, 9/22/08, p.A3)(AP, 3/31/10)
2008        Sep 20, It was reported that Muslims in France, about 8% of the population, were estimated to make up over half the prison population.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.69)
2008        Sep 20, German police cancelled an anti-Islamic congress planned for today in Cologne after leftist opponents of the rally clashed with its right-wing backers.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, Indian officials said thousands of people have been evacuated and at least were 7 swept away in eastern Orissa state after 4 rivers burst their banks and inundated scores of villages. Uttar Pradesh state, meanwhile, reeled under torrential rains which killed at least 16 people and toppled trees and houses.
    (AFP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, It was reported that Mexican officers and prison guards in Michoacan state can now get special deals on houses and financing through a pilot program designed to keep them out of the pockets of organized crime.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, President Asif Ali Zardari said Pakistan will not tolerate any infringement of its territory in the name of the fight against militants. He also called for an end to the president's powers to dissolve the assembly and dismiss the government, and pledged to tackle Pakistan's economic problems. A suicide bomber and a roadside bomb struck two military convoys in Pakistani tribal areas bordering Afghanistan killing four soldiers and four civilians.
    (Reuters, 9/20/08)(AFP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, A suspected car bomb caused a huge explosion at the heavily guarded Marriott Hotel in Islamabad. The death toll soon grew to 54 with some 270 injured, including the Czech ambassador and 3 Americans. The next day Pakistan blamed Al-Qaeda linked Taliban militants for the massive suicide truck bombing.
    (AP, 9/20/08)(AFP, 9/21/08)(AP, 9/21/08)(AP, 9/28/08)
2008        Sep 20, A Palestinian was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers who said they saw him light a firebomb near a Jewish settlement. Suhayeb Saleh was later identified by his parents, who said he was 14 years old. Egypt opened its Gaza border terminal to allow passage of students and medical patients for 2 days.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki agreed to resign after the ruling party ordered him to step down, a move that could heighten turmoil in Africa's economic powerhouse. A Sep 19 ruling threw out corruption charges against Zuma it appeared Mbeki and his justice minister had colluded with prosecutors against Zuma as part of the "titanic power struggle" within the ANC. Mbeki indignantly denied this.
    (AP, 9/20/08)
2008        Sep 20, The Thai government said floods have killed 14 people and sickened more than 53,000 others, including many who contracted waterborne ailments. The 14 people were swept away by flash floods that hit 36 of Thailand's 76 provinces over the past nine days.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

2009        Sep 20, It was reported that US Democrat Rep. Charlie Rangel (79), the person most in charge of writing the nation's tax laws, had neglected to pay taxes on rental income from his vacation villa in the Dominican Republic, and that he had also failed to report assets worth hundreds of thousands of dollars on his annual disclosure forms, including a hard-to-miss credit union account worth up to $500,000.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, In the 61st Annual Primetime Emmys the winners included “Mad Men" won for best drama series and “30 Rock" for best comedy series.
    (SFC, 9/21/09, p.C3)
2009        Sep 20, Michele Dickerson of Alameda County, Ca., won the $32 million state lottery. She planned to take a $19.7 million lump sum before taxes.
    (SFC, 9/23/09, p.A14)
2009        Sep 20, In San Francisco Andres Siordia (19) killed 2 men and wounded a 3rd at Papa Potrero’s Pizza. Police believed the shootings were in retaliation for the slaying of Norteno gang member Michael Sanchez (21) on Sep 18.
    (SFC, 9/24/09, p.D2)
2009        Sep 20, In Afghanistan NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) said 2 US soldiers were killed in a noncombat-related incident in the south. The Afghan defense ministry said Afghan and foreign troops will halt offensive operations in the war against Taliban-led insurgents for the UN's International Day of Peace on Sep 21.
    (AFP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, Australian border protection officials rescued 54 asylum seekers from a boat stranded in northern waters.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, Cubans in their multitudes flocked to sprawling Revolution Plaza for a massive open-air "peace concert" headlined by Colombian rocker Juanes, an event criticized by some Cuban-Americans who say the performers are lending support to the island's communist government simply by showing up.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, German authorities said al Qaeda threatened Germany with attacks for the second time this weekend in an online video criticizing the country for its deployment of troops in Afghanistan. The interior ministry identified al Qaeda's messenger in the latest video as Bekkay Harrach (32), a German-Moroccan.
    (Reuters, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, In Iraq a roadside bomb exploded on a main road in Iskandariyah, 30 miles (50km) south of Baghdad, killing the driver of a car and injuring four passengers. A Black Hawk helicopter crashed at a Balad Air Base, killing one US service member and injuring 12 others.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, An Israeli border patrol fired at Palestinian militants planting a bomb at the Gaza border fence. 2 men were killed and 3 wounded.
    (SFC, 9/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Sep 20, Trafigura, a Netherlands-based oil trading company, said it has agreed to a settlement with people who claim they fell ill after a tanker dumped hundreds of tons of waste around the Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan in 2006. Trafigura paid Ivory Coast's government euro152 million (US$197 million) in 2007 to assist in cleaning up the waste without admitting responsibility.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, In Nigeria Bayo Ohu (45), assistant news editor at the influential Guardian newspaper, was shot dead by unidentified gunmen as he answered a knock at the front door of his house in a northern suburb of Lagos. On March 15, 2010, police detained three suspects for the murder of Ohu.
    (AFP, 9/22/09)(AFP, 3/15/10)
2009        Sep 20, In Pakistan Sher Muhammad Qasab, a feared Taliban commander known for beheading opponents, died in custody from wounds sustained during a fierce firefight with Pakistani security forces last week. The military said security forces killed eight militants in search operations throughout Swat over the last 24 hours and that 23 insurgents were apprehended and another 22 surrendered. One of the militants killed was a Taliban commander identified as Chamtu Khan.
    (AP, 9/20/09)
2009        Sep 20, In the southern Philippines clashes erupted when al-Qaida-linked militants resisted attempts by government forces to serve arrest warrants on 3 of their commanders. Troops took control of the Abu Sayyaf group's biggest camp on the island of Jolo following rounds of air strikes.
    (AP, 9/20/09)(AP, 9/21/09)
2009        Sep 20, Somali al-Shabab insurgents attacked a town near the border with Ethiopia, killing at least 10 people.
    (AP, 9/21/09)
2009        Sep 20, The Sudanese army said it has cleared several more areas of rebel control in North Darfur province ahead of peace talks set for October. Rebels denied the government claims. In southern Sudan Lou Nuer tribesman attacked the village of Duk-Padiet in Jonglei state killing around 102 people, including 51 civilians and 23 attackers.
    (AP, 9/20/09)(AFP, 9/21/09)

2010        Sep 20, Denver Bronco’s wide receiver Kenny McKinley (23) was found dead in his home in an apparent suicide.
    (AP, 9/21/10)
2010        Sep 20, In New Jersey a woman from Togo was been sentenced to 27 years in prison after being convicted of running a human smuggling operation and forcing women to work at New Jersey hair braiding salons. Akouavi Afolabi ran a scheme to bring at least 20 girls and women ages 10 to 19 from West Africa to the US on fraudulent visas. Victims were made to work at the salons for no pay. Afolabi was also ordered to pay restitution totaling $3.9 million. Her ex-husband and son had already pleaded guilty. Her son received a 55-month prison term. Her ex-husband was sentenced to 24 years.
    (AP, 9/21/10)
2010        Sep 20, In Australia a Fijian man died suddenly at a Sydney immigration center, with a protest breaking out in the compound after claims he had jumped from a rooftop fearing deportation.
    (AFP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, Afghan election observers urged President Hamid Karzai's government to allow an independent investigation into reports of widespread fraud during last weekend's parliamentary elections, including intimidation of voters and interference by powerful warlords. Britain's military handed the US responsibility for northern Sangin district in Helmand province. Afghan and NATO forces ended a 2-day operation to disrupt the Taliban's freedom of movement outside its heartland of Kandahar city, killing at least 11 insurgents and destroying several improvised explosive devices. The US military arrested Rahmatullah Naikzad, an Afghan journalist in the eastern region of Ghazni, saying it is investigating suspicions he may have been too close to Taliban militants.
    (AP, 9/20/10)(AP, 9/21/10)
2010        Sep 20, Bahrain stripped Ayatollah Hussein al-Najati, a powerful Shiite cleric with close ties to Iraq, of his citizenship as authorities widened a crackdown against alleged dissidents ahead of next month's elections in the tiny Gulf nation.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, Hurricane Igor swept past Bermuda, lashing at the Atlantic island with high winds and furious waves as power failed in many areas, plunging people hunkered down at home into darkness and leaving officials waiting for sunrise to assess damage.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, In China JCRB.com, a legal issues website administered by China's Supreme Court, said a Jinfulai Dairy Company executive in Yangquan city of Shanxi province and six other people were arrested after authorities discovered 26 tons of milk powder tainted with a toxic chemical.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, French defense contractor Safran SA said it will pay $1.1 billion to buy Stamford, Connecticut-based security firm L-1 Identity Solutions Inc., to bolster its presence in the US homeland security market.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, A delegation of Indian lawmakers launched a mission in Kashmir to find ways of defusing months of deadly unrest, but their trip was immediately derided by the Himalayan region's separatists as a publicity stunt. Fresh protests erupted in Sopore town, a day after a 22-year-old woman was killed by security forces.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, In central India a freight train on the wrong track slammed into a stationary passenger locomotive amid heavy rain at the Bhaderwah rail station, killing at least 21 people and injuring 53.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, Kuwait revoked the citizenship of cleric Yasser al-Habib, a hard-line Shiite scholar, accusing him of trying to stir up discord among Muslims by describing the Prophet Muhammad's wife, Aisha, as an "enemy of God."
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, Libya's daily Oea newspaper reported that Douglas O'Reilly, a Canadian man, was detained after meeting a US diplomat suspected of being a CIA agent. He was detained on suspicion of spying on a planned BP offshore drilling project. O'Reilly claimed to be an archaeologist seeking to warn of the BP project's potential impact on archaeological sites. O'Reilly was given freedom to leave Libya on Sep 22.
    (AP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)
2010        Sep 20, In Mexico rocks and mud tumbled down a hill onto a highway in Villa Guerrero, south of Mexico City. Five bodies were pulled out, and an unknown number of people were missing. More than 70 people have died during the rainy season in Mexico, which has been one of the heaviest on record.
    (AP, 9/21/10)
2010        Sep 20, In Pakistan suspected US drones fired missiles at militant targets in North Waziristan, killing six people in the 15th such attack this month.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, Saudi Arabia’s Shura Council voted 62 to 56 against a memorandum of understanding on bilateral consultations with Denmark after several members expressed unhappiness over the publication of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed in a Danish newspaper.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)
2010        Sep 20, Venezuela deported two drug trafficking suspects to the US, including an alleged boss of the powerful Norte del Valle cartel in neighboring Colombia. The action came only days after the US criticized Venezuela's cooperation in fighting illegal narcotics.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, In Yemen a security official said thousands of people have fled Hawta village in the south where security forces were laying siege to some 120 al-Qaida militants. 3 militants were killed and 4 wounded in the fighting. In the capital four al-Qaida suspects, including a Yemeni-German teenager, were brought to trial on charges of plotting attacks on tourists, international institutions and security forces.
    (AP, 9/20/10)
2010        Sep 20, In Zimbabwe 83 members of Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA) were arrested after marching to highlight concerns around community safety and police behavior. They were freed after 2 days in jail.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2011        Sep 20, US prosecutors made new allegations in a probe of the Full Tilt Poker website, accusing self-styled "Poker Professor" Howard Lederer and professional poker champion Christopher Ferguson and others of paying themselves more than $440 million while defrauding other players.
    (Reuters, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, The US military’s 17-year old “Don’t ask, don’t tell" policy, regarding sexual orientation, officially ended.
    (SFC, 9/21/11, p.A1)
2011        Sep 20, Alaska announced that the Permanent Fund Dividend for residents this year would be $1,174. the fund was created in 1976.
    (SFC, 9/21/11, p.A6)
2011        Sep 20, In Michigan a car bomb caused a powerful explosion on a street in Monroe that seriously injured a father and his two sons. The blast turned their vehicle into a blackened hunk of metal. The ATF offered a reward of up to $10,000 for information leading to an arrest.
    (AP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, General Motors Co. agreed to deepen cooperation with its flagship Chinese partner on development of electric vehicle knowhow amid pressure from Beijing to hand over proprietary technology.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, GM and the UAW unveiled a modest 4-year pay agreement. The deal included a $5,000 lump sum payment to production line workers and $4,000 more over the next 4 years plus a slightly higher share of profits. It also allowed the hiring of new “tier-two" employees.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.75)
2011        Sep 20, In Afghanistan a Taliban suicide bomber in Kabul, with concealed explosives in a turban, assassinated former Afghan president Burhanuddin Rabbani (1992-1996), who was leading government peace efforts. In Feb, 2012, Pakistan arrested two people in connection with the assassination.
    (AFP, 9/20/11)(AP, 2/10/12)
2011        Sep 20, Benin announced that China has given it $34 million in loans and grants, part of which will fund an anti-piracy patrol drive off the coast, where hijackings have surged this year.
    (AFP, 9/22/11)
2011        Sep 20, The UN called for an immediate truce between rival groups in the Central African Republic fighting for control over diamond mines.
    (AFP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, The World Health Organization warned countries that a dangerous strain of polio, WPV1, has spread to China from Pakistan.
    (SFC, 9/21/11, p.A2)
2011        Sep 20, Colombian police seized 301 properties, including houses, vehicles and estates, that belonged to alleged front men for Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman (56), the head of Mexico's powerful Sinaloa drug cartel. The assets were valued at $250 million.
    (AP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, In the Dominican Rep. neighbors saw Romelio Frias (28) douse his house with gasoline before dawn and lock himself inside. Victims of the fire included his 36-year-old wife, their 3-year-old daughter and 9-year-old twin boys that she had from a previous marriage.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, In northern Haiti 3 people died when a small, twin-engine turboprop aircraft used by a domestic Haitian airline crashed while trying to land during heavy rain. The single passenger was a regular customer from Vietnam.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, Iran publicly hanged a convicted murderer at a square in the capital Tehran. Sajad Karimi had confessed to shooting a doctor, who had been his mother's surgeon, following her death.
    (AFP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, In Iraq 2 suicide bombers blew themselves up in front of a government office in Ramadi, Anbar province, killing four people and wounding eight others.
    (AP, 9/19/11)
2011        Sep 20, Libyan families in pickup trucks stacked with mattresses and jugs of water fled Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte ahead of an expected new push by revolutionary forces to seize the city from die-hard loyalists of the fugitive leader. At least 4 people were killed and 7 wounded. Another 18 people were reported killed in Sabha. Rebel forces captured Waddan.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(AP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/22/11)
2011        Sep 20, In Mexico suspected drug traffickers dumped 35 bodies at rush hour beneath a busy overpass in Veracruz, as gunmen pointed weapons at frightened drivers. Local media said that 12 of the victims were women. Police thus far had identified seven of the victims and all had criminal records for murder, drug dealing, kidnapping and extortion and were linked to organized crime. The New Generation gang, aka “Zeta Killers," was later said to be responsible. 
    (AP, 9/21/11)(AP, 10/7/11)
2011        Sep 20, In Nigeria local authorities dismissed a 10-minute video of a Nigerian woman repeatedly asking her attackers to kill her as they take turns raping her at a university dormitory. The video had circulated for weeks around the campus of Abia State University before being posted on the Internet.
    (AP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, In Pakistan gunmen opened fire on minority Shiite Muslim pilgrims traveling through southwest, killing 26 people in an apparent sectarian attack. The attack targeted the Shiite Hazara tribe.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Sep 20, In the Philippines a 13-year-old boy shot his 16-year-old friend inside a busy mall then turned the weapon on himself. He died the next day and left the other boy brain dead, raising questions about gun control in a country awash in firearms. Police said the shooting was a crime of passion and that the boys were in a romantic relationship after meeting through Facebook in May.
    (AP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, Gunmen shot and killed a Somali lawmaker in the northern breakaway state of Puntland, where fighting between political and clan groups is on the rise recently.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)
2011        Sep 20, Matt Bryden, head of the UN arms monitoring group, said that corrupt Somali politicians could face travel bans and have their foreign bank accounts and property frozen under tough new UN sanctions.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, In Turkey a car bomb went off near a high school in Ankara, killing 3 people in a nearby building and wounding 34 others. Soon after 4 women died in an attack Siirt province.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.63)
2011        Sep 20, In Yemen a third day of fighting in Sanaa, including a mortar attack on unarmed protesters, killed nine people.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, Zambia held elections for a president, 150 lawmakers and over 1,000 municipal councilors. Incumbent president Rupiah Banda was in a close race with populist rival Michael Sata. Elections results on Sep 23 said Michael Sata won with 1,150,045 votes, or 43% of the total, to 961,796 votes, or 36.1% for incumbent Rupiah Banda.
    (AP, 9/20/11)(AP, 9/23/11)

2012        Sep 20, US officials said the last of the US surge troops have left Afghanistan. This left 68,000 American forces still in the war zone.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 20, A SF judge issued a warrant for the arrest of Jay Shah (48), an associate of con artist Kaushal Niroula (31), a Nepalese exchange student known as the “Dark Prince." Shah was convicted a day earlier of 13 felonies linked to a $2.2 million condominium scam. Shah was apprehended by police in Watsonville on Oct 3.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.C2)(SFC, 10/5/12, p.C4)
2012        Sep 20, In Cleveland, Ohio, Samuel Mullet and 15 Amish followers were convicted of federal conspiracy and hate crimes for orchestrating a series of beard and hair-cutting attacks in 2011.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.A7)
2012        Sep 20, In Texas Robert Wayne Harris (40) was executed by lethal injection. He had confessed to killing 5 people at a Dallas-area car wash in March 2000.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.A7)
2012        Sep 20, British gangster Charlie Richardson (b.1934), one of the most feared underworld figures of 1960s London, died. He had fought a vicious turf war with the more famous Kray brothers. Known as the "Torture Gang", his associates were said to nail victims to the floor, cut off their toes with bolt cutters and give them electric shocks in a bath full of water. He was the subject of a 2004 feature film, "Charlie."
    (Reuters, 9/20/12)
2012        Sep 20, In Colombia a judge revoked the 2008 acquittal of Angelo Caceres, alias “El Piloso," and ordered his arrest. Caceres was accused in 2006 as a co-author of the 1999 killing of 3 Americans. His whereabouts were not known.
    (SFC, 9/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 20, The Czech Republic banned the export to EU countries of spirits with more than 20 percent alcohol content after 23 people who drank bootleg booze tainted with methanol.
    (AP, 9/20/12)
2012        Sep 20, In Georgia street protests against the brutal abuse of prisoners escalated in Tbilisi, fueling anger against the Western-allied government and possibly boosting support for the opposition before a tight parliamentary election.
    (AP, 9/20/12)
2012        Sep 20, In Ivory Coast two attacks on military positions killed seven people, including one soldier, in the commercial capital of Abidjan.
    (AP, 9/21/12)
2012        Sep 20, Nigeria's largest airline Arik Air Ltd. halted all its domestic flights indefinitely as its leaders alleged government corruption made it impossible for the carrier to fly. Domestic flights resumed on Sep 23.
    (AP, 9/20/12)(SSFC, 9/23/12, p.A6)
2012        Sep 20, In Pakistan US Embassy advertisements condemning an anti-Islam video appeared on national television in an attempt to undercut anger against the United States.
    (AP, 9/20/12)
2012        Sep 20, In Somalia a suicide bombing killed 14 people at a Mogadishu cafe frequented by politicians and journalists.
    (AP, 9/21/12)
2012        Sep 20, In Syria at least 30 people were killed and dozens wounded in regime air strikes on a gas station in the northern town of Ain Issa.
    (AP, 9/20/12)

2013        Sep 20, US prosecutors dropped charges against Meshael Alayban, a Saudi princess accused of enslaving a Kenyan woman as a housemaid, forcing her to work in abusive conditions and withholding her passport. Lawyers for the Saudi royal accused the 30-year-old Kenyan, who has not been named, of lying in an attempt to obtain a visa to stay in the US.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, The S&P Down Jones indices (DJIA), a unit of McGraw Hill Financial Inc., removed Alcoa, Bank of America and Hewlett-Packard at the end of trading today. They were replaced by Goldman Sachs, Visa and Nike.
    (http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20130910-705261.html)
2013        Sep 20, In Colorado 4 new oil spills were discovered related to the recent flooding, bringing the total to estimated 25,000 gallons.
    (SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A8)
2013        Sep 20, In Brazil rancher Vitalmiro Moura, accused of ordering the 2005 murder of US nun and Amazon defender Dorothy Stang, was again sentenced to 30 years in prison. Moura was previously convicted of Stang's murder and then acquitted in an automatic retrial.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)
2013        Sep 20, British police said 8 men have been arrested on suspicion of stealing 1.3 million pounds ($2 million) from a Barclays bank branch by tapping into its computers.
    (AP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, Canada-based BlackBerry said it would cut 4,500 jobs as the struggling smartphone maker retrenches in the face of hefty losses and weak sales of its new handsets.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, A French judicial source said judges have charged a Rwandan doctor for planning to "commit the crime of genocide" in 1994, after Kigali issued an international warrant against him. Eugene Rwamucyo was wanted by Kigali for having allegedly planned and carried out atrocities in the Butare region of southern Rwanda. In 2010 a French court had rejected a request to extradite him.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, A Guatemalan court sentenced Hector Bol de la Cruz, chief of police from 1983 to 1985, to 40 years in prison for orchestrating the disappearance of a student union leader in 1984 during the country's bloody civil war.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, India's new central bank chief unexpectedly raised interest rates, putting a higher priority on taming stubbornly high inflation than bowing to pressure to juice the struggling economy with cheap credit.
    (AP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, In India rescuers found the bodies of 17 Hindu devotees who were swept away in the Yamuna River during a 10-day festival celebrating the birth of Ganesha, an elephant-headed deity worshiped as a god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)
2013        Sep 20, In Iraq two bombs hidden inside air conditioners exploded in a Sunni mosque packed with worshippers in Samarra, killing at least 18 people. 7 more people died in other attacks.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, In Nigeria Boko Haram Islamists opened fire on security agents conducting an operation near a residence for lawmakers in Abuja, starting a gunfight that caused deaths and injuries.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, A Palestinian lured an Israeli soldier to a village in the West Bank and killed him with the intention of trading the body for his jailed brother. Nidal Amar (42) was arrested the next day and confessed to the killing.
    (AP, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 20, In Peru Luis Bambaren, the former president of Peru's bishops' conference and bishop emeritus of Chimbote, told local media that Gabino Miranda has been dismissed as auxiliary bishop in the dioceses of Ayacucho, a poor Andean region in southern Peru, after he was accused of having sexual relations with minors.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, Voters in Swaziland cast their ballots in legislative elections dismissed by critics as a rubber stamp for King Mswati III's absolute rule.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, Syrian forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 15 people in a late night attack on Sheik Hadid, a Sunni Muslim village north-west of Hama.
    (Reuters, 9/21/13)(SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A6)
2013        Sep 20, The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague said Syria has submitted details of its chemical weapons to the organization.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, Turkish authorities shot and killed one suspect and wounded another after a rocket attack on a police headquarters in Ankara. The suspects were believed to be members of the far-left Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C).
    (AP, 9/21/13)
2013        Sep 20, In Yemen suspected al Qaeda militants killed at least 54 soldiers and policemen in two attacks in the south of the country. Officials believed members of al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) were behind both attacks.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)
2013        Sep 20, Zimbabwe police announced a probe into a top member of President Robert Mugabe's party on suspicion of soliciting a $6-million bribe from a Ghanaian investor in a diamond-mining deal.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)

2014        Sep 20, In Massachusetts three Afghan soldiers went missing. They had arrived at Camp Edwards on Sept. 11 and were last seen at the Cape Cod Mall in Hyannis during an off day from a training exercise. All three were soon found trying to cross the border into Canada.
    (AP, 9/22/14)(SFC, 9/23/14, p.A5)
2014        Sep 20, Polly Bergen (84), an Emmy-winning actress and singer, died at her home in Southbury, Connecticut. In a long career she played the terrorized wife in the original "Cape Fear" and the first woman president in "Kisses for My President."
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, J. California Cooper (82), author and playwright, died in Seattle. Her 1991 novel “Family" told a multigenerational story that began with a woman born as a slave. Her 1978 play “Stranger" earned her the Black Playwright of the Year award.
    (SFC, 9/25/14, p.D5)
2014        Sep 20, In Afghanistan fourteen Pakistani detainees were released from US custody in Bagram Prison and repatriated to Pakistan.
    (Reuters, 9/21/14)
2014        Sep 20, In Australia finance chiefs from G20 nations held talks, confident they can "change the destiny of the global economy" despite rising world political tensions and mounting fears of financial instability.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, French air pilots voted to extend their walkout  until at least Sep 26 to protest Air-France-KLM’s new strategy to shift much of its European operation to Transavia, a low-cost subsidiary.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A3)
2014        Sep 20, An Indian court sentenced 13 people, including a village headman, to 20 years in jail for gang-raping a woman (20) last January in Subalpur, West Bengal state.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In northern India an explosion ripped through a makeshift fireworks factory, killing at least 5 people.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In Iraq thousands of supporters of Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr held a rally in Baghdad to protest against the United States' military campaign in Iraq against the Islamic State extremist group.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, Kiribati President Anote Tong ended a Greenpeace-organized tour of glaciers in Norway's Svalbard Archipelago, a trip he said left a deep impression that he would share with world leaders at a UN climate summit next week in New York.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, At least 300 Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into Syria overnight to battle jihadists from the Islamic State group trying to seize a strategic border town. At least 18 jihadists from the Islamic State group were killed in overnight clashes with Kurdish fighters in northern Syria.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In Lebanon a suicide bomber killed a number of people at a Hezbollah checkpoint near the border with Syria, hours after news that the Syrian branch of Al-Qaeda had executed a Lebanese soldier. At least 11 members of Al-Nusra and other Islamist rebel groups were killed overnight in the bombardment of the Arsal region.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In New Zealand PM John Key, head of the National Party, won an emphatic victory in a general election to return for a third term.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In the Philippines the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council reported that more than 700,000 people were affected by Tropical Storm Fung-Wong in metropolitan Manila and in northern and central provinces, forcing more than 205,000 to evacuate. At least five people died.
    (AP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, In northern Syria the Islamic State executed at least 11 civilians, including at least two boys. It has seized at least 64 villages around Kobani since Sep 16, using heavy arms and thousands of fighters. At least 300 Kurdish fighters crossed from Turkey into Syria overnight to battle jihadists from the Islamic State group trying to seize Kobani, a strategic border town.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)(Reuters, 9/21/14)
2014        Sep 20, Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki announced he will stand for re-election in November, in a key vote almost four years after a revolt that sparked the Arab Spring uprisings.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, Turkish intelligence agents brought 46 hostages, seized by Islamic State militants in Mosul on June 11, back to Turkey after more than three months in captivity.
    (Reuters, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, The Ukrainian city of Donetsk was rocked by blasts, even as government forces and pro-Russian separatists prepared to create a buffer zone to separate the warring sides. One Ukrainian soldier was killed and seven others were wounded in overnight violence. A nine-point memorandum was signed earlier in the day in the Belarussian capital of Minsk by the separatists and envoys from Moscow and Kiev.
    (Reuters, 9/20/14)
2014        Sep 20, Yemeni President Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi called on for a UN-brokered political settlement with Shi'ite rebels as some of the worst violence seen in the capital for years raged for a third day. Flights to Sanaa were suspended for a 2nd straight day as the toll mounted from clashes between pro-government forces and rebels.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)(Reuters, 9/20/14)

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