Today in History - October 1

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331BCE    Oct 1, Alexander the Great decisively shattered King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that left him master of the Persian Empire.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

290CE        Oct 1, [Christian] Bacchus, Roman soldier and martyred saint, was killed.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

0976        Oct 1, Al-Hakam II, the caliph of Cordoba, died.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1207        Oct 1, Henry III, king of England (1216-72), was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1207)

1273        Oct 1, Rudolf of Hapsburg was elected emperor in Germany.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1507        Oct 1, Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

1529        Oct 1-3, Martin Luther met with Huldrych Zwingli.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1549        Oct 1, Anna of H Bartolomaeus was born. She was a Flemish prioress and founded a nunnery.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1574        Oct 1-2 A storm broke a Leiden dike and 20,000 Spanish soldiers drowned. Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent (Willem of Orange) breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(PCh, 1992, p.198)(MC, 10/1/01)

1608        Oct 1, Some 200 new settlers arrived at the Jamestown colony, including Dutch and Polish glass-makers, artisans and the first European women in the colony.
    (http://spuscizna.org/spuscizna/1608.html)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1644        Oct 1, Jean Rousseau, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1644        Oct 1, Alessandro Stradella, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1653        Oct 1, Russian parliament accepted annexation of Ukraine.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1661        Oct 1, A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York, made the sport fashionable.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1661_in_England)

1684        Oct 1, Pierre Corneille, French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1688        Oct 1, Seven British noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery.” William accepted.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1708        Oct 1, John Blow, composer (Venus & Adonis), died at 59.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1746        Oct 1, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France. [see Sep 20]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1768        Oct 1, English troops under general Gage landed in Boston.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1781        Oct 1, James Lawrence, naval hero (War of 1812-"Don't give up the ship!"), was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1791        Oct 1, In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1800        Oct. 1, Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1833        Oct 1, Charles Darwin reached Rio Tercero, Argentina.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1837        Oct 1,  Robert Gould Shaw was born to a prominent abolitionist family. He became commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the first unit of black soldiers in the Civil War. He was later asked by the governor of Massachusetts to organize the first regiment of black troops in a Northern state. Shaw recruited free blacks from all over New England. On May 13, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was mustered into service in the Union Army with Shaw as its commanding officer. After leading the regiment in a handful of smaller actions, Shaw and the 54th joined two brigades of white troops in an assault on Confederates holding Battery Wagner on the South Carolina coast. Although the action was unsuccessful and Shaw himself died leading the charge, the courage of black troops under fire was proven beyond any doubt. This Kurz and Allison print honors Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts at Fort Wagner.
    (HNPD, 10/1/98)(HN, 10/1/98)
1837        Oct 1, A treaty was made with the Winnebago Indians.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1838        Oct 1, Lord Auckland, British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto, setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1839        Oct 1, The British government decided to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1847        Oct 1, Maria Mitchell (29), American astronomer living on Nantucket Island, discovered a new comet that was named after herself. In 1848 she was elected to the American Academy of Arts, the first woman to be so honored. Frederick VI, the King of Denmark awarded her a gold medal for her discovery.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(ON, 2/07, p.9)

1853        Oct 1, Robert Schuyler, the president and general transfer agent of the New York & New Haven Railroad Company, began issuing, shares of stock beyond the capital limited by its charter.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dbok8a)(http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/US/111/111.US.156.html)

1856        Oct 1, The first installment of Gustav Flaubert’s novel Madame Bovary (Emma Bovary) appeared in the Revue de Paris after the publisher refused to print a passage in which the character Emma has a tryst in the back seat of a carriage. It was later considered as the first novel of a liberated woman in modern literature. In 1998 Dacia Maraini published "Searching for Emma." A TV version for Masterpiece Theater was shown in 2000.
    (HN, 10/1/00)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Par p.18)(WSJ, 2/4/00, p.W6)

1863        Oct 1, 5 Russian warships were welcomed in NYC.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1864        Oct 1, The Condor, a British blockade-runner, was grounded near Fort Fisher, North Carolina.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1865        Oct 1, Paul Abraham Dukas, composer (Sorcerer's Apprentice), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1868        Oct 1, Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], died at 63. He served as king of Thailand from 1851-68.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1869        Oct 1, Austria issued the world's first postal card. The first postal card was suggested by Dr. Emanuel Herrmann and was accepted by the Hungarian government in the same year. The first regularly printed card appeared in 1870, a historical card, produced in connection with the Franco-German War. The first advertising card appeared in 1872 in Great Britain. The first German card appeared in 1874. Cards showing the Eiffel Tower in 1889 & 1890 gave impetus to the postcard heyday a decade later. A Heligoland card of 1889 is considered the first multi-colored card ever printed.
    (http://shilohpostcards.com/webdoc2.htm)

1878        Oct 1, General Lew Wallace was sworn in as governor of New Mexico Territory. He went on to deal with the Lincoln County War, Billy the Kid and wrote Ben-Hur.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1880        Oct 1, John Philip Sousa became the new director of US Marine Corps Band. [see Oct 1, 1892]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1885        Oct. 1, Special delivery mail service began in the United States.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1888        Oct 1, National Geographic magazine published for 1st time. The National Geographic Society was founded by Gardiner Hubbard, the father-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell. In 1997 Charles McCarry edited: “From the Field: A Collection of Writing from National Geographic.”
    (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 657)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T13)(SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 10/1/01)

1890        Oct 1, Congress created the Weather Bureau.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1890        Oct. 1, Congress passed the McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to a record level.
    (AP, 10/1/97)
1890        Oct 1, Yosemite National Park, created by Congress, was dedicated in California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 10/1/98)

1892        Oct 1, John Philip Sousa started his 12-year tour as director of the US Marine Band. He premiered many of his marches and produced the first commercial phonograph recordings. [see Oct 1, 1880]
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)
1892        Oct 1, The University of Chicago opened.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1893        Oct 1, In the 3rd worst hurricane in US history 1,800 people were killed in  Mississippi.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1895        Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1896        Oct. 1, The U.S. Post Office established Rural Free Delivery, with the first routes in West Virginia.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1898        Oct 1, Jews were expelled from Kiev, Russia.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1900        Oct 1, Oldham, England, announced that Winston Churchill had won the election as the town's second MP, beginning Churchill's long career in the House of Commons.
    (www.winstonchurchill.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=304)

1903        Oct 1, The Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the home team Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox), 7-3, in the first World Series game. Boston, however, went on to win the series, five games to three.
    (AP, 10/1/03)

1904        Oct 1, Vladimir Horowitz, Russian-born American virtuoso pianist, was born in Kiev, Ukraine.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(MC, 10/1/01)

1906        Oct 1, In Finland the Parliament Act came into force. It replaced the old Diet dating back to the 17th century with a 200-seat unicameral Parliament and introduced universal suffrage.
    (http://web.eduskunta.fi/Resource.phx/parliament/aboutparliament/presentation/history.htx)   

1907        Oct 1, The Plaza Hotel opened in NYC at 5th Av and 59th Str.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)(AP, 10/1/07)

1908        Oct 1, The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hit the market. Each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black. The Model T automobile cost $850 when it was first introduced to the public. Ford lowered the price of automobiles—previously regarded as a toy of the rich—by maintaining control of raw materials and using new mass production techniques. The price of this two-seater, affectionately known as the “tin Lizzy,” fluctuated over the years, dipping below $300 in 1924. Electric lights and an optional electric starter were among the few improvements over the years. The model was discontinued in 1927 after more 15,000,000 had been produced.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.56)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)(HNQ, 7/11/00)

1910        Oct 1, Mass. 1st state fair was the Berkshire Cattle Fair in Pittsfield.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1910        Oct 1, Trade unionists, aggrieved by the anti-union stance of the Los Angeles Times, bombed the Times building at 1st and Broadway killing 21 nonunion pressman and linotype operators. A new Los Angeles Times building was completed in 1935. In 2008 Howard Blum authored “American Lightning: Terror, Mystery, The Birth of Hollywood, and the Crime of the Century.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_Times_bombing)(WSJ, 9/16/08, p.A23)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.35)
1910        Oct 1, At midnight a strict anti-gambling law became effective in Nevada. It even forbid the western custom of flipping a coin for the price of a drink. Illegal but accepted gambling flourished until 1931 when the Nevada Legislature approved a legalized gambling bill authored by Phil Tobin, a Northern Nevada rancher.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.64)(http://www.lvol.com/lvoleg/hist/lvhist.html)

1914        Oct 1, Daniel Joseph Boorstin, author (Empire of Czar), was born. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1974 .
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1918        Oct 1, Damascus (Syria) fell to Arab forces as Turkish Ottoman officials surrendered the city.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)(AP, 10/1/08)

1919        Oct 1, In baseball’s World Series the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in a best of 9 games. The White Sox intentionally threw the series to satisfy gamblers in what became known as the Black Sox Scandal. 8 players were banned from baseball for life. In 1963 Eliot Asinof described the events in his book “Eight men Out.” The 1988 baseball film "Eight Men Out" was directed by John Sayles.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.33)(AH, 10/04, p.14)
1919        Oct 1, Black sharecroppers gathered at Elaine, Arkansas, to secure a more equitable price for their products. When a white deputy sheriff and a railroad detective, arrived at the church, a fight broke out between them and the guards in which the railroad detective was killed and the deputy sheriff was wounded. This led to 3 days of fighting and the killing of 5 white men and close to 200 black men, women and children. The Arkansas state court later sentenced 12 sharecroppers to death and a 5-year legal battle ensued. In 2008 Robert Whitaker authored “”On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Race_Riot)(SSFC, 7/27/08, Books p.1)

1924        Oct 1, Jimmy Carter (James Earl), 39th president of the U.S. (1977-1981), was born in Plains, Georgia.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  Z3 p.3)(HN, 10/1/98)(MC, 10/1/01)
1924        Oct 1, William Rehnquist was born in Milwaukee. He served as Supreme Court Justice (1972-86) and US Chief Justice  (1987- ).
    (USAT, 1/7/99, p.2A)(MC, 10/1/01)
1924        Oct 1, Paavo Nurmi ran a world record 4 mile (19:15.4) and 5 miles (24:06.2).
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1927        Oct 1, Tom Bosley, actor (Howard-Happy Days, Murder She Wrote), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1928        Oct 1, Zhu Rongji, named Premier of China in 1998, was born.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)

1929        Oct 1, In NYC demolition began of the Waldorf-Astoria to make way for the new Empire State Building.
    (ON, 12/08, p.11)

1930        Oct 1, Philippe Noiret, actor (Soleil, Les Milles, Il Postino), was born in Lille, France.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1931        Oct 1, Spain established general female suffrage.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1932        Oct 1, Albert Collins, guitarist, was born.
     (HN, 10/1/00)
1932        Oct 1, Oswald Mosley formed the British Union of Fascists.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1934        Oct 1, Adolph Hitler expanded the German army and navy and created an air force, violating Treaty of Versailles.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1935        Oct 1, Julie Andrews (Julia Elizabeth Wells), actress and singer, was born. Her films include “Mary Poppins” and “The Sound of Music.”
    (HN, 10/1/00)

1936        Oct. 1, General Francisco Franco was proclaimed the head of an insurgent Spanish state.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1937        Oct 1, Pullman Co. formally recognized Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. [see Aug 25]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1938        Oct 1, Germany annexed Sudetenland (1/3 of Czech Republic).
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1939        Oct 1, Churchill called the Soviets a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma."
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1940        Oct 1, The first section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, 160 miles in length, was opened to the public.
    (AP, 10/1/00)

1942        Oct 1, Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, made its maiden flight.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1942        Oct 1, Little Golden Books (children books) began publishing.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1942        Oct 1, At Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Canada, the US Air Force Crystal II Radar Base was established as part of the defensive DEW Line Project. The air base was closed in 1963. The site was renamed Iqaluit in 1987 and in 1999 became the capital city of the Inuit-run territory of Nunavut.
    (SSFC, 5/15/11, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frobisher_Bay_Air_Base)
1942        Oct 1, The German Army ground to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1943        Oct 1, Allied forces captured Naples during World War II. British troops in Italy entered Naples and occupied Foggia airfield.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)
1943        Oct 1, Germans attacked Jews in Denmark.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1944        Oct 1, The U.S. First Army began the siege Aachen, Germany.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1945        Oct 1, The US Army Air Corps founded the RAND Corporation less than 2 months after bombs were dropped on Japan. Gen. Arnold and others met at Hamilton Field, California, to set up Project RAND under special contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 2008 Alex Abella authored “Soldiers of Reason: The RAND corporation and the rise of the American empire.”
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, Books p.4)(www.rand.org/about/history/)

1946        Oct 1, Tim O’Brien, novelist, was born. His work included “The Things They Carried” and “In the Lake of the Woods.”
    (HN, 10/1/00)
1946        Oct 1, Twelve Nazi war criminals were sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials-- Karl Donitz, Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg. Karl Donitz was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(http://uboat.net/men/doenitz.htm)
1946        Oct 1, The diary of Hitler confidant Alfred Rosenberg, once held by Nuremberg prosecutors as evidence, vanished after the trial. Nuremberg prosecutor Robert Kempner (d.1993) was long suspected by US officials of smuggling the diary back to the United States. In 2013 The US government recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary.
    (Reuters, 6/10/13)

1948        Oct 1, The California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp voided a state statue banning interracial marriages.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perez_v._Sharp)

1949        Oct 1, Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) raised the first flag of the People's Republic of China during a ceremony in Beijing  (National Day). As the Communists came to power there were over 400 ethnic groups in China. By 2009 the official number of ethnic groups was reduced to 56.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.45)
1949        Oct 1, Republic of China (Taiwan) was formed on island of Formosa. The Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek had been defeated and fled to Taiwan and took control. Chiang Kai-shek established the “temporary” government of the Republic of China in Taipei and established martial law.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A9)

1951        Oct 1, 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador, Eugenie Anderson.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1951        Oct 1, The US 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, was deactivated.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1957        Oct 1, The motto "In God We Trust" began appearing on US paper currency.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
1957        Oct 1, B-52 bombers began full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1958        Oct 1, America’s National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was inaugurated [See Apr 2, Jul 29].
    (SFC, 10/2/07, p.A6)
1958        Oct 1, American Express launched its first credit card.
    (www.bostonapartments.com/loans/american_express_credit_card.html)
1958        Oct 1, Britain transferred Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1960        Oct 1, California Coast Guardsmen boarded the Coho II at the entrance of SF Bay. The engine was running and the fishing boat was on automatic pilot, but skipper Ted Bean (45) was missing. Days earlier E.A. Davison, skipper of the albacore boat Steelhead, had radioed in panic from the Monterey fishing grounds saying “The Coho Second me just shot me.”
    (SSFC, 9/26/10, DB p.50)
1960        Oct 1, Nigeria gained independence from Britain (National Day).
    (WSJ, 11/13/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-1)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1172)

1961        Oct 1, Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) first aired.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)(www.cbn.com/700club/showinfo/staff/patrobertson.aspx)
1961        Oct. 1, Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hit his 61st home run off of Tracy Stallard during a 162-game season. It compared to Babe Ruth's 60 home runs during a 154-game season. The ball was caught by Sal Durante (19) who offered it to Maris. Maris declined and Durante sold it for $5000 to a restaurateur named Sam Gordon, who donated the ball to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.B1)(MC, 10/1/01)
1961        Oct 1, A believed extinct volcano erupted in Tristan da Cunha.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1962        Oct 1, Johnny Carson succeeded Jack Paar as regular host of NBC's "Tonight" show. Carson received an on-air introduction from Groucho Marx; the guests on his debut program were Joan Crawford, Rudy Vallee, Tony Bennett,  Mel Brooks and The Phoenix Singers.
    (AP, 10/1/02)
1962        Oct 1, Barbra Streisand signed her 1st recording contract with Columbia.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1962        Oct 1, James Meredith became 1st black at U of Mississippi. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1962        Oct 1, Ludwig Bemelmans (1898), Austrian-born writer of children’s books, died in NYC. His 1st Madeline book was published in 1939.
    (www.kidsreads.com/series/series-madeline-author.asp)

1963        Oct 1, Mark McGwire was born. He later became a baseball 1st baseman, AL rookie of year 1988, Oakland A's, Cards, 70 home run record.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1964        Oct 1, The Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley. Mario Savio (1943-1996), UC Berkeley physics student, began the Free Speech Movement to fight prohibitions against students distributing political brochures and other materials such as civil rights. The incident began when police arrested Jack Weinberg for setting up an unauthorized table in Sproul Plaza. Students surrounded the police car in a standoff that lasted 32 hours. In 1998 a Free Speech Movement Cafe was planned. In 2002 Robert Cohen and Reginald E. Zelnik edited “The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s.”
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.B2)(AP, 10/1/97)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.A18)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M5)
1964        Oct 1, Ernst Toch (b.1887), Vienna-born composer, died in Los Angeles. He authored “The Shaping Forces in Music.” His last stage work “The Last Tale” (1962), was adapted from the well-known plot of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights).
    (www.operaworld.com/special/lasttale.shtml)
1964        Oct 1, Japan’s Shinkansen Bullet Train began operation between Tokyo and Osaka.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C5%8Dkaid%C5%8D_Shinkansen)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T5)

1965        Oct 1, In Indonesia a small force of junior military officers abducted and killed six generals in the early morning hours and seized several key points in the capital city of Jakarta. Gen. Suharto crushed the coup and soon seized power from Pres. Sukarno.
    (www.namebase.org/scott.html)

1968        Oct 1, The cult horror movie "Night of the Living Dead" had its world premiere in Pittsburgh.
    (AP, 10/1/98)
1968        Oct 1, The US Senate refused to shut down a filibuster against President Lyndon B. Johnson's nomination of Abe Fortas to be US chief justice. Fortas withdrew the next day.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
1968        Oct 1, The US Congress created the Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area in Wyoming.
    (www.utah.com/nationalsites/flaming_gorge.htm)

1969        Oct 1, Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1969        Oct 1, The prototype Concorde 001, designed by the British and French, broke the sound barrier during a test flight. Commercial service began in 1976.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.B1)(MC, 10/1/01)

1969        Oct 1, The Channel Islands of Guernsey & Jersey begin issuing their own postage stamps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_postage_in_Great_Britain)
1969        Oct 1, The prototype Concorde 001, designed by the British and French, broke the sound barrier during a test flight. Commercial service began in 1976.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.B1)(www.concordesst.com/history/events/events1.html)

1971        Oct 1, Walt Disney Productions opened its Magic Kingdom in Orlando, Florida.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_Kingdom)
1971        Oct 1, As of this day divorce in the Netherlands could only be granted on the ground of the irretrievable breakdown of the marriage (Article 1:151 of the Dutch Civil Code).
    (http://www2.law.uu.nl/priv/cefl/Reports/pdf/Netherlands02.pdf)

1972        Oct 1, Louis Leakey (b.1903), Kenyan archeologist and naturalist, died in London. He was flown home and interred at Limuru, Kenya, near the graves of his parents.
    (SFC, 12/10/96, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Leakey)

1973        Oct 1, An East German border order to border guards from the Ministry for State Security, or Stasi, said: “Do not hesitate with the use of a firearm, including when the border breakouts involve women and children, which the traitors have already frequently taken advantage of." The order was made public in 2007.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1974        Oct 1, Five Nixon aides--Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon’s Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell-- went on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1975        Oct 1, Muhammad Ali beat Joe Frazier after 14 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title in Manila.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrilla_in_Manila)

1979        Oct 1, The 1977 Panama Canal Treaties entered into force. The US returned the Canal Zone, but not the canal, to Panama after 75 years.
    (http://mexico.usembassy.gov/bbf/bfdossier_PanamaCanal.htm)
1979        Oct 1, Pope John Paul II arrived in Boston for the start of a U.S. tour.
    (AP, 10/1/99)
1979        Oct 1, Henry Ford II stepped down as Ford’s chairman and CEA and was succeeded by Philip Caldwell (b.1920).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Caldwell)

1982        Oct 1, EPCOT Center opened in Orlando, Florida.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epcot)
1982        Oct 1, West Germany's Parliament ousted Helmut Schmidt (SPD). Helmut Kohl, head of the Christian Democratic Union, became Chancellor following the collapse of the Social Democratic led coalition. Kohl served until 1998.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)(WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A18)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.45)

1984        Oct 1, Gary Trudeau's Doonesbury comic strip resumed after a 2-year hiatus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doonesbury)

1985        Oct 1, Israeli forces staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were killed. Yasser Arafat narrowly escaped death.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)
1985        Oct 1, E. B. White (Elwyn Brooks White, b.1899), writer, author of “Charlotte's Web” and “The Elements of Style,” died in Maine.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ebwhite.htm)

1986        Oct. 1, Former President Jimmy Carter's presidential library and museum were dedicated in Atlanta with help from President Reagan.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1987        Oct. 1, Eight people were killed when an earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter scale and an aftershock measuring 5.3 struck the Los Angeles area.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1988        Oct 1, In a continuing shake-up of the Soviet leadership, Mikhail Gorbachev was confirmed as president, succeeding Andrei A. Gromyko.
    (AP, 10/1/98)

1989        Oct 1, Gen. Colin Powell was appointed Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the US Dept. of Defense.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A14)
1989        Oct 1, The San Francisco Health Department reported the first two documented cases in which men became infected with the AIDS virus through oral sex.
    (http://ww5.aegis.org/news/ap/1990/AP901005.html)
1989        Oct 1, Thousands of East Germans received a triumphal welcome in West Germany after the communist government agreed to let them leave for the West.
    (AP, 10/1/99)
1989        Oct 1, In Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 homosexual couples were married. It was the first time any country allowed such marriages.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 12/12/98, p.B3)

1990        Oct 1, President Bush, addressing the UN General Assembly, again condemned Iraq’s takeover of Kuwait, but also suggested an unconditional military withdrawal could help speed an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict.
    (AP, 10/1/00)
1990        Oct 1, Curtis E. LeMay (83), Air Force General and VP candidate, died at March Air Force Base, California.
    (AP, 10/1/00)

1991        Oct 1, President Bush strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending U.S. economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
    (AP, 10/1/01)

1992        Oct. 1, The U.S. Senate voted 93-to-6 to approve the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
    (AP, 10/1/97)
1992        Oct 1, Texas billionaire Ross Perot jumped back into the presidential race.
    (AP, 10/1/97)
1992        Oct 1, Petra Kelly (b.1947), founder of the German Green Party, was shot dead in Bonn.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petra_Kelly)

1993        Oct 1, The US federal tax on gasoline was raised to 18.3 cents per gallon.
    (www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/Transportation/trans-24.cfm)
1993        Oct 1, In Petaluma, Ca. 12-year-old Polly Klaas was kidnapped from her bedroom while playing with two girl friends by a knife-wielding intruder; her body was found more than two months later. 60 days later Richard Allen Davis was arrested for the kidnap and murder of Polly. He was later convicted and sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 4/24/96, p.A-1)(AP, 10/1/98)
1993        Oct 1, The Church of Scientology secured tax-exempt status for its main branch in a settlement with the IRS in which it paid $12.5 million. The church agreed to drop thousands of suits against the IRS. The details were only made public in 1997.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A1)

1994        Oct 1, National Hockey League team owners began a 103-day lockout of their players.
    (AP, 10/1/99)
1994        Oct 1, The United States and Japan reached a series of trade agreements, averting a threatened trade war.
    (AP, 10/1/99)

1995        Oct 1, Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, a blind Egyptian cleric accused of leading a "war of urban terrorism" against US cities, was convicted with nine other defendants of seditious conspiracy by a federal jury in New York.
    (WSJ, 10/2/95, P.A-3)(AP, 10/1/00)
1995        Oct 1, France detonated another nuclear device, 5 times more powerful than the last one, on Fangatouga Atoll in the South Pacific.
    (WSJ, 10/2/95, P.A-1)
1995        Oct 1, An earthquake in southwestern Turkey killed about 90 people.
    (AP, 10/1/00)

1996        Oct 1, A federal grand jury indicted Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski in 1994 mail bomb slaying of an ad executive. He was later sentenced to 4 life terms plus 30 years.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
1996        Oct 1, The first phase of a US minimum wage 50-cent increase to $4.75 took effect. Phase 2 to $5.15 was scheduled for Sep 1, 1997.
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.A4)(AP, 10/1/97)
1996        Oct. 1, NASA began turning over day-to-day shuttle operations to private industry.
    (AP, 10/1/97)
1996        Oct 1, In Haiti it was confirmed that a plot to undermine the government was squelched. The Committee of Soldiers’ Demands, representing former soldiers, had plotted to destabilize the government. More US trained Haitian-American police officers and money from the IMF was expected before the expiration of the current UN mandate.
    (SFC, 10/2/96, p.A7)
1996        Oct. 1, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat met at the White House.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1997        Oct 1, The US Senate approved a $3,100 cost-of-living congressional pay raise, the first in 5 years, in a 55-45 vote. The inflation related adjustment was instituted in 1993 but denied until this year.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A13)
1997        Oct 1, US FBI Director Louis J. Freeh warned that Russian organized crime networks were growing and that they posed a menace to US national security. Russian crime syndicates were described to be forging ties with the Italian Mafia and the Columbian drug cartels.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A3)
1997        Oct 1, Paula Jones announced a new legal team from Texas to pursue her suit against Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A3)
1997        Oct 1, The Center for Nonverbal Studies (CNS), a private, nonprofit research center located in Spokane, Washington, began operations. The Center's mission is to advance the study of human communication in all its forms apart from language. The Center's goal is to promote the scientific study of nonverbal communication, which includes body movement, gesture, facial expression, adornment and fashion, architecture, mass media, and consumer-product design.
    (http://members.aol.com/nonverbal2/index.htm)
1997        Oct 1, WorldCom Inc. bid $30 million to take over MCI Communications.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 1, In Pearl, Mississippi, Luke Woodham (16) stabbed his mother Mary (50) to death and went to school and killed his former girlfriend and another student and wounded 7 others. Later Grant Boyette (18) was identified as the leader of the Kroth  cult, a Satanist group with a plan of destruction and killing. Woodham was found guilty in 1998 of killing 2 classmates and was sentenced to 2 life sentences plus 20 years. He was also found guilty in the murder of his mother in a separate trial and the sentence was raised to 3 life sentences plus 140 years.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A3)(SFC, 10/15/97, p.A6)(SFC, 6/2/98, p.A3)(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A3)(AP, 10/1/07)
1997        Oct 1, Asian currencies dived in foreign exchange markets in part because of comments by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir: “I would like to suggest that we do away with trade in currency as a commodity.”
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A12)
1997        Oct 1, From Angola it was reported that Unita was demobilizing its soldiers and getting the UN to return them to Unita-held territory, where they could again be mobilized.
    (WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A16)
1997        Oct 2, In Azerbaijan a helicopter with 20 passengers crashed near an offshore oil platform and no survivors were found.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)
1997        Oct 1, In Bosnia NATO seized 4 key Bosnian Serb television transmitters.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 1, Congo’s Pres. Kabila ordered troops into the Congo Republic after 2 days of cross border shelling that killed as many as 31 in Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 1, Israel under PM Netanyahu freed Sheik Ahmed Yassin (61), the founder and spiritual leader of Hamas. The ill Yassin was taken to Jordan and hospitalized. As part of the deal an antidote for the chemical used on last week’s Meshaal attack was demanded by Jordan and Israel requested the release of the Meshaal attackers. This secured the release of two Mossad agents arrested in Jordan following a botched assassination attempt against Hamas political leader Khalid Mashaal.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)(AP, 10/1/98)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.55)
1997        Oct 1, In Serbia It was reported that Albanian students in Kosovo planned to demonstrate in the streets for equal access to the university on par with the Serb students at Pristina. Some 20,000 students protested and were attacked by Serb police. At least 30 students were injured. 500 students were attacked by Serbian police.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)(SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)(SFC,12/10/97, p.C2)
1997        Oct 1, In Belgrade, Serbia, riot police attacked thousands of marchers who protested the firing of mayor Djindjic and the removal of editors of the independent TV station.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)
1997        Oct 1, In Sri Lanka a government clash with Tamil Tigers left at least 70 combatants dead in Puliyankulam.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A3)
1997        Oct 1, The UN withdrew its human rights investigators from Congo pending a clarification by the Kabila government on its policy.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)

1998        Oct 1, The US Dept. of Defense said that it would spend an estimated $50 million this year to provide Viagra to soldiers, sailors, fliers, retirees and their dependents.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A8)
1998        Oct 1, Gordon and Betty Moore, announced a $35 million contribution to Conservation Int’l., an environmental group for biodiversity. The funds would be used for a new Washington DC Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. Moore was a co-founder and former chairman of Intel Corp. He donated $12.5 million to Cambridge Univ. for the most advanced science and technology library in Europe.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B6,D1)
1998        Oct 1, In Washington state the Makah Indian gray whale hunting season opened. The tribe had recently won the right to kill up to 5 whales a year over the next 4 years.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A6)
1998        Oct 1, CollaGenex Pharmaceuticals announced FDA approval of Periostat, a pill to help fight gum disease. The drug suppresses the enzyme responsible for gum and tooth breakdown during inflammation.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A2)
1998        Oct 1, The IMF and the World Bank were negotiating an emergency loan package for Brazil of some $30 billion. Since the collapse of the ruble, edgy investors have taken $30 billion out of Brazil. The government in the mean time pushed up the interest rate to 40%.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 1, Guatemala sold 95% of its phone monopoly for $700 million to Luca, a consortium of Guatemalan and Central American financial institutions.
    (WSJ, 10/2/98, p.A10)
1998        Oct 1, In central Mexico a flooded irrigation canal killed 12 people when it washed away tin and cardboard homes along its banks.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B3)
1998        Oct 1, The UN sent a new warning to Pres. Milosevic of Serbia over the atrocities in Kosovo. Seeking to head off threatened NATO attacks, Yugoslavia's Serb leadership invited foreign experts to investigate massacres in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/1/99)

1999        Oct 1, South Korean activists thanked the US government for promising to investigate an Associated Press report that US forces allegedly killed several hundred refugees at the start of the Korean War. But the protesters also demanded the US punish some of the veterans involved and compensate the victims’ relatives.
    (AP, 10/1/00)
1999        Oct 1, In Thailand the Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors took 38 diplomats as hostages at the Burmese Embassy in Bangkok. Two Thai officials were exchanged for the hostages and 12 [5] students were reported to have flown to the Thai-Burma border by helicopter, where they were released. The students demanded the release of political prisoners, dialogue between the military and Aung San Suu Kyi and an elected parliament.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A12)(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A25)
1999        Oct 1, In China the celebration for the 50th anniversary of Communism included 50 approved slogans for the masses to chant and 61 approved songs to sing. Central TV had already aired a 16-part documentary on the past 50 years.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A18)
1999        Oct 1, In Indonesia the new national Assembly met for the first time in the post-Suharto period. The assembly elected Amien Rais as speaker and chose Oct 20 as the date to select the next president.
    (WSJ, 10/1/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 1, Israel planned to implement the Wye River accord and pull troops from the West Bank.
    (WSJ, 8/2/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 1, Joao da Silva Tavares, a militia leader in West Timor, said he planned to lead 12,000 fighters back to 6 western districts of East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.C1)
1999        Oct 1, In Pakistan gunmen attacked Shiites in Karachi and killed 9 people in a mosque. A retaliatory attack on a Sunni Muslim school left 4 dead. Another 5 people were killed in eastern Punjab.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A13)
1999        Oct 1, In Russia Prime Minister Putin cut ties with the elected government of Chechnya.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A12)

2000        Oct 1, Stanley Kunitz (95) succeeded Robert Pinsky as the USD poet laureate.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, BR p.2)
2000        Oct 1, On the last day of the 27th Olympics in Sydney, the U.S. men's basketball team beat France for the gold medal. The United States led the way in the final medal tally, collecting 97 (39 gold, 25 silver and 33 bronze); Russia was second with 88 (32, 28 and 28), China third with 59 (28, 16, 15) and host Australia was fourth, with 58.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/2/00, p.A1)(AP, 10/1/01)
2000        Oct 1, Robert Allen, composer, died at age 73. His songs included “Chances Are,” “Moments to Remember,” and “Home for the Holidays.”
    (SFC, 10/6/00, p.D5)
2000        Oct 1, Pope John Paul II on China’s national day, canonized as martyrs 87 Chinese believers and 33 European missionaries killed between 1648 and 1930. He also canonized Mother Katherine Drexel (d.1955), a Philadelphia heiress, who became a nun.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A12)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.78)
2000        Oct 1, In Brazil some 110 million voted  in municipal elections with advances by the Workers Party. A tilt to the left was seen as a response to corruption.
    (WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A23)
2000        Oct 1, In China Falun Dafa staged one of the biggest Tiananmen Square protests since it was banned 14 months earlier.
    (WSJ, 10/2/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 1, In India officials in West Bengal state said 997 people had died due to flooding over the past 3 weeks. 45 people were reported killed in Bangladesh.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A14)
2000        Oct 1, Israeli forces fought Palestinian rioters for a 3rd day and at least 12 Palestinians were killed. The fighting spread from the West Bank and Gaza to towns and cities inside Israel.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A1)

2001        Oct 1, New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, in an impassioned speech to the United Nations, said there was no room for "neutrality" in the global fight against terrorism and no need for more studies or vague directives.
    (AP, 10/1/02)
2001        Oct 1, The Supreme Court suspended former President Clinton from practicing before the high court.
    (AP, 10/1/02)
2001        Oct 1, The US reported that some $6 million and 50 bank accounts were blocked as suspected terrorist assets.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A3)
2001        Oct 1-2, The US gave Nato “clear and compelling” evidence that Osama bin Laden orchestrated the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.A4)(SFC, 12/30/01, p.D7)
2001        Oct 1, Zayd Hassan Abd al-Latif Masud Al Safarini, jailed in Pakistan for 15 years, arrived in Alaska and was expected to face a 1991 indictment for the 1986 hijacking of a Pan Am jet in which 22 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A3)
2001        Oct 1, In Minnesota some 28,000 state workers went on strike over wage disputes.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A9)
2001        Oct 1, Conde Nast said it would its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published for the last time in November.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.C1)
2001        Oct 1, Calvin C. Hernton, black scholar, critic and poet, died at age 69. His books included “Sex and Racism in America,” “White Papers for White Americans,” and “The Sexual Mountain and Black Women Writers.”
    (SFC, 10/15/01, p.E4)
2001        Oct 1, The opposition Northern Alliance of Afghanistan met in Rome with ex-king Zahir Shah and agreed to form a broad-based government open to cooperation with the West
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 1, Elections in Bangladesh for 299 seats in parliament were held pitting Sheikh Hasina’s allies against those of longtime foe Khaleda Zia. Zia’s coalition appeared to be headed for a landslide win. Over 150 people were killed in the weeks prior to the elections. A coalition led by the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) came to power.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.C12)(WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A1)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.54)
2001        Oct 1, Indonesia’s Supreme Court threw out its corruption conviction of Hutomo Mandala Putra, i.e. “Tommy Suharto.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A10)
2001        Oct 1, In Srinagar, capital of Jammu and Kashmir, a Pakistani-based suicide squad struck at the Legislative Assembly and 38 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/7/01, p.A17)(AP, 10/1/06)
2001        Oct 1, In the Philippines the trial of former Pres. Estrada had a brief start and was postponed to Oct 17. Estrada showed up against his will, without his legal team and clad in slippers.
    (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A10)
2001        Oct 1, Russia claimed to have killed Abu Yakub, a top aide to an Arab commander allied with rebels in Chechnya.
    (WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 1, In Spain suspected Basque militants exploded a car bomb in Vitoria that caused much damage to the city center.
    (WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A1)

2002        Oct 1, The West Coast dockworker lockout continued.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 1, The DJIA rose 346 to 7,938. Nasdaq rose 41 to 1,213.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.B1)
2002        Oct 1, New Jersey Democrats chose former Senator Frank Lautenberg to be on the November ballot in place of scandal-tainted Senator Robert Torricelli.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2002        Oct 1, Walter H. Annenberg (94), media tycoon, philanthropist and former ambassador, died in Wynnewood, Pa. Biographies included "Legacy: A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg" by Christopher Ogden and "The Annenbergs" by John Cooney.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)
2002        Oct 1, The French bolstered their forces in Ivory Coast, flying in reinforcements and establishing a tactical command post for military action in its embattled former colony.
    (AP, 10/1/02)
2002        Oct 1, German police found the body of Jakob von Metzler, 11-year-old heir to a Frankfurt family banking fortune, bundled under a lakeside dock, days after the boy was kidnapped and a nearly million-dollar ransom was paid. In 2003 Magnus Gaefgen (28) told the Frankfurt state court that he had not intended the Sept. 27 kidnapping to end in death. He was convicted of kidnapping and murdering Metzler and sentenced to life in prison. In 2011 Gaefgen was awarded euro3,000 ($4,290) in damages because a police officer had threatened violence during an interrogation.
    (AP, 10/1/02)(AP, 4/11/03)(AP, 8/4/11)
2002        Oct 1, Two Indian naval reconnaissance planes taking part in a ceremonial flypast collided in mid-air over the western state of Goa, killing 15 people.
    (Reuters, 10/1/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.A10)
2002        Oct 1, In Indian Kashmir gunmen killed 9 people on a bus and attacked several polling stations as voters shunned the third round of elections in the troubled state's separatist heartland. 6 paramilitary troopers were killed when their vehicle exploded south of Srinagar.
    (Reuters, 10/1/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.A12)
2002        Oct 1, Allied aircraft launched an airstrike in the southern no-fly zone over Iraq after Iraqi aircraft penetrated the restricted area. Iraq agreed to a plan for the return of UN weapons inspectors for the first time in nearly four years, but ignored US demands for access to Saddam Hussein's palaces and other contested sites. Iraq said it expected an advance party in Baghdad in two weeks.
    (AP, 10/1/07)(AP, 10/2/02)
2002        Oct 1, Rwanda began pulling out 6,000 troops from a Congo border province, the latest stage in a withdrawal of all its forces that it hopes to complete by week's end.
    (AP, 10/1/02)
2002        Oct 1, In South Africa tens of thousands of workers blew whistles and sang protest songs as they marched in a nationwide strike protesting the government's privatization plans.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2003        Oct 1, The United States took over the month-long presidency of the U.N. Security Council at a time when it was campaigning for approval of a new resolution aimed at getting more countries to contribute troops and money to Iraq.
    (AP, 10/1/04)
2003        Oct 1, Conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh resigned from ESPN, three days after saying Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb is overrated because the media wanted to see a black quarterback succeed.
    (AP, 10/2/03)
2003        Oct 1, US officials identified Abu Hazim al-Sha'ir (29), a Yemeni ex-bodyguard of Osama bin Laden, as al Qaeda's new terror chief.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 1, A federal judge in Texas ruled that former Enron Chairman Kenneth Lay and Northern Trust Corp., can be sued for allegedly failing to protect the Enron employee pension plan.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 1, California state car license fees increased $150 from $73 to $223.
    (SFC, 9/29/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 1, Thousands of postal workers in London began a 24-hour strike that was expected to cause huge disruption to mail deliveries.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1, Burkina Faso arrested 12 people in connection with an alleged coup plot.
    (AP, 10/7/03)
2003        Oct 1, In southern Chechnya gunmen opened fire on a car carrying the mayor of a town, killing the local leader and his son, who was a police officer.
    (AP, 10/2/03)
2003        Oct 1, In China new rules took effect that eliminate a requirement for couples to get the permission of their employers before they tie the knot.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1, Prime Minister Bertie Ahern said Ireland will ban smoking from all workplaces, including pubs, in January despite rising opposition from lawmakers and business owners.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1, In Liberia West African forces traded their camouflage helmets Wednesday for the blue ones of the UN. Hours later clashes flared between rebels and loyalist forces in Monrovia, leaving three civilians dead.
    (Reuters, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1, In Rwanda the ruling party of President Paul Kagame won nearly three-fourths of the vote the multiparty legislative elections since independence from Belgium in 1962.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1,  Solomon Islands Foreign Minister Laurie Chan said an Australian-led force has broken the reign of gangsters and warlords terrorizing the Islands, paving the way for the small South Pacific nation to start battling corruption.
    (AP, 10/1/03)
2003        Oct 1, In southwestern Zimbabwe a bus overturned and crashed after a tire burst, killing 16 people and injuring at least 28 in the second serious bus crash in Zimbabwe in 24 hours.
    (AP, 10/3/03)

2004        Oct 1, G7 ministers met in Washington DC. Chinese officials were invited to attend for the 1st time.
    (Econ, 10/2/04, p.11)
2004        Oct 1, The U.S. Postal Service canceled a brief experiment that allowed ordinary people to make postage stamps using images of their dogs, babies and even, it turned out, outlaws such as the Unabomber.
    (AP, 10/4/04)
2004        Oct 1, The Utah state medical examiner's office used dental records to identify Lori Hacking's remains about six hours after they were discovered in a landfill.
    (AP, 10/2/04)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A2)
2004        Oct 1, Mount St. Helens quieted down after spewing a plume of steam and ash, but only briefly. Within hours of the eruption, seismic readings suggested pressure was building again inside the volcano, which had been dormant for 18 years.
    (AP, 10/2/04)
2004        Oct 1, Richard Avedon (81), US fashion photographer, died in San Antonio, Tx.
    (SFC, 10/2/04, p.A1)(Econ, 10/9/04, p.81)
2004        Oct 1, Australia’s PM John Howard promised new legislation if it was needed to fight child pornography following more than 200 arrests in a major country-wide crackdown on Internet pornography.
    (AFP, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, British PM Tony Blair reportedly underwent a procedure to correct an irregular heartbeat.
    (AP, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, US aid to Egypt for fiscal 2005 began. The budget request of $535 million was down $40 million from 2004.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A13)
2004        Oct 1, India's Border Security Force (BSF) asked Bangladeshi authorities to hand over 126 Indian insurgents, including top leaders of guerrilla groups it says are based in the neighboring country.
    (Reuters, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, A violent Maoist rebel group proposed a seven-point peace agreement to the government of a southern Indian state at their first-ever talks to end an insurgency in which thousands of people have been killed.
    (AP, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, U.S. and Iraqi forces launched a major assault to regain control of the insurgent stronghold of Samarra, trading gunfire with rebel fighters as they pushed toward the city center. The US said over 100 insurgents were killed.
    (AP, 10/1/04)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A3)
2004        Oct 1, In Iraq hospital officials said at least seven civilians were killed and 13 wounded during a US bombing attack in Falluja.
    (AP, 10/2/04)
2004        Oct 1, Israel's security Cabinet approved a large-scale military operation, dubbed "Days of Penitence," to stop Palestinian rocket fire. Two Palestinians were killed and three wounded when an Israeli tank fired a shell in the Jebaliya refugee camp. 8 Palestinians were killed in the northern Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 10/1/04)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A9)
2004        Oct 1, In Lebanon a car bomb exploded in central Beirut, wounding a former Lebanese Cabinet minister in an assassination attempt. The explosion killed the politician's driver and seriously wounded his bodyguard.
    (AP, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, In eastern Pakistan a suicide attacker detonated a huge bomb inside a crowded Shiite Muslim mosque during prayers, killing at least 23 people and wounding dozens more.
    (AP, 10/1/04)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A9)
2004        Oct 1, Spain's Socialist government approved a controversial law that would give gay and lesbian couples the same right to marry, divorce and adopt children as heterosexuals.
    (Reuters, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 1, The United Nations launched a massive voluntary repatriation program to return an estimated 340,000 Liberian refugees still scattered across West Africa.
    (AP, 10/1/04)

2005        Oct 1, The SF Opera premiered “Doctor Atomic” by composer John Adams. The libretto was by Peter Sellars.
    (SSFC, 10/2/05, p.A17)
2005        Oct 1-2005 Oct 2, In SF financier Warren Hellman sponsored the 5th annual Hardly Strictly Bluegrass Festival in Golden Gate Park.
    (SFC, 10/3/05, p.C1)
2005        Oct 1, In Connecticut legislation permitting same-sex civil unions took effect.
    (SSFC, 10/2/05, p.A5)
2005        Oct 1, In Norman, Oklahoma, Joel Henry Hinrichs (21), a Univ. of Oklahoma student, committed suicide using an explosive attached to his body near the Oklahoma Memorial Stadium, where 84,000 people watched a football game.
    (SFC, 10/3/05, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/13/05, p.B1)
2005        Oct 1, Paul Pena (b.1950), a blind bluesman, died in SF. The 1999 film "Genghis Blues" won the audience award at Sundance for best documentary. It was directed by Roko and Adrian Belic and was about Paul Pena (1950-1955), a blind bluesman, who journeyed to Tuva to compete in a throat-singing competition.
    (SFC, 10/4/05, p.B5)
2005        Oct 1, A banned Algerian Islamic group with ties to al-Qaida rejected an amnesty for Islamic militants, saying in a statement on its Web site that it had no need for a government peace plan.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, It was reported that Louis Michaud, a Canadian engineer, had developed an “atmospheric vortex engine” to harness energy from an artificial tornado.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.76)
2005        Oct 1, Tens of thousands of Chinese marked the 56th anniversary of Communist rule in Beijing's Tiananmen Square with the country enjoying the benefits of two decades of rapid economic growth but still facing deep-seated social problems.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, China and Japan ended 2 days of talks with no resolution on their territorial dispute in the East China Sea, which focused on oil and gas deposits straddling the border.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.52)
2005        Oct 1, Riot police forcibly expelled striking union workers who had blockaded ports in Corsica and southeastern France for days to protest against the planned privatization of a state-run ferry operator.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, In the Dominican Rep. 1,719 homicides were reported in the first eight months of the year, compared to 1,513 during the same period in 2004. At least 25 children have been killed or injured by stray bullets in the same period. Police estimate guns are used in 75 percent of homicides.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, A volcano in western El Salvador erupted, sending a column of ash 50,000 feet into the air and killing two farmers buried by chunks of earth and boiling water that tumbled down the slopes.
    (AP, 10/2/05)
2005        Oct 1, In Indonesia bombs exploded almost simultaneously in two tourist areas of the resort island of Bali, killing 20 people and wounding nearly 200 others. Indonesia said suicide bombers carried out the blasts that bore the hallmark of Islamic militants linked to al-Qaeda. In 2006 Abdul Aziz (30) was sentenced to eight years in prison for harboring the alleged mastermind of the bombings. Aziz had also helped set up a Web site calling on Muslims to wage war against "infidels." Mohammad Cholili (28) was sentenced to 18 years in prison for helping to build the bombs. Dwi Widiarto (34) was sentenced to 8 years for helping make the bombers’ videotaped confessions. Anif Solchanudin was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/2/05)(AP, 9/5/06)(AP, 9/7/06)(AP, 9/14/06)
2005        Oct 1, The US military released about 500 Iraqi detainees from the notorious Abu Ghraib prison, completing its plan to free a total of more than 1,000 this week in honor of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, In Iraq US Marines began a 3-day offensive dubbed Iron Fist that included a sweep of the insurgency stronghold of Karabila.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.A1)(www.atsnn.com/story/174319.html)
2005        Oct 1, Japan privatized four debt-ridden public corporations that run the nation's highways, in the latest of PM Junichiro Koizumi's initiatives to reduce the size of government.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, The outer bands of Hurricane Otis lashed the coast of western Mexico as the storm crawled toward the Baja California peninsula, forcing hundreds of families to evacuate their homes and flooding roads in Cabo San Lucas.
    (AP, 10/2/05)
2005        Oct 1, A new Russian "public chamber" met for the first time aiming to improve ties between officials and society. A day earlier the Kremlin announced the first 42 members of the chamber, an assortment of religious leaders, Olympic champions, businessmen, trade unionists and others. The members discussed who else should be included, since they now have to choose a further 42 people to join their group. They were also reported to have started to plan their course of action.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, A Russian rocket roared into space in a burst of flame from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, launching the world's third space tourist, US millionaire scientist Gregory Olsen, and a U.S.-Russian crew on a two-day trip to the international space station.
    (AP, 10/1/05)
2005        Oct 1, In Yekaterinburg, Russia, 5 teenagers, ranging in age from 12 to 17, were drunk when they encountered a 21-year-old Jewish man and attacked him. After the man fell to the ground, the group took a metal cross from a grave headstone and stabbed him. A Russian court in 2007 sentenced the 5 teenagers to prison terms of 5-10 years.
    (AP, 2/9/07)
2005        Oct 1,    In South Korea Seoul's Mayor Lee Myung-bak led a ceremony for the re-opening of the Chonggyechon stream buried beneath an elevated highway for almost 50 years. Work to restore about 6 km of the stream began in July, 2003, at a cost of around $350 million. The stream flows through a narrow park that celebrates the history of Seoul.
    (Reuters, 10/1/05)

2006        Oct 1, Tiger Woods won the American Express Championship in Chandler's Cross, England. It was his eighth victory of the year, making him the first player in PGA Tour history to win at least eight times in three seasons.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2006        Oct 1, In Afghanistan 5 people were killed in various Taliban attacks and bomb blasts.
    (AP, 10/2/06)
2006        Oct 1, Austrians began voting in national elections that could swing the republic back to the political center after more than six years of influence by the extreme right. Without absentee ballots, the Social Democrats won 35.7%, giving it the largest proportion of parliamentary seats. The People's Party, led by Chancellor Wolfgang Schussel, came in second with 34.2%, followed by the Freedom Party, which campaigned on an anti-foreigner platform, with 11.2%. The Greens came in fourth with 10.5%.
    (AP, 10/1/06)(AP, 10/2/06)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.60)
2006        Oct 1, Bosnians voted in historic general elections that will choose the first government to run the country without international supervision since the end of the 1992-1995 war.
    (AFP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, Brazil held elections. Brazil voted for president, the lower house of Congress, a third of the Senate and all state governors and legislatures. Voter outrage over alleged corruption and dirty tricks left Pres. Silva facing a tough runoff for a 2nd term after Geraldo Alckmin, his main rival, staged a surprise comeback. Silva got 48.6% compared to 41.6% for Alckmin, the former governor of Sao Paulo state. Silva had seemed assured of a first-round victory until two weeks ago when Worker Party operatives were caught allegedly trying to pay $770,000 in cash for information to incriminate Alckmin's Social Democracy Party. The target of the alleged smear campaign was Jose Serra, an Alckmin ally who won the race to become Sao Paulo state's next governor, handily beating the Workers' Party candidate. Electoral officials said former President Fernando Collor de Mello, forced from office in a corruption scandal in 1992 and barred from politics for eight years, has won a seat in Brazil's Senate.
    (AP, 10/2/06)(AP, 10/3/06)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.31)(AP, 10/1/07)
2006        Oct 1, In Britain sweeping age-discrimination laws went into effect.
    (Econ, 9/30/06, p.66)
2006        Oct 1, China began its week-long national day holiday, with rail stations and airports packed and roads gridlocked around Tiananmen Square and at other major tourist sites throughout the nation. In the southwestern city of Chongqing a bus careened off a bridge and plunged nearly 100 feet into a river, killing 30 people.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, India said it will give Islamabad evidence that Pakistan's spy agency planned the Mumbai train bombings in July which killed more than 200 people.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, In Iraq violence killed at least 17 people in Baghdad and elsewhere including a woman and a girl who died in a crossfire during a joint US-Iraqi raid on a suspected militia member's home. Insurgents fired mortar rounds at British targets at the Shat Al-Arab hotel in Basra. One landed on a nearby home, killing a 7-year-old boy and his 3-year-old sister and wounding a third child. Gunmen kidnapped 26 workers from a refrigerated food factory in western Baghdad in what appeared to be a new sectarian attack. The kidnapped workers included Shiites and Sunnis, and they included 3 women. 7 bodies found in the predominantly Sunni neighborhood of Dora were identified as victims of the food factory kidnapping, but the whereabouts of the others were unknown. The headless bodies of seven people, apparently the victims of sectarian death squads, were found in Suwayrah, 25 miles south of Baghdad. A US soldier died when his vehicle was struck by a roadside bomb west of Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/1/06)(AP, 10/2/06)(AP, 10/3/06)
2006        Oct 1, The Israeli army abandoned positions in Lebanon, withdrawing the last of its troops from its neighbor and fulfilling a key condition of the Aug. 14 cease-fire that ended a monthlong war against Hezbollah.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, Pakistani police arrested six Afghan Taliban fighters at a private hospital in Pakistan's southwestern city of Quetta.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, Palestinian militiamen from the ruling Hamas opened fire on government workers protesting their unpaid salaries, touching off gunbattles with security forces loyal to President Mahmoud Abbas. Seven people were killed in the violence.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, A reformist party pulled out of Serbia's ruling coalition because of the government's failure to capture war crimes suspect Gen. Ratko Mladic, which led to the suspension of talks on joining the European Union.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, In Thailand retired army commander Gen. Surayud Chulanont (b.1943) was sworn as interim prime minister following the announcement of a temporary constitution that reserved considerable powers for the military coup makers.
    (AP, 10/1/06)(WSJ, 10/2/06, p.A7)
2006        Oct 1, Typhoon Xangsane was downgraded to a tropical storm as it moved inland from the central Vietnam coast. At least 59 people were killed and thousands of homes damaged. Damage was later estimated at $625 million.
    (Reuters, 10/1/06)(AP, 10/3/06)
2006        Oct 1, Yemeni anti-terrorism forces killed Fawaz Yahya al-Rabeie, a suspected al-Qaida member, who was convicted of an attack on a French oil tanker and escaped from prison earlier this year. The forces also killed another suspected al-Qaida member, Mohammed al-Dailami, and arrested two other suspects.
    (AP, 10/1/06)
2006        Oct 1, In Zambia rioting erupted in Lusaka after President Levy Mwanawasa surged ahead in presidential polls and his principal rival slipped into third place.
    (AP, 10/1/06)

2007        Oct 1, The DJIA rose 191.92 to a record 14,087.55, surpassing a mid-July closing record of 14,000.41. Nasdaq rose 39.49 to 2,740.
    (SFC, 10/2/07, p.C1)(AP, 10/1/08)
2007        Oct 1, The Shakespeare Theater Company opened the new Sidney Harman Hall, a 775-seat theater in downtown Washington, DC.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.34)
2007        Oct 1, The US military launched a new "Most Wanted" campaign offering rewards of up to $200,000 for information leading to the capture of 12 Taliban and al-Qaida leaders. Three men driving trucks to supply foreign soldiers in the central province of Wardak were kidnapped.
    (AP, 10/1/07)(AFP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Teradata Corporation, a hardware and software vendor specializing in data warehousing and analytic applications, was spun off from NCR Corp. As of 2010 the former division of NCR is the largest company in Dayton, Ohio, with headquarters in Miamisburg, Ohio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teradata)
2007        Oct 1, Al Oerter (b.1936), 4-time Olympic gold medal winner in the discus throw, died in Fort Myers, Fla.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Oerter)
2007        Oct 1, The African Union began probing an unprecedented attack on one of its bases in Sudan's war-ravaged Darfur that left 10 peacekeepers dead and 40 missing, vowing to punish those responsible.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, The Bosnian Serb parliament approved Igor Radojcic, the government's candidate, as interim president following the death of President Milan Jelic.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Britain’s Racial and Religious Hatred Act came into force. This made it a crime for anyone to use threatening words or behavior with the intention of stirring up religious hatred. Britain’s Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) was created to succeed the Commission for Racial Equality.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.67)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.61)(www.out-law.com/page-8512)   
2007        Oct 1, The London Stock Exchange completed its purchase of Borsa Italiana, cementing its position as Europe's biggest equity market.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, The British Broadcasting Corp. said it bought a 75-percent stake in the Lonely Planet travel guides.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, A Canadian judge acquitted three doctors, a New Jersey company and a former Red Cross official of criminal charges in a tainted-blood scandal that infected thousands of Canadians with HIV or hepatitis and resulted in more than 3,000 deaths.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa announced a plan to wipe out the party system and tighten government control of the economy after appearing to win a free hand to overhaul the constitution.
    (WSJ, 10/2/07, p.A8)
2007        Oct 1, Nokia Corp. said it is buying US navigation-software maker Navteq Corp. for around $8.1 billion as the world's largest mobile phone maker continues to expand services and content.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, A suicide car bomber detonated his explosives just outside the gates of Mosul University, killing an agriculture professor. An umbrella group for al-Qaida in Iraq confirmed the death of Abu Osama al-Tunisi, a senior Tunisian leader linked to the kidnapping and killings of US soldiers last year. He was killed in a US airstrike south of Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Japan began a 1-year process of privatizing its postal system, recognized as the world’s largest bank with over $2 trillion in assets.
    (Econ, 9/29/07, p.82)
2007        Oct 1, In Lebanon Nasser Ismail, a suspected senior commander of the Fatah Islam militant group, was captured by Palestinian refugees and turned over to the Lebanese military after he spent weeks in hiding.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Myanmar's junta leader stalled a UN envoy for yet another day, delaying his chance to present international demands for an end to the crackdown on the largest protests in two decades. A Norway-based dissident news organization, the Democratic Voice of Burma, said pro-democracy activists estimate 138 people were killed in the recent protests. Shari Villarosa, the top US diplomat in Myanmar, said her staff had visited up to 15 monasteries around Yangon and every single one was empty. She put the number of arrested demonstrators, monks and civilians, in the thousands.
    (AP, 10/1/07)(AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, A burqa-clad woman blew herself up and killed at least 16 people at a crowded police checkpoint in northwestern Pakistan. It was believed to be the first time a female suicide bomber has struck inside the country. Pakistan's top court ordered three officials suspended over a crackdown that wounded dozens of journalists and lawyers during protests against President Gen. Pervez Musharraf's re-election bid.
    (AP, 10/1/07)(AFP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Dozens of freed Palestinian prisoners kissed the ground at this West Bank checkpoint after Israel released them in a gesture to President Mahmoud Abbas ahead of a US-sponsored Mideast peace conference. Israeli troops killed two Hamas militants in Gaza in a gunbattle.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, President Vladimir Putin said he would lead the dominant party's ticket in December parliamentary elections and suggested he could become prime minister, the strongest sign yet that he will try to keep power after he leaves office.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Fighting broke out between Somaliland and Puntland in the disputed Sool region and at least 10 people were killed in a battle for control of Las Anod.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.56)
2007        Oct 1, Sudan's Pres. Omar Hassan al-Bashir, during talks with members of a visiting group of elder statesmen, promised to pay $300 million in compensation to the country's war-torn Darfur region, tripling a previous pledge. This was made public 2 days later by former US President Jimmy Carter, one of the visiting elders.
    (Reuters, 10/3/07)
2007        Oct 1, Swiss banking giant UBS warned that the crisis in the US housing market had cost it around 4.0 billion Swiss francs, as it announced a major management shakeup and plans to cut 1,500 jobs.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Syria began requiring visas for Iraqis entering the country, hoping to stem the flow of refugees fleeing violence in their homeland.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, Zimbabwe's central bank chief warned of "dangers" in a bill approved by legislators which says that locals must own a majority of foreign-run firms.
    (AFP, 10/2/07)

2008        Oct 1, The US Senate voted 74-25 for its version of a $700 billion rescue of the nation’s banking system. A 2nd House vote was set for Oct 3. The 451-page bill was larded with earmarks adding billions of dollars in tax breaks with little to do with restoring confidence in financial markets.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 1, The US Senate voted overwhelmingly in favor of overturning a three-decade ban on atomic trade with India, allowing American businesses to begin selling nuclear fuel, technology and reactors in exchange for safeguards and UN inspections of India's civilian nuclear plants. In response Pakistani PM Yousaf Raza Gilani said: "Now Pakistan also has the right to demand a civilian nuclear agreement with America. We want there to be no discrimination. Pakistan will also strive for a nuclear deal and we think they will have to accommodate us."
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, Africom, a US command structure created one year ago, took over all US military operations in Africa. Many on the continent feared that the program has a hidden agenda skewed by the war on terror and a self-interested scramble for resources.
    (AP, 9/30/08)(www.africom.mil/AboutAFRICOM.asp)
2008        Oct 1, US officials said they have seized almost two tons of cocaine from a Panama-flagged cargo ship in international waters off Puerto Rico. The cocaine was hidden on a ship, which was loaded with coal and had launched from Colombia.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway agreed to invest $3 billion in preferred shares of GE and the right to buy another $3 billion in stock at $22.25 a share for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 10/2/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 1, In Oakland, Ca., Mayor Dellums, officials from developer Shorenstein Co. and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. broke ground on a new $240 million, 23-story office tower. 601 City Center was expected to open in 2 years.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.B3)
2008        Oct 1, Two days of torrential rains in the Algerian desert created flash floods. 43 deaths were later confirmed.
    (AP, 10/2/08)(AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Australia a 7-year-old boy broke into the popular Alice Springs zoo, fed a string of animals to the resident crocodile and bashed several lizards to death with a rock. By the time he was done, 13 animals worth around $5,500 had been killed, including a turtle, bearded dragons and thorny devil lizards.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Australia a major report to the government on global warming suggested that Australians should eat kangaroos instead of cattle and sheep.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Bank of England offered 40 billion dollars (22.6 billion pounds) to banking institutions on a one-week tender amid ongoing world economic turmoil.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Fifteen more Chinese dairy companies were identified as producing milk products contaminated with an industrial chemical, further broadening a scandal affecting products ranging from baby formula to chocolate.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Berhe Gebreegziabher, the head of Ethiopia’s animal health in the agriculture ministry, said an outbreak of African horse sickness has killed more than 2,000 horses, mules and donkeys in Ethiopia since March.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, The EU imposed one of its highest ever cartel fines on a "paraffin mafia" accused of fixing prices and markets for everyday household products like chewing gum, tires and candles.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, EU monitors began patrolling Georgian territory and Russian troops allowed some of them into a buffer zone around the breakaway region of South Ossetia despite earlier warnings from Moscow they would be blocked.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1-2008 Oct 3, In India over 100,000 Bollywood actors, technicians and cameramen began an indefinite strike protesting irregular pay and the hiring of non-union members. The strike was called off Oct 3 after unions and producers announced they had thrashed out a deal for better pay and working conditions.
    (WSJ, 10/2/08, p.A14)(AFP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Iraqi government took responsibility for paying some 54,000 members of Sunni Arab groups fighting al-Qaeda. A bombing in a car parked outside a kebab restaurant in the mostly Shiite commercial district of Karradah in central Baghdad killed at least three people.
    (AP, 10/1/08)(WSJ, 10/2/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 1, In Japan a pre-dawn fire raged through an adult video theater in the western city of Osaka, killing at least 15 people and injuring 10 others.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Kenyan police arrested Andrew Mwangura, a maritime watchdog official, on suspicion of criminal activity just days after the official gave reporters sensitive information about a hijacked arms freighter off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Russian Supreme Court declared the last czar and his murdered family to be victims of political repression, a decision that helps Russia move toward closing a chapter in its tortured history.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Somalia at least seven civilians were killed in a mortar fire exchange that erupted when an African Union (AU) plane landed at Mogadishu airport in defiance of a "ban" by an Islamist militia. 28 Somali migrants died after their boat capsized off the town of Shabwa because of strong wind and high waves. A Yemen coast guard patrol reached the boat and rescued 23 other migrants.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, Spanish police said they have staged their biggest ever operation against Internet child pornography, arresting 121 people suspected of involvement in a network that reached 75 countries. Some 800 police took part in Operation Carousel, an investigation that began last year in cooperation with Brazilian police.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, In central Tanzania a stampede at an overcrowded dance hall in Tabora killed 20 children and left 50 others injured as they celebrated the Islamic Eid al-Fitr festival.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Venezuela Julio Soto, a student leader at the University of Zulia, was killed by unidentified gunmen in the western city of Maracaibo. Assailants sprayed his vehicle with gunfire and then fled without taking anything. Soto had helped organize protests against constitutional amendments proposed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2009        Oct 1, David Letterman, late-night TV talk show host, admitted in an extraordinary monologue before millions of viewers that he had sexual relationships with female employees, after a CBS News employee tried to extort $2 million from him. Suspect Robert J. Halderman later admitted his guilt and was sentenced to 6 months in jail. He was freed on Sep 2, 2010, after serving 4 months.
    (AP, 10/2/09)(SFC, 9/3/10, p.A4)
2009        Oct 1, The 19th annual Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded at Harvard. The physics prize went to a study of why pregnant women don’t tip over. The chemistry prize was awarded to scientists who turned tequila into diamonds. The veterinary medicine prize was given for finding that cows that have names make more milk than those who remain anonymous. The medicine prize went to a physician who, for fifty years, cracked the knuckles on only his left hand to test his mother’s contention that knuckle-cracking causes arthritis.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc5pndy)
2009        Oct 1, A new Walt Disney Family Museum opened to the public in the Presidio of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 10/2/09, p.E2)
2009        Oct 1, Mattel planned to release its Mindflex toy, which allowed users to lift a ball and send it through an obstacle course using brain control interface technology.
    (SSFC, 9/6/09, p.A8)
2009        Oct 1, In California operators at the Friant Dam began releasing pulses of water in a move to rewet the San Joaquin riverbed in preparation for reintroducing salmon species beginning next year. The dam, completed in 1944, had turned 64 miles of the river into a dusty trench.
    (SFC, 10/1/09, p.A1)
2009        Oct 1, In Afghanistan an American died when Taliban militants fired rocket-propelled grenades at a patrol in eastern Afghanistan. A British airman was killed when a bomb exploded alongside his patrol near Camp Bastion in southern Helmand province. Afghans began cashing in on incentives, which ranged from $50 to $10,000, for information leading to weapons caches or "the disruption of enemy activities." By the end of the year “Operation Jaeza” paid out nearly $200,000.
    (AP, 10/2/09)(AP, 1/1/10)
2009        Oct 1, Britain’s Serious Fraud Office announced that it would seek prosecution of defense equipment firm BAE Systems over alleged corruption involving contracts with European and African nations.
    (AFP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, Benjamin Chocat (20), from Choisy-Le-Roi south of Paris, and his mother Christiane Chocat (51), a councilor in Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux southeast of Paris, helped to smuggle at least 13 men and 3 women in a hire van on a ferry from Cherbourg in France to Portsmouth. The Vietnamese immigrants were hidden behind boxes of shrimp noodles.
    (AP, 1/4/10)
2009        Oct 1, In Canada Said Nomad (36), a Moroccan citizen living in Quebec since 2003, was convicted in Montreal of plotting attacks in Germany and Austria to get NATO nations to withdraw troops from Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Oct 1, China celebrated 60 years of communist rule with a military parade and elaborate pageantry on Beijing's Tiananmen Square showcasing the nation's revival as a global power. China demonstrated its new J-10 fighters and DF-31 nuclear ICBM.
    (AFP, 10/1/09)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.54)
2009        Oct 1, In Indonesia rescue workers used excavators to pull out victims from the heavy rubble of buildings felled by the previous day’s 7.6 earthquake. The death toll was expected to rise. The region was jolted by another powerful earthquake, causing damage but no reported fatalities.
    (AP, 10/1/09)(AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, In Iraq an American soldier was killed in a mortar attack at Baghdad's Camp Liberty. The death raises to at least 4,348 members of the US military who have died in the Iraq war since it began in March 2003, according to an Associated Press count.
    (AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, Israeli authorities charged an enigmatic Russian-born tycoon, who has fled the country, with fraud and money laundering. Prosecutors said Arkady Gaydamak conspired with senior Israeli banking executives to conceal financial activities worth around $175 million.
    (AP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, A Lebanese businessman, Hassan Alayan, alleged that he and several hundred other Lebanese were expelled from the United Arab Emirates country because they refused to spy on the Shiite militant group Hezbollah and other fellow citizens.
    (AP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, In Mexico gunmen in Ciudad Juarez opened fire on a pickup truck, killing a 22-year-old woman as well as a 10-year-old girl playing in a city park. Hours earlier, a city police officer was killed as she rode on a bus.
    (AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, In Nigeria Tom Ateke, leader of Niger Delta Vigilante, an ethnic Ijaw militia group, formally accepted an amnesty offer in a meeting with Nigerian President Umaru Yar'Adua.
    (AFP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, A Nigerian official said 9 people died and several others were hospitalized this week following a cholera outbreak in northern Taraba State, bringing the death toll in the region to 97 over the last few weeks.
    (AFP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, A Palestinian decision to suspend the campaign for war crimes prosecutions was first reported as the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva was considering a vote on the Goldstone report. With the Palestinians out of the picture, Arab and Muslim supporters followed suit, and the vote was deferred to March. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas faced growing outrage at home over his decision to withdraw support for the UN report.
    (AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, Romania's coalition government collapsed after nine ministers from the Social Democrats quit to protest the firing of interior minister Dan Nica. Social Democratic Party leader Mircea Geoana said the ministers resigned "in solidarity" with Nica, who was fired by PM Emil Boc on Sep 28 over a statement about potential fraud in the upcoming Nov 22 election.
    (AP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, In Somalia fighting between rival Islamist factions over control of Kismayo, a key port city, killed at least 12 people, in the first concrete sign of a major split in the Islamist alliance threatening the fragile UN-backed government.
    (AP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, In Switzerland senior American and Iranian delegates met one-on-one during a lunch break at seven-nation talks in Geneva. Iran brought a broad range of geopolitical issues to the table, while the six powers, the permanent UN Security Council members plus Germany, sought to soften Iran's resistance to freezing its uranium enrichment program. Iran accepted a demand to allow UN inspectors into its covertly built enrichment plant.
    (AP, 10/1/09)(AP, 10/2/09)
2009        Oct 1, Venezuela's top security official said Julio Mendez (37), an American pilot wanted in the United States on cocaine-smuggling charges, has been turned over to representatives of the US State Department to be taken home.
    (AP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, Nestle said it will stop buying milk from Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's wife's farm after facing worldwide boycott threats.
    (AP, 10/2/09)

2010        Oct 1, Pres. Obama bid farewell to chief of staff Rahm Emanuel and announced that he will be replaced by Pete Rouse.
    (SFC, 10/2/10, p.A5)
2010        Oct 1, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a measure making marijuana possession up to ounce an infraction, on par with traffic and littering tickets. Schwarzenegger opposed Proposition 19, the upcoming marijuana initiative.
    (SFC, 10/2/10, p.A1)
2010        Oct 1, Medicago, a Canadian company, broke ground at Durham, NC, on its first American facility. The company genetically manipulates tobacco plants to produce proteins used in making flu vaccines.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.36)
2010        Oct 1, In southern Afghanistan 2 coalition soldiers were killed in a blast while on patrol. NATO said it has captured more insurgent leaders and announced it has detained at least 438 suspected militants over the last month. Just north of Kandahar, two Romanian soldiers were killed and one injured when their Humvee was struck by an improvised explosive device some 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Qalat in Zabul province.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Britain most provisions of the 2010 Equality Act took effect, including a measure to stop pay secrecy clauses being used to hide unfair differences between men and women's pay. But 10 percent of the legislation,- which was passed by Parliament in April, will be left out, while the government reviews certain sections of it.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, China launched its second lunar exploration probe, boosting the country's efforts to rise as a major space power eventually capable of landing a man on the moon and perhaps one day exploring far beyond.
    (Reuters, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, Ecuador was under a state of siege, the streets quiet with the military in charge of public order. Three police colonels were arrested for failing to prevent a massive protest by their subordinates that left 5 people dead. 
    (AP, 10/1/10)(AP, 10/3/10)
2010        Oct 1, European oil majors resisted pressure from the US to stop all business with Iran, in spite of Washington's drive to isolate Tehran over a nuclear program the West suspects is aimed at making bombs.
    (Reuters, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, The European Commission said it has decided to more than double its Pakistan flood aid to 150 million euros (205 million dollars). The UN has issued a record two-billion-dollar appeal for funds to cope with the disaster, which UN agencies say affected 21 million people and left 12 million in need of emergency food aid.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1,  In Finland tobacco sales were pushed under shop counters as a new law, set to progress in stages, came into effect. Finland is the first country to target an end to smoking through legal means.
    (AP, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel called for calm after riot police used what critics called "Rambo" tactics to disperse thousands of opponents of a contentious rail project.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Haiti gunmen killed Pierre Richard Denis (42), an engineer supervising the building of shelters at the Corail-Cesselesse relocation camp for Haitian earthquake survivors, forcing construction to be suspended on part of the site. Denis worked for International Organization for Migration.
    (AP, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, Indian cinema's most expensive movie "Endhiran" (Robot), starring former bus conductor Rajinikanth, opened. The weekend opening of the $35 million film broke box office records.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Iran Ebrahim Yazdi (80) the head of a banned liberal party, was arrested. He was released on March 20, 2011.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)
2010        Oct 1, In Iraq aides said Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr has agreed to support the bid by Iraq's PM al-Maliki to retain power. A roadside bomb exploded and killed at least three people, including two members of an anti-insurgent militia, and wounded seven others in a mostly Sunni district of southern Baghdad. In Mosul gunmen killed a policeman and a roadside bomb killed an Iraqi soldier on foot patrol.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Mexico a shootout between rival drug-dealing gangs broke out in the town of San Jose de la Cruz. 14 people were left dead. Assailants tossed a grenade into a square in the northern business city of Monterrey, injuring 12 people in an attack the government blamed on drug gangs.
    (AP, 10/2/10)(Reuters, 10/3/10)
2010        Oct 1, In the Netherlands more than 100 people protesting the outlawing of squatting at unused buildings clashed with police in Amsterdam's historic center, throwing stones, setting fires and erecting barricades.
    (AP, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Nigeria car bomb explosions killed 12 people and injured 17 near a parade Abuja marking the 50th anniversary of independence. Two blasts, which also destroyed three cars, came an hour after the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), warned it had planted several bombs and told people to evacuate the area.
    (Reuters, 10/1/10)(Reuters, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, Pirates off the coast of Nigeria's southern delta kidnapped two foreign sailors from the MV Eckhardt tanker. A naval spokesman later suggested the crew worked in the black market trade of stolen crude from the region.
    (AP, 10/3/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Northern Ireland Paul McCaugherty (43), a self-described senior Irish Republican Army dissident, received a 20-year prison sentence for trying to buy guns, explosives and other weapons from undercover British agents. He had been convicted in June of attempted arms smuggling.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, Red Cross officials from the two Koreas agreed to hold reunions for families separated by the Korean War amid mixed signals from North Korea on easing tensions over the sinking of a South Korean warship.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, Pakistan's ex-military ruler Pervez Musharraf launched a new political party in London. Musharraf said the only way to tackle Pakistan's ailing economy and its political infighting, problems exacerbated by recent floods, is to further bolster the army's role.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In southern Pakistan assailants launched two separate attacks on vehicles carrying fuel for NATO and American forces in Afghanistan, highlighting the vulnerability of the US-led mission a day after Pakistan closed a major border crossing.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Peru former President Alberto Fujimori's right hand man, Vladimiro Montesinos, two top ex-generals and a major were sentenced to 25 years in jail for ordering murders during Peru's so-called dirty war. They were found guilty of ordering the Colina Group, a secret army hit squad, to kill 24 people in two massacres in 1991 and 1992. Twenty other members of the Colina Group were sentenced to 15-25 years behind bars.
    (AP, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, Moscow police detained several gay rights opponents at the first sanctioned gay rights protest in years. Former Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, fired on Sep 28, had compared gay people to the devil and forbade gay rights rallies.
    (SFC, 10/2/10, p.A2)
2010        Oct 1, Spanish energy giant Repsol announced the sale of 40 percent of its Brazilian affiliate to China's Sinopec for 7.1 billion dollars, securing funding for the development of oil fields in Brazil.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, In Sudan Darfur rebels accused Sudan's army of killing 27 people in a week-long campaign of air and ground assaults on their positions, as peace efforts in the arid region continued to flounder.
    (Reuters, 10/2/10)
2010        Oct 1, Ukraine's Constitutional Court shifted key powers from parliament to the presidency, a move that boosted the influence of pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych, but also threw the country into legal uncertainty.
    (AP, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, The UN released its 545-page report into mass killings in Congo over a ten-year period. Rwanda and Uganda insisted the $3 million report is flawed and could harm security in Africa's volatile Great Lakes region.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2011        Oct 1, In northern California a Sacramento SWAT team shot and killed Aaron Bassler (35), a suspect in two previous north coast murders.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.A1)
2011        Oct 1, In NYC more than 700 of protesters, speaking out against corporate greed and other grievances, were arrested during a march on the Brooklyn Bridge in a tense confrontation with police. The group Occupy Wall Street has been camped out in a plaza in Manhattan's Financial District for nearly two weeks staging various marches.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Afghanistan's intelligence service said it has given Pakistan hard evidence that Rabbani's Sep 20 assassination was planned in the southern outskirts of Quetta where key Taliban leaders are based. 7 Afghan soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb in eastern Paktia province. One NATO service member died in a bomb attack in the south.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, In Belarus Dmitry Uss, one of the seven opposition presidential candidates arrested after last year's election, was released from jail after a pardon from authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko. Two other candidates remained in prison, serving sentences of five to six years. Two others were given suspended sentences and freed nearly five months after their arrest. Another has fled the country and been given asylum in the Czech Republic. The seventh was released several days after his arrest.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Sep 30, In Brazil a law professor shot and killed one of his female students in Brasilia and hours later drove her body to a police station where he turned himself in. Rendrik Vieira Rodrigues fired three bullets into the head of Suenia Souza Farias (24), apparently because she wanted to end their 3-month-old relationship.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Cigarette vending machines were banned in England, a move the government hopes will cut the numbers of children smoking.
    (AFP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, Mitchell Harrison (23), a convicted child rapist, was found dead in his cell at HM Prison Frankland, England. He was jailed in 2009 for raping a 13-year-old girl in Kendal, Cumbria. A post-mortem found he died from multiple injuries. Two men, aged 32 and 23, were soon charged with his murder.
    (AFP, 10/3/11)
2011        Oct 1, Cameroon police arrested 50 activists from the Southern Cameroons National Council demonstrating in the city of Buea.
    (AP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, In China angry Tibetans protested in Seda, a county seat in eastern Sichuan province, a tense area of southwestern China on the country's National Day after a Tibetan flag and a photo of the Dalai Lama were torn down.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Denmark imposed a “fat tax” on foods such as butter and oil as a way to curb unhealthy eating habits. The tariff on saturated fats was abolished in November 2012.
    (SFC, 10/3/11, p.A2)(Econ, 11/17/12, p.52)
2011        Oct 1, The French press called Aga Kahn’s divorce settlement the most expensive in French history. A court has ordered Kahn, a billionaire and spiritual leader to 20 million Muslims, to pay $80 million to Gabriele Thyssen. He married the German princess in 1998.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 1, Guyana’s Pres. Bharrat Jagdeo banned an opposition television station from broadcasting for four months for airing a slanderous comment about Bishop Juan Edghill, a close presidential associate.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 1, Icelanders, angry over citizen costs for the country’s economic crises, pelted lawmakers with eggs during a protest at the opening of the new parliamentary session in Reykjavik.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 1, Israeli settlers from Yitzhar, near Nablus, invaded Palestinian olive groves in the West Bank and uprooted 200 trees around the villages of Hawwara and Ein Nabus.
    (AFP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a multi-national agreement for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement, was signed in Tokyo. Ratification by 6 countries was required for the convention to come into force.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Counterfeiting_Trade_Agreement)
2011        Oct 1, In Jordan ex-MP Leith Shbeilat, an outspoken opposition figure and former member of parliament, was pelted with stones while making a speech criticizing the slow pace of reform in the kingdom.
    (AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, In Kenya 10 gunmen snatched Marie Dedieu (66), a disabled Frenchwoman, from her home near a luxury resort on Manda island and then fled towards Somalia. Kenyan coastguards attempted to intercept them at sea. Several of the abductors were injured but they managed to enter Somalia.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Libyan fighters completely surrounded Moammar Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte and engaged in heavy clashes with his loyalists on the city's streets. A path was left for civilians who still wanted to leave the coastal city. A family of four was killed while driving out from the Gadhafi holdout toward the revolutionaries positions. NATO planes hit a command and control node, an infantry and anti-aircraft artillery staging area, two armed vehicles, four armored infantry vehicles and a tank in and around Sirte.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, In Mexico two gunmen shot to death a 22-year-old man near a Walmart store on the beachside avenue Costera Miguel Aleman.
    (AP, 10/3/11)
2011        Oct 1, Morocco’s national intelligence agency said a five-man militant group, operating in the cities of Casablanca and Sale, has been dismantled. An agency report said one of the members was related to a high-ranking al-Qaida operative in Iraq.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, In northeastern Nigeria attackers used explosives and gunfire to target an army patrol near a wedding, killing at least three civilians in Maiduguri. In a separate incident, a butcher and his assistant were shot dead by gunmen in Maiduguri.
    (AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Francois Abu Salem (b.1951), a French actor and director and long-time West Bank resident, died in Ramallah. He was the co-founder of the El-Hakawati Theatre Company, which later grew into the Palestinian National Theatre, in east Jerusalem.
    (AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Typhoon Nalgae lashed the Philippines, killing at least 3 people person and bringing fresh misery for more than a million people trapped by earlier storm floods.
    (AFP, 10/1/11)(AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, Russian police detained dozens of anti-gay protesters and gay rights activists during a gay pride rally in central Moscow.
    (AP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, In Spain the Gara newspaper's website said two unidentified spokesmen told it that "Ekin members have ended their endeavors as an organization." Ekin, a civic support organization for the Basque separatist group ETA, was formed in 1999 with the aim of "impelling independence, nation-building and socialism at street level."
    (AP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, Syrian government troops retook most of Rastan after five days of intense fighting with army defectors who sided with protesters. Some 250 tanks were sent in to quell clashes between the army and deserters. Troops spread out across Rastan after defectors pulled out from the town. Mansur Atassi (63), a leader of a coalition of opposition groups, was detained in his office in Homs by security agents.
    (AP, 10/1/11)(AFP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, A Yemeni government warplane mistakenly bombed an army position just east of Zinjibar in southern Abyan province, killing at least 30 soldiers and wounding many more. The bombing targeted an abandoned school used as shelter by soldiers of the army's 119th Brigade. The 119th Brigade has rebelled against the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh to join the protest movement demanding his ouster. Fighting in Zinjibar killed at least 28 soldiers and militants.
    (AP, 10/2/11)
2011        Oct 1, New Zambian President Michael Sata replaced the head of the country's anti-corruption watchdog, who had been accused of bungling investigations into corruption allegations. He appointed Mrs. Rosewin Wandi as Director General of the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC).
    (AFP, 10/1/11)

2012        Oct 1, The US Postal Service defaulted on a $5.6 billion payment, the 2nd time it has missed a deadline this year. It expected operating losses of $15 billion for the fiscal year ending Sep 30.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 1, US federal and state regulators from Utah announced a settlement in which American Express agreed to pay $112.5 million over violations to consumer safeguards from marketing to collection of sold products.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.D2)
2012        Oct 1, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber driving a motorcycle packed with explosives rammed his bike into a joint Afghan-American patrol in Khost city, killing at least 14 people including three US troops and their translator.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, In Algeria Yacine Zaid, a member of a leading human rights organization, was beaten and arrested in in Ouargla , 700 kilometers (435 miles) south of the capital.
    (AP, 10/3/12)
2012        Oct 1, An Australian study found that the Great Barrier Reef has lost more than half of its coral cover since 1985.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 1, Eric Hobsbawm (b.1917), renowned British left-wing historian, died. His writing influenced students and politicians across Europe. He won critical acclaim with a four-volume history of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. His bestselling memoirs charted the pivotal moments in modern European history through which he lived.
    (AP, 10/1/12)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.110)
2012        Oct 1, A Cambodian court sentenced Mam Sonando (71), a dissident radio station owner, to 20 years in prison on insurrection charges that critics claim are part of a political vendetta by the government. His Beehive Radio was one of the country's few radio stations broadcasting criticism of PM Hun Sen's government.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, Egypt's doctors began a partial strike, abstaining from offering non-emergency services in public hospitals to protest run-down facilities and meager wages.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, Georgia held parliamentary elections. The Georgian Dream party led by billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili edged out the United National Movement of Pres. Saakashvili.
    (AP, 10/1/12)(SFC, 10/2/12, p.A3)
2012        Oct 1, In Hong Kong two boats collided in local waters killing 38 holiday revelers. Police the next day arrested seven crew members but offered no theory about how the vessels ran into each other on a clear night in one of the safest and most regulated waterways in Asia.
    (AP, 10/2/12)
2012        Oct 1, The Hungarian Parliament filed a bill to ban most slot machines, allowing them in only three casinos. Last year a monthly tax on the machines was increased fivefold from $450 to $2250.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 1, In Iran Mohammad Reza Aghamiri, a member of governmental Internet watchdog committee, told the semiofficial Mehr news agency that authorities have lifted the Gmail ban after resolving technical problems to separate YouTube and Gmail. YouTube remained blocked in response to video clips of an anti-Islam film.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, Iran's currency fell 16 percent in a single day to hit a record low against the US dollar and other foreign currencies in street trading. The collapse is a sign of the impact of Western sanctions imposed over Iran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, In the Maldives the trial of former Pres. Mohamed Nasheed was postponed after he defied a court order and left the capital by boat.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19797538)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.48)(
2012        Oct 1, Russia’s PM Dmitry Medvedev signed a long-expected strategy for reforming the pension system.
    (Economist, 10/6/12, p.64)
2012        Oct 1, A Moscow court found the film “Innocence of Muslims” offensive and banned its broadcast in Russia effective Nov 6.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 1, Somali troops entered Kismayo for the first time since Kenyan troops carried out an amphibious assault on the coastal port city last week, causing al-Shabab militants to flee.
    (AP, 10/1/12)
2012        Oct 1, Syrian troops bombed Salqin, a northern town near the Turkish border, killing at least 12 people, including 5 children. Rebels reportedly captured an air defense base in the Eastern Ghouta area near the capital.
    (AP, 10/1/12)(AP, 10/5/12)

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