Today in History - October 11

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1424        Oct 11, Jan Zizka (b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Zizka)

1492        Oct 11, Rodrigo de Triana, a sailor on the Pinta, sighted land (the Bahamas) on the horizon.
    (http://tinyurl.com/774v3)

1521        Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England "Defender of the Faith" in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1531        Oct 11, The Catholics defeated the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland’s second civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)
1531        Oct 11, Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss church reformer (Zwinglian), died. Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, was killed in the Swiss civil war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(MC, 10/11/01)

1540        Oct 11, Charles V of Milan put his son Philip in control.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1582        Oct 11, This day was one of ten skipped to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990)

1661        Oct 11, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1689        Oct 11, Peter the Great became tsar of Russia.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1708        Oct 11, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (b.1651), German physicist, died. Three days after Von Tschirnhaus’s death, there was a burglary at his house and, according to a report by Böttger, a small piece of porcelain was stolen. This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor of white porcelain.
    {Germany, Physics, Ceramics}
    (ON, 8/10, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenfried_Walther_von_Tschirnhaus)

1726        Oct 11, Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from England.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1727        Oct 11, George II was crowned as king of England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_II_of_Great_Britain)

1745        Oct 11, The Leyden jar, capable of storing static electricity, was invented by German cleric Ewald Georg von Kleist. Also about this time Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek of Leiden (Leyden) independently came up with the same idea.
    (ON, 2/12, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leyden_jar)

1759        Oct 11, Mason Weems, preacher (Episcopalian clergyman), was born. He was a noted seller of books where he would fictionalize history in stories like the one he wrote of George Washington in the book, "Life of Washington". People loved his fictionalized stories and often believed that they were true. One famous story which is not true is the story of Washington chopping down the cherry tree and the famous quote on not telling a lie.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1776        Oct 11, C. Randle painted: "A View of the New England Arm’d Vessels on Valcure Bay on Lake Champlain." It depicted the fleet of Benedict Arnold just before the Battle of Valcour Island on this day. The fleet was defeated but it slowed the British advance from Canada.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)
1776        Oct 11, The naval Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain was fought during the American Revolution. American forces led by Gen. Benedict Arnold suffered heavy losses, but managed to stall the British.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

1779        Oct 11, Polish nobleman General Casimir Pulaski died two days after being mortally wounded while fighting for American independence during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Ga. Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski had come to America in 1777. In 2005 an attempt to confirm his remains using DNA was inconclusive.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)(AP, 6/24/05)(AP, 10/11/07)

1795        Oct 11, In gratitude for putting down a rebellion in the streets of Paris, France's National Convention appointed Napoleon Bonaparte second in command of the Army of the Interior.
    (HN, 10/11/99)

1809        Oct 11, Meriwether Lewis committed suicide at 35.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1811        Oct 11, The first steam-powered ferryboat, the Juliana, was put into operation between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1820        Oct 11, Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1837        Oct 11, Samuel Wesley, composer (Exultate Deo), died at 71.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1844        Oct 11, Henry John Heinz, manufacturer, founder of H.J. Heinz Co., was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1861        Oct 11, Battle of Dumfries, Va., at Quantico Creek.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1862        Oct 11, The Confederate Congress in Richmond passed a draft law allowing anyone owning 20 or more slaves to be exempt from military service. This law confirmed many southerners opinion that they were in a ‘rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.’
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1863        Oct 11, Skirmish at Rheatown, Henderson's Mill, Tennessee.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1864        Oct 11, Slavery was abolished in Maryland.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1865        Oct 11, President Johnson paroled CSA VP Alexander Stephens.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1867        Oct 11, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule applied for a patent on their new direct action typewriter. Christopher Latham Sholes (1819-1890), Carlos Glidden (1834-1877) and Samuel Soule had invented the typewriter in the 1860s. Charles E. Weller coined the phrase "Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of the party" to check out the first typewriter built in Milwaukee.
    (ON, 12/10, p.7)(SFC, 1/29/97, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1868        Oct 11, Thomas Edison patented his 1st invention, an electric voice machine.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1871        Oct 11, The Great Chicago Fire was finally extinguished after 3 days. Over 300 were killed. [see Oct 8]
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1872        Oct 11, Harlan Fiske Stone, Supreme Court (1925-41) Chief Justice (41-46), was born in New Hampshire.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1877        Oct 11, Outlaw Wild Bill Longley, who killed at least a dozen men, was hanged, but it took two tries; on the first try, the rope slipped and his knees drug the ground.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1881        Oct 11, David Houston patented roll film for cameras.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1884        Oct 11, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt and wife of President Franklin Roosevelt, was born in New York City. Orphaned as a child, she grew up shy and insecure. She was 1st lady from 1933-1945.
    (HN, 10/11/98) (HNPD, 10/11/99)(MC, 10/11/01)

1885        Oct 11, Francois Mauriac, Nobel Prize-winning novelist (1952), was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1887        Oct 11, Willie Hoppe, billiards champion, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)
1887        Oct 11, A. Miles patented the elevator.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1890        Oct 11, The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) was founded in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1891        Oct 11, Charles Stewart Parnell (d.Oct 6) was buried in Ireland.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1896        Oct 11, Richard Etheridge (d.1900) and his life-saving team rescued the hurricane survivors of the E.S. Newman on Pea Island, North Carolina. Pea Island later became part of Hatteras Island.
    (ON, 1/02, p.2)
1896        Oct 11, Anton Bruckner (b.1824), Austrian composer (Te Deum, Wagner Symphony), died at 72.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Bruckner)
1896        Oct 11, Chinese agents tricked Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), Chinese revolutionary, into entering the Chinese Legation in London. They planned to ship him secretly back to China where a reward for his arrest amounted to half a million dollars. The story was made public by the London press and the Legation was forced to release him. In 1911 Sun Yat-sen played an important role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and came to be revered as the “Father of Modern China." 
    (ON, 10/08, p.7)

1899        Oct 11, Byron Bancroft Johnson, president of baseball’s Western League, renamed it as the American League.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)
1899        Oct 11, South African Boars, settlers from the Netherlands, declared war on Great Britain. In the Boer War Dutch settlers of the South African Republic (the Traansvaal) under Pres. Paul Kruger and the Orange Free State refused to accept English rule in southern Africa. The Boers were the predominately Dutch inhabitants of the two republics, which had gained their independence from Great Britain in the 1850s. Years of tensions between British settlers and the Boer governments exploded into war. Eventual British victory resulted in the Boer republics becoming colonies of the British Empire and in 1910 part of the Union of South Africa.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HNQ, 7/12/99)(SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1906        Oct 11, The San Francisco school board ordered the segregation of Oriental schoolchildren, inciting Japanese outrage. To counter local prejudice David Starr Jordan, Stanford’s 1st president, David Pike Bowie, a San Mateo Japanophile, and Japanese General Consul Kisaburo Ueno soon formed a chapter of the Japan Society to foster bilateral understanding. The order was later rescinded at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt, who promised to curb future Japanese immigration to the United States.
    (HN, 10/11/98)(SFC, 10/29/05, p.B7)(AP, 10/11/06)

1907        Oct 11, The freighter Cyprus foundered during a storm on Lake Superior, while on its second voyage hauling iron ore from Superior, Wis., to Buffalo, NY. All but one of the Cyprus' 23 crew members died. The 420-foot shipwreck was found in 2007, 8 miles north of Deer Park, Mich., where a single survivor had reached shore. The ship was built in Lorain, Ohio, and launched on Aug. 17, 1907.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

1910        Oct 11, Joseph Alsop, American journalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/98)
1910        Oct 11, Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Pawnee Bill’s Far East combined shows arrived in San Francisco. They set up on 8 acres at 12th and Market with a big arena and 22 tents. This was part of Col. William Cody’s farewell tour.
    (SSFC, 10/3/10, DB p.50)
1910        Oct 11, The San Francisco Rotary Club offered a $10,000 prize to the aviator who first flies from SF to New York.
    (SSFC, 10/10/10, DB p.50)

1915        Oct 11, A Bulgarian anti Serbian offensive began.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1918        Oct 11, Jerome Robbins (Rabinowitz), choreographer, was born. He won an Oscar for “West Side Story."
    (HN, 10/11/00)(MC, 10/11/01)
1918        Oct 11, Archibald M. Willard (b.1836), American artist, died in Ohio. His paintings included “Spirit of ’76" (1876).
    (www.nationalsojourners.org/heroes.html)

1919        Oct 11, Art Blakey, jazz drummer, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)
1919        Oct 11, The 1st transcontinental air race ended.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1919        Oct 11, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines made its debut and served a pre-packaged dinner, believed to be the 1st in-flight meal, on a flight between London and Paris.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)

1925        Oct 11, Elmore Leonard, US writer (Glitz, Mr. Majestyk, Touch, 52 Pick-Up), was born.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1929        Oct 11, Sean O'Casey's "Silver Tassle," premiered in London.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1931        Oct 11, Some 100,000 extreme right Germans formed the "Harzburger Front."
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1932        Oct 11, The first American political telecast took place as the Democratic National Committee sponsored a program from a CBS television studio in NYC.
    (AP, 10/11/02)

1935        Oct 11, In San Francisco 5 tons of molten glass escaped from a break in a 300-ton furnace at the 15th and Folsom streets plant of Owens-Illinois Co. An emergency pit caught most of the escaping glass.
    (SSFC, 10/10/10, DB p.50)
1935        Oct 11, The League of Nations met and voted 50 to 4 (Austria, Hungary, Italy and Albania opposed) to condemn Italy for the attack on Ethiopia.
    (http://nazret.com/history/)

1939        Oct 11, Albert Einstein wrote his famous letter to FDR about the potential of the atomic bomb. Einstein, a long time pacifist, was concerned that the Nazis would get the bomb first. In the letter, Einstein argued the scientific feasibility of atomic weapons, and urged the need for development of a US atomic program. The physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, and Edward Teller, who were profoundly disturbed by the lack of American atomic action, had enlisted the aid of the Nobel prize-winner Einstein in the summer of 1939, hoping that a letter from such a renowned scientist would persuade Roosevelt into action.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1942        Oct 11, In the World War II Battle of Cape Esperance in the Solomon Islands, U.S. cruisers and destroyers decisively defeated a Japanese task force in a night surface encounter,
    (AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)

1943        Oct 11, The US submarine Wahoo, Under the command of Dudley "Mush" Morton, was sunk by the Japanese navy as it returned from its seventh patrol. All 79 crewmen died. In 2006 Russian divers found the wreckage in the La Perouse Strait.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

1945        Oct 11, Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung broke down. Nationalist and Communist troops were soon engaged in a civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1947        Oct 11, The vision of a Friendship Train appeared in American thought and history in the columns and broadcasts of Drew Pearson. The train traveled across America to collect food that would be shipped overseas to help European countries recover from World War II.
    (SFC, 11/24/11, p.A20)(www.thefriendshiptrain1947.org/)

1948        Oct 11, The musical comedy "Where's Charley?," starring Ray Bolger and featuring songs by Frank Loesser, opened at St James Theater NYC for 792 performances.
    (AP, 10/11/98)(MC, 10/11/01)

1950        Oct 11, The Federal Communications Commission authorized the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) to begin commercial color TV broadcasts.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1955        Oct 11, All Peron feast days were abolished in Argentina.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1958        Oct 11, The lunar probe Pioneer 1 was launched; it failed to go as far as planned, fell back to Earth, and burned up in the atmosphere.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1960        Oct 11, In Cuba bank president Ernesto Guevara offered sugar magnate Julio Lobo leadership of Cuba's sugar industry in exchange for keeping one of his 14 mills and home. Mr. Lobo declined the offer.
    (WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A1)
1960        Oct 11, A hurricane ravaged East Pakistan and some 6,000 died.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1961        Oct 11, Leonard "Chico" Marx, comedian (Marx Brothers), died at 74.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1962        Oct 11, The US Trade Expansion Act was enacted under Pres. Kennedy. It included a federal program called the Trade Adjusted Assistance (TAA), which offered superior unemployment benefits to US manufacturing and farm workers who lose jobs due to imports or production shifts out of country.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_Expansion_Act)(WSJ, 4/20/09, p.A1)(Econ, 7/2/11, p.23)
1962         Oct 11, The TV series "McHale's Navy" (1962-66) premiered and featured Ernest Borgnine (1917-2012) as a Navy officer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McHale%27s_Navy)
1962        Oct 11, Pope John XXIII convened the first session of the Roman Catholic Church's 21st Ecumenical Council, also known as Vatican II, with a call for Christian unity. This was the largest gathering of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in history. Among delegate-observers were representatives of major Protestant denominations, in itself a sign of sweeping change. He declared its purpose to be “aggiornamento," an “updating" that would be a pastoral response to the needs of the modern world. It allowed for vernacular languages in the Liturgy and continued to 1965, when it published Gaudium et Spes, the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World.
    (CU, 6/87)(AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)

1963        Oct 11, A US National Security Action memorandum that recommended plans to withdraw 1,000 US Military personnel by the end of the year was approved. The memo followed McNamara’s return from a trip to South Vietnam.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)
1963        Oct 11, Jean Cocteau, French author (La Voie Humaine), surrealist poet, artist and film director, died at 73. His lover Lean Marais later published a biography of Cocteau called "L’Inconcevable Jean Cocteau." In 2003 Claude Arnaud authored the biography "Jean Cocteau."
    (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A24)(SFC, 10/6/03, p.D8)
1963        Oct 11, Edith Piaf (b.1915), French singer (No, I don't regret anything), died of cancer. In 2007 the biopic film “La Vie en Rose," with Marion Cotillard as Piaf, was produced. In 2011 Carolyn Burke authored “No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89dith_Piaf)(SSFC, 4/3/11, p.G5)

1965        Oct 11, Dorothy Lange (b.1895), American photographer, died in San Francisco. She is best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). In 2009 Linda Gordon authored “Dorothy Lange: A Life Beyond Limits."
    (SSFC, 11/8/09, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothea_Lange)

1968        Oct 11, Apollo 7, The first manned Apollo mission, was launched from Cape Kennedy with astronauts Wally Schirra, Donn Fulton Eisele and R. Walter Cunningham aboard. It made 163 orbits in 260 hours
    (AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)(MC, 10/11/01)
1968        Oct 11, In Panama Pres. Arnulfo Arias was ousted in a coup by Gen’l. Omar Torrijos. Arias was the founder of Panama's special security system and opened the vote to women before he was ousted.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D5)

1971        Oct 11, Switzerland established diplomatic relations with North Vietnam.
    (www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/asia/vvnm/bilvie.html)

1972        Oct 11, There was an attempted prison escape at the Washington DC jail. In 1975 Appellants Frank Gorham, Jr., and Otis D. Wilkerson were indicted, along with co-defendants Meltonia Fields and Linda Ewing, on counts of conspiracy, introducing contraband into a penal institution, armed kidnapping, and armed robbery, and both appellants were indicted individually on counts of attempted escape and escape from custody. The charges grew out of appellants' abortive attempt to escape from the D.C. jail on October 11, 1972, and their successful escape two weeks later.
    (http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/523/523.F2d.1088.74-1613.74-1611.html)
1972        Oct 11, In Turkey the National Salvation Party formed as the successor of the banned National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi, MNP). Necmettin Erbakan returned home to take leadership.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Salvation_Party)
1972        Oct 11, A French mission in Vietnam was destroyed by a U.S. bombing raid.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1975        Oct 11, The TV show "Saturday Night Live" made its debut with guest host George Carlin. Writer Michael O’Donoghue (d.1994) made his debut. In 1998 Dennis Perrin published "Mr. Mike: The Life and Work of Michael O’Donoghue." Don Pardo (1918-2014) began his stint as the announcing voice of SNL.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.12)(AP, 10/11/99)(SFC, 8/20/14, p.E3)
1975        Oct 11, Bill Clinton married Hillary Rodham in Fayetteville, Ark.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, Par p.4)

1976        Oct 11, The US Toxic Substances Control Act became law with an effective date of January 1, 1977.
    (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/tsca/tscaenfstatreq.html)

1979        Oct 11, Allan McLeod Cormack and Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield won Nobel Prize for medicine for developing CAT scan.
    (AP, 10/11/04)

1980        Oct 11, In northern California Cynthia Moreland (18) and fiance Richard Stowers (19) were shot to death on Mount Wittenburg in the Point Reyes National Seashore. David Joseph Carpenter was arrested in May 1981. In 1984 he was convicted of 2 murders in Santa Cruz and sentenced to death. In 1988 he was convicted of 4 killings in Marin County and again sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 2/24/10, p.A7)

1982        Oct 11, The Mary Rose, English Tudor flagship of Henry VIII, was raised at Portsmouth, England. It had sank after launching in 1545.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Rose)

1983        Oct 11, The last hand cranked telephones in the US went out of service as 440 telephone customers in Bryant Pond, Maine, were switched over to direct dial.
    (www.privateline.com/TelephoneHistory5/History5.htm)

1984        Oct 11, August Wilson's "Ma Rainey's Black Bottom," premiered in NYC.
    (http://wps.ablongman.com/long_kennedy_lfpd_9/0,9130,1353603-content,00.html)
1984        Oct 11, Space shuttle Challenger astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan (b.1951) became the first American woman to walk in space.
    (AP, 10/11/97)(www.astronautix.com/astros/sullivan.htm)

1985        Oct 11, President Reagan’s ban on the importation of South African Krugerrands went into effect.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2ruefg)
1985        Oct 11, Alex Odeh, regional director of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), was killed by a bomb blast in Santa Ana, Calif.
    (AP, 10/11/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Odeh)

1986        Oct 11, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev opened two days of talks concerning arms control and human rights in Reykjavik, Iceland.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1987        Oct 11, Some 200,000 homosexual rights activists marched through Washington DC to demand protection from discrimination and more federal money for AIDS research and treatment. The AIDS Memorial Quilt had its inaugural presentation. In 2000 Cleve Jones and Jeff Dawson authored “Stitching a Revolution, The making of an AIDS Activist."
    (AP, 10/11/97)(SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.5)(MC, 10/11/01)

1988        Oct 11, China agreed to the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jatx9)

1989        Oct 11, The US House narrowly approved an amendment to an appropriations bill that would restore Medicaid for abortions in cases of rape or incest. President Bush later vetoed the bill, and the veto was upheld.
    (AP, 10/11/99)
1989        Oct 11, In California Cathy Paternoster (32) was shot and killed and her boyfriend Carl Fuerst (41) was wounded outside their Spring Valley Lake home. In 2009 Eric Fagan (74) was arrested in connection with the killing of Paternoster, his girlfriend’s daugher. Police said Fagan had killed Cathy Paternoster so that her mother, Betty Paternoster, could gain custody of her 3 granddaughters.
    (SFC, 10/22/09, p.D4)(www.sbsun.com/news/ci_13618941)

1990        Oct 11, The Center for Urban Archaeology opened in NYC South Street Seaport Museum.
    (www.southstseaport.org/archaeology/nyunearthed.shtm)
1990        Oct 11, The first flight of the X-31 took place. The collaborative US-German Rockwell-MBB X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program was designed to test fighter thrust vectoring technology.
    (NPub, 2002, p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-31)
1990        Oct 11, Octavio Paz was named the winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, the first Mexican writer so honored.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A17)(AP, 10/11/00)
1990        Oct 11, About 60-thousand people rallied in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in support of a government proposal to seize all Communist Party property without compensation.
    (AP, 10/11/00)

1991        Oct 11, Televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was seen hustling a prostitute.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1991        Oct 11, Testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee, law professor Anita Hill accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexually harassing her; Thomas reappeared before the panel to denounce the proceedings as a “high-tech lynching."
    (HN, 10/11/98)(AP, 10/11/01)
1991        Oct 11, Comedian Redd Foxx died in Los Angeles at age 68.
    (AP, 10/11/01)

1992        Oct 11, President Bush, Democrat Bill Clinton and independent candidate Ross Perot met for the first of three debates, this one held at Washington University in St. Louis.
    (AP, 10/11/97)
 
1993        Oct 11, In Haiti, army-backed toughs prevented American troops from landing as part of a U.N. peace mission and drove away U.S. diplomats waiting to greet the soldiers.
    (AP, 10/11/98)
1993        Oct 11, Yasser Arafat won endorsement for his peace accord with Israel from the Palestine Central Council.
    (AP, 10/11/98)

1994        Oct 11, U.S. troops in Haiti took over the National Palace.
    (AP, 10/11/99)
1994        Oct 11, The Colorado Supreme Court declared the state's anti-gay rights measure unconstitutional.
    (AP, 10/11/99)
1994        Oct 11, Iraqi troops began moving north, away from the Kuwaiti border.
    (AP, 10/11/99)

1995        Oct 11, Americans Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland and Dutch scientist Paul Crutzen won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their controversial work warning that gases once used in spray cans and other items were eating away Earth’s ozone layer.
    (AP, 10/11/00)
1995        Oct 11, Ten Republican presidential candidates used their first televised forum to politely compete for support in the New Hampshire primary.
    (AP, 10/11/00)
1995        Oct 11, O.J. Simpson backed out of his live interview with NBC Dateline just hours before air time.
    (AP, 10/11/00)
1995        Oct 11, In Bosnia a cease-fire was declared.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 11, In Operation Global Sea US officials arrested 34 members of a drug trafficking network operated primarily by Nigerian women. Jumoke Kafayat Majekodunmi, aka Kafi, used a women’s clothing store in Chicago as the center of operations.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A3)
1996        Oct 11, US FBI agents arrested 7 in West Virginia for plotting to bomb the national fingerprinting records facility in Charleston.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A1)
1996        Oct 11, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of East Timor and Jose Ramos-Horta, in exile in Australia, for their work to end oppression and violence in East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A1) (AP, 10/11/97)
1996        Oct 11, Time Warner completed its $7.6 billion acquisition of Turner Broadcasting.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)
1996        Oct 11, In Angola the UN extended the 7,200 peacekeeping mission for 2 months. The Security Council threatened sanctions against UNITA which has delayed integrating 26,000 fighters into the national army and interfered with UN activities.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)
1996        Oct 11, In China seven people were executed for selling women. An additional 54 were given suspended death sentences. 334 women were rescued from being sold into marriage or prostitution where the going rate was $240-$360.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)
1996        Oct 11, Wang Dan, prominent student leader of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations in 1989, was charged with conspiracy to overthrow the government. He has been in detention for the last 17 months.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A18)
1996        Oct 11, In Germany the parliament voted to reduce the 656 seats of the Bundestag, lower house, to 598 seats after elections in 2002.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)
1996        Oct 11, Zapatista Commander Ramona, a 4 foot 4 inch Tzotzil Indian, arrived in Mexico City to plead the rebel cause.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A10)
1996        Oct 11, In South Africa former defense minister Magnus Malan and other members of the military hierarchy were acquitted of charges in the massacre of 13 people in 1987. Judge Hugo said that evidence showed that Inkatha’s leader, Zulu Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi, had in 1996 secretly requested assistance from apartheid leaders for a paramilitary force against political rivals but that the prosecution had not shown sufficient evidence against the defendants.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A10)

1997        Oct 11, President Clinton blamed pop culture for glamorizing illegal drug use as he heralded a new $195 million anti-drug ad campaign during his weekly radio address.
    (AP, 10/11/02)
1997        Oct 11, Wes Gallagher (86), retired Associated Press chief, died in Santa Barbara, Calif.
    (AP, 10/11/02)
1997        Oct 11, In Australia a photograph titled “Piss Christ" at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne by Andres Serrano (47) was damaged when an attacker wrenched it from the wall. The photograph depicted Jesus immersed in urine. The next day an 18-year-old attacked the work with a hammer while a companion diverted attention by pulling other pieces off the wall.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)
1997        Oct 11, Authorities reported no survivors from the overnight crash of an Argentine jetliner in Uruguay, which killed all 74 people on board.
    (AP, 10/11/98)

1998        Oct 11, Pope John Paul II bestowed sainthood on Edith Stein, a Jewish-born woman who became a Catholic nun and was executed by Nazis in the gas chambers of Auschwitz in 1942.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/11/99)
1998        Oct 11, Richard Holbrooke met again with Pres. Milosevic in an effort to avoid NATO attacks on Serbia due to the Serb stand on Kosovo.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A8)
1998        Oct 11, In Afghanistan the Taliban battled opposition forces for the 2nd day in the northeast Takhar province.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A12)
1998        Oct 11, In Azerbaijan Pres. Heydar Aliyev (75) was re-elected for another 5 year term with 76% of the vote. His nearest rival, Etibar Mamedov, won 12%.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 11, In Bosnia forensic experts began exhuming 274 bodies in the village of Donja Glumina. They were believed to be Bosnian Muslims killed in Srebrenica by Serbs in Jul 1995.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A8)
1998        Oct 11, In Congo Kindu fell to the rebels supported by Rwanda and Uganda.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)
1998        Oct 11, In Greece populist Athens Mayor Dimitris Avramopoulos was expected to win a 2nd four year term. The Socialists were expected to maintain their grip on Parliament.
    (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A10)

1999        Oct 11, Dr. Guenter Blobel, a German American researcher of Rockefeller Univ., was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology for his work on how the body puts addresses on individual proteins so that they arrive at a correct location.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 11, Gov. Davis signed a California bill that required set a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:6 beginning Jan 1, 2004. It was the 1st such law in the US. The ratio was to go to 1:5 in 2005.
    (WSJ, 10/12/99, p.AA1)(SFC, 3/4/05, p.A1)
1999        Oct 11, In Chechnya more people fled Russian attacks and Moscow rebuffed a peace overture and demanded that Islamic militants be handed over before any peace settlement.
    (WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 11, In Paris riot police used tear gas against egg-throwing chefs, who demanded that the government lift a 20.6% tax on restaurant meals.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 11, In Indonesia the acting attorney general announced that he was halting a yearlong investigation into alleged corruption by former Pres. Suharto due to insufficient evidence for prosecution.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A10)
1999        Oct 11, Israel confirmed that some 400 Jews from Cuba were brought to Israel over the last 5 years in a secret operation.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A8)
1999        Oct 11, In Kosovo a UN employee, Valentin Krumov (38) of Bulgaria, was beaten and shot to death by a group of ethnic Albanian teenagers in Pristina.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A10)
1999        Oct 11, In Portugal the Socialist Party returned to power with a 44% vote in the elections giving them 111 seats in the 230 seat Assembly. The Social Democrats won 32% and got 79 seats.
    (SFC, 10/11/99, p.A16)
1999        Oct 11, South Africa and the European Union signed a free-trade pact.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)

2000        Oct 11, The Nobel Prize in economics went to Daniel McFadden (63) of UC Berkeley for developing ways of analyzing consumer decisions and to James Heckman of Univ. of Chicago for developing techniques to strip out hidden biases in studies of the labor force.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 11, Pres. Clinton agreed to sign legislation to lift the embargo on food sales to Cuba. It also provided aid to drought-stricken farmers and allowed the import of US-made drugs that are sold cheaper in other countries.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A7)
2000        Oct 11, Bush and Gore engaged in their 2nd debate at Wake Forest in North Carolina. They spent the first half politely discussing foreign policy, and the second half clashing over domestic issues.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A1)(AP, 10/11/01)
2000        Oct 11, The shuttle Discovery with a crew of 7 lifted off from Cape Canaveral for an 11-day mission to the Int’l. Space Station. It marked the shuttle fleet’s 100th mission.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 11, Celera Genomics announced the completion of the mapping of the lab mouse’s genome.
    (WSJ, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 11, Palestinians continued to riot in Gaza and the West Bank and the death toll approached 100.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 11, In Venezuela tens of thousands of oil workers went on strike for higher wages.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A16)

2001        Oct 11, Vidiadhar S, Naipaul (b.1932), Trinidad-born English novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His books included: “A House for Mr. Biswas," “Guerrillas" (1975), “Among the Believers" (1981), and “The Enigma of Arrival" (1987).
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1,W17)
2001        Oct 11, In his first prime-time news conference since taking office, President George W. Bush offered the Taliban a chance to stop America's punishing assaults on Afghanistan by turning over suspected terror mastermind Osama bin Laden.
    (AP, 10/11/02)
2001        Oct 11, The FBI warned that new acts of terrorism could target Americans over the next few days.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 11, The Bush administration asked newspapers not to publish full transcripts of messages from Osama bin Laden due to the possibility of coded messages.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A17)
2001        Oct 11, In NYC Mayor Giuliani rejected a $10 million donation from Saudi Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal due to an attached press release that said the US should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stance toward the Palestinian cause.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A3)
2001        Oct 11, The Pentagon confirmed the 1st US death in Operation Freedom. Air Force Sgt. Evander Earl Andrews was killed in a fork lift accident in Qatar.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A16)(SFC, 10/20/01, p.A8)
2001        Oct 11, Tom Wales (49), a Seattle federal prosecutor, was gunned down in his home office.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A17)
2001        Oct 11, Abdul Salam Zaeem, Afghan ambassador to Pakistan, said US bombing in Afghanistan killed some 100 noncombatants in the Torghar region near Jalalabad. The total civilian casualties since Oct 7 was estimated at 170.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A13)
2001        Oct 11, In Afghanistan that Northern Alliance claimed to have taken the central province of Gur and the provincial capital Chaghcharan. American bombing reportedly killed as many as 200 civilians in Karam and Jalalabad.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A13)(SFC, 10/13/01, p.A1,9)
2001        Oct 11, In Colombia AUC paramilitary shot and killed 5 men in the town of Samaniego.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.C1)
2001        Oct 11, The French highest appellate court ruled that Pres. Chirac is immune from criminal prosecution for corruption charges for his years as mayor of Paris, but only while still in office.
    (SFC, 12/30/01, p.D7)
2001        Oct 11, In Kuwait Luc Ethier, a Canadian employed at the Ahmad al-Jaber airbase, was shot and killed in Fahaheel. Ethier’s wife was also shot.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.A15)
2001        Oct 11, In Macedonia police found a cache of arms in an area held by ethnic Albanian rebels.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 11, A Palestinian militant blew himself up while trying to plant a bomb along a West Bank road used by Israelis.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.D3)

2002        Oct 11, Former US Pres. Carter won the Nobel Peace prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 11, The Senate joined the House in approving, 77-23, the use of America's military might against Iraq.
    (AP, 10/11/03)
2002        Oct 11, Kenneth Bridges (53) was shot and killed in Spotsylvania, Va., the 8th victim of the DC area sniper. In 2004 Lee Boyd Malvo (19) in a plea bargain accepted life in prison for the murder of Bridges.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A4)(SFC, 10/27/04, p.A3)
2002        Oct 11, In Burlingame, Ca., 4 bank robbers killed Alice Martel (34), the Wells Fargo bank manager, and fled with about $4,000. Seti Scanlon (24), Sikai Fano Telea (26), Manny Liu (25) and Amu Wynn (26) were all soon arrested. Scanlon was convicted of murder in 2004 and sentenced to life in prison. In 2005 Telea was sentenced to life in prison. Wynn was sentenced 40 years to life. Liu, the driver, was sentenced to 36 years and 4 months after a plea bargain.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/4/02, p.A17)(SFC, 11/11/02, p.A17)(SFC, 7/13/05, p.B4)
2002        Oct 11, In Wisconsin 10 people were killed in a crash on I-43 that involved over 2 dozen vehicles north of Milwaukee.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A4)
2002        Oct 11, In Vantaa, Finland, a blast in the Myyrmanni shopping mall of suburban Helsinki killed 7 people, including chemistry student Petri Gerdt (19), the suspected bomber. 80 others were injured.
    (AP, 10/12/02)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A20)(SFC, 10/16/02, p.A14)
2002        Oct 11, The Philippine military reported that marines clashed with Abu Sayyaf rebels on Jolo Island and at least 11 soldiers were killed.
    (SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A20)

2003        Oct 11, Clerks for three major supermarket chains in Southern California began a four-and-a-half-month strike after negotiations with store officials broke off.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2003        Oct 11, A team of 18 doctors in Dallas, Texas, began a complicated separation surgery in an attempt to give Ahmed and Mohamed Ibrahim, 2-year-old conjoined twins from Egypt, a chance at independent lives. The 34-hour went well.
    (AP, 10/11/03)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A2)(SFC, 10/14/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 11, Ivan A. Getting (91), a Cold War scientist who conceived the Global Positioning Satellite system, died in Coronado, Calif.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2003        Oct 11, Bolivia’s Pres. Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada and two of his ministers, Carlos Sanchez Berzain and Jorge Berindoague, signed Supreme Decree No. 27209 directing the military to break up demonstrations that blocked fuel truck access to the city of La Paz.
    (www.boliviasolidarity.org/takeaction/latestactions/sanfran)
2003        Oct 11, In China the 16th Communist Party Congress began in Beijing. The 4-day meeting included debates on reforms toward private property, a more stable legal system and measures to encourage private investments.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 11, It was reported that a worsening drought in Fiji has caused thousands of people to lose water supplies, with large parts of Suva receiving water by truck.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.C10)
2003        Oct 11, The French government and its main opposition joined in supporting school officials who expelled two sisters for refusing to remove traditional Islamic headscarves in class.
    (AP, 10/11/03)
2003        Oct 11, Israeli forces killed a Palestinian and razed dozens of homes in a Gaza Strip refugee camp as Israeli opposition politicians and Palestinian officials sought to revive peace talks.
    (AP, 10/11/03)(Reuters, 10/11/03)
2003        Oct 11, In Italy 4-month-old twin Greek girls joined at the temple were successfully separated after a 13 hour operation at a Rome hospital.
    (AP, 10/12/03)(SFC, 10/15/03, p.A2)
2003        Oct 11, A Lebanese woman gave birth to sextuplets, four girls and two boys.
    (AP, 10/11/03)
2003        Oct 11, In Malaysia delegates from Islamic nations gathered in the new administrative capital of Putrajaya with Iraq as a center piece of discussion.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 11, In Nepal at least 3 policemen and 35 Maoist rebels were killed in an overnight battle as the rebels resumed attacks on government forces after a 9-day cease-fire.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2004        Oct 11, Pres. Bush proclaimed Oct 11 as Columbus Day. In 1968 Pres. Johnson had set Columbus Day, previously celebrated on Oct. 12, to be held on the 2nd Monday of October.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/10/20041011-8.html)
2004        Oct 11, Edward C. Prescott (63), an American, and Finn E. Kydland (60), a Norwegian, won the 2004 Nobel Memorial Prize in economics for shedding light on how government policies and actions affect economies around the world. In a 1977 paper they demonstrated the importance of credibility in economic policy.
    (AP, 10/11/04)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.74)
2004        Oct 11, Light crude oil for November closed in NYC at a record $53.64 per barrel.
    (SFC, 10/12/04, p.E12)
2004        Oct 11, The main opposition candidate in Afghanistan's first-ever presidential election backed off a boycott of the vote, saying he would accept the formation of an independent commission to look into alleged cheating.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11, Voters in Cameroon elected Pres. Paul Biya (71) to another 7-year term amid allegations of fraud.
    (http://4newz.net/nov2004/Cameroon.html)
2004        Oct 11, The European Union ended 11 years of sanctions against Libya and eased an arms embargo to reward the North African country for giving up plans to develop weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11-12, Records at Haiti’s Port-au-Prince hospital showed 17 people with gunshot wounds died, eight of them in the Cite Soleil seaside slum.
    (AP, 10/13/04)
2004        Oct 11, In Iraq followers of radical cleric Muqtada al-Sadr trickled in to police stations in Baghdad's Sadr City district to hand in weapons. Two soldiers from Task Force Baghdad were killed and five wounded in a rocket attack in southern Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11, An Arabic language television station broadcast video showing three hooded gunmen threatening to behead a Turkish hostage within three days unless the Americans release all Iraqi prisoners and all Turks leave Iraq.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11, An Israeli aircraft fired a missile at a house in the southern Gaza town of Rafah, wounding five people, including a top Islamic Jihad leader.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11, In Nigeria a nationwide strike to protest fuel price hikes shut down Lagos.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
2004        Oct 11, A Swiss paleontologist said hundreds of dinosaur prints dating back 152 million years have been discovered in the Jura mountains in the northwest of Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/11/04)

2005        Oct 11, The US Army Corps of Engineers said it had finished pumping out the New Orleans metropolitan area, which was flooded by Hurricane Katrina six weeks earlier and then was swamped again by Hurricane Rita.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2005        Oct 11, Google unveiled Google.org, an umbrella organization for its philanthropic plans, committing nearly $1 billion to help solve problems including poverty and environmental destruction.
    (SFC, 10/12/05, p.C1)
2005        Oct 11, In Zabul province US-led coalition and Afghan forces killed two Chechens and a Pakistani who were fighting alongside Taliban rebels.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11,     In Afghanistan suspected Taliban ambushed a convoy and killed six police.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 11, Authorities in Brazil declared part of the Amazon River a disaster area after a drought left the levels of parts of the river too low for navigation.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, The British government said it will pay unspecified compensation for injuries and damage caused when its army stormed a police station in the southern Iraqi city of Basra last month to release two soldiers.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, British police arrested 19 people on human smuggling charges. Authorities said the multi-national organization had illegally brought tens of thousands of Turkish Kurds into Britain in recent years.
    (SFC, 10/12/05, p.A3)
2005        Oct 11, Arthur Seldon (89), British intellectual architect of Blairism and Thatcherism, died. Antony Fisher, founder of the Institute of Economic Affairs, hired Seldon as editorial director in 1958.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.90)
2005        Oct 11, China's ruling party said communist leaders have approved an economic plan aimed at easing the growing and politically explosive gap between its rich and poor.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, Colombia's navy seized $188 million worth of cocaine, believed to have belonged to rebels, that was hidden in underground chambers next to a river deep in southwestern jungles.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, In Egypt some 3,000 Islamists students staged a demonstration at Cairo Univ. to press for increased freedom on campus and free and fair union elections next month.
    (AFP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, Haiti's highest court ruled that Dumarsais Simeus, a Haitian-born U.S. businessman, may run for president. Simeus said this marked a turning point in the roles expatriate Haitians could play in their homeland.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, Diplomats said Iran has signaled it is ready to compromise on granting access to sites linked to possible work on nuclear weapons and other demands from the UN atomic watchdog agency to try to avoid referral to the Security Council.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, Insurgents determined to wreck Iraq's constitutional referendum killed more than 40 people and wounded dozens in a series of attacks, including a suicide car bomb that ripped apart a crowded market in a town near the Syrian border.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, In Iraq an IED killed 2 US soldiers in Ramadi.
    (WSJ, 10/12/05, p.A1)
2005        Oct 11, Irish author John Banville beat higher profile favorites to become the surprise winner of Britain's prestigious Booker Prize for fiction. His 14th novel "The Sea" was described by the judges as "a masterly study of grief, memory and love recollected".
    (AP, 10/11/05)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.91)
2005        Oct 11, Israeli forces disguised as vegetable vendors in Tsurif captured Ibrahim Ighnimat (47), a senior Hamas operative, who had been on the run for eight years.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 11, Japan's powerful lower house of parliament approved a plan to privatize the country's vast postal system.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, Liberia held presidential elections. 22 candidates included an international soccer star, two former warlords and a Harvard-educated woman. Election officials using battery-powered lanterns counted ballots through the night from the country's first postwar polls. Ex-soccer star George Weah led 21 rivals.
    (AP, 10/11/05)(Reuters, 10/11/05)(WSJ, 10/12/05, p.A1)
2005        Oct 11, It was reported that a serial killer, dubbed the "Mataviejitas," or "Little Old Lady Killer," was stalking Mexico City. The killer was said to wear women's clothes and strangled and battered old ladies in their homes.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, In Pakistan survivors scuffled over the badly needed food, the first large-scale aid to make it overland to the devastated city of Muzaffarabad. Officials estimated that the death toll would surpass 35,000.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11-2005 Oct 12, Polish customs officials seized at least 8 million cigarettes apparently destined for the British market in a coordinated sweep in two cities. The cigarettes, mostly low-quality Ukrainian-made, were to be incinerated.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
2005        Oct 11, US millionaire scientist Gregory Olsen and a two-man, Russian-American crew returned from the international space station to Earth in a swift, bone-jarring descent in Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 10/11/05)
2005        Oct 11, South Korea raised interest rates .25% for the 1st time in 3 years to 3.5%.
    (WSJ, 10/12/05, p.A14)
2005        Oct 11, A Turkish company signed an agreement to build a $360 million power station in southern Israel. An Israeli Cabinet minister praised such deals as examples of strengthening ties between the Muslim and Jewish countries.
    (AP, 10/11/05)

2006        Oct 11, The charge of treason was used for the first time in the US war on terrorism, filed against Adam Yehiye Gadahn, who'd appeared in propaganda videos for al-Qaida.
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2006        Oct 11, In Chicago businessman Antoin Rezko (51), top advisor and fund-raiser for Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich, was indicted for scheming to collect kickbacks from companies doing business with the state. The fraud scheme included political contributor Stuart Levine and other insiders.
    (SFC, 10/12/06, p.A4)
2006        Oct 11, Top executives of Cnet Networks and McAfee Inc. were ousted over their involvement in the widening stock-options backdating scandal.
    (SFC, 10/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Oct 11, The US FDA approved Avastin, made by Genentech, to help fight lung cancer.
    (SFC, 10/12/06, p.C1)
2006        Oct 11, A small plane, carrying New York Yankees pitcher Cory Lidle (b.1972) and instructor Tyler Stanger, crashed into a 50-story condominium tower on Manhattan's Upper East Side killing both men. It was not clear who was at the controls.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(SFC, 10/13/06, p.A12)
2006        Oct 11, Ruth Kelly, British communities minister said the government will now fund only those Muslim organizations that fight extremism and defend national values as part of a "fundamental" shift toward such groups.
    (AFP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, China’s 347 central committee members ended a 4-day annual meeting. They charted a course to repair some of the social and environmental damage left by more than 2 decades of economic growth and approved a document on building a harmonious China by 2020.
    (WSJ, 10/12/06, p.A8)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.51)
2006        Oct 11, Amnesty International said at least 11,000 children in Congo are still in the hands of armed groups or unaccounted for three years after the end of a war in which they were captured and forced to fight.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, Benito Martinez Abrogan (120), Haitian-born Cuban laborer, died. His birthdate was uncertain, but it was believed that he was the oldest man in the world.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.97)
2006        Oct 11, In the Dominican Republic Resort tycoon Howard "Butch" Kerzner was killed along with three others when a helicopter they were traveling in crashed into a building on the north coast.
    (AP, 10/12/06)
2006        Oct 11, In northeastern France a passenger train collided with an oncoming freight train, killing at least five people and injuring 16.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, India’s PM Manmohan Singh received an honorary law doctorate from the elite University of Cambridge. The doctorate was conferred on him by Prince Philip.
    (AFP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, Indonesia apologized to Singapore and Malaysia for the choking haze over both countries and agreed to convene a meeting of regional environment ministers to tackle the problem. This was the worst smog since 1997 and 1998, when tens of thousands of people were hospitalized.
    (AP, 10/11/06)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.47)
2006        Oct 11, The Shiite-dominated parliament passed a law allowing the formation of federal regions in Iraq, despite opposition from Sunni lawmakers and some Shiites who say it will dismember the country and fuel sectarian violence. A controversial new study said nearly 655,000 Iraqis have died because of the war, suggesting a far higher death toll than other estimates. More than 2,660 Iraqi civilians were killed in the capital in September according to figures from the Iraqi Health Ministry. Insurgents hit an ammunition dump on a US base in Baghdad with a mortar round, setting off fiery explosions through the night that shook buildings miles away. Renewed attacks killed at least 14 people, primarily in Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, Israeli forces killed Abdullah Mansour (31), a militant in the Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, in the course of an overnight arrest raid.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, Israel inaugurated its first horse racetrack.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, Edmund Daukoru, Nigerian oil minister and OPEC president, said OPEC has agreed to trim global oil production by 1 million barrels a day to boost prices, and its members were discussing how to share the cut. Nigerian security sources said armed youths have released dozens of Nigerian employees of the oil company Shell and its subcontractors, but around 15 workers were still being held at a flow station in the restive Niger Delta.
    (AP, 10/11/06)(AFP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, North Korea threatened more nuclear tests saying additional sanctions imposed on it would be considered an act of war. Japan imposed a total ban on North Korean imports and said ships from the impoverished nation were prohibited from entering Japanese ports as punishment for its apparent nuclear test.
    (AP, 10/11/06)
2006        Oct 11, In Sri Lanka 72 army troops, including eight officers, were killed and 515 wounded in fighting in the northern peninsula of Jaffna. The army claimed 200 rebels were killed, a figure dismissed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The Tigers said only 10 of its fighters were killed. The government toll reached 129 in the country’s worst battle since 2002.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.A1)

2007        Oct 11, The Bush administration reported that the federal budget deficit had fallen to $162.8 billion in the just-completed budget year, the lowest amount of red ink in five years.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2007        Oct 11, The environmental group U.S. PIRG reported that over half of all industrial and municipal facilities across the US dumped more sewage and other pollutants in the nation’s waterways than allowed under the 1972 Clean Water Act.
    (SFC, 10/12/07, p.A1)
2007        Oct 11, Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, a US consumer rights group, said more than half the lipsticks it had tested were found to contain lead and some popular brands including Cover Girl, L'Oreal and Christian Dior had more lead than others.
    (Reuters, 10/11/07)
 2007        Oct 11, Cold medicines for babies and toddlers were pulled off shelves amid concerns about unintentional overdoses.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2007        Oct 11, Sri Chinmoy (b.1931), Indian-born spiritual leader, died in Jamaica, Queens, NYC. He had emigrated to NYC in 1964.
    (SSFC, 10/14/07, p.B6)
2007        Oct 11, Doris Lessing, British author of dozens of works from short stories to science fiction, including the classic "The Golden Notebook," won the Nobel Prize for literature. She was praised by the judges for her "skepticism, fire and visionary power."
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Werner von Trapp (91), a member of the Austrian family made famous by the musical "The Sound of Music," died in Waitsfield, Vt.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2007        Oct 11, The Canadian dollar hit a three-decade high versus the US dollar as the greenback remained under broad selling pressure due to expectations of more Federal Reserve interest rate cuts.
    (Reuters, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Rebel leader Laurent Nkunda in eastern Congo called for a cease-fire as the army said the death toll from five days of clashes had risen to 122.
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, In India 2 worshippers were killed and nearly a dozen injured in a bomb attack near a revered Islamic shrine in the northern state of Rajasthan. A bus carrying Hindu pilgrims fell into a river in a remote part of northern India, killing at least 41 people.
    (AFP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Clashes between suspected al-Qaida gunmen and police at checkpoints near Baqouba killed at least one officer and wounded two others. East of Baqouba, suspected al-Qaida gunmen took control overnight of 5 Sunni villages, killing 6 people. Gunmen killed 5 Iraqi civilians and wounded four in a morning attack on a minibus making its way from Khalis to Kirkuk. An ophthalmologist, the son of the local head of the Sunni Iraqi Islamic Party, was shot to death in Mosul. Six main Iraqi insurgent groups announced the formation of a "political council" aimed at "liberating" Iraq from US occupation in a video on Al-Jazeera television. A US ground and air assault targeting al-Qaida in Iraq northwest of Baghdad killed 15 civilians, six women and nine children, as well as 19 suspected insurgents.
    (AP, 10/11/07)(AP, 10/12/07)
2007        Oct 11, A World Health Organization official said 69 children in northern Nigeria contracted polio following vaccination against the disease. Peter Eriki indicated that around 10 percent of the Nigerian population has dodged the vaccination campaign. The new outbreak was caused by the mutation of a vaccine's virus.
    (AFP, 10/12/07)(AP, 8/14/09)
2007        Oct 11, A suicide bomber in Somalia drove a pickup filled with explosives into an army base killing himself and 2 other people.
    (WSJ, 10/12/07, p.A1)
2007        Oct 11, South Africa's central bank chief Tito Mboweni announced the key lending rate is to increase by half a percentage point to 10.5% to ward off a threat of higher inflation.
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Southern Sudan's former rebels suspended participation in the central government, accusing it of failing to abide by a peace deal in a dispute that threatens a rare success in the troubled nation.
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Turkey swiftly condemned a US House panel's approval of a bill describing the World War I-era mass killings of Armenians as genocide, and newspapers blasted the measure on their front pages. Turkey also recalled its ambassador to Washington and warned of serious repercussions if Congress labels the killing of Armenians by Turks a century ago as genocide.
    (AP, 10/11/07)(AP, 10/12/07)
2007        Oct 11, Pope Benedict XVI appealed to South Koreans' "inherent moral sensibility" to reject embryonic stem cell research and human cloning after the country decided to let embryonic stem cell research resume.
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 11, Eleven of Zimbabwe's last remaining white farmers lost a bid to stay on their farms while appealing the orders and are to be tried for defying government eviction notices.
    (AFP, 10/11/07)

2008        Oct 11, President Bush met with foreign financial officials and pledged a global response to the credit crisis that will lead toward a "path of stability and long-term growth."
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, The Bush administration removed North Korea from a terrorism blacklist as North Korea agreed to all US nuclear inspection demands. The breakthrough is intended to salvage a faltering disarmament accord before President Bush leaves office in January.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Afghan Pres. Karzai named Muhammad Hanif Atmar (40) as his interior minister in a Cabinet reshuffle aimed to curb high-level corruption. In Afghanistan about 40 militants more were killed as a three-day operation wound up in the Nad Ali district of Helmand province. Atmar was a former official in Afghanistan’s communist-era secret police.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.A7)
2008        Oct 11, It was reported that the population of adult hake fish off Argentina’s coast has declined by 70% in the past 20 years. Skippers reportedly paid some $2-3 million in bribes to inspectors and routinely underreported their catches.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.53)
2008        Oct 11, Austrian politician Joerg Haider (b.1950) died in a car accident while speeding drunk. His far-right rhetoric at times sounded sympathetic to the Nazis and contemptuous of Jews and led to months of international isolation for the Alpine republic. At the time of his death, Haider was governor of the province of Carinthia and leader of the Alliance for the Future of Austria, a party he formed after breaking away from the far right Freedom Party in 2005.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.99)
2008        Oct 11, A strong earthquake hit Chechnya and other parts of Russia's North Caucasus, killing at least 13 people and damaging scores of hospitals, schools and other buildings.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(SFC, 10/18/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 11, India's PM Singh launched Kashmir's first train service, the fruit of an eight-year project that overcame tough terrain and rebel strife, on a visit overshadowed by violence. Shops, businesses and schools were shut to protest Singh’s visit.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)(AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Acre, Israel, police said rioters torched two empty apartments owned by Arabs in a predominantly Jewish neighborhood. 12 people were put into custody for rioting and eight under house arrest.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Italian security forces including army paratroops arrested seven members of the Camorra mafia believed linked to the killing of African immigrants near Naples last month.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Mexico gunmen killed six young men at a family party in the gang-plagued border city of Ciudad Juarez. In Tijuana federal police arrested seven reputed members of a cell of the Arellano Felix drug cartel, including a city police officer.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Hurricane Norbert hit Mexico as a Category 1 storm and left 4 people dead in the Baha peninsula and Sonora state.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 11, US missile strikes in Pakistan's northwest killed five people, but none was believed to be a foreign al-Qaida fighter.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Peru’s President Alan Garcia announced that he has appointed Yehude Simon (61), a leftist governor, to become the chief Cabinet minister, a day after the minister's predecessor resigned along with 16 colleagues amid a brewing oil-kickbacks scandal.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Russia launched a ballistic missile from a submarine in a record flight of over 7,100 miles, hitting a target in the middle of the Pacific Ocean for the first time. Russian TV showed what it said was the Sineva missile launching from the submarine Tula.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Sri Lanka fighting around Kilinochchi killed 26 rebels and two soldiers in two separate clashes. Other battles in Welioya and Vavuniya killed four rebels.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Sudan Abu Bakr Kadu, a Sudan Liberation Movement-Unity commander, said 23 civilians had died after Janjaweed Arab militia assaulted villages over 3 days in the Muhagiriya area of southern Darfur. He also said 28 Janjaweed were killed.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Thailand's embattled PM Somchai Wongsawat, indicated that he may resign in the wake of fierce anti-government protests earlier this week that left two people dead and hundreds injured. Thousands of supporters of the ruling coalition gathered on the outskirts of Bangkok in a show of strength, two days ahead of a planned major protest by a group hoping to topple the elected government.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Turkish warplanes and artillery bombed dozens of Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq following an escalation in rebel attacks.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Zimbabwe’s state Herald newspaper published a list from the official government gazette giving the ruling ZANU-PF party 14 ministries, including the key portfolios of defense, home and foreign affairs, justice, media, mines and land. This would allow 83-year-old Mugabe to retain his iron grip on power. Opposition party spokesman Nelson Chamisa said it was a "midnight ambush style of attack" and meant the proposed national unity government was now in jeopardy.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2009        Oct 11, Thousands of gay and lesbian activists marched from the White House to the Capitol, demanding that President Barack Obama keep his promises to allow gays to serve openly in the military and allow same-sex marriages.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, California Senate Bill 94 was enacted into law making it illegal in California for any person or business to demand, charge, or collect any advance or upfront fee for loan modification work or services.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7y9wd4x)
2009        Oct 11, Afghan and US forces killed 16 insurgents in an overnight operation in eastern Kunar province.
    (AFP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, In eastern Bangladesh Rasu Miah (40), who was being questioned about a theft, surprised a court by confessing to killing 11 women in the past three years after a woman refused to marry him. Miah told a magistrate in his home town of Chandpur that 15 years ago he decided to kill at least 101 women after a woman he loved refused to marry him.
    (AP, 10/12/09)
2009        Oct 11, In Brazil an intense fire broke out in a slum in Sao Paulo, South America's largest city, sending residents running across rooftops to escape the flames.
    (AP, 10/12/09)
2009        Oct 11, Alan Peters (76), British master furniture maker, died.
    (Econ, 11/7/09, p.80)
2009        Oct 11, Chinese state media reported that more than 50,000 people in southern Guangdong province are suffering from water shortages as a spreading drought has left farmers' fields dry and cracked.
    (AFP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, In Iraq a series of bombings killed at least 19 people and wounded 60 in Ramadi, Anbar province.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA), an IRA splinter group responsible for some of the most notorious killings of the Northern Ireland conflict, renounced violence and signaled it could hand over weapons soon to disarmament officials.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, Pakistani commandos freed dozens of hostages held by militants at the army's own headquarters in Rawalpindi, ending a bloody, 22-hour drama that embarrassed the nation's military as it plans a new offensive against al-Qaida and the Taliban. The standoff killed 23 people including 9 militants and 14 others. 42 hostages were freed. The military launched two airstrikes on suspected militant targets in South Waziristan, ending a five day lull in attacks there and killing at least five militants. In 2011 a military court found seven men guilty of involvement in the Rawalpindi attack and sentenced one of them, a retired soldier, to death.
    (AP, 10/11/09)(AP, 10/12/09)(AP, 8/13/11)
2009        Oct 11, In the southern Philippines 6 gunmen, believed to be Islamic militants, kidnapped Michael Sinnott, a 78-year-old Irish priest near Pagadian. They later demanded $2 million for his release. Sinnott was freed on Nov 12. Irish and Filipino authorities said neither country paid any of the kidnappers' $2 million ransom demand.
    (AFP, 10/11/09)(AP, 10/31/09)(AP, 11/12/09)
2009        Oct 11, The United Russia party won an overwhelming victory in more than 7,000 local elections in 75 of Russia's 83 regions. In Moscow, the party won all but three seats on the 35-member city council. United Russia served as a power base for PM Vladimir Putin, who has not ruled out a return to the presidency in 2012.
    (AP, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 11, The Russian Soyuz capsule carrying Cirque du Soleil founder Guy Laliberte and two other space travelers landed safely in Kazakhstan, ending the entertainment tycoon's mirthful space odyssey.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, Four Sudanese who face the death penalty for killing a US diplomat dismissed their defense team, denounced the trial as political and labeled the United States murderers of Muslims. John Granville (33), who worked for the US Agency for International Development, and his driver, Abdelrahman Abbas Rahama (39), were killed Jan 1, 2008.
    (Reuters, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, In Thailand thousands of supporters of deposed PM Thaksin Shinawatra, all in red shirts, rallied in Bangkok to demand the government step down and call fresh elections.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, Turkish PM Erdogan called on Armenia to withdraw from the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, saying that a deal to establish diplomatic ties, signed a day earlier, cannot come into force until that happens.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, Pope Benedict XVI canonized five new saints, including Father Damien, a 19th-century priest who worked with leprosy patients on a Hawaiian island; Zygmunt Szcezesny Felinski, a 19th-century Polish bishop who defended the Catholic faith during the years of the Russian annexation; Spaniards Francisco Coll y Guitart, who founded an order of Dominicans in the 19th century, and Rafael Arniaz Baron, who renounced an affluent lifestyle at age 22 to live a humble life in a strict monastery and dedicate himself to prayer; and Jeanne Jugan (d.1879), a French nun, who helped found the Little Sisters of the Poor.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2009        Oct 11, In Venezuela 12 men were kidnapped from a field where they were playing soccer. On Oct 25 the bodies of 10 of the men, most of them Colombians, were found with multiple spots in western Tachira state. A single survivor, Manuel Cortez (19) of Colombia, was shot in the neck.
    (AP, 10/26/09)

2010        Oct 11, Two Americans and a British-Cypriot economist won the 2010 Nobel economics prize for developing a theory that helps explain why many people can remain unemployed despite a large number of job vacancies. Federal Reserve board nominee Peter Diamond was honored along with Dale Mortensen and Christopher Pissarides for their analysis of the obstacles that prevent buyers and sellers from efficiently pairing up in markets.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, President Obama signed a major NASA act that turns his vision for US space exploration of asteroids and Mars into law.
    (http://tinyurl.com/26w555z)
2010        Oct 11, The San Francisco Giants beat the Atlanta Braves 3-2 at Turner Field to clinch the National League Championship Series.
    (SFC, 10/12/10, p.A1)
2010        Oct 11, Microsoft unveiled a new mobile phone operating system as it seeks to regain ground lost to the iPhone, Blackberry and devices powered by Google's Android software.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, In Afghanistan a coalition airstrike killed Taliban commander Shirin Agha and another militant in northern Kunduz province.
    (AP, 10/13/10)
2010        Oct 11, Al Arabiya TV said Al Qaeda's north African arm wants a repeal of a ban on the Muslim face veil in France, the release of militants and 7 million euros to free hostages who include five French. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is holding seven foreigners in the Sahara desert after kidnapping them last month.
    (Reuters, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, The emir of Kuwait arrived in Algeria for a two-day visit on the latest step of a north African tour.
    (AFP, 10/12/10)
2010        Oct 11, Queen Elizabeth named a new British cruise ship the Queen Elizabeth. British monarchs have launched seven merchant ships bearing royal names since the Queen Mary in 1934. The newest vessel is the third named Queen Elizabeth.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Officials said Canadian troops are being forced to pull out of a military base in the United Arab Emirates that supports their mission in Afghanistan amid an ongoing dispute over airline landing rights.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, China blocked European diplomats from meeting with the wife of the jailed Nobel Peace Prize winner, cut off her phone communication and canceled meetings with Norwegian officials, acting on its fury over the award.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Chinese state media reported that more than 440,000 people have been evacuated in Hainan after the heaviest rains for decades inundated 90 percent of the Chinese island in the South China Sea.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Dubai media reported that a key suspect in the killing of a Hamas operative in Dubai on Jan 19 has been arrested abroad but details of the capture are secret. The arrest took place in a Western country about two months ago.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Callixte Mbarushimana, a Rwandan leader of the FDLR rebel group, was arrested in Paris on charges of leading rebels accused of mass rapes and killings in Congo. The International Criminal Court said he is charged with 11 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including killings, rape, persecution based on gender and extensive destruction of property committed by the FDLR during most of 2009.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, The rights group EG Justice said in a statement that a letter signed by 125 African scholars and human rights defenders has denounced the UNESCO-Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Prize for Research in the Life Sciences, a prize named for the president of Equatorial Guinea. Mbasogo seized power more than 30 years ago and has been accused of human rights violations including unlawful killings, torture, and arbitrary arrests.
    (AP, 10/12/10)
2010        Oct 11, Hungary took over control of the Hungarian Aluminum Production and Trade Company (MAL). PM Orban said that Zoltan Bakonyi, the managing director of MAL, has been arrested. Bakonyi’s father, Arpad Bakonyi, had played a central role in the privatization of the country’s aluminum industry and remained its largest shareholder.
    (SFC, 10/12/10, p.A3)
2010        Oct 11, Krishna Poonia won India's first Commonwealth Games athletics gold medal in 52 years when she led a stunning host nation clean sweep in the women's discus.
    (AP, 10/11/10) 
2010        Oct 11, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a decree paving the way for a state takeover of Islamic Azad University, the country's largest private university, in a crushing blow to the nation's moderates. Khamenei's decree declared the university's 2009 endowment, which keeps it financially independent, to be religiously illegitimate and therefore null and void.
    (AP, 10/12/10)
2010        Oct 11, In Iraq gunmen wearing military uniforms raided the homes of several anti-al-Qaida Sunni fighters. They killed four men in an execution-style slaying and left 2 wounded before dawn near the town of Youssifiyah.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Irish police uncovered a major arms and explosives cache hidden in a wood in County Louth. The find included a machine gun, bomb-making equipment and assorted ammunition. They described it as a significant blow to dissident republicans.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, The Israeli government endorsed a bill requiring a national referendum be held before any withdrawal from occupied east Jerusalem or the Golan Heights. PM Netanyahu spelled out recognition of Israel as a Jewish state as his price for a renewal of a ban on construction in the occupied West Bank. The offer was rejected out of hand by the Palestinians, who said it had "nothing to do with the peace process."
    (AFP, 10/11/10)(AFP, 10/12/10)
2010        Oct 11, In Mexico 8 police officers were killed in an ambush in Sinaloa state. In Tijuana police found the decapitated bodies of two men hung by their feet off a bridge. Their heads were found in a car abandoned on the bridge.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, A Nigerian official said scores of slum residents in Lagos have been left homeless by flooding from the Ogun River following last month's opening of a dam.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, In northern Nigeria suspected members of a radical Islamic sect set a police station ablaze, wounding three officers in an attack similar to one that sparked rioting and a government crackdown that left 700 dead last year.
    (AP, 10/12/10)
2010        Oct 11, North Korea’s Kim Jong Nam, the casino-loving eldest son of Kim Jong Il, said he opposes a hereditary transfer of power to his youngest half-brother. Analysts say Kim Jong Nam spends so much time outside his native land that his opinion carries little weight. He spoke to Japan's TV Asahi in an interview from Beijing.
    (AP, 12/28/11)
2010        Oct 11, Russia's ruling party swept regional elections in several provinces this weekend, easily maintaining its grip on power, according to early returns.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Russian researchers said traces of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization have been discovered in the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains thanks to aerial photographs taken 40 years ago. the civilization dated from the 16th to the 14th centuries BC, high in the mountains south of Kislovodsk.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Somali pirates kidnapped Said Mohamed Rage, fisheries minister of the regional Puntland government. A soldier guarding the minister was killed and a civilian wounded. Pirates ambushed Rage's convoy because they thought he wanted to expel them from their bases. Rage was freed 2 days later.
    (AP, 10/12/10)(AP, 10/13/10)
2010        Oct 11, In Yemen 2 bombs, timed to go off one after the other, killed two people and injured 12 others in San’a.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

2011        Oct 11, Senate Republicans voted to kill the $447 billion White House jobs bill despite weeks of barnstorming by President Barack Obama across the country. 46 Republicans joined with two Democrats to delay the plan. Republicans opposed the measure over its spending to stimulate the economy and its tax surcharge on millionaires.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Washington acknowledged for the first time that it is waging "war" against militants in Pakistan.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)
2011        Oct 11, In Boston more than 50 protesters from the Occupy Boston movement were arrested after they ignored warnings to move from a downtown greenway near where they have been camped out for more than a week.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Dave Dawes (47), a shift supervisor at a food producer, and his partner Angela Dawes, a charity shop volunteer, were the only winners of €uroMillions Britain's third-largest lottery jackpot, worth 116 million euros or $157 million.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)
2011        Oct 11, In Cuba Amado Fakhre, a British citizen and head of the Coral Capital investment fund, was detained by security agents. His company owned Havana’s poshest hotel in partnership with the government and hoped to win a $400 million contract to build homes around a golf course.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.46)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.36)
2011        Oct 11, Egypt's finance minister and deputy prime minister resigned in protest over the government's handling of deadly weekend protests that left 27 dead, most of them Coptic Christians. Some 20,000 mourners chanted slogans denouncing the ruling military during a funeral procession overnight for 17 Christians killed in the Cairo protest.
    (AP, 10/11/11)(AP, 10/25/11)
2011        Oct 11, German Chancellor Angela Merkel met with her Vietnamese counterpart, PM Nguyen Tan Dung, as part of a two-day visit to boost trade ties with the Communist country.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, In Germany an attempted arson attack on a railway link in Berlin with three separate explosives devices was thwarted. It was the third in two days targeting railway operations in and around the capital.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Israel and Hamas announced that Sgt. Gilad Shalit, an Israeli soldier abducted to Gaza five years ago, would be swapped for about 1,000 Palestinians held by Israel and accused of militant activity. The next morning the Israeli Cabinet endorsed the Egyptian-brokered deal in a 26-3 vote. Shalit was expected to return via Egypt by Oct 19.
    (AP, 10/11/11)(AP, 10/12/11)(AFP, 10/13/11)
2011        Oct 11, Italy’s defense minister said armed forces can be deployed on Italian ships sailing in dangerous waters and that ship owners requesting the service would need to reimburse the ministry.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Two Italians, who say they were sexually abused by priests, completed a 19-day, 340-mile (550-km) protest march to the Vatican and tried unsuccessfully to obtain an audience with the pope.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Kosovo's foreign minister said Kuwait has recognized Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence from Serbia.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Liberia held presidential elections. President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (72), recent Nobel Peace Prize winner, faced 15 opposition candidates including soccer star George Weah. Sirleaf took 44% of the vote, with Tubman, a former diplomat, at 31%. Turnout was 71.4%. With 31% voting for her challenger, Sirleaf would need No. 3 Prince Johnson's endorsement to win the upcoming runoff.
    (AP, 10/11/11)(AP, 10/13/11)(AFP, 10/17/11)
2011        Oct 11, In Libya new regime fighters seized the police headquarters in the center of Moamer Kadhafi's hometown Sirte as they moved against the strongman's remaining diehards.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Mexican marines in the violent border state of Tamaulipas found the body of Cesar Davila Garcia, the alleged top accountant for the Gulf Cartel drug trafficking network.
    (AP, 10/12/11)
2011        Oct 11, Myanmar's newly elected civilian government announced it will release 6,359 prisoners in an amnesty that could help patch up the country's human rights record and normalize relations with Western nations. Only 200 turned out to be political prisoners.
    (AP, 10/11/11)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.52)
2011        Oct 11, Myanmar’s government signed legislation allowing the establishment of trade unions.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.51)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15303968)
2011        Oct 11, New Zealand declared its worst maritime pollution disaster, as oil gushed into a pristine bay from the Rena, a stranded container ship being pounded in heavy seas.
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Nigeria's secret police said 3 additional suspects, including a banker, have been arrested over two car bombings on the Oct 1, 2010, Independence Day in Abuja, which killed at least 12 people.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Pakistan PM Yousuf Raza Gilani pledged to create thousands of jobs in insurgency-wracked Baluchistan as he admitted past neglect of the region had fuelled its troubles. 2 people were killed in Baluchistan province when gunmen torched an oil tanker carrying fuel for NATO troops in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas, on a Latin American swing to drum up support for his bid to gain UN state recognition, failed to secure support from Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos. Abbas continued on to Venezuela to meet with Pres. Chavez.
    (AFP, 10/12/11)
2011        Oct 11, Slovakia’s government fell when Parliament failed to approve more powers for an EU bailout fund in a vote tied to a confidence vote in Radicova's 1-year-old government. The vote failed because a coalition partner refused to support it. The parliament rejected a bill that would have strengthened the powers of the regional rescue fund to help bail out strapped economies in the eurozone. Outgoing PM Iveta Radicova and her main opponent said they will work to try to get the bill through Parliament.
    (AP, 10/12/11)(AP, 10/14/11)
2011        Oct 11, Syrian security forces mounted an offensive in Homs where 7 people were reported killed.
    (SFC, 10/12/11, p.A2)
2011        Oct 11, Thailand workers raced to complete three critical flood walls with only one or two days to go before the already swollen river that winds through the capital bursts its banks. Nationwide flooding has already killed nearly 270 people. A preliminary estimate by the central bank showed economic losses from flooding that began in late July range from baht 60 billion to baht 80 billion ($1.9 billion to $2.6 billion).
    (AP, 10/11/11)
2011        Oct 11, Ukraine's former PM Yulia Tymoshenko (50) was sentenced to 7 years in prison on charges of abuse of office in signing a gas deal with Russia, a verdict immediately condemned by the European Union as politically motivated. The sentence also included a 3-year ban on public office and a fine of $190 million.
    (AP, 10/11/11)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.59)
2011        Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2012        Oct 11, Guan Moye (b.1955), aka Mo Yan, became the first Chinese writer to win the literature Nobel Prize. He is best known in the West for "Red Sorghum", which portrays the hardships endured by farmers in the early years of communist rule and was made in a film directed by Zhang Yimou.
    (AP, 10/12/12)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.42)
2012        Oct 11, The Obama administration declared the ultra-violent street gang MS-13 to be an international criminal group, an unprecedented crackdown targeting the finances of the sprawling US and Central American gang infamous for hacking and stabbing victims with machetes.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, A former US government official said US authorities believe that Iranian-based hackers were responsible for cyberattacks that devastated Persian Gulf oil and gas companies. Just hours later, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said the cyberthreat from Iran has grown, and he declared that the Pentagon is prepared to take action if American is threatened by a computer-based assault.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, Joe Biden and Republican Paul Ryan squabbled over the economy, taxes, Medicare and more in a contentious, interruption-filled vice-president’s debate steered by Martha Radatz of ABC at Centre College in Danville, Ky.
    (AP, 10/11/12)(SFC, 10/12/12, p.A1)
2012        Oct 11, In Alabama River Falls Mayor Mary Ella Hixon (91) pleaded guilty to transferring $201,610 of town money to other people in the past three years. She was sentenced to 5 years in prison, which was suspended because of her age, and ordered to repay the money.
    (SFC, 10/12/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 11, A batch of newly designed $100 bills, that aren't going into circulation until next year, was stolen from a plane that arrived at Philadelphia International Airport around 10:25 a.m. from Dallas. The Benjamins are easy to spot. The new bills have sophisticated elements to thwart counterfeiters, like a disappearing Liberty Bell in an orange inkwell and a bright blue security ribbon.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, In Texas 3 people were killed in a helicopter crash some 80 miles west of Austin.
    (SFC, 10/13/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 11, International investors put a $20 million price tag on an Argentine navy training ship after a judge in Ghana ruled that the ARA Libertad cannot set sail until the South American country settles claims for unpaid debts.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, British military police arrested seven Royal Marines on suspicion of murder. The arrests relate to an incident in Afghanistan in 2011. The incident followed an engagement with an insurgent and there were no civilians involved.
    (Reuters, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, Britain asked Jordan to pardon radical Islamist preacher Abu Qatada (51) because evidence used to convict him of terrorism there was obtained through torture. The Palestinian-born Jordanian cleric, whose real name is Omar Mahmoud Mohammed Othman, has been convicted in absentia in Jordan over bomb plots and faces retrial if extradited.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, In France a court in Creteil, outside Paris, sentenced 4 of 14 men accused of rape to prison terms, although most of the time was suspended. The longest term any will serve is a year. French women's organizations decried the acquittals and lenient sentences for the gang raping two teenage girls more than a decade ago.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, Guatemala prosecutors said they have detained 8 army privates and a colonel on allegations of extrajudicial killings by opening fire on a peaceful protests last week that killed 8 people and wounded 34.
    (SFC, 10/12/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 11, Indian police said they have arrested three Muslim militants suspected of planning terror attacks in New Delhi during a major Hindu festival season that starts later this month. The three suspects, members of the Indian Mujahideen, were arrested in New Delhi over the past two weeks and were said to be responsible for several small explosions in the western city of Pune in August in which one person was injured.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, In Iraq Abeer Ali (5) was abducted while her family attended a wedding in Zubair. Her body was found 12 hours later in an empty lot, bearing similar signs of trauma to Banin Haider, who was raped and killed in the same area on Aug 16. Abeer was strangled with a shoelace. The suspected kidnapper phoned nine friends and invited them to take part in the rape. So far, eight people have been arrested and have confessed. All of those arrested in the two cases were drug addicts under the influence at the time of the crimes.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Oct 11, Nigerian farmers asked a Dutch court to rule that oil company Shell is liable for poisoning their fish ponds and farmland with leaking pipelines. Royal Dutch Shell PLC long argued that the case, which was launched in 2008, should be heard in Nigeria.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, In Pakistan US drones fired four missiles at a compound of a militant commander in the northwestern Orakzai tribal region, killing 16 militants. A pair of bombings in Baluchistan province killed 10 civilians and three security personnel. Gunmen kidnapped a retired Pakistani army brigadier who was working under contract with the country's intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence, on the outskirts of Islamabad, shortly after the officer left his home for work. The officer's driver resisted and was shot and killed.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, Somali pirates released the MV Free Goddess, a Liberian-flagged Greek-owned ship and its crew of 21 Filipinos, following a payment of a $2.3 million ransom. They were held hostage for eight months. Pirates still held six ships and 156 crew members.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, It was reported that upgrades for South African President Jacob Zuma's rural private home will cost more than $23 million in taxpayer money.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 11, In South Africa striking miners killed one man by setting him on fire while another was shot and seriously wounded in rekindled labor unrest that saw police firing tear gas and rubber bullets near an Anglo American Platinum (Amplats) mine.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, Four UN agencies called on India to take action against child marriages on the first Int’l. Day of the Girl Child.
    (SFC, 10/12/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 11, In Yemen a masked gunman assassinated a Yemeni security official who worked for the US Embassy in a drive-by shooting near his home in Sanaa.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2013        Oct 11, The US Air Force fired Maj. Gen. Michael Carey, the senior officer in charge of its nuclear missiles. A pending investigation was said to be related to alcohol use.
    (SFC, 10/12/13, p.A6)
2013        Oct 11, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown approved 11 firearms measures designed to tighten controls on ownership, storage and types of weapons and ammunition available in the state. They included a ban on lead hunting ammunition.
    (SFC, 10/12/13, p.A1)
2013        Oct 11, In the SF Bay Area Hayward police arrested 13 people and seized nearly $4 million worth of marijuana after raiding homes in San Leandro, Hayward and San Lorenzo.
    (SFC, 10/12/13, p.C4)
2013        Oct 11, In Michigan Bobby Ferguson, a friend of former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick, was sentenced to 21 years in prison for his role in widespread corruption.
    (SFC, 10/12/13, p.A9)
2013        Oct 11, Two Utah Boy Scout leaders pushed a large rock off a rock formation at Goblin Valley State Park. Glenn Taylor and Dave Hall said it was loose and feared it was dangerous. They soon faced possible criminal charges and were removed from their posts a Boy Scout leaders.
    (SFC, 10/22/13, p.A6)
2013        Oct 11, In Brazil an official report disclosed that the powerful PCC prison gang runs a nationwide criminal business worth $60 million a year with operations extending into neighboring Bolivia and Paraguay.
    (AFP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, Shares in newly-privatized Royal Mail soared on their stock market debut, bolstering criticism that the company — which traces its five-century history back to King Henry VIII — was undervalued by the British government.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In Central African Republic clashes broke out between security forces sent from Bangui to Bomboro, and the 'anti-balaka' self-defence group," leaving 6 dead among the ranks of the vigilante.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Egyptian coast guard rescued 72 Palestinians, 40 Syrians and 4 Egyptians when a boat carrying illegal migrants and Syrian refugees sank off Egypt's northern coast. 12 people died.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, France's constitutional council upheld a ban on the energy extraction process known as fracking, two days after the European Parliament voted to require full environmental reports from companies that want to establish hydraulic fracturing sites.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, A French court convicted 26 members of three Croatian Roma families of forcing children to carry out more than 100 robberies in European countries.
    (AFP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In India tens of thousands fled their homes in eastern coastal areas and moved to shelters, bracing for Cyclone Phailin.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, Alitalia’s board of directors approved a €500m salvage package. €300m would come from fresh capital and €200m from new credit lines. The government planned to involve the state-owned postal service in the rescue.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.56)
2013        Oct 11, In Italy  Erich Priebke (100), a former Nazi SS captain, died. He had been sentenced to life in prison for his role in in the 1944 massacre of 335 civilians by Nazi forces at the Ardeatine Caves outside Rome.
    (AP, 10/11/13)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.102)
2013        Oct 11, In Japan a fire ripped through a hospital as patients slept killing 10 elderly people. This prompted government demands for safety reviews across the country.
    (AFP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, Lebanese singer and composer Wadih Safi (92) died. His strong, clear voice propelled him to fame throughout the Arab world.
    (AP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, In central Mali a boat carrying hundreds of passengers along the Niger River capsized. Only 210 survivors, of an estimated 400 people aboard, were counted. By Oct 19 the body count reached 72.
    (AP, 10/12/13)(AP, 10/19/13)
2013        Oct 11, An overloaded migrant boat went down off Malta. The next day about 200 shocked survivors were plucked from the sea. Over 30 lives were lost in the latest deadly migrant tragedy to hit the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, In central Nigeria 17 people died and 10 others were injured when the buses in which they were travelling collided with a tanker lorry.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons as  the global watchdog worked to destroy Syria's stockpiles of nerve gas and other poisonous agents.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, Suspected Palestinian militants bludgeoned to death retired army colonel Sarya Ofer in the third killing of Israelis in the West Bank within as many weeks. Three suspects were arreted the next day.
    (AFP, 10/11/13)(AFP, 10/13/13)
2013        Oct 11, A Panamanian official said two Cuban fighter jets seized from a North Korean ship in July were in perfect condition to operate and the 15 plane engines that were found along with them were relatively new and could be used as replacements.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In southeastern Peru a makeshift bus carrying 51 Quechua Indians back from a party plunged off a cliff into a river, killing everyone on board, including 14 children.
    (AP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, In Spain former Formula 1 reserve driver Maria de Villota (33) was found dead in a hotel room in Seville.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In Sudan some 150 pro-democracy activists and Islamists protested outside Khartoum's Grand Mosque after Friday prayers in the latest of a wave of anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, In Sudan a Zambian military observer with UNAMID was killed by unidentified assailants in El Fasher, North Darfur state.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, Syrian air force warplanes bombarded rebel-held targets close to a major chemical weapons facility in fighting that highlights the perils facing an international mission to eliminate President Bashar al-Assad's chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 11, Tunisian security forces and suspected jihadists clashed near Mount Chaambi, a stronghold of militants linked to Al-Qaeda, in the Kasserine area near the Algerian border.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)
2013        Oct 11, In southern Yemen a suspected al Qaeda militant blew himself up in a market in Lahj province, killing himself and wounding 4. Security officials said militants on a motorcycle have shot and killed an army colonel in the eastern town of Mukalla.
    (Reuters, 10/11/13)(AP, 10/11/13)

2014        Oct 11, In San Francisco the new US assault ship, the America, was officially enetered into service as part of Fleet Week celebrations.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.C1)
2014        Oct 11, In St. Louis, Missouri, thousands gathered for a 2nd day of organized rallies and marches to protest the death of Michael Brown and other fatal police police shootings in the St. Louis area and nationwide.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.A9)
2014        Oct 11, A health worker in Texas at the hospital treating the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States tested positive for the deadly virus, raising fresh worries about the spread of the disease beyond West Africa.
    (Reuters, 10/12/14)
2014        Oct 11, In southern Afghanistan a Taliban suicide bomber struck a police headquarters, killing one policeman and wounding three. Gunmen killed two Afghan truck drivers on a road in the country's east.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Algerian troops killed 5 more suspected militants in the eastern Bouira region where they have been tracking an al Qaeda splinter group that killed a French tourist.
    (Reuters, 10/12/14)
2014        Oct 11, Belgium's King Philippe swore in a center-right government under the leadership of Francophone free-market liberal Charles Michel (38), ending a four-month deadlock.
    (AP, 10/11/14)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.64)
2014        Oct 11, Cameroon authorities said 27 hostages seized by militant group Boko Haram in May and July have been released, including 10 Chinese workers and the wife of Cameroon's vice-prime minister.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, China’s social media began reporting that authorities have ordered books by Chinese-American scholar Yu Ying-shih to be removed from sale, as Beijing expresses its displeasure with writers showing support for pro-democracy movements in Hong Kong and elsewhere.
    (AP, 10/14/14)
2014        Oct 11, In northwestern China a landslide buried a dormitory for highway construction workers as they slept inside, killing 19 and injuring two others in Shaanxi province.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, In Egypt a Cairo court convicted Mohammed el-Beltagy, a leading Muslim Brotherhood figure, and two other Islamists and sentenced them to 15 years in prison each on charges of torturing a man during the 2011 protests against then-President Hosni Mubarak.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Germany, one of the countries that suspended aid to Malawi after a massive 2013 public sector graft scandal, said it has granted the impoverished southern African nation $25 million to conduct an audit into the fraud.
    (AFP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Ten people died and a dozen were missing after a small boat collided with a ship off Guinea's southern coast and capsized.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Hong Kong students leading pro-democracy protests issued an open letter to Chinese President Xi Jinping, urging him to consider political reforms in the city and blaming the city's unpopular leader for the demonstrations. Thousands of people returned for sit-ins in Hong Kong's main protest zone.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, India and Pakistan exchanged gunfire across the Kashmir frontier, ending a pause in fighting that has already killed 17 civilians.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, In Iran a police airplane crashed outside the provincial capital of Zahedan killing all 7 people aboard.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.A4)
2014        Oct 11, In Iraq a series of car bomb attacks killed at least 45 people in Shiite-majority areas of Baghdad. 4 Iraqi soldiers died in a friendly-fire incident in the town of Udaim. The US military launched airstrikes north and west of Baghdad, hitting a small Islamic State fighting unit and destroying armed vehicles. Britain participated in the airstrikes.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)(AP, 10/12/14)   
2014        Oct 11, Kurdish forces defending Kobani urged a US-led coalition to escalate air strikes on Islamic State fighters who controlled more than a third of the Syrian town at the border with Turkey. 36 jihadi fighters were reportedly killed in Kobani.
    (Reuters, 10/11/14)(AP, 10/12/14)
2014        Oct 11, In Mexico Guerrero state Gov. Angel Aguirre said some of the bodies recovered from clandestine graves last weekend did not match the 43 young people who went missing on Sep 25.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.A4)
2014        Oct 11, In norhtern Mexico two gunmen walked into a radio station and killed Atilano Roman Tirado, a local activist, while he was broadcasting his weekly radio program. Tirado was the leader of a group of farmers demanding compensation for lands flooded by dam construction several years ago.
    (AP, 10/13/14)
2014        Oct 11, In the Philippines Jeffrey Laude (26), a Filipino cross-dresser, was reportedly killed by a member of the US military. On Oct 18 the government suerved a subpoena for marine Pfc. Joseph Scott Permberton and four other Marines sought as witnesses to the death of Laude.
    (SFC, 10/14/14, p.A2)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 11, In Spain three more people were under observation for Ebola in a Madrid hospital, boosting the number being monitored for symptoms to 16. A nursing assistant infected with the virus remained in serious but stable condition.
    (AP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Thai authorities arrested 53 Rohingya migrants and two suspected Thai traffickers en route to neighboring Malaysia. Myanmar views its population of roughly 800,000 Rohingya -- described by the UN as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world -- as illegal Bangladeshi immigrants, and denies them citizenship.
    (AFP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, The Ukrainian army said that its positions had been attacked overnight in Donetsk and Lugansk regions. Shelling in the regions killed 5 people over the past 24 hours in the latest deadly violations of a ceasefire.
    (AFP, 10/11/14)
2014        Oct 11, Two Yemeni soldiers were killed when a roadside bomb exploded in the restive southeastern province of Hadramawt.
    (AFP, 10/11/14)

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