Today in History - October 15

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70BC        Oct 15, Virgil [Vergil] (Publius Vergilius Maro), Roman poet, was born in Mantua. He wrote about the mythical founding of Rome in the Aeneid, which told the legend of Rome‘s founder and was considered a national epic.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.60)(HN, 10/15/98)(AMNHDT, 5/98)

1501        Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1520        Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1522        Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1529        Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
    (WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 10/15/98)

1564        Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius (b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius)

1581        Oct 15, Commissioned by Catherine De Medici, the 1st ballet "Ballet Comique de la Reine," was staged in Paris.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1582        Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)

1598        Oct 15, Spanish general strategist Bernardino de Mendoza occupied Fort Rhine.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1655        Oct 15, Jews of Lublin, Poland, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1660        Oct 15, Asser Levy was granted a butcher's license for kosher meat in New Amsterdam.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1674        Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1762        Oct 15, Samuel Adams Holyoke, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1777        Oct 15, Tory Maj. James Graves Simcoe was appointed commandant of Queen's Rangers to combat American rebels.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1783        Oct 15, Francois Pilatre de Rozier (Jean Piletre de Rozier) made the first manned flight in a hot air balloon. The first flight was let out to 82 feet, but over the next few days the altitude increased up to 6,500 feet. [see Jun 5]
    (HN, 10/15/98)(MC, 10/15/01)

1789        Oct 15, George Washington went to New England on the 1st presidential tour.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1794        Oct 15, US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
    (SFC, 7/27/05, p.C8)

1817        Oct 15, Tadeusz AB Kosciusko (b.1746), Polish Lt-Gen. and American Revolution freedom fighter, died.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1818        Oct 15, Irvin McDowell (d.1985), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1822        Oct 15, Alfred Meissner, Austrian physician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1827        Oct 15, Charles Darwin reached Christ's Counsel, Cambridge.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1830        Oct 15, Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (d.1885), writer and poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her 1881 non-fiction work, "A Century of Dishonor," raised concerns about the treatment of Native Americans. Jackson, a lifelong friend of Emily Dickinson, worked on a government investigation of the treatment of Mission Indians. Her 1884 novel Ramona was also about the plight of Indians in California. "Wounded vanity knows when it is mortally hurt; and limps off the field, piteous, all disguises thrown away. But pride carries its banner to the last; and fast as it is driven from one field unfurls it in another." “It is the weakness and danger of republics, that the vices as well as virtues of the people are represented in their legislation."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 10/15/98)(HNQ, 12/20/99)(AP, 2/17/00)

1842        Oct 15, Karl Marx became editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1844        Oct 15, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (d.1900), German philosopher, poet, and critic, was born. He wrote 13 books and was driven to madness by a number of factors, but one was the bland, dishonest complacency of his contemporaries, who ignored him while honoring writers who seem like comic book figures today... He shrilled against Christianity and its empty moral claims. In 1998 two biographies were published: “Nietzsche in Turin: An Intimate Biography" by Lesley Chamberlain; and “The Good European: Nietzsche’s Work Sites in word and Image" by David Farell Krell and Donald L. Bates. In 2000 Robert C. Solomon and Kathleen M. Higgins authored “What Nietzsche Really Said." “No one is such a liar as the indignant man." "In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule." “The time for me hasn’t come yet. Some are born posthumously."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(SFEC, 2/8/98, BR p.9)(AP, 3/19/98)(HN, 10/15/98)(AP, 12/3/98) (SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.4)

1853         Oct 15, William Walker and 45 men from San Francisco invaded Baha California and Sonora. They soon captured La Paz, Mexico. The freelance soldiers were known as filibusters.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Sonora)(SFC, 8/1/15, p.C2)

1855        Oct 15, In San Francisco St. Ignatius opened for classes with 3 students, including Richard McCabe, at 841 Market St. In the 1880s St. Ignatius College moved to a new campus on Van Ness.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1858        Oct 15, John L. Sullivan, heavyweight boxing champ (1882-92), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1858        Oct 15, The seventh and final debate between senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place in Alton, Ill.
    (ON, 4/08, p.2)(AP, 10/15/08)

1860        Oct 15, 11-year-old Grace Bedell of Westfield, N.Y., wrote a letter to presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln, suggesting he could improve his appearance by growing a beard.
    (AP, 10/15/01)

1861        Oct 15, The British steamship Fingal, purchased by James D. Bulloch for the US Southern Confederacy, ran into the Austrian brig Siccardi, which sank with her load of coal in England’s Holyhead harbor. The Fingal quickly sailed for Savannah. The Fingal was later converted to an ironclad and renamed Atlanta.
    (ON, 7/01, p.6)

1863        Oct 15, For the second time, the Confederate submarine H L Hunley sank during a practice dive in Charleston Harbor, S.C, this time drowning its inventor along with seven crew members.
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1864        Oct 15, Confederate troops occupied Glasgow, Missouri.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1866        Oct 15, A great fire in Quebec destroyed 2,500 houses.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1874        Oct 15, A US child labor law took 12 year olds out of work force.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1878        Oct 15, Thomas A. Edison incorporated Edison Electric Light Co.
    (HN, 10/15/98)(MC, 10/15/01)

1880        Oct 15, Victorio, feared leader of the Minbreno Apache, was killed by Mexican troops in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. [see Oct 14]
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1881        Oct 15, Pelham Grenville Wodehouse (d.1975), British writer and humorist, was born in Guildford, Surrey, England. He produced 93 books and countless articles and short stories. He was the creator of the two great comic characters: Bertie Wooster and his valet, Jeeves.
    (Hem., 10/’95, p.109)(HN, 10/15/00)

1892        Oct 15, US government convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation (in the mountainous area of western Montana) for 50 cents per acre. Presidential proclamation opened this land to settlers.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1892        Oct 15, An attempt to rob two banks in Coffeyville, Kan., ended in disaster for the Dalton gang as four of the five outlaws were killed and Emmet Dalton was seriously wounded. [see Oct 5]
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1893        Oct 15, The NY Times declared Coney Island “Sodom-by-the-Sea" for the thrilling rides that let men and women clutch each other.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.28)(http://tinyurl.com/39yjht)

1894        Oct 15, Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), a Jewish army officer in France, was arrested for allegedly betraying military secrets to Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Dreyfus)

1897        Oct 15, Aaron and Samuel Bloch carried the 1st US Mail Pouch.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1900        Oct 15, Boston’s Symphony Hall, one of the world's most highly regarded concert halls, was inaugurated. It was the 1st to be built in known conformity with acoustical laws described by Harvard physicist Wallace Sabine.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/BSO.htm)(WSJ, 4/24/02, p.D9)

1901        Oct 15, Bernard von Brentano, German writer (Big Cats), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1901        Oct 15, Hermann Abs, director (Deutsche Bank) and Hitler's advisor, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1905        Oct 15, Charles P. Snow (d.1980), English novelist (Death Under Sail), was born. He pointed out that the university’s separate worlds have ceased to talk to one another. The “uni" in the university has become meaningless as the institution, possessing more and more power as government funds were pumped into it for research, turned into a loose confederation of disconnected mini-states, instead of an organization devoted to the joint search for knowledge and truth.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.142)(HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)
1905        Oct 15, Claude Debussy's "La Mer," premiered.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1905        Oct 15, US President Grover Cleveland wrote an article for "Ladies Home Journal", joining others in the US who opposed women voters. The president said, "We all know how much further women go than men in their social rivalries and jealousies... sensible and responsible women do not want to vote."
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1908        Oct 15, John Kenneth Galbraith, economist, writer and diplomat, was born in Canada. His work included "A History of Economics" and "Affluent Society" (1958). He won the Hillman Award in 1958. In 2005 Richard Parker authored the biography “John Kenneth Galbraith: His Life, His Politics, His Economics."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(HN, 10/15/00)(WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)

1910        Oct 15, Torbjorn Oskar Caspersson, Swedish cytologist and geneticist, was born.
    (HN, 10/15/00)

1913        Oct 15, Klaus Barbie, gestapo chief (Lyon), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1914        Oct 15, ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers) founded.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1914        Oct 15, Congress passed President Wilson signed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which labor leader Samuel Gompers called "labor's charter of freedom." It strengthened previous anti-monopoly legislation. The act exempted unions from anti-trust laws; strikes, picketing and boycotting became legal; corporate interlocking directorates became illegal, as did setting prices which would effect a monopoly.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(HN, 10/15/98)(AP, 10/15/08)
1914        Oct 15, Aleksander Rozycki, composer, died at 69.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1917        Oct 15, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., historian and author, was born in Ohio. He won the 1946 Pulitzer Prize for his book “Age of Jackson."
    (HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)
1917        Oct 15, Mata Hari (b.1876), the woman whose name has become synonymous with a seductive female spy, was executed by the French outside Paris on charges of spying for the Germans during World War I. The daughter of a prosperous Dutch merchant, Margaretha Geertruida Zelle married a colonial army officer named MacLeod in 1895. The couple lived for five years in Java and Sumatra before the marriage failed. By 1905, Mrs. MacLeod was calling herself Mata Hari--said to be Malay for "eye of the day"--and creating a sensation as an exotic East Indian dancer in Europe. Among her many lovers were military officers and, although the facts surrounding her espionage activities are still unclear, Mata Hari was arrested by the French as a German spy in February 1917. After a two-day trial before a military court, Mata Hari was sentenced to death for espionage. In 2002 Richard Skinner authored “The Red Dancer," a novel based on her life.
    (WSJ, 1/16/97, p.A16)(AP, 10/15/97)(HNPD, 10/15/98)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.M4)

1920        Oct 15, Mario Puzo, novelist and screenwriter, was born. His work included “The Godfather." [see Oct 15, 1921]
    (HN, 10/15/00)
1920        Oct 15, The Paris Conference on Passports & Customs Formalities and Through Tickets opened. The week-long event ending on Oct 21 was hosted by the League of Nations and set standards for passports.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.73)(www.indiana.edu/~league/1920.htm)

1921        Oct 15, Mario Puzo, novelist (Godfather, Cotton Club, Earthquake), was born in NYC. [see Oct 15, 1920]
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1923        Oct 15, Italo Calvino (d.1985), Italian novelist (Winter's Night a Traveler), was born in Cuba.
    (HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M4)

1924        Oct 15, Lee A. Iacocca, CEO (Chrysler Corp), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1924        Oct 15, Pres Coolidge declared the Statue of Liberty a national monument.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1924        Oct 15, German ZR-3 flew 5000 miles, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1926        Oct 15, Evan Hunter, [Ed McBain], American writer (Blackboard Jungle), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1926        Oct 15, Karl Richter, composer and conductor, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1928        Oct 15, The German dirigible Graf Zeppelin landed in Lakehurst, N.J., on its first commercial flight across the Atlantic.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1929        Oct 15, Nadir Khan (1983-1933) took the throne of Afghanistan after a 3-way power struggle. His tribal Wazir army looted government buildings and houses of wealthy citizens because the treasury was empty. Habibullah Kalakani, along with his supporters, and a few supporters of Amanullah Khan were killed by Nadir Khan and Khan established full control.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Nadir_Shah)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A6)

1932        Oct 15, In India J.R.D Tata began flying regular mail service. India’s first airline, Air India, was founded by the Tata family. In 2007 it merged with Indian Airlines.
    (www.airindia.com/SBCMS/Webpages/JRD.aspx?MID=196#)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.72)

1937        Oct 15, The Ernest Hemingway novel "To Have and Have Not" was first published.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1938        Oct 15, Robert Sherwood's "Abe Lincoln in Illinois," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1939        Oct 15, The New York Municipal Airport was dedicated. It was the largest, most advanced commercial airport in the world. Its new terminal featured innovative design that kept arriving and departing passengers separated on two levels for greater efficiency. It was also terminals adorned with Art Deco details and fine restaurants and a rooftop viewing promenade as well as many technological details that made flying safer and less expensive.  On Mar 31, 1940, the new airport was rechristened LaGuardia Airport after the mayor, who had been a bomber pilot in World War I and whose interest in aviation lasted throughout his lifetime, barely a month after it opened.
    (www.arcadiapublishing.com/news_article.html?id=1816)(AP, 10/15/97)

1940        Oct 15, London's Waterloo Station was bombed by Germans. 2 days of Heavy German bombing on London killed 400 people.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1941        Oct 15, The 1st mass deportation of German Jews to Eastern Europe.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1941        Oct 15, The Japanese Tojo regime was formed. [see Oct 17]
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1941        Oct 15, Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea which had been surrounded by German troops for several weeks, was evacuated by Russian troops.
    (HN, 10/15/98)

1942        Oct 15, Dirk Bannink, nurse and local councilor Deventer, Netherlands, was executed.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1944        Oct 15, Philip Mechanicus, journalist, was executed in Auschwitz-Birkenau.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1945        Oct 15, The former Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval was executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(HN, 10/15/98)

1946        Oct 15, Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1948        Oct 15, China's Red army occupied Chinchov.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1949        Oct 15, Laszlo Rajk, Hungarian Sec. of State and Foreign minister, was hanged.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1950        Oct 15, President Harry Truman met with General Douglas MacArthur at Wake Island to discuss U.N. progress in the Korean War.
    (HN, 10/15/98)
1950        Oct 15, John Jacob Raskob (b.1879), former General Motors executive and developer of the Empire State Building, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_J._Raskob)

1951        Oct 15, The situation comedy “I Love Lucy" premiered on CBS. It ran through to 1961. Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz bought their television studio, Desilu, from Howard Hughes.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, T8)(AP, 10/15/97)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)
1951        Oct 15, Dr. Carl Djerassi (27), Prof. of chemistry at Stanford Univ., developed the birth control pill in Mexico City while working for Palo Alto based Syntex Corp. He synthesized norethindrone, a steroid oral contraceptive. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored “This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951. Serle won FDA ok to market the pill May 11, 1960.
    (SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SSFC, 10/14/01, Par p.13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)

1953        Oct 15, John Patrick's "Teahouse of the August Moon," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1954        Oct 15, Hurricane Hazel struck US and Canada and 348 people died. 81 people were killed in Ontario where damages were estimated at $24 million.
    (AP, 10/16/04)

1955        Oct 15, Richard Martin Theiler (28) was in the front seat of the Lockheed-Martin T-33A that went missing just after takeoff from the Los Angeles International Airport. In 2009 aviation archaeologist G. Pat Macha and a group of volunteers found the plane underneath 100 feet of water.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

1956        Oct 15, Pres. Eisenhower appointed William J. Brennan Jr. to the Supreme Court. He served until 1990. In 1997 a collection of essays on Brennan was edited by Rosenkranz and Schwartz titled: “Reason and Passion: Justice Brennan’s Enduring Influence."
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(MC, 10/15/01)
1956        Oct 15, Pan Am Flight 943, enroute to Hawaii from San Francisco crash landed in the ocean. All 31 aboard were rescued by the Coast Guard cutter Pontchartrain.
    (SFC, 1/24/09, p.A1)

1959        Oct 15, Sarah Ferguson, the Duchess of York, aka 'Fergie,' was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1959        Oct 15, The TV show "The Untouchables" premiered with Robert Stack (d.2003) as Eliot Ness. It was produced by Bert Granet (d.2002 at 92) and ran to 1963.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, Par, p.14)(MC, 10/15/01)(SFC, 11/25/02, p.A15)(AP, 5/15/03)
1959        Oct 15, Stepan Bandera (b.1909), a Ukrainian nationalist, was assassinated in Munich by a KGB agent who used a spray gun to fire cyanide gas into his face. In 2010 Ukraine Pres. Yushchenko issued a decree posthumously awarding the nation's highest award to Bandera weeks before his term ended in February. Yushchenko called Bandera patriot, but the Simon Wiesenthal Center, a leading Jewish rights group, said Bandera's followers were linked to the deaths of thousands of Jews. In April 2010 a court overturned the decree.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A10)(AP, 4/3/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepan_Bandera)

1962        Oct 15, Byron R. White (1917-2002) was appointed to the US Supreme Court by Pres. Kennedy.
    (MC, 10/15/01)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A5)

1963        Oct 15, Stanley Milgram of Yale Univ. published his groundbreaking article “Behavioral Study of Obedience" in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. His experiments, begun in 1960, created a paradigm for considering how cruel people can be when they are obeying orders.
    (SSFC, 7/4/04, p.M6)(SAM, 10/08, p,24)

1964        Oct 15, St. Louis Cardinals in their home park beat the New York Yankees in game 7 of Baseball’s World Series (7-5). In 1994 David Halberstam authored “October 1964," an account centered on the series.
    (www.baseball-almanac.com/ws/yr1964ws.shtml)(WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)
1964        Oct 15, Cole Porter (73), renowned lyricist and composer, died. His work included “Still of the Night," “I've Got You Under My Skin," and hundreds of other classics. Cole Porter music crossed all musical style and format boundaries throughout his long and rich career.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1964        Oct 15, It was announced that Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev had been removed from office. He was succeeded as premier by Alexei N. Kosygin and as Communist Party secretary by Leonid I. Brezhnev.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1964)(AP, 10/15/97)

1966        Oct 15, President Johnson signed a bill creating the Department of Transportation (DOT).
    (AP, 10/15/97)
1966        Oct 15, US Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act. It was expanded in 1973 as the Endangered Species Act. The Devils Hole Pupfish of Death Valley were among the first species protected. By 1972 only 124 remained. By 2007 only 42 were left. The count reached 75 in 2013.
    (www.fws.gov/endangered/1966listing.html)(Econ, 1/19/12, p.79)
1966        Oct 15, South Dakota’s Mount Rushmore was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Rushmore)
1966        Oct 15, The Black Panthers wrote their Ten Point Program at the Office of Economic Development Corp. in Oakland, Ca. It called for adequate housing, jobs, education and an end to police brutality. The Black Panther Party was founded by Merritt College students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. In 2006 Flores A. Forbes authored “Will You Die With Me: My Life and the Black Panther Party."
    (SFC, 10/24/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W31)(SSFC, 7/9/06, p.M1) 

1969        Oct 15, Peace demonstrators staged activities across the US, including a candlelight march around the White House, as part Vietnam Moratorium Day.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1969)
1969        Oct 15, The $100-million, 52-story Bank of America World Headquarters at 555 California St. in SF, was dedicated. In 1985 it was sold to Walter Shorenstein for $660 million. In 2005 a Hong Kong group offered $1.05 billion.
    (http://continuumacg.net/moody2.html)(SFC, 9/23/05, p.C1)

1970        Oct 15, Pres. Nixon signed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). It provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racketeer_Influenced_and_Corrupt_Organizations_Act)
1970        Oct 15, Anwar Sadat (1918-1981) succeeded the late Gamal Abdel Nasser as president of Egypt. Sadat had worked with Nasser to overthrow Egypt‘s monarchy and was imprisoned during World War II for his ties to the Germans. After the revolution in 1952, he held key posts under Nasser including that of vice president (1964-66 and 1969-70). In 1973, he led Egypt into a war with Israel, but five years later negotiated the Camp David Accords with Israeli premier Menachem Begin for which both men received the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated by Muslim extremists in 1981.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anwar_Sadat)(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)(HNQ, 7/30/00)

1973        Oct 15, Russell E. Train, the US Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, announced final transportation control measures to lower air pollution levels in several of the nation's largest cities. The action marked a final step in developing the transportation controls required under the Clean Air Act of 1972, although several urban plans were yet to be finalized.
    (www.epa.gov/history/topics/caa70/10.htm)
1973        Oct 15 Israeli tanks under General Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and began to encircle two Egyptian armies.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)

1974        Oct 15, Pres. Ford signed legislation limiting campaign spending by political parties. Congress amended the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 to set limits on contributions by individuals, political parties and PACs.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/6zvcpc)
1974        Oct 15, Nobel prize for chemistry was awarded to Paul J. Flory of Stanford Univ. for his work on macro molecules.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1974/press.html)
1974        Oct 15, National Guard mobilized to restore order in Boston school busing.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1975        Oct 15, Iceland moved its intl. boundary for fishing rights from 50 to 200 miles.
    (www.american.edu/ted/ice/CODWAR.htm)

1976        Oct 15, In the first debate of its kind between vice-presidential nominees, Democrat Walter F. Mondale and Republican Bob Dole faced off in Houston.
    (AP, 10/15/97)
1976        Oct 15, Carlo Gambino (b.1902), US gangster, died at his summer home in Long Island.
    (www.gambino.com/bio/carlogambino.htm)
1976        Oct 15, French-Argentine citizen Marianne Erize (22) was kidnapped and disappeared. In 2008 retired army major Jorge Antonio Olivera was arrested for the "forced disappearance, kidnapping and torture" of Erize when Olivera was a lieutenant in the 22nd Mountain Infantry Regiment. In August 2000, Olivera was detained in Italy at the request of French authorities, but was freed after presenting what was later found to be a falsified death certificate saying Erize had died on Nov. 11, 1976 — 26 days after being illegally detained.
    (AP, 11/4/08)

1982        Oct 15, The federal Centers for Disease Control warned that a new epidemic was impacting Americans and that over 200, mostly gay young men, had died from AIDS. In 2001 Jon Cohen authored “Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine."
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, BR p.4)

1983        Oct 15, One US marine was killed and another wounded when Marine positions at Beirut International Airport came under sniper fire from neighboring Shiite Moslem quarters.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2oux37)

1984        Oct 15, The Central Intelligence Agency's Freedom of Information Act was signed into law by Pres. Reagan.
    (www.asne.org/index.cfm?ID=453)

1985        Oct 15, Shelley Taylor of Australia made the fastest swim ever around Manhattan Island, doing it in 6 hours 12 minutes 29 seconds.
    (www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi?askmonth=10&askday=15)
1985        Oct 15, Humphrey, a 45-ton humpback whale, continued swimming inland to within 27 miles of Sacramento, despite efforts to turn him around.
    (SSFC, 10/10/10, DB p.50)

1986        Oct 15, Harvard Univ. agreed to buy 1.35 million shares of Harken Energy for $2 million and to invest $20 million in Harken projects. George W. Bush served as a Harken board member and paid consultant.
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)

1987        Oct 15, Lanford Wilson's "Burn This," premiered in NYC.
    (http://allstarz.hollywood.com/~malkovich/nyburnthis.html)
1987        Oct 15, Frantic efforts continued in Midland, Texas, to save 18-month-old Jessica McClure, who had fallen 22 feet down an abandoned well the day before. Jessica was freed the following evening.
    (AP, 10/15/97)
1987        Oct 15, In Burkina Faso Thomas Sankara (b.1949) was overthrown and assassinated in a coup d'état led by the French-backed Blaise Compaoré (b.1951), who had trained in Gadhafi's guerrilla camps. Libya and Burkina Faso later denied repeated accusations of gunrunning to West Africa hot spots.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_Compaor%C3%A9)(SFC, 2/19/00, p.A10)(AP, 12/16/02)

1988        Oct 15, Shapurji Sorabji (b.1892), British composer (Leon Dudley Sorabji), died. His work included "Opus clavicembalisticum" (1930), an elaboration of Ferrucio Busoni’s 1921 "Fantasia conatrappuntistica," itself a metamorphosis and completion of Bach’s "The Art of Fugue."
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikhosru_Shapurji_Sorabji)

1989        Oct 15, The NHL's Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angeles Kings surpassed Gordie Howe's scoring record of 1,850 points, in a game against the Edmonton Oilers.
    (AP, 10/15/99)
1989        Oct 15, South African officials released eight prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the African National Congress.
    (AP, 10/15/99)

1990        Oct 15, Soviet Union President Mikhail S. Gorbachev was named the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/15/97)
1990        Oct 15, South Africa’s Separate Amenities Act, which barred blacks from public facilities for decades, was formally scrapped.
    (AP, 10/15/00)

1991        Oct 15, Despite sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, the Senate narrowly confirmed the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, 52 to 48. Jane Mayer and Jill Abramson later published "Strange Justice," which was made into a 1999 Showtime TV movie.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(WSJ, 8/23/99, p.A13)

1992        Oct 15, The US State Department acknowledged that it had improperly handled requests for the passport file of Democratic presidential nominee Bill Clinton.
    (AP, 10/15/97)
1992        Oct 15, NYC Subway motorman Robert Ray was convicted of manslaughter in death of 5 riders, when he fell asleep drunk while in control of train on Aug 28, 1991.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bk4uq)
1992        Oct 15, In Liberia Operation Octopus began when forces under Charles Taylor attacked positions of a West African peacekeeping force, ECOMOG. Martina Johnson, the head of the heavy artillery unit for the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, reportedly led the operation.
    (AP, 9/18/14)

1993        Oct 15, President Clinton sent six warships to the waters off Haiti to enforce trade sanctions in the face of defiant Haitian military rulers.
    (AP, 10/15/98)
1993        Oct 15, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid.
    (AP, 10/15/98)

1994        Oct 15, A Cuban exile took part in a commando raid during which Arcilio Rodriguez Garcia, a local official, was shot dead. Humberto Real Suarez and six others were captured several hours after landing by boat. He was sentenced to death in 1996 and the others were sentenced to 30-years in prison. In late 2010 Cuba's Supreme Court commuted the death sentence against Humberto Real Suarez, the last person remaining on death row in Cuba.
    (SFC, 4/26/96, p.A-14)(AP, 12/28/10)
1994        Oct 15, Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returned to his country, three years after being overthrown by army rulers. The U.N. Security Council welcomed Aristide's return by voting to lift stifling trade sanctions imposed against Haiti. The US had led an invasion, Operation Restore Democracy, to restore Pres. Aristide. Emmanuel “Toto" Constant left Haiti for the US when Jean-Bertrand Aristide was reinstated as president. The US invasion was described in 1999 by Bob Shacochis in "The Immaculate Invasion." Shacochis served there for 18 months as a Special Forces noncombatant.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A10)(SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.1)(WSJ, 2/18/99, p.A20)(AP, 10/15/99)

1995        Oct 15, Six Israeli soldiers were killed in Israeli-occupied southern Lebanon in an ambush blamed on the Iranian-backed group Hezbollah.
    (AP, 10/15/00)

1996        Oct 15, CSX Corp. announced plans to buy Conrail Inc. for $8.4 billion to create the nation's third-largest railroad.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1997        Oct 15, The Cleveland Indians won the American League championship, defeating the Baltimore Orioles 1-0 in game six.
    (AP, 10/15/98)
1997        Oct 15, The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Steven Chu of Stanford, William D. Phillips of the Nat’l. Institute of Standards and Technology, and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji of the France. Their work centered on slowing the speed of gaseous atoms using lasers. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Paul D. Boyer of UCLA, John E. Walker of Britain, and Jens C. Skou of Denmark for work on how ATP works to store energy in living cells.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A1,15)(AP, 10/15/98)
1997        Oct 15, The US CIA disclosed that its annual budget for spy services totaled $26.6 billion.
    (WSJ, 10/16/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 15, The US set a deadline for three Japanese shipping companies to pay some $4 million in fines. The fines were imposed based on discriminatory Japanese harbor policies. The deadline was missed and the US threatened to block Japanese shipping from US ports. An agreement was later reached. The problem was with the Japan Harbor Transportation Association (JHTA), which was said to have ties with the Yamaguchi-gumi syndicate. A settlement was approved on Oct 27.
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/21/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 15, Former rep Dan Rostenkowski was released from custody for mail fraud.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1997        Oct 15, A British jet-powered car driven by pilot Andy Green broke the land speed record with an average run of 763.035 mph at Gerlach, Nevada. The Thrust SSC was powered by two 110,000-horse-power Rolls-Royce Spey 205 engines. The vehicle was 54 feet long, 12 feet wide, and weighed 10.2 tons.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/98)
1997        Oct 15, NASA's plutonium-powered Cassini spacecraft rocketed flawlessly toward Saturn. The $3.3 billion Cassini-Huygens Mission was scheduled to arrive on July 1, 2004.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/98)(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.A1)
1997        cOct 15, The CD-ROM computer game “Riven," a sequel to “Myst," was scheduled for release.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 8/10/97, DB p.33)
1997        Oct 15, In Brazil Pres. Clinton spoke on free trade at the Mangueira school, a multi-use training facility for some 2,000 children sponsored by Xerox Corp.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A13)
1997        Oct 15, Regarding Burma it was reported that only 2 of the 31 in the elite Junta have university degrees and that Chinese business people had virtually taken over in Mandalay, which had been the heart of Burmese culture.
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.C2)
1997        Oct 15, In the Republic of the Congo rebel forces loyal to the former Marxist dictator Denis Sassou-Nguesso, backed by as many as 1000 troops from Angola, gained full control of Brazzaville, the capital and Pointe Noire, the 2nd largest city.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A13)(SFC, 12/12/97, p.B4)
1997        Oct 15, In Sri Lanka 18 people were killed in a series of bomb blasts in downtown Colombo and some 110 were injured. The blasts occurred at the 39-story World Trade Center. 15-20 youths were said to have taken part in the attack. The Liberation Tigers were reported to be led by Velupillai Prabhakaran, the son of a fisherman.
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.C4)(SFC, 10/17/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/26/98, p.A9)

1998        Oct 15, Pres. Clinton opened the Mideast summit talks in Maryland between Arafat and Netanyahu in Washington that resulted in the Wye River land-for-peace agreement.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/99)
1998        Oct 15, The US Congress and Pres. Clinton agreed to a $500 billion budget that included funds for 100,000 new teachers and emergency funds for farmers and $18 billion for the IMF. This ending a week of election-season budget brinkmanship.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/99)
1998        Oct 15, The Federal Reserve made surprise cuts in the discount rate and the overnight loan rate of banks by .25%. The move pushed the Dow Jones up 331 points.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/99)
1998        Oct 15, Pope John Paul marked his 20th anniversary with a new encyclical “Fides et Ratio," or Faith and Reason with the basic message of: Be not afraid of human reason. The 40,000 word treatise emphasizes spiritual truth over technology.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A17) (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A13)
1998        Oct 15, In Colombia some 200,000 people marched on the 8th day of a strike against the government’s planned austerity program.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 15, In France over 200,000 high-school students protested overcrowded classes, a shortage of teachers, over-loaded schedules, and ill-equipped, unsafe schools.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.D2)
1998        Oct 15, In Germany the coalition parties agreed to open talks next year on a timetable for closing the country’s 19 nuclear power plants.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 15, From Indonesia it was reported that machete-wielding gangs have killed at least 153 people in Banyuwangi in recent months. The dead were accused of dabbling in black magic and denounced as evil sorcerers. The killings were reported to be spreading to the neighboring districts of Jember, Pasuruan, Situbondo, and the island of Madura.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A13)
1998        Oct 15, In Lebanon the parliament approved Gen’l. Emile Lahoud as president.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.D2)
1998        Oct 15, In Norway up to 1 1/2 million workers were expected to strike for 2 hours to protest a government proposal to cut the annual vacation allowance by one day to 4 weeks.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A17)
1998        Oct 15, The Contact Group in Paris approved the Kosovo agreement. In Vienna the 54-nation Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe agreed to oversee the 2,000-member ground verification mission. Serbian authorities suspended the Nasa Borba newspaper.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A14)
1998        Oct 15, Sudanese Foreign Minister Mustafa Osman Ismail said that Sudan will allow the UN to investigate any site alleged to be making chemical weapons.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A13)

1999        Oct 15, The US stock market Dow Jones average dropped 266.9 points, 2.6%, to 10,019.71. It was the largest % drop since Oct 13, 1989.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 15, The French organization "Doctors Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 15, Hurricane Irene hit southern Florida and 5 people were electrocuted by down power lines in Miami.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A3)
1999        Oct 15, In China The People's Daily published an order that demanded that "foreign organizations or individuals using encryption products or equipment containing encryption technology in China must apply" for permission by Jan 31.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A10)
1999        Oct 15, In Indonesia thousands of anti-Habibie demonstrators fought police and pressured the official assembly to go forward with reforms.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A14)
1999        Oct 15, Irish tenor Josef Locke, whose life inspired the 1992 film “Hear My Song," died in County Kildare, Ireland, at age 82.
    (AP, 10/15/00)
1999        Oct 15, In Kosovo Some 100 people were injured as they tried to force their way against NATO forces across a bridge in Mitrovica to the Serb half of town.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A12)
1999        Oct 15, In Pakistan Gen'l. Pervaiz Musharraf declared a state of emergency and suspended the constitution.
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A1)

2000        Oct 15, President Clinton left Washington for emergency talks in Egypt with Israeli and Arab leaders.
    (AP, 10/15/01)
2000        Oct 15, New York Times movie and drama critic Vincent Canby died at age 76.
    (AP, 10/15/01)
2000        Oct 15, In Belarus parliamentary elections were held. Authorities hand-picked most candidates and those with known anti-Lukoshenko views were barred from running. The average salary in Belarus was $50 per month. An opposition call for a boycott failed due to rural government support.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A22)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)
2000        Oct 15, The Palestinian Hezbollah seized an Israeli colonel, Elchanan Tennenbaum, in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 15, Two rival Solomon Island militia groups signed a peace agreement in Australia.
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)
2000        Oct 15, At least 31 people were killed as landslides due to heavy rains continued in the Alps of Switzerland and Italy. 23 died in northern Italy and 8 in southern Switzerland
    (SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A14)(SFC, 10/19/00, p.C4)

2001        Oct 15, US warplanes carried out their heaviest bombings in 9 days over Afghanistan. The Pentagon called in the slow moving AC-130 Spectre gunships to targets around Kandahar.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 15, Anthrax in a letter to a Reno Microsoft office was reported to be from Malaysia. 2 anthrax-tainted letters were reported to have been mailed from Trenton, New Jersey and 2 postal employees there showed symptoms. Anthrax spores were in a letter deliver to a Senate office. Officials announced that a letter sent to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle had tested positive for anthrax, and that the infant son of an ABC News producer in New York had developed skin anthrax.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A16)(AP, 10/15/02)
2001        Oct 15, In Texas the last 2 of 5 escaped convicts were captured after one shot another and freed a farm couple that was held hostage.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)
2001        Oct 15, Bethlehem Steel filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.D1)
2001        Oct 15, Britain’s PM Tony Blair said his country favors “a viable Palestinian state, as part of a negotiated and agreed settlement" during a news conference with visiting Yasser Arafat.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A8)
2001        Oct 15, China executed 2 Muslim separatists in Yili, Xinjiang province.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.C2)
2001        Oct 15, It was reported that Croatian officials had suspended the use of Baxter Int’l. filters for kidney dialysis machines after 23 patients died in a week. A similar incident in Spain killed 10 people but tests seemed to rule out the filters.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 15, India shelled Pakistani posts along their line in Jammu Kashmir for aiding Islamic militants. One woman was killed and 25 civilians wounded.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B1)
2001        Oct 15, In Indonesia riot police fought protesters outside the Parliament in what had become daily battles over US bombing in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 10/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 15, In Israel a hardline nationalist party withdrew from PM Sharon’s coalition government.
    (WSJ, 10/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 15, Japan’s PM Koizumi visited South Korea and expressed his remorse at Sodaemun Independence Park for suffering inflicted by Japan’s colonial rule.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)
2001        Oct 15, It was reported that Sheik Hamoud bin Uqlaa al-Shuaibi (80), a militant Wahhabi in Buraydah, Saudi Arabia, called on Muslims to wage jihad on supporters of the US military action in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A12)
2001        Oct 15, Russian troops claimed to have killed 20 Chechen rebels with a loss of 5 of their own men.
    (WSJ, 10/16/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 15, In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela, was indicted for fraudulent loans of more than $100,000.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)
2001        Oct 15, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe announced the abandonment of market-based economics and a return to a socialist-style economy.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)

2002        Oct 15, Former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani will be paid $4.3 million plus expenses for a one-year contract to advise Mexico City's mayor on reducing crime.
    (AP, 10/15/02)
2002        Oct 15, ImClone Systems founder Sam Waksal pleaded guilty in New York in the biotech company's insider trading scandal.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
2002        Oct 15, Illinois opened hearings on 140 death row cases.
    (SFC, 10/15/02, p.A3)
2002        Oct 15, The DJIA rose 378 to 8,255. Nasdaq rose 61.9 to 1,282.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.B1)
2002        Oct 15, It was reported that duct tape is effective in removing warts when worn over the wart for a number of days.
    (SFC, 10/15/02, p.A2)
2002        Oct 15, A listeria outbreak blamed for at east 7 deaths in the northeast was traced to a Wampler Foods plant in Franconia, Pa.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A5)
2002        Oct 15, Allied planes bombed a military command facility in the southern no-fly zone over Iraq after taking fire from Iraqi forces.
    (AP, 10/15/02)
2002        Oct 15, In Canada a man facing workplace discipline shot and killed two co-workers at a provincial office in Kamloops, British Columbia, before taking his own life.
    (Reuters, 10/16/02)
2002        Oct 15, Yaacov "Zeev" Farkas (b.1923), called the founder of the political cartoonist's art in Israel, died. He was born in Hungary and survived the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau.
    (AP, 10/16/02)(SFC, 10/17/02, p.A28)
2002        Oct 15, In Iraq Saddam Hussein won the presidential referendum for another 7-year term. He claimed a 100% victory the next day.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A9)
2002        Oct 15, In Italy a heavily armed man fatally shot his ex-wife and six other relatives and neighbors and then killed himself in Chieri, a suburb of Turin.
    (AP, 10/15/02)(SFC, 10/16/02, p.A16)
2002        Oct 15, In Jamaica 3 people were shot dead outside Kingston.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A17)
2002        Oct 15, In Japan 5 citizens snatched by North Korean agents in 1978, returned home for a visit.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 15, In northern Russia a Soyuz-U rocket carrying an EU research communications satellite exploded several seconds after liftoff from a launch pad, killing one soldier.
    (AP, 10/16/02)(WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 15, Sudan's government signed an agreement with rebels to suspend fighting during talks to end their 20-year-old war.
    (AP, 10/15/02)
2002        Oct 15, A judge opened a criminal case against embattled Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma, a day after U.S. and British experts began investigating allegations that he approved the sale of a radar system to Iraq.
    (AP, 10/15/02)

2003        Oct 15, The Florida Marlins defeated the Chicago Cubs 9-6 in game 7 for the National League pennant.
    (WSJ, 10/16/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 15, FCC officials raided San Francisco Liberation Radio, a low-power FM station, and confiscated its equipment.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.D1)
2003        Oct 15, In Florida tube-feeding stopped for Terri Schiavo (39), brain-damaged since 1990, based on a court decision for its removal. Death was expected within 2 weeks. The tube was reinserted six days later after the Florida Legislature rushed through "Terri's Law," which was recently struck down by the Florida Supreme Court
    (Econ, 10/18/03, p.31)(AP, 10/15/04)
2003        Oct 15, A Staten Island ferry pilot lost consciousness before the vessel slammed into a pier, killing at least 10 people and injuring 42, including 3 who lost limbs. Pilot Richard J. Smith fled the scene and attempted suicide. Smith later pleaded guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter. In 2006 Smith was sentenced to 18 months in jail. Patrick Ryan, the ex-ferry director received a one year sentence.
    (AP, 10/16/03)(SFC, 10/16/03, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/04)(SFC, 1/10/06, p.A5)
2003        Oct 15, Azerbaijan held presidential elections.
    (WSJ, 10/15/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 15, In China Shenzhou 5 launched into orbit with air force Lt. Col. Yang Liwei (38) aboard, making China the third nation to put a human in space on its own, after the former Soviet Union and the United States. The launch was made from the space center at Jiuquan. His capsule landed in Mongolia the next day.
    (AP, 10/15/03)(SFC, 10/16/03, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D5)(Econ, 10/24/09, SR p.13)
2003        Oct 15, In the Gaza Strip a remote-controlled bomb exploded under a US diplomatic convoy, ripping apart an armored van and killing three Americans.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
2003        Oct 15, Japan pledged $1.5 billion in reconstruction aid next year for Iraq and more down the line despite economic woes at home.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
2003        Oct 15, In Iraq the new dinar was launched graced with the likeness of an ancient ruler and a 10th century mathematician. The Iraqi central bank had no tools to regulate currency value. Exchange of the old currency was set to end Jan 15.
    (SFC, 10/16/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 11/7/03, p.A10)
2003        Oct 15, NATO launched its elite rapid-reaction force, a prototype unit that will eventually become a 20,000-member force able to deploy in short notice anywhere in the world.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
2003        Oct 15, In Nicaragua radical students and teachers drove a truck through a gate and threw rocks and gasoline bombs at police guarding the legislature as part of a protest demanding more government spending for education.
    (AP, 10/16/03)
2003        Oct 15, Nigerian police returned 74 child workers to Benin. As young as 4 years old, their skin broken and palms callused from months of hauling granite, they received food, clothes and medical care in the West African state of Benin after being rescued from the traffickers who sold them into heavy labor. On Sept. 27 authorities brought back 116 children who had been put to work in the granite quarries of southwest Nigeria.
    (AP, 10/16/03)

2004        Oct 15, Former President Jimmy Carter urged the US and other international lenders to forgive part of Grenada's debt, saying the Caribbean country needs the money to recover from the devastation of Hurricane Ivan.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, The US State Department said "restrictions on arms exports" to Haiti remained in place but promised to "consider requests from the interim government."
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2004        Oct 15, A federal judge struck down a ban on snowmobiles in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2004        Oct 15, A federal bankruptcy judge allowed U.S. Airways to cut union workers' pay immediately by 21 percent.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2004        Oct 15, The Food and Drug Administration ordered that all antidepressants carry strong warnings that they "increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior" in children who take them.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2004        Oct 15, Several thousand people opposed to gay marriage gathered on the National Mall in Washington to call for a constitutional amendment defining marriage as being between a man and a woman.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2004        Oct 15, The journal Science published a report that said 1,856 of 5,743 species of amphibians are “globally threatened."
    (SFC, 10/15/04, p.A4)
2004        Oct 15, Authorities said the Northern Snakehead has invaded the Great Lakes. The voracious predator dubbed the "Frankenfish" can breathe out of water and wriggle across land.
    (Reuters, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, In an eastern Afghan province killed at least three children and a policeman on the first day of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 10/16/04)
2004        Oct 15, Craig Murray, Britain's former ambassador to Uzbekistan, said he is a "victim of conscience" for having dared to speak out against human rights outrages. Murray had highlighted the allegedly systematic use of torture, including the alleged boiling to death of two prisoners, by Uzbek authorities.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, Canada’s Bombardier Transportation and two joint-venture partners won a $424-million order to supply 20 high-speed trains to China's Ministry of Railways.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi clashed over Iraq during their first-ever meeting in Tripoli while German business leaders touted for business in the oil-rich former pariah state. Schroeder praised the reforms of Muammar Gaddafi and invited the Libyan leader to visit Germany.
    (AP, 10/15/04)(Reuters, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, Indonesian prosecutors formally charged militant cleric Abu Bakar Bashir with ordering his followers to launch a suicide attack on the J.W. Marriott hotel in Jakarta last year.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, US Marines launched air and ground attacks on the insurgent bastion Fallujah after city representatives suspended peace talks with the government over PM Ayad Allawi's demand to hand over terror mastermind Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. US officials said 10 people, including a family of four, were killed when a car bomb exploded near a Baghdad police station.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, Car bombs killed five US troops in Iraq.
    (AP, 10/16/04)
2004        Oct 15, Japan won a two-year term on the U.N. Security Council along with Argentina, Denmark, Greece and Tanzania.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled that the European Union had broken international trade rules by subsidizing sugar producers.
    (AP, 10/15/04)
2004        Oct 15, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was acquitted on treason charges following a yearlong trial that his party had said was orchestrated by the government of President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 10/15/04)

2005        Oct 15, Thousands gathered in DC at the National Mall for the Millions More Movement to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Million Man March organized by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, Marcia and Ken Powers, a husband-and-wife team, reached the Pacific Ocean on after a 4,900-mile cross-country hike, becoming the first to backpack the transcontinental American Discovery Trail in one continuous trek. They had started Feb. 27 at Cape Henlopen in Delaware.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, In Toledo, Ohio, a riot broke out when protesters confronted members of the National Socialist Movement who had gathered at a city park. More than 100 people were arrested and one officer was seriously injured.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, In Texas the Government Canyon State Natural Area officially opened. The over 8,600 acre area was set aside to protect the Edwards Aquifer, which provided drinking water for San Antonio.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.55)
2005        Oct 15, Pamela Vitale (52), the wife of prominent defense attorney and TV legal analyst Daniel Horowitz, was found slain in the couple's home in Lafayette, Ca. On Oct 20 police arrested Scott Dyleski (16), a neighbor scheming to grow pot, as a suspect in the murder. Dyleski was convicted of first-degree murder on Aug 28, 2006, and faced life in prison.
    (AP, 10/16/05)(SFC, 10/21/05, p.A1)(SFC, 8/29/06, p.A1)
2005        Oct 15, Jason Collier (28), Atlanta Hawks center, died, possibly of cardiac arrest.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15-2005 Oct 16, The G20 group of rich and developing nations met in Xianghe, China. They sounded the alarm over high oil prices but barely touched on the role a stronger yuan could play in easing world economic imbalances.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, Egyptian authorities ordered the release of a leading Muslim Brotherhood figure, Essam el-Erian, and three other members of the banned Islamic group.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, The European Commission said tests have confirmed a link between the bird flu found in Romania and the virus that has devastated flocks in Asia and turned up in Turkey.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, In Iran 2 bombs hit a shopping center Saturday in Ahvaz, near the southwestern border with Iraq, killing two people and wounding at least 50.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, Iraq's deeply divided Shiites, Sunnis and Kurds voted under heavy guard Saturday to decide the fate of a new constitution. A roadside bomb killed three Iraqi soldiers in northeast Iraq, and seven people were wounded during attacks by insurgents near five of Baghdad's 1,200 polling stations.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, In Iraq 5 American soldiers were killed by a bomb blast on referendum day.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, Israeli painter Efraim Reuytenberg (91), known for infusing Chinese influences and bold colors into his work, died in Israel.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 15, A worsening food crisis threatening millions of people prompted Malawi's Pres. Bingu wa Mutharika to declare the African nation a "disaster area" and call for more international aid.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, Moroccan authorities flew 435 illegal immigrants home to Senegal and Mali, starting a second wave of mass deportations of sub-Saharan Africans who have tried to slip into Europe through the North African kingdom.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, Nigeria and Cameroon discussed a new program for Nigeria to withdraw from the disputed Bakassi peninsula, but failed to set a new deadline after two days of talks in Abuja.
    (AP, 10/16/05)
2005        Oct 15, The death toll in Pakistan's devastating earthquake rose to nearly 40,000, while rain, snow and frigid temperatures compounded the misery of millions of homeless victims.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, In northeastern Spanish at least 5 north African men were killed, four were injured and one was believed still trapped under rubble after a three-storey 17th century building collapsed in the town of Piera.
    (AP, 10/15/05)
2005        Oct 15, Members of a Venezuelan indigenous tribe criticized President Hugo Chavez's order to expel a U.S. missionary group he accused of links to the CIA, saying the decision goes against the interests of their impoverished communities.
    (AP, 10/16/05)

2006        Oct 15, Three members of Duke University's lacrosse team appeared on CBS' "60 Minutes" to deny raping a woman who had been hired to perform as a stripper. Collin Finnerty, Reade Seligmann and David Evans were later exonerated.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2006        Oct 15, UnitedHealth Group said CEO Dr. William McGuire agreed to leave the company by Dec 1 due to illegal stock option practices. His walk away package was estimated at $1.1 billion.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A13)(WSJ, 10/17/06, p.B1)
2006        Oct 15, A 6.7-magnitude quake hit Hawaii’s Big Island at 7:07 am, followed by aftershocks. It caused blackouts and landslides but no reported fatalities. Structural damages on the Big Island were later estimated at $100 million.
    (AP, 10/16/06)(SSFC, 10/22/06, p.G2)
2006        Oct 15, Algerian Energy Minister Chehib Khelil said that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries will announce a 1 million barrel a day cut in crude production during a meeting in Qatar.
    (AP, 10/15/06)
2006        Oct 15, Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said Australia would cut ministerial contacts with its northern neighbor until an investigation was held into the escape from Papua New Guinea of a Solomon Islands official wanted on child sex charges. Julian Moti, now in custody in the Solomons and facing charges of illegal entry, was wanted in Australia on child sex charges involving a 13-year-old girl in Vanuatu in 1997. Moti was deported to Australia in 2007. His case was thrown out in December after the court found that Australian officials had colluded in his illegal deportation.
    (AFP, 10/15/06)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.51)(Econ, 5/19/12, p.49)
2006        Oct 15, Salah Abdulrahim al Blooshi, a former detainee in the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, returned home to Bahrain after being held for five years. Two other Bahrain nationals remain in custody at Guantanamo Bay, where the US holds about 450 men on suspicion of links to al-Qaida or the Taliban.
    (AP, 10/15/06)
2006        Oct 15, Ecuador held presidential elections. The favorite was Rafael Correa (43), a leftist pledging to lead a "citizens' revolution" against a political establishment widely seen as corrupt and incompetent. He faced a strong challenge from Alvaro Noboa, a banana billionaire who also pushed a populist line. The elections headed to a 2nd round after Alvaro Noboa, who favored strong relations with the US, narrowly defeated Rafael Correa in the first round. A Nov 26 runoff had been expected as none of the 13 candidates appeared likely to win outright.
    (AP, 10/14/06)(AP, 10/16/06)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.39)
2006        Oct 15, At least 83 people were killed during a two-day spree of sectarian revenge killings. Suspected Shiite militiamen killed at least 20 more Sunni Arabs in Balad. A string of bombings in Kirkuk killed 10 people, including two girls who died when a man detonated explosives strapped to his body in front of the al-Mallimin girls high school. In Baghdad Interior Ministry undersecretary Hala Shakir Salim survived a roadside bomb attack that killed seven others, four bystanders and three bodyguards. A husband, wife and two of their sons were killed, and two daughters-in-law critically wounded when gunmen burst into their home in Mosul. Two US soldiers were killed and two other American soldiers were wounded on after coming under fire in the province of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 10/15/06)(Reuters, 10/16/06)
2006        Oct 15, In Lebanon a small grenade exploded after it was fired at a building near UN offices in a downtown Beirut square injuring four people.
    (AP, 10/15/06)
2006        Oct 15, Mexican authorities arrested a soldier accused of opening fire on a street barricade in Oaxaca, killing one demonstrator and wounding another. Elections in Mexico’s Tabasco state showed Andres Rafael Granier of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) defeating Democratic Revolution candidate Cesar Raul Ojeda by 10 points. The next day the PRD accused its rivals of fraud.
    (AP, 10/15/06)(AP, 10/16/06)
2006        Oct 15, Sri Lanka's navy sank a rebel boat loaded with arms along the west coast, killing at least five Tamil Tiger separatists.
    (AP, 10/15/06)
2006        Oct 15, Uganda's government and the Lord's Resistance Army rebel group admitted Sunday they had both violated their recent truce, raising fears the deal to end one of Africa's longest wars may unravel.
    (AP, 10/15/06)
2006        Oct 15, Pope Benedict XVI gave Catholics four news saints, bestowing the honor on a 19th-century nun who struggled on the American frontier, a bishop who tended to the wounded during the Mexican Revolution and two Italian clergy.
    (AP, 10/15/06)

2007        Oct 15, It was reported that 3 of America's biggest banks are banding together to set up an $80 billion fund to breathe life back into the commercial paper market. The Treasury Dept. was urging banks to set up a “Master Liquidity Enhancement Conduit" to buy assets. On Dec 21 the 3 largest US banks gave up on the fund.
    (www.mortgagenewsdaily.com/video/embed.asp?id=725)(WSJ, 12/22/07, p.A1)
2007        Oct 15,     Americans Leonid Hurwicz (d.2008 at 90), Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson won the Nobel economics prize for developing a theory that helps explain how sellers and buyers can maximize their gains from a transaction.
    (AP, 10/15/07)(SFC, 6/26/08, p.B5)
2007        Oct 15, News Corporation’s Fox Business Network launched a new cable channel that will focus on financial markets and global economy news.
    (www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/media/july-dec07/fox_10-15.html)
2007        Oct 15, In San Diego, Ca., local and federal agents seized over 5,000 trained birds in the largest cockfighting bust in US history.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.D12)
2007        Oct 15, In North Carolina Gov. Mike Easley asked residents to stop washing cars and watering lawns as the Southeast US experienced a severe drought.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.A3)
2007        Oct 15, Kathleen Casey-Kirschling became the first baby boomer to make an early filing for Social Security benefits. Kathleen Casey became the first official US baby boomer following her January 1, 1946, birth just after midnight.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.A8)
2007        Oct 15, Internet addresses began in 11 languages that do not use the Roman alphabet.
    (WSJ, 10/11/07, p.B1)
2007        Oct 15,     Medtronic Inc. said it is stopping distribution of wires that connect some of its defibrillators to patients' hearts after learning they may have contributed to five deaths.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, Ernest Withers (b.1922), African American freelance photographer, died. In 2012 the FBI admitted that had served as an informant, revealing a 14-year history between the noted civil rights photographer and the agency.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Withers)
2007        Oct 15, Brazil’s President Luiz Ignacio Lula Da Silva arrived in the Congolese capital Brazzaville for a one-day visit, the first by a Brazilian leader to the African country.
    (AFP, 10/16/07)
2007        Oct 15,     In China 2,217 delegates listened as party leader Hu Jintao pledged to make communist rule more inclusive and better spread the fruits of China's economic boom. Hu said economic growth must remain the party’s main task.
    (AP, 10/15/07)(WSJ, 10/16/07, p.A1)(Econ, 10/13/07, p.42)
2007        Oct 15, An army minibus slammed into a water tanker truck in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, killing 13 soldiers and the civilian driver.
    (AP, 10/16/07)
2007        Oct 15, The EU granted final approval to the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, which removes many restrictions on television product placement. Member states will have 2 years to adopt the new rules.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/3con6l)
2007        Oct 15, European Union foreign ministers gave their final approval to deploy a 3,000-strong EU peacekeeping force for one year to help refugees and displaced people living along Darfur's borders with Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15,     Airbus finally delivered its first A380 superjumbo jet. Singapore Airlines took delivery of the double-decker jet, the world's largest passenger plane, almost two years late.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15,     In Germany Pres. Putin held talks with German Chancellor Angela Merkel on the sidelines of a German-Russian political conference called the Petersburg Dialogue.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15,     Gunmen launched simultaneous mortar and machinegun attacks on two mainly Polish military bases in Diwaniyah, after Shi'ite militants vowed to step up pressure on Polish soldiers to force them out. US helicopters fired back during clashes that killed five Iraqi civilians, including two children, and wounded 17. Iraqi journalist Dhi Abdul-Razak al-Dibo (32), a freelance reporter, was killed while driving his BMW with his guards near Kirkuk.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, Montenegro signed a stabilization and association agreement with the EU, normally a step towards membership.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.72)
2007        Oct 15, Moroccan leaders, after nearly a month of tough negotiations, formed a new government that includes seven women but no one from the Islamic party that placed second in September's parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 10/16/07)
2007        Oct 15, Russia’s Agriculture Minister Alexei Gordeyev said that major food producers and retailers had agreed to fix their prices at the current level following talks with the government. The prices for basic foods will be fixed until January 31, 2008, a period which covers parliamentary elections.
    (www.prime-tass.com/news/show.asp?topicid=54&id=428507)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.63)
2007        Oct 15, Fresh fighting in northern Somalia left several combatants dead in an escalating boundary dispute between the breakaway regions of Somaliland and Puntland.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, In northern Sri Lanka a fierce battle broke out between government troops and Tamil rebels, leaving 30 guerrillas dead. 4 prominent activists resigned from a government advisory panel on human rights, saying that officials were more interested in fighting separatist rebels than protecting human rights.
    (AP, 10/16/07)
2007        Oct 15,     Representatives of seven Darfur rebel groups met in south Sudan to try to reach a common negotiating position ahead of peace talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN observer mission in Georgia, expressing "serious concern" at violence that has escalated tensions between Georgia and the breakaway region of Abkhazia.
    (AP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti for a year, noting significant improvements in security in recent months but saying the situation remains fragile.
    (AP, 10/15/07)

2008        Oct 15, John McCain and Barack Obama held their final televised debate at Hofstra Univ. in Hempstead, NY. It was moderated by Bob Schieffer of CBS.
    (AP, 10/16/08)(SFC, 10/16/08, p.A1)   
2008        Oct 15, The US Commerce Department reported that retail sales decreased 1.2% last month, nearly double the 0.7% drop that had been expected. Stocks plunged 733 points in their second biggest point loss ever.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(SFC, 10/16/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 15, At Camp Pendleton, California, Sgt. Jan Pietrzak (24) and his wife, Quiana Jenkins-Pietrzak (26) were found gagged, tied and shot in the head in the living room of their Winchester home. Investigators said the house had been ransacked and a fire had been set, an apparent effort to destroy evidence. 4 Marines were later charged with two counts of first-degree murder and special-circumstance allegations of committing multiple murders, committing the crime during a robbery and rape by instrument.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Illinois a medical helicopter crashed just before midnight and killed a desperately ill 1-year-old girl and three crew members when the aircraft clipped a radio structure's wire and went down in a suburban Chicago field.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 15, A NYC police officer warned Michael Mineo, a tattoo parlor worker, that if he reported being sodomized with a baton during an arrest at a subway station, officers would lock him up for a felony. Officer Richard Kern (25) was later charged with aggravated sexual abuse and assault. Fellow Officers Alex Cruz and Andrew Morales were charged with hindering prosecution and official misconduct for allegedly covering up the crime.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Afghanistan international war planes bombed a gathering of Taliban and other militants overnight in Barham Chah on the border with Pakistan and killed up to 70. An explosion in Helmand province killed a British soldier.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, Authorities in Azerbaijan said turnout was high in a presidential election boycotted by the opposition and almost certain to return Ilham Aliyev for a second term in the oil-producing state. President Ilham Aliyev had 89% of the vote with 70% of precincts reporting.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Barbados 13 Caribbean countries approved a new Economic partnership Agreement (EPA) with the EU.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.50)
2008        Oct 15, Nicky Reilly (22), a convert to Islam, pleaded guilty at a London court to attempted murder and engaging in preparation for terrorism by researching how to make bombs. He was arrested shortly after a blast rattled a family restaurant in the southwest English city of Exeter 200 miles (320 kilometers) west of London on May 22.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Shell Anglo-Dutch group said a Nigerian court has ordered it to hand over land around its giant Bonny oil terminal to the local population, a key demand of armed rebels in the volatile region. Shell said ruling was given some months ago but we have appealed.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Cambodia and Thailand exchanged fire on the border in a clash over disputed land which left two soldiers dead and several wounded.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet signed into law a measure that bans all whale hunting off Chile's 3,400-mile (5,500-kilometer) coast.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, EU leaders agreed to stick to ambitious plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions 20% by 2020, but divisions over how to share out the cuts were widened by fears over the impact of the financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Iceland moved to shore up its ravaged economy by slashing borrowing costs and officials pursued efforts to get help from Russia in tackling the worst financial crisis in the island's history.
    (Reuters, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Esha Momeni, a student at California State University, Northridge, was driving on a highway in Tehran when she was stopped by authorities, who said they were traffic police, and later taken to Evin prison. Her computer and other materials related to her research on the Iranian women's movement were confiscated.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 15, Baghdad and Washington reached final agreement on a pact requiring US forces to withdraw from Iraq by 2012. The agreement, reached after months of difficult negotiations, would allow US troops to remain here after their UN mandate expires Dec. 31. The US military detained 2 suspected insurgents in raids targeting al-Qaida in Iraq's leadership in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. A US soldier died of noncombat causes.
    (WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A1)(AP, 10/16/08)(AP, 10/17/08)(SFC, 10/17/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 15, A Malaysian court ordered Tuanku Jaafar Tuanku Abdul Rahman (86), the country's former king (1994-1999), to settle a $1 million debt to a bank in a landmark verdict that ended a centuries-old tradition shielding the country's royal sultans from legal prosecution.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari reached trade deals with China, raising hopes that Beijing would help his country through difficult economic and diplomatic times.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Armed pirates hijacked a bulk carrier with 21 crew members in the Gulf of Aden near Somalia. The ship under a Panamanian flag was operated by the Philippines.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Sri Lanka air force jets bombed a group of rebels who were building an earthen embankment as a defense against advancing government forces in Mullaitivu.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The foreign ministers of Syria and Lebanon signed an agreement formalizing diplomatic ties between the two countries for the first time in their turbulent history.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Turkish media reported that a hijacker attempted to commandeer a Turkish Airlines plane over Belarus but that he was overpowered by passengers.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Turkish military clashed with Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border in battles in which four soldiers and five rebels were killed. A Turkish helicopter crashed during the clash. A soldier was killed and 15 security personnel were slightly injured in the crash.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, The IMF said Ukrainian authorities have asked the International Monetary Fund for help in stemming a financial crisis in the country. The government took emergency measures to rescue banks and stabilize the national currency, the hryvna, after worried depositors withdrew more than US$1 billion from their accounts this month.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, A Vietnamese court sentenced journalist Nguyen Viet Chien (56) to two years in prison, accusing him of writing inaccurate stories about one of the country's most high-profile corruption cases. Fellow reporter Nguyen Van Hai (33) was sentenced on the charges to two years of "re-education without detention." The reporters were arrested in May for writing about a 2005 scandal in which Transportation Ministry officials were accused of gambling with allegedly embezzled funds. Police Maj. Gen. Pham Xuan Quac (62) and investigator Dinh Van Huynh were charged with "deliberately revealing state secrets," for giving information to the journalists. Quac, who has retired, was given a warning, while Huynh was sentenced to one year in prison.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Former South African leader Thabo Mbeki opened a second day of talks with Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his main rival to save a power-sharing deal that has floundered over cabinet posts.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Wang Yung-Ching (b.1917), founder of Formosa Plastics Group, died leaving a fortune estimated at $7 billion. He had set up a small PVC plant in 1954 in Taiwan with money from a US aid program.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 15, A study by Gaffney Cline & Associates of a big natural gas filed in Turkmenistan confirmed the South Yolotan-Osman as the fifth largest in the world.
    (WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A9)

2009        Oct 15, Pres. Obama visited San Francisco for a Democratic Party fundraiser.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.A1)
2009        Oct 15, Prosecutors in San Francisco filed a mail-fraud charge against Roberto Heckscher (55), owner of Irving Bookkeeping and Taxes on Irving Street, alleging that he began operating a Ponzi scheme in 1979 that defrauded investors of over $20 million.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.D4)
2009        Oct 15, In Colorado the flight of a home-made helium balloon touched off a frantic rescue attempt for the young boy thought to be aboard. It was later determined to have been a publicity-seeking hoax. On Nov 13 parents Richard and Mayumi Heene pleaded guilty to charges related to the hoax. In late December a judge sentenced Richard Heene to 90 days in jail, including 60 days of work release that will let him pursue work as a construction contractor while doing his time. Mayumi Heene was sentenced to 20 days in jail.
    (Reuters, 10/19/09)(SFC, 11/13/09, p.A8)(AP, 12/23/09)(SFC, 12/24/09, p.A4)
2009        Oct 15, A US warship seized about four tons of hashish being transported aboard a boat off the Horn of Africa. The guided missile cruiser USS Anzio stopped the skiff after a brief chase in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 15, Colleen R. LaRose (46), a self-described "Jihad Jane," was arrested in Philadelphia. LaRose was later accused, in an indictment filed March 9, 2010, of actively recruiting fighters, as well as agreeing to murder Swedish artist Lars Vilks, marry a terrorism suspect so he could move to Europe and martyr herself if necessary.
    (AP, 3/10/10)
2009        Oct 15, Two F-16 planes collided around 8:30 p.m. about 40 miles off Folly Beach, near Charleston, SC. One jet, piloted by Capt. Lee Bryant, landed safely at Charleston Air Force Base. The missing plane was piloted by Capt. Nicholas Giglio.
    (AP, 10/16/09)
2009        Oct 15, Google Inc. said it is launching a new online service for booksellers next year called Google Editions, which will let readers buy books and read them on gadgets ranging from cell phones to possibly e-book devices.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, It was reported that the Taj network, funded by the National Science Foundation, now connects India, Singapore, Vietnam and Egypt to the larger Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development (GLORIAD) global infrastructure, and "dramatically improves existing US network links with China and the Nordic region," according to an NSF statement.
    (www.livescience.com/technology/091015-global-gloraid-taj-cyber-net.html)
2009        Oct 15, In Palo Alto, Ca., the body of Jennifer Schipsi (29) was found in a rented cottage on the 900 block of Addison Ave. Bulos “Paul" Zumot (36), her on-and-off boyfriend was arrested on Oct 19 on charges of murder and setting a fire to cover the slaying.
    (SFC, 10/21/09, p.D4)
2009        Oct 15, In southern Afghanistan 4 American troops died in a bombing, as a UN-backed panel completed most of its investigation into whether the level of fraud in the August presidential election would require a runoff.
    (AP, 10/16/09)
2009        Oct 15, The far-right British National Party agreed to change its constitution to let nonwhite people become members.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, China’s Premier Wen Jiabao said that China intends to strengthen its cooperation with Iran, an indication Beijing would oppose growing calls in the West for additional sanctions against the Islamic regime for its nuclear program.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, A Chinese court handed out a further three death sentences to people convicted of violent crimes during ethnic rioting in far western Xinjiang region in July in which almost 200 people died. The court also sentenced three defendants to suspended death sentences, which could be commuted to life sentences in two years. At least two of those sentenced were Han Chinese. The others all appeared to be Uighurs.
    (Reuters, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Top EU and South Korean trade officials signed a free trade deal which the EU said could boost trade between the two by euro19 billion ($28 billion).
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, A French court turned down a bid by Fabienne Justel, a 39-year-old widow, to retrieve her late husband's frozen sperm in order to have his child by insemination in another country. A French law prohibited post-mortem insemination.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki warned Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan to stop conducting military operations across Iraq's northern border targeting Kurdish rebels and stressed that Iraq's sovereignty can not be violated. The two met in Baghdad and were to sign agreements boosting economic ties between their countries. A roadside bomb struck an Iraqi army patrol in Baghdad, killing one Iraqi soldier.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Italy and NATO denied a newspaper report that the Italian intelligence secretly paid the Taliban thousands of dollars to maintain peace in an area in Afghanistan that was under Italian control. The Times of London had just reported that Italy had paid "tens of thousands of dollars" to Taliban commanders and warlords in the Surobi district. It accused Rome of failing to inform its allies about the payments and of misleading the French, who took over the Surobi district in mid-2008, into thinking the area was quiet and safe. An ambush of the French in a mountain pass on Aug. 18, 2008, was the biggest single combat loss for international forces in Afghanistan in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Libya freed 88 Islamists with Al-Qaeda links from Abu Slim prison in Tripoli. Lawyers said "45 members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) and 43 members of other jihadist groups were freed thanks to the efforts of the Islamic Foundation," in a joint statement with the Foundation, headed by Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi's son Seif al-Islam.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, In Mexico some 33,000 people marched to protest President Felipe Calderon's weekend decision to disband Luz y Fuerza, a public electricity company that provided electricity to Mexico City and the surrounding area. Police officers found the decapitated bodies of 9 men in an abandoned pickup truck on a highway in the drug-plagued Mexican state of Guerrero.
    (AP, 10/16/09)
2009        Oct 15, Nigeria’s central bank said ex-vice president Atiku Abubakar is among more than 600 debtors owing five troubled banks some 450 billion naira (2.96 billion dollars, 2 billion euros). Abubakar, who was deputy to former president Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007), owed Spring Bank 111.15 million naira (731,490 dollars, 491,592 euros). The CBN also listed billionaire tycoon Aliko Dangote (52) and Mohammed Buba Marwa, Nigeria's ambassador to South Africa, as major debtors.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Nigeria's most high-profile armed group MEND threatened to resume attacks on the country's oil sector when a unilateral ceasefire lapses at midnight.
    (AFP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, In Pakistan teams of gunmen launched coordinated attacks on three law enforcement facilities in the eastern city of Lahore killing 18 people including 11 insurgents. A car bombs hit northwest Kohat killing 11 people, including 3 police officers and 8 civilians. Another car bomb in Peshawar killed 10 people, mostly women and children. A total of 39 people were killed in the escalating wave of anti-government violence. A suspected US missile strike killed 4 alleged militants.
    (AP, 10/15/09)(SFC, 10/15/09, p.A4)
2009        Oct 15, In Paraguay Fidel Zavala, a wealthy rancher, was kidnapped by the guerrilla group, known as the EPP for its initials in Spanish. It soon demanded $5 million for his release, purportedly to finance what the band calls a revolutionary movement for the poor. Zavala was released following a ransom payment after 94 days.
    (AP, 1/12/10)(Econ, 5/15/10, p.42)
2009        Oct 15, A Philippine military tribunal acquitted 11 officers of plotting a foiled Feb, 2006, coup against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, In Puerto Rico thousands of demonstrators swarmed the financial hub of San Juan, blocking highways and setting fires in the streets of the capital to protest massive layoffs of government workers. Gov. Luis Fortuno has said the dismissal of more than 20,000 public employees was necessary to close a $3.2 billion deficit and pull the economy out of a 3-year recession.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, South African police fired rubber bullets at residents in Diepsloot, a poor settlement north of Johannesburg, injuring 19 people protesting poor living standards. The protests have spread from Standerton, about 90 miles (150km) southeast of Johannesburg, to at least four other towns in eastern South Africa this week.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, The Syrian-based leadership of the militant Palestinian Hamas said it has rejected an Egyptian-mediated proposal to reconcile with the rival Fatah group. Hamas and seven other Damascus-based Palestinian factions issued a joint statement saying the reconciliation plan must be revised to include a reference to the Palestinian right to resist Israeli occupation.
    (AP, 10/15/09)
2009        Oct 15, Turkish police detained over 30 suspects allegedly linked to Al-Qaida, saying they were planning to stage attacks on NATO facilities as well as US and Israeli missions.
    (SFC, 10/16/09, p.A2)

2010        Oct 15, US federal authorities aid they have rounded up over 40 people in New York and Florida during a takedown of a wholesale marijuana ring. Agents seized $1 million and almost 200 pounds of marijuana.
    (SFC, 10/16/10, p.A4)
2010        Oct 15, A security researcher said criminals are using a Zeus botnet to pillage Charles Schwab investment accounts. Although police in the US, the UK and Ukraine collared more than 100 members of a Zeus crimeware gang three weeks ago, experts warned that the arrests wouldn't stop the botnet. Other gangs can simply step into the void.
    (http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=B7C76BC0-1A64-67EA-E459F0D62DD95E83)
2010        Oct 15, Mike Ehredt (49) a US Army veteran of Hope, Iowa, completed a coast to coast jog in Rockland, Maine. He had placed a flag in the ground every mile to honor military personnel killed in Iraq. He averaged about 29 miles a day with 4 days off.
    (SFC, 10/16/10, p.A4)
2010        Oct 15, A light plane carrying four US citizens on a medical aid flight crashed in Baja California, killing all four aboard. The plane that went down was one of three on a mission from the San Luis Obispo, Ca., area.
    (AP, 10/17/10)
2010        Oct 15, The Afghan government said a system meant to ensure Afghan officials are consulted on sensitive international military operations has been "ineffective." 3 NATO troops were killed in a surge of attacks that raised the death toll to 17 over the past three days for international troops in the country. In the southeast 6 civilians were killed when a roadside bomb detonated beside their vehicle near Kalat.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/17/10)
2010        Oct 15, China's Communist Party opened its secretive annual meeting to discuss the nation's next five-year economic plan against the backdrop of unusually outspoken calls for political reform.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, China's basketball association fined a series of coaches and players in the national team after a bench-clearing brawl put an end to a friendly match with Brazil. The fight had erupted the night of Oct 12 at a game in central Henan province.
    (AFP, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, Roger Meece, heads of the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo, said more than 15,000 people were raped in the volatile eastern region of Congo last year, according to the best data available.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Adrian Edwards, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said the rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army have killed at least 2,000 people and forced 400,000 to flee in three countries in less than two years. A UNHCR communique documented a mounting "campaign of terror against civilians" in the DR Congo, South Sudan and the CAR.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, The Costa Rican government said it is receiving nearly $56 million in donations and debt write-offs to expand its forest and marine conservation programs and has become the first developing country to meet UN goals on protected areas. Under the plan, the US agreed to buy back $27 million of Costa Rica's foreign debt, money that will be used instead to invest conservation programs. The US already trimmed $26 million of Costa Rican debt in 2007 as part of the US Tropical Forest Conservation Act. The debt now stands at $77 million.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, In Ecuador a tunnel collapsed in a gold mine in the south, trapping four miners 490 feet (150 meters) underground. Authorities said rescue efforts were under way. The bodies of 2 miners were found the next day as rescue efforts continued for 2 others. Their bodies were found on Oct 20.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/17/10)(Reuters, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 15, French President Nicolas Sarkozy sent in riot police to reopen fuel depots blocked by strikes, as the pipeline to Paris airports was cut in an escalating battle over pension reform.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, In Indonesia a rabies outbreak on the resort island of Bali has to date killed 100 people. Bali, an island of 3 million people and one of Asia's top tourist destinations, has been grappling with the outbreak for nearly two years.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Iran’s Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said that Tehran was ready to resume talks about its nuclear program with the international community within a matter of weeks.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Israel signed off on the construction of 238 homes in Jewish neighborhoods in east Jerusalem, bringing an end to an unofficial building freeze in the traditionally Arab sector of the city and further complicating peace talks stuck over the broader fate of West Bank settlements. A report released by aid organization Oxfam said attacks and other acts of harassment by Jewish settlers against Palestinian olive farmers "are common and often increase during the time of the harvest." The Israeli army says it does all it can to protect Palestinian olive growers. So far this year there have been no casualties at least. But neither have the police made any arrests.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AFP, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, Israeli police arrested Staten Island resident Eric Bellucci (30), a US citizen who escaped to Israel after allegedly stabbing his parents to death in their New York home earlier this week. Bellucci's parents, Arthur (61) and Marian (56), were found dead the night of Oct 13 in their Staten Island home.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, In Italy judicial sources said prosecutors have launched an investigation against PM Silvio Berlusconi for tax evasion linked to his Mediaset media empire. The allegations, which were immediately rejected by Mediaset, were linked to tax declarations for 2003 and 2004 and are part of a wider inquiry.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, In Jamaica a bus plunged over a cliff on the island's north coast, killing a teenage girl and injuring 39 people. The bus driver fled after the accident.
    (AP, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, In Mexico armed men entered through the back of a house in a residential neighborhood near the center of Ciudad Juarez, surprising the party-goers with an assault-rifle attack that killed 6 people.
    (Reuters, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, In southeastern Mexico a helicopter carrying oil workers crashed killing all 8 people aboard.
    (SSFC, 10/17/10, p.A6)
2010        Oct 15, Pakistan said it was willing to assist talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban, and NATO confirmed its forces had helped ensure a senior Taliban commander reached Kabul. In an early morning attack in South Waziristan 5 Pakistani soldiers were killed when militants sprayed an army checkpoint with gunfire. A suspected US unmanned aircraft launched two missiles in North Waziristan. 3 were killed in the first missile strike, which hit a vehicle in Machi Khel. The 2nd strike occurred several hours later, killing six suspected militants at a house in Aziz Khel. Gunmen ambushed a truck early in the morning as it was returning home after delivering NATO supplies in Afghanistan, killing the driver and his assistant.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/16/10)
2010        Oct 15, Russian PM Vladimir Putin's chief of staff, Sergei Sobyanin, was nominated as Moscow's next mayor, a move seen as bringing the capital's sizable political and business interests under the direct control of the Kremlin.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Russia agreed to help build Venezuela's first nuclear power plant and buy $1.6 billion of oil assets, reinforcing ties with President Hugo Chavez, who shares Moscow's opposition to US global dominance.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, The Saudi government said Jaber Jabran al-Faifi, a former Guantanamo detainee, has turned himself in to Saudi authorities. He had rejoined Al-Qaeda in Yemen after graduating from Saudi Arabia's rehabilitation program.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Swiss engineers smashed through the last stretch of rock to create the world's longest tunnel (35.4 miles), The Gotthard Base rail tunnel, sparking a national groundswell of elation over a costly, technically difficult project that has been 60 years in the making.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(SFC, 10/15/10, p.A5)
2010        Oct 15, In Zambia nearly a dozen miners were shot in a pay dispute.
    (AP, 1/4/11)

2011        Oct 15, Thousands of people led by the Rev. Al Sharpton rallied near the Washington Monument, where speakers called for easier job access and decried the gulf between rich and poor before the crowd marched to the new Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial.
    (AP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, In NYC thousands of demonstrators protesting corporate greed filled Times Square, mixing with gawkers, Broadway showgoers, tourists and police to create a chaotic scene in the midst of Manhattan.
    (AP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Philadelphia apartment landlord Turgut Gozleveli found 4 mentally disabled adults held inside a basement boiler room. Police arrested 3 people for kidnapping, false imprisonment and other charges. Linda Ann Weston (51), Eddie Wright (50) and Gregory Thomas (47) were implicated in a broad scheme to steal disability checks from vulnerable people.
    (SFC, 10/18/11, p.A5)
2011        Oct 15, In eastern Afghanistan militants tried to blast their way into an American base, striking before dawn with rocket-propelled grenades and a car bomb. All four attackers were killed as well as two truck drivers parked nearby. This was the first suicide attack of the war in the province of Panjshir. In the west 5 Afghan soldiers were killed and three others wounded in a Taliban ambush.
    (AP, 10/15/11)(AFP, 10/17/11)(AFP, 10/26/11)
2011        Oct 15, Around 800 people rallied in London's financial heart amid a heavy police presence as part of world protests against corporate greed and budget cutbacks. Protesters began occupying the front of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.67)
2011        Oct 15, British actress Betty Driver (91) died. The much-loved actress had starred for 42 years on "Coronation Street," Britain's longest-running television soap opera.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, Flooding in Cambodia was reported to have killed at least 247 people as China began delivering the first of some $7.8 million in flood relief aid.
    (AP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, China's top Communist Party leaders opened a four-day meeting which will be devoted to the country's "cultural development." Analysts said the meeting is largely to strengthen the party's tight control over the media and the Internet.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, Egypt’s transitional military rulers issued a decree prohibiting all forms of discrimination including on the basis of religion.
    (SSFC, 10/16/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 15, Egypt's Gamaa Islamiya, or Islamic Group, posted on its website a notice mourning the death in Afghanistan of Ahmed Abdel Rahman, the son of the "Blind Sheik" now serving a life sentence in the US for his involvement in a plot to blow up NYC landmarks.
    (AP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, Gabon's opposition leader Pierre Mamboundou (65) died. He had finished third in the 2009 presidential polls.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Hong Kong some 500 people gathered in the heart of the financial district to express their anger at the inequities and excesses of free-market capitalism. Protesters across the Asia-Pacific region joined worldwide demonstrations inspired by the "Occupy Wall Street" and "Indignants" movements. The movement was born on May 15 when a rally in Madrid's central square of Puerta del Sol sparked a protest that spread nationwide, then to other countries.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, In India the former chief minister of Karnataka, B.S. Yeddyurappa, surrendered to authorities in state capital Bangalore after a judge issued a warrant for his arrest. He faced accusations of taking kickbacks in exchange for illegally selling government land. The former chief minister also faced accusations over an alleged $3.6-billion iron-ore mining fraud.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, Indian officials said at least 430 people, mainly children, have died from an outbreak of encephalitis in a deeply neglected region of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Italy hooded rioters in Rome hijacked a peaceful protest and smashed bank and store windows, tore up sidewalks and torched vehicles. Damages were estimated to be at least euro1 million ($1.4 million).
    (AP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, A group of Liberian opposition parties said they are pulling out after a recent presidential poll and threatened to refuse the results over allegations that the electoral commission are skewing the outcome in favor of the president.
    (AP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, Malawi hosted six heads of state at a meeting of the 19-member Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
    (AFP, 12/12/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Mexico a bloody, hours-long fight in a prison in the border city of Matamoros left 20 inmates dead and 12 injured. Soldiers in the border city of Piedras Negras freed 61 men, all migrants being held for ransom by the Zetas drug cartel.
    (AP, 10/16/11)(AP, 10/17/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Nigeria the bodies of community leader Ahmadu Ali Kazaure and Babangida Ibrahim Yusuf (23) were dropped off at a local mortuary in Jos. Soldiers had picked up the men hours earlier over the machete killing of a soldier.
    (AP, 10/17/11)
2011        Oct 15, In northwest Pakistan US missiles killed 6 suspected militants. The drone-fired missiles targeted fighters of Maulvi Nazir, a Pakistani militant commander.
    (SSFC, 10/16/11, p.A4)
2011        Oct 15, In Oman more than 1,300 candidates, including 77 women, sought seats on the 84-member Shura Council, a decade-old body that has no direct authority but advises the ruling sultan. Only a single woman was elected to the nation's top advisory council despite a push by female candidates that followed pro-reform unrest in the Arabian peninsula nation.
    (AP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, Russian opposition activist Sergei Udaltsov, the leader of the Left Front movement was sent back to jail after visiting a hospital where he was denied proper medical attention. Udaltsov was on the 3rd day of a hunger strike and fell ill in a courtroom where he was appealing a 10-day jail sentence for disobeying police orders.
    (AP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, Somali government troops and allied militia wrested control of an Islamist Shebab stronghold in the south of the country after reported bombing by military aircraft.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad announced the creation of an ad hoc committee tasked with preparing a new constitution within four months. At least five people were wounded in the central neighborhood of Midan during the funeral of a teenager killed a day earlier. Activist Ziad al-Obeidi was killed in Deir el-Zour.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/15/11)(AP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 15, Thailand PM Yingluck in a radio address called current flooding "the worst in Thai history." The government said the floods, which have killed 297 people, are the worst to hit the Southeast Asian kingdom in half a century.
    (AP, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 15, In Yemen 17 people, at least five of them civilians, were killed in clashes that erupted between Saleh loyalists, and pro-opposition tribesmen and army units. Security forces in another part of Sanaa killed at least 12 protesters rallying to demand the removal of Saleh from office. Gas exports from the Balhaf terminal on the Gulf of Aden were suspended after a rocket attack blew up a pipeline just to the north.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(AFP, 10/16/11)

2012        Oct 15, American scholars Alvin Roth (60) of Harvard and Lloyd Shapley (89) of UCLA were awarded the Nobel economics prize for studies on the match-making that takes place when doctors are coupled up with hospitals, students with schools and human organs with transplant recipients.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Georgia former US Army medic Christopher Jenderseck pleaded guilty to destroying clothing, shotgun shells and a cell phone following the Dec 4 killings of former soldier Michael Roark and his girlfriend Tiffany York. Jenderseck was one of 10 people accused of belonging to a group that plotted to bomb a Savannah park, poison apples in Washington state and assassinate the president. The group called itself FEAR (Forever Enduring, Always Ready).
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A4)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.30)
2012        Oct 15, South Dakota executed Eric Robert (50), the 1st person to be executed here since 2007. He had killed a prison guard during a failed escape attempt in 2011.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 15, Azerbaijan's top energy official urged further scrutiny of the international consortium developing the Caspian Sea nation's main oil field amid mounting irritation at a slump in output.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Cambodia's former King Norodom Sihanouk (b.1922) died of a heart attack in Beijing, where he had been receiving medical treatment. The cunning political survivor had reinvented himself repeatedly throughout his often flamboyant life.
    (AP, 10/15/12)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.86)
2012        Oct 15, The European Union, concerned by what it called Iran's refusal to come clean on its nuclear program, imposed a new range of sanctions intended to hit the country's treasury and increase pressure on its Islamic regime. German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said the EU is banning the import of Iranian natural gas into European Union countries.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Iraq a string of insurgent attacks killed four people. This included a pair of car bombs in the ethnically divided northern city of Kirkuk that left one dead and 20 people wounded.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In the Ivory Coast unidentified gunmen carried out overnight attacks against a power plant in Abidjan and military positions in the southeastern town of Bonoua. The gunmen were repelled by security forces.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Japanese mobile company Softbank offered a $20 billion deal for a 70 percent stake in US mobile carrier Sprint.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Jordan said it is planning to open a second camp for Syrian refugees, whose numbers are expected to climb to 250,000 by the year's end.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Kenya 3 members of the Mombasa Republican Council, a banned secessionist group, were killed when its leader Omar Hamisi Mwamnuadzi was arrested. The group had won a court battle this year to get legal status.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.48)
2012        Oct 15, In Kuwait More than 2,000 protesters demanded that Sheik Sabah Al Ahmad Al Sabah set a date for parliamentary elections under voting districts that appear to favor opposition forces, including Islamists.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Libya 120 prisoners escaped from jail in the capital city of Tripoli, where security guards are suspected of having accepted bribes to free them.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Mali a teenaged girl, about 15 years old, received 60 lashes in Timbuktu after Islamist extremists convicted her of speaking to men on the street.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Mexican police raided three teachers colleges in the western state of Michoacan, where dozens of students had been hijacking buses and delivery trucks for a week to protest curriculum changes. The standoff at the teachers colleges began over a week ago, when students seized the campuses to protest plans to require them to take English and computer science courses. The protesters say the colleges are meant to prepare teachers for rural areas where basic skills are more of a priority.
    (AP, 10/16/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Nigeria at least 15 separate explosions punctuated by gunfire echoed across Maiduguri, a city long under siege by the radical Islamist sect known as Boko Haram. At least 24 people were killed. A gunman suspected to belong to Boko Haram shot dead a police traffic warden in the city within view of a military checkpoint.
    (AP, 10/15/12)(AP, 10/16/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Nigeria gunmen attacked a ship operated by a French oil and gas services company off the coast of the oil-rich southern delta, kidnapping six Russian sailors and an Estonian in the assault. The kidnapped sailors were freed on Oct 31.
    (AP, 10/17/12)(AP, 11/1/12)
2012        Oct 15, Malala Yousufzai (14), the Pakistani schoolgirl shot by Taliban gunmen for advocating education for girls, was flown in an air ambulance, provided by the United Arab Emirates, to the United Kingdom for medical treatment.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, The Philippine government and Muslim rebels overcame decades of bitter hostility and took their first tentative step toward ending one of Asia's longest-running insurgencies with the signing of a preliminary peace pact brokered by Malaysia.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Russia said it is appealing to the Afghan authorities and the public to provide information on some 265 Soviet troops — including 30-40 who may still be alive — listed as missing since Soviet forces ended their occupation of Afghanistan in 1989.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Scotland set up a historic independence referendum after PM Alex Salmond signed an agreement with Britain's PM David Cameron finalizing arrangements for a 2014 vote which could lead to the demise of its 3-centuries-old union with England.
    (Reuters, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, South Africa’s Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma took charge of the African Union, the first woman to assume its top leadership.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)
2012        Oct 15, Syrian President Bashar Assad ordered immediate repairs to the historic Umayyad mosque in the city of Aleppo, a move likely aimed at containing Muslim outrage after fierce fighting between rebels and regime forces set parts of the mosque on fire over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Yemen a Russian-made MiG-21 jetfighter crashed immediately after takeoff during a training mission, killing its pilot.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2013        Oct 15, Pres. Obama awarded the Medal of Honor to former US Army Capt. William Swenson (34) for his actions to save fellow troops during a lengthy battle against the Taliban in Afghanistan in 2009.
    (SFC, 10/16/13, p.A9)
2013        Oct 15, The city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, agreed to pay $6 million to settle a lawsuit with Terry Harrington and Curtis McGhee of Omaha, who were wrongfully convicted and imprisoned for 25 years for the 1977 shooting of retired police captain John Schweer.
    (SFC, 10/16/13, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/9xeb75v)
2013        Oct 15, In Louisiana former Halliburton employee Anthony Badalamenti (62) pleaded guilty to destroying evidence in the aftermath of the 2010 deadly rig explosion that spawned BP’s oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.A5)
2013        Oct 15, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb planted inside a mosque microphone killed Logar province Gov. Arsallah Jamal (47) as he was delivering a speech to worshippers to mark the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha. 15 people were wounded. A British soldier was shot whilde on patrol  in Helmand Province and died from his injuries at the scene.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Mining magnate Andrew Forrest pledged to give 65 million Australian dollars ($62 million) to university education in his home state in one of Australia's largest philanthropic donations.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, An Australian naval team in the Indian Ocean captured nine suspected pirates sought after attacks on a supertanker 500 miles off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 15, Britain’s chancellor of the exchequer, George Osborn, announced a deal with China intended to make Britain the main offshore hub for trading in China’s currency and bonds and for foreign institutions investing in China. In exchange China’s banks would be allowed to enter Britain as branches of the their parents rather than as subsidiaries.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.62)
2013        Oct 15, The European Space Agency said it has developed a technology that allows metal parts for spacecraft and nuclear reactors to be "printed" as a single piece.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Iranian negotiators put forward what they called a potential breakthrough plan at the long-stalled talks in Geneva on easing fears that Tehran wants atomic arms.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, In northern Iraq a bomb ripped through a crowd of Sunni worshippers coming out of a mosque after prayers at the start of a major Muslim holiday, killing 12 people and wounding 24 in Kirkuk. A study put the death toll in the war-torn country at nearly half a million since the US-led 2003 invasion.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Israel's military destroyed a second tunnel dug from the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip into Israel. The military said the tunnel was packed with explosives and stretched dozens of meters (yards) into Israel.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Eurocrats and transport industry folk began a two day train ride from Vilnius to Talinn. Rail Baltica, an idea to build a proper rail way connection from Helsinki to Tallinn, Riga, Kaunas, Warsaw and continuing on to Berlin was on the agenda in a conference onboard the train.
    (www.balticsea-region-strategy.eu/item/486861)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.60)
2013        Oct 15, Malawi President Joyce Banda named Maxwell Mkwezalamba, a former African Union economic commissioner, as finance minister in a cabinet reshuffle triggered by a graft scandal that started with the shooting of the national budget director.
    (Reuters, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Dutch police said a total of 15 people have been arrested since July, related to cocaine packages stashed aboard planes arriving from Latin America. Seven of them employed by the same company at Schiphol.
    (AFP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, New Zealand author Eleanor Catton (28) became the youngest winner of the Man Booker Prize for fiction, claiming the award for her novel "The Luminaries."
    (AP, 10/16/13)
2013        Oct 15, Amnesty International said hundreds of people are dying in military detention as Nigeria's security forces crack down on an Islamic uprising in the northeast. More than 950 people died in military custody in the first six months of this year. The rights group said said some people are shot outright, some starve and others suffocate to death.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, In the central Philippines a powerful earthquake measuring 7.2 struck islands popular with tourists. At least 171 people were killed, mostly on Bohol island.
    (AP, 10/15/13)(AFP, 10/16/13)(Reuters, 10/17/13)(SSFC, 10/20/13, p.A4)
2013        Oct 15, In Russia unknown attackers posing as electricians broke into the apartment of a Dutch diplomat, forced him to the ground, hit him and drew a heart containing the letters LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) on a mirror in pink lipstick.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)
2013        Oct 15, In South Africa the bodies of 2 girls, two and three years old, were discovered in the Diepsloot area north of Johannesburg after being reported missing on the weekend. 2 other toddlers were found dead in Katlehong, east of Johannesburg. Police suspect they were poisoned. The killings in Diepsloot fueled angry accusations from residents that police were failing to provide security.
    (AP, 10/16/13)1
2013        Oct 15, The Church of Sweden elected the country's first female archbishop. Antje Jackelen (58) will join a growing number of female church leaders around the world.
    (AP, 10/15/13)(SFC, 10/16/13, p.A2)
2013        Oct 15, Syrian warplanes bombed several rebel-held areas and opposition fighters fired mortar rounds and homemade rockets at Damascus on the first day of a major Muslim holiday.
    (AP, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, Turkey for the first time fired four artillery rounds against a position near the town of Azaz, Syria, held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)," an Al-Qaeda affiliated group, in retaliation for a mortar round that fell on Turkish territory.
    (AP, 10/17/13)
2013        Oct 15, Typhoon Nari knocked down trees and damaged hundreds of houses in central Vietnam, forcing the evacuation of tens of thousands of people.
    (Reuters, 10/15/13)
2013        Oct 15, In Yemen suspected al-Qaida militants killed 2 security guards and wounded four others in a drive-by shooting in Lahj province.
    (AP, 10/15/13)

2014        Oct 15, The US Pentagon named it fight against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria as Operation Inherent Resolve.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A3)
2014        Oct 15, The Arkansas Supreme Court struck down the state’s voter identification law saying it would set a new requirement for voting beyond those listed in the state’s constitution.
    (SFC, 10/17/14, p.A6)
2014        Oct 15, The SF Bay Guardian weekly newspaper published its final edition and began closing due to financial reasons. It was founded in 1966 by Bruc Brugmann and his wife, Jean Dibble. They ran it until 2012 when it was acquired by San Francisco Media.
    (SFC, 10/15/14, p.A1)
2014        Oct 15, In NYC David McCallum was ordered free from prison after serving nearly 30 years. Prosecutors concluded that he and the late Willie Stuckey (2001) had falsely confessed.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A16)
2014        Oct 15, Texas Department of State Health Services said a second healthcare worker who treated the first patient to be diagnosed with Ebola in the United States has tested positive for the disease.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Lockheed Martin Corp said it has made a technological breakthrough in developing a power source based on nuclear fusion, and the first reactors, small enough to fit on the back of a truck, could be ready for use in a decade.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, In Algeria nearly a thousand policemen staged a sit-in outside President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's office in Algiers, demanding better working conditions on a third day of public protests by police officers.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Australian literature-lovers cheered after Richard Flanagan won the prestigious Booker Prize with a visceral story of wartime brutality and its aftermath. Flanagan drew on his father's experiences as a World War II prisoner of the Japanese for "The Narrow Road to the Deep North," which centers on the Burma Death Railway.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, In Central African Republic four UN peacekeepers were wounded in the attack by elements of the Christian militia calling for President Catherine Samba-Panza to resign.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Concerns that the Greek government could collapse next year, putting its bailout program in danger, caused a massive sell-off in the country's stock and bond markets, with the main stock index down 9.8 percent.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Hong Kong's most prominent tycoon, Li Ka-shing, urged protesters who have occupied parts of the city since late last month to go home. Police arrested about 45 protesters, using pepper spray against those who resisted, and cleared a main road in the city.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, A magnitude 6 earthquake struck western Iran at a depth of 36.7 km.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Iraqi security personnel and tribesmen beat back an hours-long jihadist attack on Ramadi, while reinforcements reached the strategic town of Amriyat al-Fallujah threatened by militants.
    (AFP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Italian tennis players Daniele Bracciali and Potito Starace faced corruption accusations after intercepted Internet conversations claiming they sold matches were printed in Italian media.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Kurdish militiamen, bolstered by intensified US-led coalition airstrikes, fought pitched street battles with the extremists in Kobani, a Syrian Kurdish border town near Turkey, making small advances. US military fighter and bomber planes carried out 14 air strikes against Islamic State targets near Kobani.
    (AP, 10/15/14)(Reuters, 10/16/14)
2014        Oct 15, Libyan army troops and armed residents clashed with Islamist fighters in the eastern port of Benghazi, killing at least 4 people, a day after renegade former general Khalifa Haftar, who backs the army, vowed to retake the city from the militants.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Malaysian police said they have detained 14 Muslims, including two women and a student, suspected of being linked to the militant Islamic State group. The detentions put the number of people held for suspected militant links to 36 since April.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, In Morocco some 300 African migrants scaled fences six-meters (20-feet) high to try to enter Spain's northwest African enclave city of Melilla. 5 police officers and 5 migrants were treated for minor injuries. Three migrants managed to reach Melilla.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, Mozambicans voted in a tough electoral test for the ruling Frelimo party, which has run the southern African country since independence from Portugal in 1975. The race put Frelimo's Filipe Nyusi (55), the former defense minister, against Afonso Dhlakama (61), the veteran leader of former rebel group Renamo, and Daviz Simango (50), founder of the Mozambique Democratic Party (MDM). Provisional results on Oct 24 said Nyusi won with 57% of the vote. Dhlakama took 36% and Simango took nearly 7%.
    (AFP, 10/15/14)(AP, 10/19/14)(Reuters, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 15, Nigeria's former military ruler Muhammadu Buhari declared he would run for president, criticizing President Goodluck Jonathan's administration for corruption and failing to tackle the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, The first military talks between North and South Korea in more than three years ended with no agreement, with the rivals failing to narrow their differences on how to ease animosity following two shooting incidents last week.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, In Pakistan a suicide bomber targeted a meeting of anti-Taliban elders in the Khyber tribal region, killing 5 people and wounding 10.
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, A Saudi court sentenced prominent Shiite cleric and anti-government protest leader Nimr Bakir al-Nimr to death after convicting him of sedition.
    (AFP, 10/15/14)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.49)
2014        Oct 15, In Somalia a car bomb close to the presidential palace detonated as a group of children were walking by. 5 people were killed and 7 wounded.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 15, Sri Lanka banned foreigners from visiting the island nation's former war zone without permission to prevent "negative interventions."
    (AP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, In Ukraine a "rogue" band of pro-Russian rebels surrounded more than 100 Ukrainian troops in the eastern Lugansk region. The attackers were fighters of the so-called Donskoy army which does not obey the Lugansk People's Republic (LNR).
    (AFP, 10/15/14)
2014        Oct 15, The WHO reported 8,997 confirmed cases of Ebola and a death toll of 4,493. Both numbers were believed to be underestimates.
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.59)
2014        Oct 15, Yemeni security officials said 4 suspected al-Qaida militants were killed when a rocket fired by a drone struck their vehicle in southern Shabwa province. In Aden thousands held a sit-in protest for a second day at a major square to press demands for the south to secede. Shiite rebels locked in fierce battles with al-Qaida militants in Baydah province. In Sanaa suspected Sunni militants killed two Houthis and wounded two more when they tossed a grenade at one of the houses the rebels use as neighborhood headquarters. Senior army officer, Col. Ali Zeid al-Dhary, who follows the Shiite Zaydi faith, was gunned down in Sanaa.
    (AP, 10/15/14)(AP, 10/16/14)

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