Today in History - October 20

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480BC    Oct 20, Greeks defeated the Persians in a naval battle at Salamis. [see Sep 20]
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1097        Oct 20, 1st Crusaders arrived in Antioch.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1268        Oct 20, Konradijn Hohenstaufen, son of Koenraad IV, was beheaded in Naples. [see Oct 19]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1435        Oct 20, Andrea Della Robbia, sculptor, nephew of Luca, was born in Florence.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1438        Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1496        Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1587        Oct 20, In France, Huguenot Henri de Navarre routed Duke de Joyeuse's larger Catholic force at Coutras.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1603        Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1632        Oct 20, Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)

1637        Oct 20, Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1687        Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1709        Oct 20, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy took Mons in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1714        Oct 20, Georg Ludwig of Hanover was crowned as George I of England. Queen Anne of England died and was succeeded by the Elector of Hanover.  The Hanoverian dynasty ruled to 1901. [see Oct 31]
    (LGC-HCS, p.36)(HN, 10/20/98)(WUD, 1994, p.644)

1740        Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1759        Oct 20, Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, French author, politician, French Revolutionary, was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1765        Oct 20, William August (44) duke of Cumberland, English supreme commander, died. [see Oct 31]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1774        Oct 20, The Continental Congress ordered the discouragement of entertainment.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1780        Oct 20, M. Pauline Bonaparte, Corsican duchess of Parma and Guastalla, was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1786        Oct 20, Harvard University organized the 1st astronomical expedition in US.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1803        Oct 20, The US Senate voted to ratify Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase.
    (CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95) (AP, 10/20/97)

1817        Oct 20, The 1st Mississippi "Showboat," left Nashville on maiden voyage.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1818        Oct 20, The United States and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1819        Oct 20, Daniel Edgar Sickles (d.1914), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1820        Oct 20, Spain sold a part of Florida to US for $5 million. [see Feb 22, 1821]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1822        Oct 20, The 1st edition of the London Sunday Times was published.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1833        Oct 20, Charles Darwin reached the river mouth of Parana.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1835        Oct 20, HMS Beagle left the Galapagos Archipelago and sailed to Tahiti.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1854        Oct 20, Arthur Rimbaud (d.1891), French poet (Illuminations), was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)

1859        Oct 20, John Dewey (d.1952), American political philosopher, educational theorist and writer (Learn by doing), was born in Michigan. He was called an advanced liberal and in 1995 Alan Ryan publishes a biography on Dewey titled: John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism. Ryan points out that Dewey’s ideas were anti-institutional, that he advocated economic and social democracy, that he was more of a romantic and concerned with how things ought to be in an ideal world. “Open-mindedness is not the same as empty-mindedness. To hang out a sign saying, ‘Come right in; there is no one at home’ is not the equivalent of hospitality."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.15)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)(MC, 10/20/01)(AP, 2/25/98)

1864        Oct 20, Lincoln established Thanksgiving as a national holiday. [see Oct 3, 1863]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1866        Nov 20, Pierre Lallemont, French mechanic, was granted a US patented for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
    (http://www.todayinsci.com/11/11_20.htm)(ON, 10/09, p.1)

1870        Oct 20, The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.
    (HN, 10/20/98)
1870        Oct 20, Michael William Balfe (62), composer (Bohemian Girl), died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1873        Oct 20, The P.T. Barnum Hippodrome featuring the "Greatest Show on Earth," opened in NYC.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1874        Oct 20, Charles Ives (d.1954), composer, was born in Danbury, Ct. His work included symphonies, songs, and “Three Places in New England." He was pioneer of dissonance as flavoring.
    (WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A10)(HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)

1877        Oct 20, Franz Schubert's 2nd Symphony in B, premiered.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1882        Oct 20, Bela Lugosi (d.1956), film actor, was born in Lugos, Hungary, as Bela Blasko. He is famous for his portrayal of Count Dracula (1931).
    (Internet)

1883        Oct 20, Max Bruch's "Kol Nidre," 1st performed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1884        Oct 20, Bela Lugosi, Hungarian-born film actor, was born. He is famous for his portrayal of Count Dracula (1931). [see Oct 20, 1882]
    (HN, 10/20/00)

1885        Oct 20, Ferdinand Lamenthe, aka Jelly Roll Morton (d.1941), jazz pianist, composer and singer, was born in New Orleans. He was one of the first to orchestrate jazz music and disputed W.C. Handy's claim to be the originator of jazz and blues. He became famous at an early age for his classically informed improvisational piano playing often in brothels and other non-traditional settings. With his Red Hot Peppers in the 1920s, he pioneered the early jazz practice of reorchestrating and improvising upon well-known standards. He also wrote many enduring jazz tunes including the ‘London Rag’ and the ‘Jelly Roll Blues’.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jelly_Roll_Morton)

1891        Oct 20, Sir James Chadwick, physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for discovering the neutron.
    (HN, 10/20/00)
1891        Oct 20, Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya opposition leader and 1st premier (1963-78), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1892        Oct 20, The city of Chicago dedicated the World's Columbian Exposition.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1894        Oct 20 (OS), Alexander III (b.1845), Russian tsar (b.1881-94), died in Livadia, Crimea.
    (MT, Fall/03, p.12)(www2.sptimes.com)

1900        Oct 20, Wayne Morse, (Sen-R/D-Ore), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1900        Oct 20, Heinrich Himmler, head of SS, was born. [see Oct 7, 1900]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1901        Oct 20, Adelaide Hall, cabaret singer, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)

1903        Oct 20, The Joint Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, ruled in favor of the United States. The deciding vote was Britain's, which embittered Canada. The United States gained ports on the panhandle coast of Alaska.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)

1904        Oct 20, Bolivia and Chile signed a treaty ending the War of the Pacific. The treaty recognized Chile's possession of Bolivia's nitrate-rich coastal province of Antofagasta, but provided for construction of a railway to link La Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast.
    (HN, 10/20/98)(Econ, 12/6/03, p.34)

1905        Oct 20, A Great General Strike in Russia began and lasted 11 days.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1905        Oct 20, Russian tsar allowed Polish people to speak Polish.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1911        Oct 20, Will Rogers Jr, actor (Down to Earth), was born in NY.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1918        Oct 20, Germany aimed at an armistice and agreed to further concessions.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1920        Oct 20, Max Bruch (82), German composer (Kol Nidre), died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1923        Oct 20, Herschel Bernardi, actor (Arnie, Voice of Charlie the Tuna, Front), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1923        Oct 20, Philip Whalen (d.2002), Zen Buddhist priest and SF Beat poet, was born in Portland.   
    (SFC, 6/27/02, p.A19)

1924        Oct 20, Baseball’s first “colored World Series" was held in Kansas City, Mo.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1925        Oct 20, Art Buchwald, humorist, was born in Mt. Vernon, NY.
    (HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)

1926        Oct 20, A hurricane in Cuba killed 600.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1927        Oct 20, Mikhail Mikhaylovich Ivanov (78), composer, died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1930        Oct 20, A British White Paper restricted Jews from buying Arab land.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1931        Oct 20, Mickey Mantle, baseball great who played for the New York Yankees, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1932        Oct 20, Michael McClure, beat poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)

1934        Oct 20, Michael Dunn, actor (House of the Damned, Ship of Fools), was born in Shattuck, Ok.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1934        Oct 20, An all-star team led by Babe Ruth and Connie Mack sailed to Hawaii and Japan.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1934        Oct 20, Richard Strauss completed his opera "Die Schweigsame Frau."
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1935        Oct 20, Jerry Ohrbach, actor (Law & Order, Dirty Dancing), was born in Bronx, NYC.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1935        Oct 20, 400,000 demonstrated against fascism in Madrid.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1938        Oct 20, Czechoslovakia, complying with Nazi policy, outlawed the Communist Party and began persecuting Jews.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1940        Oct 20, Robert Pinsky, former U.S. Poet Laureate, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)
1940        Oct 20, German troops reached the approaches to Moscow.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1941        Oct 20, Nazi occupiers murdered 500 inhabitants of Kragujevac, Serbia.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1943        Oct 20, A US B-17 bomber crashed in the Netherlands near the small town of de Bilt. Of the 10 men on board 5 died and 5 were captured. Robert Surdez, co-pilot, died in 2004.
    (SFC, 3/30/04, p.B1)(SFC, 8/11/04, p.B7)

1944        Oct 20, US 1st army won the battle of Aachen.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1944        Oct 20, Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore on A-Day (attack day) at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1/2 years after he'd said, "I shall return." He landed with Sergio Osmena, the president-in-exile, and Gen’l. Carlos Romulo, who later served as foreign minister.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.B3)
1944        Oct 20, Liquid-gas tanks in Cleveland exploded. 135 died and 3,600 were left homeless.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1944        Oct 20, The Yugoslav cities of Belgrade and Dubrovnik were liberated during World War II. Russian and Yugoslavian troops were freed.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(MC, 10/20/01)

1945        Oct 20, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon formed the Arab League to present a unified front against the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
    (HN, 10/20/98)
1945        Oct 20, In Germany Richard Sonnenfeldt (1923-2009), British chief interpreter at the Nuremberg war trials, served out the indictments to the Nazis facing trial.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.100)

1946        Oct 20, Anne Murray, country singer (Snowbird), was born in Springhill, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1947        Oct 20, The House Un-American Activities Committee re-convened in Washington and opened public hearings on alleged communist infiltration within the motion picture industry in Hollywood. Among those denounced as having un-American tendencies were: Katherine Hepburn, Charles Chaplin and Edward G. Robinson. Among those called to testify was Screen Actors Guild President Ronald Reagan, who denied that leftists ever controlled the Guild and refused to label anyone a communist. An oral history of 36 of those called before Congress was published in 1998: “Tender Comrades: A Backstory of the Hollywood Blacklist" by Patrick McGilligan and Paul Buhle.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.64)(AP, 10/20/97)(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17) (HN, 10/20/98)

1950         Oct 20, Henry L. Stimson (b.1867), former Secretary of War and Secretary of State, died.
    (HN, 3/1/00)

1951        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since 1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to the capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)

1952        Oct 20, Edward S. Curtis (b.1868), Seattle-based photographer, died in Los Angeles. In 1900 he had accompanied ethnographer George bird Grinnell to a reservation Montana to take photographs of Blood, Blackfeet and Algonquin Indians gathered there for their annual sun dance. In 1906 he announced plans for 20-volume work documenting Western Indians, The North American Indian. His first volume was published in 1907. The last two volumes appeared in 1930.
    (ON, 6/12, p.9)(http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/timeline.html)

1953        Oct 20, Edward R. Murrow on his TV show “See It Now" brought public attention to the abuses of power in the era of Sen. McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade. Milo Radulovich (1926-2007), a US Air Force Reserve officer, had been stripped of his commission for refusing to denounce his family, which subscribed to several Serbian newspapers. His commission was later restored. Murrow took up the case and set the turning point to discredit McCarthyism.
    (SFC, 11/26/07, p.D3)(Econ, 12/1/07, p.102)

1955        Oct 20, "No Time for Sergeants," starring Andy Griffith, opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1955        Oct 20, Harry Belafonte recorded "Day-O" (Banana Boat Song).
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1957      Oct 20, Walter Cronkite began hosting his weekly documentary: “The Twentieth Century." In 1967 the title was changed to “The Twenty-First Century" and it ran through 1970.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0050072/)

1960        Oct 20, The 1st fully mechanized post office opened in Providence, RI.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1962        Oct 20, The musical, "Mr. President," written by Irving Berlin, opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1962        Oct 20, A Chinese army landed in India for a brief border war in the Himalayas. The northeast Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, twice the size of Switzerland, was occupied in a week-long assault by China and closed to foreign tourists. Some 3,000 Indian officers and men were killed. China gained control from India of the northeast region of Kashmir known as Aksai Chin. Some 4,500 lives were lost before China unilaterally declared the war over. Arunachal Pradesh re-opened in 1993.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A1) (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.C10)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.95)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.17)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.36)

1963        Oct 20, Cleveland’s Jim Brown surpassed the NFL single-season career rushing record of 8,378 yards set by Joe Perry in 1958. By game’s end Brown had 8,390 yards.
    (www.profootballhof.com/history/general/rushers/index.jsp)
1963        Oct 20, Alec Douglas-Home formed a British government.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1964        Oct 20, Herbert Hoover (b.1874), the 31st president of the United States (1929-1933), died in New York at age 90.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(AH, 12/02, p.20)

1965        Oct 20, Beatles received a gold record for "Yesterday."
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1965        Oct 20, Mass arrests of communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the government in 1965.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(MC, 10/20/01)

1967        Oct 20, Seven men were convicted in Meridian, Miss., of violating the civil rights of three murdered civil rights workers.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1968        Oct 20, Former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis on the island of Scorpios.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)

1971        Oct 20, Willy Brandt, West German Chancellor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for beginning the German reunification.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1971/brandt-cv.html)

1973        Oct 20, In the so-called Saturday Night Massacre, Pres. Nixon ordered the dismissal of special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox. Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William B. Ruckelshaus refused to fire Cox and resigned. Cox was later dismissed by Solicitor General Robert Bork.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1973        Oct 20, The San Francisco Zebra murders began and lasted for 179 days. 15 people were killed and 8 wounded by a gang of racial extremists.  Police cracked the case in 1974 after Mayor Alioto personally grilled an informant. Police used a special radio band, Z for zebra, during their hunt for the killers. In 1976 Jesse Lee Cooks, Larry Green, Manuel Moore and J.C. X. Simon (d.2015) were convicted and sentenced to life.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.E2)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.C6)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.AD3)(SFC, 3/14/15, p.C4)
1973        Oct 20, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Sydney Opera House built on Bennelong Point. It was designed by Danish architect Joern Utzon and cost 102 million Australian dollars, 14 times the original estimate. Utzon left the project in 1966. In 2000 Utzon was named consulting architect and in 2003 was called back to redo the interiors.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)(WSJ, 10/2/03, p.D10)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)
1973        Oct 20, Arab oil-producing nations banned oil exports to the United States, following the outbreak of Arab-Israeli war.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1975        Oct 20, The US Supreme Court ruled that teachers could spank their pupils even if parents do not approve.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1975-10/1975-10-20-ABC-19.html)
1975        Oct 20, Mexico City's 1st major subway accident took 20 lives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico_City_Metro)

1976        Oct 20, 76 people died when the Norwegian tanker Frosta collided with the ferryboat George Prince on the Mississippi River north of New Orleans.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1977        Oct 20, David Mamet's play, "Life in the Theater," opened in NYC. It was first produced in Chicago at the Goodman Theater's Stage Two, opening February 3, 1977.
    (www.theatrewesternsprings.com/Actives/archives/LifeTheatre/LifeInTheTheatre.htm)
1977        Oct 20, Three members of the rock group Lynyrd Skynyrd were killed in the crash of a chartered plane near McComb, Miss.
    (AP, 10/20/97)
1977        Oct 20, A bloodless military coup was staged in Thailand. Kriangsak Chomanan was appointed prime minister, Thailand's 15th since it became a constitutional monarchy in 1932.
    (AP, 12/23/03)(WSJ, 9/20/06, p.A12)

1979        Oct 20, The John F. Kennedy Library was dedicated in Boston.
    (AP, 10/20/99)

1981        Oct 20, Three members of the radical Weather Underground were arrested following a bungled armored truck robbery in Nanuet, N.Y., where a guard was killed. 2 police officers were killed when the getaway truck was halted in Nyack. Susan Rosenberg assisted in surveillance, driving a getaway car and passing orders. Kathy Boudin was sentenced 20 years to life for assisting in the getaway. In 2003 Boudin was paroled and Susan Braudy authored "Family Circle," an account of the Boudin family. Rosenberg was arrested in Nov 1984 while unloading a cache of weapons in New Jersey and received a 58-year sentence for her role in the robbery. Pres. Clinton commuted Rosenberg’s sentence in 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/01)(SFC, 8/21/03, p.A6)(WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)(WSJ, 12/2/04, p.W15)

1984        Oct 20, Paul Dirac (b.1902, British physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1933), died in Florida. His equations predicted the existence of antimatter. In 2009 Graham Farmelo authored “The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac."
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Dirac)

1987        Oct 20, NYC subway gunman Bernhard Goetz was sentenced to 6 months in jail. [see Jan 13, 1989]
    (http://tinyurl.com/zbf5m)
1987        Oct 20, Ten people were killed when an Air Force jet crashed into a Ramada Inn hotel near Indianapolis International Airport after the pilot, who was trying to make an emergency landing, ejected safely.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1988        Oct 20, The Los Angeles Dodgers won the World Series, defeating the Oakland A's in game five by a score of 5-2.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1988        Oct 20, Britain ended a suspect’s right to remain silent in crackdown on IRA.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gghzx)

1989        Oct 20, The Senate convicted U.S. District Judge Alcee L. Hastings of perjury and conspiracy and removed him from office. The conviction was later overturned and Hastings was later elected in Florida to the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 10/20/99)(SFC, 9/18/08, p.A6)
1989        Oct 20, Former President Reagan and his wife, Nancy, began a visit to Japan sponsored by a media conglomerate.
    (AP, 10/20/99)
1989        Oct 20, Smith Dairy at Orrville, Ohio, made the largest milk shake (1,575.2 gal).
    (http://library.thinkquest.org/11960/fun/records.htm)
1989        Oct 20, Anthony Quayle (76), English actor (Moses, Operation Crossbow), died in London of liver cancer.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0703033/)

1990        Oct 20, The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series, 2-to-1, sweeping the Oakland A’s in four games.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1990        Oct 20, US-Iraq antiwar protest marches began in 20 US cities.
    (www.tandl.vt.edu/Foundations/mediaproject/mediaprojecthtml/iraq11.html)
1990        Oct 20, Three members of the rap group 2 Live Crew were acquitted by a jury in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, of violating obscenity laws with an adults-only concert in nearby Hollywood the previous June.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1990        Oct 20, Joel McCrea (84), actor (Ramrod), died of pulmonary complications.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0566948/)

1991        Oct 20, A major fire burned over 3,400 homes in the Oakland Hills in Oakland, Ca. and killed 25 people.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C4)(SFC, 12/23/99, p.C9)

1992        Oct 20, The host Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves, 3-2 in game three of the World Series, taking a two-games-to-one lead. This was the first World Series game to be played outside the U.S. During the pre-game ceremony, a Marine color guard presented the Canadian flag correctly, two days after another guard held the banner upside-down before game two.
    (AP, 10/20/97)
1992        Oct 20, Jackson Weaver (b.1920), voice of Smokey the Bear, died of diabetes.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-we.htm)
1992        Oct 20, In Malawi Orton Chirwa, a lawyer who helped establish the country’s independence, died in prison. He was Malawi’s first Minister of Justice.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Par p.5)(www.hrw.org/reports/1993/WR93/Afw-04.htm)

1993        Oct 20, Toronto took a 3-1 lead in the World Series as the Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 15-14.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, The Senate adopted a non-binding resolution saying Congress should give its approval before any U.S. troops were sent to enforce a Bosnian peace accord.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, US Attorney General Janet Reno warned the TV industry to limit violence in programs.
    (AP, 10/20/98)
1993        Oct 20, James Leo Herlihy (b.1927), gay author (Midnight Cowboy), committed suicide in Los Angeles.
    (www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/findaids/herlihy.htm)

1994        Oct 20, The Pentagon announced that more than 100,000 U.S. troops were being taken off alert for possible movement to the Persian Gulf because the Iraqi threat to Kuwait had abated.
    (AP, 10/20/99)
1994        Oct 20, Actor Burt Lancaster died in Los Angeles at age 80. In 2000 Kate Buford authored the biography "Burt Lancaster: An American Life."
    (AP, 10/20/99)(SFEC, 3/19/00, BR p.1)

1995        Oct 20, France, the United States and Britain announced a treaty banning atomic blasts in the South Pacific—but only after France finished testing there the following year.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1995        Oct 20, Space shuttle “Columbia" was launched on a research flight that had been delayed six times.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1995        Oct 20, NATO Secretary General Willy Claes resigned to face corruption charges in his native Belgium. He later received a three-year suspended jail sentence.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1995        Oct 20, Tiger guerrillas blew up two oil depots in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)

1996        Oct 20, The Atlanta Braves defeated the New York Yankees 12-1 in game one of the World Series.
    (AP, 10/20/97)
1996        Oct 20, "Summer & Smoke" closed at Criterion Theater in NYC.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1996        Oct 20, In Columbia fighting in 3 provinces over the weekend left 24 soldiers and leftist rebels dead.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A10)
1996        Oct 20, Some 300 Congolese Hutu peasants were bludgeoned to death by Rwandan troops in Musekera. Details were not made public until 2010 by the local Observation Center for Human Rights and Social Assistance.
    (AP, 10/10/10)
1996        Oct 20, In Japan the Liberal Democratic Party under Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto won a plurality in the lower house. The vote marked a setback to reformers.
    (WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A16)(USAT, 8/29/97, p.8A)(AP, 10/20/97)
1996        Oct 20, In Nicaragua elections were scheduled and former Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega trailed by 5 points against Arnoldo Aleman, former mayor of Managua.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)
1996        Oct 20, In northern Sierra Leone rebels killed 36 people including 6 patients at the Masanga hospital.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A10)

1997        Oct 20, The US government alleged that Microsoft’s bundling of its browser into the operating system violated a 1995 consent decree.
    (WSJ, 11/25/98, p.B1)(MC, 10/20/01)
1997        Oct 20, It was reported that a British firm has proposed a rail tunnel to link Britain and Ireland. The 56-mile tunnel was estimated to cost $22.6 billion.
    (SFC, 10/20/97, p.A12)
1997        Oct 20, Harold Albert, British writer, died. He created the character of Helen Cathcart as the writer of royal biographies between 1962 and 1988 that included: “Her Majesty, the Queen Herself," and “Charles: Man of Destiny."
    (SFC, 11/5/97, p.E3)
1997        Oct 20, In Burundi soldiers of the Tutsi army packed 40 civilians into a rural school in the region of Kibezi and tossed a grenade inside. All were killed. Major Andre Nijongabo, an army commander, defended the incident claiming that the dead were “genocidal terrorists." Hutu rebels had burned 18 schools a week ago.
    (SFC, 10/24/97, p.A11)
1997        Oct 20, Typhoon Ivan with 93 mph winds plowed into the northeastern Philippines.
    (SFC, 10/21/97, p.A13)
1997        Oct 20, Because of the need for spacesuits, Mir cosmonauts performed history's first "internal spacewalk" to restore power to the damaged Spektr module of the space station.
    (AP, 10/20/98)

1998        Oct 20, President Clinton named John Podesta as his chief of staff, replacing Erskine Bowles.
    (AP, 10/20/99)
1998        Oct 20, King Hussein of Jordan, at the invitation of Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, joined Pres. Clinton to press for the Israeli-Palestinian compromise in Maryland.
    (WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/20/99)
1998        Oct 20, In Colombia Jose Ortega, vice president of the Unitary Workers’ Federation, was shot and killed. The killing prompted a wildcat strike by thousands of private-sector workers.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)
1998        Oct 20, In France over 300,000 high-school students demonstrated for smaller classes and more teachers. There was scattered violence.
    (WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 20, In Germany the new government announced a coalition agreement with a plan to reform taxes, increase employment, and raise gasoline taxes.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.A10)
1998        Oct 20, In Guatemala the former rebels of the National Revolutionary Unity (URVG) asked to be recognized as a political party.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)
1998        Oct 20, In Switzerland officials announced that they seized over $90 million from Raul Salinas after an investigations revealed that the money was received for protecting drug shipments. Swiss authorities requested that Britain seize an additional $23.4 million deposited in England.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.A10)

1999        Oct 20, The government laid out new rules to protect children’s privacy on the Internet and to shield them from commercial e-mail.
    (AP, 10/20/00)
1999        Oct 20, Elizabeth Dole quit the US presidential race and her Republican bid to be America’s first woman president due to insufficient campaign funds.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A1)(AP, 10/20/00)
1999        Oct 20, The Cold War (1951-1977) locations of nuclear weapons minus their nuclear charges was partly revealed in a 1978 top secret Pentagon document titled "History of the Custody and Deployment of Nuclear Weapons."
    (SFC, 10/20/99, p.A7)
1999        Oct 20, In France it was reported that Maurice Papon (89), convicted for collaboration with the Nazis, had fled the country.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A12)
1999        Oct 20, In Indonesia Pres. Habibie withdrew his bid for re-election. The People's Consultative Assembly voted Abdurrahhman Wahid as the new president. Followers of Megawati Sukarnoputri immediately rioted.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/21/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 20, In Israel Netanyahu's home was raided by police as part of a corruption inquiry.
    (WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A1)

2000        Oct 20, Egyptian-born Ali Mohamed, a U.S. citizen who'd served in the Army (1986), pleaded guilty in New York to helping plan the deadly U.S. Embassy bombings in Africa in 1998 that killed 224 people, including 12 Americans. It was later reported that Mohamed, a former Egyptian Army major, had served as an FBI informant.
    (AP, 10/20/01)(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.A1)
2000        Oct 20, In Colombia FARC guerrillas near Dabeiba killed 54 members of the army and national police. 22 were killed in the crash of a US-made Black hawk helicopter hit by gunfire.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.A12)
2000        Oct 20, Israeli troops killed at least 9 Palestinians and wounded dozens in numerous West Bank clashes. The Israeli-Palestinian truce brokered by President Clinton collapsed in a hail of gunfire, with Israeli troops killing nine Palestinians and wounding 67.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.A1)(AP, 10/20/01)
2000        Oct 20, In Japan the Kyoei Life Insurance Co. filed for bankruptcy. The failure of the 11th-largest Japanese live insurer marked the biggest corporate failure since WW II.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.D1)
2000        Oct 20, In Mexico City a fire at the Lohobombo salsa club killed at least 19 people.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.A13)

2001        Oct 20, During a visit to Shanghai, China, Pres. Bush challenged Asian leaders to help "save the civilized world" by joining his war against terrorism.
    (AP, 10/20/02)
2001        Oct 20, US commandos struck 2 targets in Afghanistan that included an airfield and a command complex near Kandahar. Two 500-pound bombs hit a residential center area northwest of Kabul.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/01, p.A12)
2001        Oct 20, It was reported that Nat’l. Sec. Advisor, Condoleeza Rice, and Sec. of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, had made appearances in the past week on the Al Jazeera network to repeat that the war on terrorism is not a war on Islam.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)
2001        Oct 20, It was reported that the US was using a 40-year-old EC C-130 plane called “Commando Solo" to broadcast messages and music over Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)
2001        Oct 20, Traces of anthrax were found in a US House of Representatives mail room. This became the 3rd Capital Hill building infected.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A3)(AP, 10/20/02)
2001        Oct 20, It was reported that record flooding around Buenos Aires, Argentina, had damaged some 8.6 million acres of prime farmland. The area was declared a national disaster and losses were estimated at $300 million.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A17)
2001        Oct 20, Israeli tanks and troops seized control of Kalkilya and Tulkarm and moved into the heart of Bethlehem. At least 8 Palestinians were killed.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A19)
2001        Oct 20, Pakistan confirmed that it was holding talks with a senior Taliban commander, Mullah Jalaluddin Haqqani, on the makeup of a future Afghan government.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A18)
2001        Oct 20, In Yemen some 30,000 people gathered in Amran to protest US airstrikes in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 10/31/01, p.A16)

2002        Oct 20, Yao Ming (22), a 7-foot-5 basketball player from China, arrived in Texas to join the Houston Rockets.
    (WSJ, 10/22/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 20, The Galaxy fishing ship, ported in Seattle, exploded and burned 750 miles SW of Alaska. 1 man was killed and 2 were missing.
    (WSJ, 10/22/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 20, In Ecuador at least five candidates had a shot at qualifying for a runoff spot in presidential elections. With 53 percent of the votes counted, Lucio Gutierrez (45) a dismissed army colonel, led with 19% of the vote. Banana magnate Alvaro Noboa (51) Ecuador's richest businessman, was close behind with 17.6%.
    (AP, 10/20/02)(AP, 10/21/02)
2002        Oct 20, In Iraq President Saddam Hussein issued an amnesty to all political prisoners and exiles to mark his perfect 100 percent uncontested election.
    (AP, 10/20/02)
2002        Oct 20, In Montenegro the pro-independence party of Pres. Milo Djukanovic won 39 of the 75 seats.
    (AP, 10/20/02)(SFC, 10/21/02, p.A5)
2002        Oct 20, In the Philippines a bomb exploded at an open-air Christian shrine in the southern city of Zamboanga, killing one marine and wounding 16 people.
    (Reuters, 10/20/02)
2002        Oct 20, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, incumbent president of the Russian region of Kalmykia since 1993, led all vote-getters in a re-election bid. Ilyumzhinov, a millionaire and president of the international chess federation FIDE, led the field of 11 candidates with 47.6 percent of the vote. 
    (AP, 10/21/02)
2002        Oct 20, Sudan's government lifted a ban on relief flights to the southern Equatoria region after it signed a cease-fire with southern rebels.
    (AP, 10/20/02)

2003        Oct 20, President Bush pushed North Korea's nuclear threat to the forefront of a 21-nation Asia-Pacific summit in Thailand.
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2003        Oct 20, President Bush personally condemned the Malaysian prime minister for his statement that Jews rule the world, pulling Mahathir Mohamad aside at an international economic meeting to tell him the remarks were "wrong and divisive."
    (AP, 10/20/03)
2003        Oct 20, Pres. Bush met with Mexico's Pres. Vicente Fox in Thailand and asked him to set aside disputes over immigration and Iraq.
    (AP, 10/20/03)
2003        Oct 20, Bush administration officials said some $3 billion of Saddam Hussein's former government was being held in Syria and Lebanon.
    (AP, 10/21/03)
2003        Oct 20, The US deficit doubled to $374 billion in fiscal 2003 and was on track to exceed $500 billion for the year.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)
2003        Oct 20, Nathaniel Heatwole (20) was charged with a federal crime for hiding banned items on planes. He had e-mailed federal authorities regarding 6 security breaches on Sep 15.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A7)
2003        Oct 20, A judge in Eagle, Colo., ordered Kobe Bryant to stand trial for sexual assault. The criminal case was later dropped.
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2003        Oct 20, Kirk Jones (40) from Canton, Michigan, survived a 150-foot plunge over the fast-flowing Canadian side Niagara Falls, only to face charges of mischief and unlawfully performing a stunt. Jones said he was driven by depression, not a desire to become a daredevil. A 7-year-old boy who went over in 1960, unlike Jones, was wearing a lifejacket. Since 1901, 15 daredevils have taken the plunge in barrels or other devices, including a kayak and a personal watercraft. Ten survived,
    (AP, 10/21/03)
2003        Oct 20, Jack Elam (82), a character actor and favorite Western villain who menaced good-guy cowboys with his crazy grin, wild eyes and remorseless gunslinging in films such as "Rawhide" and "Wichita," died.
    (AP, 10/22/03)(SFC, 10/23/03, p.A22)
2003        Oct 20, Flood waters in southwestern British Columbia left at least two people dead.
    (AP, 10/21/03)
2003        Oct 20, France raised taxes on tobacco products. Cigarette prices for a pack jumped from an average $4.60 to $5.40.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 20, Israeli helicopters and warplanes unleashed a string of missile strikes in Gaza City. At least 11 people were killed and over 90 wounded.
    (AP, 10/20/03)(SFC, 10/21/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 20, Saudi authorities announced the arrests of terrorist suspects and the discovery of large quantities of weapons and ammunition during raids around the kingdom.
    (AP, 10/20/03)
2003        Oct 20, Carla del Ponte, chief prosecutor of the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in the Hague, announced the indictment of 4 top Serb generals for alleged crimes in Kosovo.
    (Econ, 10/25/03, p.47)

2004        Oct 20, Boston Red Sox fans poured into the streets outside Fenway Park to celebrate their team's victory over the New York Yankees. Victoria Snellgrove (21) died the next day after a crowd control pellet hit her in the eye.
    (AP, 10/21/04)(WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)(SFC, 10/23/04, p.A2)
2004        Oct 20, Reservist Staff Sgt. Ivan Frederick (38), the highest-ranking soldier charged in the Abu Ghraib scandal pleaded guilty to 5 charges of abusing Iraqi detainees, as a 2-day court-martial opened in Baghdad.
    (SFC, 10/21/04, p.A1)(AP, 10/20/05)
2004        Oct 20, ABC announced it was dropping the Miss America beauty pageant. It was later picked up by cable country musical network CMT.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2004        Oct 20, Scientists of the Human Genome Project reported a new estimate of human genes at 20k to 25k.
    (SFC, 10/21/04, p.A12)
2004        Oct 20, China formally arrested Zhao Yan, a New York Times researcher, who was detained Sep 16 for allegedly leaking state secrets. The crime could be punishable by death.
    (AFP, 10/21/04)
2004        Oct 20, In central China a gas explosion ripped through a coal shaft at the Daping Mine in Henan province killing at least 77 miners. Dozens miners were missing.
    (AP, 10/21/04)(AP, 10/23/04)
2004        Oct 20, The EU revamped its trade rules. Nations with more than 15% of European market share of any goods were set to lose their discounted tariffs. China and India were expected to be the main losers.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.A15)
2004        Oct 20, Workers at a General Motors plant in Bochum, Germany, swallowed their anger over job cuts and voted to end a seven-day stoppage that has disrupted output at three other GM car factories.
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2004        Oct 20, Senior Indian and Chinese officials met in New Delhi, India, to discuss a long-running border dispute between the two countries.
    (AFP, 10/20/04)
2004        Oct 20, US forces fired rockets in central Fallujah early, hitting a teacher's college and leveling a house, killing six people.
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2004        Oct 20, Terra Madre, an international meeting of food communities, held its first meeting in Turin, Italy. It formed as a part of the Slow Food movement. The group followed with meetings every 2 years.
    (SSFC, 10/26/08, p.A18)(www.worldchanging.com/archives/005321.html)
2004        Oct 20, Fiat SpA's auto unit said that it will temporarily reduce production at three factories next month, a move that will affect thousands of workers.
    (AP, 10/20/04)
2004        Oct 20, Lebanon’s PM Rafik Hariri resigned, dissolved his Cabinet and made the surprise announcement that he would not try to form the next government.
    (AP, 10/20/04)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.47)

2005        Oct 20, President Bush met with Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas in the Oval Office and said prospects for Palestinians gaining a state seem to be better than ever before.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, US Congress approved legislation protecting firearms manufacturers and dealers from a broad swath of civil liability lawsuits. Pres. Bush pledged to sign it.
    (SFC, 10/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Oct 20, Sen. Ted Stevens, R-Alaska, vowed to resign from the Senate if his fellow lawmakers followed through on threats to cancel spending on a $230 million "bridge to nowhere" in Alaska that was stuck into a pork-filled highway bill earlier this year.
    (KRN, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, US Rep. Tom DeLay turned himself in at the sheriff's office in Travis County, Texas, where he was fingerprinted, photographed and released on $10,000 bail on conspiracy and money-laundering charges.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2005        Oct 20, Federal regulators approved what would be the first transplant of fetal stem cells into human brains, a procedure that if successful could open the door to treating a host of neural disorders. The FDA said that doctors at Stanford University Medical Center can begin the testing on six children afflicted with Batten disease.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, Shirley Horn (71), jazz singer and pianist, died in Washington DC.
    (SFC, 10/22/05, p.B5)
2005        Oct 20, In southern Afghanistan a car bomb exploded near a mosque killing Nafus Khan, the deputy police chief of Nimroz province, and one of his bodyguards.
    (AP, 10/21/05)
2005        Oct 20, A French couple who poisoned their five children and then tried to commit suicide in a desperate bid to escape towering debt was sentenced to prison terms by a court outside Paris.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, Iranian state-run television said that the country's Supreme Cultural Revolutionary Council, headed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, issued the ban on foreign films that promote what were termed "arrogant powers", a propaganda term the Iranians use to refer to the United States.
    (http://tinyurl.com/87t7u)(AP, 10/27/05)
2005        Oct 20, An Iraqi Airways plane landed in Cairo, making the first regular flight between Iraq and Egypt in 15 years.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, In northern Iraq insurgents using explosives set fire to the main oil pipeline. Militants riding in a car opened fire on civilians outside a food shop in the southern Dora area of Baghdad, killing two. The militants then stopped, rushed into the store and gunned down a third Iraqi. A rocket hit a public school for students aged 12 to 15 in the western al-Mansour neighborhood of the capital, killing one child and wounding five. A nearby shopkeeper also was killed. A suicide car bomb exploded in front of a provincial government building in the city of Baqouba, 35 miles northeast of Baghdad. Three people were killed and 14 wounded.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, Saadoun Sughaiyer al-Janabi, a defense lawyer in Saddam Hussein's mass murder trial, was found dead soon after being kidnapped. His body was dumped near a Baghdad mosque with two gunshots to the head. 4 US service members were killed in two attacks. An American soldier was killed in the northwestern town of Hit by "indirect fire," a term that usually means a mortar or rocket attack.
    (AP, 10/21/05)
2005        Oct 20, Inmates at a prison hospital in Kyrgyzstan killed a parliamentarian and two other people after taking him and his entourage hostage.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, It was reported that Lebanon's state-run telephone system has billed the government for more than $11 million in unpaid telephone charges run up by Syrian troops before they left the country earlier this year after a nearly three-decade occupation. Information Minister Ghazi Aridi said Lebanon’ government would pay the bill.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, The roof of a hospital in central Nepal collapsed, killing at least 10 people and injuring nine others.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, The Paris Club announced and agreement to cancel 60% (about $18 billion) of Nigeria's foreign debt. This fueled optimism among anti-poverty campaigners, but corruption and requirements imposed by the West overshadowed the future. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, was rated the sixth most corrupt nation in the world in a survey released earlier this week by Berlin-based Transparency International.
    (AP, 10/21/05)
2005        Oct 20, Sudan's government and rebels ended a sixth round of talks on the crisis in the country's western Darfur region, announcing no agreements but pledging to reconvene in a month to push forward the slow-moving peace process.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, A UN report implicated the brother-in-law of Syria's president in the Feb 14 assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, and Lebanese intelligence officials helped organize it. The UN inquiry officially linked Damascus to the slaying for the first time. Syria rejected the report. The names of top Syrians were edited out in the final version of the report.
    (AP, 10/21/05)
2005        Oct 20, In Taiwan, the Agricultural Council confirmed the island's first case of bird flu. Birds taken from a Panama-registered freighter that was stopped by the Taiwanese coast guard on Oct. 14 tested positive for the H5N1 virus.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, Thailand PM Thaksin Shinawatra said new lab results confirmed the country's 13th death from bird flu.
    (AP, 10/20/05)
2005        Oct 20, UNESCO's member nations voted overwhelmingly to approve a pact on protecting cultural diversity after a bitter debate left the United States isolated in opposition to what it sees as a threat to sales of American movies and music.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2006        Oct 20, President Bush conceded in an Associated Press interview that "right now it's tough" for American forces in Iraq, but the White House said he would not change US strategy in the face of pre-election polls indicating voters were upset.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2006        Oct 20, US federal authorities arrested Jake Brahm, a 20-year-old Wisconsin grocery store clerk, for making a hoax threat that said seven football stadiums across the nation would be targeted by terrorists with radiological "dirty bombs" this weekend.
    (AP, 10/20/06)(SFC, 10/21/06, p.A5)
2006        Oct 20, Corrections officials said California will begin shipping thousands of inmates to prisons in four other states next month at a cost of more than $51 million a year.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, In Pennsylvania 24 rail cars carrying ethanol derailed and 9 caught fire on a bridge over the Beaver River in New Brighton, 25 miles northwest of Pittsburgh.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.A5)
2006        Oct 20, Jane Wyatt (b.1910), TV and film actress, died in Bel Air, Ca. She was best known as the TV wife of Robert Young in “Father Knows Best" (1954-1960). Her films included “Lost Horizon" (1937).
    (SFC, 10/23/06, p.B3)
2006        Oct 20, Corus, an Anglo-Dutch steel-maker, accepted an $8.1 billion buyout bid from Tata Steel, a smaller Indian firm.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.74)
2006        Oct 20, Eric Newby (86), British travel writer, died. His books included "A Short Walk In The Hindu Kush" (1958), the story of his travels from London to Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 10/23/06)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.97)
2006        Oct 20, China’s state press said the estuaries of China's two greatest rivers, the Yangtze and the Yellow, have been declared dead zones by the UN due to high amounts of pollutants. The leading People's Daily reported that it would take at least 200 years to clean up the Bohai Sea, even if no more sewage was poured into it. Beijing published a 5-year plan for economic and bureaucratic reforms in the capital.
    (AFP, 10/20/06)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.50)
2006        Oct 20, In Lahti, Finland, 25 EU leaders held a one-day summit on energy. Russian President Vladimir Putin defended his government's tough stance on Georgia and dodged EU leaders' demands that he commit to a legally binding energy charter that would guarantee better access to Russia's oil and gas fields.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, The Shiite militia run by anti-American cleric Muqtada al-Sadr seized total control of the southern Iraqi city of Amarah in one of the boldest acts of defiance yet by one of the country's powerful, unofficial armies. At least 15 people, including five militiamen, one policeman and two bystanders, were killed in clashes. Clashes between Shiite and Sunni tribes just south of Baghdad left 4 people dead. Five tortured bodies were found dumped along roads or in the Tigris River.
    (AP, 10/20/06)(AP, 10/21/06)
2006        Oct 20, A Jewish settler watchdog group said more than 40 percent of unauthorized West Bank outposts are built on private Palestinian land, adding that there are no signs the Israeli government is taking steps to tear them down.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, Japan's government said the birth rate rose for the seventh straight month in August, raising hopes for an upturn in the country's plunging annual birthrate and declining population.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, In North Korea tens of thousands gathered in Pyongyang to laud the country's first atomic test. A South Korean news agency reported that North Korean leader Kim Jong Il said Pyongyang didn't plan to carry out any more nuclear tests and expressed regret about the country's first-ever atomic detonation last week [see Oct 24].
    (AP, 10/20/06)(AP, 10/21/06)
2006        Oct 20, In Mexico radical protesters and teachers, who have taken over the city of Oaxaca, appeared to be parting ways after the teachers' leaders agreed to end a strike and return to work.
    (AP, 10/21/06)
2006        Oct 20, In northwestern Pakistan a bomb left in a fruit cart struck a crowded market, killing at least seven people and wounding dozens in Peshawar.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia's state-run news agency reported that the king gave new powers to his brothers and nephews in an overhaul of the way the kingdom chooses future monarchs, in what appeared to be an attempt to defuse internal power struggles. King Abdullah established the allegiance council, a body of 30-odd senior princes, as a new succession mechanism aimed in the long term to choose the crown prince.
    (AP, 10/20/06)(AFP, 6/16/12)
2006        Oct 20, Shiite and Sunni religious figures met in Mecca in a bid to stop sectarian bloodshed, and issued a series of edicts forbidding violence between Iraq's two Muslim sects.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, South Korea Defense Minister Yoon Kwang-ung met with US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and agreed that Seoul will retake full wartime operational control of Korean forces from the US sometime between 2009 and 2012.
    (www.voanews.com/english/2006-10-20-voa84.cfm)
2006        Oct 20, Thailand's military government said it had extended emergency rule in the Muslim-majority south where another 21 people were killed this week despite moves to resolve bloody unrest.
    (AFP, 10/20/06)
2006        Oct 20, The UN refugee agency said it had received reports of at least 38 civilians killed in attacks in southern Sudan and was suspending its operation helping Sudanese refugees return from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

2007        Oct 20, With water supplies rapidly shrinking during a drought of historic proportions, Gov. Sonny Perdue declared a state of emergency for the northern third of Georgia and asked President Bush to declare it a major disaster area. The 38,000-acre Lake Lanier reservoir, which supplies more than 3 million residents with water, was down to 3 months from depletion.
    (AP, 10/20/07)(SSFC, 10/21/07, p.A3)
2007        Oct 20, Piyush "Bobby" Jindal (36), the son of Punjabi immigrants, won an election in Louisiana to become the United States' first Indian-American state governor. Jindal, a Republican member of the House of Representatives, also became the youngest governor in the US. He became the first nonwhite to hold the job since Reconstruction.
    (AFP, 10/21/07)(AP, 10/20/08)
2007        Oct 20, In Berkeley, Ca., the new, 4-story, $46.4 million C.V. Starr East Asian Library was unveiled.
    (SSFC, 10/21/07, p.B1)
2007        Oct 20, In Ohio Daniel Petric (16) shot his parents, killing his mother and wounding his father, after they took away the Halo 3 video game from him. In 2009 a judge ruled Petric guilty of murder.
    (AP, 1/13/09)(http://pysih.com/2007/10/21/daniel-petric/)
2007        Oct 20, Max McGee (75), former Green Bay Packers receiver, died in Deephaven, Minn.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2007        Oct 20, Peg Bracken (89), author of the "I Hate to Cook Book," died in Portland, Ore.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2007        Oct 20, In eastern Afghanistan suspected Taliban militants fought fierce battles with US forces, killing 20 insurgents and one civilian.
    (AP, 10/21/07)
2007        Oct 20, Burundi's last active rebel group was urged to implement a 2006 ceasefire as it boycotted a meeting aimed to put the central African nation's derailed peace process back on track.
    (AFP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, In China 13 foreign and domestic companies launched the Chinese Federation for Corporate Social Responsibility in Shanghai.
    (Econ, 1/19/08, SR p.21)(www.chinacsr.com/2006/10/20/799-cfcsr-established-in-beijing/)
2007        Oct 20, France handed Algeria details of where its forces laid some 3 million landmines on the country's eastern and western borders from 1956-1959.
    (AFP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, A roadside bomb exploded near a minibus full of Shiite civilians, killing at least 3 people and wounding nine as they went to visit relatives south of Baghdad. US-led forces raided houses in search of Shiite extremists elsewhere in the volatile area. The US military said US forces in Iraq discovered nearly 19 tons of explosives in a weapons cache north of Baghdad this week, one of the biggest finds of its kind.
    (AP, 10/20/07)(Reuters, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, In Indian Kashmir thousands of angry Rawathpora villagers torched government vehicles in street battles that injured 30 police one day after army soldiers allegedly shot dead a schoolteacher.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, The foreign ministers of France, Italy and Spain met with Lebanon's feuding political leaders in a bid to break a long-running deadlock that is preventing the election of a president.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, In Northern Ireland Paul Quinn (21), a truck driver from south Armagh, was brutally beaten to death. Assailants used iron bars and baseball bats studded with nails. His death was said to be related to smuggling diesel fuel. Relatives said he was murdered for defying an IRA order to leave after quarrels in his village of Cullyhanna.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.67)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.A22)
2007        Oct 20, In Kazakhstan the opposition staged a demonstration in Almaty against rising prices as people hoarded food supplies and emptied shops.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.52)
2007        Oct 20, Malawi's second opposition party suspended its national convention after 26 supporters died in a road accident on the way to the conference. The supporters of the Alliance for Democracy, or AFORD, died the previous night when the truck they were traveling in overturned in the central mountainous district of Dedza.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, Myanmar announced that it was lifting a curfew and ending a ban on assembly imposed after a crackdown on pro-democracy protesters, the latest sign that the government believes it has extinguished the largest demonstrations in decades.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, A bomb ripped through a bus parked at a terminal in southwestern Pakistan, killing seven people and wounding six others.
    (AP, 10/20/07)
2007        Oct 20, In Gaza City Hamas police and a clan allied with the rival Fatah movement traded fire killing a young man and a boy on the 4th day of heavy internal fighting.
    (SSFC, 10/21/07, p.A3)
2007        Oct 20, In Moscow a group of teens killed Sergei Nikolayev (46), a professional chess player from Yakutia. The group attacked more than 10 people over several months late this year. In 2008 a Moscow court convicted 12 teenage boys and a man of committing the series of vicious ethnic attacks, which were videotaped, set to heavy music and widely disseminated on Web sites.
    (http://english.pravda.ru/russia/history/23-09-2008/106430-skinheads-0)(AP, 9/23/08)

2008        Oct 20, The DJIA rose 413.21 points as Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke tentatively endorsed a new stimulus package.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 20, Nebraska’s Gov. Dave Heineman and state lawmakers agreed to amend the new safe-haven law so as to protect only parents of new-born children from prosecution.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 20, Taliban gunmen killed Gayle Williams (34), a Christian aid worker in Kabul, as she was walking to work. The militant group said it targeted the British-South African citizen because she was spreading her religion. In Faryab province militants killed five policemen, including a district police chief. In northern Afghanistan, a suicide bomber killed two German soldiers and five children in Kunduz province.
    (AP, 10/20/08)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.A12)
2008        Oct 20, President Evo Morales agreed to seek only one more five-year term, a key concession that all but ended a standoff in Congress over a new constitution to empower Bolivia's long-oppressed indigenous majority.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 20, Festus Gontebanye Mogae, who led Botswana from 1998 to 2008, was chosen as the winner of the 2008 Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Sister Emmanuelle (b.1908), a Belgian-born nun who devoted her life to helping the poor in North Africa and in France, died in France. Madeleine Cinquin had spent 20 years working with children in a slum in Cairo as part of a lengthy career helping the dispossessed.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, In China, a veterinarian said some 1,500 dogs, bred for their raccoon-like fur, have died after eating feed tainted with the same chemical that contaminated dairy products and sickened tens of thousands of babies nationwide.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The French government allocated €10.5 billion among six of its banks.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.89)
2008        Oct 20, Officials in Honduras said a week of heavy rains has caused landslides and flooding that have killed at least 11 people and left two others missing.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, India’s central bank cut its repurchase rate, a leading rate for which the central bank lends to other banks, to 8%, the first reduction since March 2004.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 20, The United States and Iraq announced a $14 million program to set up a conservation and historic preservation institute, refurbish the National Museum in Baghdad and enhance the training of museum and archaeological professionals in Iraq. An Iraqi policeman was arrested for allegedly using police vehicles to smuggle weapons to Baghdad. Bombs struck a double-decker bus and a taxi in eastern Baghdad, killing four people.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Mexico agreed to deport Cubans who sneak illegally through Mexican territory to reach the US, a step toward cutting off an increasingly violent and heavily used human trafficking route. 21 prisoners died in a fight between inmates at a prison across the border from McAllen, Texas. Police said two soldiers and a security guard were found stabbed to death at a housing construction site in the village of Las Margaritas, northern Mexico. The body of a federal policeman was found riddled with gunshot wounds in Tijuana.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Pakistani forces killed up to 35 militants near the Afghan border, as the region's provincial chief called for "peaceful dialogue" in a meeting with a US State Department official.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Palestinian Pres. Abbas published remarks saying Israel has failed to protect Palestinians against attacks by Israeli settlers during the olive harvest.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, US Ambassador Michael McKinley and Peru's foreign minister signed an accord forgiving US$25 million of Peru's foreign debt and directing the money to a tropical forest conservation program.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 20, A financially strapped South Korean man went on an arson and stabbing rampage in Seoul, leaving six people dead and seven others wounded.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The Sri Lankan government admitted that scores of its troops had been killed or injured in fierce fighting with the Tamil Tigers, its biggest reported battlefield loss in months. Battles since Oct 18 had left 33 soldiers dead, three missing in action and 48 injured. The bodies of 11 rebels were recovered from the battlefield.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, In Thailand thousands of anti-government protesters marched through the streets of Bangkok, calling the prime minister a "murderer" and demanding he resign over the violent quashing of a previous rally.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, A Kurdish demonstrator died after a clash with police in eastern Turkey. Kurdish protesters staged demonstrations in many parts of Turkey over the weekend following allegations that Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan was mistreated in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The UN said the financial crises will add at least 20 million people to the world’s jobless, raising the total to 210 million.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A1)

2009        Oct 20, The US Congress passed a bill allowing detainees from Guantanamo to be brought to the US, but only to stand for trial, not to be released or jailed there.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.36)
2009        Oct 20, In Arizona Faleh Hassan Almaleki (49), an Iraqi immigrant, ran his Jeep Cherokee over his daughter, Noor Almaleki (20), after she refused an arranged marriage and went to college. Noor died of her injuries on Nov 2, 2009. On Feb 22, 2011, Faleh Hassan Almaleki was convicted of 2nd degree murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honor_killing_in_the_United_States)(SFC, 2/23/11, p.A4)
2009        Oct 20, Afghanistan's election commission ordered a Nov. 7 runoff in the disputed presidential poll after a fraud investigation dropped incumbent Hamid Karzai's votes below 50 percent of the total. Karzai accepted the finding and agreed to a second round vote. Afghan and international forces killed about half a dozen militants during a raid on compounds used by a Taliban commander in eastern Wardak province.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Representatives of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay announced a joint plan in Buenos Aires to establish protected zones to halt deforestation in their countries by 2020.
    (SFC, 10/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Oct 20, Australian officials said a leech found at a crime scene in 2001 led police to a man who admitted robbing an elderly woman. The leech dropped off Peter Cannon as he and an accomplice tied a 71-year-old woman to a chair in her remote home in the Tasmanian woods on Sept. 28, 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Bolivia's National Electoral Court announced that former Pando state Gov. Leopoldo Fernandez can campaign from a La Paz jail because he is detained as a precautionary measure, over killings under his watch in Sept, 2008, and has not been charged.
    (AP, 10/21/09)
2009        Oct 20, China executed 2 people for their roles in deadly protests last year in the Chinese-controlled region of Tibet, the first known executions for the violence. Lobsang Gyaltsen (28) and Loyak (30), who goes by one name, were sentenced to death in April on charges relating to "starting fatal fires."
    (AP, 10/27/09)
2009        Oct 20, The Honduras government lifted a three-week broadcast ban allowing opposition radio and television stations back on the air.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Talks in Vienna meant to persuade Iran to send most of its enriched uranium abroad, and thus delay its potential to make a nuclear weapon, bogged down over fierce Iranian resistance to French participation.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, An Indian official said 8 South Asian countries have agreed they can't be part of any climate change deal that sets legally binding limits on their emissions.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, In Iraq a car packed with explosives blew up at a gas station in Saqlawiyah, 45 miles (75km) west of Baghdad, killing 3 policemen and one civilian. In northern Baghdad, one civilian was killed and 4 were wounded when a bomb attached to a minibus exploded in Kazimiyah, a primarily Shiite suburb of the capital. Minutes later, a roadside bomb targeting a police patrol in western Baghdad wounded 3 civilians. In Hilla, just south of Baghdad, a roadside bomb targeting a police patrol killed one policeman and wounded two others. In Mosul a roadside bomb targeted an Iraqi army patrol, wounding two soldiers and one civilian.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Iran’s state news agency said Kian Tajbakhsh, an Iranian-American academic, has been convicted for his alleged role in the post-election unrest in the country and sentenced to more than 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Japan’s government said it would reverse the privatization of Japan Post along with its enormous banking unit. On Oct 28 the new government ousted the president of Japan Post and almost the entire board.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.50)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.73)
2009        Oct 20, Kuwait's highest court granted women the right to obtain a passport without their husband's approval, in the latest stride for women's rights in this small oil-rich emirate. The landmark decision "freed" Kuwaiti women from the 1962 law requiring their husband's signature to obtain a passport.
    (AP, 10/21/09)
2009        Oct 20, Kyrgyzstan's Cabinet resigned as part of a sweeping government reform campaign the president said will save money and make the Central Asian nation's leadership more effective. Opposition leaders dismissed President Kurmanbek Bakiyev's reform push as a bid to increase his own power.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, The United States presented Mali security forces with more than $5 million in new vehicles and other equipment.
    (AP, 10/21/09)
2009        Oct 20, In Hidalgo, Mexico, police found the body of a young man, about 16 years old, who was found dead with two bullets in his head, his genitals cut off and a warning note stabbed into his chest.
    (AP, 10/22/09)
2009        Oct 20, Niger held elections. On Oct 24 the electoral commission said the ruling party had won a majority of votes in parliamentary elections. The official results said President Mamadou Tandja's party received 76 out of 113 seats in the national assembly. The vote came just two months after a referendum passed allowing Tandja to extend his rule for years past the constitutional limit. The opposition protested the referendum, saying it granted Tandja near-totalitarian powers, and boycotted the elections.
    (AP, 10/25/09)
2009        Oct 20, Nigeria’s main rebel group, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), expressed cautious optimism after a landmark meeting between its leader and President Umaru Yar'Adua.
    (AFP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, In Pakistan 2 suicide attackers bombed an Islamic university in Islamabad, killing 6 people and wounding 18 as the army pressed ahead with a critical offensive on a Taliban stronghold near Afghanistan. Firefights raged in the areas around Kaskai and Shisanwam, and 4 more soldiers were killed, bringing the army's death toll over four days to 13.
    (AP, 10/20/09)(AP, 10/21/09)
2009        Oct 20, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev brought a euro1 billion ($1.5 billion) loan to recession-hit Serbia, as Moscow sought to expand its political and economic influence in the Balkans with the first-ever visit to Belgrade by a Russian president.
    (AP, 10/20/09)
2009        Oct 20, Turkish prosecutors sought charges against 5 Kurdish rebels who surrendered in a peace gesture, raising questions about whether thousands of other guerrillas can be persuaded to end their decades-long fight. The 5 were later released on the orders of a judge.
    (AP, 10/20/09)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.63)

2010        Oct 20, In its biggest arms deal ever, the United States announced it will sell up to 60 billion dollars worth of warplanes, helicopters and other weapons to Saudi Arabia, partly to help it counter Iran.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, The United States relaxed sanctions on Sudan to exempt farm equipment, a move seen as part of a wider scheme of carrots and sticks before a sensitive referendum that could split Africa's largest country.
    (Reuters, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, In Kansas Dr. Stephen Schneider was sentenced to 30 years in prison for unlawfully writing prescriptions, health care fraud and money laundering. His wife was sentenced to 33 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/21/10, p.A6)
2010        Oct 20, Bob Guccione (b.1930), founder of Penthouse magazine, died of lung cancer in Plano, Texas. He started Penthouse in England in 1965 to subsidize a career in art. He introduced the magazine to the American public in 1969.
    (SFC, 10/21/10, p.A8)
    (AP, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, Robert Katz (77), American writer and historian, died in Italy. His meticulous reconstruction of an infamous Nazi massacre in Rome brought him fame and sparked a trial over whether he defamed the pope. His book "Death in Rome" (1967) and the subsequent movie based on it, called "Massacre in Rome," stirred controversy because it suggested Pope Pius XII did not intervene to stop the massacre even though he knew about the Nazis' plans.
    (AP, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, Afghanistan released full preliminary results from last month's parliamentary election. About 1.3 million votes were disqualified out of 5.6 million. That means about 23 percent of ballots were discarded because of ballot-box stuffing or re-jiggered totals. A four-day operation ended in which NATO troops and the Afghan army killed more than 10 insurgents and recovered four weapons caches in Kunar province.
    (AP, 10/20/10)(AP, 10/23/10)
2010        Oct 20, Britain’s treasury chief George Osborne announced 81 billion pounds ($128 billion) in spending cuts through 2015, which will ax welfare payments, savage government services and see as many as half a million public sector jobs lost.
    (AP, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, British Justice David Bean sentenced Prince Saud Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud to a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 20 years for the brutal assault at the Landmark Hotel in London on Feb 15.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Britain's Supreme Court ruled in favor of German heiress Katrin Radmacher (40), seeking to protect her considerable fortune from her ex-husband Nicolas Granatino (39). The decision gave new strength to prenuptial agreements in England.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, In France workers opposed to a higher retirement age blocked roads to airports around the country, leaving passengers in Paris dragging suitcases on foot along an emergency breakdown lane. Pres. Sarkozy sent in police to clear access to barricaded fuel depots and restore supply as trade unions kept up their resistance to an unpopular pension reform due for a final vote this week.
    (Reuters, 10/20/10)(AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Italian police arrested Antonio Cortese. He is suspected of planting an unloaded bazooka and carrying out a bomb attack earlier this year that damaged the entrance of the Reggio Calabria courthouse in southern Italy. Turncoat Antonino Lo Giudice, a former top 'ndrangheta boss, accused Cortese of planting the explosives in an attempt to intimidate prosecutors.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, A court in Mauritania condemned three alleged al-Qaida members to death, including the former leader of the African nation's local terrorist network. Former al-Qaida leader, El Khadim Ould Semene, was accused of helping organize an attack on the Israeli embassy here two years ago.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, In northern Mexico Marisol Valles Garcia (20) was sworn in as the police chief of the township of Praxedis G. Guerrero, a township of 8,500 on a drug trafficking route along the Texas border. Soldiers battled gunmen in two cities across the border from Texas, prompting panicked parents to pull children from school and factories to warn workers to stay inside.  In Nuevo Laredo 5 gunmen were killed and 3 soldiers were wounded during shootouts. Assailants in a third city threw a grenade at an army barracks. In Ciudad Juarez a Texas National Guard soldier (21) was reportedly one of two men killed.
    (SFC, 10/21/10, p.A4)(AP, 10/20/10)(AP, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, Parts Karachi, Pakistan, shut down after an attack on a scrapyard pushed to 51 the number of people killed in four days, a spasm of politically motivated violence in a country already wracked by Islamist militancy.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Palestinians said Jewish settlers set fire to a girls school near the northern city of Nablus. A powerful explosion ripped through a Hamas military compound in the Gaza Strip, wounding more than a dozen people, including women and children.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Spain enacted a tough new anti-smoking law, eliminating its status as Western Europe's last country where lighting up in indoor public places is allowed.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Swiss mining giant Xstrata said that it would spend 4.9 billion rands (710 million dollars, 510 million euros) on expanding a ferrochrome smelter in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, In Turkey police detained five people, including three university students, suspected of providing financial and technical support to the al-Qaida network in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/22/10)
2010        Oct 20, Pope Benedict XVI named 24 new cardinals, putting his mark on the body that will elect his successor and giving a boost to Italian hopes to regain the papacy.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez left Iran after signing 11 deals focused on energy cooperation between the two major oil producers who are foes of the United States.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2011        Oct 20, Two small earthquakes hit the San Francisco area, jolting residents on the same day many Californians took part in an annual earthquake preparedness drill. A 3.8 evening quake came nearly six hours after a magnitude 4.0 earthquake hit in the same area.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett signed a state law giving him unprecedented power to force Harrisburg to pay off its staggering debt on a $300 million trash incinerator.
    (SFC, 10/21/11, p.A7)
2011        Oct 20, The Economist Magazine presented its annual Innovation awards. Winners included: Robert Langer of MIT for work on controlled-release drug delivery and tissue engineering; Devi Shetty of India for reducing hospital health care costs; Paul Bucheit in the US for creating Gmail and AdSense; Jeff Bezos of Amazon and Greg Zehr of Lab 126 for creating the Kindle e-book reader; Chetan Maini of Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles for building  affordable electric cars; Jessica Jackley and matt Flannery, co-founders of Kiva, for pioneering web-based, per-to-peer microlending; Marc Koska of SafePoint Trust, for inventing the K1 auto-disposable syringe; and Amazon.com for corporate use of innovation.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.11)
2011        Oct 20, Albanian port authorities said 3 sailors died and five others are missing after their Turkish merchant ship, Reina 1, collided with a passenger ferry and sank in the Adriatic some 20 miles (30 km) from the Albanian port of Durres. No injuries were reported on the ferry Ankara, which had left Durres en route for the Italian port of Bari with about 200 passengers.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, A Brazilian jury convicted three doctors of killing four patients by removing their organs, which prosecutors said were used for transplants at an expensive private clinic. The case took 25 years for a verdict to be handed down. Doctors Rui Sacramento, Pedro Torrecillas and Mariano Fiore Junior were sentenced to 17 years and six months each in prison.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, In London UBS trader Kweku Adoboli (31), who is accused of unauthorized trading which the Swiss bank says has cost it some $2.3 billion, was remanded in custody to appear for a plea and case management hearing next month.
    (Reuters, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Cameroon's Supreme Court rejected an opposition bid to annul this month's presidential election, paving the way for the results to be published.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Chilean students and other protesters interrupted a Senate committee meeting to demand a referendum on how to resolve Chile's social problems, especially education. The protesters then occupied the Senate headquarters and transmitted the situation live over the Internet by webcam.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, China said that it will allow four of its most developed cities and provinces to issue bonds on a trial basis, giving cash-strapped local governments a much-needed funding boost.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Heavy rains generated by a low-pressure system hammered Central America for 10 days. Mudslides and swollen rivers killed at least 105 people including 38 in Guatemala, 34 in El Salvador, 15 in Honduras, 13 in Nicaragua and 5 in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, France said that the Somali kidnappers of Marie Dedieu (66), a disabled Frenchwoman who died after being snatched from her home in Kenya, are demanding a ransom for the return of her body.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, The Honduras Supreme Court voted 12-3 to reject abuse of authority charges against now-retired Gens. Romeo Vasquez, Luis Prince, Venancio Cervantes, Miguel Garcia, Juan Pablo Rodriguez and Carlos Cuellar. They had been accused of toppling former president Manuel Zelaya and flying him to Costa Rica in 2009.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Iran reported that 13 divers, part of a team installing an underwater oil pipeline, were inside a pressurized diving chamber when their Koosha-1 ship sank in the Persian Gulf in stormy seas. The 7 Indians, 5 Iranians and one Ukrainian had about 72 hours of oxygen. 8 of the 13 divers were reported dead on Oct 23.
    (AP, 10/22/11)(AP, 10/23/11)
2011        Oct 20, Italian energy giant ENI announced a giant natural gas discovery off the coast of Mozambique, which could be the largest in company's history.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Kenya said it intends to push its troops to Somalia's insurgent stronghold of Kismayo and will stay until there are no Islamist insurgents left.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Kenyan police arrested Imam Hassan Mahat Omar, a Muslim cleric on a UN sanctions list, over his alleged support of an al-Qaida-linked militant group in neighboring Somalia. 9 other people were arrested including 2 doctors who ran a clinic in the predominantly Somali neighborhood of Eastleigh.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, Kosovo's NATO-led peacekeepers confronted crowds of angry Serbs as they tried to remove Serb roadblocks in the volatile north of the country.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Libya’s National Transition Council said that its fighters found and shot dictator Moammar Gadhafi (69). Sirte finally fell to the rebels today after weeks of tough fighting. NATO war planes struck a convoy of armed vehicles in the vicinity of Sirte. Gadhafi was in the convoy. Gadhafi was shot in the head after being captured at a sewage culvert on the outskirts of Sirte. The NATO strikes marked the culmination of a NATO-led air war mandated by the UN to protect civilians from Gadhafi's forces. In 2012 Human Rights Watch issued a 50-page report, titled "Death of a Dictator: Bloody Vengeance in Sirte," detailing the last hours of Gadhafi's life.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/21/11)(AP, 10/17/12)
2011        Oct 20, Mauritania's army conducted an air raid to prevent a planned attack by al-Qaida-linked insurgents in a forest just across the border in Mali, where the group has a cell. Ali Ould Sidi Tiyib, a leader for al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, was later reported killed in the raid. He was wanted for his role in an attack against the Israeli Embassy in Mauritania in 2008.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/22/11)
2011        Oct 20, Mexican President Felipe Calderon accused the United States of dumping criminals at the border because it is cheaper than prosecuting them, and said the practice has fueled violence in Mexico's border areas.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, The World Bank said it would lend Nepal up to $400 million to help the impoverished nation move towards peace and stability, five years after the end of its civil war.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Nigeria's military arrested 46 suspects and seized a vessel laden with stolen refined petroleum products in the oil-producing Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 10/23/11)
2011        Oct 20, A United Nations envoy said North Korea is estimated to hold up to 200,000 people in political prisons, a sharp increase from a decade ago. South Korea estimates that North Korea holds 154,000 political prisoners in six large camps across the country.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, In Pakistan 4 soldiers and 5 militants were killed in a gunbattle in the Khyber tribal district along the Afghan border. In the evening militants attacked a group of paramilitary soldiers conducting a search operation in the Khyber tribal area, sparking fighting that killed three soldiers and 34 militants.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, A Senegal court sentenced an opposition activist to two years in prison for issuing death threats against the judge who heads the country's Constitutional Council. Malick Seck had attempted to deliver a letter to the home of the chief justice denouncing the council's silence over President Abdoulaye Wade's decision to run for a controversial third term and saying the judge will pay the price.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Singapore’s PM Lee Hsien Loong vowed a "more open" style of government following two elections this year that showed citizens wanting a greater voice in government.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, In Somalia pro-government forces supported by foreign troops chased al-Shabab out of Mogadishu’s northernmost neighborhood, Deynile, in a dawn offensive. Al-Qaida-linked militants claimed to have killed 70 foreign African Union peacekeepers but an eyewitness said many of the bodies put on display were likely Somali government soldiers. An AU spokesman the next day said that the insurgents had stolen uniforms and dressed up scores of their own dead. The AU said 10 soldiers were killed, including 6 from Burundi, with two missing after intense fighting with insurgents. A week later it was reported that 51 Burundian soldiers were killed in the clash.
    (AP, 10/20/11)(AP, 10/21/11)(AFP, 10/22/11)(AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 20, South Africa's President Jacob Zuma was at the center of a row over the millions spent on the renovation of South Africa's government and presidential buildings. A day later backtracked on a slammed lavish upgrade of President Jacob Zuma's official residence, saying the wrong details were supplied to parliament.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, ETA announced it was ceasing its 43-year-long bloody campaign for an independent Basque state in territory straddling northern Spain and southwest France. But the group stopped short of declaring defeat and called on Spain and France to open talks on the conflict.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 20, About 10,000 elite Turkish soldiers took part in a ground offensive against Kurdish rebels in southeastern Turkey and across the border in Iraq, making it the nation's largest attack on the insurgents in more than three years.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Tunisians expatriates began casting their ballots ahead the weekend legislative elections, the country's first free elections.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he is free of cancer after a series of chemotherapy treatments in Cuba.
    (AP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Zambia, Africa's biggest copper producer, said it has suspended the renewal and issue of new mining licenses and would undertake an audit of the sector.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2012        Oct 20, Obama administration officials said the US and Iran have agreed in principle for the first time to one-on-one negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program.
    (SSFC, 10/21/12, p.A5)
2012        Oct 20, In southern California Desmond John Moses (55) went on the early morning shooting rampage over a dispute with the victims. He set fire to his backyard bungalow before shooting five members of a family, killing a father (30) and his 4-year-old son in Inglewood.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, In New Jersey Autumn Pasquale (12) disappeared in her hometown of Clayton. On Oct 23 two teenagers were arrested and charged with her murder.
    (SFC, 10/27/12, p.A5)
2012        Oct 20, Afghan officials said an Afghan police officer and cook poisoned two colleagues at a checkpoint in an assault coordinated with insurgent fighters who killed 4 other officers in Helmand province. Another Taliban attack in Helmand killed two district community council members. A Taliban-fired rocket-propelled grenades destroyed a warehouse full of food destined for the Bagram US base.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, Thousands of protesters marched through central London against public spending cuts and tax rises enacted by a government fighting accusations it is run by an upper-class elite that ignores the plight of recession-hit voters.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, In eastern Congo three Roman Catholic priests were kidnapped in Beni, north of Goma, in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/21/12)
2012        Oct 20, In France some 70 far-right extremists from around the country stormed the construction site of a mosque in Poitiers to show their hostility toward it and denounce immigration that has brought millions of Muslims into the country.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, In Iraq a roadside bomb near a Shiite shrine and a string of shootings that targeted security forces killed at least 17 people in Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/20/12)(SSFC, 10/21/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 20, Israeli troops commandeered a Gaza-bound ship that tried to break through Israel's blockade of the Hamas-ruled seaside strip. European lawmakers and other pro-Palestinian activists aboard did not resist, and the Finnish-flagged vessel was diverted to an Israeli port.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, In Nigeria gunmen raided the Potiskum home of a former Nigeria Customs Service official and killed him and his son.
    (AP, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 20, Palestinians held local elections. Fatah was expected to win as Hamas boycotted the vote. Voters choosing new local councils in the West Bank rebuffed candidates from Pres. Abbas' Fatah movement in five of the 11 main towns.
    (SFC, 10/20/12, p.A2)(AP, 10/21/12)
2012        Oct 20, Turkey's state-run agency said clashes between Turkish security forces and Kurdish rebels in Hakkari province, have left nine people dead.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

2013        Oct 20, In Bolivia 8 soldiers were taken hostage by suspected coca growers after a firefight that left two security officers dead and 17 wounded.
    (AFP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, Egyptian security forces fired bird shot and teargas to prevent supporters of deposed Islamist President Mohamed Mursi from marching to the site of a protest camp that was destroyed two months ago. An attack outside a Coptic church in Cairo killed 4 people, including an 8-year-old girl.
    (Reuters, 10/20/13)(AP, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 20, In Iraq 8 suicide bombers targeted police and local officials in Rawa, northwest of Baghdad, killing 8 people. In southwestern Baghdad 41 people were killed and 65 were wounded in a crowded cafe in the primarily Shiite neighborhood of Amil, bringing the death toll from violence across Iraq to 51.
    (AFP, 10/20/13)(AP, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 20, Kenya's biggest selling newspaper “The Nation" reported that security camera footage showed soldiers appearing to loot goods during last month's Nairobi shopping mall siege.
    (Reuters, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, In Kenya 2 Christian clerics were found killed in separate attacks.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 20, Luxembourgers voted for a new government with a possibility of keeping PM Jean-Claude Juncker in power after a spying scandal forced early elections. The conservative Christian Social People's Party (CSV) of PM Jean-Claude Juncker led the field with 33.7% of the vote -- against 38% four years ago.
    (AP, 10/20/13)(AFP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, Mohamed Nasheed, the leading candidate in the Maldives' troubled presidential election, demanded that Pres. Mohamed Waheed Hassan resign and allow the parliamentary speaker to take over the government and oversee a fresh poll.
    (AP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, Montenegro police used tear gas against dozens of rock-throwing opponents of a gay pride march in Podgorica.
    (AP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, Pakistan’s PM Nawaz Sharif arrived in Washington on a 4-day trip. He was scheduled to meet with Pres. Obama on Oct 23.
    (SSFC, 10/27/13, p.A3)
2013        Oct 20, In the Philippines Sultan Jamalul Kiram III (75) died. His armed followers invaded Sabah state earlier this year sparking a security crises that left dozens of people dead.
    (SFC, 10/21/13, p.A2)
2013        Oct 20, In South Sudan  79 people were killed in attacks on villages in Twic East county, Jonglei state. Authorities blamed fighters loyal to anti-government rebel leader David Yau Yau.
    (AP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/23/13)
2013        Oct 20, In Syria a suicide bomber blew up a truck packed with explosives at an army checkpoint in the central city of Hama, killing at least 31 people.
    (AFP, 10/20/13)
2013        Oct 20, In Western Sahara bloody clashes erupted between police and pro-independence protesters as a UN envoy wrapped up his latest visit to the disputed territory.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)

2014        Oct 20, It was reported that 38 of 66 WWII war crime suspects, removed from the US since 1979, were allowed to keep their US Social Security benefits. At least four were still living with continuing benefits.
    (SFC, 10/20/14, p.A8)
2014        Oct 20, Alabama House Speaker Mike Hubbard was arrested on felony ethics charges after being indicted by a grand jury of 23 charges accusing him of misusing his speaker’s office and previous post as chairman of the Alabama Republican Party.
    (SFC, 10/21/14, p.A6)
2014        Oct 20, Legendary fashion designer Oscar de la Renta (b.1932) died at his home in Connecticut. His beautiful clothes defined American elegance for generations and were beloved by first ladies and Hollywood stars.
    (AP, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, Australia's Parliament House lifted a short-lived ban on facial coverings including burqas and niqabs after the prime minister intervened.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, In northwestern Bangladesh two passenger buses collided head-on, killing at least 20 people and injuring 25 others.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Canada Martin Couture-Rouleau (25) smashed his car into the two soldiers in the Quebec city of Saint-Jean-Sur-Richelieu before fleeing with police in pursuit. Officers opened fired on the suspect, who later died. The suspect was described by Canadian authorities a young convert to Islam. One of the injured soldiers soon died in hospital.
    (AFP, 10/21/14)(SFC, 10/22/14, p.A2)(Econ, 10/25/14, p.41)
2014        Oct 20, China was reported to have donated $6 million to help stave off food shortages in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the countries worst affected by the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Lufthansa pilots launched a strike, deepening Germany's travel chaos after train drivers stopped work at the weekend just as school holidays began in much of the country.
    (AFP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, In southern India a blaze engulfed a fireworks factory, killing at least 13 workers and seriously burning seven others in Vakatippa village, Andhra Pradesh state.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Indonesia's Joko Widodo took over as president of the world's third-largest democracy. Widodo said that he wanted his nation to be self-sufficient in food staples sugar, rice and corn within four years.
    (Reuters, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Iranian news reported that authorities have arrested four people suspected of throwing acid on women.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Iraq militants unleashed a wave of deadly attacks on the country's majority Shiite community, killing at least 43 people in Baghdad and Karbala. The Islamic State jihadist group attacked the Kurdish-controlled town of Qara Tapah, northeast of Baghdad, killing at least 7 peshmerga troops and 3 civilians. Some 300 Islamic State militants with armored vehicles attacked and seized villages near Mount Sinjar and then turned their attention on the mountain itself.
    (AP, 10/20/14)(AFP, 10/20/14)(AFP, 10/23/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Iraq some 300 Islamic State militants with armored vehicles attacked and seized villages near Mount Sinjar and then turned their attention on the mountain itself.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Israel Abdullah Abu Rahma, who spent 15 months behind bars for organizing weekly demonstrations against Israel's separation barrier in the village of Bilin, was convicted at Ofer military court near the West Bank city of Ramallah for "interfering" with the work of a soldier.
    (AFP, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, Japan's PM Shinzo Abe suffered a double setback with the resignations of two female cabinet ministers over claims they misused political funds, dealing a blow to his proclaimed gender reform drive.
    (AFP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, A Libyan official said fighting in the eastern city of Benghazi between Islamist militias and pro-government fighters has left 65 people dead as fierce battles continued for a sixth day.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Mozambique's national elections commission said that vote counting in the country's northwestern province has stopped due to possible fraud with more than 60 percent of votes counted so far.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Nigeria was declared free of Ebola by the World Health Organization.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Palestinians hurled Molotov cocktails at an apartment building in a flashpoint east Jerusalem neighborhood just hours after it was taken over by Jewish settlers.
    (AFP, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Russia Christophe de Margerie, the charismatic CEO of Total SA, was killed at a Moscow airport late today when his private jet collided with a snowplow whose driver, Vladimir Martynenko, was reportedly drunk. 3 French crew members also died when the Dassault Falcon 50 burst into flames after it hit the snowplow. Relatives said Martynenko was sober in the morning and that he doesn't drink at all due to chronic heart disease.
    (AP, 10/21/14)(Reuters, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, In Sierra Leone 49 confirmed cases of Ebola emerged just today in two Ebola zones in and around the capital. So many people were dying that removing bodies was a problem.
    (AP, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, The Spanish government said several hundred African migrants staged multiple attempts to scale the border fences separating Spain's North African enclave of Melilla from Morocco, with about 60 managing to get across.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Turkey said it would allow Iraqi Kurdish fighters to reinforce fellow Kurds in the Syrian town of Kobani, while the US air-dropped arms for the first time to help the defenders resist an Islamic State assault.
    (Reuters, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Uganda police fired live bullets and tear gas to break up protests by university students, wounding several people in Kampala. The students, from Makerere University were calling for graduation fees to be lowered from some 85 dollars to 35 dollars.
    (AFP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, A report by Ukraine's parliament revealed that more than 300 soldiers were killed during a weeks-long battle in August that marked a crushing setback in the military campaign to root out pro-Russian separatist forces in the city of Ilovaisk.
    (AP, 10/20/14)
2014        Oct 20, Yemeni security officials say al-Qaida militants have captured al-Adeen town south Sanaa as they fought fierce battles elsewhere against Shiite rebels known as Houthis. Fighting between the Houthis and al-Qaida militants resumed in the Raad area in Baydah province south of Sanaa. The battles left 13 Houthis and 15 militants killed.
    (AP, 10/20/14)

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