Today in History - November 20

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269        Nov 20, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor of Numerian in Asia Minor by his soldiers. He had been the commander of the emperor's bodyguard.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

284        Nov 20, Diocletian (245-316) became Emperor of the Roman Empire and continued to 305. Under his rule the last and most terrible persecution of the Christians took place, perhaps some 3,000 martyrs. He divided rule over the empire among four men. He put two rulers to oversee the east and two to oversee the west. He also established four capitals. He moved his own capital from Rome to Nicomedia, south of Byzantium in Asia Minor. He also increased the size of the Roman army from 300,000 to 500,000 men.
    (http://bode.diee.unica.it/~giua/SEBASTIAN/Diocletian.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.91)(ITV, 1/96, p.58)

967        Nov 20, Aboe al-Faradj al-Isfahani, Arabic author (Book of liederen), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1347        Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in battle (SPQR).
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1521        Nov 20, Arabs attributed a shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1527        Nov 20, Wendelmoet "Weyntjen" Claesdochter, became the 1st Dutch woman to be burned as heretic.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1602        Nov 20, Otto von Guericke, inventor (air pump), was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1616        Nov 20, Bishop Richelieu became French minister of Foreign affairs and War.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1620        Nov 20, Peregrine White, son of William and Susanna White, was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay. He was the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1637        Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1695        Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. He was later honored by a National Day of Black Consciousness.
    (SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)

1700        Nov 20, Sweden's 17-year-old King Charles XII defeated the Russians at Narva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1713        Nov 20, Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1720        Nov 20, Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy. Their sentences were commuted until they gave birth. Bonny was later pardoned but Read died in prison on Apr 28, 1721. Bonny, an Irish American pirate, had plied her trade in the Caribbean and died around 1782.
    (ON, 12/01, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Bonny)

1726        Nov 20, Oliver Wolcott, later Conn.-Gov. and signer of Declaration of Independence, was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1741        Nov 20, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat and clergyman, died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1752        Nov 20, Thomas Chatterton (d.1770), English poet (Christabel), was born. His early death marked him as the “prototype of the fragile poet withered by the hostility of philistines."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(MC, 11/20/01)

1765        Nov 20, Friedrich Heinrich Himmel, composer (Von Himmel Hoch), was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1789        Nov 20, New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1805        Nov 20, Beethoven's "Fidelio," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1815        Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austria’s Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe," a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2sqgp9)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)
1815        Nov 20, With the 2nd Peace of Paris Napoleon was involuntarily exiled to St. Helena.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1817        Nov 20, 1st Seminole War began in Florida. [see Nov 27]
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1829        Nov 20, Jews were expelled from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1833        Nov 20, Charles Darwin reached Punta Gorda and saw Rio Uruguay.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1858        Nov 20, Selma Lagerdorf, Swedish novelist, was born. Her work included “The Story of Gosta Berling."
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1866        Nov 20, Pierre Lallemont, French mechanic, was granted a US patent for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
    (http://www.todayinsci.com/11/11_20.htm)(ON, 2/10, p.1)

1873        Nov 20, Budapest was formed from 2 Rival cities, Buda and Obuda on the west bank of the Danube and Pest on the east bank.
    (WUD, 1994, p.193)(MC, 11/20/01)

1884        Nov 20, Norman Thomas, socialist and Pres. Candidate 1928-48, was born in Marion, Ohio, and ran for president in six successive elections beginning in 1928.
    (HNQ, 10/21/98)(MC, 11/20/01)

1888        Nov 20, William Bundy patented a timecard clock.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1889        Nov 20, Edwin Hubble (d.1953), American astronomer, was born. He proved that there are other galaxies far from our own.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)
1889        Nov 20, Gustav Mahler's 1st Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1893        Nov 20, The struggling Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, meeting in Detroit, Michigan, elected Byron Bancroft Johnson (29), a former ballplayer and Cincinnati sportswriter, as president. He had been recommended by Charles Comiskey, a potential investor in the league and manager of the National League’s Cincinnati Reds.
    (ON, 6/09, p.10)

1894        Nov 20, Anton Rubinstein (64), Russian composer (Dmitri Donskoi), died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1903        Nov 20, In Cheyenne, Wyoming, 42-year-old hired gunman and stock detective Tom Horn was hanged for the 1901 murder of Willie Nickell (14). Horn had made a controversial confession to U.S. Deputy Marshal Joseph S. LeFors that was pivotal in the conviction.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1906        Nov 20, George Bernard Shaw's "Doctor's Dilemma," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1907        Nov 20, Henri-Georges Clouzot, French director (Le salaire de la peur), was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1907        Nov 20, The McLaughlin Motor Car Company was founded in Ontario, Canada, under Samuel McLaughlin (1871-1972). In 1910 he became a director of General Motors and sold his company in 1918 becoming president of General Motors of Canada.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)

1908        Nov 20, Alistair Cooke (d.2004), English journalist, who hosted "Masterpiece Theater," was born in Salford, England.
    (SFC, 3/31/04, p.A2)(AP, 11/20/08)

1910        Nov 20, Revolution broke out in Mexico. Francisco I. Madero called for a rise to national arms on this day when dictator Porfirio Diaz reneged on his pledge to stay out of the presidential election.
    (SFEC, 11/9/97, p.T6) (AP, 11/20/97)

1911        Nov 20, Gustav Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" premiered in Munich.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1914        Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1914        Nov 20, US State Department began requiring photographs for passports.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1914        Nov 20, Bulgaria proclaimed its neutrality in the First World War.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1916        Nov 20, Thomas McGrath, poet and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1917        Nov 20, In the 1st tank battle Britain broke through German lines.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1920        Nov 20, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to US president W. Wilson.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1923        Nov 20, Nadine Gordimer, 1991 Nobel Prize-winning South African novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/20/00)
1923        Nov 20, Garrett Morgan invented and patented a traffic signal.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1925        Nov 20, Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General and Senator, was born in Brookline, Mass. While at Harvard during World War II, Robert F. Kennedy joined the U.S. Naval Reserve and served as a seaman on the destroyer Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. The ship was named for Kennedy’s eldest brother, who had been killed in battle during World War II. Kennedy died from an assassin’s bullet June 6, 1968, in Los Angeles after proclaiming victory in California’s Democratic Party primary election.
    (AP, 11/20/97)(HNQ, 7/14/98) (HN, 11/20/98)

1927        Nov 20, Karl Wilhelm Eugen Stenhammer (56), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1928        Nov 20, Mrs. Glen Hyde became the first woman to dare the Grand Canyon rapids in a scow. Her flat bottomed boat used sweep oars for maneuvering.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1929        Nov 20, Kenneth DeWitt Schermerhorn, conductor, was born in Schenectady, NY.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1929        Nov 20, Salvador Dali held his 1st one-man show.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1929        Nov 20, The radio program "The Rise of the Goldbergs" debuted on the NBC Blue Network.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1931        Nov 20, AT&T began commercial teletype service.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1931        Nov 20, Japan and China rejected the League of Council terms for Manchuria at Geneva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1934        Nov 20, Lillian Hellman's "Children's Hour," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1935        Nov 20, Borden and Coca Cola were removed from the DJIA. Du Pont and National Steel were added.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1936        Nov 20, Don DeLillo, author, was born. His work includes “White Noise" and "Libra."
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1938        Nov 20, The 1st documented anti-Semitic remarks over US radio were made by Father Coughlin.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1941        Nov 20, Ambassadors Nomura and Kurusu handed over Japan’s last diplomatic note.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1942        Nov 20, Joseph Biden, later US Senator for Delaware, was born in Scranton, Pa. In 2008 Barack Obama named Biden as his vice presidential running mate.
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A15)
1942        Nov 20, Meredith Monk, choreographer, composer and performing artist, was born in Lima, Peru.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, British 8th Army recaptured Benghazi, Libya.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, Hitler named field marshal Erich von Manstein to command.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, The 26th Russian Armored Corps recaptured Perelazovski. A million Russians breached German lines in a Soviet army offensive.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1943        Nov 20, US Marines began landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands, encountering fierce resistance from Japanese forces but emerging victorious three days later. The US 2nd marine division invaded the tiny isle of Betio on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilberts. It was the first seriously opposed landing experienced by the Americans in WWII. After 3 days 1,027 US Marine and Navy personnel were killed. Of some 4,800 Japanese and Korean laborers on Betio, 146 survived, including 17 Japanese troops. In 2006 John Wukovits authored “One Square Mile Of Hell."
    (AP, 11/20/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tarawa)(AH, 6/07, p.72)
1943        Nov 20, U-538 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1944        Nov 20, The 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack was at Ulithi Atoll, Carolines.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1945        Nov 20, Dmitri Shostakovitch's 9th Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1945        Nov 20, In Nuremberg, Germany 22 out of 24 indicted Nazi officials went on trial (one in absentia) before an international war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

1946        Nov 20, Lillian Hellman's "Another Part of the Forest," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1947        Nov 20, "Meet the Press" made network TV debut on NBC.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1947        Nov 20, Princess Elizabeth (future Queen Elizabeth II) married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, in a ceremony broadcast worldwide from Westminster Abbey.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(SFEM, 1/26/97, p.44)(AP, 11/20/97)

1949        Nov 20, Jewish population of Israel reached 1,000,000.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1950        Nov 20, U.S. troops pushed to Yalu River within five miles of Manchuria.
    (HN, 11/20/98)
1950        Nov 20, Francesco Cilea (84), opera composer, died.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1952        Nov 20, George Axelrod's "7 Year Itch," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1955        Nov 20, The Maryland National Guard was ordered desegregated.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1959        Nov 20, The United Nations issued its "Declaration of the Rights of the Child."
    (AP, 11/20/99)
1959        Nov 20, Seven European nations (Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland) signed the Stockholm Convention to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The organization becoming operative on May 3 1960.
    (www.iceland.org/efta/the-mission/int-organizations/efta/)

1962        Nov 20, President Kennedy barred religious or racial discrimination in federally funded housing.
    (HN, 11/20/98)
1962        Nov 20, USSR agreed to remove bombers from Cuba and US lifted its blockade.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1964        Nov 20, Regents of UC Berkeley ratified the suspension of eight students, placed students Mario Savio and Art Goldberg on probation and allowed on-campus political advocacy  that doesn’t lead to unlawful activity.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A13)

1965        Nov 20, UN Security council called for a boycott of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1966        Nov 20, "Cabaret" opened at Broadhurst Theater, NYC, for 1166 performances.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1966        Nov 20, Men in Zurich voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1967        Nov 20, The Census Clock at the US Commerce Department ticked past 200 million.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1969        Nov 20, The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT as part of a total phase-out.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1969        Nov 20, A group of 80 Native Americans, all college students, seized Alcatraz Island in the name of “Indians of All Tribes." The occupation lasted 19 months. They offered $24 in beads and cloth to buy the island, demanded an American Indian Univ., museum and cultural center, and listed reasons why the island was a suitable Indian reservation.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)

1970        Nov 20, In Oklahoma 3 teenagers in a Chevrolet Camaro failed to return home after a high school football game. In 2013 divers on a training exercize discovered Their skeletal remains in a Camaro in Foss Lake.
    (SFC, 9/19/13, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/m9owvbn)
1970        Nov 20, UN General Assembly accepted membership of the People’s Republic of China.
    (www.un.org/documents/ga/res/25/ares25.htm)

1971        Nov 20, U.S. planned to give Turkey $35 million for farmers who agreed to stop growing opium poppies.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1973        Nov 20, Allan Sherman (b.1924), American musician, parodist and producer, died. He was the creator and original producer of the popular “I've Got a Secret" from 1952 to 1958.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Sherman)

1974        Nov 20, The US Dept. of Justice filed an antitrust suit to break up ATT.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(www.spectrum.ieee.org/jul05/1571)

1975        Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)(www.ford.utexas.edu/grf/timeline.asp)
1975        Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinate Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)
1975        Nov 20, After nearly four decades of absolute rule (1936-1975), Spain's General Francisco Franco died, two weeks before his 83rd birthday. Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso, was his designated successor and the monarchy was restored. In 2002 Gabrielle Ashford Hodges authored "Franco: A Concise Biography."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A17)(AP, 11/20/97)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.M4)

1977        Nov 20, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat became the first Arab leader to address Israel's parliament.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1979        Nov 20, The first US artificial blood transfusion occurred at Univ. of Minn. Hospital. The patient was a Jehovah's Witness, who had refused a transfusion of real blood because of his religious beliefs.
    (www.todayinsci.com/11/11_20.htm)
1979        Nov 20, Some 200 armed men and women, Mahadiists, seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They denounced the monarchy and demanded an end to corrupting modernization and "foreign ways." Saudi preacher Juhayman al Uteybi (Juhayman al-Otaibi) led the radicals. After two weeks French special forces shot dead all the Wahhabi extremists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Siege_of_Mecca)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)(WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1980        Nov 20, Faced with disastrous reviews from New York critics, United Artists announced it was withdrawing its $36 million movie "Heaven's Gate" for re-editing.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
1980        Nov 20, In China the Gang of Four, scapegoats for the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, were put on trial. They were tried and sentenced in nationally televised court proceedings. Jiang Hua led the special tribunal that was set up to try Jiang Qing and her 3 Politburo allies known as the Gang of Four. Qing was sentenced to death but her sentence was later commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/2tfc9u)

1982        Nov 20, South Africa backed down on a plan to install black rule in neighboring Namibia.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1984        Nov 20, McDonald's made its 50 billionth hamburger.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2p8ua9)

1986        Nov 20, The US Federal Reserve Board approved a $500 million equity investment by Japan’s Sumitomo Bank in Goldman Sachs.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, SR p.20)(http://tinyurl.com/3xdm2q)
1986        Nov 20, UN's WHO announced 1st global effort to combat AIDS.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycyxmk)

1987        Nov 20, The film "Nuts" starring Barbra Streisand premiered.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuts_%28film%29)
1987        Nov 20, President Reagan and congressional leaders announced agreement on a two-year, $76 billion deficit-reduction plan designed to reassure jittery financial markets.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1988        Nov 20, Egypt and China announced they were recognizing the Palestinian state proclaimed by the Palestine National Council.
    (AP, 11/20/98)

1989        Nov 20, More than 200,000 people rallied peacefully in Prague, Czechoslovakia, demanding democratic reforms and the ouster of Communist Party leader Milos Jakes.
    (AP, 11/20/99)

1990        Nov 20, The space shuttle “Atlantis" landed at Cape Canaveral, Florida, after completing a secret military mission.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1990        Nov 20, The Soviet Union again rebuffed President Bush’s efforts to rally support for a UN Security Council resolution authorizing military force against Iraq.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1990        Nov 20, Margaret Thatcher failed to defeat Heseltine's bid for party leadership.
    (http://tinyurl.com/krb66)

1991        Nov 20, California Democrat Alan Cranston accepted a Senate reprimand for his dealings with former savings-and-loan chief Charles H. Keating Jr., but then denied he was guilty of many of the allegations, prompting an angry rebuttal by New Hampshire Republican Warren B. Rudman.
    (AP, 11/20/01)
1991        Nov 20, Mile Mrksic, Miroslav Radic, and Veselin Sljivan-Canin, officers in the Yugoslav National Army, ordered the Serb army and military police to withdraw from the hospital at Vukovar. The paramilitary forces then took 194 Croat men in small groups to an area nearby and shot them. Radic surrendered to Serbian authorities in 2003. Mrksic and Sljivancanin were convicted by a UN tribunal in 2007. Radic was acquitted.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(SFC, 4/22/03, A7)(AP, 9/27/07)(WSJ, 9/28/07, p.A1)

1992        Nov 20, The United States and the European Community announced they had resolved a dispute over EC farm subsidies, but French officials expressed dissatisfaction.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1992        Nov 20, Fire seriously damaged the northwest side of Windsor Castle, the favorite weekend home of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1993        Nov 20, The U.S. Senate ended a filibuster against the Brady Bill, which imposed a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases, and passed it by a 63-36 vote; the Senate also approved legislation implementing the North American Free Trade Agreement, 61-38.
    (AP, 11/20/98)

1994        Nov 20, The Angolan government under dos Santos and rebels under Savimbi signed a treaty in Zambia to end 19 years of war, even as fighting continued in their homeland.
    (AP, 11/20/99)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)
1994        Nov 20, The most heavily mined country in the world was Afghanistan, with between 10 and 15 million deadly mines. In Angola, one third of the countryside was strewn with mines and the toll of nearly 25 people a day who were injured or killed by land mines has left 20,000 amputees. Cambodia’s 7 million mines amount to two for every single Cambodian child, and between 200 and 250 people became victims every month. In Somalia, the laying of mines rose to new heights of terror as civilian areas were deliberately targeted. Truck loads of mines were scattered in houses, wells, river-crossings, markets, and even cemeteries. Presently, the area being mined most heavily is the war zone of the former Yugoslavia, where 3 million mines have been laid in just a few years. The US State Dept. estimated that 25,000 people are killed or maimed each year by mines. About 1.5 to 2 million new mines go into the ground each year. There is a British Rapid Antipersonnel Minefield Breaching System (RAMBS) manufactured by Pains-Wessex Schermuly that is fired from a rifle and clears a path 60 meters long and one meter wide in less than a minute.
    (UNICEFF Mailer, 11/94)(WSJ, 5/17/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A13)

1995        Nov 20, Radio stations began airing a new Beatles recording, “Free As a Bird," which had debuted on ABC TV the night before.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1995        Nov 20, US Federal employees, idled during a government shutdown, returned to their jobs.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1995        Nov 20, The US FDA approved new therapy for use as an initial AIDS treatment, 3TC.
    (www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/NEW00519.html)
1995        Nov 20, Olympic figure skating champion Sergei Grinkov (28) died of a heart attack in Lake Placid, New York.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1995        Nov 20, BBC Television broadcast an interview with Princess Diana, who admitted being unfaithful to Prince Charles.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1995        Nov 20, France conducted its 4th nuclear test at the Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia. [other news sources indicated a severe earthquake with the epicenter in the Red Sea]
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1996        Nov 20, US House Republicans chose Newt Gingrich to be speaker for a second term.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1996        Nov 20, San Francisco began posting signs along its waterfront to warn fisherman of health hazards from fish caught in the Bay.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.A22)
1996        Nov 20, In Zagreb, Croatia, thousands protested the government’s attempt to close the independent Radio 101.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)
1996        Nov 20, In Hong Kong a fire raged in the 16-story Garley Building and 39 people died.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C3)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A22)(AP, 11/20/97)
1996        Nov 20, In Zambia Frederick Chiluba and his Movement for Multiparty Democracy won re-election. Former pres. Kaunda and his United National Independent Party boycotted because he was declared ineligible to run.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C3)
1996        Nov 20-1996 Nov 25, In the Philippines the summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) was to be held in Manila. APEC has 18 member countries and its goal is to remove all trade barriers by 2020.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A8)

1997        Nov 20, It was reported that Lucent Tech.’s Bell Labs has developed a new tiny transistor that is 5 times faster and 1/4th the size of commercially available transistors.
    (WSJ, 11/20/97, p.B4)
1997        Nov 20, From Ethiopia it was reported that flooding has killed 297 people and uprooted 65,000 and that heavy rains continued to fall.
    (SFC, 11/20/97, p.B2)
1997        Nov 20, In India S.V. Ramanna Reddy, a former legislator of Andhra Pradesh, surrendered to police in relation to the previous days bomb blast.
    (SFC, 11/21/97, p.D6)
1997        Nov 20, Iraq agreed to allow US arms inspectors back into the country after Russia agreed to help work to lift UN Security Council sanctions. Prodded by Russia, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein agreed to allow U.S. arms monitors back into his country, ending a three-week crisis that had raised fears of a military confrontation with the United States.
    (SFC, 11/20/97, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/98)
1997        Nov 20, In Nigeria the government of Gen’l. Sani Abacha gave 5 political parties $637,000 each to campaign in elections to restore civilian rule. Opposition groups called politicians of the 5 parties government stooges. 18 parties had applied for recognition but only 5 were deemed suitable.
    (SFC, 11/21/97, p.D6)(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A6)

1998        Nov 20, A $206 billion tobacco settlement over health costs for treating sick smokers was endorsed by 46 eligible states. It was the largest settlement of a civil lawsuit in history.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/99)
1998        Nov 20, President Clinton wrapped up a visit to Japan and flew to South Korea.
    (AP, 11/20/99)
1998        Nov 20, Rolando Alphonso, tenor saxophonist for the ska group Skatalites, died at age 67. He was an original member of the Jamaican group that was formed in 1964.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)
1998        Nov 20, Re: Congo it was reported that Kabila was signing away large stakes in Congo’s biggest enterprises to businessmen from Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia in return for support against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)
1998        Nov 20, In Indonesia thousands of students marched and demanded the resignations of Pres. Habibie and military chief Wiranto following doctor’s confirmation that protestors were killed with live ammunition on Nov 13-14. In Pinrang thousands of villagers rioted after finding that they could not withdraw savings from an outlawed bank.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.A24)
1998        Nov 20, Iraq balked at handing over documents on chemical and biological weapons and missile systems.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A1)
1998        Nov 20, Israel ceded control of a 200-sq. mile patchwork area, 2 percent of the West Bank, to the Palestinian Authority in the 1st of 3 withdrawals. 250 prisoners were released but 150 of them were common criminals rather than political detainees,
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A10)(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/99)
1998        Nov 20, Israel carried out its 100th air raid along with ground attacks in southern Lebanon. One Amal fighter was reported killed.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A12)
1998        Nov 20, In Italy a court ordered the release of Kurdish rebel Abdullah Ocalan under a law barring extradition in death penalty cases and planned to grant him asylum.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A10)
1998        Nov 20, In Kazakhstan a Russian Proton booster rocket lifted up the first stage of the new int’l. space station called Zarya (Sunrise).
    (SFC, 11/20/98, p.A18)(SFC, 11/21/98, p.A13)
1998        Nov 20, In Pakistan Prime Minister Sharif ordered soldiers to quell violence in Karachi and suspended civil rights in Sindh province, which surrounds the city.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A14)
1998        Nov 20, Galina Starovoitova, a member of the State Duma, was shot to death in St. Petersburg. She had recently formed a coalition called Northern Capital to push the candidacy of liberals for the Dec. 6 elections to the regional legislature. In June, 2005, two men were convicted of the actual killing. Four others charged in the case were acquitted. In 2006 two more men were convicted on charges relating to the murder. Vyacheslav Lelyavin was sentenced to 11 years in prison for being a member of the gang. Pavel Stekhnovsky, guilty of buying the rifle used to shoot Starovoitova, was freed after prosecutors failed to prove he knew the gun was intended for the killing.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 11/22/98, p.A26)(AP, 9/23/06)(AP, 9/29/06)
1998        Nov 20, From Senegal it was reported that land mines had made 80% of Casamance province unusable. The mines, laid by separatist rebels, had killed or wounded close to 500 people in the 1st 8 months of this year.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A15)
1998        Nov 20, UN sponsored autonomy negotiations on East Timor were suspended after 44 people were reported killed under a military crackdown by the Indonesian government. The Red Cross later denied the reports of a massacre.
    (WSJ, 11/23/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/27/98, p.A1)

1999        Nov 20, A day after violent anti-American protests in Greece, President Clinton sought to heal old wounds by acknowledging the United States had failed its “obligation to support democracy" when it backed Greek’s harsh military junta during the Cold War.
    (AP, 11/20/00)
1999        Nov 20, In Algeria some 20 people were killed in a clash between guerrillas and security forces south of Algiers.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A15)
1999        Nov 20, China completed its first unmanned test of a spacecraft. The Shenzhou 1, or "Divine Vessel," was launched at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A1)

2000        Nov 20, Lawyers for Al Gore and George W. Bush battled before the Florida Supreme Court over whether the presidential election recount should be allowed to continue.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/01)
2000        Nov 20, China singed an agreement with the UN for cooperation and training on individual rights and the rule of law.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A13)
2000        Nov 20, The EU began to build its own defense force, a 60,000 man, rapid reaction corps. EU defense chiefs pledged 100,000 soldiers, 400 planes and 100 ships for a rapid-reaction force.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Nov 20, Israel fired a barrage of missiles on the Gaza Strip in retaliation for an attack on a school bus that killed 2 Jewish settlers and wounded 9 others including 3 siblings who lost limbs. At least 35 people were reported wounded in the missile attack.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Nov 20, In Mozambique Carlos Cardoso, founder and editor of the Metical newspaper, was murdered while driving in Maputo. He had been investigating a 1996 theft of $14 million from the Commercial Bank of Mozambique. In 2003 six men were convicted of the murder. Businessman Vicente Ramaya was later convicted of ordering the murder and sentenced to 23 years in prison. In 2013 a judge signed papers granting Ramaya's release because of good behavior.
    (AP, 1/31/03)(AP, 1/22/13)
2000        Nov 20, Peru’s Pres. Fujimori announced his resignation from Tokyo, ending a 10-year reign. Acting president Ricardo Marquez also stepped down.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A12)(AP, 11/20/01)
2000        Nov 20, Philippine senators presented Pres. Estrada a 270-page articles of impeachment for corruption and constitutional violations.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A12)

2001        Nov 20, Pres. Bush called on Americans to support charities of all kinds.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A16)
2001        Nov 20, A federal judge extended a court order blocking an attempt by Attorney General John Ashcroft to dismantle Oregon's one-of-a-kind law allowing physician-assisted suicides.
    (AP, 11/20/02)
2001        Nov 20, US federal health officials approved sale of the world's first contraceptive patch, Ortho-Evra.
    (AP, 11/20/02)
2001        Nov 20, The Sep 11 death toll at the WTC was reduced to just under 3,900.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A2)
2001        Nov 20, Portland police said they would not cooperate with FBI efforts to interview some 5,000 Middle Eastern men because the questioning violated state laws.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A11)
2001        Nov 20, Jeff Hawkins, inventor of the Palm computer, was reported to hold that the brain works by anticipating and completing patterns more than it does through inputs and outputs of information.
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.B1)
2001        Nov 20, In Afghanistan the Northern Alliance gave the Taliban in Kunduz 3 days to give up. The alliance controlling Afghanistan's capital and much of its countryside agreed to attend power-sharing talks in Germany the following week.
    (WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/02)
2001        Nov 20, Abu Qatada (40), a Muslim cleric living in London, was named in a Spanish indictment as a pivotal figure in the al Qaeda network in Europe.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A11)
2001        Nov 20, Chinese police on Tiananmen Square detained some 35 foreigners who protested the crackdown on the Falun Gong. The protesters were all expelled from the country.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/22/01, p.A21)
2001        Nov 20, A speedboat, believed to be carrying 30 smuggled Cubans, capsized in the Florida Straits and all were believed drowned.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A17)
2001        Nov 20, The Liberal (Venstre) Party under Anders Fogh Rasmussen (1953) won elections in Denmark. It formed a minority government with the Conservative People’s Party.
    (http://www.andersfogh.dk/807.0.html)

2002        Nov 20, On the eve of a NATO summit in the Czech Republic, President Bush, recalling Europe's grim history of "excusing aggression," challenged skeptical allies to stand firm against Saddam Hussein.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/20/03)
2002        Nov 20, Louisiana began offering a $4-a-tail bounty on the swamp-dwelling nutria rodent, due to wetlands damage from devoured plants.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A2)
2002        Nov 20, Thomas Mohaghan (65), founder of Domino's Pizza, pledged at least $220 million to build the Catholic Ave Maria Univ. near Naples, Fla.
    (SFC, 11/21/02, p.A7)
2002        Nov 20, A German doctor conducted Britain's first public autopsy in more than 170 years, an event denounced by the British Medical Association's Head of Ethics as "degrading and disrespectful."
    (AP, 11/20/03)
2002        Nov 20, Francoise Ducros, aide to PM Chretien of Canada, called Pres. Bush a moron during a private conversation in Prague. She resigned Nov 26.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/26/02)
2002        Nov 20, In Riobamba, Ecuador, a series of explosions at an ammunition depot left at least 7 people dead and 140 injured.
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/22/02)
2002        Nov 20, The EU, except for Portugal. banned Belarus Pres. Lukashenko and top aides to protest human rights abuses under his rule.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)
2002        Nov 20, Israel's Labor Party chose Amram Mitzna, ex-general and Haifa mayor, as its leader in the Jan 28 elections.
    (WSJ, 11/20/02, p.A1)
2002        Nov 20, Israeli troops shot and killed Amr Qudsi (15), a Palestinian teenager in a confrontation in Tulkarem.
    (AP, 11/20/02)
2002        Nov 20, In Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, Phillip Seerattan (17) opened fire with a pistol at a school for foreign students, wounding a security guard before being shot to death by police.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2003        Nov 20, In Florida ministers from 34 countries announced a framework to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas," (FTAA).
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.A12)
2003        Nov 20, Michael Jackson turned himself over to police in Santa Barbara, Ca., on an arrest warrant alleging multiple counts of child molestation. He posted a $3 million bail bond. Jackson was later acquitted at trial.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2003        Nov 20, Record producer Phil Spector was charged with murder in the shooting death of an actress, Lana Clarkson, at his home in Alhambra, Calif., in February 2003. As of 2008 Spector was being retried after his first trial ended in a deadlocked jury.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2003        Nov 20, Motor Trend named the Toyota's hybrid Prius as "Car of the Year."
    (AP, 11/20/03)   
2003        Nov 20, Advanced Micro Devices said it would build $2.4 billion chip factory in Germany to produce microprocessors on 300-mm silicon wafers.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.B1)
2003        Nov 20, Eugene Kleiner (80), California pioneer venture capitalist, died.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.79)
2003        Nov 20, Tens of thousands of demonstrators in London burned an effigy of President Bush to show their anger over the Iraq war.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2003        Nov 20, In Canada Conrad Black, newspaper magnate, stepped down as CEO of Hollinger Int'l. following reports that he other top officials received unauthorized payments of some $32.2 million.
    (WSJ, 11/28/03, p.A1)
2003        Nov 20, David Dacko (76), the first president of Central African Republic as an independent nation (1960-1966, 1979-1981), died.
    (AP, 11/21/03)
2003        Nov 20, In Kirkuk, Iraq, a bomb apparently hidden in a pickup truck exploded at the offices of a US-allied Kurdish political party, killing five people and wounding 40.
    (AP, 11/20/03)
2003        Nov 20, A group of UN agencies is asking for $221 million in international aid for North Korea, where food shortages, poverty and poor health care services have put the country in a state of "chronic emergency."
    (AP, 11/20/03)
2003        Nov 20, The London Privy Council ruled that Trinidad's mandatory death penalty for murder convictions was unconstitutional, forcing the country to begin giving discretion to judges when handing out sentences.
    (AP, 11/21/03)
2003        Nov 20, In Turkey trucks packed with explosives blew up at the HSBC London-based bank and the British consulate. The 32 people killed included London's consul-general Roger Short. Some 450 people were wounded.
    (AP, 11/20/03)(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A1)(SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2003        Nov 20, In Florida ministers from 34 countries announced a framework to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas" (FTAA), as police clashed with hundreds of demonstrators.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.A12)(AP, 11/20/04)
2003        Nov 20, Michael Jackson turned himself over to police in Santa Barbara, Ca., on an arrest warrant alleging multiple counts of child molestation. He posted a $3 million bail bond.
    (AP, 11/19/03)
2003        Nov 20, Record producer Phil Spector was charged with murder in the fatal shooting of actress, Lana Clarkson, at his home in Alhambra, Calif.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2003        Nov 20, Motor Trend named the Toyota's hybrid Prius as "Car of the Year."
    (AP, 11/20/03)   
2003        Nov 20, Advanced Micro Devices said it would build $2.4 billion chip factory in Germany to produce microprocessors on 300-mm silicon wafers.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.B1)
2003        Nov 20, Eugene Kleiner (80), California pioneer venture capitalist, died.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.79)
2003        Nov 20, In Canada Conrad Black, newspaper magnate, stepped down as CEO of Hollinger Int'l. following reports that he other top officials received unauthorized payments of some $32.2 million.
    (WSJ, 11/28/03, p.A1)
2003        Nov 20, David Dacko (76), the first president of Central African Republic as an independent nation (1960-1966, 1979-1981), died.
    (AP, 11/21/03)
2003        Nov 20, Tens of thousands of demonstrators in London burned an effigy of President Bush to show their anger over the Iraq war.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2003        Nov 20, In Kirkuk, Iraq, a bomb apparently hidden in a pickup truck exploded at the offices of a US-allied Kurdish political party, killing five people and wounding 40.
    (AP, 11/20/03)
2003        Nov 20, A group of UN agencies is asking for $221 million in international aid for North Korea, where food shortages, poverty and poor health care services have put the country in a state of "chronic emergency."
    (AP, 11/20/03)
2003        Nov 20, The London Privy Council ruled that Trinidad's mandatory death penalty for murder convictions was unconstitutional, forcing the country to begin giving discretion to judges when handing out sentences.
    (AP, 11/21/03)
2003        Nov 20, In Turkey trucks packed with explosives blew up at the HSBC London-based bank and the British consulate. The 32 people killed included London's consul-general Roger Short. Some 450 people were wounded.
    (AP, 11/20/03)(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.A1)(SFC, 12/1/03, p.A16)

2004        Nov 20, US Republicans whisked a $388 billion spending bill through the House.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2004        Nov 20, The new NYC MOMA opened in midtown Manhattan. Its new tower was designed by Yoshio Taniguchi.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.85)
2004        Nov 20, The NBA suspended 9 players without pay over the Nov 19 Piston and Pacer brawl in Auburn Hills, Mich.
    (Econ, 11/27/04, p.34)
2004        Nov 20, Juan Rodriguez (49) of NYC, a Colombian immigrant and parking garage worker, won the $149 million Mega Millions lottery jackpot. He chose to take a single payment of $88.5 million before taxes.
    (USAT, 11/21/04, p.3A)
2004        Nov 20, Scientist Ancel Keys (100), died in Minneapolis. He invented the K rations eaten by soldiers in World War II and who linked high cholesterol and fatty diets to heart disease.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2004        Nov 20, Fifteen African presidents and UN chief Kofi Annan signed a common declaration in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to promote peace and security in the Great Lakes region.
    (AFP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, In Brazil gunmen raided the camp Terra Prometida and torched huts and crops in Minas Gerais state. 5 victims were executed with shots at close range and 12 other people, including a child, were injured. In 2013 rancher Adriano Chafik was sentenced to 115 years in prison for ordering and taking part in the Massacre of Felisburgo.
    (SSFC, 10/13/12, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/lw7xkqq)
2004        Nov 20, In China a fire at a complex of iron mines in Shahe, Hebei province, left 68 dead. Most of the miners were suffocated by smoke.
    (AP, 11/26/04)
2004        Nov 20, An early morning 6.2 earthquake jolted San Jose, Costa Rica, and killed 8 people. Leaders of 21 nations were gathered there for the Ibero-American Summit.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, In Baghdad insurgents attacked a US patrol and a police station, assassinated 4 government employees and detonated several bombs. One American soldier was killed and 9 were wounded during clashes that left 3 Iraqi troops and a police officer dead.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, The bodies of nine Iraqi soldiers, all shot execution-style and seven of them decapitated, were discovered in the northern city of Mosul.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, Germany and the United States agreed on a proposal to write off as much as 80 percent of Iraq's debt.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, India pulled out around 3,000 troops from Kashmir.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, In southern Italy 8 people from two families were killed when a gas explosion destroyed their apartment building.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, In western Nepal at least 26 rebel and government soldiers were killed during a clash at a rebel training camp at Pandon.
    (SFC, 11/22/04, p.A3)
2004        Nov 20, In Ojobo, Nigeria, a protest at an oil rig operated by Shell left 7 people dead.
    (SFC, 12/10/04, p.A23)
2004        Nov 20, Palestinians formally opened the campaign for a successor to Yasser Arafat.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2004        Nov 20, A Polish woman abducted from her apartment in Baghdad reappeared in Poland after being suddenly released.
    (AP, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, Puerto Rico's two highest courts ordered election authorities in separate rulings to immediately begin recounting votes cast in the extremely tight Nov. 2 gubernatorial elections.
    (AP, 11/21/04)
2004        Nov 20, In Togo at least 13 people died and others were injured in a crush at a demonstration to welcome an improvement in relations with the EU.
    (Reuters, 11/20/04)
2004        Nov 20, Ugur Kaymaz (12) and his father Ahmet Kaymaz (30), a Kurdish truck driver from Kiziltepe, Turkey, were reportedly shot dead by police officers in front of their house. In 2007 all 4 members of the special forces implicated in the killings were exonerated.
    (www.extrajudicialexecutions.org/communications/turkey.html)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.60)

2005        Nov 20, US President George W. Bush pressed President Hu Jintao to rein in China's swelling trade surplus and push forward currency reform after calling for greater religious freedom. Hu Jintao has rebuffed Bush's calls to allow greater religious and political freedom but promised to show more flexibility on Sino-US economic disputes.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, In Tacoma, Wash., Dominick Sergio Maldonado (20) went on a shooting spree at a crowded shopping mall. 7 people were injured, one critically, before he was arrested. Maldonado has been charged with attempted murder and kidnapping.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2005        Nov 20, Chris Whitley (45), a chameleon singer-songwriter who oscillated between roots rock 'n' roll, blues and alt-rock, died of lung cancer in Houston. He recorded 11 albums since his 1991 debut, "Living with the Law," including “Dirt Floor" (1998) and this year's "Soft Dangerous Shores."
    (AP, 11/23/05)
2005        Nov 20, In Brazil TV da Gente (Our TV), the 1st channel to be directed at Brazil’s black population, was launched.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A21)
2005        Nov 20, British military said a British soldier was killed and four wounded by a roadside bomb in Iraq's southern city of Basra. A total of 98 British soldiers have been killed in Iraq, including 65 in hostile action, since the US-led invasion in March 2003.
    (AFP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, China reported two new outbreaks of bird flu in which almost 3,700 poultry died and more than 7,000 were culled as provinces hit by the deadly virus tightened preventive measures.
    (Reuters, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, A helicopter carrying a Colombian congressman and five others crashed Sunday in a storm in the mountains north of Bogota, killing all aboard. Conservative Party congressman Roberto Camacho, Cundinamarca state deputy Efren Bejerano and former Cundinamarca deputy governor Adolfo Leon were among those killed.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, Widespread violence marred the second round of Egypt's parliamentary vote, with police saying a campaign worker was shot and killed in Alexandria and witnesses reporting scores of injuries. Police arrested 400 Muslim Brotherhood activists in a crackdown on the Islamist group.
    (AP, 11/20/05)(Reuters, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, Tropical Storm Gamma weakened into a tropical depression after it deluged the Central American coast, killing 14 people in Honduras and Belize. 2 US newlyweds were among the dead in Belize.
    (AP, 11/20/05)(WSJ, 11/22/05, p.A1)
2005        Nov 20, Iran’s Parliament approved a bill requiring the government to block international inspections of its atomic facilities if the UN nuclear monitoring agency refers Iran to the Security Council for possible sanctions.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, In Iraq a car bomb exploded by a convoy carrying the mayor of Madaen killing 5 civilians. 3 bodies, all blindfolded and shot in the head, were found in Sadr City. A headless body was found south of Baghdad. A policeman was shot dead in Baghdad. A roadside bomb in Baghdad killed a child and wounded 5 others. A US soldier was killed by small arms fire north of Baghdad. A US marine died from wounds suffered the previous day in Karma.
    (SFC, 11/21/05, p.A6)
2005        Nov 20, Israel's dovish Labor Party voted Sunday to pull out of PM Ariel Sharon's coalition government, virtually assuring early general elections in March.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, Project manager Junichiro Kawaguchi said Hayabusa, a Japanese spacecraft, has failed to land on the Itokawa asteroid in the 2nd setback for the landmark mission aiming to bring samples from such a celestial body to Earth for the first time. The space agency, after evaluating more data, said on Nov 23 that Hayabusa did land for a half-hour, but failed to collect any material.
    (AFP, 11/20/05)(SFC, 11/23/05, p.A16)
2005        Nov 20, Russian President Vladimir Putin started a three-day visit to Japan but it appears unlikely there will be any progress in settling a 60-year territorial dispute that has prevented the two nations from formally ending World War II hostilities.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, In Turkey 12 people were detained after Kurdish demonstrators hurled Molotov cocktails and stones at the police during a protest in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, The Vatican beatified 13 Mexicans who died during a Roman Catholic uprising in the late 1920s that was crushed by the Mexican government.
    (AP, 11/20/05)
2005        Nov 20, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe said he will turn to nuclear power by processing recently discovered uranium deposits to resolve its chronic electricity shortage.
    (AP, 11/20/05)

2006        Nov 20, President Bush in Indonesia shrugged off protests that greeted him in the world's most populous Muslim nation, calling it a sign of a healthy democracy. Bush praised Indonesia's "pluralism and its diversity" and said that the world should look to the predominantly Muslim country as an example.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, The US Mint announced designs for new one-dollar coins that will feature images of the presidents beginning in February.
    (SFC, 11/20/06, p.A1)
2006        Nov 20, Six imams were removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport after passengers reported they were acting suspiciously.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2006        Nov 20, O.J. Simpson's book and TV special were canceled, an astonishing end to an imaginary confession that had sickened the public as the very worst kind of tabloid sensation. "If I Did It," in which Simpson was to have described how he would have killed his ex-wife, had been scheduled to air as a two-part interview Nov. 27 and Nov. 29 on Fox. The book was to have followed on Nov. 30. Harper Collins said all copies would be destroyed. The book was later brought out by a different publisher.
    (AP, 11/20/06)(SFC, 11/24/06, p.A3)(AP, 11/20/07)
2006        Nov 20, A bus crash in Huntsville, Alabama, killed 3 teenage girls and left at least 30 students injured. A 4th student died the next day.
    (SFC, 11/21/06, p.A3)(SFC, 11/22/06, p.A3)
2006        Nov 20, Robert Altman (b.1925), film director, producer and writer, died in Los Angeles. His numerous films included “M*A*S*H" (1970) and “Nashville" (1975).
    (SFC, 11/22/06, p.A1)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.87)
2006        Nov 20, Dirk Dirksen (b.1937), the godfather of San Francisco punk rock, died. He moved to SF in 1974 and soon began presenting late-night events at the Mabuhay Gardens in North Beach, where punk rock found a home.
    (SFC, 11/22/06, p.B7)
2006        Nov 20, British PM Tony Blair told soldiers fighting a resurgent Taliban that success in Afghanistan would be a step toward global security, and pledged Britain's commitment to the war-torn country "for as long as it takes."
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, In Austria 35 nations tried to find common ground in a fractious session focusing on what to do about Iran's requests to the UN nuclear watchdog agency for help on projects including building a plutonium-producing reactor.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, British Brig. Grismond "Gris" Davies-Scourfield died at age 88. He won a Military Cross for his part in the Allied defense of Calais during World War II and later escaped from the Nazis holding him prisoner in the notorious Colditz Castle.
    (AP, 12/6/06)
2006        Nov 20, Authorities seized a 50-foot homemade submarine with 3 tons of cocaine off the coast of Costa Rica.
    (SFC, 11/21/06, p.A2)
2006        Nov 20, China’s Pres. Hu Jintao arrived in New Delhi for the second visit by a Chinese president.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, Eritrea and Ethiopia both rejected plans by a UN-appointed border panel to demarcate their contentious frontier on paper.
    (AFP, 11/21/06)
2006        Nov 20, French prosecutors approved international arrest warrants for 9 Rwandan officials in connection with the 1994 attack that killed Rwanda's president, triggering the central African country's genocide. Magistrate Jean-Louis Bruguiere also said there was evidence that "Paul Kagame and members of his military staff devised the operation" to destroy Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana's plane.
    (Reuters, 11/21/06)
2006        Nov 20, In Kempten, Germany, nurse Stephan Letter was convicted of killing 28 of his patients (2003-2004) at a hospital in Sonthofen, Germany, and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, In northwest Germany, Sebastian Bosse (18) with explosives strapped to his body, killed himself after storming a high school in Emsdetten and injuring several people with gunfire.
    (AP, 11/21/06)
2006        Nov 20, In Guatemala City an enormous fire broke out at Central America's largest open-air market killing 15 people, including three minors.
    (AP, 11/21/06)
2006        Nov 20, In eastern India an explosion ripped through two cars of a passenger train, killing at least 8 people and injuring about 60 people.
    (AP, 11/21/06)
2006        Nov 20, Iran invited Iraq and Syria to talks in Tehran aimed at curbing violence in Iraq.
    (SFC, 11/21/06, p.A1)
2006        Nov 20, Assassins killed Walid Hassan (47), a popular Baghdad television comedian and a professor at a university south of the capital, but failed in attempts to kill two government officials as the country's leader met with Syria's foreign minister about improving security and reopening diplomatic relations. At least 25 Iraqis were killed in a series of attacks in Baghdad, Ramadi and Baquba. The bodies of 75 Iraqis, who had been kidnapped and tortured, were found in Baghdad, Dujail and in the Tigris River in southern Iraq.  It was reported that at least 21 Iraqi interpreters had been kidnapped and shot in the head in Basra over the last month.
    (AP, 11/20/06)(SFC, 11/20/06, p.A9)(AP, 11/21/06)(SFC, 11/21/06, p.A13)
2006        Nov 20, Italian Premier Romano Prodi’s center-left government got rid of the heads of its 3 intelligence chiefs: military service (SISMI), civil agency (SISDI) and the coordinating body CESIS.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.48)
2006        Nov 20, Mexico’s defeated presidential candidate Lopez Obrador planned to be sworn in as the country's "legitimate president" as Mexico celebrated its 1910 revolution.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, Armed men attacked the offices of a Nigerian aid group in the southern oil hub of Port Harcourt, killing one person and wounding another. The dead man had offered to help find Ateke Tom, a militant wanted by the Nigerian government in connection with a string of kidnappings and bank robberies.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, A Paraguayan court dropped corruption charges against former President Luis Gonzalez Macchi, acknowledging it had failed to meet a deadline for hearing full testimony on accusations he maintained a secret Swiss bank account.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, Gen. Addeh Museh, the president of the semiautonomous region of Puntland, said he will rule according to Islamic law, a surprising move in a relatively stable area that has resisted the spread of Islamic militants who control most of southern Somalia.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, In South Africa police said Ananias Mathe, a Mozambican national awaiting trial on rape, murder and other charges, escaped from Pretoria's C-Max prison by greasing himself up with petroleum jelly and squeezing out of a tiny window. This was the first reported escape at the top security prison in its 36-year history. On Dec 4 Mathe was shot and captured.
    (AP, 11/20/06)(AFP, 12/4/06)
2006        Nov 20, Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir's government hailed a new agreement with the UN over peacekeepers in Darfur as a diplomatic breakthrough, but said serious differences remain over the force's makeup and command.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, In Turkey police arrested 29 leftist activists who broke into The Associated Press office in Ankara to protest alleged mistreatment of prisoners.
    (AP, 11/20/06)
2006        Nov 20, Uzbekistan blocked a UN resolution backed by the US and Western nations criticizing its human rights violations, including the harassment, beatings and arrests of journalists and civil activists.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2007        Nov 20, Freddie Mac, the larger US buyer and guarantor of home loans, reported a $2 billion loss for the 3rd quarter and warned that it may need to raise fresh capital. Fannie Mae, another US mortgage guarantor, had already posted a $1.4 billion loss earlier in the month.
    (SFC, 11/21/07, p.C1)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.76)
2007        Nov 20, In Utah polygamist leader Warren Jeffs, self-proclaimed prophet of a breakaway Mormon sect, was sentenced to 10 years to life in prison for forcing a 14-year-old to marry her first cousin. In 2010 the Utah Supreme Court reversed the convictions of Jeffs and ordered a new trial saying a jury received incorrect instructions. On April 7, 2011, a federal judge handed control of a $114 million communal land trust back to the leaders of Jeff’s polygamous church. Courts had seized control of the trust in 2005.
    (Reuters, 11/21/07)(SFC, 7/28/10, p.A4)(SFC, 4/9/11, p.A5)
2007        Nov 20, Crude-oil futures surged to a record high settling at $98.03 a barrel on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (WSJ, 11/21/07, p.C8)
2007        Nov 20, Researchers said they have decoded the gene map of a strain of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and that their work has identified mutations that may help develop better treatments.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, Scientists in Japan and the US reported that they have made ordinary human skin cells take on the chameleon-like powers of embryonic stem cells, a startling breakthrough that might someday deliver the medical payoffs of embryo cloning without the controversy.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, In SF large grocery stores stopped using plastic bags as a new city ordnance banning the bags took effect.
    (SFC, 11/20/07, p.D1)
2007        Nov 20, British Treasury chief Alistair Darling revealed a lapse at Britain's tax and customs service regarding missing computer disks with details of 25 million British individuals and 7.25 million families claiming child benefit. There were gasps from lawmakers when Darling described the scale of the loss.
    (AP, 11/21/07)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.24)
2007        Nov 20, In Cambodia Kaing Guek Eav (66), also known as Duch, the head of the Khmer Rouge's largest and most notorious torture center appeared in court in the first public session of the long-delayed UN-backed tribunal probing the regime's reign of terror in the 1970s.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, A Chinese court sentenced a Tibetan nomad to eight years in prison for seeking Tibetan independence after he urged a crowd to proclaim loyalty to the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, In China Huang Qingnan (34), a workers’ rights advocate in Shenzhen, was severely beaten and stabbed by thugs believed to have been hired by Chinese companies opposed to labor activism.
    (SFC, 1/7/08, p.A18)
2007        Nov 20, The Paris-based World Association of Newspapers said imprisoned Chinese journalist Li Changqing has been awarded the Golden Pen of Freedom, its annual press freedom prize.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, A landslide in central China buried a bus. Workers clearing rocks from the landslide discovered the bus underneath rubble three days later and recovered 29 bodies, that included 28 inside the bus. The landslide raised concern that the massive reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam, 120 miles away, was wreaking ecological havoc in the region. The death toll later increased to 34.
    (AP, 11/23/07)(AP, 11/24/07)(AP, 12/3/07)
2007        Nov 20, It was reported that Congo is setting aside more than 11,000 square miles of rain forest to help protect the endangered bonobo, a great ape that is the most closely related to humans and is found only in this Central African country.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, Travel woes piled up in France with air traffic delays adding to a week of rail strikes as many of the nation's 5 million civil servants held a day-long walkout in the biggest test of President Nicolas Sarkozy's appetite for reform.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, A British Puma helicopter crashed southeast of Baghdad, killing two soldiers and seriously injuring two others. A sophisticated roadside bomb killed a US soldier and an Iraqi interpreter and wounded three other soldiers on patrol in eastern Baghdad.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, Israel’s PM Olmert met with Egypt’s Pres. Mubarek and said a peace deal with the Palestinians can be signed within a year.
    (WSJ, 11/21/07, p.A1)
2007        Nov 20, Israel signed an agreement with Liberia to extract diamonds from the African nation, seven months after sanctions barring Liberia from exporting the gems were lifted.
    (AFP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, Jordan held elections. Supporters of King Abdullah II, a close US ally, handily defeated the country's Islamist opposition in parliamentary elections, dropping their number of parliament seats by nearly two-thirds.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, Officials said Nigerian President Umaru Yar'Adua will not allow his country to be used as a base for the proposed US African military command AFRICOM.
    (AFP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, The British government announced that the legal age of sexual consent in Northern Ireland will be lowered to 16 in line with the rest of the United Kingdom.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, Pakistan’s Interior Ministry said more than 3,000 people jailed under emergency rule have been released, the latest sign that President Gen. Pervez Musharraf was rolling back some of the harsher measures taken against his opponents. Over 2,000 remained jailed. The government said the army had killed 15 militants in Shangla as Pres. Musharraf left for a visit to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, President Vladimir Putin said that Russia's decision to suspend its participation in a key arms control treaty was a necessary response to NATO "muscle-flexing" near its frontiers. The 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty, which originally set limits on weapons of NATO and Warsaw Pact countries, was revised in 1999. Russia ratified the updated treaty in 2004, but the US and other NATO members have refused to follow suit, saying Moscow first must fulfill obligations to withdraw forces from Georgia and from Moldova's separatist Trans-Dniester region.
    (AP, 11/20/07)
2007        Nov 20, In Singapore Southeast Asian leaders (ASEAN) adopted a landmark charter but their vision to create an EU-style bloc faced hurdles because of concerns over Myanmar, whose military rulers have defied international calls to restore democracy.
    (AP, 11/20/07)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.43)
2007        Nov 20, Ian Smith (88), Rhodesia's last white prime minister, died in South Africa. His attempts to resist black rule dragged the country, later renamed as Zimbabwe, into isolation and civil war.
    (AP, 11/20/07)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.92)

2008        Nov 20, A US federal judge ordered the release of five Algerians held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and the continued detention of a sixth in a major blow to the Bush administration's strategy to keep terror suspects locked up without charges.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, US Congressional efforts to rescue Detroit’s auto makers collapsed with lawmakers saying the industry lacks credibility to return to profitability. Democrats asked for a convincing turnaround plan by Dec 2.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 20, The DJIA fell 444.99 to its lowest level since March, 2003.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 20, In Afghanistan US-led forces killed an Afghan civilian in a battle that also left two militants dead.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 20, The new Australian Sex Party launched at Sexpo, an annual sex exhibition in Melbourne. It has already gathered the required 500 members and plans to register with the electoral commission next week.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the European Union's peacekeeping force in Bosnia for a year, emphasizing the importance of the country's progress towards Euro-Atlantic integration.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, A meteor streaked across the sky of the Canadian Prairies producing a fire ball that shone brightly enough to be seen over an area 700 km (435 miles) wide. Searchers soon found the remains of the 10-ton meteor.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 20, In southwestern Colombia the Nevado del Huila volcano erupted and loosed avalanches of mud and ash that injured nine, destroyed bridges and trapped people in their towns. At least 10 people died in landslides triggered by the eruption.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/29/08, p.B6)
2008        Nov 20, Dubai held a launch party for its Atlantis Hotel.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.115)
2008        Nov 20, Egypt held emergency talks with nations bordering the Red Sea on how to stop Somali gunmen from hijacking ships. Somali pirates had already seized at least 80 ships off the Horn of Africa this year.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 20, The European Union formally recognized Welsh, which dates back to the 6th century, as a minority tongue. It became an official tongue in Wales in 1993, 450 years after British rulers gave it the boot in favor of English.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Finland's Finance Ministry said four Nordic countries will lend Iceland $2.5 billion (euro1.98 billion) to help the country recover from its economic meltdown.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The 2008 edition of Beaujolais Nouveau wine arrived, and vintners hoped it will lift spirits despite the financial crisis and a dismal crop.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Georgian officials said Russian and separatist forces attacked a Georgian police checkpoint near the village of Ganmukhuri, near the breakaway province of Abkhazia. Anatoly Zaitsev, the chief of staff for the Abkhaz armed forces, said that a group of Abkhaz troops patrolling the area were shelled from the Georgian side and returned fire, and no Russian troops were involved.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Iraqi opposition lawmakers shouted and pounded their desks in protest in a second day of emotional debate in parliament over a proposed agreement with the US that would allow American forces to stay in Iraq for three more years. Baghdad authorities announced a campaign to kill stray dogs who roam the Iraqi capital in packs, after a spate of fatal dog attacks left children in some neighborhoods fearful of going outside. An American soldier died of non-combat-related causes.
    (AP, 11/20/08)(AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, Jewish settlers in Hebron spray-painted graffiti on a mosque slurring the Prophet Muhammad and defaced a Muslim cemetery, Israeli military officials said, threatening to worsen tensions in this volatile West Bank city.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Latvia said it is looking to start talks with IMF and had formally entered into negotiations with the European Commission on emergency financial assistance.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 20, US oil group Chevron suspended export contracts on much of its Nigerian production after a militant attack on a key pipeline. Chevron said it was declaring "force majeure" until December 31 following the Nov 14 attack on the pipeline which carries supplies to its Escravos terminal in the Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The Norwegian government said it has picked the US developed F-35 Joint Strike Fighter to replace its aging US-made F-16 aircraft in a roughly 60 billion kroner ($8.5 billion) deal.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, In Pakistan a militant Taliban group warned of reprisals if there was another US drone attack, as the government condemned the latest missile strike in its territory. A suicide bomber killed at least four people when he blew himself up at a mosque northwest of Khar, the main town in the troubled Bajaur tribal region. Pakistani jets and artillery killed 17 people, including up to four Uzbek commanders, as they pounded suspected Taliban and Al-Qaeda hideouts in Bajaur overnight and into the morning. Pakistani jets also killed 20 militants in attacks on militant centers in the northwestern Swat valley. A suicide bomber attacked a mosque in the border region where government-backed anti-militant tribesman were praying, killing 8, including the head of the group.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)(AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, In the Philippines a mother and her 3 children were among the six people killed after a mudslide triggered by days of heavy rain buried houses in a southern gold mining town.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, Boris Fyodorov (50), Russian economic reformer, died.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.88)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to impose sanctions on pirates, arms smugglers, and perpetrators of instability in Somalia in a fresh attempt to help end years of lawlessness in the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, South Africa said it will withhold aid for Zimbabwe until a representative government is in place, in what appeared to be the first punitive measure by a regional country to enforce a power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, South Korean activists sent propaganda leaflets over the border into North Korea, ignoring their own government's pleas to stop the practice and threats from the North to sever relations if it continues.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Sri Lanka's military said that it smashed a key Tamil Tiger defense line in the island's far north and seized an airfield, putting new pressure on the shrinking jungle mini-state.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The International Criminal Court prosecutor requested arrest warrants for rebels in Sudan's Darfur region, accusing them of storming an African Union camp and killing 12 peacekeepers in Sep, 2007.
    (Reuters, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Switzerland’s central bank cut its benchmark interest by a full percentage point, the latest in a global round of aggressive rate cuts amid stuttering economic growth.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A16)
2008        Nov 20, In Thailand a grenade attack on demonstrators occupying the Thai premier's offices killed one person and wounded 29, prompting protest leaders to call for a new march against the government.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 19, Turkey’s central bank cuts its core overnight borrowing rate by .5% to 16.25%.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A15)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to send some 3,000 additional UN peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help prevent a new war in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Vietnam's president Nguyen Minh Triet was set to meet Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez, during the first visit by a head of state from the communist nation here, mainly focused on oil and gas ties.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, In Vietnam family planning chiefs said officials in Communist Vietnam, alarmed by a new baby boom, are to crack down on couples having more than two children. The government first launched a two-child policy in the early 1960s. A 2003 ordinance encouraged small families without making it illegal for families to have a third child.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The US ambassador to Harare, James McGee, said that a total of 294 people have been confirmed dead from cholera in Zimbabwe, amid some 1,200 cases of the water-borne disease.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2009        Nov 20, A US judge blocked a Tennessee law that allowed people to bring handguns into restaurants and bars.
    (Reuters, 11/23/09)
2009        Nov 20, The Manhattan Declaration was signed by about 150 prominent Christian clergy, ministry leaders and scholars and was released at a press conference in Washington, DC. A number of Christian leaders, known for their public witness on behalf of justice, human rights, and the common good, had come together in shaping the declaration. It was born out of an urgent concern about growing efforts to marginalize the Christian voice in the public square, to redefine marriage, and to move away from the biblical view of the sanctity of life. In December 2010 Apple removed it as an iPhone App.
    (www.manhattandeclaration.org/the-movement/movement.aspx)(SFC, 12/7/10, p.A18)
2009        Nov 20, Oprah Winfrey announced that she will end her eponymous show in Sep 2011, 26 after it first aired nationwide.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.78) 
2009        Nov 20, Lester Shubin (84), former US Justice Dept. researcher, died at his home in Virginia. In the 1970s he began developing Kevlar, a new DuPont fabric invented in 1965, into body armor for police and soldiers. DuPont had intended Kevlar to replace steel belting on tires and began marketing it in 1971. By the end of 2009 bulletproof vests had saved the lives of over 3,000 law enforcement officers.
    (SFC, 11/28/09, p.C4)(SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)
2009        Nov 20, Charis Wilson (96), American model and writer, died. She had modeled for photographer Edward Weston for 11 years beginning in 1934.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.96)
2009        Nov 20, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber on a motorcycle struck Farah city, the capital of the southwestern province of Farah, killing 16 people near the governor's home. A roadside bomb targeted a controversial warlord, who escaped unscathed but killed five of his bodyguards northwest of Kabul. A similar device, of the type favored by Taliban insurgents, killed three civilians in the east.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)(SFC, 11/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Nov 20, In Australia 2 executives at Securency, a banknote-making firm part-owned by Australia's central bank, were suspended over a police probe into alleged bribery and kickbacks. According to a May 23 report by The Age newspaper, Securency officials had paid more than 12 million dollars in kickbacks for a printing contract to a Vietnamese businessman with links to the communist state's government. Officials were also accused of paying bribes worth millions of dollars into tax haven bank accounts of a politically-connected Nigerian businessman to win a 2007 contract.
    (AFP, 11/22/09)
2009        Nov 20, Australian firefighters battled dozens of bush blazes as record-breaking hot weather sparked "catastrophic" warnings in two states, just months after the country's worst ever wildfire disaster.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, Canada’s TD Bank was hit with a multimillion-dollar lawsuit calling it the "financial epicenter" of an alleged Ponzi scheme run by disgraced Florida lawyer Scott Rothstein.
    (Reuters, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In Cuba Reinaldo Escobar, the husband of acclaimed dissident Cuban blogger, Yoani Sanchez, was punched and shouted down by a pro-government mob after he challenged the presumed state agents who earlier roughed up his wife, to a street corner debate.
    (AP, 11/21/09)
2009        Nov 20, Egyptian police shot and killed a Bedouin in north Sinai after the arrest of fellow tribesmen prompted clashes. Protesters injured dozens of police near the Algerian embassy in Cairo, fanning the flames of a diplomatic spat that erupted after Algeria won a football World Cup qualifier.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In northern England military helicopters winched dozens of people to safety and emergency workers in inflatable boats rescued scores more as floods swamped the picturesque Lake District. One police officer was missing and feared dead after a bridge was swept away.
    (AP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In France a man with an automatic rifle opened fire on a car near a Paris train station, killing one man and wounding two others.
    (AP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, Germany filed terrorism charges against a Turkish-German dual citizen allegedly linked to a member of a cell that plotted to attack US targets. The 24-year-old, identified only as Kadir T. in line with German privacy laws, was charged with supporting a foreign terrorist organization and violating export laws.
    (AP, 12/9/09)
2009        Nov 20, German prosecutors said that around 200 football matches in nine European countries including at least three Champions League games are implicated in a new match-fixing scandal.
    (AP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, Guatemalan officials announced the resumption of international adoptions after a nearly two-year suspension prompted by the discovery that some babies were being sold.
    (AP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In India 7 people were arrested in Mumbai after activists from a hardline Hindu regional political party ransacked a television station's offices and beat up staff.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In the Northern Mariana Islands a gunman went on a rampage on the Pacific resort island of Saipan, killing 4 people and wounding six others before fatally shooting himself. Li Zhongren (42), a Chinese citizen, was believed to have been employed at the shooting range and left notes indicating personal financial problems and frustrations.
    (AP, 11/20/09)(SFC, 11/23/09, p.A2)
2009        Nov 20, In Mexico Jesus Zambada Reyes, identified as the nephew of drug lord Ismael "El Mayo" Zambada, was found dead in an apparent suicide in Guerrero state. A body found in Guerrero state was identified as Omar Guerrero Solis, a rebel leader who had accused the state governor of drug ties. Solis told local media in May that he believed Gov. Zeferino Torreblanca had ties to the Sinaloa cartel. He accused the army of not detaining Sinaloa gunmen, while cracking down on members of the rival Beltran Leyva cartel. US citizen Lizbeth Marin was shot in Matamoros and later died of the wound. A Mexican army soldier was said to have accidentally fired a round that hit Marin.
    (AP, 11/21/09)(AP, 11/24/09)
2009        Nov 20, In northwestern Pakistan a suspected US missile strike killed at least eight militants, the second attack this week in an area believed to hold many insurgents who fled from an army offensive elsewhere in the Afghan border region. Four Pakistani soldiers, including a captain, were killed when militants ambushed their convoy in the North Waziristan area of Shawal. Two police officers were killed and four others wounded when a remote-controlled bomb destroyed their vehicle in Peshawar.
    (AP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, Somali pirates hijacked a Panamanian cargo ship in the Gulf of Aden between the Arabian peninsula and the Horn of Africa.
    (AP, 11/21/09)
2009        Nov 20, Swiss authorities said that they had ordered some 350 million dollars of assets to be seized from the son of the late Nigerian dictator Sani Abacha for graft.
    (AFP, 11/20/09)
2009        Nov 20, In Geneva, Sw., CERN scientists restarted the $10 billion Large Hadron Collider (LHC) following more than a year of repairs. They were surprised that they could so quickly get beams of protons whizzing near the speed of light during the restart.
    (AP, 11/21/09)
2009        Nov 20, In Tanzania members of the East Africa Community (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) signed a common market agreement in Arusha, headquarters of the EAC.
    (http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-11/21/content_12513712.htm)
2009        Nov 20, Hugo Chavez has defended the alleged terrorist mastermind Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Sanchez Ramirez, saying the Venezuelan imprisoned in France was an important "revolutionary fighter" who supported the cause of the Palestinians. Ramirez gained international notoriety during the 1970s and 80s as the alleged mastermind of a series of bombings, killings and hostage dramas. He is serving a life sentence in France for the 1975 murders of two French secret agents and an alleged informant.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2010        Nov 20, American scientist Siegfried Hecker, a former director of the US Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory, said in a report that he was taken during a recent trip to the North's main Yongbyon atomic complex to a small industrial-scale uranium enrichment facility. It had 2,000 recently completed centrifuges. The North told him it was producing low-enriched uranium meant for a new reactor. North Korea told Hecker it began construction on the centrifuges in April 2009 and finished only a few days before the scientist's Nov. 12 visit.
    (AP, 11/21/10)
2010        Nov 20, In Florida Brandi Peters (27) and her 3 young children were found slain in a Tallahassee home.
    (SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A14)(SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A5)
2010        Nov 20, In eastern Afghanistan Taliban suicide bombers on bicycles killed four people and wounded 31. Hafiz Janan, a Taliban leader involved in training foreign fighters, was killed in the Bakwa district of Farah province. Another Taliban leader was captured in Baraki Barak district of Logar province.
    (Reuters, 11/20/10)(AP, 11/22/10)
2010        Nov 20, In Australia David Auchterlonie was murdered on his 17th birthday in New South Wales. Mathew Milat (17) and Cohen Klein (18) had planned for over a week to lure Auchterlonie to his death. In 2012 Matthew Milat, a relative of serial killer Ivan Milat, pleaded guilty to the ax murder and was sentenced to at least 30 years in prison. Cohen Klein also pleaded guilty and was sentenced for at least 22 years.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)
2010        Nov 20, China's government-backed Catholic church ordained a bishop who did not have the pope's approval, despite objections from the Vatican.
    (AP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, Colombia’s President Juan Manuel Santos said a top FARC rebel leader who oversees major cocaine production may have been killed in the bombing of a guerrilla camp in the country's southern jungles. Fabian Ramirez's pistols, rucksack and computers were found at the scene of a pre-dawn bombing. At least six bodies were found.
    (AP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, In Egypt a tour bus lost control and flipped over several times on a winding mountain road near a Red Sea resort, killing eight tourists.
    (AP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, Ireland moved towards finalizing its four-year crisis plan for cutting its budget deficit which could pave the way for a multi-billion euro bailout.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, Yair Klein, an Israeli wanted in Colombia for training militias that killed hundreds of people, returned home after he was released from a Moscow jail. Klein has denied working with Colombia's cocaine cartels and said he only instructed paramilitaries in defense tactics.
    (AP, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, Madagascar PM Camille Vital told reporters that 16 officers have surrendered, ending an impasse that began Nov 17, when a faction of officers declared they were taking over from Andry Rajoelina.
    (AP, 11/21/10)
2010        Nov 20, In Mexico a gang of suspected kidnappers were arrested by marines. They had detailed plans of security arrangements for next week's UN climate change talks in Cancun.
    (Reuters, 11/22/10)
2010        Nov 20, NATO nations meeting in Portugal formally agreed to start turning over Afghanistan's security to its military next year and give them full control by 2014. The US and its allies appeared to take conflicting views on when NATO combat operations would end. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he did not expect NATO troops to stay in the fight against the Taliban after 2014. Russia was receptive but stopped short of accepting a historic NATO invitation to join a missile shield protecting Europe against Iranian attack.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(Reuters, 11/20/10)
2010        Nov 20, In Saudi Arabia a young woman in her twenties defying a driving ban in the capital died along with three female friends when her car overturned.
    (AP, 11/21/10)
2010        Nov 20, Pope Benedict XVI formally created 24 new cardinals amid cheers in St. Peter's Basilica, bringing a mostly Italian group into the elite club that will eventually elect his successor. Benedict XVI reiterated that condoms are not a moral solution for stopping AIDS. But he added that in some cases, such as for male prostitutes, their use could represent a first step in assuming moral responsibility "in the intention of reducing the risk of infection.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(AP, 11/21/10)
2010        Nov 20, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez stepped up his threats against the country’s only remaining opposition-aligned television channel, calling its owner, Guillermo Zuloaga, a fugitive criminal and accusing him of conspiring against his government.
    (AP, 11/20/10)

2011        Nov 20, It was reported that South Carolina authorities have charged one person in connection with the mess of roughly 250,000 tires, which covers more than 50 acres on satellite images. Records showed the property is owned by Michael Keitt Jr. of Far Rockaway, NY.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Ted Forstmann, private equity pioneer, died. He and his brother Nick and Brian Little founded Forstmann Little in 1978.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.78)
2011        Nov 20, In eastern Afghanistan over 1,000 university students blocked a main highway Jalalabad city to protest any agreement that would allow US troops to remain in the country after a planned transfer of authority in 2014. The Interior Ministry said Afghan and international forces killed 16 insurgents in fighting over the past three days in Nuristan province.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, In Benin Pope Benedict XVI led tens of thousands of people in a panoply of African tongues during a Mass in the national soccer stadium. He formally delivered to Africa's bishops an 87-page document known as a treatise. It applies church doctrine to address the continent's ills, especially the wars and conflicts caused by ethnic divisions and has been called a "papal road map" for Africa.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Eighteen Church of England bishops have signed an open letter published on Sunday criticizing planned welfare reforms, in a rare intervention by the religious establishment in politics. The bishops said that plans to cap the amount any household can claim in benefits at £500 ($790, 580 euros) a week risked pushing vulnerable children into poverty.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Egyptian riot police clashed for a second day in downtown Cairo with some five thousand rock-throwing protesters demanding that the ruling military quickly announce a date to hand over power to an elected government. Egypt's culture minister resigned in protest at the government response to demonstrations in Cairo's Tahrir Square.
    (AP, 11/20/11)(AFP, 11/21/11)
2011        Nov 20, In India a fire blazed through a makeshift tent in east Delhi where eunuchs, a community of castrated men, transvestites and transsexuals, had gathered to honor deceased friends. 15 people were killed.
    (AP, 11/21/11)
2011        Nov 20, Iranian media reported that authorities have imposed a two-month ban on a reformist newspaper, Etemad, for printing what the country's press watchdog said was "lies and insults" to officials.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, In Israel officials and the "All for Peace" radio station operators said the government has ordered the shutdown of a dovish Israeli-Palestinian radio station. A shutdown order was issued last week. The West Bank station, which has been operating since 2004, said it would go to court in Israel to try to get back on the air.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Libya’s the information minister said Seif al-Islam Gadhafi, Moammar Gadhafi's son and one-time heir apparent, will be tried in Libya and not handed over to the International Criminal Court even though the country's new rulers have yet to set up a justice system.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, In Mexico Durango state prosecutors said troops found the remains of seven people in the town of San Juan del Rio, about 60 miles (100 km) north of the state capital, the city of Durango.
    (AP, 11/21/11)
2011        Nov 20, Myanmar ended 2 days of peace talks with 5 ethnic armies on the Thai-Burma border. More meetings were scheduled in upcoming months.
    (SFC, 11/23/11, p.A7)
2011        Nov 20, In Pakistani gunmen in Baluchistan province torched three trucks carrying supplies for NATO troops in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak arrived in Manila for a three-day state visit at the invitation of Philippine President Benigno Aquino.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, South Sudan rebel chief George Athor vowed to continue battling the government in Juba and demanded new elections to end his bloody war.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Spain held a national election. It was expected to become the third eurozone country in as many weeks to throw out its governing party in an attempt to dig itself out of an economic crisis. Opposition leader Mariano Rajoy (56) and his conservative Popular Party were expected to win control of Parliament in a landslide. The Popular Party won 186 seats in the 350-seats lower chamber of Parliament, compared with 154 in the last legislature. The Socialists plummeted from 169 seats to 110, their worst performance ever.
    (AP, 11/20/11)(AP, 11/21/11)
2011        Nov 20, Reports said a Sri Lankan government probe into the civil war against Tamil rebels has called for further investigations of alleged war crimes committed in the final stages of fighting in 2009. The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC), which has been widely criticized as biased by international rights groups, concluded that some evidence warranted a new inquiry.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Swaziland's king Mswati III's 12th wife, who was last year caught in bed with the justice minister, said she has been kicked out of the palace after pepper-spraying a security guard, who refused her effort to leave the palace to take her child to hospital. LaDube (23) is the third of Mswati's 13 wives to leave the palace since 2004.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, The Arab League said it has rejected amendments proposed by Syria to a peace plan to end the crisis in the country, saying the changes put forward by Damascus alter the "essence" of the plan. Syria's foreign minister attacked the Arab League for suspending Damascus and accused the organization of being used as a "tool" by the West.
    (AP, 11/20/11)
2011        Nov 20, Turkish President Abdullah Gul in published comments said there was "no place for authoritarian regimes" in the Mediterranean region, heaping more pressure on the embattled Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2012        Nov 20, The US and Mexico agreed to new rules on sharing water from the Colorado River.
    (SFC, 11/21/12, p.A6)
2012        Nov 20, The SEC accused a Mathew Martoma, a former trader for a subsidiary of hedgefund SAC Capital, of insider trading that illicetly netted some $276 million. SAC Capital was founded in 1992 by Steven Cohen and his fortune was currently estimated at $9.5 billion.
    (Econ, 11/24/12, p.80)(http://tinyurl.com/ahfjwu2)
2012        Nov 20, San Francisco lawmakers disappointed committed nudists by voting 6-5 t0 approve a ban on public nakedness despite concerns the measure would undermine the city's reputation as a sanctuary for free expression. Exemptions would be made for participants at permitted street fairs and parades.
    (AP, 11/20/12)(SFC, 11/21/12, p.A1)
2012        Nov 20, The San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted to allow the construction of hundreds of 220-square-foot residential units, which would allow up to 2 people to live in the micro-apartments.
    (SFC, 11/21/12, p.C1)
2012        Nov 20, In western Afghanistan a bombing in Farah province killed, Noor Mohammad Jahani, a former Taliban commander who had left the insurgency two years ago and joined the Afghan police force.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, In Afghanistan 8 prisoners were hanged. Pres. Karzai had signed off on the execution of 16 prisoners. The remaining 8 were executed the next day.
    (SFC, 11/21/12, p.A2)   
2012        Nov 20, A UN report said Afghan efforts to stamp out opium poppy cultivation are failing because of high prices for the illicit crop, pushing farmers to grow 18 percent more in 2012 than last year.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Argentine President Cristina Fernandez faced a nationwide strike, led by union bosses who once were her most steadfast supporters.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Britain announced that it has formally recognized the newly formed Syrian opposition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Former UBS trader Kweku Adoboli (32) was convicted and sentenced to seven years in jail for the biggest fraud in British history, which resulted in a loss of $2.3 billion for the Swiss bank. Adoboli was released on parole in 2015 after serving about half his sentence.
    (Reuters, 11/20/12)(AP, 6/24/15)
2012        Nov 20, Amnesty International workers in London walked off the job for the second strike in as many months. Tensions had been rising dramatically in recent weeks as Amnesty's international operations prepare to re-organize transferring some of its 500 jobs from a centralized London base to 10 regional hubs around the world.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, The Church of England’s governing General Synod failed to get a required two-thirds majority to allow women to serve as bishops.
    (AP, 11/21/12)
2012        Nov 20, In Cambodia President Barack Obama closed his Asian tour in diplomatic talks with leaders of Japan and China, their economic message overshadowed by security tensions over disputed waters and territories.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, China’s Xinhua News Agency reported that two Tibetan herdsmen had killed themselves by setting themselves on fire in two separate incidents.
    (AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 20, A 5-year-old sex tape of an 18-year-old woman allegedly hired by developers to sleep with a city official exploded on the Chinese Internet when screenshots of it were uploaded by a Beijing-based former journalist Zhu Ruifeng to his Hong Kong-registered website, an independent online clearing house for corruption allegations.
    (AP, 11/27/12)
2012        Nov 20, In eastern CongoDRC M23, a rebel group created just seven months ago, seized the strategic provincial capital of Goma, home to more than 1 million people, and its international airport.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, A Croatian court found former PM Ivo Sanader (2004-2009) guilty on corruption charges and sentenced him to 10 years in prison. Judges found him guilty of accepting a $13 million bribe from Hungarian oil company MOL in return for securing rights in Croatia’s state oil company.
    (SFC, 11/21/12, p.A2)
2012        Nov 20, In Egypt youth activist Gaber Salah was shot in the neck in Cairo in clashes that started a day earlier, the first anniversary of the deadly confrontation between police and demonstrators known as "Mohammed Mahmoud."
    (AP, 11/21/12)
2012        Nov 20, France ended its combat operations in Afghanistan, pulling hundreds of troops from a base in a volatile region northeast of Kabul and fulfilling promises to end its combat role on a faster track than other NATO allies.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Greek police said a man (35) has been arrested on suspicion of having stolen 9 million personal data files in what is believed to be the biggest breach of private information the country has ever seen.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Iraqi President Jalal Talbani, a leading Kurdish figure, met the head of the autonomous region, Massoud Barzani. The commander of Kurdish Peshmerga forces warned that his troops might attack Iraqi government soldiers at "any minute" after the central government sent tanks and armored vehicles toward the disputed city of Kirkuk.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Israeli aircraft battered the headquarters of the bank Hamas set up to sidestep international sanctions on its rule. A Palestinian rocket struck the outskirts of Jerusalem. Diplomats from across the world raced across the region to negotiate a cease-fire to end relentless Israeli airstrikes and Palestinian rocket attacks. An Israeli airstrike killed two Al-Aqsa TV journalists in their car. Masked gunmen publicly shot dead six suspected collaborators with Israel at a large Gaza City intersection.
    (AP, 11/20/12)(AP, 11/21/12)
2012        Nov 20, In northern Kenya 13 people were shot and one woman died as hundreds of shops burned to the ground amid rising Somali-Kenyan tensions.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, In northern Mali Islamist extremist rebels pushed secular Tuareg fighters from their last base in Menaka. More than 100 fighters were reported killed.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, A Nigerian official says the government owes its state-run oil firm more than $8.1 billion in gasoline subsidy payments.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, In Puerto Rico boxer Hector "Macho" Camacho (50) was struck in the jaw in a drive-by shooting. His friend Adrian Mojica Moreno was killed. Doctors at the Rio Piedras Medical Center in San Juan declared Camacho brain dead on Nov 22.
    (Reuters, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 20, Police in South Africa arrested three men, including a game ranger, they suspect shot 7 rhinoceros to death and dehorned them. South Africa's Department of Environmental Affairs said 570 rhinos had been hunted illegally and killed this year alone.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, A woman (37) in Sweden was charged "with violating the peace of the deceased" after investigators found some 100 skeleton parts in her apartment. Police also found a CD titled "My Necrophilia" as well as photographs in which a woman is seen kissing and hugging the skulls.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2013        Nov 20, Members of Congress took part in a ceremony bestowing the Congressional Gold Medal to honor 33 tribes tribes for their WWI and WWII contributions as code talkers. Today’s ceremony was for tribes not included in the initial 2008 Gold Medal awards.
    (SFC, 11/21/13, p.A5)
2013        Nov 20, Serafin Zambada (23), the son of one of the world's most-wanted drug lords, was arrested at an Arizona border crossing to face drug-trafficking charges in the United States.
    (AP, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 20, Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn signed legislation allowing same-sex marriages starting June 1, 2014.
    (SFC, 11/21/13, p.A5)(SSFC, 6/1/14, p.A11)
2013        Nov 20, In New Jersey Jose Katz (69) was sentenced to 6½ years in federal prison for fraudulently diagnosing patients with heart ailments and ordering tests. The fraud cost Medicare, Medicaid and private insurers some $19 million.
    (SFC, 11/21/13, p.A5)
2013        Nov 20, In Missouri Joseph Paul Franklin (b.1950), a white supremacist who targeted blacks and Jews, was executed. He had admitted to shooting and wounding civil rights leader Vernon Jordan (1980) and Hustler magazine publisher Larry Flynt (1978).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Paul_Franklin)(SFC, 11/21/13, p.A10)
2013        Nov 20, Animal rights group PETA urged shoppers to boycott products made from angora rabbit fur, after it released footage of fur being plucked from the skins of live rabbits on Chinese farms.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Senior Afghan officials arrived in Pakistan to initiate peace talks with the Afghan Taliban following a breakthrough in negotiations during last month's summit in Britain. A powerful explosion killed 3 people at a restaurant in the southern city of Kandahar. A Taliban ambush took place in Helmand province killing Marjah police chief, Hajji Tooryalai Jan. A suicide car bombing has killed two paramilitary soldiers in near the Afghan border in the Shawa area of North Waziristan.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)(AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, The Church of England's ruling body voted overwhelmingly for proposals that could see the ordination of women bishops next year.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, About 4,000 Bulgarian workers rallied against low wages and a lack of jobs, in a possible sign that opposition to the Socialist-led cabinet may be spreading beyond daily protests staged mostly by students.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, China confirmed the deployment of a state-of-the-art hospital ship to the Philippines following foreign and domestic criticism that it was slow and less than generous in its response to one of the world's biggest typhoons, which killed at least 4,000 people.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, In Egypt a suicide bomber rammed his explosive-laden car into one of two buses carrying off-duty soldiers in northern Sinai, killing 11 and wounding 37. A bomb attack on a checkpoint in Cairo wounded four policemen including a major.
    (AP, 11/20/13)(AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, European Union lawmakers overwhelmingly voted to meet only in Brussels and avoid costly monthly treks to Strasbourg, France. The proposal must be approved by the 28 EU governments and France is certain to nix any change under the current conditions.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, The European Commission said Austria should pay a daily fine of more than 40,000 euros ($54,000) for breaking EU policy on renewable energy.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, In France Pakistani teenager Malala Yousafzai was handed the EU's prestigious Sakharov human rights prize in recognition of her crusade for the right of all children, girls and boys, to an education.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Nuclear talks resumed between Iran and world powers. Iran's supreme leader voiced support for the negotiations over his country's nuclear program, but insisted there are limits to the concessions Iran will make in exchange for an easing of the sanctions choking its economy.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, A rights group said Iran is forcefully deporting Afghans by the thousands in violation of its international obligation to protect refugees.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Iraqi officials said flooding in central and southern Iraq has killed at least 11 people as rising waters swamped city streets and toppled buildings, sparking anger over the dilapidated sewage system. A wave of attacks hit commercial areas in Baghdad, killing 37 people and wounding over 80 in mostly Shiite areas.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)(AP, 11/20/13)(SFC, 11/21/13, p.A2)
2013        Nov 20, In Jordan Raed Hijazi, also known as Abu Ahmad, was arrested. He had been convicted of plotting al-Qaida terror attacks during New Year 2000 celebrations. Initially, he was sentenced to death in absentia. He was later captured and extradited from Syria and sentenced to 20 years, but was set free two years ago by Jordan's king to give him what was described as another chance to repent.
    (AP, 12/4/13)
2013        Nov 20, In Kuwait Arab and African leaders wound up their first summit since the region's uprisings in 2011 by calling for closer economic and security cooperation.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, A Madagascar government statement showed changes to 10 of the Indian Ocean island's 22 regions. Three generals and five colonels assumed control of eight regions while two civilians headed the remaining two. This raised concern that the run-off vote in December will be rigged.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 20, Mexico’s El Heraldo reported that the National Human Rights Commission has found that visits to the country’s 101 most populous prisons indicated that 65 are run by inmates.
    (SSFC, 11/24/13, p.A8)
2013        Nov 20, Mozambique held local elections. Preliminary results from the largely peaceful elections pointed to a comprehensive victory for the ruling Frelimo party and a potential shake-up among the country's opposition parties.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)
2013        Nov 20, The International Criminal Court's vexed relationship with Africa took center stage on the opening day of the annual summit of its 122 member states at The Hague.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Poland’s PM Donald Tusk reshuffled his Cabinet. Jacek Rostowski, the man who has led the country’s economy since 2007, was among those sacked.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.56)
2013        Nov 20, At UN talks in Poland the governments of Norway, Britain and the United States said they will allocate $280 million of their multi-billion dollar climate change finances to a new initiative aimed at halting deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, In Russia six more Greenpeace activists arrested by Russian coast guards during a protest against Arctic oil drilling were granted bail on Wednesday, including the US captain of their ship. Eighteen of the 30 people detained on September 18 have now been granted bail this week.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Saudi health authorities announced a new MERS death, raising to 54 the number of people killed by the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, A Senegal judge said there is insufficient evidence to convict four women accused of violating the country's law banning homosexual acts. The four women were freed. A fifth woman arrested in the same raid on Nov 11 is a minor and will be tried separately.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Suicide bombers targeted Syrian troops and a hospital in the rugged Qalamoun hills north of Damascus killing at least 7 soldiers, as rebels struggled to reverse government gains that threatened to cut one of their chief supply lines.
    (AP, 11/20/13)(AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, Tunisia signed a $500 million loan agreement with energy-rich Qatar to help bolster its currency reserves.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)

2014        Nov 20, President Barack Obama issued executive orders granting new rights to millions of people living illegally in the United States.
    (AP, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, Regents of the Univ. of California approved a plan to raise tuition by up to 28% over five years despited protests by furious students.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A1)
2014        Nov 20, California state officials said AT&T Inc will pay $52 million in civil penalties and environmental compliance as part of a settlement over illegal dumping of hazardous waste but won't be required to clean up the resulting contamination.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, The California Public Utilities Commission voted to levy a $1.05 million fine against PG&E for lobbying the regulatory agency in back-channel communications related to the 2010 San Bruno pipeline explosion. The PUC also authorized a broad probe into PG&E’s gas distribution system and fined the company $10.8 million stemming from an explosion in March that destroyed a Carmel cottage.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.D1, D2)
2014        Nov 20, Florida police shot and killed Myron May (31), a Florida State Univ. alumnus, after May shot three people outside the campus library in Tallahassee. Journal notes indicated that May believed the government was targeting him for persecution.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A9)
2014        Nov 20, In Louisiana 3 children and 2 adults were killed when a boy (16) driving relatives from Texas to Disney World fell asleep causing the SUV to veer off the road and roll over. He and two passengers suffered minor injuries.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A6)
2014        Nov 20, In NYC rookie police officer Peter Liang (26) shot and killed Akai Gurley (28) in a darkened stairwell in Brooklyn’s East New York neighborhood. Police called the shooting an unfortunate accident. Liang was indicted on Feb 10, 2015.
    (SFC, 11/22/14, p.A5)(SFC, 2/10/15, p.A6)
2014        Nov 20, In western New York snow-bound residents awoke to as much as another foot of accumulation with possibly another 30 inches expected. A freakish storm swept off the Great Lakes on Nov 18 and after 3 days deposited 7 feet of snow and more and left at least 12 people dead.
    (Reuters, 11/20/14)(SFC, 11/22/14, p.A5)
2014        Nov 20, In northeastern Brazil 8 people were killed following a head-on car crash that also left three others seriously injured near Esplanada.
    (AP, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, British regulators fined Royal Bank of Scotland PLC 56 million pounds ($87 million) for computer problems that made it impossible for customers to get access to their accounts.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Britain's first bus powered entirely by human and food waste took to the road in Bristol. The Wessex Water subsidiary GENeco's Bristol sewage treatment plant became the first in the UK to start providing gas generated from food waste and sewage to the national gas grid network.
    (AFP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, China’s state media reported that police have arrested 39 people as they broke up a telephone scam ring in Guangdong province that tricked Malaysians into wiring them money.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, In northeastern China 6 nurses and a janitor were killed in a knife attack at the Beidaihe Sanatorium, a military hospital and resort in the seaside town of Beidaihe. A 27-year-old employee was detained.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, In CongoDRC between 50 and 80 people were killed in an attack near Beni, North Kivu province.
    (AP, 11/22/14)
2014        Nov 20, In Dominica Msgr. Reginald LaFleur (60), a popular priest known as "Father Reggie" by parishioners in Grand Bay, was defrocked at the direction of the Congregation of the Faith in Rome. He was accused of sexually abusing a girl in 1994.
    (AP, 11/22/14)
2014        Nov 20, An Egyptian court acquitted Dr. Raslan Fadl charged with committing female genital mutilation that led to a 13-year-old girl's death in a Nile Delta village. This was the country's first trial on charges of breaking the 2008 ban on the practice.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Egypt arrested Mohammed Ali Bishr, a leading Muslim Brotherhood member linked to a call for demonstrations at the end of the month. He had played a key role in negotiations between his now-banned group and the government.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, France formally opened a terrorism investigation into three French recruits of the Islamic State group calling for attacks back home in a propaganda video.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Donor nations meeting at a conference in Germany pledged a total $9.3 billion to the UN Green Climate Fund (GCF to help developing countries tackle climate change, but environmental campaigners said the funds fell short of what is needed.
    (Reuters, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei pardoned Iranian-Canadian blogger Hossein Derakhshan after six years in prison for spreading propaganda, insulting Islam and cooperating with hostile countries. He was imprisoned in 2008 in Tehran on suspicion of spying for Israel and sentenced in 2010 to 19-1/2 years in prison.
    (Reuters, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Iraq PM Haider al-Abadi said that Iraq and Turkey have agred on closer security and intelligence cooperation in the face of threats posed by the Islamic State group.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A4)
2014        Nov 20, Israeli police handed home demolition notices to families of four Palestinian attackers from east Jerusalem, including two assailants who killed five people in a synagogue attack earlier this week.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, In Kashmir Indian forces reportedly fired across the border into the Pakistan-administered portion of the disputed Himalayan region, killing a soldier.
    (AP, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, In northern Mali the bodies of two Tuareg separatist militants were found near the village of Takabort, around 40 km outside Kidal.
    (Reuters, 11/23/14)
2014        Nov 20, In Mexico a largely peaceful march by tens of thousands demanding the return of 43 missing students ended in violence, as a small group of masked protesters battled police in Mexico City's main square.
    (AP, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, In western Nepal a bus plunged into the Bheri river, killing at least 47 people.
    (AP, 11/20/14)(AP, 11/23/14)
2014        Nov 20, Dutch authorities said a case of bird flu has been confirmed at a chicken farm, the second infection identified in the country this week.
    (AP, 11/20/14)   
2014        Nov 20, Nigeria’s Senate President David Mark suspended legislative proceedings after police fired tear gas to prevent the House of Representatives from convening. The speaker of the House recently changed allegiance from the president's party to the main opposition party. Police then withdrew his security clearance, triggering today’s standoff.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, In northwestern Pakistan a US drone strike killed six suspected militants in North Waziristan.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, A Philippine court convicted nine people for graft over a 1996 nightclub fire that killed 162 people.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, The Serbian government secured an agreement with the International Monetary Fund on a $1.2 billion standby loan. The three-year deal was reached after Serbia agreed to narrow the budget deficit from 8 percent to 4.2 percent of economic output by 2016 by cutting public wages and pensions and reducing subsidies to unprofitable state companies.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, A South Korean court sentenced Kim Han-sik (71), president of Chonghaejin Marine Co. Ltd, to 10 years in prison over the April 16 sinking of the Sewol ferry that killed more than 300 people, mostly high school students. On May 12 an appeals court reduced the sentence to seven years.
    (AP, 11/20/14)(SFC, 11/21/14, p.A5)(SFC, 5/13/15, p.A3)
2014        Nov 20, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa called an early election to seek a third term in office amid growing criticism of his wide-ranging powers.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, A Swedish appeals court upheld the detention order on Julian Assange, dismissing a challenge by the WikiLeaks founder who is wanted by prosecutors in an investigation of alleged sex crimes. Assange has avoided being extradited to Sweden by taking shelter in the Ecuadorean Embassy in London since 2012.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Yemen's culture minister, Arwa Othman, who was recently honored for her work combatting extremism and discrimination against women, said she is giving her award to Yemen's dwindling Jewish population. Fewer than 90 Jews live in Yemen, half of them in a guarded compound which protects the US Embassy in the capital of Sanaa.
    (AP, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 20, In Zimbabwe 11 people were killed and dozens injured in a stampede at a stadium in Kwekwe, as thousands of people at an evening church service tried to leave through the same exit.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)

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