Today in History - December 11

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International Mountain Day. In 2002 the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 57/245 designating 11 December as International Mountain Day.
    (Econ, 11/24/12, p.68)

711        Dec 11, Justitianus II (~42), emperor of Byzantium, died.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1282        Dec 11, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (b.~1223), the last prince of an independent Wales, died after he was lured into a trap and killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge by forces under Edward I.
    (, 11/24/12, p.63)

1419        Dec 11, Heretic Nicolaas Serrurier was exiled from Florence.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1524        Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1620        Dec 11, 103 Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1688        Dec 11, King James II attempted to flee London as the "Glorious Revolution" replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December 23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s Founding Fathers."
    (HN, 12/11/98)(

1718        Dec 11, Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), was shot dead.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1719        Dec 11, The first recorded sighting of the Aurora Borealis in the US took place in New England.
    (AP, 12/11/99)

1725        Dec 11, George Mason (d.1792), American Revolutionary statesman, was born at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. Mason died at Gunston Hall on October 7, 1792.
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(

1781        Dec 11, David Brewster, physicist and inventor (kaleidoscope), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1792        Dec 11, France's King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason. Louis was convicted and executed the following month.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1803        Dec 11, Hector Berlioz (d.1869), French composer and conductor, was born. He introduced arresting and gaudy instrumental colors in combinations that had not been dreamed of before him. He composed “Romeo and Juliet" in 1939 and conducted its first performance. He also composed the “Death of Cleopatra." He composed "Symphonie Fantastique" and "La Damnation de Faust." [see Dec 1]
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)(HN, 12/11/99)

1816        Dec 11, Indiana was admitted to the Union as the 19th state.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(HN, 12/11/98)

1843        Dec 11, Robert Koch (d.1910), German physician, bacteriologist, and medical researcher, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905.

1844        Dec 11, The 1st dental use of nitrous oxide was at Hartford, Ct.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1851        Dec 11, In Philadelphia 37 men, on trial in federal court for defying the Fugitive Slave Law, were deemed not guilty by a jury with 15 minutes of deliberation.
    (AH, 10/02, p.54)

1861        Dec 11, A raging fire swept the business district of Charleston, South Carolina, adding to an already depressed economic state.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1862        Dec 11, Union General Burnside occupied Fredricksburg and prepared to attack the Confederates under Robert E. Lee.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1863        Dec 11, Union gunboats Restless, Bloomer and Caroline entered St. Andrew’s Bay, Fla., and began bombardment of both Confederate Quarters and Saltworks.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1872        Dec 11, America's first black governor took office as Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback became acting governor of Louisiana.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1880        Dec 11, Louis Pasteur (57), French scientist, began an experiment to identify the microbe that causes rabies.
    (ON, 6/08, p.4)

1882        Dec 11, Fiorella H. La Guardia (d.1947), mayor of New York City, 1934-1945, was born.
    (AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)(
1882        Dec 11, Boston's Bijou Theatre, the first American playhouse to be lighted exclusively by electricity, gave its first performance: Gilbert and Sullivan's "Iolanthe, Or The Peer and the Peri."
    (AP, 12/11/08)

1901        Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, Canada. The first transmission failed, but another the next day succeeded.

1902        Dec 11, Matthias Hohner (b.1833), German clockmaker and harmonica manufacturer, died. He began making harmonicas in 1857. Exports to America began in 1862.

1911        Dec 11, Naguib Mahfouz (d.2006), Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian novelist, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)(SFC, 8/31/06, p.A13)

1918        Dec 11, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (d.2008), Russian writer, was born. He won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize and is famous for “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" (1962) and "The Gulag Archipelago" (1973). Daniel J. Mahoney later authored "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From Ideology."
    (, 10/11/01, p.A20)

1922        Dec 11, Grace Paley, short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1922        Dec 11, Gabriel Narutowicz (b.1865), a Lithuanian-born, Swiss banking engineer, served as Poland’s first post WWI president. Five days later he was assassinated.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.89)(

1926        Dec 11, Willie “Big Mama" Thorton, blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1927        Dec 11, Nearly 400 world leaders signed a letter to President Calvin Coolidge asking the U.S. to join the World Court.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1928        Dec 11, Police in Buenos Aires thwarted an attempt on the life of President-elect Herbert Hoover.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1929        Dec 11, John Jacob Raskob (1879-1950), former General Motors executive, announced a 102-story design for his Empire State Building.
    (, 12/08, p.10)

1930        Dec 11, As the economic crises grew, the Bank of the U.S. closed its doors.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1931        Dec 11, The Statute of Westminster recast the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations.
    (, 8/2/14, p.45)

1933        Dec 11, Reports said Paraguay had captured 11,000 Bolivians in the war over Chaco.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1936        Dec 11, Brian Richard Boylan, author, adventurer and director, was born.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1936        Dec 11, Hannibal Harris, man of letters, epic poet, was born.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1936        Dec 11, An eerie glow over Chicago took place that some believe was a rare display of the Aurora Borealis.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1936        Dec 11, Britain's King Edward VIII abdicated the throne in order to marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield Simpson. Edward VIII had been king of Great Britain and Ireland for less than a year when he abdicated the throne to marry "the woman I love,"--the twice-divorced American Wallis Warfield Spencer Simpson. The eldest child of King George V and Queen Mary, Edward met the Baltimore-born Mrs. Simpson in 1931 while she was still married to her second husband. Their relationship caused much consternation among British traditionalists since the Church of England forbade divorced persons to remarry and would not recognize a marriage between Edward and Mrs. Simpson. After his ascension to the throne on January 20, 1936, Edward VIII expressed his desire to marry Mrs. Simpson and, if he could not do so and remain king, he said he was "prepared to go." After his abdication, Edward was awarded the title Duke of Windsor by his brother, King George VI. Edward and Mrs. Simpson married on June 3, 1937.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(HNPD, 12/11/98)

1937        Dec 11, Jim Harrison, novelist and poet (Legends of the Fall), was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1937        Dec 11, Italy withdrew from the League of Nations.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1939        Dec 11, Tom McGuane, novelist and screenwriter, was born. His work includes “The Sporting Club" and “Bushwacked Piano."
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1939        Dec 11, New anti Jewish measurements in Poland were proclaimed.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1941        Dec 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States; the U.S. responded in kind.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(HN, 12/11/98)
1941        Dec 11, A Japanese invasion fleet attacked Wake Island, which was defended by 439 US marines, 75 sailors and 6 soldiers. The defenders sank 4 Japanese ships, damaged 8 and destroyed a submarine.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A2)
1941        Dec 11, Guam was occupied by Japanese troops.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)

1943        Dec 11, John Kerry, Massachusetts Senator and 2004 Democrat presidential candidate, was born in Denver, Colorado.
    (SSFC, 2/29/04, p.D2)
1943        Dec 11, Donna Mills, actress (Knots Landing, Incident), was born in Chicago, Illinois.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1943        Dec 11, U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, demanded that Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria withdraw from the war.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1945        Dec 11, B-29 Superfortress shattered all records by crossing the U.S. in five hours and 27 minutes.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1946        Dec 11, The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established. The organization received a Nobel Prize in 1965.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(MC, 12/11/01)
1946        Dec 11, Spain was suspended from the UN.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1948        Dec 11, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 was passed near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The resolution expresses appreciation for the efforts of UN Envoy Folke Bernadotte after his assassination by members of the Stern Gang. It was later often quoted in support of the Palestinian right of return.
    (, 9/6/08, p.68)

1951        Dec 11, Joe DiMaggio announced his retirement from baseball.

1952        Dec 11, Stanford scientist demonstrated the new $1,750,000 linear electron accelerator. Its 200-foot barrel fired electrons at 99.99% the speed of light.
    (SFC, 12/6/02, p.E16)
1952        Dec 11, The outbound Norwegian ship Fernstream was sliced open by the inbound SS Hawaiian Rancher under heavy fog inside the Golden Gate. The Fernstream sank in 30 minutes but all passengers escaped.
    (SFC, 12/6/02, p.E16)

1955        Dec 11, Israel launched an attack on Syrian positions along the Sea of Galilee.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(HN, 12/11/98)

1957        Dec 11, The movie "Peyton Place," based on the novel by Grace Metalious, starred Lana Turner and had its world premiere in Camden, Maine, where most of it had been filmed.
    (AP, 12/11/07)(SFC, 8/13/14, p.E8)

1961        Dec 11, "Please, Mr. Postman" by Marvelettes was released.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1961        Dec 11, A U.S. aircraft carrier carrying Army helicopters arrived in Saigon. This was the first direct American military support for South Vietnam's battle against Communist guerrillas. JFK provided 425 US military helicopter crewmen to South Vietnam to provide training and support for South Vietnamese forces.
    (AP, 12/11/97)(MC, 12/11/01)
1961        Dec 11, Adolf Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes in Israel.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1962        Dec 11, In San Francisco the L’Italia building at Stockton and Green fell under the wrecker’s ball. The 45-year-old building had housed the largest Italian-language newspaper this side of New York. The newspaper, founded in 1886 had merged with the La Voce Popolo in 1939. It now moved to new quarters at 70 Otis Street.
    (SSFC, 12/9/12, DB p.46)

1964        Dec 11, Frank Sinatra Jr. was returned to his parent’s home after being kidnapped for the ransom amount of $240,000.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1965        Dec 11, Sam Cooke (b.1931), pop singer, was shot to death by a motel manager in Los Angeles after a prostitute stole his clothes and money. His hits included “You Send Me," “Cupid," and “Chain Gang."  In 2005 Peter Guralnick authored “Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke."
    (SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M3)(

1967        Dec 11, The Concorde, a joint British-French venture and the world’s first supersonic airliner, was unveiled in Toulouse, France.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1970        Dec 11, Walt Disney's "Aristocats" was released.

1972        Dec 11, Challenger, the Lunar Lander for Apollo 17, touched down on the Moon's surface. It was the last time that men visited the Moon. The last two men to walk on the surface of the moon were Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan. Cernan and Schmitt conducted the longest lunar exploration of the Apollo program (75 hours), driving the lunar rover about 36 kilometers (22 miles) in all, ranging as far as 7.37 kilometers (4.5 miles) from the lunar module Challenger and collecting some 243 pounds of soil and rock samples.
    (HNQ, 7/21/99)(HN, 12/11/99)
1972        Dec 11, In Paris peace negotiations between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho collapsed after Kissinger presented a list of 69 changes demanded by South Vietnamese President Thieu. President Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam that serious negotiations must resume within 72 hours. Hanoi does not respond. As a result Nixon ordered Operation Linebacker II (see Dec 18), eleven days and nights of maximum force bombing against military targets in Hanoi by B-52 bombers.

1974        Dec 11, In Chile General Augusto Pinochet took the title of president of the republic.
    (SFC, 12/11/06, p.A4)

1976        Dec 11, Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (b.1906) died of a lethal overdose of barbiturates in Ibiza, Spain. The 1969 book "Fake" by Clifford Irving was about De Hory and both Irving and de Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)(

1978        Dec 11, Six masked men bound 10 employees at Lufthansa cargo area at NY Kennedy Airport & made off with $5.8 M in cash & jewelry. Nicholas Pileggi wrote "Wise Guys," which described his participation in the heist. The robbery inspired the movie "Goodfellas." On Jan 23, 2014, Vincent Asaro (78) was arrested at his home in NYC and charged with helping direct the heist as well as a 1969 murder.
    (, 5/10/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/24/14, p.A22)
1978        Dec 11, Massive demonstrations took place in Tehran against the Shah. In Isfahan, Iran, 40 people were killed and 60 wounded during riots against the Shah.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(HN, 12/11/98)

1979        Dec 11, Charles J. Haughey (1925-2006) was elected in Ireland as Taoiseach and leader of Fianna Fail. He led 3 administrations 1979-1981, 1982, and 1987-1992. In 2000 he agreed to pay $1.23 million in back taxes for gifts received while in office.
    (, 4/4/00, p.A12)

1980        Dec 11, "Magnum P.I.," starring Tom Selleck, premiered on CBS television.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
1980        Dec 11, President Carter signed into a law legislation creating a $1.6 billion environmental "superfund" to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) was established by the US Congress to clean up America's worst hazardous waste sites. Fifteen years later more than $20 billion had been spent with 1300 waste sites identified but only a small fraction cleaned. The fund was established in response to toxic chemicals seeping into a housing development at Love Canal in New York. The aim was to require private parties to clean up past pollution when they could be found. The Fed would pay where the responsible parties could not be determined.
    (WSJ, 10/25/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 6/8/96, p.A13)(
1980        Dec 11, Pres.-elect Ronald Reagan nominated Caspar Weinberger as Sec. of Defense.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F2)
1980        Dec 11, Massachusetts Sec. of State Michael Connolly banned the sale of Apple Computer stock arguing that the $22 price per share was too high.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)

1981        Dec 11, Concerned about the safety of Americans in Libya, the Reagan administration asked them to leave. It also invalidated the use of US passports for travel to Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/03)
1981        Dec 11, The UN Security Council chose Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru to be the fifth secretary-general of the world body. He served to 1992.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/97)
1981        Dec 11, In El Salvador hundreds of people were killed over 3 days in the village of El Mozote by an elite US-trained army battalion. In 1991 the office of Maria Julia Hernandez (1939-2007) published the first investigation into El Mozote. In 1992, under a UN sponsored Truth Commission, the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team found 143 skeletons, 131 of which belonged to children under 12. The bullet cartridges showed manufacture in Lake City, Mo. In Dec, 2012, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that El Salvador should reopen its investigation into the army’s killing of some 1000 civilians.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, Z1p.4)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.97)(SFC, 12/12/12, p.A2)

1983        Dec 11, Pope John Paul II visited a Lutheran church in Rome, the first visit by a Roman Catholic pontiff to a Protestant church in his own diocese.

1984        Dec 11, Kimberly Billy (19) of Stockton, Ca., went missing. Her remains were found in 2012 in a compacted well in Linden, Ca., and attributed to Speed Freak Killers Wesley Shermantine and Loren Herzog.
    (SFC, 3/31/12, p.C1)

1987        Dec 11, NATO allies urged the U.S. Senate to ratify the intermediate-range missile treaty quickly and underscored their support by pledging to let the Soviet Union inspect missile bases in five European countries.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1988        Dec 11, SES Astra SA, a subsidiary of SES Global, launched a communications satellite, made by GE Astrospace. Sky Television, later BSkyB (1990), became its 1st customer when it bought 4 transponders in 1989.
1988        Dec 11, Sixty-two people were killed when tons of illegal fireworks exploded in a Mexico City marketplace.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1988        Dec 11, A Soviet military transport plane crashed, killing nearly 80 people involved in Armenian earthquake relief efforts.
    (AP, 12/11/98)

1989        Dec 11, President Bush, facing criticism at home for sending two U.S. officials to China, defended the diplomatic overture despite the Beijing government's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators the previous June.
    (AP, 12/11/99)

1990        Dec 11, Ivana Trump was divorced from real estate mogul Donald Trump after 12 years of marriage.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1990        Dec 11, Four people died near downtown Columbus, Ohio, after their hot air balloon hit a television tower and deflated.
    (AP, 2/26/13)
1990        Dec 11, In Chattanooga, Ten., 12 died in a 99 vehicle accident on I-75 due to fog.
1990        Dec 11, Hundreds of foreigners flew out of Iraq and Iraqi-occupied Kuwait, ending four months of captivity following Iraq’s invasion of its oil-rich neighbor.
    (AP, 12/11/00)

1991        Dec 11, A jury in West Palm Beach, Fla., acquitted William Kennedy Smith of sexual assault and battery, rejecting the allegations of Patricia Bowman.
    (AP, 12/11/97)
1991        Dec 11, European Community leaders meeting in the Dutch city of Maastricht hammered out a compromise for a loose federation of their countries. The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993. It set entry terms for joining a European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/01)

1992        Dec 11, President-elect Clinton tapped Robert Reich to be labor secretary and Donna Shalala to be secretary of Health and Human Services.
    (AP, 12/11/97)
1992        Dec 11, A severe storm pounded the upper Atlantic coast with snow, rain and high winds.
    (AP, 12/11/97)
1993        Dec 11, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, said the nation must fight "violence with values" and praised radio stations that refused to play songs advocating violent crime or showing contempt for women.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1993        Dec 11, Eduardo Frei (b.1942) was elected president of Chile.

1994        Dec 11, Leaders of 34 Western Hemisphere nations signed a free-trade declaration in Miami.
    (AP, 12/11/99)
1994        Dec 11, A Philippine Airlines flight from Manila to Tokyo was bombed. A Japanese passenger was killed and 10 people were injured. Later US prosecutors accused Ramzi Ahmed Yousef of placing the bomb and of masterminding the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Yousef denied placing the airline bomb because he was imprisoned at the time.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A4)
1994        Dec 11, Thousands of Russian troops backed by armored columns and jets rolled into breakaway republic of Chechnya in a bid to restore Moscow's control over the region. Russia under Yeltsin sent in troops to put down the Chechnya rebellion but met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. There was no attempt by Pres. Yeltsin to legitimize the military action in parliament.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B1)(SFC, 5/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10) (AP, 12/11/99)

1995        Dec 11, Utah Congresswoman Enid Greene Waldholtz held an emotional news conference in which she publicly addressed the scandal surrounding her personal and campaign finances and blamed the mess on her estranged husband, Joe.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1995        Dec 11, The Malden Mills textile manufacturing plant in Lawrence, Mass., burned down. Owner Aaron Feuerstein retained all his employees on full pay until the plant was rebuilt. The plants manufactured Polartec and Polarfleece synthetic fabrics.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.4)

1996        Dec 11, William McNeill, American historian, won the Erasmus Prize and $172,000. The prize is awarded to people or institutions that have made an exceptionally important contribution to European culture, society or social science.
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.C10)
1996        Dec 11, In Hong Kong a China-organized panel of 400 business leaders approved shipping tycoon Tung Chee-hwa as the chief executive of the semi-autonomous government when China recovers sovereignty on Jul 1, 1997.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C3)(AP, 12/11/97)
1996        Dec 11, A mother and son were killed and 5 others wounded when Palestinian militants raked a settler’s car with gunfire in the West Bank. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), a Damascus based faction that opposed the PLO’s peace with Israel was blamed. It was the 28th anniversary of the PFLP.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C2)
1996        Dec 11, In Russia union leaders decided to end the coal miners’ strike. Up to 400,000 miners had taken part.
    (WSJ, 12/12/96, p.A13)
1996        Dec 11, In Rwanda the government published a list of 1,946 suspects ineligible for any punishment less than the firing squad for the 1994 genocide.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C2)

1997        Dec 11, Henry Cisneros, President Clinton's first housing secretary, was indicted for conspiracy, obstructing justice and making false statements about payments to former mistress. Cisneros, who later pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor, was eventually pardoned by President Clinton.
    (AP, 12/11/02)
1997        Dec 11, A US federal judge ordered Microsoft not to bundle IE4 in Windows.
1997        Dec 11, From Austria scientists reported in Nature that they had demonstrated a form of tele-transportation. They teleported the physical condition of a photon using a phenomenon called entanglement.
    (SFC, 12/11/97, p.A4)
1997        Dec 11, The 55-member Organization of the Islamic conference ended their meeting in Iran with the declaration that “the killing of innocents is strictly forbidden in Islam." The group also called for full respect for the dignity and rights of Muslim women and criticized Israel for “state terrorism."
    (SFC, 12/12/97, p.B2)
1997        Dec 11, Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams became the first political ally of the IRA to meet a British leader in 76 years as he conferred with Prime Minister Tony Blair in London.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1997        Dec 11, In Kyoto, Japan, negotiators at the conference on global warming reached a compromise with a commitment by some 38 industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels over the next 10-15 years. Over 160 nations endorsed the treaty that binds industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gases. It was signed by 171 nations. Int’l. aviation was excluded from the protocol on condition that by 2007 countries and airlines of the Int’l. Civil Aviation Organization (ICOA) come up with a way of reducing emissions through a trading scheme.
    (SFC, 12/11/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/11/97, p.A1)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.A2)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.67)
1997        Dec 11, Russia announced that it would terminate a recently negotiated 10-year contract with the US on uranium sales, and planned to sell its uranium on the open market. The decision could bring Russia an extra $500 million.
    (SFC, 12/12/97, p.B6)
1997        Dec 11, In Spain Jose Luis Caso, a former town councilor in Renteria, was killed by two suspected Basque separatists in Irun.
    (SFC, 12/12/97, p.B6)
1997        Dec 11, From Vietnam it was reported that 56 people have died of dengue fever in southern Kien Giang province following Typhoon Linda.
    (SFC, 12/11/97, p.C7)

1998        Dec 11, Pres. Clinton appealed for forgiveness but majority Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee voted 21 to 16 to approve 3 articles of impeachment.
    (SFC, 12/12/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/99)
1998        Dec 11, The Mars Climate Orbiter blasted off on a 9 ½ month journey to the Red Planet. The probe disappeared in September 1999, apparently destroyed because scientists had failed to convert English measures to metric values.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D6)(SFC, 12/12/98, p.A10)(AP, 12/11/99)
1998        Dec 11, Hutomo “Tommy" Mandala Putra, Suharto’s youngest son, was charged as a suspect in a corruption case. Also charged was Beddu Amang, a former chief of the state-run food distribution agency known as Bulog.
    (SFC, 12/12/98, p.B2)
1998        Dec 11, Israeli troops fired on hundreds of protesting Palestinians killing 2 and wounding dozens.
    (SFC, 12/12/98, p.A14)
1998        Dec 11, A Thai Airways Airbus A310-200 jet crashed near the airport at Surat Thani. 45 people survived and 101 died.
    (SFC, 12/12/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 12/14/98, p.A1)

1999        Dec 11, Ron Dayne, Wisconsin’s record-setting tailback, was a landslide winner in the Heisman Trophy balloting.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1999        Dec 11, Agreeing with his wife, President Clinton told CBS Radio his 1993 “don’t ask, don’t tell" policy on gays in the military wasn’t working, and he pledged to work with the Pentagon to find a way to fix it.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1999        Dec 11, In Algeria 15 people were massacred outside Blida. Many of the victims were burned alive in a van.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.B3)
1999        Dec 11, In the Azores a SATA airline ATP turboprop crashed on Sao Jorge island and all 35 people aboard were killed.
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, p.D1)
1999        Dec 11, In Chechnya Russian forces halted attacks on Grozny to give an estimated 10-40,000 civilians a chance to leave. An estimated 4,000 rebel fighters were holed up there.
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, p.A26)
1999        Dec 11, In Chile presidential elections were held. Ricardo Lagos, a leftist moderate, was the candidate for the governing Concertacion. Joaquin Lagos, a right-wing populist, was a member of Opus Dei, a conservative Catholic organization.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1999        Dec 11, In Sri Lanka rebels led by Villupillai Prabhakaran pushed toward Jaffna with an attack at Elephant Pass. The Defense Ministry claimed that 261 rebels were killed as opposed to 12 soldiers and 4 civilians. Rebels put their losses at 38.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.A17)
1999        Dec 11, In Uganda anti-government rebels killed at least 21 people in 2 attacks. In one the Congo-based Allied Democratic Forces raided police headquarters in Bundibugyo and killed 9 people.
    (SFC, 12/14/99, p.B2)

2000        Dec 11, Shortstop Alex Rodriguez agreed to a $252 million deal with the Texas Rangers, by far the most lucrative contract with any sports team.
    (AP, 12/11/01)
2000        Dec 11, Pres. Clinton signed a bipartisan $7.8 billion bill to revive the Florida Everglades. It was the largest environmental restoration effort in history.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.48)
2000        Dec 11, The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments from lawyers representing George W. Bush and Al Gore concerning the Florida presidential vote recount.
    (AP, 12/11/01)
2000        Dec 11, A federal appeals court declared the Cleveland school voucher program unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.A3)
2000        Dec 11, The space shuttle Endeavour landed in Florida following its mission to install solar panels on the int’l. space station.
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Dec 11, A US Marine Osprey aircraft crashed in North Carolina and all 4 people aboard were killed. The fleet was grounded the next day.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.A3)
2000        Dec 11, The EU in Nice reached a compromise in the early hours on a treaty that gave the 4 most populous countries a stronger voice in decision making and paved the way for as many as 13 new members over the next decade.
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A12)(Econ, 3/17/07, SR p.9)
2000        Dec 11, The UN indicted 11 people in East Timor for last year’s terrorism following independence.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.B2)
2000        Dec 11, In Iraq Saddam Hussein sent troops into the northern Kurdish zone. Kurds and other non-Arab Iraqis were being displaced further north.
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A1)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B6)
2000        Dec 11, Syria freed some 50 Lebanese political prisoners to placate an anti-Syria movement in Lebanon.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.B2)
2000        Dec 11, In Trinidad Prime Minister Basdeo Panday, head of the United National Congress, announced victory for 19 parliamentary seats vs. 16 for the black-dominated People’s National Movement.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.B3)

2001        Dec 11, The US Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates by .25% to 1.75% in the 11th cut this year. The Dow rose 33 to 9888. the Nasdaq 9 to 2001.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 11, In the first criminal indictment stemming from Sept. 11, a US grand jury in Virginia charged Zacarias Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan descent, with conspiring to murder thousands in the suicide hijackings. Moussaoui pleaded guilty to conspiracy in 2005 and was sentenced to life in prison.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/06)
2001        Dec 11, US Federal agents carried out dozens of raids and seized computers in some 27 cities and 21 states suspected of pirating software over the Internet. The “Warez" network of software pirates was targeted.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A3)
2001        Dec 11, US bombers continued to hit sites at Tora Bora, Afghanistan, as a deadline for al Qaeda surrender passed.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 11, A federal appeals court struck a Louisiana law that allowed vocal classroom prayer. The state had passed a 1976 law that required schools to allow a brief time in “silent meditation." In 1992 the wording was changed to “silent prayer or meditation." In 1999 the word “silent" was deleted.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A7)
2001        Dec 11, The chairman of the militant Jewish Defense League, Irv Rubin, and an associate, Earl Krugel, were arrested on suspicion of plotting to blow up a Los Angeles mosque and the office of an Arab-American congressman. Rubin died November 14th, 2002, 10 days after what federal officials described as a suicide attempt in jail.
    (AP, 12/11/02)
2001        Dec 11, The US government approved Swiss food giant Nestle SA's $10.3 billion purchase of Ralston Purina.
    (AP, 12/11/02)
2001        Dec 11, Nasa agreed in principle to let Russia’s space agency send Mark Shuttleworth, a South Africa Internet tycoon, to the space station in April for some $20 million.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 11, Australia reported that an Australian citizen, David Hicks (26), who had trained with the al Qaeda, had been captured in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A19)(SFC, 12/15/01, p.A16)
2001        Dec 11, China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO), approved in Qatar on Nov 10, became effective.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.45)(
2001        Dec 11, Israeli helicopter attacks in the Gaza Khan Younis refugee camp killed 3 people and wounded 20.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A3)
2001        Dec 11, Pakistani officials said 2 nuclear scientists, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Abdul Majid, talked with Osama bin Laden last August in Kabul about nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A19)

2002        Dec 11, It was reported that the US had filed allegations that tens of millions of dollars paid by American oil companies to Kazakstan during the 1990s wound up in Swiss bank accounts of top Kazakstani officials.
    (SFC, 12/11/02, p.A15)
2002        Dec 11, The United States let an intercepted shipment of North Korean missiles proceed to the Persian Gulf country of Yemen a day after the vessel was detained.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2002        Dec 11, A congressional report found that intelligence agencies that were supposed to protect Americans from the Sept. 11 hijackers failed to do so because they were poorly organized, poorly equipped and slow to pursue clues that might have prevented the attacks.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2002        Dec 11, It was reported that the Chicago-based Pritzker family planned to break up its $15 billion empire over the next decade.
    (WSJ, 12/12/02, p.B1)
2002        Dec 11, Bank of America agreed to pay $1.6 billion for a 25% stake in Grupo Financiero Santander Serfin, one of Mexico's largest banks.
    (WSJ, 12/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Dec 11, A US Black Hawk helicopter on routine training crashed and killed five American soldiers in the hills of central Honduras.
    (AP, 12/14/02)(SFC, 12/13/02, p.A14)
2002        Dec 11, Chile's Pres. Ricardo Lagos announced it had reached an agreement for a free trade accord with the United States.
    (AP, 12/11/02)(SFC, 12/12/02, p.A20)
2002        Dec 11, In Indonesia a mudslide above a resort in East Java killed at least 60 people. Tree-cutting above the resort was blamed and a suit against a state-owned forestry company was planned.
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A7)
2002        Dec 11, Israeli troops killed a suspected Palestinian militant in a West Bank refugee camp as he tried to escape.
    (AP, 12/11/02)
2002        Dec 11, Israeli troops in Gaza shot and killed 5 unarmed Palestinians trying to penetrate a security fence.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.A22)
2002        Dec 11, A Nicaraguan judge ordered three U.S. companies to pay $490 million to 583 banana workers allegedly affected by the use of the pesticide Nemagon.
    (AP, 12/14/02)
2002        Dec 11, A Pakistan human rights group said 461 women had been killed this year by family members in so-called honor killings in Punjab and Sindh, up from 372 last year.
    (SFC, 12/12/02, p.A14)
2002        Dec 11, Yemen said Scud missiles found hidden aboard a North Korean ship seized by Spain and the United States were destined for its army and demanded them back. Pres. Bush ordered them released. Bush later created a coalition of members to block arms shipments "of proliferation concern."
    (Reuters, 12/11/02)(SFC, 12/12/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 10/21/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 11, US officials delayed a conference for companies seeking $18.6 billion in reconstruction contracts in Iraq by eight days until Dec. 19.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, Pentagon officials said efforts to create a new Iraqi army to help take over the country's security have suffered a setback with the resignations of a third of the soldiers trained.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, A new 2nd home for the National Air and Space Museum opened in Chantilly, Va., some 28 miles west of the original's home in Washington D.C.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2003        Dec 11, US health officials reported an early flu outbreak had hit all 50 states and was widespread in 24.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2003        Dec 11, Striking Kroger workers in West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio ratified a new contract. The strike began Oct 13.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.B4)
2003        Dec 11, The DJIA closed over 10,000 (10,008) for the 1st time in over 18 months.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)
2003        Dec 11, ASEAN members met for a 2-day summit in Tokyo. Japan joined the 10 Southeast Asian nations in a pledge to expand trade and join forces on regional security.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, In Quebec, Canada, labor protests left hundreds of buses idle at the beginning of a day of province wide protests against Premier Jean Charest's government.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, In China's far northwest a coal mine fire in Urumqi killed nine miners, and rescue efforts were hampered by repeated gas explosions.
    (AP, 12/13/03)
2003        Dec 11, In Ecuador teachers striking for raises and parents demanding better schools clashed with police in protests that sought symbolically to take over the capital's downtown.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, A French panel recommended a national ban on Islamic head scarves, Jewish skullcaps and large crucifixes at public schools.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)
2003        Dec 11, A German court freed a Moroccan accused of supporting the Sept. 11 al-Qaida terror cell in Hamburg, saying there was new evidence he did not know about the plot.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2003        Dec 11, In Haiti police fired tear gas and warning shots at thousands of students calling for President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's ouster, as four private radio stations shut down because government supporters called in death threats.
    (AP, 12/11/03)(SFC, 12/12/03, p.A3)
2003        Dec 11, In Iraq a suicide bomber killed 1 US soldier and wounded 14 others at a military base in Ramadi.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A22)
2003        Dec 11, In Israel explosives at a currency exchange in Tel Aviv killed 3 people and wounded 12 in what was labeled a criminal matter.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A16)
2003        Dec 11, The Italian Parliament imposed controls on medically assisted reproduction.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A17)
2003        Dec 11, Ahmadou Kourouma, Ivorian writer, died. His 5th novel, incomplete, was published in French in 2004.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.76)
2003        Dec 11, The UN children's fund said some 65 million girls worldwide are kept out of school, increasing the risks that they will suffer from extreme poverty, die in childbirth or from AIDS and pass those dangers on to future generations.
    (AP, 12/11/03)
2003        Dec 11, Uzbekistan said it will let the US station troops to help fight terrorism, but would not permit permanent deployment.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)

2004        Dec 11, Vitali Klitschko stopped Danny Williams in the eighth round to retain his WBC heavyweight title.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2004        Dec 11, Southern California quarterback Matt Leinart won the 70th Heisman Trophy.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2004        Dec 11, Said Barkat, Algeria’s Agriculture Minister, said almost 170 million euros (225 million dollars) have been spent since 2003 dealing with locust infestation of farmland.
    (AP, 12/12/04)
2004        Dec 11, In Bangladesh millions of opposition activists formed a 900-km "human chain" to demonstrate no confidence in the government. Up to 100 people were injured in clashes.
    (Reuters, 12/11/04)
2004        Dec 11, Ramiro Velez, regional leader of the National Liberation Army, or ELN, the smaller of Colombia's two rebel groups, was arrested during an operation in Chachaui. He is suspected of masterminding the May 30, 1999, kidnapping of an entire church congregation from a Roman Catholic church in Cali.
    (AP, 12/12/04)(SFC, 12/13/04, p.A3)
2004        Dec 11, China ended restrictions limiting foreign retailers to joint ventures.
    (WSJ, 12/14/04, p.A13)
2004        Dec 11, Rival factions of Congo's army battled in the eastern region of the vast country, killing several people.
    (AP, 12/12/04)
2004        Dec 11, In Iraq insurgents killed 5 Iraqi police officers in Baghdad. A US Marine was killed in Anbar province.
    (SSFC, 12/12/04, p.A10)
2004        Dec 11, Marcello Dell'Utri, a close political ally of Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi, was convicted of ties with the Sicilian Mafia and sentenced to nine years in prison.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2004        Dec 11, Myanmar's state media announced the military junta would release a further 5,070 prisoners.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2004        Dec 11, Somalia's parliament passed a motion of no-confidence against the country's new prime minister and his Cabinet, effectively sacking the government. Some 153 members of the 275-member transitional parliament voted against Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Gedi, accusing him of failing to respect power-sharing arrangements agreed to by warlords and the country's main clans.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2004        Dec 11, Taiwan's pro-independence parties were defeated in legislative elections.
    (AP, 12/11/04)
2004        Dec 11, Doctors in Austria determined that Ukrainian presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko had been poisoned with dioxin, which caused the severe disfigurement and partial paralysis of his face.
    (AP, 12/11/05)

2005        Dec 11, Paramount Pictures announced it was buying independent film studio DreamWorks SKG Inc.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2005        Dec 11, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber set off explosives near a US and Afghan military convoy in the southern city of Kandahar, killing himself and wounding three civilians.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, In Australia racial tension erupted into violence on a Sydney beach when around 5,000 people, some yelling racist chants, attacked youths of a Middle Eastern background. White youths were angered by reports that youths of Lebanese descent had assaulted two lifeguards. Young men of Arab descent retaliated in several Sydney suburbs, fighting with police and smashing cars.
    (AP, 12/11/05)(AP, 12/11/06)
2005        Dec 11, Bangladesh President Iazuddin Ahmed approved an ordinance that allows law enforcers to tap telephones, a measure set to aid the fight against Islamic militants.
    (AFP, 12/12/05)
2005        Dec 11, In Britain a huge inferno followed explosions at the Buncefield oil depot. 43 people were injured. In 2009 a court said French oil giant Total must pay bills valued at more than 750 million pounds for people whose homes and businesses were damaged in the fire. In 2010 five companies were ordered to pay fines and costs of more than £9 million (13.8 million dollars, 10.6 million euros).
    (, 3/20/09)(AFP, 7/16/10)
2005        Dec 11, In Chile Michelle Bachelet easily defeated two feuding right-wing candidates with 46 percent of the vote, but fell shy of the 50 percent needed for victory.
    (AP, 12/12/05)
2005        Dec 11, China’s government said the commander of forces that shot and killed people protesting land seizures in a southern village has been detained, as police in riot gear patrolled the community and appealed for order.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, About 4,000 anti-globalization activists some carrying a giant spider and others wheeling statues of emaciated people marched in the first mass protest against the World Trade Organization's summit in Hong Kong.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, Iran's parliament approved Kazem Vaziri Mahaneh, who has been acting minister for the past three months, the 4th nominee for the key post of oil minister.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, Iran offered the United States a share in building a new nuclear power plant in an apparent effort to curb U.S. opposition to its atomic program.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, Japanese peace envoy Yasushi Akashi invited Sri Lanka and Tamil Tiger rebels to meet in Japan for talks to save their ceasefire, which is threatened with collapse after 34 people were killed in fresh violence.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, In eastern Pakistan a firecracker thrown by a celebrant at a wedding set fire to a bus filled with guests, killing at least 40 people.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 11, In South Korea the government ordered striking pilots at Korean Air back to work on the 4th day of a walkout.
    (WSJ, 12/12/05, p.A17)

2006        Dec 11, US Military experts gave Pres. Bush a dire assessment of the war in Iraq, but shared a skeptical view of the recent Iraq Study Group report.
    (SFC, 12/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Dec 11, Scientists from IBM, Macronix and Qimonda said they developed a material that made "phase-change" memory 500 to 1,000 times faster than the commonly-used "flash" memory, while using half as much power. Intel said it would introduce products in 2007. Samsung said it expected to introduce products in 2008.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)(SFC, 12/12/06, p.B3)
2006        Dec 11, Siemens, a German conglomerate, filed papers with the SEC to account for some $265 million siphoned out of secret bank accounts in Liechtenstein, Austria and Switzerland.
    (Econ, 12/16/06, p.65)
2006        Dec 11, The Hague-based Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) said it has granted the US and Russia a five-year extension to the 2007 deadline for destroying their chemical weapon stockpiles. The Chemicals Weapons Convention which went into effect in April 1997. Extensions were also granted to India and Libya as well as one country that requested anonymity.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, After a two-day journey, space shuttle Discovery reached the international space station for a weeklong stay.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2006        Dec 11, In Azerbaijan authorities said they would allow a top independent TV station back on the air, but warned that it would have to bid for a broadcasting license next year.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Four advisers to Bangladesh's interim government resigned as soldiers patrolled towns and cities to try to end weeks of often-violent protests.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, In Britain fears mounted that a serial killer could be at large after the naked corpse of a third prostitute was found within weeks near Ipswich, and a fourth sex worker went missing. The first two murdered women went missing in the red light district of Ipswich, near the eastern coast of England, on November 15 and October 30 respectively.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Four British soldiers admitted charges relating to an alleged plot to smuggle guns out of Iraq to sell them for cash in Germany, as they appeared at a court martial.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, China's banking industry officially opened to full foreign competition, a landmark for the country's financial sector and a day of reckoning for the country's mostly state-owned banks.
    (AP, 12/9/06)
2006        Dec 11, European Union foreign ministers decided to suspend 8 out of 35 parts of entry talks with Turkey over Ankara's refusal to open its ports to trade with EU member Cyprus.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.53)
2006        Dec 11, Fiji's military regime banished ousted Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase from the capital and warned that open opposition to the takeover would be met with force.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, German investigators confirmed that a car used by Russian businessman Dmitry Kovtun, a contact of fatally poisoned ex-spy Alexander Litvinenko before the two men met, was contaminated with the rare radioactive substance polonium-210.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, In Indonesia Irwandi Yusuf, a former GAM rebel leader, headed to easy victory in the first elections in Aceh province since the government and the separatists signed a peace deal in the tsunami-ravaged region last year.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.40)
2006        Dec 11, Iran opened a Holocaust conference that it said would examine whether the genocide took place.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Iran promised $250 million to Palestine’s Hamas-led government.
    (WSJ, 12/12/06, p.A1)
2006        Dec 11, Iraqi soldiers rushed to Ghazaliyah, a primarily Sunni area of west Baghdad, to free 23 Iraqis right after they were taken hostage at a checkpoint set up by suspected Shiite militiamen. One terrorist was killed and 4 others arrested. Three explosions struck Baghdad within a span of two hours, after a roadside bomb in the capital killed 3 US soldiers and wounded two on a late-night patrol. A parked car bomb detonated near al-Maamoun college in western Baghdad, killing one student and wounding two others and two policemen. A suicide car bomb hit an abandoned house being used by policemen as an outpost in Dora killing one policeman and wounding five. In Baghdad 3 mortar rounds killed four people and wounded 15, and gunmen stole $1 million from a bank truck and kidnapped its four guards. 3 policemen and four civilians were gunned down in a village near Kirkuk. A huge fire broke out at an oil storage facility after explosions in a volatile area south of Baghdad. At least 66 people were killed or found dead across Iraq. They included 46 men who were bound, blindfolded and shot to death in Baghdad.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(AP, 12/12/06)
2006        Dec 11, The Netherlands ended transmission of "free to air" analog television, becoming the first nation to switch completely to digital signals.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Palestinian gunmen killed three young sons of a senior Palestinian intelligence officer, pumping dozens of bullets into their car as it passed through a street crowded with schoolchildren in an apparent botched assassination attempt that could ignite widespread factional fighting.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Two Rwandan ex-soldiers told a panel probing alleged French complicity in the 1994 massacres that France armed and trained members of the Interahamwe militia, a radical militia blamed for most of the killings in Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, More than 30 prominent Islamic clerics from Saudi Arabia called on Sunni Muslims around the Middle East to support their brethren in Iraq against Shiites and praised the insurgency.
    (AP, 12/12/06)
2006        Dec 11, Official sources said the Sudanese government has approved a budget of 11.7 billion dollars for 2007 and is targeting a growth rate of 10%. Rebels in Sudan's western region of Darfur said a government warplane killed eight civilians, mostly children, in a northern village.
    (AP, 12/11/06)(Reuters, 12/12/06)
2006        Dec 11, In Turkey a boiler explosion knocked down part of a five-story building housing military families in Diyarbakir, killing at least four people and trapping about four others.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, In his farewell address, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan criticized the Bush administration's leadership on the global stage, warning that America must not sacrifice its democratic ideals while waging war against terrorism.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2006        Dec 11, UN officials said Israel has blocked a UN fact-finding mission to the Gaza Strip that was to be led by Nobel Laureate Desmond Tutu. Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Mark Regev said that no final decision has been made.
    (AP, 12/11/06)
2006        Dec 11, Zimbabwe said its inflation spiral had risen to 1,098.8 percent last month, a 28.6% hike, as experts cast doubts on state efforts to slash it to the three-digit level. The inflation rate peaked at 1,204.6% in August. Zimbabwe clinched a deal to export 5,000 tons of beef to Hong Kong from next year, the first such long-distance order in five years.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)

2007        Dec 11, Pres. Bush granted pardons to 29 people.
    (WSJ, 12/12/07, p.A1)
2007        Dec 11, The US Senate Intelligence Committee took closed-door testimony from CIA Director Michael Hayden on how videotapes of terror suspect interrogations were made, then destroyed.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2007        Dec 11, The United States and China signed two deals to safeguard the quality of food and drugs ranging from pet food to certain types of antibiotics imported into the US from China.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, US officials in Florida arrested 4 people, 3 from Venezuelan and one from Uruguay, and accused them of being agents of the Venezuelan government. Prosecutors later said the 4 were seeking to silence Guido Alehandro Antonini Wilson, a citizen of both the USA and Venezuela. In August Wilson was detained in Argentina for carrying $800,000 in a suitcase, which prosecutors said was intended to aid the campaign of Cristina Kirchner. Franklin Duran, multimillionaire owner of Industrias Venoco CA, was one of the arrested Venezuelans. In 2008 a federal jury convicted Duran on charges that he was a foreign agent involved in a conspiracy.
    (WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5)(SFC, 11/4/08, p.A4)
2007        Dec 11, In eastern Afghanistan US-led coalition and Afghan forces killed Mullah Sangeen, a senior militant commander responsible for roadside bombings and other attacks. Sangeen was second-in-command to Siraj Haqqani, a militant leader in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 12/14/07)
2007        Dec 11, In Algeria car bombs exploded minutes apart in central Algiers, heavily damaging UN buildings and ripping the facade off the wing of a government office. 37 people were killed, including 17 UN employees. Two convicted terrorists who had been freed in an amnesty carried out the suicide bombings at UN and government buildings. The interior ministry later said the blasts were the work of the El Farouk Brigade, which was responsible for a number of other attacks in the last two years. Al-Qaida's self-styled North African branch claimed responsibility.
    (Reuters, 12/11/07)(AP, 12/12/07)(AP, 12/13/07)(AFP, 2/6/08)(AP, 12/11/08)
2007        Dec 11, Australia's Deputy PM Julia Gillard (46) took charge of government in the absence of the prime minister, becoming the first woman to run the country in its 106 years as an independent nation. Gillard will lead the government for just 60 hours while PM Kevin Rudd is in Bali for the United Nations climate conference.
    (Reuters, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Australian officials conceded that the welfare system failed a girl who was removed from a remote Aboriginal community after being sexually abused at age 7, then gang raped in 2006 at age 10 when she was returned to live in the town.
    (AP, 12/12/07)
2007        Dec 11, Guatemalan legislators approved a new law that tightens adoptions, while allowing pending cases, mostly involving US couples, to go through without meeting stricter requirements.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, It was reported that policewomen in Iraq have been told to hand in their guns. Female recruits had dropped to zero since Iraqi authorities took over police recruitment and training in 2006. The US had begun training women in 2004 and graduated 1000 from the police academy. A suicide car bomber detonated his explosives at a checkpoint protecting the compounds of Iraq's former prime minister and a Sunni lawmaker, killing two guards in a neighborhood bordering the fortified Green Zone.
    (WSJ, 12/12/07, p.B12)(AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Israeli tanks and bulldozers backed by attack aircraft moved into the southern Gaza Strip, killing four militants in the widest operation in the territory since Islamic Hamas forces wrested control in June.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Trucking unions cut short a meeting with the Italian transport ministry, ending hope that the chaos-causing strike disrupting traffic and petrol deliveries would end soon.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, In southeast Nigeria 20 people were killed and several injured when the driver of a truck lost control and rammed into a crowd by the roadside in Awka, Anambra state.
    (AFP, 12/12/07)
2007        Dec 11, North and South Korea began regular freight train service across their heavily armed border for the first time in more than a half century, in another symbolic step in their reconciliation.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Pakistan's military vowed a strong response to any international attempt to seize its atomic arsenal as the army successfully test-fired a nuclear-capable cruise missile.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, In Peru former President Alberto Fujimori was convicted of abuse of authority and sentenced to six years in prison at the end of the first in a series of trials on charges that include murder, kidnapping and corruption.
    (AP, 12/12/07)
2007        Dec 11, A judge from the top court in southern Russia's violence-plagued Dagestan region was fatally shot by an unidentified attacker. Dagestan Supreme Court Justice Kurban Pashayev was shot more than 10 times with a pistol in the entranceway of his apartment building in the provincial capital, Makhachkala. In Ingushetia an 18-year-old rookie in an elite police unit was fatally shot by attackers who fired at him at close range from a passing car as he was walking home after work.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Environmentalists warned that a scenic coastal region could take years to recover from South Korea's worst oil spill, as over 19,000 people worked to contain or clean up the slick.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Darfur rebel group the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) said it had attacked and taken over a Chinese-run oilfield in central Sudan.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 11, Ukraine's parliament narrowly rejected the candidacy of Orange Revolution leader Yulia Tymoshenko for prime minister, but was expected to hold a further vote.
    (AFP, 12/11/07)

2008        Dec 11, The $14 billion package to aid General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC collapsed amid disputes over union wage cuts. A band of mostly Republican Southern senators, including states that subsidized foreign auto makers, formed the heart of the opposition.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 11, US Interior Sec. Dirk Kemphorne announced major changes to the Endangered Species Act causing environmental groups to charge that the ‘midnight rules" set to go into effect before Pres. Obama takes offices were intended to eviscerate the wildlife protection law.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 11, Bernard Madoff (70), a quiet force on Wall Street for decades, was arrested and charged with allegedly running a $50 billion "Ponzi scheme" in what may rank among the biggest fraud cases ever.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, California’s air quality board approved the nation’s most sweeping plan to reduce global warming by curbing emissions.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 11, California conservation officials said a $9.9 million deal to buy the Sonoma Ranch, also known as the Walsh Property, would be completed by the end of the year.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.B1)
2008        Dec 11, In Los Angeles the husband and daughter of Karine Hakobyan were killed. On March 26, 2010, Karine Hakobyan was shot to death in Hollywood.
    (AP, 3/30/10)
2008        Dec 11, Ron Carey (72), former Teamsters president (1992-1997), died in NYC.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.B5)
2008        Dec 11, Bettie Page (85), the 1950s secretary-turned-model, died. Her controversial photographs in skimpy attire or none at all helped set the stage for the 1960s sexual revolution.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Australian police said detectives have charged 22 men including a policeman, a senior lawyer and a child care worker in connection with a child pornography-sharing network spanning 70 countries. Brazilian information, which was shared via the international policing network Interpol, identified more than 200 suspects in 70 countries.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Police in Brussels and eastern Belgium detained 14 suspected al-Qaida-linked extremists in raids, including one militant who allegedly was plotting a suicide attack.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, As Greece suffered through its sixth day of violence, there were troubling signs of unrest spreading across Europe. Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Hong Kong's government confirmed that the deadly H5N1 virus was found at a poultry farm, the first outbreak on a farm here in nearly six years.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Indian authorities reported an outbreak of bird flu in Assam state. Some 245,000 birds had been culled and the outbreak was localized.
    (WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 11, Indonesia and Malaysia agreed to heighten intelligence cooperation to anticipate rising cross-border crime due to the impact of the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, In northern Iraq a suicide bomber struck a crowded restaurant where Kurdish officials were meeting with Arab tribal leaders to discuss long-standing ethnic tensions, killing at least 48 people and wounding nearly 100.
    (AP, 12/11/08)(SFC, 12/12/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 11, Malaysia's government drew flak after admitting it spent 1.68 million dollars a year on PM Badawi’s sprawling residence in the administrative capital Putrajaya.
    (AFP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Esther Chavez, a women's rights activist, was named the winner of Mexico's National Human Rights Award. She first drew attention to the slayings of young women in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez in the early 1990s.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, Mexican soldiers shot to death Silvia Arzate (35), a pregnant woman, after she reportedly failed to stop at a highway checkpoint in the northern state of Chihuahua.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, In southern Nepal a crowded school bus skidded off a bridge on a highway, killing at least 20 students and two teachers. At least 57 others were injured.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Multilateral talks with North Korea failed to break an impasse on checking Pyongyang’s nuclear declarations. This led the US to halt fuel oil shipments until specific steps are taken to verify nuclear activities.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A10)
2008        Dec 11, Pakistan ordered the closure Jemaat-u-Dawa, a charity linked to Lashkar-e-Taiba, the militant group suspected in the Mumbai attacks, a day after the outfit was declared a front for terrorists by the United Nations. A suspected US strike killed six people on the Pakistan side of the Afghan border, a lawless region believed to be a stronghold of al-Qaida.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, In northern Russia an explosion and fire ripped through a mine, killing 12 workers.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, The South African Reserve Bank cut a key interest rate by a half percentage point to 11.5 percent in a bid to stimulate the flagging economy.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, South Korea’s central bank cut its main interest rate by a percentage point to 3%, its 4th and largest cut in two months.
    (WSJ, 12/11/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 11, Venezuelan prosecutors formally charged Manuel Rosales, a leading opposition figure, with corruption, as President Hugo Chavez pushed forward with plans for a referendum to end term limits. Rosales denied any wrongdoing, saying the accusations are politically motivated.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, President Robert Mugabe declared that Zimbabwe's cholera crisis was over, even as the UN raised the death toll from the epidemic to 783.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2009        Dec 11, A US counterterrorism official said Saleh al-Somali, a senior al-Qaida operations planner, was killed in an American missile strike this week in western Pakistan. Officials believed that he helped organize plots in New York, Manchester and Norway.
    (AP, 12/12/09)(AP, 1/30/12)
2009        Dec 11, US immigration agents arrested 280 people in California as they fanned out across the state for a 3-day search for illegal immigrants.
    (SFC, 12/12/09, p.A5)
2009        Dec 11, SF Mayor Newsom called on owners of commercial buildings to conduct an energy audit within 5 years to secure their business license renewal. The results would be provided to the city which would make the information available in a public database.
    (SFC, 12/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Dec 11, Spc. Marc A. Hall was jailed, two days before his brigade with the Army's 3rd Infantry Division out of Ft. Stewart, Georgia, was scheduled to leave for Iraq. He was charged with the military offense of communicating a threat after telling his battalion commander that he might shoot or otherwise attack a fellow US soldier. Hall was dismissed in April, 2010, and lost all military benefits earned over at least four years of service, including an earlier tour in Iraq.
    (AP, 4/17/10)
2009        Dec 11, Jenny Sanford, South Carolina's first lady, filed for divorce more than five months after his tearful public confession of an affair with an Argentine woman. The former Wall Street vice president helped launch her husband's political career and has been a quiet presence since her husband took office in 2003.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, US golfer Tiger Woods announced that he will take a break from his PGA Tour career as he scrambles to salvage his marriage.
    (SFC, 12/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Dec 11, Australia's PM Kevin Rudd threatened legal action against Japan if it does not stop its research whaling program that kills up to 1,000 whales a year.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In Brazil a new presidential decree suspended up to an estimated $5.7 billion in fines and gave landowners two more years to comply with environmental regulations meant to stop the razing of the Brazilian rain forest.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, The Canadian government said that it has approved a request from Egyptian-backed telecom Globalive Wireless Management Corp. to launch its mobile phone service in Canada.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, Cyprus police said grave robbers over night had stolen the corpse of former Cyprus President Tassos Papadopoulos after digging up his coffin on the eve of the first anniversary of the statesmen's death. Police discovered the missing body of former President Papadopoulos in another grave on March 8.
    (AP, 12/11/09)(AP, 3/9/10)
2009        Dec 11, EU leaders agreed to commit euro2.4 billion ($3.6 billion) a year until 2012 to help poorer countries combat global warming, as they sought to rescue their image as climate change innovators and bolster the talks in Copenhagen. A new draft agreement at the climate talks pulled together the main elements of a global pact but left gaping holes on financing and cutting greenhouse gas emissions for world leaders to fill in next week.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, German officials said Berlin's new airport will be named after Willy Brandt (1913-1992), the former West German leader who championed East-West relations and won the Nobel Peace Prize (1971).
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, Ousted Honduran President Manuel Zelaya said he will leave the Brazilian Embassy in Honduras by Jan. 27, when his presidential term ends.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In India protesters took to the streets of Hyderabad, setting public buses on fire and clashing with police, in anger over the government’s decision to carve a new state out of the southern region of Andhra Pradesh. Leaders of the Gorkhas, a group of ethnic Nepalis living in West Bengal, called for an indefinite strike to push their decades-old demand for the creation of Gorkhaland.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, Thousands of Iranian government supporters staged rallies denouncing opposition students who burned photos of the supreme leader in protests this week.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In Iraq at least six people were killed after a two-pronged bomb attack south of Baghdad that was apparently designed to ambush bystanders. A US soldier in northern Iraq died of injuries unrelated to combat.
    (AP, 12/11/09)(AP, 12/12/09)
2009        Dec 11, Iraq struck deals with consortiums led by Anglo-Dutch and Chinese giants Shell and CNPC over massive southern oil fields, as part of a two-day auction that seeks to dramatically boost the country's crude output.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, Mexico's foreign minister met with Cuban President Raul Castro for three hours, the latest sign her country and the island have repaired recently chilly relations.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In Mexico police found the bodies of three women and two men inside a home in the town of Almoloya de Juarez. A third man died on the way to a hospital. Soldiers raided a drug cartel's Christmas party south of Mexico City, outside the mountain town of Tepoztlan. They found 16 automatic rifles, $280,000 in cash, and Latin Grammy winner Ramon Ayala and his norteno band, Los Bravos del Norte. 3 gunmen were killed and 11 others suspected of working for the Beltran Leyva drug cartel were detained.
    (AP, 12/11/09)(AP, 12/15/09)
2009        Dec 11, Assailants in the West Bank vandalized a Palestinian mosque, burning prayer carpets and holy books, and leaving behind Hebrew graffiti indicating the rampage was the work of settlers angry over Israel's plans to curb settlement construction.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In the Philippines government-armed former militiamen freed 10 more hostages seized in the remote south, and their leader demanded that murder charges against them be dropped before they release 47 others.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, Romania's Constitutional Court ordered a re-examination of ballots declared void in the Dec 6 presidential election amid allegations of widespread fraud.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, In Spain the A400M military transport plane, that has been causing Airbus and European defense ministers budgetary and logistical headaches, finally took to the skies for its maiden flight.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, At the Vatican Vietnam’s President Nguyen Minh Triet met with Pope Benedict XVI for 40 minutes, twice as long as was scheduled and the first time that the head of state of Vietnam has met with the pope since the communists took power in 1954. Vietnam's 6 million Roman Catholics is one of the largest Catholic communities in Asia.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2010        Dec 11, Nissan North American delivered its first all-electric Leaf to Olivier Chalouhi (31) of Redwood City at a dealership in Petaluma, Ca. His cost was $33,500, but rebates were expected to drop the price to about $20,000.
    (SSFC, 12/12/10, p.C2)
2010        Dec 11, Mark Madoff (46), one of Bernard Madoff's sons, was found dead of an apparent suicide in his Manhattan apartment on the second anniversary of his father's arrest.
    (AP, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, In Afghanistan a car bomb blast near the police headquarters in Kandahar City wounded four Afghan police and two civilians. The suicide attacker in Kunduz province drove a police vehicle and targeted an Afghan National Army convoy, wounding five soldiers and four civilians. An air strike by the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) killed seven road construction company employees overnight. ISAF said Afghan and foreign troops were approached and then fired on by armed men while hunting an insurgent and shot back, killing seven. The disputed incident sent hundreds pouring onto the streets of Gardez city in a protest that turned violent.
    (Reuters, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, Egypt’s minister of electricity said his country plans to build its first nuclear power plant and have it operational by 2019.
    (SSFC, 12/12/10, p.A10)
2010        Dec 11, In Cancun, Mexico, almost 200 countries agreed to modest steps to combat climate change, including a Green Climate Fund to help poor nations, but they put off tough decisions on cutting greenhouse gas emissions until next year.
    (Reuters, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, In northwest Pakistan gunmen on motorcycles shot dead two police officers in Hayatabad, while security forces killed four militants in fighting elsewhere in the region.
    (AP, 12/11/10)(SSFC, 12/12/10, p.A10)
2010        Dec 11, Somali pirates captured the MV Renuar, a Panama-flagged, Liberian-owned cargo vessel, about 1,000 miles (1,610 km) east of Somalia.
    (AP, 12/12/10)
2010        Dec 11, The Sudanese army attacked a village in South Darfur for a second consecutive day in violence that has left one person dead and driven at least 250 civilians from their homes.
    (AP, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, South Sudan’s ruling party formally confirmed for the first time that it will support secession in a January independence referendum that could lead to the break-up of Africa's largest nation.
    (AFP, 12/11/10)
2010        Dec 11, In Sweden two blasts rocked central Stockholm, killing the suspected bomber, later identified as Taymour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly (b.1981). Two people were wounded. Police had good leads into what they said were "terror crimes." On March 8, 2011, police in Scotland arrested Ezedden Khalid Ahmed Al Khaledi (30) on suspicion of aiding the suicide bomber who had targeted Christmas shoppers in Stockholm.
    (Reuters, 12/12/10)(Reuters, 12/13/10)(SFC, 12/14/10, p.A3)(AP, 3/8/11)(AP, 3/14/11)
2010        Dec 11, Turkmenistan signed broad agreements with Afghanistan, India and Pakistan at a summit in its capital Ashgabat on the 1,700-km (1,050-mile) TAPI pipeline. Afghanistan the next day said it will deploy up to 7,000 troops to secure the major transnational gas pipeline, slated to run through some of the most dangerous parts of the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 12/12/10)

2011        Dec 11, San Francisco police cleared the city’s last remaining Occupy protest camp arrested 55 people in front of the Federal Reserve Bank at 101 Market St.
    (SFC, 12/12/11, p.C2)
2011        Dec 11, Christopher Artes (25) and Medeana Hendershot (22), were found dead under a mound of coal at a Florida power plant. The young couple shared a passion for illegally hopping freight trains and traveling the country without a set plan.
    (AP, 12/16/11)
2011        Dec 11, Afghan President Hamid Karzai said foreigners are fueling the problem of corruption by, for example, awarding contracts to high ranking government officials.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, Police in Brazil's southeastern Sao Paulo state said they are investigating the theft of 50 metric tons (55 US tons) of corn from a moving train.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In China Xue Jinbo (42) died after two days in police custody. He had led protests in the fishing village of Wukan in opposition to government land confiscations and was arrested on Dec 9.
    (SFC, 12/16/11, p.A13)
2011        Dec 11, Former French PM Dominique de Villepin, who gained international renown as France's spokesman against the war in Iraq, announced he'll run as an independent.
    (AP, 12/12/11)
2011        Dec 11, In India Anna Hazare held a seven-hour fast to demand sweeping legislation to end India's culture of corruption, in which bribes are paid for everything from health care to marriage certificates.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In Iran a blast caused by leftover ammunition killed at least seven workers including foreign nationals at a steel mill in the central city of Yazd.
    (AP, 12/12/11)
2011        Dec 11, The Israeli Cabinet voted unanimously to finance a $160 million program to stanch the flow of illegal African migrants by stepping up construction of a border fence and expanding a detention center. Several thousand Bedouin demonstrated outside Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu's office, protesting over a plan they say will displace tens of thousands of people from their land.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(AFP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, Ivory Coast held parliamentary elections. The 2nd national poll in 11 years drew little voter interest. The opposition party of former strongman Laurent Gbagbo, which had called for a boycott of the poll, estimated that as few as 10 percent of voters participated. Official results published by the Independent Electoral Commission on March 8, 2012, said Ouattara's Rally of Republicans (RDR) party won 138 of the parliament's 253 seats on 54.54% of the vote.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(AFP, 3/8/12)
2011        Dec 11, In Indian Kashmir a policeman was killed and a civilian injured when suspected Muslim militants opened fire. The region's senior minister escaped unhurt in the attack.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In northern Kenya twin blasts killed one police officer and wounded nine soldiers, in the latest in a string of attacks since Kenyan troops crossed the border into Somalia two months ago.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In Mexico unidentified assailants tossed a bomb into a building in Veracruz where a cockfight was being held. One man was killed and nine others slightly wounded.
    (AP, 12/13/11)
2011        Dec 11, Pakistan’s PM Yousuf Raza Gilani said President Asif Ali Zardari will likely need two weeks to rest in Dubai following medical treatment there before he returns home. Zardari flew to Dubai last week for treatment related to a heart condition.
    (AP, 12/12/11)
2011        Dec 11, A Pakistani Taliban spokesman denied an earlier announcement by the militant group's deputy chief that it was holding peace talks with the government. Prominent al-Qaida and Afghan Taliban fighters asked Pakistani militants to set aside their differences and step up support for the battle against US-led forces in Afghanistan: "For God's sake, forget all your differences and give us fighters to boost the battle against America in Afghanistan," senior al-Qaida commander Abu Yahya al-Libi told Pakistani fighters in South Waziristan. An earlier meeting was held on November 27 in North Waziristan.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(AP, 1/2/12)
2011        Dec 11, In Pakistan the US vacated Shamsi airbase following a deadline given by Islamabad in the wake of anger over NATO air strikes last month that killed 24 soldiers. US officials and intelligence analysts have said the covert drone war would not be affected by the closure of the base as Washington could fly Predator and Reaper drones out of air fields in neighboring Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, A Palestinian father and his daughter were wounded in an Israeli air strike on Gaza City.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, Ex-Panama dictator Noriega was flown home for new punishment after 22 years in US, French jails.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala replaced more than half his Cabinet, a day after accepting its chief minister's resignation in a move widely interpreted as signaling less tolerance for social protests.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev posted a comment on his Facebook page saying he has ordered a probe into the allegations of electoral fraud during the Dec. 4 parliamentary vote.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In South Africa a UN climate conference reached a hard-fought agreement on a far-reaching program meant to set a new course for the global fight against climate change. The 194-party conference agreed to start negotiations on a new accord that would ensure that countries will be legally bound to carry out any pledges they make. It would take effect by 2020 at the latest. The conference also agreed on a Green Climate Fund, which would funnel some of the $110 billion, promised by rich countries to poor ones, to help them cut emissions and adopt to climate change.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.140)
2011        Dec 11, In South Sudan suspected rebels under the command of renegade general George Athor attacked Atar town, in Pigi county, killing 9 people, while another raid cost the lives of two people in Kapat, near the state capital Bor.
    (AFP, 12/12/11)
2011        Dec 11, Syrian troops battled army defectors in clashes that set several military vehicles ablaze. Opposition activists called for a general strike starting today in a bid to squeeze the government and push it to stop its bloody crackdown. About a dozen Syrians attacked their embassy in Jordan’s capital, Amman, injuring at least two diplomats and four other consulate employees. As many as 23 people were killed as government forces clashed with armed insurgents and protesters.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(SFC, 12/12/11, p.A2)
2011        Dec 11, Hundreds of thousands of Yemenis demonstrated to demand President Ali Abdullah Saleh face trial for his regime's deadly crackdown on months of protests.
    (AP, 12/11/11)
2011        Dec 11, In Taiwan almost a thousand protesters took to the streets of Taipei demanding that the government make a weekly day off a legal right for Taiwan's 200,000 foreign live-in caregivers.
    (AP, 12/11/11)

2012        Dec 11, The US Air Force launched an unmanned X-37B, a secret military version of the space shuttle, atop an Atlas V rocket at Cape Canaveral.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A5)
2012        Dec 11, In Georgia Mohammad Abdul Rahman Abukhdair (28) and Randy Lamar Wilson (25) were charged with conspiring to kill persons or damage property outside the US. FBI agents arrested Wilson at the Atlanta airport as he boarded a flight to Mauritania. Abukhdair was arrested at a bus station in Augusta. On April 19 Wilson pleaded guilty in Mobile, Ala., to one charge of conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists. On Dec 20, 2013, both men were sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A5)(SFC, 4/19/13, p.A4)(SFC, 12/20/13, p.A6)
2012        Dec 11, A federal appeals court struck down a ban on carrying concealed weapons in Illinois, the only remaining state where carrying concealed weapons is entirely illegal. It gave lawmakers 180 days to write a law that legalizes it.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Michigan enacted a ban on mandatory union membership, dealing a stunning blow to organized labor in the state that is home to US automakers and the symbol of industrial labor in the United States.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, In Oregon a masked gunman opened fire at Clackamas Town Center, a mall in suburban Portland. Jacob Tyler Roberts (22), armed himself with an AR-15 semiautomatic rifle he stole from someone he knew, went on a rampage that left two people dead and one injured before he killed himself.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A5)(AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Dec 11, Delta Airlines agreed to buy a 49% stake in Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd. For $360 million.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.D3)
2012        Dec 11, Ravi Shankar (b.1920), India-born sitar virtuoso, died in San Diego.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A6)
2012        Dec 11, A US watchdog agency said that Afghan officials were resisting US efforts to help track billions of dollars being flown out of Kabul airport every year, some likely linked to crime and drugs.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Britain's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and London police made the first arrests as part of a global investigation into the manipulation of interbank lending rates, a scandal that has rocked the banking industry.
    (Reuters, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, British bank HSBC agreed to pay a fine of $1.9 billion over money-laundering allegations by American regulators.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.73)
2012        Dec 11, Canadian aboriginal Chief Theresa Spence, from the remote northern Ontario community of Attawapiskat, began a hunger strike urging PM Stephen Harper to "open his heart" and meet with native leaders angered by his policies.
    (Reuters, 12/28/12)
2012        Dec 11, Premier McKeeva Bush (57), the leader of the Cayman Islands' government, was arrested on suspicion of theft, abuse of office and breach of trust in the famed Caribbean tax haven.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Cuba formally authorized the creation of the first non-agricultural cooperatives, a measure expected to permit the growth of midsize businesses as part of President Raul Castro's plan to open the economy to some liberalization.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Doctors in Cuba operated on Venezuelan President Hugo for cancer, after the illness reappeared despite a year and a half of surgeries and treatments.
    (AP, 12/12/12)
2012        Dec 11, In Egypt masked gunmen attacked anti-Morsi protesters in Cairo's central Tahrir Square before dawn, firing birdshot at them and wounding nine. Thousands of opponents and supporters of Egypt's Islamist president staged rival rallies in the nation's Cairo.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Ghana's opposition party said that they plan to contest the results of the recent presidential election. Police and soldiers raided an office where the opposition party was re-tabulating votes in their preparation to contest the results of last week's presidential poll, which handed a slim victory to the incumbent.
    (AP, 12/11/12)(AP, 12/12/12)
2012        Dec 11, In Guinea three people were killed, dozens wounded and at least three women raped in an army crackdown on protesters in the town of Gueckedou, 700 km (430 miles) southeast of Conakry.
    (AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Dec 11, Iran's official news agency reported that the country has closed its consular section in the western Afghan city of Herat, after anti-Iranian protests at the site on Dec 9. Afghan demonstrators were protesting the alleged killing of Afghan emigrants at nearby border crossings in recent months.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Tehran's chief prosecutor said authorities have arrested 28 Iranians for alleged links to foreign-based TV networks advocating the Baha'i religion, which is banned in the Islamic Republic.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, A Kazakhstan court convicted border guard Vladislav Chelakh (19) of killing 14 of his comrades along with a park ranger and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 12/12/12)
2012        Dec 11, South Sudan soldiers were being blamed for the deaths of up to 23 civilians in two separate regions. The first incident took place in Jonglei state last week. An official said soldiers rounded up civilians and fired on the group, killing 13. The UN mission confirmed that nine people were killed during the two days of violence over the weekend in Western Equatoria state.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, Syrian rebels, backed by Islamic extremist fighters of Jabhat al-Nusra, took full control of the Sheik Suleiman military base near Aleppo after a two-day battle that killed at least 35 government troops. In Aleppo four mortar rounds hit the predominantly Kurdish neighborhood of Sheik Maksoud, killing 11, including 3 children and 2 women, and wounding a dozen other people.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, In southern Thailand armed men with assault rifles burst into the canteen of Ban Ba Ngo school in Pattani province and shot dead two teachers. In Narathiwat's Rangae district gunmen on a pickup truck fired AK-47 and M16 assault rifles into a tea shop, killing three people instantly including a toddler, and wounding six others at the scene. One of the wounded died later in hospital.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.44)(
2012        Dec 11, In Yemen Brig. Gen. Ahmed Ba Ramada, deputy head of intelligence for Hadramawt, was killed by two unknown assailants on a motorbike.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2013        Dec 11, The United States and Britain suspended all non-lethal aid to the opposition in northern Syria after Islamist rebels seized key bases and warehouses belonging to the Western-backed Free Syrian Army.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, The US FDA said it will begin curbing the use of some medically important antibiotics commonly fed to animals to fatten them up for market. A 3-year plan to implement this was called the Veterinary Feed Directive.
    (SFC, 12/12/13, p.A1)
2013        Dec 11, Time magazine selected Pope Francis as its Person of the Year, saying the Catholic Church's new leader has changed the perception of the 2,000-year-old institution in an extraordinary way in a short time.
    (AP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, A small plain crashed off of Molokai, Hawaii, killing Loretta Fuddy, the director of the state health dept. Eight other people survived.
    (SFC, 12/13/13, p.A13)
2013        Dec 11, In Illinois inmate Stanley Wrice (59) was freed from prison after spending 30 years behind bars for confessing under torture to a rape that he did not commit. He had confessed to the 1982 sexual assault after two officers under former Lt. Jon Burge beat him in the groin and face.
    (SFC, 12/12/13, p.A10)
2013        Dec 11, A $122 million Powerball lottery draw went to two winners, a couple in Nebraska and a couple in Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 1/3/14, p.A6)
2013        Dec 11, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber attacked a convoy of German troops near the international airport in Kabul. The attacker was killed and there were no ISAF casualties to report.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, A Bahraini court sentenced 12 Shiite Muslims to 15-year jail terms for attacking a car warehouse during unrest in the Sunni-ruled kingdom in February 2012.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, In Bangladesh deposed military dictator Hussein Mohammad Ershad was detained by Rab (Rapid Action Battalion). The hybrid crime-fighting force picked the Jatiya Party chief up from his residence in Dhaka.
2013        Dec 11, British regulators announced a record £28 million fines against state-rescued Lloyds Banking Group after finding staff were at risk of selling unsuitable products amid the lure of bonuses.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, G8 health ministers met in London to tackle what experts warn is a dementia time-bomb, with cases set to soar as the world's population ages.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Canada's postal service said it will phase out door-to-door mail delivery in response to falling mail volumes and big financial losses. Canadians will instead have to collect their mail from corner community mailboxes that are to be set up in cities nationwide.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Air Canada announced it had placed a firm $6.5 billion order for 61 Boeing 737 MAX narrow-body aircraft, with options on 18 more planes and purchase rights for 30 others.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Chinese sources said authorities have put Zhou Yongkang, one of the most powerful politicians of the last decade, under virtual house arrest while the ruling Communist Party investigates accusations of corruption against him.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, The trial of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood chief and his deputies on charges related to protest deaths came to an abrupt end when the judges quit in protest at chaos in the dock.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Germany police said a sapling cloned from the tree that lifted Anne Frank's spirits while she hid from the Nazis in Amsterdam was felled and stolen over the weekend from outside a school in Frankfurt bearing the name of the Jewish teenage diarist.
    (AP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, In western Germany a building crane collapsed onto a supermarket, killing one person and injuring at least five others in Bad Homburg.
    (AP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, India's Supreme Court struck down a 2009 lower court decision to decriminalize homosexuality, dealing a blow to gay activists who have fought for years for the chance to live openly in India's deeply conservative society. The court said only lawmakers can change a colonial era law that bans same-sex relations.
    (AP, 12/11/13)(SSFC, 12/15/13, p.A20)
2013        Dec 11, Iran released the last two of eight Slovak paragliders arrested for allegedly spying after PM Robert Fico and Foreign Minister Miroslav Lajcak flew in to secure their release.
    (AFP, 12/12/13)
2013        Dec 11, Italian PM Enrico Letta won a parliamentary confidence vote triggered by the fall of Silvio Berlusconi, promising to push through a pro-European reform agenda and fight populism.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Myanmar freed 41 political detainees, bringing the country close to fulfilling a pledge by President Thein Sein to release all prisoners of conscience by the end of the year.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, Saudi Arabia and its Gulf Arab neighbors wrapped up a summit meeting in Kuwait by agreeing to establish a joint military command, paving the way for tighter security coordination.
    (AP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, In Syria 32 people were killed in the town of Adra northeast of Damascus after an al-Qaida-linked rebel faction attack. The dead were primarily members the Alawite sect, as well as a few Druse and Shiite Muslims.
    (Reuters, 12/15/13)
2013        Dec 11, Ukrainian police pulled back as protesters claimed victory after an overnight face-off in which authorities removed barricades and tents and scuffled with demonstrators occupying Kiev's main square.
    (AP, 12/11/13)

2014        Dec 11, The US House of Representatives narrowly passed a $1.1 trillion federal spending bill, sending it to the Senate after it was ushered through barely two hours before a midnight deadline.
    (AFP, 12/12/14)
2014        Dec 11, Google announced it will close Google News in Spain and block reports from Spanish publishers from more than 70 Google News international editions due to a new Spanish law requiring aggregators to pay to link content.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, The California State Dept. of Finance estimated the current state population to be 38.5 million.
    (SFC, 12/12/14, p.D1)
2014        Dec 11, Rain and high winds lashed Northern California overnight, leaving thousands without power, as a major winter storm that marched across the Pacific Ocean was set to pound the state.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Delaware police arrested Seth Ramsey (17) of Harrington after his father was found dead with a single arrow wound to the abdomen. Ramsey admitted to killing his father with a crossbow.
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.A8)
2014        Dec 11, The Int’l. Weightlifting Federation said eight weightlifters, including two gold medalists, have been provisionally suspended after failing doping tests at last month's world championship in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber targeted a bus carrying Afghan army personnel, killing 6 soldiers and wounding 11. Hours later a teenaged suicide bomber targeted a packed auditorium at a French-run high school in Kabul, killing a German citizen.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)(AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Algeria's justice minister said a second member of the group that kidnapped and beheaded French hiker Herve Gourdel last September has been identified and killed by the army.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Vienna, Austria, several states (Britain, Norway, Netherlands and the US) pledged to back a UN nuclear agency (IAEA) request for 4.6 million euros ($5.7 million) as soon as possible to pay for its monitoring of an extended, interim nuclear deal between Iran and world powers.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Brazil’s National Truth Commission report named 377 people allegedly responsible for 434 deaths and disappearances, and thousands of acts of torture during the military regime of 1964-1985.
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.A22)
2014        Dec 11, Britain's Scout Association was warned that sexual abuse claims that have led to payouts of £500,000 were only the "tip of the iceberg."
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In London Aravindan Balakrishnan (74), the leader of an obscure Maoist collective, was charged with false imprisonment, rape, cruelty to a person under 16 years old and indecent assault. He allegedly held three women, freed last year, against their will in a London house for 30 years.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Bulgaria some 6,000 people protested in Sofia against government plans to raise the retirement age by four months to 63 years and 8 months for men and to 60 years and 8 months for women.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In the southeast CongoDRC at least 129 people drowned when the passenger ship M/V Mutambala capsized on Lake Tanganyika.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)
2014        Dec 11, The EU banned Libya's seven airlines from operating in European skies, citing safety concerns linked to the ongoing fighting there.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Greece's former finance minister, George Papaconstantinou, was indicted before a special court on criminal charges over his handling of data on Greeks holding Swiss bank accounts.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Hong Kong police arrested some 209 pro-democracy activists and cleared most of the main protest site, marking an end to more than two months of street demonstrations in the Chinese-controlled city.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)(AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, The head of Hungary's tax authority sued a senior American diplomat in Budapest for libel after the envoy said the US had knowledge of corruption at the tax office.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Indian PM Narendra Modi told President Vladimir Putin that Russia will remain India's top defense supplier. Modi spoke after a one-day summit in which the two sides signed billions of dollars of deals in nuclear power, oil and defense. The Russian Direct Investment Fund and India's IDFC agreed to invest up to $1 billion in Indian infrastructure projects including in ports, toll roads and hydropower, to deepen economic ties between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Iran media reported that authorities have arrested 12 people for syphoning off more than $4.5 billion (3.6 billion euros) from one of the country's main banks over several years. The suspects embezzled from the Kerman branch of Tejarat Bank from 2009 until their arrest in 2013.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, Iraq's powerful Shi'ite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr put his militia on alert to battle Islamic State militants for the city of Samarra. An Islamic State suicide bomber blew up a Humvee west of the Anbar provincial capital Ramadi, destroying a bridge and killing two soldiers.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, The International Criminal Court ordered a close ally of former Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, Charles Ble Goude, to stand trial for crimes against humanity linked to a 2010-11 post-election crisis.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Kenya more than 20 machete-wielding men, said to be members of the outlawed Mombasa Republican Council (MRC), attacked a police camp. The outlawed group wants independence for Kenya's Indian Ocean coastal regions, citing decades of neglect by the government.
    (Reuters, 12/22/14)
2014        Dec 11, Malaysia police said they have arrested 20 people in a widening investigation into the murder of at least 18 Myanmar nationals in the state of Penang since January. Police said twelve Myanmar migrants have confessed to their role in nine of the murders.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In central Nigeria twin explosions killed about 120 people in downtown Jos. Extremists attacked Gajigana, a border town between Niger and Nigeria, and 11 people were killed. Major buildings were burned down but Boko Haram did not succeed in capturing the town.
    (SFC, 12/12/14, p.A9)(AP, 12/13/14)
2014        Dec 11, In the Philippines Rep. Vicente Belmonte was slightly wounded in an attack by gunmen who killed at least 2 of his bodyguards and a driver in Misamis Oriental province.
    (SFC, 12/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Dec 11, Saudi Arabia-based Islamic Development Bank said the Saudi king has pledged $35 million to help fight Ebola in hard-hit West African countries.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, South Africa said its loss-making national airline will be placed under the control of the Treasury, as the carrier battles to turn around its fortunes.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, South African police expressed shock at the gruesome and mysterious murder of six men, aged 18-30, found with their hands bound and their heads apparently crushed by rocks.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, South African doctors performed the world's first successful penis transplant in a nine-hour operation at the Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town. This followed a botched circumcision at a traditional initiation ceremony. On March 13, 2015, doctors announced that the man (21) had made a full recovery.
    (AP, 3/14/15)
2014        Dec 11, Swiss authorities charged Herve Falciani, a fugitive banking analyst, with data theft in what is considered to be one of the biggest security breaches in the country's often-secretive banking sector. He has been accused of stealing stole information between 2006 and 2007 relating to 24,000 customers of the Swiss division of HSBC.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Uganda Ryan Gustafson, an American man, was arrested for forging currency in his Ugandan home. Police alleged that Gustafson has forged more than $2 million that is in circulation around the world. On Dec 3, 2015, a local court ordered Gustafson to be extradited to the US.
    (AP, 12/23/14)(AP, 12/3/15)
2014        Dec 11, Ukraine's parliament approved the new government's economic program of tough reforms aimed at securing billions of dollars in financial aid from the International Monetary Fund and other backers. a military spokesman said 3 Ukrainian soldiers were killed and eight wounded in attacks by pro-Russian separatists in the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)

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