Timeline of Louisiana

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 Facts: http://www.50states.com/louisian.htm
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http://www.neworleans.com
 Virtual Tourist:
http://www.vtourist.com/North_America/USA/Louisiana/

Much of Louisiana sits atop an ancient ocean whose salty remains have formed at least 127 colossal underground pillars.
    (SSFC, 9/29/13, p.A17)

40Mil BC    The whale species Basilosaurus (king lizard) isis was discovered in 1904. Paleontologists found bones of this creature in the 1830s in Louisiana. Fossils were found by U of Mich. paleontologist P.D. Gingerich in Egypt in 1989. With tiny hind limbs too weak to support its body on land, Gingerich believes it spent its entire life in the ocean. It reached about 40 feet.
     (LSA., p. 36)(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.15,16)

3,400BC    An earthen mound at what later was known as Watson Brake, La. in the US was dated to this time.
    (SFC, 9/19/97, p.A3)

1704        English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile.
    (WSJ, 3/9/05, p.A1)

1713        Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)

1714        The Natchitoches settlement was established in the Cane River area.
    (SSFC, 7/7/02, p.C5)

1716        Jun 6, The 1st slaves arrived in Louisiana.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1717        The 1st New Orleans levee, 3 feet tall, was built on the Mississippi River.
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1718        May 7, La Nouvelle-Orleans (New Orleans) was founded by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, the Regent of France.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Orleans)

1718        Aug 25, Hundreds of French colonists arrived in Louisiana, with some of them settling in present-day New Orleans.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1718        Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, French-Canadian explorer, founded New Orleans.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.63)

1718        The "Casket Girls" of New Orleans began to arrive from France with casket full of dowry articles to marry settlers.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.E5)

1729        Nov 28, Natchez Indians massacred most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1755        In Canada the Accadians of Nova Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana. The Longfellow story "Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)

1758        Oct 10, Jean Pierre Chouteau, French fur trader, early St. Louis settler and "father of Oklahoma" was born in New Orleans.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

1762        Nov 3, Spain acquired Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1762        Dec 3, France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
    (CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)

1766        Mar 5, Spanish naval Captain Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Ulloa)(AP, 3/5/98)

1768        Oct 28, Germans and Acadians joined French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1778        Apr 1, Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the "$" symbol.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1778        King Carlos III of Spain sent Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)

1781        The earliest reference to the New Orleans Mardi Gras "Carnival" appears in a report to the Spanish colonial governing body. The Perseverance Benevolent & Mutual Aid Association became the first of hundreds of clubs and carnival organizations formed in New Orleans.
    (www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html)

1788        Mar 21, Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were burned.
    (HN, 3/21/99)(MC, 3/21/02)

1800        Oct. 1, Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

c1800        Caddo Lake arose when dead trees in the Red River caused an overflow into the Cypress Valley. The log jam was called the Great Red River Raft and continued to the 1870s when the government cleared the blockage with explosives.
    (NH, 5/01, p.35)

1802        Apr 19, Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1802        Dec 20, The United States bought the Louisiana territory from France. [see Jan 11, 1803]
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1803        Jan 11, Monroe and Livingston sailed for Paris to buy New Orleans; they ended up buying Louisiana. [see Dec 20, 1802]
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1803        Oct 31, Congress ratified the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, which added territory to the United States for 13 subsequent states.
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1803        Nov 30, Spain, in a ceremony at New Orleans, completed the process of ceding Louisiana to France, which had sold it to the United States.
    (CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 11/30/04)

1803        Dec 20, The Louisiana Purchase was completed as the territory was formally transferred from France to the United States during ceremonies in New Orleans. French Prefect Pierre Clement Laussat, US Gov. William CC Claiborne and US Gen. James Wilkinson signed 4 copies the treaty. The Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the existing U.S. With 827,987 square miles in the deal, that price translates to roughly $18 per square mile- under 3 cents/acre.
    (AP, 12/20/97)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.A2)

1804        Nov 27, Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst to Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
    (ON, 12/08, p6)

1805        Jul 25, Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1805        Mar 3, Louisiana-Missouri Territory formed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1805        Louisiana passed legislation against sodomy. The law was upheld in 2002.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A5)

1811        Jan 8, Charles Deslondes led several hundred poorly armed slaves towards New Orleans in the largest slave rebellion in US history.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1811        Jan 10, An uprising of over 400 slaves was put down in New Orleans. Sixty-six blacks were killed and their heads were strung up along the roads of the city.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1812        Apr 4, The territory of Orleans became the 18th state and later became known as Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1812        Apr 30, Louisiana became the 18th state.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)

1813         Laws banning the carrying of concealed weapons were passed in Kentucky and Louisiana.
    (http://tinyurl.com/d337x96)

1814        Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)

1814        Dec 13, General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana, as British troops disembark at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1814        Dec 14, The steamboat Enterprise, designed by keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, arrived in New Orleans with guns and ammunition for Gen. Jackson. It was immediately commandeered for military service.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1815        Jan 8, US forces led by Gen. Andrew Jackson and French pirate Jean Lafitte led some 3,100 backwoodsmen to victory against 7,500 British veterans at Chalmette in the Battle of New Orleans in the closing engagement of the War of 1812. A British army marched on New Orleans without knowing that the War of 1812 had ended on Christmas Eve of 1814. A massacre ensued, as 2,044 British troops, including three generals, fell dead, wounded or missing before General Andrew Jackson's well-prepared earthworks, compared with only 71 American casualties. Among the British victims were Gen. Sir Edward Pakenham and the Highlanders of the 93rd Regiment of Foot. In 2000 Robert V. Remini published "The Battle of New Orleans."
    (AP, 1/8/98)(HN, 1/8/99)(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1816        Oct 7, The 1st double decked steamboat, Washington, arrived in New Orleans.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1817        Mar 3, The first commercial steamboat route from Louisville to New Orleans was opened.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1818        Feb 11, Sugar plantation owner Levi Foster sold to his in-laws the slaves named Kit (28) for $975 and Alick (9) for $400. In 2000 Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and LSU Press published a CD-ROM database on Louisiana slave transactions: "Databases for the Study of Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1699-1860: Computerized Information from Original Manuscript Sources."
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.)(www.afrigeneas.com)

1819        Apr 19, The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson's Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_31_August_1819)

1821        Feb 22, The Adams-Onis Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US. The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1823        In New Orleans Louis Joseph Dufilho Jr. established a pharmacy and was the first licensed pharmacist in the US. The building later became The Pharmacy Museum.
    (SFEM, 6/14/98, p.24)

1824        Jan 1, The Camp Street Theatre opened as the first English-language playhouse in New Orleans.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1827        Feb 27, A Mardi Gras street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on Ash Wednesday.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(HNQ, 2/9/99)

1827        John Davis opened the doors of the first full-dress American gambling casino in New Orleans.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1827        The government hired Capt. Henry Miller Shreve to remove a 100-mile "raft" of snags and trees that prevented steamboats from entering the Red River. His workcamp later became the city of Shreveport, La.
    (ON, 7/02, p.11)

1829        May 8, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (d.1869), American pianist, was born in New Orleans.
    (HN, 5/8/02)(http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/gottschalk.html)

1830        Jan 13, There was a great fire in New Orleans. It was thought to be set by rebel slaves.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1834-1861    The Citizens Bank of Louisiana, a predecessor of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., secured loans with mortgages and thousands of slaves. Bernard de Marigny, plantation owner and one of the richest men of the epoch, put 62 slaves into the banks books as collateral for borrowed money to support his gambling habit.
    (WSJ, 5/10/05, p.A1)

1835        Mar 3, Congress authorized a US mint at New Orleans, LA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1835        The St. Charles streetcar began running under horse and mule power.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T4)

1835-1868    Adah Isaacs Menken, a Jewish poet and actress, was born near New Orleans and learned French, German, Spanish and Hebrew in school. She shocked American and European audiences in the 1860s for her bold acting style and became notorious for her role in the play Mazeppa, where she appeared on stage barely clothed tied to the back of a running horse. Around 1856 she published her first book of poems and married Alexander Isaacs Menken, whose name she kept through divorce and subsequent remarriages and liaisons. Called the most perfectly developed woman in the world, she moved between Europe and the United States as she performed. Adah Isaacs Menken died of tuberculosis in Paris and was buried there in the Montparnasse Cemetery.
    (HNPD, 11/16/98)

1840        A US no-bail-out policy forced some state into default. Several US states had loaded up on unsustainable debt following an extended period of easy credit. These states consequently found payments on their existing bonds increasingly unaffordable. Between 1841 and 1843 Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and one territory – a proto-state called Florida – defaulted.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/6pgf4wq)

1841        Aug 21, John Hampson of New Orleans patented the Venetian blind.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1845        Thomas K. Wharton, architect, arrived in New Orleans. He soon became the superintendent of construction for the Custom House on Canal St.   
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.T3)

1848        The Lazard brothers, Alexandre Lazard, Simon Lazard, and Elie Lazard, moved to the United States from Lorraine, France, and formed Lazard Freres & Co. as a dry goods business in New Orleans, Louisiana, with a combined contribution of $ 9,000. They moved to SF a year later with their cousin, Alexander Weill.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazard)(SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.C1)

1849        A US Swamp Land Act authorized Louisiana to create a system of levee districts. The sale of donated federal land financed levee construction and land reclamation.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1849        By this time Maunsel White, a New Orleans plantation owner, was growing peppers that had originated in Mexico’s state of Tabasco. He devised a sauce using the pepper.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)

1852        A painting of "New Orleans from the Lower Cotton Press" was made by J. Hill and B. Smith.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.T3)

1853        Solomon Northrup (b.1807) and Henry W. Derbu authored "Twelve Years a Slave, Narrative of Solomon Northrup, a Citizen of New York, Kidnapped in Washington in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River in Louisiana." In 2013 Rachel Seligman, David Fiske and Clifford authored “Solomon Northrup: The Complete Story of the Author of Twelve Years a Slave." A film based on the 1853 book won the Best Picture Oscar in 2014.
    (ON, 11/99, p.7)(SFC, 3/17/14, p.A8)

1855        Mar 15, Louisiana established the 1st health board to regulate quarantine.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1857        The Comus krewe was founded in New Orleans.
    (USAT, 3/7/00, p.5A)

1858        Mar 2, Frederick Cook, New Orleans, patented a cotton-bale metallic tie.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1860         Nov, Abraham Lincoln won the US presidential elections with a majority of the electoral votes in a 4-way race. Following his election South Carolina seceded from the Union followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1861        Jan 10, Ft. Jackson and Ft. Philip were taken over by LA state troops.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1861        Jan 26, Louisiana became the 6th state to secede from the Union.
    (AP, 1/26/98)(www.csawardept.com/documents/secession/LA/)

1861        Feb 4, Delegates from six southern states met in Montgomery, Ala., to form the Confederate States of America. They included Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. They elected Jefferson Davis as president of Confederacy.
    (AP, 2/4/97)(ON, 11/00, p.1)

1861        May 26, Union blockaded New Orleans, LA., and Mobile, AL.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1861        Jul 14, Union troops tried to force a crossing at Seneca Falls on the Potomac, northwest of Washington but were repulsed by the Confederates. A company of the Louisiana Tiger Rifles helped defend the line.
    (HN, 7/14/99)

1861        Sep, Harry Macarthy delivered a stirring performance of "The Bonnie Blue Flag" on a New Orleans stage, causing a near riot. Born an Englishman, he became famous throughout the Confederacy as an entertainer. Macarthy was a hit, and for the rest of the war, he would do his best to keep his song and himself popular, taking his show on the road all over the South and providing diversion for thousands of civilians and soldiers. He lifted the morale of war-weary Southerners and became the most popular performer in his adopted country, the Confederate States of America.
    (HNQ, 6/14/01)

1861        Oct 4, The Union ship USS South Carolina captured two Confederate blockade runners outside of New Orleans, La.
    (HN, 10/4/98)

1861        Oct 12, The Confederate ironclad Manassas attacked the northern ship Richmond on the Mississippi River. The Manassas was the Confederacy‘s first operational ironclad. Originally a New England tugboat called the Enoch Train, the ship was refit with iron sheathing and an iron prow for ramming. The underpowered ship was used in defense of New Orleans, finally being dispatched by the Union warship Mississippi.
    (AP, 10/12/97)(HNQ, 7/12/00)

1861        Café du Monde opened in New Orleans. It later became famous for its powdered-sugar-covered beignets.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T5)

1862        Apr 18, Battle of Ft Jackson, Ft St. Philip and New Orleans, LA.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1862        Apr 25, Admiral David Farragut gained control of the Mississippi River at New Orleans, Louisiana. A few days later federal troops occupied the city. This stopped cotton sales by the Confederacy a revenue shortage that led to printed money and hyperinflation. In 2000 Jack D. Coombe published "Gunfire Around the Gulf," which recounts the Southern Civil War naval campaign.
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/21/08, p.W6)(www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=1105)

1862        Apr 29, Forts Philip and Jackson surrendered to Union forces under Admiral Farragut outside New Orleans.
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1862        May 12, Federal troops occupied Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1862        May 15, In New Orleans General Benjamin Butler issued an order to the effect that any woman insulting or showing contempt for any officer or soldier of the United States should be treated as a woman of the town "plying her avocation" - meaning soliciting of prostitution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butler%27s_General_Order_No._28)

1862        Aug 5, Battle of Baton Rouge, LA.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1862        Sep, The troops of the 1st Louisiana Native Guards were free black men who lived in New Orleans. When Pres. Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation he invited black men in Confederate territory to join the Union army. Union Major General Benjamin Butler immediately mustered the 1st Louisiana Native Guards into Federal service, making them the Union’s first black soldiers. They had volunteered for state service in the Civil War, and served as a home guard unit. When New Orleans fell to Union forces in April 1862, the black troops remained in the city and offered their services to Butler.
    (HNQ, 2/21/02)

1862        Oct 27, A Confederate force was routed at the Battle of Labadieville, near Bayou Lafourche in Louisiana. John Howard Payne's haunting 'Home, Sweet Home' was the Civil War soldier's favorite song.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1862        Nov 3, There was a battle between gunboats at Bayou Teche, Louisiana.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1862        Dec 15, In New Orleans, Union Major General Benjamin F. Butler turned his command over to Nathaniel Banks. The citizens of New Orleans held farewell parties for Butler, "The Beast," but only after he had already left. General Butler was given the unusual nickname "Spoons" due to his apparent penchant for stealing the silver while occupying New Orleans. He was also called "Beast" for alleged insults to the women in the town. Both the names were coined by Confederates.
    (HN, 12/15/98)(HNQ, 3/9/02)

1862        Louisiana experienced severe flooding.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1863        Apr 12-14, Gunboat battle at Bayou Teche, Louisiana.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1863        Apr 13, Battle of Irish Bend, LA (Ft. Bisland). (MC, 4/13/02)

1863        May 14, Union General Nathanial Banks took his army out of Alexandria, Louisiana, and headed towards Port Hudson along the Mississippi River. The fort was considered the second most important strategic location on the river, after Vicksburg.
    (HN, 5/14/99)

1863        May 21, The siege on Port Hudson, Louisiana began.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1863        May 27, Siege of Port Hudson, LA. [see May 21]
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1863        Jun 21, In the second day of fighting, Confederate cavalry failed to dislodge a Union force at the Battle of LaFourche Crossing in Louisiana.
    (HN, 6/21/00)

1863        Jun 23, Confederate forces overwhelmed a Union garrison at the Battle of Brasher City in Louisiana.
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1863        Jul 3, Battle of Donaldsonville, LA.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1863        Jul 8, Discouraged by the surrender of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Confederates in Port Hudson, Louisiana, surrendered to Union forces.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1864        Mar 10, Red River campaign took place in LA. [see Mar 15]
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1864        Mar 15, Red River Campaign began as the Union forces reached Alexandria, La.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1864        Mar 21, Battle at Henderson's Hill (Bayou Rapids), Louisiana.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1864        Apr 2, Skirmish at Crump's Hill (Piney Woods), Louisiana.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1864        Apr 8, In the Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana, Federals were routed by Confederate Gen. Richard Taylor. Keatchi girl’s school was taken over as a hospital for the injured soldiers.
    (HN, 4/8/98)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.C5)

1864        Apr 9, The Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1864        Apr 12, Battle of Blair's Landing in LA.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1864        Apr 23, Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett's Ferry).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1864        Apr 25, After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returned to Alexandria, Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/25/99)

1864        Apr 30, Work began on the Dams along the Red River which would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1864        May 1-8, Battle at Alexandria, Louisiana (Red River Campaign).
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1864        May 18, Battle of Yellow Bayou, LA (Bayou de Glaize, Old Oaks).
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1865        May 26, Arrangements were made in New Orleans for the surrender of Confederate forces west of the Mississippi. The last Confederate Army surrendered in Shreveport, La.
    (AP, 5/26/97)(HN, 5/26/99)

1865        Louisiana again experienced severe flooding.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1866        Apr 2, Pres. ended war in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Ten & Va.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1866-1868    About this time Edmund McIlhenny (1815-1890), banker, traveled to New Orleans and acquired some pepper seeds from a man on the street, which he grew and used to develop a hot sauce that he called Tabasco, after peppers from Mexico’s state of Tabasco. In 2007 Jeffrey Rothfeder authored McIlhenny’s Gold: How a Louisiana Family Built the Tabasco Empire."
    (SFC, 4/5/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_McIlhenny)

1867        Dec 23, Entrepreneur Madam C.J. Walker (d.1919), the first black American woman millionaire, was born Sarah Breedlove to former slaves on a Louisiana cotton plantation. In 1906 she married Charles Joseph Walker, who became her business partner. Madam Walker had developed her own line of hair care products for black women. Business boomed and Madam Walker became well known to black and white Americans as she traveled the country to market her products, speak at conventions and donate to organizations like the NAACP and the YMCA. Her company made economic independence a reality for the many black women she hired. When Madam C.J. Walker died she left thousands of dollars to schools, orphanages, the Tuskegee Institute, retirement homes and other organizations.
    (HNPD, 12/23/98)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.7)

1867        Louisiana again experienced severe flooding.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1868        Jun 25, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were re-admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1868        Jul 13, Henry Clay Warmoth (1842-1931) began serving as the 23rd governor of Louisiana and continued to 1872.
    (www.helium.com/items/1728455-the-origins-of-mardi-gras-in-louisiana)

1868        Sep 22, Race riots took place in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1868        Sep 28, In the Opelousas Massacre at St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, 200 blacks were killed.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1868        Oct 26, Whites killed several blacks in St. Bernard Parish, La.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1868        Louisiana began to lease out convicts as laborers for revenue. The system lasted to 1928. The number of convicts leased out over the 60-year period was later estimated to be over 100,000.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1872        Dec 9, P.B.S. Pinchback became the first African American Governor of Louisiana. [see Dec 11]
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1872        Dec 11, America's first black governor took office as Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback became acting governor of Louisiana. [see Dec 9]
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1872        A group of New Orleans businessmen invented a King of Carnival -- Rex -- to parade in the first daytime parade. They introduced the Mardi Gras colors of purple, green and gold; the Mardi Gras song, and the Mardi Gras flag.
    (www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html)

1872        Edgar Degas, French painter, journeyed to New Orleans where his mother was born. He made 22 paintings there. His time in New Orleans is covered in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher Benfey.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)(SFC, 3/5/99, p.W12)

1873        Jan 13, William Pitt Kellogg (1830-1918), American politician and carpetbagger, began serving as the governor of Louisiana and continued to 1877. He was the state's last Republican governor until the inauguration of David C. Treen in 1980.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_P._Kellogg)

1873        Apr 13, In the Colfax Massacre in Grant Parish, Louisiana, some 105 blacks were killed on Easter Sunday. Many bodies, hidden or dumped into the Red River; were recovered and found to have been mutilated. In the end, only nine men were arrested, and they were charged with the murder of only one man. Among those arrested was William J. Cruikshank. In 2007 Lalita Tademy authored her novel “Red River" based on the massacre.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colfax_Massacre)(http://tinyurl.com/2dyfuj)

1873        Edgar Degas painted "Cotton Merchants in New Orleans."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1874        Sep 14, In Louisiana the Battle of Liberty Place was an attempted insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the legal Reconstruction state government in New Orleans.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Liberty_Place)

1875        Jun 12, In Louisiana work began on a new shipping channel at the mouth of the Mississippi River. American civil engineer James Buchanan Eads (1820-1887) led the project.
    (ON, 10/09, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan_Eads)

1875        In Louisiana the “Mardi Gras Act" established Mardi Gras as an official and legal state holiday.
    (www.tamug.edu/nautilus/archive/2009/TAMUG77554Vol16Issue1.pdf)

1876        Nov 7, The presidential vote between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden was very close and the Florida result looked like it would determine the national outcome. In 1974 Prof. Jerrell Shofner authored "Nor Is It Over," a study of the 1876 election. In 2003 Roy Morris Jr. authored "Fraud of the Century." Louisiana was stolen for Hayes. 13,000 Tilden votes were discounted in Louisiana by a bribe-taking election board.
    (WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 2/3/03, p.D6)

1876        May 2, American civil engineer James Buchanan Eads hired the luxury steamer Grand Republic for her maiden voyage to carry investors and the press from New Orleans to the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi to show off his work. The jetties were completed in 1880 and New Orleans went from being the nation’s 9th largest port to the 2nd largest.
    (ON, 10/09, p.8)

1877        Apr 24, Federal troops were ordered out of New Orleans, ending the North's post-Civil War rule in the South.
    (AP, 4/24/00)

1877        Apr 27, President Hayes removed Federal troops from LA. Reconstruction ended. [see Apr 24]
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1877        Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), Irish-American travel writer, left Cincinnati for New Orleans, Louisiana, where he initially wrote dispatches on his discoveries in the "Gateway to the Tropics" for the Cincinnati Commercial. He lived in New Orleans for nearly a decade, writing first for the Daily City Item and later for the Times Democrat.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafcadio_Hearn)

1878        Jul 12, A Yellow Fever epidemic began in New Orleans. It killed 4,500.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1879        Aug 30, John Bell Hood (b.1831), former confederate general, died of yellow fever in a New Orleans epidemic.
    (AH, 10/02, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bell_Hood)

1879        Edgar Degas, while in New Orleans, painted "Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)

1879        The US Congress made the US Army Corps of Engineers the leader of a new agency, The Mississippi River Commission, charged with controlling the Mississippi River.
    (NH, 2/05, p.45)

1882        The Proteus krewe was founded in New Orleans.
    (USAT, 3/7/00, p.5A)

1885        Oct 20, Ferdinand Lamenthe, aka Jelly Roll Morton (d.1941), jazz pianist, composer and singer, was born in New Orleans. He was one of the first to orchestrate jazz music and disputed W.C. Handy's claim to be the originator of jazz and blues. He became famous at an early age for his classically informed improvisational piano playing often in brothels and other non-traditional settings. With his Red Hot Peppers in the 1920s, he pioneered the early jazz practice of reorchestrating and improvising upon well-known standards. He also wrote many enduring jazz tunes including the ‘London Rag’ and the ‘Jelly Roll Blues’.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jelly_Roll_Morton)

1885          Jan 29, Leadbelly (d.1949), [Huddie William Ledbetter], blues singer, was born on the Jeter Plantation near Mooringsport, Louisiana.
    (http://leadbelly.lanl.gov/leadbelly.html)

1888        Jan 20, Leadbelly, blues 12 string guitarist (Rock Island Line), was born in Louisiana.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1889        Dec 6, Jefferson Davis, the first and only president of the Confederate States of America, died in New Orleans. In 2001 William J. Cooper Jr. authored "Jefferson Davis, American."
    (AP, 12/6/97)(SSFC, 1/28/01, Par p.12)

1890        May 12, Louisiana legalized prize fighting.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)

1890        The Louisiana state Legislature passed the Louisiana Separate Car Act, which called for railroad companies to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored races.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(ON, 11/03, p.5)

1890-1899    In Louisiana the Orleans Levee District was founded in the 1890s.
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)       

1891        Mar 14, A mob in New Orleans broke open a jail after a court dismissed charges against 19 Italian men indicted for the murder of police chief David C. Hemmessey. 11 of 19 defendants were hanged. The book "Vendetta" by Richard Gambino, and the movie of the same name, covered the event.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M3)

1891        Argentine ants were 1st noticed New Orleans. By 1908 they were seen in California.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A1)

1891-1903    In Barbour County nearly 700 convicted men were leased as laborers to private companies such as Tennessee Coal or Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron mostly for $6 per month.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1892        Jun 7, Homer Plessy was arrested in New Orleans for violating the Separate Car Act. His case went all the way to the US Supreme Court, which upheld the law on May 18, 1896.
    (ON, 11/03, p.5)

1892        Sep 7, In New Orleans the 1st heavyweight-title boxing match, fought with gloves under the rules of the Marquis of Queensbury [Queensberry], aka John S. Douglas, ended when James J. Corbett (1866-1933) knocked out John L. Sullivan (1858-1918) in the 21st round.  In 1891 Corbett had fought Peter Jackson to a draw after 61 rounds. Corbett lost his title to Robert Fitzsimmons in 1897.
    (AH, 2/06, p.29)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._Sullivan)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.8)

1893        Aug 30, Huey P. Long, Louisiana politician who served as governor and U.S. senator, known as "The Kingfish," was born.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1893        The St. Charles streetcar was electrified.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T4)

1894        Louisiana extended the Separate Car Act to include train station waiting rooms. The Legislature in this year also passed a law prohibiting interracial marriage.
    (ON, 11/03, p.5)

1895        Feb 15, 23 cm (9") of snow fell on New Orleans.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1896        May 18, The US Supreme Court upheld the State of Louisiana Separate Car Act in Plessy vs. Ferguson. The Plessy v. Ferguson decision allowed that as long as accommodation existed, segregation did not constitute discrimination, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal." The decision gave legitimacy to the segregationist policies known as Jim Crow laws. The ruling that was overturned in the 1954 Brown case, which involved elementary education. The Court ruled unanimously that segregation in public education was a denial of the equal protection of the laws.
    (www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/links/misclink/plessy/)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.24)(AP, 5/18/03)

1897        Tennessee Coal paid the state $18.50 per month for a first-class state convict.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)   

1898        May 12, Louisiana adopted a new constitution with a "grandfather clause" designed to eliminate black voters.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)

1898        Buddy Bolden, cornetist and New Orleans brass band leader, was an early practitioner of what would be recognized today as jazz. Bolden's 1898 brass band, Kid Ory's Creole Band, played their early version of jazz while marching in parades, at funerals, weddings and dances. Blues, ragtime and brass band music were blending at the end of the 19th century into what would be known as jazz. New Orleans was one of the key cities for the development of this music.
    (HNQ, 5/12/98)

1899        In New Orleans Oysters Rockefeller was invented at Antoine’s restaurant.
    (SFEM, 6/14/98, p.8)

1900        Jun 27, Otto E. Passman (Rep-D-La, 1947-77), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1900        Aug 4, Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong, (Daniel Louis Armstrong, d.1971) jazz trumpet player, was born in New Orleans. He developed a vocal style called "scat singing"; was a band leader, film star and worldwide celebrity; his career spanned five decades. His autobiography “Satchmo" was published in 1954. "I got a simple rule about everybody. If you don't treat me right, shame on you." Laurence Bergreen in 1997 wrote a biography titled: "Louis Armstrong: An Extravagant Life."
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.4)(AP, 12/1/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Armstrong)

1900        George Lewis (d.1968), clarinetist, was born in New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 5/15/01, p.A24)

1901        State rules were adopted that held a "first class" prisoner liable for loading 4 tons of coal a day to avoid being whipped. A "4th class" prisoner was required to load 1 ton.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1901-1915    In New Orleans the "Blue Book" was a directory of some 2,000 prostitutes working in Storyville. It was printed annually and carried ads.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)

1905        Galatoire’s restaurant opened under Jean Galatoire in the French Quarter of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 7/15/02, p.F10)

1906        The Louisiana McIlhenny family were awarded a trademark for the word Tabasco, which was also the name of their popular pepper sauce.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D11)

1906        The New Orleans City Park opened a new carousel.
    (SSFC, 7/24/05, p.F9)

1908        Sep 7, Michael E. DeBakey, heart surgery pioneer, was born in Lake Charles, La.
    (www.fact-index.com)

1909        Feb 23, Shrove Tuesday. The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Society, the 1st African-American Mardi Gras organization, first marched in the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade. Members had marched in the Mardi Gras as early as 1901, but their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.
    (www.mardigras.org/Calc.html)(http://tinyurl.com/ylqbwbj)

1910        Dec 31, John B. Moisant and Arch Hoxsey, two of America's foremost aviators died in separate plane crashes. Moisant died in a plane crash in New Orleans.
    (HN, 12/31/98)(HN, 7/31/01)

1910        About this time jazz bands began playing in the gambling houses and brothels of the notorious New Orleans Storyville section. Jazz musicians from New Orleans began calling gigs to NYC "The Big Apple" vs. road gigs elsewhere, which paid "little apples."
    (HNQ, 5/12/98)(SFEC, 9/3/00, Z1 p.2)

1911        Dec 31, Tennessee Coal’s convict lease contract with the state expired.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1912        Sep, An explosion at Pratt Consolidated mining company killed nearly 130 leased prison convicts
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1913        An investigation was conducted into the alleged corruption of Alabama’s convict-leasing program.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1914        Nov 2, Ray Walston, actor (My Favorite Martian, Damn Yankees, Picket Fences), was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1915        Sep 22, Xavier University, the first African-American Catholic college, opened in New Orleans, Louisiana.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1917        The state charged companies $93.12 per month for the lease of a first-class convict.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1918        Nov 3, Russell Long (d.2003), U.S. senator from Louisiana, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/98)(SFC, 5/10/03, p.A13)

1921        In Louisiana the Industrial Canal Lock connected the Mississippi River to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. A replacement was authorized in 1956 and construction of the replacement was authorized in 1998, but was then stalled by lawsuits.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.24)

1922        Nov 7, Al Hirt, jazz trumpeter, was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1922        W.H. Oates, Louisiana prison inspector, wrote: "Our jails are money-making machines."
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1924        Sep 30, Truman Capote, author and playwright whose works include "Breakfast at Tiffany's" and "In Cold Blood," was born in New Orleans, La.
    (HN, 9/30/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1926        May 6, Marguerite Piazza, operatic soprano (Young Broadway), was born in New Orleans, LA.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1926        Sloss-Sheffield, a mining concern, stopped leasing convicts. In 1952 the company was merged into US Pipe & Foundry, which was acquired in 1969 by Jim Walter Corp. of Florida, later renamed Walter Industries.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1927        Mar 6, Norman Treigle, bass-baritone (Mefistofele), was born in New Orleans, Louisiana.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1927        Apr 29, With concern that Mississippi flood waters could overflow the city of New Orleans the levee at Caernarvon, Louisiana, was dynamited downstream of the city, with the intention of increasing the speed of the river as it passed New Orleans and hence reducing the height of the anticipated flood wave.
    (www.rms.com/publications/1927_MississippiFlood.pdf)

1927        May 24, The final levee breach of the 1927 flood occurred at McCrea, Louisiana, on the east bank of the Atchafalaya levee. The flood along the Mississippi killed some 500 people and displaced thousands. The levee system broke in 145 places and caused 27,000 square miles of flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee. In 1997 the book "Rising Tide" by John M. Barry described the catastrophe. It was also the subject of the Randy Newman song "Louisiana 1927."
    (www.rms.com/publications/1927_MississippiFlood.pdf)(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/28/03, p.C7)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.A7)(WSJ, 11/2/05, p.A2)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.30)

1927        Aug 7, Edwin Edwards, governor of Louisiana (1972-1980, 1984-1988, 1992-1996), was born.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1927        Aug 30, Geoffrey Beene, dress designer (8 Coty Awards), was born in Louisiana.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1928        Feb 26, Antonie "Fats" Domino was born in New Orleans. He was an American Rock n' Roll singer famous by his songs "Blueberry Hill" and "Ain't that a Shame."
    (HN, 2/26/99)(SC, 2/26/02)

1928        Louisiana ended its state revenue producing forced labor program.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1929        A group of state legislators began talks to impeach Gov. Huey P. Long after he tried to impose a 5-cents-a-barrel tax on oil refined in Louisiana. Charges against Long included arranged murder, bribery, carrying a concealed weapon and demolishing the governor's mansion without authorization.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.D7)

1930        Dec 29, Fred P. Newton completed the longest swim ever (1826 miles), when he swam the Mississippi River from Ford Dam, Minn, to New Orleans.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1930s        Percy Viosca Jr., a Louisiana naturalist, railed against the US Corps of Engineers for their plans to straitjacket the Mississippi River with levees.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C7)

1934        May 23, Bonnie Parker (23) and Clyde Barrow (24) were shot some 4 dozen times early in the morning in a police ambush by Texas Rangers as they were driving a stolen Ford Deluxe along a road in Bienville Parish, near Sailes, La. This ended the most spectacular manhunt seen in America up to that time. The pair had spent the previous 2 years killing and robbing banks in the Midwest. Bonnie Parker was 19 and Clyde Barrow was 21 when they met in Dallas in 1930. By the time the Barrow gang's crime spree ended four years later, Bonnie, Clyde, Clyde's brother Buck and Buck's wife had terrorized the Southwest and Midwest and were believed to have committed 13 murders. In 1997 Clyde’s bullet-ridden shirt was auctioned off to a Nevada casino for $85,000. His largest theft was estimated at $4,000. In 1979 Ted Hinton and Larry Grove authored "Ambush: The Real Story of Bonnie and Clyde." In 2009 Jeff Guinn authored “Go Down Together: the True Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde."
    (SFC, 4/3/97, p.A13)(SFC, 4/15/97, p.A13)(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/02)(ON, 7/02, p.3)(WSJ, 3/10/09, p.A13)

1935        Jun 12, Senator Huey Long of Louisiana spoke continually for 15 hours in Senate's longest speech on record (150,000 words).
    (MC, 6/12/02)   

1935        Sep 8, Sen. Huey P. Long, "The Kingfish" of Louisiana politics, was shot and mortally wounded in Baton Rouge allegedly by Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr.; he died two days later ending what might have been a prominent national career. It was suspected that Dr. Weiss was acting in revenge against Long's public slandering of his father. The 1996 documentary film "Huey Long" by Ken Burns was about the Louisiana politician who wanted to redistribute wealth and make every man a king.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1935)(AP, 9/8/97)(SFEC, 3/8/98, DB p.47)(HN, 9/8/98)
1935        Sep 8, Carl Austin Weiss, murderer of Sen Huey Long, was shot down.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1935        Sep 10, Sen. Huey P. Long, "The Kingfish" of Louisiana politics, died from a gunshot wound inflicted Sep 8 by Dr. Carl Austin Weiss Jr. In 2006 Richard D. White authored “Kingfish: The Reign of Huey P. Long."
    (AP, 9/8/97)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.80)

1935        Fishermen formed the Seafood Workers Association and went on strike. The following year they held a Labor Day celebration which evolved to become the annual Louisiana Shrimp and Petroleum Festival.
    (WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1936        Apr 21, James Clayton Dobson, Christian conservative leader, was born in Shreveport, Louisiana. He became an American psychologist and chairman of the board of Focus on the Family, a nonprofit organization founded in 1977 and based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 2007 his radio show pulled in 6 million listeners a week.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Dobson)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.40)

1936        May 1, In New Orleans the FBI under J Edgar Hoover arrested kidnapper and gunman Alvin Karpis (1907-1979). Known for his alliance with the Barker gang in the 1930s, he was the last "public enemy" to be taken. Karpis was born to Lithuanian immigrants in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and was raised in Wichita, Kansas. In August he was imprisoned at Alcatraz. Karpis was released on parole in 1969 and deported to Canada.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Karpis)(SSFC, 7/31/11, DB p.42)

1937        Enriquez Alferez (d.1999 at 98), Mexican artist, created his "Fountain of the Four Winds" for the New Orleans Lakefront Airport. One of the 4 figures of the sculpture was a well-endowed nude male.  
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A23)

1937        Nutria rodents were introduced to Louisiana from Argentina. They propagated rapidly and by 1997 were threatening acres of fragile wetlands due to their feeding on plant roots. The McIlhenny family, makers of Tabasco Sauce, imported 13 nutria from Argentina to study their fur-bearing potential. The animals escaped 3 years later during a flood and began to proliferate.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A5)

1941        Oct 4, Anne Rice, novelist, was born in New Orleans, La. Her books included "Interview with a Vampire."
    (HN, 10/4/00)(MC, 10/4/01)

1942        May 12, A Nazi U-boat sank an American cargo ship at mouth of Mississippi River.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1944        The last undisputed report of an ivory-billed woodpecker in the continental North America was in Louisiana this year.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.42)

1944-1948    Jimmy Davis (d.2000) was elected to his 1st term as governor. Davis was a singer and had made a hit with "You Are My Sunshine" in 1939.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A23)

1947        Feb 20, A chemical mixing error caused an explosion that destroyed 42 blocks in LA.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1947        The film "New Orleans" starred Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, the Woody Herman band and other jazz stars. It was directed by Arthur Lubin.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.403)

1947        The first offshore oil rig out of sight of land was set up by Kerr-McGee, Phillips Petroleum and Stanolind Oil & Gas 10 miles off the Louisiana coast.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)

1949        May 26, Hank Williams Jr, country singer (Honky Tonk), was born in Shreveport, La.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1953        Rev. T.J. Jemison organized a bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. It was the 1st of its kind and became a model for the 1955 Martin Luther King rebellion in Montgomery, Ala.
    (NW, 6/9/03, p/14)

1956        Jun 11, Ray Nagin, later mayor of New Orleans, was born in New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 1/10/06, p.A4)

1956        Aug 30, In Louisiana the 2-lane Lake Pontchartrain causeway opened. A 2nd span was added in 1969.
    (HC, 6/14/05)

1956        Louisiana built its 1st man-made river diversion to flush out salt water destroying oyster reefs in the eastern estuaries. The Bayou Lamoque river diversion was a success.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C7)

1957        Feb 14, The “Southern Leadership Conference" was formed in New Orleans, Louisiana. Officers were elected which included: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as President, Dr. Ralph David Abernathy as Financial Secretary-Treasurer, Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee, Florida as Vice President, Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, Louisiana as Secretary, and Attorney I. M. Augustine of New Orleans, Louisiana as General Counsel. In August the name was changed to "Southern Christian Leadership Conference" at its first convention in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (http://sclcnational.org/net/content/item.aspx?s=25461.0.12.2607)

1957        Jun 26, Hurricane Audrey hit Louisiana earlier than expected. It left at least 390 people dead with 192 missing in Louisiana and Texas.
    (SFC, 6/26/09, p.D10)

1957        Jun 27, More than 500 people were killed after Hurricane Audrey slammed through coastal Louisiana and Texas.
    (AP, 6/27/97)

1959        May 25, US Supreme Court ruled that Louisiana’s prohibition of black-white boxing was unconstitutional.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1960        Nov 14, New Orleans integrated two all white schools. Ruby Bridges, a 6-year-old black girl, entered a previously all-white school flanked by 4 federal marshals before a phalanx of angry racists. A 1998 Disney movie "Ruby Bridges" portrayed the event, which was captured by Norman Rockwell in his painting: "The Problem We all Live With."
    (WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(HN, 11/14/98)

1960        Nov 16, After the integration of two all white schools, 2,000 rioted in the streets of New Orleans.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1960-1964    Jimmy Davis (d.2000) was elected to his 2nd term as governor.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A23)

1961        Feb 16, Wilbert Ridieu (19) robbed the Lake Charles, La., Gulf National Bank. He walked out with $14,000 and 3 hostages, 2 of whom he shot and left for dead. Rideau stabbed to death Julia Ferguson on a rural Louisiana road following the bank robbery. He confessed and was sentenced to death 3 times. Rideau escaped death in the 1970s when the death penalty was outlawed. In 2003 his case was still in court. While in prison Rideau became a self-educated writer and elevated the prison magazine, the Angolite, to national acclaim. In 2005 Rideau was set free for time served after a racially mixed jury found him guilty of manslaughter.
    (NW, 1/13/03, p.52)(AP, 1/16/05)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.A5)

1961        Oct 18, Wynton Marsalis, jazz and classical trumpeter (Grammy 1983), was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1961        Ernie K-Doe (d.2001 at 65, born as Ernest Kador in New Orleans), rhythm-and-blues singer, made a hit with the song "Mother-in-Law."
    (SFC, 7/10/01, p.A15)

1961        Preservation Hall opened in New Orleans.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.T5)

1962        Apr 20, New Orleans Citizens Committee gave a free one-way ride to blacks to move North.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1962        Robert Smith, a disk jockey in Shreveport, La., took on the name "Wolfman Jack."
    (SFC, 12/30/99, p.E3)

1963        In Louisiana Henry Montgomery (17) shot and killed a white police officer. He was soon convicted of murder and sentenced to death. Two years later the state Supreme Court revisited the case and in a new trial he was sentenced to life in prison without parole. In 2012 the US Supreme Court decided Miller v. Alabama, in which the Court held that mandatory sentencing schemes requiring children convicted of homicide to be sentenced to life imprisonment without parole violate the Eighth Amendment.
    (www.oyez.org/cases/2015/14-280)(Econ, 10/17/15, p.31)

1964        Louisiana’s state prison at Angola began its Angola rodeo program for inmates. In 2014 some 22,500 people attended the 2-day event.
    (SFC, 10/22/01, p.C1)(SFC, 5/23/14, p.30)

1965        Aug 27-1965 Sep 13, Hurricane Betsy killed 75 in Louisiana & Florida. Betsy left New Orleans under 7 feet of water.
    (www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Storm_pages/betsy1965/)(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1965        Ruth Fertel (d.2002 at 75) bought the Chris Steak House in New Orleans and proceeded to expand it into the worldwide Ruth’s Chris Steakhouse chain.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A23)

1967        Jun 29, Jayne Mansfield (b.1933), stage and film actress, was beheaded in a car crash in Louisiana. Her 3 children survived in the back seat of the 1966 Buick Electra. Daughter Mariska Hargitay was 3 and began a film career at 19.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jayne_Mansfield)(SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.18)(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A22)

1969        May 10, In Louisiana the 2nd Lake Pontchartrain causeway opened. The 1st span was completed in 1956.
    (www.southeastroads.com/lpc.html)

1969        Aug 17, Hurricane Camille hit the Gulf Coast at Pass Christian, Miss., leaving 256 people killed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Damage was later estimated at $3.8 billion.
    (AP, 8/17/97)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A17)(AP, 8/30/05)

1970        Aug 3, Hurricane "Celia" became the most expensive Gulf storm in history.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1970        Sep 24, Moon Landrieu (b.1930) began serving as the mayor of New Orleans and continued to 1978. From 1979-1981 he served as the US Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under Pres. Jimmy Carter.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon_Landrieu)

1971        Feb 21, A series of tornadoes cut through the lower Mississippi River Valley. The two-day outbreak, which produced 19 tornadoes, killed 123 people across 3 states, including 11 in Louisiana, 110 in Mississippi, and 2 in North Carolina.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Valley_tornado_outbreak_of_February_1971)

1971        Aug 11, Construction began on the Louisiana Superdome. It opened on August 3, 1975.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Superdome)

1972        Mar 9, Edwin W. Edwards began serving as governor of Louisiana and continued to Mar 10, 1980.
     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Edwards)

1972        Apr 17, In Louisiana Angola prison guard Brent Miller was stabbed to death. Herman Wallace (d.2013), who was serving a 50-year sentence for armed robbery, was indicted in 1973 for the killing and put into solitary confinement for the next 4 decades. Wallace died a week after a judge ordered a new trial because women had been excluded from the grand jury indictment. In a separate trial, Albert Woodfox was also convicted in the murder of Brent Miller and sentenced to life in prison. On June 8, 2015, federal judge ruled that the state cannot try Woodfox a third time and that he the only just remedy would be to set him free.
    (SFC, 10/5/13, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/pp96vyn)(SFC, 6/9/15, p.A9)

1972        Oct 16, A small plane disappeared during a flight from Anchorage to Juneau. On board were Thomas Hale Boggs Sr. (b.1914), US Congressman from Louisiana, Representative Nick Begich of Alaska, Begich’s aide Russell Brown and the pilot, Don Jonz. House Resolution 1 of January 3, 1973, officially recognized Boggs's presumed death and opened the way for a special election. Boggs’s wife, Lindy Boggs  (1916-2013), won the special election and served to 1991.
    (SSFC, 7/28/13, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hale_Boggs)

1972        John Breaux was elected to the US Congress as a Representative (D) from Louisiana.
    (SFC, 12/16/03, p.A8)

1972-1988    Sherman Bernard served as the insurance commissioner. In 1993 he pleaded guilty in federal court to taking $80,000 in bribes to license financially shaky insurance companies.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.A1)

1973        Sep 20, Jim Croce (b.1943), American singer-songwriter, died in an airplane crash near Natchitoches, La., just as he was beginning to capitalize on his success. Maury Muehleisen and four others also died as their plane crashed into a tree while taking off for a concert in Sherman, Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Croce)(AP, 9/20/98)

1973        Oil was discovered off the coast of Louisiana at the underwater site called Eugene Island 330. By 1989 production slowed to 4,000 barrels from a peak of 15,000 and then suddenly increased and in 1999 produced 13,000 barrels a day. Geologists were unable to account for the source of the oil.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)

1974        Gov. Edwin Edwards signed a bill exempting Louisiana brewers from their 1st $150,000 in taxes.
    (WSJ, 12/1/03, p.A11)

1975        Jun 1, The Rolling Stones opened their North American Tour in Baton Rouge, Louisiana with Ron Wood (b.1947) replacing Mick Taylor (b.1949) as the lead guitarist. Other cities they played in included, Kansas City, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Cleveland, Buffalo, Toronto, New York, Philadelphia, Memphis, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and Jacksonville.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975_in_music)

1975        Aug 3, The Louisiana Superdome was dedicated.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Superdome)

1975-1981    Stanford Opotowsky (d. 1997 at 73) served as director of news coverage for ABC TV. He was the author of several books that included: "TV: The Big Picture," "The Longs of Louisiana," "The Kennedy Government," and "Men Behind Bars."
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B13)

1976        Oct 20, 76 people died when the Norwegian tanker Frosta collided with the ferryboat George Prince on the Mississippi River north of New Orleans.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1976        Louisiana passed a law that required schools to allow a brief time in "silent meditation." In 1992 the wording was changed to "silent prayer or meditation." In 1999 the word "silent" was deleted. In 2001 a federal appeals court struck the law down.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A7)

1977        Nov 12, New Orleans elected its first black mayor, Ernest "Dutch" Morial, the winner of a runoff.
    (AP, 11/12/07)

1977        Dec 22, Three dozen people were killed when a 250-foot-high grain elevator at the Continental Grain Co. plant in Westwego, La., exploded.
    (AP, 12/22/97)

1980        Jan 30, Professor Longhair (61), legendary New Orleans Blues musician, died. He was born as Henry Roeland Byrd in 1918.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professor_Longhair)

1981        John Kennedy Toole was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his book "A Confederacy of Dunces." Toole had committed suicide 12 years earlier. His mother got Walker Percy to read the novel and Percy got the Louisiana State Univ. Press to publish it.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A1)

1981        Clyde Charles was convicted for the rape of a woman in Grand Caillou. He served 18 years of a life sentenced when in 1999 DNA evidence proved his innocence.
    (SFC, 12/18/99, p.C3)

1981        Michael Anthony Williams (16) was convicted of raping his female math tutor. He spent 24 years in Angola state penitentiary. In 2005 DNA evidence exonerated him.
    (SFC, 5/9/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/30/07, p.A1)

1981        George Brown, director of Beer League of Louisiana, was sentenced to 6 months in jail in Texas for failing to pay taxes on alleged bribes.
    (WSJ, 12/1/03, p.A11)

1982        Mar 29, In New Orleans Michael Jordan’s 16-foot jump shot with 15 seconds remaining gave North Carolina a thrilling 63-62 victory over Georgetown and the NCAA basketball championship before 61,612 at the Superdome tonight. Six players in that game: Floyd, Ewing, Anthony Jones, Michael Jordan, James Worty and Sam Perkins, became NBA first-round draft choices.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982_NCAA_Men's_Division_I_Basketball_Tournament)

1982        Jul 9, A Pan Am Boeing 727 crashed in Kenner, La., killing all 145 people aboard and eight people on the ground.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

1984        Jul 30, The British tanker Alvenus spilled 2.8 million gallons of oil at Cameron, La.
    (http://ceprofs.tamu.edu/rhann/links/case.asp)

1984        Louisiana held a World Exposition. Low attendance was blamed on the rain.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.A20) (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A4)

1984        Delores Dye was murdered in a New Orleans supermarket parking lot. Curtis Kyles was tried 5 times for her murder and walked free in 1997. In 2005 Jed Horned authored “Desire Street: A True Story of Death and Deliverance in New Orleans."
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B4)

1985        In Louisiana John Thompson was convicted of murder  after prosecutors hid a blood test that would have cleared him of a prior conviction for armed robbery. A deathbed confession later cleared Thompson, who ending up spending nearly 14 years on death row.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.35)

1986        Feb 19, Barry Seal (b.1939), gunrunner, drug trafficker, and covert CIA operative extraordinaire, was murdered in a hail of bullets by Medellin cartel hit men outside a Salvation Army shelter in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He had testified in federal court in Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami for the US government against leaders of the Medellin drug cartel.
    (www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/crimesOfMena.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barry_Seal)

1986        John Breaux was elected to the US Congress as a Senator (D) from Louisiana.
    (SFC, 12/16/03, p.A8)

1987        Jun 19, The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law requiring any public school teaching the theory of evolution to also teach creationism science as well.
    (DT internet 6/19/97)

1987        Nov 21, An eight-day siege began at a detention center in Oakdale, La., as Cuban detainees, alarmed over the possibility of being returned to Cuba, seized the facility and took hostages.
    (AP, 11/21/97)

1987        Nov 26, Cuban detainees concerned about the possibility of being sent back to Cuba continued to hold hostages at a prison in Atlanta and a detention center in Oakdale, La.
    (AP, 11/26/97)

1987        Nov 29, Cuban detainees released 26 hostages that they'd been holding for more than a week at the Federal Detention Center in Oakdale, La.
    (AP, 11/29/97)

1987        William and Callie Frost were murdered. Albert Burrell and Michael Graham were convicted and scheduled for execution. In 2000 DNA evidence supported their innocence and they were freed after 14 years in Angola prison.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A4)

1987        Clifton Chenier, Zydeco accordionist, died. In c1999 Michael Tisserand published "The Kingdom of Zydeco" and Rick Olivier and Ben Sandmel published the photo documentary "Zydeco!"
    (WSJ, 4/19/99, p.A20)

1988        Feb 21, TV evangelist Jimmy Swaggart tearfully confessed to his congregation in Baton Rouge, La., that he was guilty of an unspecified sin, and said he was leaving the pulpit temporarily. Reports linked Swaggart to an admitted prostitute, Debra Murphree.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1988        May 4, A spectacular explosion occurred at the Shell oil refinery in Norco, La., on the Mississippi river just north of New Orleans. 8 people were killed and over 40 injured.
    (http://www.shellfacts.com/Chatterjee_review.html)

1988        Aug 13, Vice President George Bush contemplated a list of potential running mates as Republicans gathered in New Orleans for their party's national convention.
    (AP, 8/13/98)

1988        Aug 14, President Reagan arrived in New Orleans on the eve of the Republican national convention that would nominate his vice president, George Bush, to be its choice to succeed him.
    (AP, 8/14/98)

1988         Aug 15, President Reagan bade a sentimental farewell on the first night of the Republican national convention in New Orleans, and praised the man destined to succeed him, Vice President George Bush.
    (AP, 8/15/98)

1988        Aug 18, Indiana Sen. Dan Quayle was nominated to be George Bush's running mate during the Republican convention in New Orleans; meanwhile, questions were being raised about Quayle's service in the Indiana National Guard during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 8/18/98)

1988        Sep 15, Thousands of coastal residents from Mexico to Louisiana were fleeing to higher ground, a day after Hurricane Gilbert pounded the Yucatan Peninsula.
    (AP, 9/15/98)

1988-1991    Doug Green served as the insurance commissioner. In 1991 he was convicted in federal court for hiding that fact that his $2 million election campaign was funded by an auto insurer that later collapsed due to fraud.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.A1)

1989        Jan 21, Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke led a field of seven candidates in an open primary to advance to a runoff election for a Louisiana state House seat.
    (AP, 1/1/99)

1989        The Louisiana legislature established the Louisiana Wetlands Conservation Authority.
    (NH, 2/05, p.46)

1990        Apr 16, The US Supreme Court rejected appeals by Dalton Prejean, a nearly retarded man condemned to die for the 1977 murder of a Louisiana state trooper Prejean was executed the following month.
    (AP, 4/16/00)

1990        May 10, Walker Percy (b.1916), Mississippi-raised physician, novelist (Lancelot), died of cancer in Covington, Louisiana. His book "The Moviegoer" was the 1962 winner of the National Book Award." His last book, The Thanatos Syndrome, appeared in 1987.
    (www.olemiss.edu/depts/english/ms-writers/dir/percy_walker/)(WSJ, 3/26/03, p.D8)

1990        Jul 27, Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer vetoed a tough abortion bill passed by his state’s legislature.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1990        Nov 6, William Jefferson became the 1st African American to be elected to Congress from Louisiana since Reconstruction. In 2005 he was under FBI investigation for corruption.
    (SFC, 8/4/05, p.A3)

1991        Jun 18, The Louisiana Legislature enacted a strict anti-abortion law, overriding a veto by Governor Buddy Roemer.
    (AP, 6/18/01)

1991        Oct 19, In Louisiana former Gov. Edwin Edwards and former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke won runoff slots in the state's gubernatorial primary.
    (AP, 10/19/01)

1991        Nov 16, Former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards won a landslide victory in his bid to return to office, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader.
    (AP, 11/16/01)

1991        The Louisiana legislature approved most of the state’s gambling on the basis of added jobs and tax money.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.A14)

1992        Jan 13, Edwin W. Edwards began his 4th term as governor of Louisiana and continued to Jan 8, 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Edwards)

1992        Aug 24, Hurricane Andrew smashed into Florida, causing record damage; 55 deaths in Florida, Louisiana and the Bahamas were blamed on the storm.
    (AP, 8/24/97)

1992        Aug 25, Hurricane Andrew thrashed the Louisiana coast.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1992        Oct 21, Jim Garrison, Louisiana DA who investigated the JFK assassination, died at 70.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Garrison)

1992        Dec, In Louisiana the Orleans Parish School Board adopted a policy that prohibits school names honoring former slave owners or others who did not respect equal opportunity for all.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.A3)

1992        New Orleans banned racial discrimination by the Mardi Gras "krewes," organizations that sponsored floats during Carnival.
    (USAT, 3/7/00, p.5A)

1993        May 23, A jury in Baton Rouge, La., acquitted Rodney Peairs of manslaughter in the shooting death of Yoshi Hattori, a Japanese exchange student he'd mistaken for an intruder. Peairs was later found liable in a civil suit brought by Hattori's parents.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

1994        Clyde McCaskill (26), a witness to a murder case, was shot to death in New Orleans. Witnesses went mute.
    (SSFC, 3/23/03, p.A3)

1995        Mar, Patsy Byers was shot and seriously wounded by Sarah Edmonson and Benjamin Darrus. The two had just killed a Mississippi man and later asserted that the film Natural Born Killers inspired their actions.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A3)

1995        Nov 18, Mike Foster was elected as the 53rd governor of Louisiana.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_gubernatorial_election,_1995)

1995        Harrah's opened a New Orleans riverfront casino with developer Christopher B. Hemmeter (d.2003). It closed in bankruptcy after 6-months.
    (SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A29)

1996        Feb 6, Patrick Buchanan won the Louisiana Republican caucus, upsetting Phil Gramm.
    (AP, 2/6/01)

1996        Jul 28, President Clinton, addressing a veterans convention in New Orleans, called on Congress to pass expanded anti-terrorism measures.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1996        Laws legalizing video poker were repealed in 33 of the state’s 64 parishes.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.A1)

1996        Troy Domino was released from Orleans Parish Prison and began painting scenes from public-housing projects.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.B1)

1996-1997    Oysters from Tomales Bay, Ca., were removed from market shelves May 15, 1998, due to an unknown agent causing illness. The symptoms were similar to the Norwalk virus that caused illnesses around New Orleans during the winter of 1996-1997, that was traced to human sewage.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A7)

1997        Mar 12, Edward DeBartolo Jr. handed over $400,000 to former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards at the SF Airport in order to clinch a riverboat gambling license.
    (SFC, 3/28/00, p.A3)(SFC, 4/12/00, p.A5)

1997        Mar 13, Eddie DeBartolo, owner of the SF 49ers, was awarded a Louisiana Casino license one day after paying former Gov. Edwin Edwards $400,000 in cash.
    (SFC, 4/12/00, p.A5)

1997        Apr, In New Orleans a toddler died in a hot van while his baby sitter played video poker for hours in a cafe.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.A14)

1997        May 15, Hayes Williams (49) was released after 30 years from the State Penitentiary at Angola after new evidence confirmed his innocence in the 1967 murder of a white service station owner. He had filed a lawsuit against the state (Williams vs. Governor John McKeithen) that led to a 25-year overhaul of Louisiana’s prison system along with federal oversight.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A3)

1997        May 16, Some 2,500 barrels of oil leaked near a coastal marsh in Louisiana at lake Barre in Terrebonne Parish.
    (SFC, 5/20/97, p.A3)

1997        Aug 15, A self-defense law, passed in June, that permits motorists to use deadly force in a car-jacking incident took effect.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.A3)

1997        Aug 15, Beginning today couples seeking marriage in Louisiana were given the choice between a traditional or a covenant marriage. The covenant marriage, designed to make divorce much more difficult, required counseling and a 2-year cooling off period.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A6)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.31)

1997        Jun 19, In New Orleans 2 men, identified as the "Assault Poetry Unit," delivered unmarked boxes of manifestos, poems and innocuous objects to 14 prominent people. The targets feared for bombs and the 2 men were arrested for terrorizing.
    (SFC, 8/18/97, p.A3)

1997        Sep 30, The Flamingo riverboat casino closed. It was the last riverboat casino in downtown New Orleans and the 4th to open and close in the last 4 years. One floating casino was left on Lake Pontchartrain.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A4)

1997        Nov 17, From LaPlace, La. it was reported that Daniel Bank, a mechanic, was arrested and charged on 3 counts of murder. He was said to have confessed to 6 murders committed to feed a gambling habit from Oct 1966 to Jun 1997.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A7)

1997        Dec 3, It was reported that former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards, Edward J. DeBartolo, owner of the SF 49ers, and three others were about to be indicted for alleged fraud.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.A1)

1998        Sep 11, Tropical Storm Frances hit the middle of the Texas coast. In Louisiana one person was killed and 6 were injured. In Houston the streets were flooded.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.A3)

1998        Sep 15-Oct 1, Hurricane Georges caused 602 deaths in the Caribbean and four in the United States. The storm hit the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Antigua, Guadeloupe, St. Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla and British and U.S. Virgin Islands before striking Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1998        Sep 24, Eddie DeBartolo, co-owner of the SF 49ers, struck a deal with federal prosecutors to keep out of jail. He will pay a fine and testify against former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards.
    (SFC, 9/25/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 6, Eddie DeBartolo Jr. pleaded guilty in federal court in Louisiana for failing to report that former governor Edwin Edwards extorted $400,000 from him for a casino license. He agreed to pay $1 million in penalties, serve 2 years of probation and testify in future trials against Edwards.
    (SFC, 10/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 9, Ricky Shetler, a Louisiana casino consultant, pleaded guilty in federal court to conspiring to funnel $500,000 in cash and material goods to former Gov. Edwin Edwards and his son Stephen beginning in 1993.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A7)

1998        Oct 24, A natural gas well exploded in Bryceland and killed 7 workers.
    (SFC, 10/26/98, p.A4)

1998        Oct 26, Nutrient pollution known as eutrophication, the overabundance of nitrogen and phosphorus, was noted on the Chesapeake Bay and estuaries around the world. A 7,000 sq. mile dead zone was reported to spread every summer across the Gulf of Mexico from the mouth of the Mississippi. In 2007 Louisiana crabbers complained of buckets of dead crabs and the condition in the Gulf of Mexico was expected to get worse due to rising demand for ethanol and increased corn production in Corn Belt states, which called for more nitrogen use.
    (SFC, 10/25/98, p.A3)(SFC, 12/20/07, p.A26)

1998        Nov 6, Former Gov. Edwin Edwards (71) was charged in a 34-count federal indictment for trying to steer gambling licenses to associates in exchange for payoffs after he left office in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A3)

1998        Dec 31, A truck loaded with fireworks exploded prior to a New Years Eve show. 2 technicians were killed.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Feb 25, Republican Representative Bob Livingston gave his valedictory speech on the House floor. He resigned the House following a 21 year legislative career after admitting to an extra-marital affair.
    (SFC, 2/25/99, p.A7)

1999        Apr 22, A 14-year-old boy opened fire at a middle school in Scotlandville, a suburb of Baton Rouge, and a 14-yar-old girl was hit in the cheek.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.A3)

1999        Apr 27, Al Hirt, "The King of the Trumpet," died in New Orleans at age 76.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.C4)

1999        May 9, In Louisiana a bus, bound for a gambling excursion, crashed on I-610 in New Orleans and 23 people were killed.
    (SFC, 5/10/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 6, In Louisiana Gov. Mike Foster signed a polite-student law that required students to address teachers with appropriate titles.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A3)

1999        Oct 23, In Louisiana Gov. Mike Foster was elected to a 2nd term. His grandfather served as governor at the turn of the 19th century.
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, p.A7)\

1999        Oct 28, A new $970 million Harrah's casino opened in New Orleans with no hotel and just one 250-seat eatery. Some of the costs included funds for a failed temporary operation. A $100 million annual tax payment to the state was part of the operating deal. Bankruptcy threatened operations one year later.
    (WSJ, 10/28/99, p.B1)(SFC, 12/7/00, p.B12)

1999        Dec 13, In Louisiana 8 Cuban nationals at the St. Matin Parish jail in St. Martinville took as hostage Warden Todd Louvierre, 2 deputies, and 5 inmates. They demanded either freedom or deportation. 2 Cubans surrendered on Dec 17 and freed 3 female hostages. An agreement was reached Dec 18 for the Cubans to return to Cuba.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.A3)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.A3)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.A18)

2000        May 9, Former Gov. Edwin Edwards and his son Stephen were convicted of fraud and racketeering for extorting money from businessmen applying for riverboat casino licenses.
    (SFC, 5/10/00, p.A3)

2000        Jun 6, In New Orleans the National D-Day Museum opened on the 56th anniversary of the Allied landing to liberate Europe from Nazi terror.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A3)

2000        Nov 5, Jimmie Davis, former 2-term governor, died at about age 101.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A23)

2001        Jan 8, Former Gov. Edwin Edwards was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $250,000 for extortion. His son, Stephen, was sentenced to 7 years and fined $60,000.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A3)

2001        Mar, The state legislature agreed to cut Harrah’s taxes in half and New Orleans agreed to drop fees by $5 million in order to keep the casino open and save 2,800 jobs.
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, p.A19)

2001        May 5, Boozoo Chavis (70), Zydeco accordionist, died in Lake Charles, La. He recorded one of the 1st Zydeco hits "Paper In My Shoe in 1954."
    (SFC, 5/7/01, p.C5)

2001        Jun 10, Tropical storm Allison hung over Texas and Louisiana and killed at least 16 people. Pres. Bush declared 28 counties disaster areas due to flooding.
    (SSFC, 6/10/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/11/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 5, Justin Wilson, Cajun humorist and chef, died at age 87. He authored 5 cookbooks and released 27 albums of short stories and an album of Christmas songs.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.D5)

2001        Sep, Derrick Todd Lee began a series of murders in Louisiana that continued to Mar, 2003. He was arrested in 2003 and linked to the murder of 6 women.
    (USAT, 1/16/04, p.1D)

2001        Dec 11, A federal appeals court struck a law that allowed vocal classroom prayer. Louisiana had passed a 1976 law that required schools to allow a brief time in "silent meditation." In 1992 the wording was changed to "silent prayer or meditation." In 1999 the word "silent" was deleted.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A7)

2001        Tyler Bridges authored ""Bad Bet on the Bayou: The Rise of Gambling in Louisiana and the Fall of Governor Edwin Edwards."
    (WSJ, 6/1/01, p.W12)

2002        Feb 2, New Orleans voters approved a $1 per hour increase in the minimum wage above the $5.15 federal standard in a referendum that went to court for resolution.
    (SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A9)

2002        Mar 2, Ray Nagin, a VP for Cox Communications, won mayoral elections in New Orleans over Police Superintendent Richard Pennington (58-42%).
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr 6, Some 90,000 gallons of oil from a ruptured pipeline spilled into the coastal area of Little Lake.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A15)

2002        May 10, NBA owners approved the Hornets' move to New Orleans, ending the team's 14-year era in Charlotte.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

2002        May 25, Vinicia Smith (16) was killed by a group of children and teenagers in front of her home in New Orleans. 2 young girls were booked on 2nd-degree murder charges.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.A9)

2002        Aug 2, In Louisiana Gov. Mike Foster declared a state of emergency after West Nile virus killed 4 residents and infected another 58.
    (SFC, 8/3/02, p.A3)

2002        Sep 3, Louisiana State Univ. fired Dr. Steven J. Hatfill after the Justice Dept. said the school could not use him on grants funded by the agency. The firing came following FBI investigations of Hatfill and naming him as a "person of interest."
    (SFC, 9/5/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 9/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 23, Hong Im Ballenger, a beauty shop manager in Baton Rouge, La., was shot to death. Her murder was later attributed to John Allen Muhammed, the Washington area sniper.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

2002        Nov 20, Louisiana began offering a $4-a-tail bounty on the swamp-dwelling nutria rodent, due to wetlands damage from devoured plants.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A2)

2002        Nov 20, A Louisiana Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the state’s 197-year-old sodomy law does not discriminate against gays and lesbians.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A5)

2002        Dec 7, Louisiana Democratic Sen. Mary Landrieu beat Republican Suzanne Terrell in a runoff 52-48%, despite a recent visit by Pres. Bush.
    (WSJ, 12/4/02, p.A1)(AP, 12/8/02)

2002        Nearly half of Louisiana's 875 traffic deaths this year were alcohol-related.
    (WSJ, 12/1/03, p.A11)

2003        Apr 14, In New Orleans a gunman with an AK-47 shot a killed one boy (15) at the John McDonough High School. 3 teenage girls were wounded. 4 suspects were arrested in the gang-related shooting.
    (SFC, 4/15/03, p.A4)

2003        May 9, Russell Long (b.1918), U.S. senator from Louisiana, died. He was 1st elected to the senate in 1948 and served for over 32 years.
    (HN, 11/3/98)(SFC, 5/10/03, p.A13)

2003        May 26, FBI and state police issued fugitive and murder warrants for Derrick Todd Lee, a prime suspect in the killings of 5 women in south Louisiana.
    (SFC, 5/27/03, p.A3)(AP, 5/28/03)

2003        May 27, Derrick Todd Lee, a suspected serial killer of women in Louisiana, was arrested in Atlanta.
    (AP, 5/27/04)

2003        Oct 13, In Louisiana a bus crash on I-20 killed 8 members of a Texas church group after the driver fell asleep.
    (WSJ, 10/14/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 15, In Louisiana Democratic Lt. Gov. Kathleen Blanco (60) defeated conservative Indian-American Bobby Jindal with 52 percent of the vote in a runoff election.
    (AP, 11/16/03)

2003        Dec 15, Senator John Breaux (59) of Louisiana announced that he would not seek re-election in 2004.
    (SFC, 12/16/03, p.A8)

2003        Mike Tidwell authored "Bayou Farewell: The Rich Life and Tragic Death of Louisiana’s Cajun Coast."
    (SSFC, 3/30/03, p.M4)

2003        Bob Odom, Louisiana’s agricultural commissioner, backed a new $45 million sugar processing mill for the state’s south-west sugar farmers. Operations were planned to begin in the fall of 2005.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.34)

2004        Feb 21, The Mississippi was closed near New Orleans following a ship collision that left 5 crewmen lost.
    (WSJ, 2/23/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 19, The annual environmental Goldman Prizes were awarded in SF. Winners included Margie Richard of the US for her work following chemical leaks in Norco, Louisiana.
    (SFC, 4/19/04, p.B5)

2004        Aug 6, Louisiana’s Democrat Rep. Rodney Alexander (57) switched party affiliations and filed as a Republican 30 minutes before a deadline.
    (SFC, 8/13/04, p.A4)

2004        Sep 16, Hurricane Ivan slammed ashore in Alabama with winds of 130 mph, packing deadly tornadoes and a powerful punch of waves and rain that threatened to swamp communities from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle. At least 23 people were killed.
    (AP, 9/16/04)(SFC, 9/17/04, p.A1)
2004        Sep 16, Waves from Hurricane Ivan triggered an underwater mudslide that toppled a Taylor Energy Company oil platform and buried 28 wells under sediment 10 miles off the coast of Louisiana. By 2015 it was estimated that some 300,000 to 1.4 million gallons of oil had spilled from the site.
     (SFC, 4/17/15, p.A6)

2004        Sep 17, The violent remains of Hurricane Ivan pounded a large swath of the eastern United States, drenching an area from Georgia to Ohio. Ivan left 70 dead in the Caribbean and 40 dead in the US including 4 in Alabama, 16 in Florida, 4 in Georgia, 4 in Louisiana, 3 in Mississippi, and 8 in North Carolina.
    (AP, 9/17/04)(SFC, 9/18/04, p.A16)

2004        Sep 18, Louisiana voters overwhelmingly approved a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages and civil unions.
    (AP, 9/19/04)

2004        Oct 5, A Louisiana state judge threw out the new constitutional amendment banning gay marriage because it also banned civil unions.
    (SFC, 10/6/04, p.A3)

2004        Oct 12, A jury in Baton Rouge, La., took 80 minutes to find suspected serial killer Derrick Todd Lee guilty of first-degree murder in the death of 22-year-old Charlotte Murray Pace. Lee was later sentenced to death for Pace's killing.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2004        Oct, New Orleans began installing surveillance cameras, initially in drug-dealing hot spots. By March 2005 about 240 of the proposed 1,000 cameras were in operation.
    (AP, 3/8/05)

2004        Dec 4, In Congressional runoff races Republican Charles Boustany won the 7th District and Democrat Charles Melancon won the 3rd.
    (SSFC, 12/5/04, p.A2)

2005        Jan 16, Acclaimed prison journalist Wilbert Rideau spent his first full day of freedom after being released from prison, where he'd spent nearly 44 years for the 1961 killing of Louisiana bank teller Julia Ferguson. During his time in prison Rideau received national fame for his work editing the prison newspaper, the Angolite. In 2010 Rideau authored “In the Place of Justice: A Story of Punishment and Deliverance."
    (AP, 1/16/06)(SSFC, 5/2/10, p.F2)

2005        Jul 15, It was reported that an estimated 100,000 gamecock breeders operated in the US, where cockfights were only legal in Louisiana and New Mexico. Breeders prepared the birds with injections of testosterone and methamphetamines.
    (WSJ, 7/15/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 30, Rep. William Jefferson, D-La., received $100,000 at the Ritz-Carlton in Arlington, Virginia, to use for bribing Abubakar Atiku, vice-president of Nigeria. Vernon Jackson, a Kentucky businessman, later admitted to paying over $400,000 in bribes to secure deals for his telecommunications company in Nigeria and other African countries. Documents released in 2005 said an FBI informant recorded a video of the transaction.
    (SFC, 5/22/06, p.A3)

2005        Aug 27, Coastal residents jammed freeways and gas stations as they rushed to get out of the way of Hurricane Katrina, which was headed toward New Orleans.
    (AP, 8/27/06)

2005        Aug 28, In Louisiana Mayor Ray Nagin ordered an immediate evacuation for all of New Orleans, a city sitting below sea level with 485,000 inhabitants, as Hurricane Katrina bore down with wind revved up to nearly 175 mph and a threat of a massive storm surge.
    (AP, 8/28/05)

2005        Aug 29, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast near Buras, La., as a Category 3 storm. Katrina ripped two holes in the curved roof of the Louisiana Superdome, letting in rain as thousands of storm refugees huddled inside. In Mississippi many of the 13 floating casinos in Biloxi and Gulfport smashed historic homes and buildings. The Grand Casino Biloxi destroyed the historic Hotel Tivoli. Storm surges and winds from Katrina unleashed at least 40 oil spills and some 193,000 barrels of oil and other petrochemicals were driven across fragile marshy ecosystems southeast of New Orleans. The death toll from Katrina eventually reached at least 1,600. An estimated 300 Louisiana residents died out of state; some 230 people perished in Mississippi. Property damage estimates were in the hundreds of billions of dollars.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/23/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/21/06, p.A1)(AP, 8/29/06)(Econ, 9/6/08, p.36)
2005        Aug 29, In New Orleans 34 people died at a Tenet Healthcare hospital after Hurricane Katrina knocked out power and the temperature inside the building rose to more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius). The hospital’s windows couldn’t be opened.  On July 22, 2011, a judge approved a $25 million class-action settlement over the deaths of the patients. The Dallas-based company settled 11 other cases over Katrina.
    (SFC, 7/23/11, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/4kbb8dp)

2005        Aug 30, The death toll in Mississippi from Hurricane Katrina passed 100. Flooding reached 11 feet in Mobile, Ala. Breaches in at least 2 levees from Lake Pontchartrain put parts of New Orleans under 20 feet of water. Mayor Ray Nagin estimated that 80% of New Orleans was flooded. Tourists snapped pictures of looters in the French Quarter.
    (AP, 8/30/05)(SFC, 8/31/05, p.A10)

2005        Aug 31, The Bush administration said it will release oil from federal petroleum reserves to help refiners affected by Hurricane Katrina. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin said there was a significant number of dead bodies in the water'' following Hurricane Katrina; Nagin ordered virtually the entire police force to abandon search-and-rescue efforts and instead stop thieves who were becoming increasingly hostile. President Bush pledged to do all in our power'' to save lives and provide sustenance but cautioned that recovery of the Gulf Coast would take years.
    (AP, 8/31/05)(AP, 8/31/06)
2005        Aug 31, At least 25,000 of Hurricane Katrina's refugees, a majority of them at the New Orleans Superdome, began traveling in a bus convoy to Houston and will be sheltered at the 40-year-old Astrodome, which hasn't been used for professional sporting events in years. New Orleans Mayor Nagin called for a total evacuation. He said hundreds were dead and ordered police to stop looters.
    (AP, 8/31/05)(SFC, 9/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 1, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin issued "a desperate SOS" as anger mounted across the ruined city, with thousands of Hurricane Katrina victims increasingly hungry, desperate and tired of waiting for buses to take them out. New Orleans descended into anarchy, as corpses lay abandoned in street medians, fights and fires broke out and storm survivors battled for seats on the buses that would carry them away from the chaos. Fights and trash fires broke out at the hot and stinking Superdome and anger and unrest mounted across New Orleans, as National Guardsmen in armored vehicles poured in to help restore order across the increasingly lawless and desperate city.
    (AP, 9/1/05)(AP, 9/1/06)

2005        Sep 2, Pres. Bush made a tour of damages from Hurricane Katrina in Alabama, Mississippi and New Orleans. He acknowledged that current relief results were not acceptable. A National Guard convoy packed with food, water and medicine rolled into New Orleans to bring relief suffering multitudes and put down the looting and violence. Scorched by criticism about sluggish federal help, President Bush acknowledged the government's failure to stop lawlessness and help desperate people during a daylong tour of the Gulf Coast. During a live TV benefit concert, rapper Kanye West went off-script to sharply criticize Bush.
    (SFC, 9/3/05, p.A1)(AP, 9/2/05)(AP, 9/2/06)
2005        Sep 2, FEMA signed a 6-month contract with Carnival Cruise Lines for 3 ships to help in relief operations from Hurricane Katrina at a cost of $236 million.
    (SFC, 9/28/05, p.A12)
2005        Sep 2, In New Orleans Henry Glover (31) was shot and killed by police, who then burned his body. In 2010 a US federal grand jury indicted 3 current and 2 former New Orleans police officers in the shooting of Henry Glover (31). On Dec 9, 2010, former officer David Warren was found guilty of manslaughter. Officer Gregory McRae was found guilty of burning Glover’s body in a car. In 2012 an appeals court overturned Warren’s conviction and scheduled a new trial. On Dec 11, 2013, a federal jury acquitted David Warren of a civil rights violation and a firearm charge. In 2014 Gregory McRae (53) already imprisoned for burning Henry Glover's body, was re-sentenced to 17-years, 3-month in prison. On April 1, 2015, Coroner Jeffrey Rouse classified Glover’s death as a homicide.
     (SFC, 6/12/10, p.A9)(SFC, 12/10/10, p.A14)(SFC, 12/12/13, p.A8)(AP, 8/15/14)(SFC, 4/2/15, p.A5)
2005        Sep 2, In New Orleans police Officer Ronald Mitchell shot and killed Danny Brumfeld (45) outside the city’s convention center. In 2011 Mitchell was convicted of lying about the aftermath of the deadly shooting.
    (http://noladefender.com/category/tags/danny-brumfeld)(SFC, 12/10/11, p.A6)

2005        Sep 3, President Bush ordered more than 7,000 active duty forces to the Gulf Coast as his administration intensified efforts to rescue survivors and send aid to the hurricane-ravaged Gulf Coast in the face of criticism it did not act quickly enough.
    (AP, 9/3/05)
2005        Sep 3, The Gulf emirate of Qatar announced it will donate 100 million dollars to relief efforts for the US victims of Hurricane Katrina. The funds included a $17.5 million grant to Xavier University in New Orleans, which serves mostly black Americans.
    (AFP, 9/3/05)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.48)

2005        Sep 4, US Health and Human Services Secretary Michael Leavitt said the death toll from Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath is in the thousands.
    (AP, 9/4/05)
2005        Sep 4, In New Orleans police killed at least 4 people, who allegedly shot at contractors. The official Louisiana state death toll due to Hurricane Katrina stood at 59 but the number was expected to rise to thousands. In 2008 federal officials opened an investigations into shootings on the Danziger Bridge where 2 people were killed and 4 wounded. In 2010 former Lt. Michael Lohman pleaded guilty to conspiring to obstruct justice. He and others filed false reports to make the shootings on the Danziger Bridge seem justifiable. On April 16, 2010, officer Robert Barrios was charged with conspiring to obstruct justice in relation to the bridge shootings.
    (SFC, 9/5/05, p.A1)(SFC, 10/1/08, p.A5)(SFC, 2/25/10, p.A4)(SFC, 4/17/10, p.A4)

2005        Sep 5, President Bush nominated John Roberts (50) to succeed William H. Rehnquist as chief justice and called on the Senate to confirm him before the Supreme Court opens its fall term on Oct. 3. Roberts could shape the court for decades to come. President Bush and Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco, during a Gulf Coast tour, consoled Hurricane Katrina victims and thanked relief workers.
    (AP, 9/5/05)(AP, 9/5/06)

2005        Sep 6, New Orleans Mayor C. Ray Nagin instructed law enforcement officers and the US military to evacuate all holdouts for their own safety. He warned that the fetid water could spread disease and that natural gas was leaking all over town.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 7, More than 30 patients were reportedly found dead overcome by floods at the St. Rita’s nursing home in suburban New Orleans.
    (AFP, 9/8/05)
2005        Sep 7, Police in Gretna, Louisiana, pushed back victims trying to leave New Orleans on the Crescent City Connection, and refused passage.
    (SFC, 9/9/05, p.B10)

2005        Sep 8, US Congress hastened to provide an additional $51.8 billion for relief and recovery from Hurricane Katrina; President Bush pledged to make it "easy and simple as possible" for uncounted, uprooted storm victims to collect food stamps and other government benefits. Tropical Storm Ophelia strengthened into a hurricane as it stalled 70 miles off the northeast Florida coast. New Orleans was still 60% flooded.
    (WSJ, 9/9/05, p.A1)(AP, 9/8/06)
2005        Sep 8, US grain prices were reported down as grain elevators along the Mississippi filled to capacity and grain handling due to Katrina fell to 63%. Early harvests from Arkansas were particularly hit.
    (WSJ, 9/8/05, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/9/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 10, Cadaver dogs and boatloads of forensic workers fanned out across New Orleans to collect the corpses left behind by Hurricane Katrina; cleanup crews towed away abandoned cars and even began readying a hotel for reopening.
    (AP, 9/10/06)

2005        Sep 11, Pres. Bush arrived in New Orleans for a 3rd visit. The airport announced that it will resume some commercial flights this week and the largest levee breech was reported closed.
    (SFC, 9/12/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 12, Michael Brown, the director of the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), resigned after being recalled to Washington amid criticism of the federal response to Hurricane Katrina. Officials reported that 45 bodies were found at Memorial Hospital in New Orleans. This raised the official death toll from Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana to 280.
    (Reuters, 9/12/05)(SFC, 9/13/05, p.A8)

2005        Sep 13, Louisiana authorities charged the owners of a New Orleans area nursing home with negligent homicide in the deaths of 34 patients in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The state death toll was raised to 423.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.A10)
2005        Sep 13, The New Orleans Airport resumed commercial operations.
    (AP, 9/14/05)

2005        Sep 14, The Port of New Orleans resumed commercial operations. Officials said damage to agriculture in the Gulf states due to Hurricane Katrina has topped $3 billion.
    (AP, 9/14/05)(SFC, 9/15/05, p.C1)

2005        Sep 15, Pres. Bush prepared to give a speech in Louisiana outlining government plans to rebuild the region devastated by Hurricane Katrina, as the disaster death toll passed the 700 mark.
    (AP, 9/15/05)

2005        Sep 19, New Orleans Mayor C. Ray Nagin, facing pressure from Washington and Hurricane Rita on the way, halted his campaign to repopulate his city and ordered the few residents and business owners who had returned to leave again.
    (AP, 9/20/05)

2005        Sep 21, Hurricane Rita intensified into a Category 5 storm with 140 mph winds and threatened to devastate the Texas coast or already-battered Louisiana by week's end. More than 1.3 million people in Texas and Louisiana were evacuated The death toll from Katrina topped 1,000.
    (AP, 9/21/05)(SFC, 9/22/05, p.A1)(AP, 9/21/06)

2005        Sep 23, Hurricane Rita, dropped to Category 4, moved toward the Texas and Louisiana coast with 135 mph winds, creating monumental traffic jams along evacuation routes and raising fears of a crippling blow to the nation's oil-refining industry.
    (AP, 9/23/05)
2005        Sep 23, In New Orleans water poured over a patched levee, cascading into one of the city's lowest-lying neighborhoods and heightening fears that Hurricane Rita would re-flood this devastated city.
    (AP, 9/23/05)

2005        Sep 24, Hurricane Rita, reduced to Category 3, made landfall east of Sabine Pass, on the Texas-Louisiana line, smashing windows, sparking fires and knocking power out to more than 1 million customers, but largely sparing vulnerable Houston and already reeling New Orleans. Within hours it weakened to Category 2.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Sep 27, Former FEMA director Michael Brown angrily blamed the Louisiana governor, the New Orleans mayor and even the Bush White House that appointed him for the dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in a fiery appearance before Congress; in response, lawmakers alternately lambasted and mocked the former official.
    (AP, 9/27/06)
2005        Sep 27, New Orleans Police Superintendent Eddie Compass stepped down from his post 4 weeks after Hurricane Katrina destroyed the city.
    (AP, 9/27/06)

2005        Sep 30, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin invited residents of some of the city's most popular neighborhoods to return at their own risk beginning today, a move that could bring back about one-third of the city's half-million inhabitants.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 3, The search for bodies due to Hurricane Katrina ended with a toll of 972 confirmed deaths in Louisiana. Mississippi had 221 confirmed dead.
    (WSJ, 10/4/05, p.A1)(SFC, 10/5/05, p.A4)

2005        Oct 8, In New Orleans Robert Davis, a retired elementary teacher, was repeatedly punched in the head by police in an incident caught on videotape. Davis was not drunk, put up no resistance and was baffled by what happened. In Dec two police officers were fired for the incident.
    (AP, 10/11/05)(SFC, 10/11/05, p.A4)(SFC, 12/22/05, p.A9)
2005        Oct 8, Amtrak resumed passenger rail service to New Orleans as the train called the City of New Orleans arrived with 29 passengers aboard.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2005        Oct 10, President Bush dined in the French Quarter of New Orleans and stayed in a luxury hotel to showcase progress in hurricane-battered city, which was reported to be turning its attention to removing and scrapping some 200,000 cars, abandoned and waterlogged from Hurricane Katrina.
    (SFC, 10/10/05, p.A5)(AP, 10/10/06)

2005        Nov 5, Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco slashed state spending by $431 million, but still faced a half a billion shortfall due to Hurricane Katrina.
    (SSFC, 11/6/05, p.A7)

2005        Nov 13, It was reported that within days after Hurricane Katrina hit, Lily Duke managed to do what other relief agencies couldn't: get food and water to her neighbors in New Orleans. Since then she's expanded her network, distributing medicine, packaged lunches and bags of ice to as many as 20,000 people a day.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

2005        Nov 29, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin announced the beginning of operations for a free city-wide wireless Internet service, the nation’s 1st such operation. He said the services would be available city-wide in about a year.
    (WSJ, 11/30/05, p.D4)

2005        Dec 26, New Orleans Police officers shot and killed a man brandishing a knife in a confrontation that was partially videotaped by a bystander, setting off another internal investigation of the embattled department.
    (AP, 12/27/05)
    (AP, 1/14/06)

2006        Jan 13, The population of New Orleans was estimated at 40% of its original 460,000.
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.A1)

2006        Feb 2, Tornadoes tore through New Orleans neighborhoods that had been hit hard by Hurricane Katrina five months earlier.
    (AP, 2/2/07)

2006        Feb 13, US government investigators told the Senate that FEMA has let nearly 11,000 unused manufactured homes deteriorate on old runways and open fields in Arkansas, and spent $416,000 per person to house a few hundred Hurricane Katrina evacuees for a short time in Alabama last fall. Auditors reported that millions of dollars in disaster aid had been squandered, paying for such items as a $450 tattoo and $375-a-day beachfront condos.
    (USAT, 2/14/06)(AP, 2/13/07)

2006        Feb 17, Louisiana lawmakers voted to assume control of new Orleans levees from local boards.
    (WSJ, 2/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Feb 20, Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco outlined a $7.5 billion rebuilding, relocation and buyout plan for residents whose homes were damaged by last year’s hurricanes.
    (SFC, 2/21/06, p.A4)

2006        Apr 22, In New Orleans, La., Mayor Ray Nagin failed to get a majority vote and was forced into a runoff to be held in May with Lt. Gov. Mitch Landrieu.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.A3)

2006        May 3, Vernon Jackson (53), owner of iGate, pleaded guilty in Alexandria, Virginia, to bribing Rep. William Jefferson, D-La., with more than $400,000 to promote the Kentucky’s firm’s high tech business in Africa between 2001 and 2005.
    (SFC, 5/4/06, p.A3)

2006        May 20, New Orleans Voters re-elected Mayor Ray Nagin, whose blunt style endeared him to some but outraged others after Hurricane Katrina, giving him four more years to oversee one of the largest rebuilding projects in U.S. history.
    (AP, 5/21/06)

2006        May 21, In Louisiana a shooting spree at The Ministry of Jesus Christ church in Baton Rouge left 4 people dead. Anthony Bell (25) then kidnapped his wife and killed her. He was charged with murder in the deaths of his wife and her grandparents, great aunt and a cousin.
    (AP, 5/22/06)(SFC, 5/22/06, p.A3)

2006        May 24, House Republican and Democratic leaders jointly demanded the FBI return documents taken in a Capitol Hill raid as part of a bribery investigation of Rep. William Jefferson of Louisiana.
    (AP, 5/24/07)

2006        Jun 1, A contrite U.S. Army Corps of Engineers took responsibility for the flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2006        Jun 13, US Congressional investigators said fake aid to Katrina victims may have cost taxpayers up to $1.4 billion. A FEMA official found the claims hard to credit.
    (WSJ, 6/14/06, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/15/06, p.A1)

2006        Jun 15, US House Democrats voted to strip embattled Louisiana Congressman William Jefferson of his seat on the House Ways and Means Committee.
    (AP, 6/15/07)

2006        Jun 17, In Louisiana 5 people aged 16-19 were gunned down just outside the business district of  New Orleans.
    (SSFC, 6/18/06, p.A4)

2006        Jun 19, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin asked the state to send National Guard troops to help patrol the city streets under a growing crime problem. Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco said she would send National Guard troops and state police to patrol the streets of New Orleans after a bloody weekend in which six people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/20/06, p.A1)(AP, 6/19/07)

2006        Jul 7, Louisiana joined 21 other states in banning Internet hunting, the practice of using a mouse click to kill animals on a distant game farm.
    (www.livescience.com/othernews/060707_internet_hunting.html)

2006        Jul 17, Louisiana Attorney General Charles Foti alleged that a doctor and two nurses decided to administer lethal doses of morphine and a sedative to at least four trapped and desperately ill patients during Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 7/18/06)

2006        Jun 20, National Guardsmen rolled into New Orleans to reinforce a depleted police department and battle a surge in violence.
    (AP, 6/20/07)

2006        Jul 28, In New Orleans 4 men, 3 brothers and a friend, were killed in the Treme neighborhood as they sat on the porch of an abandoned house. The dead included 16-year-old twins, their brother (21) and a friend (39). Another shooting the next day put the year to date homicide number in New Orleans at 77.
    (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A15)

2006        Aug 16, Over 80 immigrant workers in New Orleans filed suit against Decatur Hotels LLC saying they were being exploited. The workers from Peru, Bolivia and the Dominican Rep. had not been reimbursed for travel and were not getting the promised work hours.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A16)

2006        Aug 17, In New Orleans Merck & Co. lost a second federal trial over its withdrawn painkiller Vioxx and must pay $51 million to a retired FBI agent who had a heart attack after taking the drug for more than two years.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

2006        Aug 24, A US House report said 70% of contracts for Hurricane Katrina were let with little or no competition. 4 Katrina contractors were indicted for taking $700,000 for no work.
    (WSJ, 8/25/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug 29, President George Bush visited New Orleans one year after Hurricane Katrina devastated the region to offer comfort and hope to residents.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2006        Sep 25, Murphy Oil agreed to pay $330 million to settle a class-action suit filed by victims of Hurricane Katrina whose homes and businesses were inundated when floodwaters carried nearly 1.1 million gallons of crude oil from a company storage tank.
    (WSJ, 9/26/06, p.A12)
2006        Sep 25, The Louisiana Superdome, a symbol of misery during Hurricane Katrina, reopened for a New Orleans Saints game. The Saints defeated the Atlanta Falcons, 23-3.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2006        Oct 12, A blast occurred when a tugboat pushing two barges hit an undersea pipeline in West Cote Blanche Bay, 100 miles southwest of New Orleans. 4 bodies were found and 2 people were missing.
    (WSJ, 10/13/06, p.A1)(AP, 10/13/06)

2006        Nov 29, A US federal judge ordered FEMA to resume housing payments to Katrina victims.
    (WSJ, 11/30/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 4, In Jena, La., six black students (the Jena Six) beat a white schoolmate in an altercation that stemmed from the hanging of nooses in August in a tree on school grounds under which white students regularly gathered. The black teenagers were initially charged with attempted murder, but later dropped to aggravated second-degree battery in 4 cases. In September, 2007, charges against Mychal Bell were moved to juvenile court following huge civil rights protests. It was later reported that 7 black students were involved in the Dec 4 beating. On Dec 3, 2007, Bell pleaded guilty to a juvenile charge of 2nd degree battery in return for an 18-month sentence. On June 26, 2009, 5 members of the Jena 6 pleaded no contests to misdemeanor simple battery with no jail time.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A3)(SFC, 9/28/07, p.A3)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.33)(SFC, 12/4/07, p.A3)(SFC, 6/27/09, p.A5)

2006        Dec 30, The body of Gerald Washington (57), mayor-elect of Westlake, Louisiana, was found shot to death in the parking lot of a former school. He was the first black man elected to lead the largely white town. On Jan 2 investigators ruled his death a suicide.
    (AP, 1/2/07)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)

2007        Jan 6, New Orleans considered a curfew as 8 slayings took place in the 1st week of the new year.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.A10)

2007        Feb 13, A powerful storm and likely a tornado hit the New Orleans area killing an elderly woman, injuring at least 15 other people.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Mar 12, New Mexico’s Gov. Bill Richardson signed a bill that outlawed cockfighting. This left Louisiana as the only state to allow organized cockfighting.
    (WSJ, 3/13/07, p.A4)

2007        Mar, Some 47 bodies of bottlenose dolphins washed up on the shores near Galveston, Texas. Toxins off the Louisiana coast were suspected.
    (SFC, 3/19/07, p.A2)

2007        Apr 3, Eddie Robinson (b.1919), 56-year head football coach at Grambling College, died in Ruston, La.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Robinson_(football_coach))

2007        Apr 24, A tornado in the Texas border town of Eagle Pass killed at least 10 people and destroyed two schools and more than 20 homes. The storm killed 2 more people in Arkansas and Louisiana.
    (AP, 4/25/07)(SFC, 4/26/07, p.A3)

2007        Jun 4, US Rep. William Jefferson, a Democrat from Louisiana, was indicted for graft involving Nigerian business schemes that netted him over $500,000 in bribes. Jefferson has maintained his innocence.
    (WSJ, 6/5/07, p.A1)(AP, 6/4/08)

2007        Jul 9, US Sen. David Vitter, R-La., acknowledged that he was on the list of phone records just released by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the alleged “D.C. Madam."
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.A6)

2007        Aug 2, A US appeals court ruled that Katrina victims cannot collect for damage from levee breaches.
    (WSJ, 8/3/07, p.A1)

2007        Sep 6, A jury in St. Francisville, La., acquitted Sal and Mabel Mangano, the owners of a nursing home where 35 patients died after Hurricane Katrina, of negligent homicide and cruelty charges.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

2007        Sep 20, Some 20,000 people gathered in Jena, Louisiana, to protest what they considered to be the overzealous prosecution of 6 black high school students charged with beating a white schoolmate last December.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A3)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.33)

2007        Oct 4, Former city maintenance worker John Ashley shot five people in a law office in Alexandria, La., killing two of them; Ashley was shot and killed by police following a standoff.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

2007        Oct 20, Piyush "Bobby" Jindal (36), the son of Punjabi immigrants, won an election in Louisiana to become the United States' first Indian-American state governor. Jindal, a Republican member of the House of Representatives, also became the youngest governor in the US. He became the first nonwhite to hold the job since Reconstruction.
    (AFP, 10/21/07)(AP, 10/20/08)

2007        Nov 16, Marchers surrounded the Justice Department headquarters to demand federal intervention in the Jena Six case in Louisiana and stepped-up enforcement of hate crimes.
    (AP, 11/16/08)

2007        Dec 13, In Louisiana 2 graduate students from India were found tied up and shot in the head on the edge of Louisiana State Univ.
    (SFC, 12/15/07, p.A4)

2007        Dec 20, The New Orleans City Council voted to demolish 4,500 public housing units as police used chemical spray and stun guns to on dozens of protesters who tried to force themselves into the council chamber.
    (SFC, 12/21/07, p.A6)

2008        Feb 8, In Louisiana Latina Williams (23) shot and killed 2 fellow students, Karsheika Graves (21) and Taneshia Butler (26), at Louisiana Technical College.
    (SFC, 2/9/08, p.A4)

2008        Feb 9, Sen. Barack Obama swept the Louisiana primary and caucuses in Nebraska and Washington state, slicing into Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton's slender delegate lead in their historic race for the Democratic presidential nomination. Obama also won almost 90% in the Virgin Islands. McCain narrowly won Washington while Huckabee took Kansas along with a narrow win in Louisiana.
    (AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC, 2/10/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 22, In New Orleans Pres. Bush ended a 2-day meeting with PM Harper of Canada and Pres. Calderon of Mexico as all three defended NAFTA. Bush denied the US is in recession calling the current economic situation a slowdown.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/23/08, p.A1)

2008        May 8, In Louisiana Carl Hunter (73), a construction company owner who lost two homes in Hurricane Katrina, claimed a $97 million Powerball prize, a jackpot won off a ticket he bought at a convenience store where he stopped to buy his wife a gallon of milk. Hunter took a lump sum payment that will give him $33.9 million after taxes.
    (AP, 5/9/08)

2008        May 17, In Louisiana 6 train cars derailed spilling 8-10 thousand gallons of hydrochloric acid and forming a toxic cloud over Lafayette, 125 miles west of New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 5/19/08, p.A2)

2008        Jun 25, The US Supreme Court ruled the death penalty cannot be imposed for child rape, its first decision in more than 30 years on whether a crime other than murder can be punished by execution. It struck down a Louisiana law that allowed the execution of people convicted of a raping a child.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jun 30, Louisiana’s Gov. Jindal vetoed a 123% pay increase passed the state’s legislators. Their pay had not risen since 1980. he had initially refused to veto the bill.
    (www.cnsnews.com/Public/Content/Article.aspx?rsrcid=32011)

2008        Jul 23, In Louisiana an oil tanker and an oil barge collided near New Orleans creating a 12-mile oil slick and closing almost 100 miles of the Mississippi River. Over 400,000 gallons of fuel spilled into the river.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/25/08, p.A2)

2008        Sep 1, Hurricane Gustav smashed into the Gulf coast as a Category 2 storm with 110-mph winds just southwest of New Orleans, where levees held as waves splashed over. Some 750,000 people were left without power in Louisiana. It was later estimated that the storm caused at least $372 in damage to crops. 
    (SFC, 9/2/08, p.A1)(Econ, 9/6/08, p.36)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.34)

2008        Sep 2, New Orleans residents were blocked from returning home due to damage from Hurricane Gustav, but Mayor Nagin said they would be allowed back on Sep 4.
    (WSJ, 9/3/08, p.A1)

2008        Sep 23, Ronald Dominique, suspected of killing as many as 23 men in southern Louisiana over 10 years, pleaded guilty to killing 8 men. He was sentenced to serve 8 consecutive sentences of life in prison.
    (SFC, 9/24/08, p.A4)

2008        Sep 27, Kirsten Brydum (25), a community activist from San Francisco, was robbed and murdered while bicycling in New Orleans. She had helped organize the “Really, Really Free Market" held monthly in San Francisco’s Dolores Park.
    (SFC, 10/3/08, p.B1)

2008        Nov 9, In Louisiana Raymond "Chuck" Foster, 44, shot and killed an Oklahoma woman, who was lured over the Internet to take part in a Ku Klux Klan initiation, after a fight broke out when she asked to be taken back to town. The group tried to cover it up by dumping her body on a rural roadside and setting her belongings aflame. Foster, the local Klan leader was soon in jail on a second-degree murder charge, and seven others were charged with trying to help conceal the crime.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 19, Germany chemical company BASF SE said it is temporarily closing 80 plants worldwide due to slumping demand and cutting production at 100 more, including facilities in Texas and Louisiana. Some 20,000 workers are affected.
    (AP, 11/19/08)

2008        Dec 6, Indicted Democratic US Rep. William Jefferson was ousted from his New Orleans area district, while Republicans narrowly held on to the seat vacated by a retiring incumbent. Republican attorney Anh "Joseph" Cao won 50% of the vote to Jefferson's 47% and will become the first Vietnamese-American in Congress.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2009        Jan 4, In Louisiana 8 people were killed when a PHI Inc. helicopter, bound for offshore oil fields, crashed about 100 miles southwest of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 1/5/09, p.A3)

2009        Feb 20, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal announced that he will decline stimulus money specifically targeted at expanding state unemployment insurance coverage, becoming the first state executive to officially refuse any part of the federal government’s payout to states.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/politico/19092;_ylt=AlTYJh.MxX8VcaG8HASlBbYDW7oF)
2009        Feb 20,  in Homer, La., police officers Tim Cox and Joey Henry were involved in the fatal shooting of Bernard Monroe Sr. (73). The shooting sparked protests and at least 2 investigations. In July both officers resigned from the police force.
    (SFC, 7/30/09, p.A4)

2009        Feb 28, In Louisiana 3 ½ years after Hurricane Katrina, the National Guard pulled the last of its troops out of New Orleans, leaving behind a city still desperate and dangerous.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

2009        Apr 11, In Louisiana gunmen kicked down an apartment door and opened fire killing 2 children and a woman in Terrytown.
    (SSFC, 4/12/09, p.A6)

2009        Apr 24, David Duke (59), the former Grand Wizard of the Louisiana-founded Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, arrived in Prague at the invitation of a local far-right group, Narodni Odpor (National Resistance). He was soon arrested and questioned for several hours on suspicion of promoting movements seeking the suppression of human rights. Duke was freed during the night and forced to leave the country the next day.
    (AFP, 4/25/09)

2009        May 18, In Larose, Louisiana, middle-school student Justin Doucet (15) fired a gunshot at a teacher in a classroom and then shot himself and died on May 23. Doucet left a handwritten journal and an apparent suicide note that described his intention to kill other people.
    (AP, 5/19/09)(SFC, 5/19/09, p.A5)(SFC, 5/26/09, p.A4)

2009        Aug 5, Federal jurors in Alexandria, Va., convicted former Louisiana Rep. William Jefferson on 11 0f 16 counts that included bribery, racketeering and money laundering. The next day jurors said Jefferson must forfeit $470,000 in bribery receipts. On Nov 13 he was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/6/09, p.A6)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.A5)(SFC, 11/14/09, p.A7)

2009        Sep 5, In Louisiana Dennis Carter Sr. (50) shot his estranged wife, son and 2-year-old grandson to death and critically wounded his pregnant daughter-in-law at their rural home, then killed himself as police tried to pull over his car 20 minutes later.
    (AP, 9/6/09)

2009        Sep 24, A US federal jury rejected a New Orleans family’s claims that a FEMA issued trailer they lived in after Hurricane Katrina was defective and exposed them to dangerous fumes. The trailer made by Gulf Stream Coach Inc. had been occupied for 19 months by Alana Alexander and her son (12).
    (SFC, 9/25/09, p.A8)

2009        Oct 4, In San Francisco Michael Bailey (26) of Baton Rouge, La., was shot and killed after being lured with friends at the City Nights club by a woman, who set them up for a robbery at the Alice Griffith public housing project. On Dec 23 prosecutors charged 5 people in the killing of Bailey. 2 of the 5 suspects were still at large. In 2014 William Jones (25) and Lance Molina (27) were found guilty of first-degree murder. Ariael Kittles (25) was acquitted of charges that she lured Bailey and friends to the complex.
    (SFC, 10/6/09, p.C1)(SFC, 12/24/09, p.C4)(SFC, 6/21/14, p.C3)

2009        Oct 10, In Louisiana 2 Cessna 150s, each carrying 2 people, collided near Pineville Regional Airport, killing 2 and injuring 2.
    (SSFC, 10/11/09, p.A6)

2009        Oct 14, President Barack Obama called for a second round of $250 stimulus payments for seniors, veterans, retired railroad workers and people with disabilities. The payments would be equal to about a 2% increase for the average Social Security recipient, who will not receive a cost of living increase next year. Obama visited New Orleans and listened to continued fallout from Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 10/15/09)(SFC, 10/16/09, p.A16)

2009        Oct 16, Two US civil and constitutional rights groups called for Keith Bardwell, a justice of the peace in Louisiana, to resign for refusing to issue a marriage license to an interracial couple. Bardwell held that most interracial marriages failed and had told the couple to go seek another justice of the peace.
    (SFC, 10/17/09, p.A4)

2009        Nov 18, US District Judge Stanwood Duval ruled that the Army Corps of Engineers' failure to properly maintain a navigation channel led to massive flooding in Hurricane Katrina. The ruling gave more than 100,000 other individuals, businesses and government entities a better shot at claiming damages. The ruling was the "first time ever the Army Corps has been held liable for damages for a major catastrophe that it caused."
    (AP, 11/19/09)

2010        Jan 8, Lashonda Booker, a former Federal Emergency Management employee and her cousin, Peggy, Hilton were charged with stealing over $721,000 in Hurricane Katrina relief money. Booker had worked in FEMA’s Biloxi, Miss., office.
    (SFC, 1/12/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/yer5crg)

2010        Feb 6, Louisiana Lt. Gov. Mitch Landrieu was elected mayor of New Orleans, the first white man to hold the position since his father, Moon Landrieu, left office in 1978.
    (SSFC, 2/7/10, p.A12)

2010        Feb 7, The New Orleans Saints capped off an outstanding season with an upset over the Indianapolis Colts, 31-17, in Super Bowl XLIV.
    (http://nfl.fanhouse.com/2010/02/07/saints-shock-colts-in-super-bowl-xliv/?ncid=webmaildl5)

2010        Apr 6, Louisiana authorities said a pipeline has spilled some 18,000 gallons of crude oil into a canal in the Delta National Wildlife Refuge about 60 miles southeast of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 4/7/10, p.A8)

2010        Apr 20, An explosion and fire damaged an oil rig and critically injured 7 people off the coast of Louisiana leaving 11 workers missing in the Gulf of Mexico. The Deepwater Horizon rig sank 2 days later. Officials feared as much as 336,000 gallons of crude oil a day could be rising from the sea floor nearly 5,000 feet below. On April 23 no oil appeared to be leaking from the well head at the ocean floor, nor was any leaking at the water's surface. On April 25 it was reported that some 1000 barrels per day were leaking from 2 conduit sources related to the sunken oil rig. An internal investigation later said the deadly blowout was triggered by a bubble of methane gas that escaped from the well and shot up the drill column, expanding quickly as it burst through several seals and barriers before exploding. In June it was reported that BP had been trying to seal cracks in the Macondo well more than 2 months before the explosion.
    (AFP, 4/21/10)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/25/10)(AP, 5/8/10)(SFC, 6/18/10, p.A13)

2010        Apr 26, The oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, due to April 20 sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, extended over some 1,800 square miles. Robot submarines were in use to close valves atop the well. Officials said engineers have begun constructing a giant dome to place over the leaking oil well.
    (SFC, 4/27/10, p.A6)(AFP, 4/27/10)

2010        Apr 28, Coast Guard Rear Adm. Mary Landry was emphatic at a hastily called news conference that a new leak was discharging 5,000 barrels a day of sweet crude, not the 1,000 barrels officials had estimated for days since the Deepwater Horizons drilling rig exploded and sank 50 miles off the Louisiana Coast. Shrimpers in Louisiana filed a class-action lawsuit against oil giant BP Plc and owners of the drilling platform that exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, as claims for economic losses anticipated from the disaster began to mount.
    (AP, 4/29/10)(Reuters, 4/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, Oil from a leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico began washing ashore in the southern US state of Louisiana, threatening an ecological disaster.
    (AP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 1, The worst US oil spill in decades reached into precious shoreline habitat along the Gulf Coast as documents emerged showing British Petroleum downplayed the possibility of a catastrophic accident at the offshore rig that exploded.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 2, Louisiana's 2.4-billion-dollar a year commercial and recreational fishing industry was dealt its first major blow from the oil spill, as the US government banned activities for 10 days due to health concerns.
    (AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        May 4, British Petroleum said efforts to contain a giant oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico are costing nearly four million pounds a day. Winds pushed a giant slick towards fragile wetlands on the US coast as efforts intensified to bottle up a ruptured oil well causing the growing environmental disaster.
    (AFP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 5, The US Coast Guard said BP PLC has managed to cap one of three leaks at a deepwater oil well, but the work is not expected to reduce the overall flow of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The well has been spewing at least 210,000 gallons per day since an April 20 explosion at a rig 50 miles off Louisiana.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 8, BP’s first attempt to divert the crude spill was foiled and it could be at least a day before another attempt at putting a lid on the well could be made. Meanwhile, thick blobs of tar washed up on Alabama's white sand beaches, yet another sign the spill was worsening.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 15, Oil leaking from the ruptured well pipe in the Gulf of Mexico washed ashore in two new locations, as BP’s latest attempt to contain the spill faltered. Experts warned that the spill may be growing more than ten times faster than previous Coast Guard estimates of 5,000 barrels (210,000 gallons) a day.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 16, Oil from a blown-out well is forming huge underwater plumes as much as 10 miles long below the visible slick in the Gulf of Mexico, scientists said as BP wrestled for a third day with its latest contraption for slowing the nearly month-old gusher.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 17, BP said it was siphoning more than one-fifth of the oil that has been spewing into the Gulf for almost a month, as worries escalated that the ooze may reach a major ocean current that could carry it through the Florida Keys and up the East Coast. The US Coast Guard said 20 tar balls have been found off Key West, Fla., but the agency stopped short of saying whether they came from a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 5/17/10)(AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 20, BP conceded that more oil than it estimated is gushing into the Gulf of Mexico as heavy crude washed into Louisiana's wetlands for the first time, feeding worries and uncertainty about the massive monthlong spill.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 23, The US government threatened to remove BP from efforts to seal a blown-out oil well in the Gulf of Mexico if it doesn't do enough to stop the leak, though it acknowledged only the company and the oil industry have the needed know-how. Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal said the state is not waiting for federal approval to begin building sand barriers to protect the coastline from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 27, BP Plc wrestled to plug its gushing deepwater Gulf of Mexico well in the latest attempt to control the source of a catastrophic five-week-old oil spill. Pres. Obama extended a moratorium on new deepwater oil drilling and ordered floating rigs to stop work on 33 exploratory wells. The government gave the go-ahead for an ambitious plan to construct several barrier islands to reduce the amount of oil from the giant Gulf of Mexico spill from coming ashore. Officials raised estimates of the spill from 210,000 to at least half a million gallons a day.
    (Reuters, 5/27/10)(AFP, 5/28/10)(SFC, 5/28/10, p.A8)

2010        May 28, BP made progress toward plugging its Gulf of Mexico oil spill with mud but said it won't know for two more days if the fix will really work.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        May 29, The worst oil spill in US history hit its 40th day with Gulf residents clinging to the tenuous hope that BP's complicated "top kill" operation will plug the gushing well.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)

2010        Jun 2, BP Plc forged ahead with its latest effort to curb the flow of oil spewing into the Gulf of Mexico as the British energy giant's shares fell anew as the US government launched criminal and civil probes into the disaster.
    (Reuters, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 3, BP sliced off a pipe with giant shears in the latest bid to curtail the worst spill in US history, but the cut was jagged and placing a cap over the gusher will now be more challenging. BP's top executive acknowledged the global oil giant was unprepared to fight a catastrophic deepwater oil spill as engineers were forced yet again to reconfigure plans for executing their latest gambit to control the Gulf of Mexico gusher. Robots a mile beneath the Gulf positioned a cap over the main pipe on the leaking well Thursday night and an inverted funnel-like system, wrapped in hoses and more sophisticated than previous devices, started pumping oil and gas to a tanker on the surface. A very rough estimate of current collection was estimated at about 42,000 gallons a day. An estimated 500,000 to 1 million gallons of crude was believed to be leaking daily. The federal government slapped BP with a $69 million bill to cover initial costs of responding to the oil spill.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/4/10)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 5, President Barack Obama on his 3rd visit to Louisiana said that he will stand with Gulf Coast residents "until they are made whole" from the oil spill catastrophe. The containment cap placed on the gusher near the sea floor trapped about 441,000 gallons of oil, up from around 250,000 gallons of oil a day earlier. It's not clear how much is still escaping; an estimated 500,000 to 1 million gallons of crude is believed to be leaking daily.
    (AP, 6/5/10)(AP, 6/6/10)

2010        Jun 11, A US federal grand jury indicted 3 current and 2 former New Orleans police officers in the shooting of Henry Glover (31) on Sep 2, 2005, and then burning his body.
    (SFC, 6/12/10, p.A9)
2010        Jun 11, A Credit Suisse analyst, briefed by BP’s Chief of Staff, said in a research note that BP expects the total bill for the clean up of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to be $3-6 billion.
    (Reuters, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 16, BP under pressure from Pres. Obama agreed to set aside $20 billion in a spill recovery escrow program to compensate Gulf Coast fishermen and others who have lost work and wages from the 8-week old massive oil spill.
    (SFC, 6/17/10, p.A8)

2010        Jun 21, BP revealed it has so far spent two billion dollars on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, after an internal BP document suggested the gusher might be spewing far faster than initially feared.
    (AFP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In New Orleans US District Judge Martin Feldman struck down the Obama administration’s 6-month ban on deep-water drilling. It was later disclosed that Feldman was heavily invested in the oil and gas industry last year, according to his 2009 financial disclosure.
    (SFC, 6/23/10, p.A6)(http://news.yahoo.com/s/ynews/20100625/ts_ynews/ynews_ts2856)

2010        Jun 23, Embattled BP CEO Tony Hayward handed over the handling of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to Bob Dudley (54), an American executive brought up in Mississippi, one of the states affected by the disaster. BP reinstalled an oil containment system sucking up crude from a ruptured pipe in the Gulf of Mexico, which had been removed following a collision with a robotic submarine.
    (AP, 6/23/10)(AFP, 6/24/10)

2010        Jul 3, In the Gulf of Mexico a Taiwanese converted tanker, dubbed "A Whale" and billed as the world's largest oil skimmer, arrived from Portugal in the Gulf of Mexico for testing. Officials hoped it would scrub 21 million gallons of oil-tainted seawater per day. The US Coast Guard later said it was too big to maneuver around the smaller patches and ribbons of oil.
    (AP, 7/03/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A8)(AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Jul 5,  BP's costs for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill climbed nearly half a billion dollars in the past week, raising the oil giant's tab to just over $3 billion for work on cleaning and capping the gusher and payouts to individuals, businesses and governments. Tar balls from the Gulf oil spill found on a Texas beach were the first evidence that gushing crude from the Deepwater Horizon well has reached all the Gulf states.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 6, In New Orleans, Louisiana, oil from the ruptured well was reported to be seeping into Lake Pontchartrain, threatening another environmental disaster for the huge body of water that was rescued from pollution in 1990s.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 10, In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil were allowed to spew into the fouled waters while BP engineers prepared to install a new containment system they hope will catch it all in the coming days.
    (AP, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 15, BP finally stopped oil from spewing into the sea, for the first time since an April 20 explosion on the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon oil rig killed 11 workers and unleashed the spill 5,000 feet beneath the water's surface.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 30, Louisiana’s Department of Wildlife and Fisheries said "commercial fishing will reopen for finfish and shrimp in portions of state waters east of the Mississippi River."
    (AFP, 7/30/10)

2010        Aug 2, The US government said BP's ruptured well in the Gulf of Mexico gushed an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil, making it the largest accidental oil spill of all time.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)
2010        Aug 2, In Louisiana 6 Shreveport teenagers wading in the shallows of the Red River drowned in front of their horrified families after falling into deep water. None of the teens or nearby adults could swim.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 4, BP PLC reached what it called a significant milestone overnight when mud that was forced down the well held back the flow of crude. A government report said much of the spilled oil is gone, though what's left is still at least quadruple the amount that poured from the Exxon Valdez.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Sep 8, BP issued a report on the causes of the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe and listed the unfolding of the tragedy in 4 acts, each containing several errors.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.74)

2010        Aug 9, BP made its first deposit, $3 billion, into the Gulf of Mexico oil disaster fund, while top executives were summoned to the White House to pledge their long-term commitment to restoring the region.
    (AFP, 8/9/10)

2010        Aug 16, Shrimpers returned to Louisiana waters for the first commercial season since the Gulf oil disaster, uncertain what crude may still be in the water and what price they'll get for the catch if consumers worry about possible lingering effects from the massive BP spill.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 22, Thousands of fish turned up dead at the mouth of Mississippi River, prompting authorities to check whether oil was the cause of mass death. Crabs, sting rays, eel, drum, speckled trout and red fish were among the species that turned up dead.
    (AFP, 8/24/10)

2010        Sep 13, US House members began an impeachment trial against Louisiana District Judge Thomas Porteous (63) on grounds of corruption.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A4)
2010        Sep 13, Photos of a Louisiana waterway, its surface completely covered with dead sea life were distributed to local media by Plaquemines Parish President Billy Nungesser. This stretch of coastal Louisiana was hit hard this summer by oil from BP's busted Gulf well.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2bhqnhe)

2010        Sep 19, US officials finally declared BP's broken well in the Gulf  of Mexico "dead", five months after a deadly oil rig blast sparked one of the costliest and largest environmental disasters ever.
    (AFP, 9/20/10)

2010        Sep 28, President Barack Obama endorsed a plan to rehabilitate the Gulf of Mexico with some of the billions of dollars in water pollution fines expected from the companies responsible for the worst offshore oil spill in US history.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

2010        Oct 8, The remains of Lexis Roberts (12) from Nevada were found in Louisiana. A warrant was later issued for Thomas Steven Sanders (53). In 1994 family members had declared Sanders dead, seven years after he vanished. In November the remains of a woman, believed to be her mother, Suellen Roberts (31) were found in Arizona.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2dwr8pa)(SFC, 11/5/10, p.A8)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A18)

2010        Dec 8, The US Senate voted to convict Louisiana district court Judge Thomas Porteous on charges of corruption and perjury. The Senate acted for the 8th time in American history to remove a federal judge through the impeachment process.
    (SFC, 12/9/10, p.A20)

2010        Dec 15, The US filed suit for the first time against BP and eight other companies for uncounted billions of dollars in damages from a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the worst in US history.
    (AFP, 12/15/10)

2010        Dec 16, The big set of sand barriers erected by Louisiana's governor to protect the coastline at the height of the Gulf oil spill was criticized by a presidential commission as a colossal, $200 million waste of BP's money so far.
    (AP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 18, In Louisiana a small plane crashed after takeoff in Crowley killing 3 people and injuring 2 others.
    (SSFC, 12/19/10, p.A12)

2010        Dec 28, In New Orleans, La., a fire in an abandoned warehouse killed 8 homeless squatters.
    (SFC, 12/29/10, p.A5)

2010        The population of New Orleans, Louisiana, shrinking since the 1960s, was down to 343,829. The city lost 29% of its population since 2000.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.34)

2011        Jan 4, Officials in Louisiana said 500 birds were discovered dead, shortly after thousands of birds were discovered dead in neighboring Arkansas.
    (AFP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 13, Edwin Edwards, former 4-term governor of Louisiana, was released from federal prison after serving over 8 years for fraud.
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.A6)

2011        Feb 7, A federal jury in Baton Rouge, La., convicted Wen Chyu Liu (74), a former Dow Chemical research scientist, of conspiracy to commit trade secret theft and perjury.
    (SFC, 2/8/11, p.A6)

2011        Feb 12, Louisiana authorities said 4 people died and one was rescued after their boat capsized during a fishing trip on the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 2/13/11)

2011        Mar 5, Southwestern Louisiana was hit by a tornado. Jalisa Granger (21) was killed when a tree fell on her house in Rayne, Acadia Parish.
    (SSFC, 3/6/11, p.A12)

2011        Mar 12, In Louisiana a gunman opened fire on teenagers attending a party in a New Orleans bar and fled, killing an 18-year-old man and wounding four other teens.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 17, The US Justice Dept. accused the New Orleans Police Dept. of systematic misconduct that violated the Constitution. A report said officers had engaged in racial profiling against the city’s black majority from January 2009 to May 2010 and used deadly force against 27 people.
    (SFC, 3/18/11, p.A4)

2011        Mar 28, Federal agricultural workers in Louisiana were reported using blow torches to burning every prickly pear cactus they came across in hope of killing off a cactus-eating pest that's been on a tear across the Gulf Coast and is moving West. Cactoblastis cactorum, a tan-colored moth from Argentina, has been moving steadily across the Gulf Coast for the past decade. Federal workers hoped to stop it before it gets to Texas and the population explodes with an abundant food supply.
    (AP, 3/28/11)

2011        Apr 15, Storms marched into Tennessee, Louisiana and later into Georgia. At least three twisters touched down in Mississippi, where a state of emergency was declared in 14 counties, causing widespread damage.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 20, BP marked the first anniversary of the massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill by suing its business partners for billions of dollars, as Gulf residents held somber vigils and relatives flew over the waters where 11 oil rig workers died.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        May 14, US Army engineers prepared to slowly open the gates of an emergency spillway along the rising Mississippi River, diverting floodwaters from Baton Rouge and New Orleans, yet inundating homes and farms in parts of Louisiana's populated Cajun country.
    (AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 20, BP said that it had recovered more than $1.0 billion in costs linked to last year's devastating Gulf of Mexico oil spill from a US subsidiary of Japanese trading house Mitsui & Co. MOEX USA Corporation held a 10-percent stake in the Macondo well project.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        Aug 5, A US federal jury convicted five current or former police officers in deadly shootings on a New Orleans bridge after Hurricane Katrina, a high-profile victory for the Justice Department in its push to clean up the city's troubled police department.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

2011        Sep 3, Heavy rains from Tropical Storm Lee were falling in southern Louisiana and pelting the Gulf Coast as the storm's center trudged slowly toward land, where businesses were already beginning to suffer on what would normally be a bustling holiday weekend.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 4, Tropical Storm Lee dumped over a foot of rain in New Orleans and weakened to a tropical depression.
    (SFC, 9/5/11, p.A7)

2011        Oct 26, The US government gave BP approval to drill at its Kaskida field, some 192 miles of the Louisiana coast. This would be BP’s first deep-water operation since the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout on April 20, 2010.
    (SFC, 10/27/11, p.A8)

2011        Nov 16, At least six people were killed and dozens more injured as a storm system that spawned several possible tornadoes moved across the Southeast. Suspected tornadoes were reported in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and South Carolina.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2012        Jan 13, New Orleans violence left 17 people shot over the last 18 hours. 12 people were murdered in the first 12 days of this year.
    (SFC, 1/13/12, p.A6)

2012        Feb 17, In Louisiana two barges collided near Laplace spilling oil and leading officials to close a 5-mile stretch of the Mississippi River.
    (SFC, 2/18/12, p.A5)

2012        Mar 2, BP reached a partial settlement in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill trial in which tens of billions are at stake. Terms of the settlement with a committee representing thousands of private claimants such as fishermen and coastal businesses were not released. There was no word on the status of BP's negotiations with the US government.
    (AFP, 3/3/12)

2012        Mar 24, Rick Santorum won Louisiana's Republican primary. He walked away with at least eight of the 20 delegates up for grabs, while Mit Romney came in second. While Louisiana has a total of 46 delegates at stake, just 20 were in play. The rest will be determined at the state convention in June.
    (AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Apr 4, In Louisiana a federal judge sentenced five former police officers to years in prison for the deadly shootings on the New Orleans Danziger Bridge in the chaotic days following Hurricane Katrina, but not before lashing out at prosecutors for allowing others involved to serve lighter penalties for their crimes. In 2013 a federal judge declared a mistrial citing misconduct by prosecutors.
    (AP, 4/4/12)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.32)

2012        Apr 11, Shell Oil reported a 10-square-mile oil slick between two major production sites in the Gulf of Mexico, 130 miles southeast of New Orleans. A response vessel was sent.
    (SFC, 4/12/12, p.A6)

2012        Apr 20, An unresponsive twin-engine plane flying erratically over the Gulf of Mexico and tracked by the Air Force crashed between Louisiana and Florida. An airport mechanic who has worked on the plane said the pilot was  Dr. Peter Hertzak (65) of New Orleans.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)(SFC, 4/21/12, p.A5)

2012        Jul 24, The New Orleans Police Dept. and the US Dept. of Justice announced an agreement to overhaul the city’s scandal-ridden police force and improve city safety.
    (SFC, 7/25/12, p.A6)

2012        Aug 7, In Louisiana police found the body of Michaela "Mickey" Shunick. She had been last seen riding her bicycle from a friend's house early May 19, days before her 22nd birthday. Eight days later, the bike was found partially submerged in a swampy area under a highway bridge. Brandon Lavergne (33), a registered sex offender, has been charged with first-degree murder and aggravated kidnapping in Shunick's death.
    (Huffington, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 12, In Louisiana the Bayou Corne sinkhole opened up. It stretched 325 feet across, guzzled water from adjacent swamps and belched methane from beneath the surface. By late 2013 it had expanded to 25 acres and continued to grow. The Napoleonville salt dome, 700 feet below Bayou Corne, had been used to store propane, butane and natural gas and to make salt water for chemical factories in the area. The collapse of a cavern wall was believed to cause the formation of Bayou Corne.  
    (SSFC, 9/29/13, p.A17)

2012        Aug 16, In Louisiana 2 sheriff’s deputies were killed and 2 others injured during a shootout in Laplace, John the Baptist Parish. 7 people were arrested in connection to the shootings. The suspects were later reported to be heavily armed adherents to an ideology known as the "sovereign citizens" movement.
    (SFC, 8/17/12, p.A9)(SFC, 8/18/12, p.A5)(AP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 30, Tropical depression Isaac hovered over Louisiana for a 3rd day with at least 2 deaths as it slowly moved inland.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A8)

2012        Sep 28, Damon Thibodeaux (38) of Louisiana was released from death row after serving 15 years for a slaying that DNA evidence showed he did not commit. He was the 18th death row prisoner freed based on such evidence.
    (SFC, 9/29/12, p.A4)

2012        Nov 15, BP announced it was paying $4.5 billion in a settlement with the US government over the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig disaster. Hours later 2 men who worked for BP during the 2010 Gulf oil spill disaster were charged with manslaughter and a third with lying to federal investigators.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 16, The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued a "heads up" directive putting officials on alert for an increase in human interaction with dolphins in the waters across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Authorities were investigating several attacks on dolphins in the northern Gulf of Mexico after some were found with gunshot wounds, cuts and missing jaws.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2013        Jan 18, Former New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin was indicted on charges that he used his office for personal gain, accepting payoffs, free trips and gratuities from contractors while the city was struggling to recover from the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 26, Louisiana police arrested Wilbert Thibodeaux (48). He was suspected of shooting a police officer and wounding 2 sheriff’s deputies after setting a deadly fire at a mobile home in St. Mary’s Parish.
    (SSFC, 1/27/13, p.A6)

2013        Feb 3, In New Orleans the Baltimore Ravens defeated the SF 49ers 43-31 in Super Bowl XLVII. The game was delayed for 34 minutes in the 3rd quarter when lights went out in the stadium. Some 109 million people watched the game.
    (SFC, 2/4/13, p.A1)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.67)

2013        Apr 19, A fishing boat owned by a Louisiana sea food company sank off the Texas Gulf Coast after it was hit by a freak wave. 4 fishermen were lost and one was rescued.
    (SFC, 4/22/13, p.A5)

2013        May 12, In Louisiana gunmen opened fire on people marching in a neighborhood Mother's Day parade in New Orleans. At least 19 people were wounded including 2 kids. Police saw 3 suspects running from the scene. People later identified Akein Scott (19) as the shooter. Scott was arrested on May 15. His brother Shawn Scott (24) was arrested on May 16. Five others were soon accused of helping the suspects avoid capture.
    (AP, 5/12/13)(SFC, 5/14/13, p.A7)(SFC, 5/16/13, p.A6)(AP, 5/17/13)

2013        Jun 10, BP PLC said the Coast Guard has concluded cleanup operations in Mississippi, Alabama and Florida from the April  2010 oil well blowout. Work continued along 84 miles of Louisiana’s shoreline.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 13, In Louisiana an explosion and fire killed one person and injured 73 at the Williams Olefins chemical plant in Geismar.
    (Reuters, 6/13/13)

2013        Jul 27, Lindy Boggs (b.1916), former Louisiana congresswoman, died.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.78)

2013        Aug 13, In Louisiana Fuaed Abdo Ahmed (20) shot two hostages, killing one, at a rural bank before police shot him dead after an hours long standoff.
    (SFC, 8/15/13, p.A6)

2013        Sep 10, In Louisiana local and federal law officials said they have arrested Van Draylan Dixson (38), a neighborhood watch volunteer, on suspicion of raping four women in Dallas.
    (SFC, 9/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 27, Louisiana Pastor Ronald Harris Jr. was fatally shot as he preached to some 65 people during a revival service in Lake Charles. Woodrow Karey (53) was charged with the murder.
    (SFC, 9/30/13, p.A4)

2013        Oct 15, In Louisiana former Halliburton employee Anthony Badalamenti (62) pleaded guilty to destroying evidence in the aftermath of the 2010 deadly rig explosion that spawned BP’s oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.A5)

2013        Dec 18, A New Orleans jury convicted Kurt Mix (52), a BP drilling engineer, of obstruction of justice in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Mix had deleted a string of text messages to and from his supervisor.
    (SFC, 12/19/13, p.A14)

2013        Dec 22, Louisiana’s Lt. Gov. Jay Dardenne said the “Duck Dynasty" reality TV show is important to state tourism and that he could connect the Robertson family to new producers if they cannot reach an agreement with the A&E network. Patriarch Phil Robertson was suspended last week for telling GQ magazine that gays are sinners akin to adulterers and swindlers.
    (SFC, 12/23/13, p.A7)

2013        Dec 26, In Louisiana Ben Freeman (38), a nurse embroiled in a custody fight, attacked his former in-laws, his onetime boss and his current wife leaving 3 dead before killing himself.
    (SFC, 12/28/13, p.A12)

2013        Dec 27, The A&E channel said it is reversing its decision to drop “Duck Dynasty" patriarch Phil Robertson from the show set in Louisiana for his remarks on gays.
    (SFC, 12/28/13, p.A7)

2013        Rebecca Solnit and Rebecca Snedeker authored “Unfathomable City: A New Orleans Atlas," an ensemble of essays n the city by a range of contributors.
    (SSFC, 11/24/13, p.F4)

 2014        Feb 20, Former New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin was convicted on 20 counts accepting bribes.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.28)

2014        Feb 22, A barge ran into a towboat on the Mississippi River near Vancherie, La. A 65-mile stretch of the river was closed to traffic for a day as crews cleaned up some 31,500 gallons of spilled oil.
    (SFC, 2/24/14, p.A5)(SFC, 2/25/14, p.A5)

2014        Mar 11, Glenn Ford (1949-2015) was released from a Louisiana prison after spending 30 years on death row for a murder he did not commit. Sentenced to die in the electric chair, he was sent to a Louisiana penitentiary in 1985.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conviction_and_exoneration_of_Glenn_Ford)

2014        May 12, In Louisiana Reginald Adams was freed from prison after spending 34 years in jail for a murder he did not commit. Detectives knowingly gave false testimony at his trial.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.28)

2014        Jul 9, Former New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin was sentenced to 10 years in prison for bribery, money laundering and other corruption that spanned his two terms.
    (SFC, 7/10/14, p.A14)

2014        Jul 30, Jose Manuel Garcia Guevara was returned to Lake Charles, La., after being arrested in Mexico for the Feb. 19, 2008, rape and murder of Wanda Barton.
    (SFC, 8/1/14, p.A7)

2014        Aug 15, Phoenix-based Elio said it plans to start making the cars next fall at a former GM plant in Shreveport, Louisiana. Already, more than 27,000 people have reserved one. The new commuter car has two seats, three wheels, gets 84 miles highway to the gallon and will cost $6,800.
    (AP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 27, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal sued the Obama administration over school standards. The suit accused the US Dept. of Education of illegally manipulating money and regulations to force states to adopt Common Core standards.
    (SFC, 8/28/14, p.A6)

2014        Nov 20, In Louisiana 3 children and 2 adults were killed when a boy (16) driving relatives from Texas to Disney World fell asleep causing the SUV to veer off the road and roll over. He and two passengers suffered minor injuries.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A6)

2015        Feb 13, In Louisiana John Hicks (19) was arrested after he shot dead two people near an all-female Mardi Gras parade.
    (SFC, 2/14/15, p.A7)

2015        Mar 14, Robert Durst (71), the scion of a wealthy New York real estate family, was taken into custody at a New Orleans hotel at the request of Los Angeles police investigating the 2000 killing of his friend Susan Berman. The next day the HBO television network broadcast the final episode in a six-part documentary series about Durst called "The Jinx: The Life and Deaths of Robert Durst." In it Durst is heard muttering to himself, "What the hell did I do? Killed them all, of course." On April 23 Louisiana dismissed weapons charges against Durst.
    (AP, 3/16/15)(SFC, 4/24/15, p.A9)

2015        Mar 20, In New Orleans, La., police shot Richard White (63) three times at the Louis Armstrong International Airport after he attacked border agents with a machete and wasp spray. White was shot and died the next day at a local hospital.
    (AFP, 3/21/15)(SSFC, 3/22/15, p.A11)

2015        Apr 25, In Louisiana at least two people were killed and four left missing after a swift storm crossed Mobile Bay during the Dauphin Island sailing regatta.
    (SFC, 4/27/15, p.A5)(SFC, 4/28/15, p.A5)

2015        May 20, Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal issued an executive order to protect people and businesses that do not want to participate in same-sex marriage, hours a committee in the state legislature effectively voted down a bill that would do the same.
    (SFC, 5/21/15, p.A10)
2015        May 20, In New Orleans lawyers announced a $211 million settlement with Transocean Ltd, owner of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig where an explosin in April, 2010, killed 11 workers and sent oil speing into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days.
    (SFC, 5/21/15, p.A10)

2015        Jun 20, In Louisiana police officer Daryle Holloway was shot and killed while transporting Travis Boys (33) to jail. Boys escaped but was arrested the next day.
    (AP, 6/21/15)

2015        Jul 2, The US Department of Justice said BP Plc has reached a settlement with US authorities and will pay about $18.7 billion in damages for water pollution caused by the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The agreement settles claims against BP by the government and the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas and Florida.
    (Reuters, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 23, In Louisiana John Russell Houser (59), sitting in a packed movie theater, stood up about 20 minutes into the showing of "Trainwreck"  and began firing into the crowd, killing two and wounding at least nine others before fatally shooting himself at the Grand 16 theater in Lafayette.
    (AFP, 7/24/15)(SSFC, 7/26/15, p.A10)

2015        Jul 27, A US federal judge in New Orleans ordered BP to begin paying up to $1 billion in settlements to compensate local governments across the Gulf Coast for lost tax revenue and other damages for the company’s 2010 oil spill. The judge said all payment s must be made within 30 days.
    (SFC, 7/28/15, p.A6)

2015        Aug 5, In Louisiana suspect Grover Deandre Cannon killed police Officer Thomas LaValley (29) in Shreveport. State police used drones and helicopters to search for the shooter, who fled the scene after opening fire on the officer. LaValley was taken into custody the next day.
    (Reuters, 8/6/15)(SFC, 8/7/15, p.A5)

2015        Aug 24, Louisiana State Trooper Steven Vincent (43) died after being shot in the head a day earlier by Kevin Daigle (54) during a traffic stop.
    (SFC, 8/24/15, p.A5)

2015        Oct 8, In Louisiana at least 3 people were killed and two were seriously injured in an explosion at a natural gas plant in Gibson.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)
2015        Oct 8, Paul Prudhomme (75), king of Cajun cooking, died in New Orleans.
    (Econ, 10/24/15, p.86)

2015        Nov 3, In Louisiana police officers serving a warrant in Marksville shot and wounded Chris Few and killed his son, Jeremy Mardis (6). Officers Derrick Stafford and Norris Greenshouse Jr. were arrested on Nov 6 and indicted on Dec 10.
    (SFC, 11/7/15, p.A10)(SFC, 12/11/15, p.A10)

2015        Nov 10, Legendary New Orleans musician and composer Allen Toussaint (b.1938) died after suffering a heart attack following a concert in Spain. He penned such classics as "Working in a Coal Mine" (1966) and "Lady Marmalade" (1975).
    (AP, 11/10/15)(SFC, 11/11/15, p.A14)

2015        Nov 21, Louisiana voters elected Democratic state Rep. John Bel Edwards as governor.
    (SSFC, 11/22/15, p.A12)

2015        Nov 22, In Louisiana 17 people were wounded at the Bunny Friend Playground in New Orleans when gunfire broke out between two groups of gunmen as hundreds of people gathered for a block party and the filming of a music video.
    (SFC, 11/24/15, p.A6)

2015        Nov 27, In Louisiana Johnny Max Mount shot and killed an employee at a Waffle House restaurant in Biloxi after she asked him not to smoke. Mount was quickly arrested and charged with first degree murder.
    (SFC, 11/28/15, p.A4)

2015        Nov 30, US District Judge Carl Barbier in New Orleans ordered Anadarko Petroleum Corp to pay a $159.5 million civil fine reflecting its stake in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)

2015        Dec 17, In Louisiana the New Orleans City Council voted to remove prominent Confederate monuments along some of its busiest streets.
    (SFC, 12/18/15, p.A12)

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End of file