Timeline Montana

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Montana is about the same size as Germany.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)

570Mil BP-230Mil BP    In northern Alberta is the Peace River Arch; the Transcontinental Arch extends from Minnesota to Arizona and in Montana is the Montana Dome. The Ozark Mountains lie on the site of a dome and from Nashville, Tennessee, north to Michigan lies the Cincinnati Arch. Between Peace River, north-west Canada, and Montana and occupying much of Saskatchewan is the Williston Basin. Michigan lies four-square upon the Michigan Basin, while much of Illinois and Indiana is underlain by the Illinois Basin. Most of these broad, gentle features developed during Paleozoic time and have been dormant ever since.
    (DD-EVTT, p.172)

150Mil BC    Fossils of a sauropod named Suuwassea emileae (ancient thunder) were found in southern Montana in 1998. It was about 50 feet long and related to Diplodocus.
    (SFC, 5/21/04, p.A2)
150Mil BC    In 2005 archeologists in Montana worked to unearth a sauropod believed to be from this time making it about twice as old as most dinosaur skeletons found in the state. It seemed to represent a missing link in the evolution of the sauropods.
    (AP, 7/22/05)

100Mil BC    A burrowing dinosaur later named Oryctodromeus cubicularis lived about this time in the area of Idaho and Montana. Fossils of the creature were discovered in 2005 in south-western Montana.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryctodromeus)(Econ, 2/11/17, p.71)

80Mil BC    Hadrosaurs such as Brachylophosaurus Canadensis lived in Montana. Biochemical evidence from a fossilized femur later suggested an evolutionary link of such duck-billed dinosaurs to birds.
    (SFC, 5/5/09, p.A8)
80Mil BC    Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation in Montana, Wyoming and S. Dakota has fossils of Pachycephalosaurus (thick-headed lizards). They stood on two feet and were herbivorous. They had a dome-like development on the skull made of solid bone, most likely used in combat as a battering ram. It stood 5m and had spikes on its nose and around the back of its skull.
    (TE-JB, p.91)(Econ, 10/27/12, p.81)

68Mil BC    Fossils of a Tyrannosaurus rex from this time were found in the Hell Creek formation of Montana in 2003. In 2005 scientists reported that a femur contained soft tissue. In 2007 researchers sequenced amino acids in the tissue and reported that they matched those of modern chickens. Some sequences matched those of a newt, a frog and several other animals. In 2008 researchers said modern bacterial colonies had infiltrated cavities in the bone.
    (SFC, 3/25/05, p.A2)(SFC, 4/13/07, p.A6)(SFC, 7/31/08, p.A15)

640000BC    Volcanic eruptions in northwest Wyoming, extending to Idaho and Montana, created a caldera some 40 miles long and 30 miles wide. The surface collapsed thousands of feet into a magma pool and marked the area later known as Yellowstone. Continuing eruptions caused climactic changes around the world.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T5)(HC, 10/10/06)

15000BC-13000BC     During the last Ice Age dams of glacial meltwater repeatedly failed and eroded land in southeastern Washington state and Oregon. This exposed petrified logs in what later became Gingko Petrified Forest State Park. An ice dam, which blocked the Clark Fork River in Montana and created lake Missoula, broke at least 40 times and caused cataclysmic floods. One Missoula flood left Portland under 400 feet of water.   
    (CW, Fall ‘03, p.20)(SSFC, 9/12/04, p.D9)

c1000        Polychromatic rock drawings were made at Weatherman Draw, also known as the Valley of the Chiefs. [see Apr 23, 2002]
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.A7)

1805        Jul 19, Members of the Lewis & Clark expedition made their way up river through the limestone walled gorge they called the Gates of the Mountains on the Missouri River in Montana.
    (GOTM, brochure)

1832        Oct 14, Blackfoot Indians attacked American Fur Company trappers near Montana’s Jefferson River, killing one.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1833        Aug 9, Maximilian, German Prince of Wied, reached Fort McKenzie, the westernmost outpost of white settlement on the Missouri River. He was a student of natural history and planned to collect native plants and animals and to study the native people. He was accompanied by Swiss artist Karl Bodmer. Maximilian’s "Travels in the Interior of North America" was published between 1839 and 1843.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.10)

1851        Sep 17, The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed between the US government treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nations. The Sioux pledged not to harass the wagon trains traveling the Oregon Trail in exchange for a $50,000 annuity. The treaty did not last long. Some 12,000 American Indians gathered at Fort Laramie for a peace council with the US. The government agreed that 12 million acres of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians would remain free of settlement (eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming and western North Dakota). In 1949 Congress authorized a forced relocation to build the Garrison Dam in North Dakota. In 1986 Martin Cross won a settlement of $149.2 million for the unjust taking of reservation land. In 2004 Paul VanDevelder authored “Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation."
    (http://tinyurl.com/n7d26ok)(HT, 3/97, p.43)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1863        Dec 7, Outlaw George Ives, an alleged member of an outlaw gang known as the "Innocents," robbed and then killed Nick Thiebalt in the Ruby Valley of what would become Montana.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1863        Henry Plummer was elected sheriff by Miners at the booming gold camp of Bannack (then in Idaho Territory, now in Montana). He poses one of the most haunting mysteries of the Old West. The soft-spoken young Easterner proved to be an efficient lawman, yet in 1864 he was lynched by vigilantes. Their apologist Thomas Dimsdale explained to the populace that the sheriff had been a "very demon" who directed a band guilty of murdering more than 100 citizens.
    (HND, 7/21/98)

1863        Last Chance Gulch and Alder Gulch were sites of major 1863 gold discoveries in the American West. Each became a city and each served as capital of the territory that eventually became the state of Montana. After the gold strikes, Alder Gulch became Virginia City and Last Chance Gulch became Helena.
    (HNQ, 2/9/00)

1864        Mar 19, Montana vigilantes lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing It" (1872). In 2008 Dan Rottenberg authored “Death of a Gunfighter: The Quest for Jack Slade, the West’s Most Elusive Legend."
    (WSJ, 11/11/08, p.A15)(www.twainquotes.com/Slade.html)

1864        May 26, Congress created the Montana Territory and Virginia City became the capital in 1865. Helena was made capital of the territory in 1875.  Montana became the 41st state in 1889, with Helena the state capital.
    (AP, 5/26/98)(HNQ, 2/9/00)

1864        Jul 14, Gold was discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a small stream they called "Last Chance." This marked the birth of Helena, future capital of Montana. [see 1863]
    (Visitor’s brochure, 9/11/97)(MC, 7/14/02)

1864        The US Congress pushed Idaho’s northeastern border back to the Bitterroot Mountains after Sidney Edgerton of the Idaho Territory went to Washington with $2,000 in gold. Edgerton wound up as the territorial governor of newly created Montana.
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.W9)

c1864        In addition to being an Irish Revolutionary leader and Union commander in the Civil War, Thomas Francis Meagher also served as the secretary of the Montana Territory.
    (HNQ, 10/10/99)

1864        Henry Plummer, sheriff, was hanged by vigilantes in Bannock. In 1920 Frank Bird Linderman authored the novel, "Henry Plummer."
    (HND, 7/21/98)(SFEC, 7/23/00, Par p.16)

1866-1868    When the US government tried to force the Sioux back to Fort Laramie, the Indians responded with attacks that culminated in Red Cloud’s War of this period. Red Cloud's War of 1866-'68 was waged in opposition to the development by the U.S. government of a trail through Wyoming and Montana to the Montana gold camps. The two-year war was waged between the Lakota Sioux, led by Ogallala chief Red Cloud, and the U.S. Army. On December 21, 1866, the Sioux won a major victory, wiping out the entire command of 80 men under Capt. William J. Fetterman. The war ended with the signing of the Laramie Treaty, which included the closure of the Bozeman Trail and U.S. abandonment of three forts.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(HNQ, 8/22/98)

1870        Jan 23, American army forces, looking for Mountain Chief's band of hostile Blackfoot Indians, fell instead upon Heavy Runner's peaceable Piegan band in Montana and killed 173, many of them women and children.
    (www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-Blackfoot.html)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M2)

1872        Mar 1, President Ulysses S. Grant signed a measure creating Yellowstone National Park (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming). The act of Congress creating Yellowstone National Park was based on a report from an expedition led by Ferdinand Hayden. The 2.2 million-acre preserve was the first step in a national park system. Nathaniel Pitt Langford (39) was appointed the 1st Superintendent.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, Z1, p.2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(ON, 11/02, p.4)(PCh, 1992, p.526)(AP, 3/1/08)

1874        May 12, The US Assay office in Helena, Montana, was authorized.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)

1876        May 17, The 7th US Cavalry under Custer left Ft. Lincoln.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1876        Jun 17, General George Crook’s command of 1300 men with friendly Crow and Shoshone scouts was attacked and bested on the Rosebud River, Montana, by 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Crazy Horse.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)

1876        Jun 22, General Alfred Terry sent Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer to the Rosebud and Little Bighorn rivers to search of Indian villages.
    (HN, 6/22/99)

1876        Jun 25, In the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana, Gen. George A. Custer and some 250 men in his 7th Cavalry were massacred by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. To crush the Plains Indians and drive them onto reservations, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and more than 600 7th Cavalrymen and Indian scouts advanced on an Indian encampment in the Little Bighorn Valley of Montana. Custer's main concern was to keep the Indians from escaping, but on this day, he faced the biggest alliance of hostile Plains Indians--mostly Sioux and Cheyenne--ever gathered in one place. Custer and his entire personal command, about 210 soldiers, were wiped out. The site is near a region where paleontologist Prof. Edward Drinker Cope dug for dinosaur fossils just a few days after the massacre. Custer and his cavalrymen had attacked an encampment of 2,000 to 4,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and other Indians.
    (WSJ, 11/1/94, p.1)(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A5)(AP, 6/25/97)(HN, 6/25/98)(HNPD, 6/25/99)

1876        Jun 26, Myles Keough's wounded horse, Commanche, was found after the battle of the Little Big Horn and led to the steamer The Far West some ten miles away and transported to Fort Lincoln where he became the celebrated "only survivor." The horse lived to be twenty-nine and upon his death the Seventh wanted to preserve his body, so they sent it to the University of Kansas to be stuffed.
    (Internet, Myles Keogh, 8/5/99)

1876        Nov 25, Colonel Ronald MacKenzie destroyed Cheyenne Chief Dull Knife’s village, in the Bighorn Mountains near the Red Fork of the Powder River, during the so-called Great Sioux War.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1877        Aug 14, Olaf Carl Seltzer, artist and locomotive repairman, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. He became a friend of Charles Russel and painted over 2500 works.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.B6)

1877        Aug 10, Col. John Gibbon slaughtered Nez-Perce Indians at Big Hole River.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1877        Aug 22, Nez Perce fled into Yellowstone National Park.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1877        Oct 5, Nez Perce Chief Joseph and 418 survivors were captured in the Bear Paw mountains and forced into reservations in Kansas. They surrendered in Montana Territory, after a 1,700-mile trek to reach Canada fell 40 miles short. Nez Perce Chief Joseph surrendered to General O.O. Howard and Colonel Nelson Miles at the Bear Paw ravine in Montana Territory, saying, "Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more, forever." The retreat had lasted three months and left 120 Nez Perces dead. Miles had found and surrounded the Nez Perce camp with the help of Sioux and Cheyenne scouts. Many whites, including Howard, admired the Nez Perces' fighting ability and Chief Joseph himself, who was considered humane and eloquent. He died in 1904.
    (HFA, '96, p.40)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(HNPD, 10/5/98)(HN, 10/5/98)

1880        Jun 11, Jeannette Rankin, Congresswoman from Montana, the first woman in Congress who also voted against U.S. participation in both world wars, was born.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1884        The Crow Indians were confined to a reservation in Montana.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crow_Nation)(Econ, 4/16/15, p.78)
1884        Some 500 Blackfeet Indians died during the winter from starvation. Reservation agent John Young kept rations on hand for the white people.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, Par p.7)

1886        May 9, William Hornaday, taxidermist for the Smithsonian Institute, arrived with his assistants in Miles City on a venture to hunt buffalo and learned that none had been seen for a long time.
    (ON, 3/02, p.8)

1889        Feb 22, President Cleveland signed a bill to admit the Dakotas, Montana and Washington state to the Union. The "omnibus bill" was an act dividing the Dakota Territory into the states of North and South Dakota, and enabling the two Dakotas to formulate constitutions. A constitutional convention was held at Bismarck beginning July 4, 1889. A constitution was formulated and submitted to a vote of the people of the State of North Dakota on October 1, 1889, and was adopted.
    (AP, 2/22/99)(www.court.state.nd.us/court/history/dakotaterritory.htm)

1889        Nov 8, Montana became the 41st state.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)

1891        Nov 6, Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer’s "Last Stand" at the Little Bighorn, died at Fort Riley, Kan. Comanche, belonged to Captain Myles Keogh. Born in Ireland in 1840, Keogh was a captain with the 7th Cavalry and died with every other man in Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer's immediate command on June 25, 1876, at the Little Bighorn in Montana. Keogh's wounded horse, Comanche, was taken to Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory, where he recovered and became a pampered celebrity. Comanche died at the age of 28.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/26/99)   

1892        Oct 15, US government convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation (in the mountainous area of western Montana) for 50 cents per acre. Presidential proclamation opened this land to settlers.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1894        Helena became the capital of Montana.
    (HIR, 9/11/97, p.5A)

1886        Nicholas Hilger began river boat tours on the Missouri River near Helena at the site of the limestone cliffs named the Gates of the Mountains by the Lewis and Clark expedition.
    (GOTM, brochure)

1895        Sep 18, The Montana State Capital Site Commission received the four property deeds from developer Peter Winne for the new seat of government in Helena.
    (HIR, 9/11/97, p.5A)

1895        While searching for gold in Montana's Yogo Gulch, Jake Hoover found sapphires. Hoover found little gold in the Yogo Creek and Gulch, however, the small, translucent blue pebbles that frequently cluttered the riffles of his sluice box turned out to be gem-quality sapphires.
    (HNQ, 5/13/98)

1895        The Blackfeet Indians in Montana sold the eastern slope of what later became Glacier National Park (1910) for mining development. The mining venture fell through.
    (SFC, 6/22/06, p.E3)

1898-1923    The Yogo Dike yielded 16 million carats of sapphire-2.4 million carats of gem quality.
    (HNQ, 5/13/98)

1900        Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952) Seattle-based photographer, accompanied ethnographer George bird Grinnell to a reservation Montana took photographs of Blood, Blackfeet and Algonquin Indians gathered there for their annual sun dance. In 1906 he announced plans for 20-volume work documenting Western Indians, The North American Indian. His first volume was published in 1907. The last two volumes appeared in 1930.
    (ON, 6/12, p.9)(http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/timeline.html)

c1900    William Andrews Clark of Butte, Montana, was known as one of the Copper Kings. Clark made a fortune in copper but was continually stymied in his political ambitions by fellow "king" Marcus Daly. The third Copper King, Augustus Heinze, used the law to legally tap into his rival's mines. Clark's home in Butte is now operated as a bed and breakfast, the Copper King Mansion.
    (HNQ, 9/5/98)

c1900        James J. Hill, a turn of the century robber baron, planned to consolidate the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific Railroads. His efforts were blocked by anti-trust regulation and gave Teddy Roosevelt his reputation as a trust buster. In 1996 Dr. Michael Malone authored "James J. Hill: Empire Builder of the Northwest."
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.B6)

1901        Jul 3, Members of The Wild Bunch, including Kid Curry, committed their last American robbery near Wagner, Montana, taking $65,000 from a Great Northern train. Butch Cassidy, the Sundance Kid and his lover Etta Place had already fled to New York where a picture of Etta and Sundance was taken. The trio by this time were settled in Argentina.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butch_Cassidy)

1901-1907    William A. Clark (1839-1925), copper entrepreneur, served as a US Senator from Montana. In 1899 state legislature selected Clark for a US Senate seat. Political foes in and out of his party charged that the election had been won by bribery. Although Clark freely admitted spending several hundred thousand dollars to elect legislators favorable to his political ambitions, he stubbornly denied any involvement in corrupt electoral practices.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404701392.html)

1908        Pres. Roosevelt formally established the National Bison Range in Montana.
    (ON, 3/02, p.9)

1909-1998    Adelaide Nichols "Jackie" Low was born in Helena. She grew up on the pioneering family’s Flying D Ranch, a 130,000-acre spread that was later purchased by Ted Turner.
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A19)

1910        May 11, Glacier National Park in Montana was established.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1910        Aug 20-1910 Aug 21, The Great Idaho Fire killed 86 people and destroyed some 3 million acres of timber in Idaho, Montana and Washington. In 2009 Timothy Egan authored “The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire That Save America."
    (http://www.idahoforests.org/fires.htm)(SFC, 12/1/09, p.E8)

1913        Mary McAboy of Missoula, Montana, began hand-making Skookum Indian dolls and acquired a patent for it in 1914. Skookum was a Siwash Indian word that roughly means bully good.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1915        The Many Glacier Hotel was built in Glacier Park.
    (WSJ, 11/12/99, p.A20)

1916        Nov 7, Republican Jeannette Rankin (R-Montana), lifelong feminist and pacifist of Montana, became the first woman elected to Congress. As legislative secretary of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Rankin helped the women of Montana win the vote in 1914, six years before all American women won the vote. Rankin was elected as a delegate-at-large to the U.S. House of Representatives. During her first term in Washington (1917-1919), Rankin strongly supported isolationism--she was one of 49 members of Congress to vote against war with Germany in 1917. Rankin served another term in the House of Representatives from 1941 to 1943, where she created a furor as the only legislator to vote against declaring war on Japan after the Pearl Harbor raid. This unpopular stand ended her political career, but Rankin remained politically active, even leading a 1968 march to protest American involvement in Vietnam. Jeanette Rankin died in 1973.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(HN, 11/7/98)(HNPD, 11/6/98)

1917        Mar 4, Republican Jeanette Rankin of Montana took her seat as the first woman elected to the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1917        Apr 2, Jeannette Pickering Rankin, a representative from Montana, was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives.
    (HN, 4/2/01)(MC, 4/2/02)

1917        Aug 1, Frank Little, IWW organizer, was lynched in Butte, MT.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1918        Feb, Montana’s Legislature passed a sedition law which led to the conviction 79 citizens under Gov. Sam Stewart. In 2005 Clemens Work authored “Darkness Before Dawn: Sedition and Free Speech in the American West." In 2006 Gov. Brian Schweitzer posthumously pardoned 75 men and 3 women. One man was pardoned shortly after the war.
    (SFC, 5/3/06, p.A3)

1920s        Elections in Plentywood put Communists in control of local government.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W9)

1921-1932    The 52-mil Going-to-the-Sun Road in Glacier National Park was constructed over Logan Pass.
    (WSJ, 6/23/97, p.A1)

1923        Mar 5, Montana and Nevada passed the U.S.'s first old age pension grants, giving $25 per month.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1923        Oct 25, The Teapot Dome scandal came to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, subcommittee chairman, revealed the findings of the past 18 months of investigation. His case would result in the conviction of Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American history to go to jail. The scandal, named for the Teapot Dome oil reserves in Wyoming, involved Fall secretly leasing naval oil reserve lands to private companies.
    (HN, 10/25/98)

1923        Commercial mining of vermiculite, a mineral used for insulation and the leavening of garden soil, began in Libby, Montana.
    (SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)

1926        Oct 24, Charlie Russell (b.1864), Western artist, died in Great Falls, Montana. He produced some 4,000 works of art including a 12-by-25 foot “Lewis and Clark Meeting Indians at Ross’ Hole," which was hung in Montana’s Capitol.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.6)(www.globalgallery.com)(WSJ, 3/16/06, p.A1)

1926        The last grey wolf disappeared from the Yellowstone region. By 1973 only a few wolves remained in northern Michigan and Minnesota. In 1995 the federal government reintroduced wolves to the greater Yellowstone region (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming) and by 2008 their population reached 1,500.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.44)

1932        The Going-To-The-Sun Road was built to cross Glacier Park and climb the Continental Divide.
    (WSJ, 11/12/99, p.A20)

1933        May 3, A white buffalo calf was born in western Montana. He was later named "Big Medicine" and lived until Aug 25, 1959. His hide was molded to a mannequin and that went on display at the Montana Historical Society on Jul 13, 1961.
    (Helena Museum flyer, 9/11/97)

1933        Richard Throssel (b.1882), photographer and Montana legislator, died. He was a Cree Indian who was adopted by the Crow tribe and lived on the Montana Crow Reservation from 1902-1911. A Book of his work by Peggy Albright was published in 1997: "Crow Indian Photographer: The work of Richard Throssel."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, BR p.6)

1937-1938    An infestation of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) in Montana and Wyoming caused nearly $1 million in crop damage.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.A3)

1938        Jun 19, In Montana 47 people were killed when a railroad bridge in Montana collapsed, sending a train known as the "Olympian Flyer" hurtling into Custer Creek. A cloudburst caused the bridge to collapse sending a locomotive and 7 passenger cars into the creek.
    (AP, 6/19/08)(SFC, 6/19/09, p.D10)

1939        The Izaak Walton Hotel was built between Glacier National Park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness to house railroad crews servicing the Great Northern Railway. Walton was a 16th century English author and sportsman.
    (SFEM, 12/12/99, p.8)

1941        Apr 27, Judith Blegen, opera singer (Papagena-Magic Flute), was born in Missoula, Mont.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1941        Italian nationals in the United States gave the nickname "Bella Vista " to a detention site in Montana during World War II. After war was declared in Europe, many Italian merchant ships and their crews were stranded in American waters. In 1941 the Italian sailors were taken into custody and sent to a detention site at Fort Missoula, Montana. Upon seeing the fort’s impressive view of mountain ranges and wildflowers they dubbed it "Belle Vista" or beautiful site.
    (HNQ, 6/5/01)

1949        The Mann Gulch Fire killed 13 smokejumpers. In 1990 "Young Men and Fire," by Norman MacLean (1902-1990) was published. The posthumously published book is considered the pinnacle of smoke jumping literature.
    (WSJ, 6/23/00, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Maclean)

1959        Aug 18, A magnitude 7.3 quake near Hebgen Lake, Montana, just west of Yellowstone National Park triggered a landslide that killed 28 people.
    (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/states/events/1959_08_18.php)

1960        Mar 21, Capt. John Eaheart (32), a US Marine Corps Reserve pilot, crashed in his F9F Cougar fighter jet and disappeared into Flathead Lake, Wyoming, near the home of his fiancée’s parents. His remains were found in 2006.
    (WSJ, 5/23/06, p.A1)

1963        The W.R. Grace company began operating the Zonolite Mountain vermiculite mine and continued to 1990. The vermiculite was naturally mixed geologically with asbestos. By 2009 at least 200 people died of asbestos related diseases and hundreds more were sickened.
    (SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)

1967        Ten Minuteman missiles were mysteriously deactivated at a Montana missile base as  an alleged UFO hovered overhead.
    (http://www.wanttoknow.info/ufos/ufos_national_press_club_witness_testimony)

1969-1971    Yellowstone Park officials attempted to force grizzly bears to return to a wild diet. 220 bears, unable to quit junk food, were shot and killed during this period.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.88)

1971        Dec 15, Pres. Nixon signed the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burro Act. An  $18 million Wild Horse and Burro Program, headed by the Bureau of Land Management, was designed to find homes for wild horses. "Excess" animals were annually culled. The 10-17,000 wild horses grew to some 43,000 in 1998. In 2004 Conrad Burns, Republican Senator for Montana, introduced an amendment that removed protection for wild horses over age 10.
    (www.fs.fed.us/rangelands/ecology/wildhorseburro/whb_faqs.shtml)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A1)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.90)

1973        Montana initiated a ban on homosexual sex. In 1997 this was ruled unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A3)(www.msmagazine.com/news/uswirestory.asp?id=3977)

1974        Libby Dam, a hydroelectric facility in Montana run by the Army Corps of Engineers, was built to serve power markets in the Pacific Northwest. When the dam went up it stopped periodic flooding of Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and the high water flows that triggered local sturgeon to move upriver and spawn.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

1975        Jul 28, The US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species in the lower 48 states under the US Endangered Species Act. Most of the bears in the lower US lived in and around Yellowstone National Park in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.
    (http://fieldguide.mt.gov/detail_AMAJB01020.aspx)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.88)

1976        Norman Maclean (1902-1990) published "A River Runs Through It and Other Stories." It was a story about fly fishing in Montana. Recorded books put out a cassette version in 1993 with other stories that included "Logging and Pimping and ‘Your Pal, Jim’," and "USFS 1919: The Ranger, the Cook, and a Hole in the Sky."
    (RB, 1993)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Maclean)

1977        Apr, Pres. Carter named Montana Senator Mike Mansfield (1903-2001) ambassador to Japan. Mansfield had planned to retire but held the post for 10 years.
    (SFC, 10/6/01, p.E1)

1980        Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Mont., was established.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Par. p.6)

1982        Aug 4, Ronald Smith of Canada killed two Americans in Montana during a drunken road trip. In March 1893 Smith was convicted and sentenced to death.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.55)(http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/914/914.F2d.1153.88-4115.html)

1985        Brack Duker, a former executive of Atlantic Richfield (ARCO) bought a struggling aluminum plant in Columbia Falls for $1. Workers agreed to a 21% cut in wages and benefits  to save their jobs in return for half the future profits.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1)

1988        Jun 23, The Yellowstone Fire began and by Sep 11 burned some 1.6 million acres in Idaho and Montana.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1988        cJul 4,Terry Langford (21), a drifter from North Carolina, kidnapped and killed Ned and Celene Blackwood (48), a retired couple, near Ovando. Langford was executed in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A20)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A3)

1988        Beal Mountain mine opened near Butte, Mont. Its owner promoted open-pit cyanide leaching for extracting gold from ore as modern and environmentally friendly. Pegasus Gold Corp., a Canadian company, extracted nearly 460,000 ounces of gold over a decade before closing the mine and declaring bankruptcy in 1998. It left behind a 70-acre, cyanide-contaminated leach pond with a leaky liner and tons of rubble that sends selenium-laced runoff into streams, threatening cutthroat trout and other fish. The 2009 economic stimulus included some funds for cleaning up this and other similar sites.
    (AP, 2/15/09)

1990        Jun, Montana activists from anti hate groups came together to discuss effective strategies for statewide activity countering bigotry. The result was a commitment to form the Montana Human Rights Network (MHRN).
    (www.mhrn.org/aboutus.html)

1991        In Montana the name of Custer Battlefield National Monument was changed to Little Bighorn Battlefield Monument. A $2 million memorial was dedicated Jun 25,2003.
    (WSJ, 6/25/03, p.A1)

1992        Oct 28, The US Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) was enacted. It banned betting on sports with exemptions to Delaware, Nevada, Oregon and Montana.
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/yenf89a)

1992        Roberta Gilmore, an accountant for Columbia Fall Aluminum, filed suit against the company charging that profits were not being shared with the workers as promised in 1985. The suit was settled in 1998.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1)

1993        Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, first visited Pakistan to climb K2, the world’s 2nd highest peak. He failed in climbing the mountain but became interested in the region. In 1996  he built a school in Korphe, Pakistan, the first many. By 2008 he had built 55 schools and authored the memoir: “Three Cups of Tea: One Man’s Extraordinary Journey to promote Peace… One School at a Time" (2006). In 2011 a 60 Minute TV report said most of his story appears to have been fabricated.
    (http://tinyurl.com/42ffko2)(SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.92)

1995        Charles Schwab developed the exclusive residential community called "The Stock Farm" in the Bitterroot Valley.
    (SFC, 10/18/00, p.A1)

1995        Whirling disease, native to Eurasia, was first detected in Montana fish. It was caused by a fungus carried in spores hosted by the Tubifex tubifex worm and was first detected in the US in 1956 in Pennsylvania.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1995        In Montana 342 snow geese died when they stopped for water at the contaminated Berkeley Pit. The Atlantic Richfield Company, later owned by BP, bought Anaconda in 1977, and ended active mining in the Berkeley Pit in 1982. Since then, highly acidic underground water has continuously seeped into the pit from higher land, creating a rust-colored lake. In 2005 Montana Gov. Brian Schweitzer said "The plan is to continue with pumps to keep the water below that level and then treat the water that they pump out and that's going to have to go on until the end of time."
    (Reuters, 9/23/05)

1996        Mar 25, A group of 18 people including 3 children, who call themselves the Freeman, shut themselves up on a 960 acre farm near Jordan, Montana. Many of them are wanted on state and federal charges that include writing bad checks and threatening a federal judge. Ongoing negotiations have proved fruitless and the FBI ordered in 3 armored vehicles and a helicopter. The standoff by the anti-government Freemen lasted 81 days.
    (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A3)

1996        Apr 1, FBI officials in Jordan, Montana continued to guard a stronghold of Freemen, an anti-government group that does not recognize the legitimacy of US laws.
    (WSJ, 4/1/96, p.A-12)

1996        Apr 3, FBI agents arrested a suspect thought to be the Unabomber. Theodore John Kaczynski was arrested near Lincoln, Montana on a tip from his brother. His mail bombs had killed 3 and injured 23 over the last 17 years. An original draft of his manifesto "Industrial Society and Its Future" was found some days later.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-1)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-1)(AP, 4/3/97)

1996        Apr 11, Chlorine spilled from a train and caused the people of Alberton, Montana, to flee for a day.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, B-9)

1996        Jun 3, The FBI pulled the plug on electricity at the Freemen ranch in Montana in an attempt to persuade the occupants to negotiate an end to the 71-day-old standoff.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A1)(AP, 6/3/97)

1996        Jun 6, A family of four became the first persons to leave the Freemen ranch in Montana since April, 2 children, their mother and common-law husband.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A10)(AP, 6/6/97)

1996        Jun 13, The 81-day-old Freemen standoff ended as 16 remaining members of the anti-government group surrendered to the FBI and left their Montana ranch. Five Freemen were found guilty in 1998 for various crimes linked to armed robbery and possession of firearms. Four militants were convicted in 1998 for plotting to defraud banks. Jurors deadlocked on six defendants.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p.A1)(AP, 6/13/97)(SFC, 4/1/98, p.A2)(WSJ, 7/9/98, p.A1)

1996        Sep 11, Grasshoppers plagued North Dakota. The insects were a problem in Wyoming, Montana and Nebraska. Another dry summer and it was predicted that they would spread to Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A2)

1996        Sep, Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, founder of the Central Asia Institute (cai@ikat.org), built a school in Korphe, Pakistan. The project expanded to 28 school buildings, 15 water projects and 4 women’s vocational centers by 2003. Villages were required to increase girls’ enrollment by 10% a year.
    (SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)

1996        William Kittredge, retired Univ. of Montana English prof., published "Who Owns the West."
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W9)

1996        Elouise Cobell, a Blackfeet woman from Browning, Montana, filed a lawsuit alleging that the US Interior Department mismanaged billions of dollars held in trust by the government. In 2010 the US House of Representatives approved a $3.4 billion government settlement.
    {AmerIndian, USA, Montana}
    (SFC, 7/3/10, p.A4)

1997        Jul 3, A Montana court voided a 24-year-old ban on homosexual sex, concluding that the government has no business meddling in the sexual activity of consenting adults.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A3)

1997        Sep 19, A US Air Force B-1 bomber crashed on a training mission in Montana and all 4 crew members were killed.
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 17, Montana passed a new law, effective Dec 17, that makes the entire state an offshore banking center, allowing foreign interests to anonymously stash their cash.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A1)

1997        Dec 17, A new Montana law, effective today, made the entire state an offshore banking center, allowing foreign interests to anonymously stash their cash. Depositors could not be US citizens and a minimum of $200,000 was required.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A1)(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.A18)

1997        William Kittredge, retired Univ. of Montana English prof., published "The Portable Western Reader."
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W9)

1998        Jan 22, Theodore J. Kaczynski pleaded guilty to the Unabomber killings in return for a sentence of life in prison. In Dec. co-authors Chris Waits and Dave Shors published "Unabomber: The Secret Life of Ted Kaczynski. His 25 Years in Montana."
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.A1)

1998        cMar 10, A school bus and a train collided near Buffalo and two teenagers, Ben and Christopher Peterson, were killed.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A3)

1998        Mar 30, In Columbia Falls it was reported that $100 million would be distributed amongst 1000 employees of the Columbia Falls Aluminum plant. Roberta Gilmore led a winning legal suit that claimed the company did not divvy out profits to workers as promised.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1,12)

1999        Feb 3, The Clinton administration called for a mining ban on a large section of federal land along the Rocky Mountain Front.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A3)

1999        May 28, New speed limits took effect and ended Montana's status as the only state without a day time speed limit.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A3)

1999        Sep 25, In Missoula Tim Sullivan (58), superintendent of schools for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Helena, shot and killed his estranged wife Kathy Sullivan (50) and her boyfriend Scott Bardsley. Sullivan than killed himself.
    (SFC, 9/27/99, p.A5)

1999        Montana Power under Bob Gannon began selling all its power assets and began to transform itself into coast-to-coast fiber optic network, Touch America. Over the next 2 years power costs soared and broadband equities tanked with over supply.
    (WSJ, 8/22/01, p.A1)
1999        News broke that hundreds of people had died from asbestos contaminated vermiculite mined by the W.R. Grace &Co. in Libby, Montana. The mine was closed and by 2017 some $600 million was spent on a cleanup program.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, Insight p.H5)(SFC, 1/21/17, p.A7)

2000        Apr 29, Clarence Basil Cuts The Rope, artist and member of the Gros Ventre Tribe, died at age 64 in Montana.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.B2)

2000        Aug 5, Fifteen major fires were reported burning over 100,000 acres across Montana.
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A2)

2000        Aug 9, Gov. Marc Racicot ordered over 6 million acres of southwestern Montana closed to public use due to 19 major fires over 300,000 acres.
    (SFC, 8/10/00, p.A5)

2000        Aug 16, Gov. Marc Racicot declared the whole state a disaster area due to the raging fires.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A3)

2000        Aug 29, Gov. Marc Racicot asked Pres. Clinton to declare the state a federal disaster area due to the wildfires.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A3)

2001        Mar 25, Terry C. Johnston, author of over 30 Western novels, died in Billings at age 54. His mountain man character Titus Bass was featured in numerous novels from "Carry the Wind" through "Wind Walker."
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.A18)

2001        Aug 31, A helicopter assigned to the 25,500-acre Fridley fire crashed and 3 crewmen were killed.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.D1)

2001        Aug, Gary Padgham (50), an elk hunter from Bozeman, Montana, died in Monterey, Ca., with symptoms similar to mad cow disease. Seattle doctors had diagnosed him with Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD).
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A13)

2001        Oct 5, Mike Mansfield (98), former Montana Senator and ambassador to Japan, died in Washington, D.C.
    (SFC, 10/6/01, p.E1)(AP, 10/5/02)

2001-2004    US Sen. Conrad Burns, a Montana Republican, received some $150,000 in donations from Jack Abramoff, his firms and his clients during this period. On May 23, 2001 Burns voted against a bill favorable to Abramoff’s clients in the Northern Mariana Islands. The bill would have phased out a non-resident contract worker program benefiting benefiting the Mariana’s garment industry.
    (SFC, 12/7/05, p.A6)

2002        Apr 23, Anschutz Exploration Corp. announced that it would donate the drilling lease at Weatherman Draw to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The site contained Indian rock art believed to be over 1000 years old.
    (SFC, 4/24/02, p.A1)

2002        May 23, Nathaniel Bar-Jonah (45), accused of butchering a 10-year-old boy and feeding his remains to unsuspecting neighbors, was sentenced to 130 years in prison without parole.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A8)

2002        The family of Christopher Paolini (18) self-published his book "Eragon" before it captivated a young stepson of author Carl Hiassen, who brought the book to the attention of his publisher. "Eragon" was republished in 2003 by Random House's Alfred A. Knopf Books for Young Readers. Paolini was home-schooled in Montana.
    (AP, 9/18/05)

2003        Aug 3, Fires in Flathead Ct., Montana, covered over 23,000 acres and into the edge of Glacier National Park. Tow other fires burned nearby.
    (SSFC, 8/3/03, p.A13)

2003        Nov 28, It was reported that the New Zealand mud snail had invaded trout streams in Northern California. They were capable of stripping entire river systems of algae and had already infested trout streams in Montana.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A21)

2003        The Montana Human Rights Network acquired more than 4,000 of white supremacist books from a defecting member of The Creativity Movement’s state chapter that had been located in Superior, Montana. The Network partnered with the Holter Museum of Art to create Speaking Volumes, whereby artists transformed the hate literature into pieces that stimulate community dialogue about the dangers of bigotry.
    (www.mhrn.org/publications/specialresearchreports/SonesGoffbriefing.pdf)

2004        Feb 7, In Montana Dick Dasen, prominent Kalispell philanthropist, was arrested in a prostitution sting. In 2005 he was sentenced to 20 years in jail for building up a personal vice-ring of local women and girls. All but 2 year of the sentence was to be suspended pending treatment.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.33)(www.newwest.net/index.php/city/article/1262/C8/L8)

2004        Sep 20, A small plane with 5 aboard crashed in Montana’s Glacier National Park. 2 survivors were found 2 days later.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.A2)

2004        Oct 15, A federal judge struck down a ban on snowmobiles in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2004        Nov 2, Brian Schweitzer (D) was elected governor of Montana.
    (SFC, 11/4/04, p.A18)

2004        Dec 16, Montana approved issuing licenses to hunt 10 bison that roam beyond Yellowstone. The practice was halted over a decade ago amid protests.
    (WSJ, 12/17/04, p.A1)

2005        Apr 7, Montana voted to ban smoking in all public places. Gov. Brian Schweitzer said he would sign the legislation.
    (SFC, 4/8/05, p.A3)

2005        Jun 20, Charles D. Keeling (b.1928), American atmospheric chemist, died in Montana. His monitoring of the pure air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and the South Pole, begun in 1958, provided CO2 readings that climbed steadily and became known as the Keeling Curve.
    (WSJ, 6/24/05, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_David_Keeling)

2005        Jul 4, Idaho authorities said they found the remains of Dylan Groene (9) in western Montana. [see July 2] In 2008 a jury recommended the death sentence for Joseph Edward Duncan III in the 2005 kidnapping, torture and murder of the 9-year-old boy.
    (SFC, 7/5/05, p.A3)(AP, 8/28/08)

2005        Nov 15, Montana, after a 14-year hiatus, re-opened a hunting season on bison drifting across the northern border of Yellowstone National Park.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.40)

2005        Montana’s Gov. Brian Schweitzer signed into law a renewable energy standard that required 15% of electricity sold in Montana to be renewable by 2015.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.36)

2006        Aug 31, In southern Montana a wildfire burned 20 houses and 15 other buildings as it spread over some 156,000 acres.
    (SFC, 9/1/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 4, In south-central Montana a wildfire had spread across 180,000 acres, over 280 sq. miles, since it was sparked by lightning on Aug 22. It was only 20% contained.
    (SFC, 9/5/06, p.A3)

2006        Nov 9, Virginia Republican Sen. George Allen conceded his defeat to Democrat James Web. Sen. Conrad Burns conceded the Montana Senate race to Democrat Jon Tester.
    (SFC, 11/10/06, p.A17)

2006        Nov 17, Montana state Sen. Sam Kitzenberg filed paperwork to change his party affiliation from Republican to Democrat giving state Democrats a 26-24 advantage.
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.A3)

2007        Feb 1, Montana sued Wyoming in the Supreme Court saying its neighbor takes more Tongue- and Powder- River water that it is entitled to.
    (WSJ, 2/2/07, p.A1)

2007        May, Montana’s Gov. Brian Schweitzer signed a bill offering tax incentives to many renewable energy projects, including cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel. Montana claimed the largest coal reserves in America with 120 billion recoverable tons.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.36)

2007        Jun 8, Two inmates escaped while working at the Montana State Prison ranch near Deer Lodge. On June 13 authorities captured Kelly A. Frank and William J. Willcutt. Frank was once accused of plotting to kidnap the son and nanny of David Letterman.
    (SFC, 6/14/07, p.A2)

2007        Aug 6, Montana was under a state of emergency as firefighters battled several huge blazes. Residents near a state park on Michigan's Upper Peninsula were ordered to evacuate as another wildfire spread there.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 12, A Canadian woman (35) gave birth to rare identical quadruplets. Karen Jepp of Calgary, Alberta, delivered Autumn, Brooke, Calissa and Dahlia by Caesarian section at Benefis Healthcare in Great Falls, Montana.
    (AP, 8/16/07)

2008        Mar 23, It was reported that 1,195 migrating bison had been culled in Montana after leaving Yellowstone in search of food. The culling was expected to continue through April.
    (SSFC, 3/23/08, p.A4)

2008        Mar 28, The grey wolf of the northern Rocky Mountains was taken off the federal protection list after reaching a population of some 1,500 in the greater Yellowstone region. Wolves were reintroduced in 1995 after disappearing from the area in 1926. On July 18 a judge restored protection for the wolves in Montana, Wyoming and Idaho, derailing plans for public wolf hunts this fall. On Sep 29 a federal court overturned the Bush administration’s decision to remove gray wolves from the endangered species list in the Great lakes region.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.44)(SFC, 7/19/08, p.A4)(WSJ, 9/30/08, p.A1)

2008        Jun 3, Barack Obama sealed the US Democratic presidential nomination. Hillary Clinton did not give up yet, but said she’d be interested in the No. 2 spot. Obama won the Montana primary, while Clinton won the South Dakota primary.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(SFC, 6/4/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.35)

2008        Oct 14, Gray wolves in the northern US Rocky Mountains returned to the endangered species list, thanks to a court victory by environmental groups over the US government [see May 28, 2008].
    (AFP, 10/14/08)

2008        Dec 6, A Montana a state judge ruled that doctor assisted suicides are legal in the state.
    (SSFC, 12/7/08, p.A4)
    (AP, 3/6/09)

2009        Mar 5, In Bozeman, Montana, a natural gas explosion collapsed 3 downtown buildings and prompted the evacuation of a 2-block area. One person was left missing.
    (SFC, 3/6/09, p.A6)

2009        Mar 22, In Montana a single-engine turboprop airplane crashed just short of Butte’s Bert Mooney Airport, killing all 14 people aboard, including 7 children. The aircraft had departed from Oroville, Calif., and the pilot had filed a flight plan showing a destination of Bozeman.
    (AP, 3/23/09)

2009        Apr 14, In Montana paleontologist Nate Murphy (51) pleaded guilty to stealing dinosaur fossils from federal land. He gained fame in 2000 when he discovered a 77 million-year-old duckbilled hadrosaur known as Leonardo.
    (SFC, 4/15/09, p.A4)

2009        May 4, Wolves in parts of the northern Rockies and the Great Lakes region come off the endangered species list, opening them to public hunts in some states for the first time in decades. States such as Idaho and Montana planned to resume hunting the animals this fall, but no hunting has been proposed in the Great Lakes region. About 300 wolves in Wyoming will remain on the list because the US Fish and Wildlife Service rejected the state's plan for a "predator zone" where wolves could be shot on sight. An estimated 4,000 wolves lived in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota.
    (AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 8, A federal jury acquitted W.R. Grace and 3 of its executives on all criminal charges that they knowingly contaminated Libby, Montana, with asbestos and conspired to cover up the deed.
    (SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)

2009        May 12, Five more people were arrested at the Senate Finance Committee this morning. The advocates of a single payer health care system were protesting the fact that Committee chairman Senator Max Baucus (D-Montana) continues to exclude single payer advocates from a series of hearings on health care reform. Last week, eight doctors, lawyers and activists were arrested as they sought to put a single payer advocate at a table of 15 witnesses. Baucus has reportedly accepted $413,000 in drug and health insurance campaign contributions.
    (SFC, 5/30/09, p.A7)(www.singlepayeraction.org/blog/?p=690)

2009        Jun 17, The Obama administration said it will pump more than $130 million into the , Montana towns of Libby and Troy, where asbestos contamination has been blamed for more than 200 deaths.
    (AP, 6/18/09)

2009        Aug 12, In Montana a grizzly bear named Maximus, one of the largest in the state, was found shot to death on a ranch near Dupuyer. He had stood 7½ feet tall and weighed 800 lbs.
    (SSFC, 8/23/09, p.A7)

2009        Sep 1, Idaho hunters began stalking gray wolves, following their removal from the federal endangered species a few months earlier. The quota for this season was 220. The quota in Montana was set at 75.
    (SFC, 9/2/09, p.A8)

2009        Sep 16, Sen. Max Baucus brought out the much-awaited Senate Finance Committee version of an American health-system remake, a landmark $856 billion, 10-year measure that starts a rough ride through Congress without visible Republican backing. The 6 committee members received an average $74,600 from health industry lobbyists through June. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, led the group with $223,600. Baucus, D-Montana, was 2nd with $141,000.
    (AP, 9/16/09)(SSFC, 9/20/09, p.A1)

2009        Oct 13, Montana wildlife commissioners shut down gray wolf hunting in backcountry adjacent to Yellowstone National Park after 9 wolves were killed in recent weeks. The statewide quota was kept at 75.
    (SFC, 10/14/09, p.A4)

2009        Dec 17, The US Fish and Wildlife Service declared that attempts over the past two years to save the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon had failed. An isolated population of the species lives along a stretch of the Kootenai that passes through Montana, northern Idaho and southern British Columbia. Fewer than 500 of the bottom-feeding behemoths survive. It's been 35 years since they successfully spawned due to the 1974 construction of Libby Dam.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 31, The Montana Supreme Court said that nothing in state law prevents patients from seeking physician assisted suicide, making Montana the third state to allow the procedure.
    (SFC, 1/1/10, p.A5)

2010        Jun 20, In Montana a tornado ripped the roof off the 10,000 seat Rimrock Auto Arena in Billings. No injuries were reported.
    (SFC, 6/21/10, p.A6)

2010        Aug 5, A federal judge in Montana reinstated protections for wolves in Montana and Idaho.
    (SFC, 8/6/10, p.A5)

2010        Oct 13, Tax officials in Billings, Montana, said developer Tim Blixseth and his wife owe the state $57 million in taxes on the money they drained from the Yellowstone Club. The state faced a deficit of $300 million.
    (SFC, 10/14/10, p.A9)

2010        Dec 8, Pres. Obama signed legislation to pay American Indians and black farmers some $4.6 billion for government mistreatment over many decades. The legislation settled 4 long-standing Native American water rights in Arizona, New Mexico and Montana.
    (SFC, 12/9/10, p.A18)

2010        Ethane concentrations in the atmosphere began increasing after decades of decline. In 2016 researchers said gas fields in the Bakken Formation in Montana and North Dakota were responsible for the increases in the air pollutant.
    (SSFC, 5/1/16, p.A10)

2011        Feb 10, The Montana House of Representatives voted to repeal the state’s 6-year-old medical marijuana law.
    (SFC, 2/11/11, p.A6)

2011        Mar 18, US wildlife advocates and the Dept. of Interior reached an agreement to lift gray wolf protections in Montana and Idaho and allow hunting of the predators to resume.
    (SFC, 3/19/11, p.A5)

2011        May 24, Reclusive American copper heiress Huguette Clark (104) died and left most of her $400 million fortune to charity, and nurse Hadassah Peri, who was randomly assigned to care for her 20 years ago. Clark was the daughter of Montana Sen. William Clark, who was once the second-richest man in the country. In 2013 a court fight over her estate reached a tentative deal giving about $30.5 million to her distant relatives. Nurse Peri would have to return $5 million and a valuable doll collection.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huguette_M._Clark)(AP, 6/24/11)(SSFC, 9/22/13, p.A9)

2011        Jun 20, A US federal judge agreed to a $3.4 billion settlement over mismanaged Indian royalties. The 15-year suit represents the largest ever approved against the US government. This followed a long campaign led by Elouise Cobell (d.2011) of Browning, Mo. Cash payment began to go out in Sep 2014.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A4)(SFC, 9/19/14, p.D3)

2011        Jul 1, Hundreds of barrels of crude oil spilled into Montana's Yellowstone River after an ExxonMobil pipeline beneath the riverbed ruptured, sending a plume 25 miles downstream and forcing temporary evacuations. About 63,000 gallons of oil leaked into the river near the city of Laurel. On June 12, 2015 the US Dept. of Transportation ordered ExxonMobil to pay a $1 million penalty.
    (AP, 7/3/11)(SFC, 7/23/11, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/13, p.A6)(SSFC, 6/14/15, p.A8)

2011        Sep 16, In Montana Ty Bell and Steve Stevenson were on a black bear hunting trip with two other people along the Montana-Idaho border when they were attacked by a grizzly bear they had wounded. Stevenson died of a single gunshot to the chest as Bell tried to kill the bear.
    (AP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 20, LeRoy Schweitzer (73), the former leader of the Montana Freemen, was found dead at the Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado. The separatist group had held the FBI at bay for 81 days in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/21/11, p.A6)

2011        Oct 16, Elouise Cobell (b.1945), treasurer of the Black Feet tribe, died in Montana. She had tenaciously pursued a lawsuit that accused the federal government of cheating American Indians out of more than a century’s worth of royalties.
    (SFC, 10/18/11, p.A6)

2012        Jan 7, In Montana teacher Sherry Arnold (43) disappeared after she left her house for a run. She was pronounced dead on Jan 13. The FBI held 2 men from Colorado in custody.
    (SFC, 1/13/12, p.A6)(SFC, 1/17/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 5, The Montana Attorney General’s office said Greg Mortenson, founder of the Central Asia Institute and author of “Three Cups of Tea" (2006), mismanaged the organization and misspent its money. He would remain the face of the charity, but would have to repay $1 million.
    (SFC, 4/6/12, p.A7)

2012        Jun 27, In southeastern Montana wildfires torched over 125,000 acres.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A8)

2013        Jan 1, Ten states kicked off the new year with a minimum wage rise of between 10 and 35 cents. The rises went into effect in Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.
    (Reuters, 1/1/13)

2013        Apr 18, In Montana Zaccary John Kern (21) and Robert Eric Bottenhagen (21) were arrested on suspicion of negligent homicide hours after 4 bodies were found in a burned-out mobile home near Billings.
    (SFC, 4/20/13, p.A4)

2013        Jul 7, In Montana Cody Lee Johnson (25) died in Glacier National Park. Jordan Lynn Graham (22), his newly-wed wife of 8-days, later admitted that she pushed her husband off a cliff and then lied about his death. On Dec 12 Jordan pleaded guilty to pushing her husband. On March 27 she was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 9/11/13, p.A4)(SFC, 12/13/13, p.A15)(SFC, 3/28/14, p.A14)

2013        Aug 26, In Montana defendant Stacey Rambold (54) received a 15 year sentence with all but one month suspended for the rape of student Cherice Moralez (14) in 2008. Morales committed suicide in 2010, a few weeks before her seventeenth birthday and before the case went to trial. On Sep 4 state prosecutors said they are appealing the sentence. Rambold was released on Sep 26. On April 30, 2014, the state Supreme Court ruled that the one month sentence was too short. On Sep 26, 2014, Rambold was sentenced to ten years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mjks62n)(SFC, 9/7/13, p.A4)(SFC, 9/27/13, p.A7)(SFC, 5/1/14, p.A8)(SFC, 9/27/14, p.A6)

2013        Dec 16, Researchers reported that the molten rock beneath Yellowstone National Park is 2.5 times larger than previously estimated.
    (SFC, 12/17/13, p.A7)

2014        Jan 15, US Air Force leaders said 34 officers in charge of launching nuclear missiles have been suspended for cheating on a proficiency test. The scandal at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana marked the latest in a series of damaging revelations dogging the country's nuclear force.
    (AFP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 31, The Roman Catholic Diocese of Helena, Montana, filed for bankruptcy protection in advance of proposed settlements for two lawsuits that claim clergy members sexually abused 362 people over decades and the church covered it up.
    (AP, 1/31/14)

2014        Mar 27, The US Air Force fired nine midlevel nuclear commanders and said it will discipline dozens of junior officers at a nuclear base in Great Falls, Montana, in response to an exam cheating scandal.
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 28, US authorities said 11 people have been arrested for trafficking methamphetamine to the Bakken oil patch and will face drug conspiracy charges in Montana.
    (SSFC, 3/30/14, p.A11)

2014        Apr 27, In Montana exchange student Diren Dede of Hamburg was shot to death in Missoula. Marks Kaarma said he found an intruder in his garage and shot him twice. Kaarma was charged the next day with deliberate homicide. Kaarma had reportedly baited and shot Dede following previous burglaries by local teenagers. On Feb 12, 2015, Kaarma was sentenced to seventy years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/29/14, p.A5)(SFC, 12/5/14, p.A10)(SFC, 2/12/15, p.A10)

2014        Jun 20, In Montana a fire engine collided with a pickup truck killing a family of five and Three Forks Volunteer Fire Chief Todd Rummel.
    (SFC, 6/21/14, p.A6)

2014        Oct 7, A US federal appeals court in San Francisco struck down Nevada and Idaho’s bans on same-sex marriage. The ruling also applies to all nine states in the court’s territory and will overturn marriage bans in Montana, Alaska and Arizona.
    (SFC, 10/8/14, p.A6)

2014        Nov 19, A US federal judge overturned Montana’s ban on same-sex marriage. The state’s first legal same-sex marriage took place the next day in Helena.
    (SFC, 11/21/14, p.A6)

2014        Nov 22, In Montana 3 foreign tourists went missing after going missing during a fishing trip on Mission Lake. Their bodies were recovered over the next five months.
    (AP, 3/31/15)

2014        Dec 17, In Montana Markus Kaarma (30), who shot and killed German exchange student Diren Dede (17) caught trespassing in his garage last April 27, was convicted of deliberate homicide.
    (AP, 12/18/14)

2014        Dec 18, A judge in Butte, Montana, ordered ex-billionaire Tim Blixseth jailed after he failed to comply with an order to pay $13.8 million to creditors of the Yellowstone Club. Blixseth, the founder of the club, was blamed for its 2008 bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 12/19/14, p.A9)

2015        Jan 17, In Montana some 50,000 gallons of oil spilled from a pipeline into the Yellowstone River near Glendive. Residents of Glendive were soon told not to use municipal water after elevated levels of benzene were found downstream from the spill.
    (SFC, 1/19/15, p.A4)(SFC, 1/21/15, p.A6)

2015        Feb 7, Residents in Montana began finding dead horses. Somebody had shot up to two dozen horses and dumped their bodies in a hay field about a mile west of Lodge Grass on the Crow Indian Reservation.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ors58py)(SFC, 2/17/15, p.A5)

2015        Apr 8, Ivan Doig (75), American award-winning author who chronicled the American West, died at his Seattle home. His 16 books, including the memoir “This House of Sky," were set in his native Montana.
    (SFC, 4/10/15, p.D3)

2015        May 5, The US EPA released a final cleanup plan for the Montana towns of Libby and Troy where asbestos dust from a W.R. Grace & Co. vermiculite mine caused widespread illness.
    (SFC, 5/6/15, p.A7)

2015        Jul 16, In northeastern Montana 4 tank cars of a Burlington Northern Santa Fe train derailed and leaked an estimated 35,000 gallons of oil that was being hauled from North Dakota.
    (SFC, 7/18/15, p.A5)

2015        Oct 9, A US judge approved a deal between conservationists and Montana officials to restrict road-building and logging in roughly 22,000 acres (8,900 hectares) of state forest lands that make up core habitat for federally protected grizzlies.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)

2016        May 17, It was reported that an epidemic of crystal meth addiction on the remote Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northern Montana has led to sex trafficking amidst poverty, isolation, joblessness and violence. A federal Drug Enforcement Administration report has said number of drug cases on Indian lands nationwide rose seven-fold from 2009 to 2014, and crime rates on some reservations are five times higher than national averages.
    (Reuters, 5/17/16)

2016        Jun 7, The last major primaries of the 2016 White House race kicked off in California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota and South Dakota hours after US delegate counts showed Hillary Clinton clinching the Democratic nomination.
    (AP, 6/7/16)(SFC, 6/8/16, p.A1)

2016        Jun 29, In Montana a grizzly bear attacked and killed mountain biker Brad Treat (38) at Glacier national Park.
    (SFC, 6/30/16, p.A5)

2016        Aug 19, Montana wildlife officials closed a lengthy stretch of the Yellowstone River to all recreational activities at the height of the summer tourist season following the deaths of thousands of fish this week from a rare but virulent microbial parasite.
    (Reuters, 8/19/16)

2016        Sep 7, A US federal judge ordered wildlife managers to enlarge habitat protections in Idaho, Montana and Colorado for the Canada lynx, a rare wild cat that roams the Rockies and mountain forests of several other states.
    (Reuters, 9/8/16)

2017        Jan 20, Montana reached a $25 million settlement with more than 1,000 victims of asbestos-related disease over claims that health officials failed to bring attention to the hazards of a contaminated mine in Libby. The mine was closed in 1999.
    (SFC, 1/21/17, p.A7)

2017        Mar 1, Former Montana Rep. Ryan Zinke was sworn in as US interior secretary.
    (SFC, 3/2/17, p.A6)

2017        May 24, Montana Congressional candidate Greg Gianforte assaulted Guardian reporter Ben Jacobs and threw him to the ground in Bozeman on the eve of elections for a House seat. Republican Gianforte was still elected. On June 12 he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 40 hours of community service, 20 hours of anger management ordered to pay $385 in fines and court costs in addition to a 180-day suspended jail sentence.
    (SFC, 6/13/17, p.A8)

2032        It was estimated that by this time all the glaciers of Montana’s Glacier National Park will have melted.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)

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