Timeline North Dakota

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 The area of North Dakota 70,665 sq. mi. and its capital is Bismarck.
 (WUD, 1994, p.984)

67Mil BC    The remains of the hadrosaur, dubbed Dakota and dating to about this time, were found in 1999 by Tyler Lyson (17), on his uncle's ranch in North Dakota. The partially mummified hadrosaur may be the most complete dinosaur ever found, with intact skin that shows evidence of stripes and perhaps soft tissue.
    (Reuters, 12/3/07)(SFC, 12/3/07, p.A7)

6200BC    The glacial lake Agassiz-Ojibway, body of water so vast that it covered parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Ontario and Minnesota, massively drained, sending a flow of water into the Hudson Strait and the Labrador Sea. The sudden flood of fresh water diluted the saltiness of the Gulf Stream weakening its flow.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, Survey p.6)(AFP, 2/24/08)

1804        Aug 31, Lewis and Clark held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern North Dakota.
    (ON, 4/12, p.9)

1804        Oct 26, Lewis and Clark accepted an invitation to camp for the winter near a cluster of villages inhabited by the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.
    (ON, 4/12, p.10)

1804        Nov, Lewis and Clark hired French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter, with the understanding that Sacagawea, who was only about 16 and pregnant, would come along to interpret the Shoshone language. She and another woman had been purchased by Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
    (HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)

1805        Feb 11, At Fort Mandan ND Sacajawea (16), the Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth to a son, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife. Sacagawea, the young Native American girl who aided the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was of the Lemhi Shoshones, who made their home in what is now southeastern Idaho and southwestern Montana. About 1800 Sacagawea was captured by a Hidatsa raiding party at the Three Forks of the Missouri River.  Sometime in 1804, she and another woman were purchased by French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
    (HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)(AH, 2/05, p.17)

1805        Apr 7, The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their journey to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
    (ON, 4/12, p.10)

1851        The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed between the US government and the Sioux Indians. The Sioux pledged not to harass the wagon trains traveling the Oregon Trail in exchange for a $50,000 annuity. The treaty did not last long. Some 12,000 American Indians gathered at Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory, for a peace council with the US. The government agreed that 12 million acres of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians would remain free of settlement (eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming and western North Dakota). In 1949 Congress authorized a forced relocation to build the Garrison Dam in North Dakota. In 1986 Martin Cross won a settlement of $149.2 million for the unjust taking of reservation land. In 2004 Paul VanDevelder authored “Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation."
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1861        Mar 2, The Territory of Nevada was created by an act of Congress. The first elected governor of the state was Henry G. Blasdel. US Congress created the Dakota & Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska & Utah territories
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.1B)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SC, 3/2/02)

1883        The US Supreme Court ruled that the Dakota Territory court had no jurisdiction in a case in which a member of the Lakota nation killed a fellow member on tribal land. The decision overturned a death sentence and effectively gave exclusive jurisdiction for crimes to tribes. In 1885 US Congress passed the Major Crimes Act taking away the tribes’ authority to prosecute serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and rape.
    (WSJ, 8/13/07, p.A12)

1885        Mar 3, The United States Congress passed the Major Crimes Act (18 U.S.C. 1153). It placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American in Native territory regardless of whether the victim of the crime was Native.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/us/437/634/)

1889        Feb 22, President Cleveland signed a bill to admit the Dakotas, Montana and Washington state to the Union. The "omnibus bill" was an act dividing the Dakota Territory into the states of North and South Dakota, and enabling the two Dakotas to formulate constitutions. A constitutional convention was held at Bismarck beginning July 4, 1889. A constitution was formulated and submitted to a vote of the people of the State of North Dakota on October 1, 1889, and was adopted.
    (AP, 2/22/99)(www.court.state.nd.us/court/history/dakotaterritory.htm)

1889        Jul 4, North Dakota founders began drafting a constitution but left out a key requirement that the governor and other top officials take an oath of office, putting the state constitution in conflict with the federal one. In 2011 State Senator Tim Mathern introduced a bill fixing the mistake that will be put to voters.
    (www.court.state.nd.us/court/history/dakotaterritory.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/6cz8dks)

1889        Nov 2, North Dakota became the 39th state.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/2/97

1897        The Red River in Fargo North Dakota crested at 39.1 feet. The record was broken in 1997.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A3)

1908        Mar 11, Lawrence Welk, orchestra leader, was born in Strasburg, ND.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1908        Mar 22, Louis L’Amour (d.1998), American author, was born in Jamestown, North Dakota. He wrote 116 western novels.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(USAT, 6/10/98, p.1D)(MC, 3/22/02)

1908        Chase Lake, about 60 miles north of Bismarck, ND, was established as a protected area by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, to save a dwindling number of pelicans from hunters. The colony, down to 50 breeding pairs, peaked in 2000 with some 17,500 pairs on the 4,385-acre site.
    (SFC, 7/13/04, p.A2)

1909        Jan 22, Hariette Lake (aka Ann Sothern, d. 2001), film and TV actress, was born in Valley City.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A23)

1910        A statue to Sacagawea was erected on the grounds of the North Dakota Capitol in Bismarck. In 2003 a replica of the statue was erected in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, DC. The Hidatsa tribe preferred her named spelled as Sakakawea.
    (SFC, 10/17/03, p.A2)

1913        Mar 1, The 1st state law requiring bonding of officers and state employees was enacted in North Dakota.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1919        The Bank of North Dakota was founded in Bismarck to lend money to farmers. As a state owned bank the states Legislature had the authority to tap the bank’s profit to fund government programs during tough times.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.D2)

1920        May 26, Peggy Lee (d.2002), jazz singer, was born in Jamestown, ND, as Norma Dolores Egstrom.
    (HN, 5/26/01)(SFC, 1/23/02, p.A2)

1921        North Dakota Republican Gov. Lynn Frazier was recalled in the midst of an agricultural recession. Frazier was elected to the US Senate in 1922 and served for 18 years.
    (SSFC, 6/28/03, p.A1)

1929        Syrian Muslims built the first mosque in America in Ross, North Dakota.
    (AH, 4/07, p.31)

1933        Nov 11, The first of the great dust storms of the 1930s hit North Dakota.
    (HN, 11/11/00)

1936        Feb 15, The temp hit -60ø F (-51ø C) in Parshall, North Dakota for a state record.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1941        Mar 15, A blizzard in North Dakota killed 151. [see Mar 16]
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1941        Mar 16, A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota killing 60. [see Mar 15]
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1954        The 600-square-mile Garrison Dam in North Dakota, authorized by Congress in 1949, was completed. It covered the ancestral lands of Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1959        Feb 4, In Fargo, N.D., Bobby Vee (15), aka Robert Veline, and the Shadows performed in public for the first time. The audience had come to see Buddy Holly and the Crickets. Rock-n-roll stars, including Dion and the Belmonts, traveled by bus from Iowa to Fargo in order to perform in nearby Moorhead, Minn.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A16)

1980        Sep 15, A B-52H bomber carrying nuclear-armed AGM-69 missiles experienced a fuel leak in its number three main wing tank and caught fire on the ground at Grand Forks AFB in North Dakota.
    (www.willthomasonline.net/willthomasonline/Broken_Arrows.html)

1983        Jun 3, Gordon Kahl (b.1920), a militant tax protester wanted in the slayings of two US marshals in North Dakota, was killed in a gun battle with law enforcement officials near Smithville, Ark. Kahl was a former member of the anti-tax Posse Comitatus movement founded in 1969 by Henry L Beach.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(http://law.jrank.org/pages/9290/Posse-Comitatus.html)

1987         Nov 17, Richard McNair (28) killed Jerome Theis, of Circle Pines, Minn., during a burglary at a Minot, North Dakota, grain elevator. Richard Kitzman, an elevator employee, was shot three times but survived. McNair was convicted and sentenced to life in prison, but escaped a number of times. In 2007 he was again captured in New Brunswick, Canada.
    (AP, 10/26/07)

1988        Jun 10, Author Louis L'Amour died in Los Angeles at age 80. He wrote 116 western novels. L’Amour trained troops in survival and later fought in the European theater in tank destroyers. His early life was filled with the same type of adventures that he wrote about. Due to economic problems and an adventuresome spirit, L’Amour left his Jamestown, N.D., home when he was 15 and spent the next several decades tramping the West and sailing the world. He worked at just about everything that would keep him alive. His writings was just beginning to be published when the war started.
    (AP, 6/10/98)(USAT, 6/10/98, p.1D)(HNQ, 7/15/01)

1988        Basin Electric Power Cooperative of Bismarck, ND, paid the US government $85 million for the Dakota Gasification Co. of Beulah, which had begun as a $1.5 billion public-private venture under the Carter administration to turn reduce US dependence on Middle East oil.
    (SFC, 10/15/03, p.A4)

1992        In Regent Gary Greff began erecting metal sculptures along a 32 mile stretch from I-94. His "Enchanted Highway" came to include the "Tin Family," "Teddy Roosevelt," giant pheasants, a 40-foot tall rooster and a 30-foot long grasshopper.
    (WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A1,9)(SFC, 9/13/99, p.A3)

1995        Len Kretchman and David Geske of Fargo, ND, developed the Uncrustable sandwich, a peanut butter and jelly sandwich sealed in a pocket of bread. Smucker Corp. bought their company and received a patent for the sandwich in Dec, 1999.
    (WSJ, 4/5/05, p.B1)

1996        Sep 11, Grasshoppers plagued North Dakota. The insects were a problem in Wyoming, Montana and Nebraska. Another dry summer and it was predicted that they would spread to Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.A2)

1997        Apr 17, The Red River in Fargo, North Dakota, was to have crested at 39.5 feet, surpassing the 1897 record. Snow and freezing rain over a 3 day period led to the flooding.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A3)(SFC, 4/2/99, p.A3)

1997        Apr 19, The Red River broke dikes in Grand Forks, N.D. and sent nearly half of the 50,000 population into evacuation. Damages were estimated at over $1.5 billion.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.A1)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.39)

1998        Apr 14, The Grand Forks Herald of North Dakota won a Pulitzer Prize for its coverage of the 1997 flood and fire despite a damaged printing plant.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 10, A heavy snow storm hit the northern Midwest. Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas suffered loss of power, heavy snow and violent winds.
    (SFC, 11/11/98, p.A3)

1998        Global Electric MotorCars (GEMs) began production in Fargo. The 72-volt electric motor cars could cruise at 25mph and go 35 miles between charges.
    (SFC, 8/7/00, p.A19)

1999        North Dakota Gov. Edward Schafer signed a law that allowed farmers to seek permits from the FDA to grow hemp. In 2007 two North Dakota farmers filed a lawsuit to force the DEA to issue permits to grow hemp.
    (SFC, 6/8/99, p.A15)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.40)

2001        Oct 24, A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota. The 10 inches of snow broke a 1926 Grand Forks record. The blizzard killed 6 people in the Midwest with 4 dead in North Dakota car crashes.
    (WSJ, 10/25/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/26/01, p.D8)

2002        Jan 18, A train carrying anhydrous ammonia fertilizer derailed near Minot. The liquid turned to gas upon contact with air and one resident died from inhaling the gas.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A3)

2002        Mar 20, Bismarck received a record 5.4 inches of snow.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A20)

2002        Jul 22, North Dakota's Gov. John Hoeven was headed to Cuba to promote trade of peas, wheat and other foods to the communist island from his state. It was only the 2nd visit to Cuba by a sitting American governor in some 40 years.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

2003        Apr 3, The N. Dakota state Senate voted to keep a 113-year-old law that made it a crime for unmarried couples to live together.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.A7)

2003        Nov 22, North Dakota student Dru Sjodin (22) was last seen at the Grand Forks, ND, mall, where she worked. Her body was found the following April near Crookston, Minn. Suspect Alfonso Rodriguez Jr., released from prison 6-months before the murder, pleaded innocent to kidnapping resulting in Sjodin's death. In 2006 a jury found Rodriguez (53) guilty of kidnapping and killing Sjodin and was sentenced to death. North Dakota’s last execution was in 1905.
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.A13)(AP, 11/22/04)(SFC, 8/31/06, p.A7)(SFC, 9/23/06, p.A3)

2003        Dec 1, Alfonso Rodriguez Jr. (50), described by authorities as a predatory sex offender was arrested in Crookston, Minn. He was charged with kidnapping in the disappearance of  Dru Sjodin, a North Dakota college student, abducted Nov 22, while talking on her cell phone.
    (AP, 12/2/03)

2004        Apr 17, The body of University of North Dakota student Dru Sjodin (22) was found in a ravine northwest of Crookston, Minn. She was last seen Nov 22 at the Grand Forks, ND, mall, where she worked. Alfonso Rodriquez was arrested in Dec. and investigators matched DNA in blood in his car to Sjodin.
    (AP, 4/18/04)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.A13)

2004        Nov 2, John Hoeven (R) was elected governor of North Dakota.
    (SFC, 11/4/04, p.A18)

2005        Apr, Canada, backed by Minnesota and other states, provinces, environmental groups and Indian leaders, asked for a year-long expedited review by the International Joint Commission on a $25 million plan by North Dakota to take water from land-locked Devils Lake to the nearby Sheyenne River with the goal of stabilizing the lake at current levels. The water would ultimately drain into Manitoba's Lake Winnipeg, the world's 10th largest freshwater lake.
    (AP, 5/30/05)

2005        Jul 1, In North Dakota a 14-mile, $28 million drainage channel, from Devil’s Lake to the Sheyenne River, was scheduled to open, but it was held up by heavy rains.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.34)


2005        Aug 18, It was reported that an anthrax outbreak had killed hundreds of cattle in parts of the Great Plains, forcing quarantines and devastating Dakota ranchers who worry how they will recover financially. Two ranches in Texas were quarantined last month after anthrax was found in cattle, horses and deer.
    (AP, 8/18/05)

2005        Nov 29, Broad areas of the Dakotas remained shut down by the Plains' first blizzard of the season, with highways closed by blowing, drifting snow and thousands of people without electricity as temperatures hit the low teens.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2006        Jan 13, North Dakota State University's North Central Research Center, Basin Electric Power Cooperative and other partners described plans for a station in Minot to refuel hydrogen-powered vehicles using wind power.
    (AP, 1/13/06)

2006        North Dakota Sen. Byron Dorgan authored “Take This Job and Ship It: How Corporate Greed and Brain-Dead Politics Are Selling Our America."
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.32)
2006        In North Dakota a drought wiped out 10% of the value of the state’s wheat crop.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.24)
2006        North Dakota’s population stood at about 637,000 people, down a high of some 681,000 reached during the Great Depression.
    (WSJ, 12/1/06, p.A1)

2007        Feb 8, A federal judge in Fargo, N.D., sentenced Alfonso Rodriguez Jr. to death for the slaying of college student Dru Sjodin.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2007        Feb 17, In North Dakota More than 8,900 people flapped their arms and legs on the state Capitol grounds in an attempt to reclaim the record, which was snatched away about a year ago in Michigan. The snow angel category was created in 2002 when 1,791 people made snow angels on the Capitol grounds in North Dakota.
    (AP, 2/17/07)

2008        Jan 28, The US Senate confirmed former North Dakota Gov. Edward Schafer as secretary of agriculture.
    (WSJ, 1/29/08, p.A1)

2008        Jun 3, Barack Obama sealed the US Democratic presidential nomination. Hillary Clinton did not give up yet, but said she’d be interested in the No. 2 spot. Obama won the Montana primary, while Clinton won the South Dakota primary.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(SFC, 6/4/08, p.A1)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.35)

2008        Jun, The watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Government (CREW) complained that Sen. Kent Conrad (D-N.D.) and Chris Dodd (D-Conn.) had received “sweatheart" mortgage deals from Countrywide while they were chairmen of Senate committees. Both men were cleared by a Senate ethics committee in 2009.
    (SFC, 8/8/09, p.A4)

2009        Jan 6, North Dakota Gov. John Hoeven reported a budget surplus and plans to grow reserves to between $800 million and $1.2 billion.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.43)(http://governor.nd.gov/media/speeches/090106.html)

2009        Mar 25, North Dakota officials issued an urgent call for volunteers to help with sandbagging as record amounts of water poured into the Missouri River and evacuations were ordered in riverside areas.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Mar 27, In North Dakota the Red River rose to a daunting 112-year high and breached one of the dikes fortifying Fargo, but the mayor pledged to "go down swinging" as he called for more evacuations and additional National Guard troops to prevent a devastating flood.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 28, In North Dakota the Red River crested at 12:15 a.m. at 40.82 feet, more than 22 feet above flood stage.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Mar 29, In North Dakota the bloated Red River briefly breached a dike, pouring water into a school campus and the Fargo Mayor Dennis Walaker called it a "wakeup call" for a city that needs to be vigilant for weaknesses in levees that could give way at any time.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        May 25, In Alabama prisoners Joshua Southwick (26) and Ashton Mink (22) were mistakenly allowed outside a prison by a worker who thought they were kitchen trusties. On June 6 they were arrested after a nearly 14-hour standoff on a ranch in North Dakota. Also taken into custody were two women who authorities said helped the men escape: Angela Diana Mink (25) and Jacquelin Rae Kennamer Mink (25) Mink's sister and wife.
    (AP, 6/7/09)

2009        Nov 3, In North Dakota 3 female Dickinson State Univ. softball players were found dead after their sport utility vehicle went into a pond on a farm during a stargazing trip on Nov 1. Authorities said they likely drove straight into the water in the dark.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2010        Apr 8, The North Dakota Supreme Court ruled that the Board of Higher Education had the authority to dump the Univ. of North Dakota “Fighting Sioux" nickname.
    (SFC, 4/9/10, p.A8)

2010        Sep 22, It was reported that North Dakota’s Devil’s Lake, called a slow-growing monster, has steadily expanded over the last 20 years, swallowing up thousands of acres, hundreds of buildings and at least two towns in its rising waters.
    (AP, 9/22/10)

2010        North Dakota counted some 641,000 residents, or about .02% of the US population.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.33)

2011        Jan 28, In Minot, North Dakota, a mother, her 2 children and her boyfriend were found dead at a home and trailer.
    (SFC, 1/29/11, p.A6)(SSFC, 1/30/11, p.A10)

2011        Jun 24, In North Dakota the Souris River swamped as estimated 2,500 homes in Minot as it soared nearly 4 feet in less than a day. More than a quarter of the city’s 40,000 residents had evacuated earlier this week.
    (SFC, 6/25/11, p.A6)

2012        Feb 10, In North Dakota the vice president in charge of overseeing a foreign students program resigned following a report that the school had awarded hundreds of degrees to foreign students who did not earn them.
    (SSFC, 2/12/12, p.A14)

2012        Mar 6, Ten US states voted in the Super Tuesday Republican primaries. Republican presidential frontrunner Mitt Romney edged out conservative rival Rick Santorum in the vital battleground of Ohio and won five of the night's other contests. Romney also notched victories in Alaska, Idaho, Vermont, Virginia and his home-state of Massachusetts, while Santorum won North Dakota, Oklahoma and Tennessee, and Newt Gingrich carried his home state of Georgia.
    (SFC, 3/7/12, p.A6)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.18)

2012        Jul, In North Dakota Halek Operating ND LLC was fined for putting drinking water at risk by illegally dumping over 800,000 gallons of oil-field wastewater into a former oil well and then attempting to cover up the crime.
    (SFC, 8/13/14, p.E5)

2013        Mar 22, North Dakota lawmakers took a step toward outlawing abortion altogether in the state by passing a so-called personhood resolution that says a fertilized egg has the same right to life as a person. The House's approval sends the matter to voters, who will decide whether to add the wording to the state's constitution in November 2014.
    (AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 26, North Dakota Gov. Jack Dalrymple signed legislation that that would make North Dakota the nation's most restrictive state on abortion rights, banning the procedure if a fetal heartbeat can be detected — something that can happen as early as six weeks into a pregnancy.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Nov 16, In North Dakota Craig Cobb was arrested along with Kynan Dutton over accusations they were brandishing firearms and sticks and threatening residents in the town of Leith. The white supremacists were charged on Nov 18 with terrorizing residents of Leith, where Cobb had sought to create a white enclave. On April 29, 2014, a state judge sentenced Cobb to four years probation but no additional jail time.
    (Reuters, 11/18/13)(SFC, 4/30/14, p.A6)

2013        Dec 30, In North Dakota a mile-long train carrying crude oil derailed 5 miles from Casselton. As many as 20 cars caught fire.
    (SFC, 12/31/13, p.A6)
2013        Dec 30, The US FAA selected six states (Alaska, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Texas and Virginia) to test how drones can be more widely used in US airspace. 24 states had competed for selection.
    (SFC, 12/31/13, p.A6)

2014        Apr 16, US District Judge Daniel Hovland overturned a North Dakota law banning abortions when a fetal heartbeat can be detected, as early as six weeks into pregnancy, and before many women know they’re pregnant. On May 14 the state filed an appeal on the ruling.
    (SFC, 4/17/14, p.A5)(SFC, 5/15/14, p.A7)

2014        Jun 6, In North Dakota seven couples filed a federal lawsuit challenging the state’s constitutional ban on same-sex marriage, making it the last state in the country to be sued by couples seeking the right to marry in their home state.
    (SFC, 6/7/14, p.A4)

2014        Jun 13, Pres. Obama spoke at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in North Dakota promoting the need to help reservations create jobs. Some 63% of able workers at Standing Rock were unemployed. The 2.3 million-acre reservation was home to some 850 residents.
    (SFC, 6/14/14, p.A4)

2014        Nov 3, The US Air Force fired two commanders and disciplined a third for lapses and misbehavior at intercontinental ballistic missile bases in North Dakota and Wyoming.
    (SFC, 11/5/14, p.A7)

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