Timeline of Pennsylvania

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http://www.50states.com/pennsylv.htm
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http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=512&mode=2&objID=1426
State links:
http://www.pa.gov/portal/server.pt/community/pa_gov/2966

330Mil BC    The body impressions of salamander-like creatures, estimated to be 330 million years old, were later found in sandstone rocks collected in eastern Pennsylvania and stored in the museum in Reading, Pa.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

1612        The French explorer Etienne Brule is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes. Brule, believed to have been born in 1592, journeyed to North America with Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and helped found Quebec. Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. Brule is the first European to live among the Indians and was probably the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania. Brule was eventually killed by the Hurons, for reasons never known, in 1632.
    (HNQ, 6/29/98)

1644        Oct 14, William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woods, was born.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1681        Mar 4, England's King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
    (PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1682        Oct 26, William Penn accepted the area around the Delaware River from Duke of York.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1682        Oct 29, The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a "Holy Experiment" based on Quaker principles.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1682        William Penn established Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)

1683        Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1683        Oct 6, 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America's oldest settlements. They were encouraged by William Penn's offer of 5,000 acres of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/germantown.html)

1686        The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1688        Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
    (HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1692        Mar 18, William Penn was deprived of his governing powers.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1699        Jonathan Dickinson, after resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored "God’s Protecting Providence," a journal of his Florida ordeal.
    (ON, 9/00, p.5)

1700        May 7, William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1701          Oct 28, William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania's constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
    (www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/pa07.htm)

1712        Jun 7, The Pennsylvania Assembly banned the importation of slaves.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1718        Jul 30, William Penn, English Quaker, colonizer (No cross, no crown), died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1720s        The Ephrata Cloister communal society in Amish country near Philadelphia was founded by a former elder of the German Dunkers (German Baptists who later became the Church of the Brethren).
    (Hem, 6/96, p.107)(http://www.cob-net.org/cloister.htm)

1722        Quaker Jonathan Dickinson died. He had become one of the wealthiest men in the city and served as twice as mayor.
    (ON, 9/00, p.5)

1726        Jul 23, Benjamin Franklin sailed back to Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1726        Oct 11, Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from England.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1730        Benjamin Franklin became the official printer for Pennsylvania. He ultimately became the official printer for several colonial governments.
    (AH, 2/06, p.48)

1730s        German gun makers located in Pennsylvania began producing the Kentucky rifle, so named because it was intended for use on the Kentucky frontier. Its gunpowder was ignited with sparks struck when the hammer, containing a piece of flint, was released. The flintlock Kentucky rifle, with its extra long barrel and small caliber, was the most accurate rifle of its day and was used widely in the French and Indian Wars and American Revolution.
    (HNQ, 12/21/99)

1731        Jul 1, The “Instrument of Association” for the Library Company of Philadelphia was  signed under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin. It was America’s first circulating library.
    (www.librarycompany.org/Lemay1.pdf)(AH, 2/06, p.56)

1732        Feb 26, The 1st mass celebrated in American Catholic church was at St Joseph's Church, Philadelphia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1732        Nov 14, 1st US professional librarian, Louis Timothee, was hired in Phila.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1732        Dec 28, The first Poor Richard's Almanac was published along with the 1st known ad in the Pennsylvania Gazette. The Almanack was published by Richard Saunders (really Ben Franklin).  [see Dec 19]
    (HFA, '96, p.20)(MC, 12/28/01)

1733        The Pennsylvania city of Reading became one of America's first producers of iron and was for nearly a century the foremost in the country. Settled in 1733 by the sons of William Penn, the city is situated on the Schuylkill River in the southeastern part of the state. The Reading foundries furnished cannon for the American forces in the Revolutionary War and the Union during the Civil War.
    (HNQ, 5/6/98)

1738        Benjamin Franklin wrote in Poor Richard's Almanack "Sell not virtue to purchase wealth, nor Liberty to purchase power."
    (http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin)

1740        Sep 11, The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies was made in the Pennsylvania Gazette.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1741        Feb 13, Andrew Bradford of Pennsylvania published the first American magazine. Titled "The American Magazine, or A Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies." Bradford introduced his American Magazine just days before Benjamin Franklin founded his periodical called General Magazine in Philadelphia. Bradford’s survived 3 months while Franklin’s survived for 6 months.
    (HFA, '96, p.24)(HNQ, 9/3/98)(AP, 2/13/01)

1741        Feb 16, Benjamin Franklin's General Magazine (2nd US Mag) began publishing.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1743        Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram founded the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia as an American counterpart to the British Royal Society.
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W3)(www.amphilsoc.org/library/exhibits/nature/stork.htm)

1745        Dec 24, Benjamin Rush, American medical pioneer and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Byberry, Pa.
    (HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1746        Linden Hall, a girls’ boarding school, opened in Lititz, Pa.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1750        Benjamin Franklin drew up plans for a “sentry box,” designed to prove his theory that lightning as an electrical phenomenon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.11)

1750        Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1751        May 11, The 1st US hospital was founded in Pennsylvania. [see Feb 11, 1752]
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1752        Jan 1, Betsy Ross (d.1836), flag maker who contributed to the design of the American flag, was born in Philadelphia as Elizabeth Griscom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betsy_Ross)

1752        Feb 11, Pennsylvania Hospital, the 1st hospital in the US, opened.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1752        May 11, The 1st US fire insurance policy issued in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1752        May, Dutch botanist Thomas Francois Dalibard (1709-1799) successfully performed Benjamin Franklin’s “sentry box” experiment proving that lightning is an electrical phenomenon.
    (ON, 2/12, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas-Fran%C3%A7ois_Dalibard)

1752        Jun 15, Benjamin Franklin and his son tested the relationship between electricity and lightning by flying a kite in a thunder storm. Some sources date this to June 10.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin)

1752        Sep 1, The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1752        In the summer of this year Benjamin Franklin installed the world’s 1st lightning rods at the Pennsylvania State House.
    (WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1753        Dec 12, George Washington, the adjutant of Virginia, delivered an ultimatum to the French forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain’s claim to the entire Ohio river valley.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1753        Dec 14, French Captain Jacques Le Gardeur rejected the pretensions of the English to ownership of the Ohio Valley, but promised to forward Virginia Gov. Dinwiddie’s letter of trespass to his superiors in Canada.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1753         The Georgian-style colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania State House) was completed at 520 Chestnut St. in Philadelphia for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the location where both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted and thus became known as Independence Hall.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P5)
1753        Benjamin Franklin use the pages of his Poor Richard’s Almanac to make a case for using lightning rods atop tall structures making storms less dangerous.
    (WSJ, 8/15/05, p.D8)

1754        Jan 6, Major George Washington, while returning to Virginia, encountered a party of English settlers and militiamen at Will’s Creek sent by Gov. Dinwiddie to establish a fort and trading post at the Forks of the Ohio.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Apr 2, A small expeditionary force of 159 men under Lt. Col. George Washington arrived at Will’s Creek and learned that the French had taken over the new Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio from British soldiers and frontiersmen and renamed it Fort Duquesne.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Apr, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Iraquois Indians in the Wyoming Valley along the banks of the Susquehanna River.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1754        May 9, The first American newspaper cartoon was published. The illustration in Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette showed a snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; the caption read, "Join or die."
    (AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)

1754        May 28, Col. George Washington led a 40-man detachment that defeated French and Indian forces in a skirmish near Great Meadows, Pa.
    (ON, 9/05, p.3)

1754        Jun 19, The Albany Congress opened. New York colonial Gov. George Clinton called for the meeting to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French. The attendees included Indians and representatives from Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Benjamin Franklin attended and presented his Plan of Union, which was adopted by the conference. The meeting ended on July 11.
    (AH, 2/06, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Congress)

1754        Jul 3, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War also called the 7 Years' War. In 2005 Fred Anderson authored “The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War.”
    (HN, 7/13/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.46)(WSJ, 12/14/05, p.D15)

1754        Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white people were killed.
    (ON, 1/03, p.7)

1755        Jul 9, General Edward Braddock was mortally wounded when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia, which was on its way to attack France's Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). Gen. Braddock's troops were decimated at Fort Duquesne, where he refused to accept Washington's advice on frontier style fighting. British Gen'l. Braddock gave his bloody sash to George Washington at Fort Necessity just before he died on Jul 13.
    (A & IP, ESM, p.11)(HN, 7/9/98)(WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A20)

1755        Jul 13, Edward Braddock (60), British general, died following the July 9, 1755 battle at Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Out of the 1,400 British soldiers who were in involved in the battle, 900 of them died. Future President George Washington carried Braddock from the field and officiated at his burial ceremony. The general was buried in a road his men had built. The army then marched over the grave to obliterate any traces of it and continued to eastern Pennsylvania. After the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Braddock Road remained a main road. In 1804, some workmen discovered human remains in the road near where Braddock was supposed to have been buried. The remains were re-interred on a small knoll adjacent to the road. In 1913 the marker was placed there. Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695, the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (died 1725).
    (www.nps.gov/fone/braddock.htm)

1755        Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1755        Benjamin Franklin, a patriot of the American Revolution, served as a colonel of the Pennsylvania militia in the French and Indian War. Benjamin Franklin, at forty-nine, had already lived through two wars between the French and the English and their colonists. His face was puffy and smooth from gout, his once-powerful swimmer’s body overweight and rounded into a barrel shape.
    (HNQ, 8/6/01)

1756        Jun 4, Quakers left the assembly of Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1756        Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss grievances.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1756        German-speaking Moravians founded the town of Lititz, 35 miles southeast of Harrisburg, Pa. Non-Moravians were not allowed to live there until 1855.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1757        Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) helped set up America’s first street cleaning service in Philadelphia.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.5)
1757        Benjamin Franklin sailed for England. He spent almost two decades there as colonial agent, a combination lobbyist, ambassador, and banker, for Pennsylvania and, eventually Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. He lived in London at 36 Craven St.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(USAT, 9/22/03, p.16A)

1758        Nov 25, In the French and Indian War British forces under General John Forbes captured Fort Duquesne (the site of present day Pittsburgh, est. 1754). George Washington participated in the campaign. Forbes renamed the site Fort Pitt after William Pitt the Elder, who directed British military policy in the Seven Years' War of 1756-'63. Before his arrival, the French had burned the fort and retreated.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(ON, 9/05, p.5)(HNQ, 7/17/98)

1758        Feb 15, The 1st mustard manufactured in America was advertised in Philadelphia.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(HCB, 2003, p. 94)

1760        Feb 14, Richard Allen (d.1831), 1st black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church, was born in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1760s-1770s    John Cadwalader, Revolutionary War General, commissioned dozens of furniture pieces from the finest craftsmen in Pennsylvania. He had married Elizabeth Lloyd, the wealthiest woman in colonial America.
    (WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)

1761        French and Indians forces in the Ohio Valley were defeated.
    (ON, 1/03, p.7)

1762        Benjamin Franklin returned to Philadelphia from London and remained until 1764.
    (www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/franklin.htm)

1763        Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1763        May 7, Indian chief Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan. Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that later became Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 7/24/98)(HN, 5/7/99)

1763        Aug 5, Colonel Henry Bouquet decisively defeated the Indians at the Battle of Bushy Run in Pennsylvania during Pontiac's rebellion.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1763        Nov 15, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon began surveying Mason-Dixon Line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. They surveyed 233 miles by 1767 when Indians of the Six nations told them they could not proceed any further west.
    (MC, 11/15/01)(ON, 2/04, p.10)

1767        Oct 9, The survey party of Mason and Dixon came to a halt after 233 miles when Indians of the Six Nations said they had reached the end of their commission. [see Oct 18]
    (ON, 2/04, p.10)

1767        Oct 18, The boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, the Mason-Dixon line, was agreed upon. It was first surveyed in 1763 to 1767 by two British astronomers, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in order to settle a dispute between the Calvert and Penn families, the owners at that time of the two states in question. The survey, begun in 1763 and completed four years later, done by English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to resolve a land-grant boundary dispute between the families of Lord Baltimore and William Penn, resulted in the Mason-Dixon Line. The line, extended in 1784, came to be known as the dividing line between free-soil states and slave states.
http://freespace.virgin.net/john.cletheroe/usa_can/usa/mas_dix.htm
    (AP, 10/18/97)(HNQ, 9/8/99)

1771        Jun 12, Patrick Gass, Sgt. of Lewis & Clark Expedition, was born in Falling Springs, PA.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1773        Feb 26, Construction was authorized for Walnut St. jail in Philadelphia, (1st solitary).
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1773        Dec 26, Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1774        Jul 12, Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1774        Sep 5, The first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in a secret session in Carpenter's Hall with representatives from every colony except Georgia. Tensions had been tearing at relations between the colonists and the government of King George III. The British taking singular exception to the 1773 shipboard tea party held in Boston harbor. The dispute convinced  Britain to pass the "Intolerable Acts"- 4 of which were to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party. Peyton Randolph of Williamsburg, Va., chaired the 1st Continental Congress. Its first official act was a call to prayer.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(HNQ, 6/25/00)(AH, 10/04, p.14)(AH, 4/07, p.31)

1774        Sep 26, John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts.  A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator, a heavy drinker and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
    (www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=94)(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(HNQ, 9/4/01)(ON, 4/09, p.10)

1774        Oct 26, The first Continental Congress, which protested British measures and called for civil disobedience, concluded in Philadelphia. The Congress had met at the Philadelphia Carpenter's Hall.
    (AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

1774        Nov, Thomas Paine, English pamphleteer, arrived in Philadelphia. He had been urged to come to America by Ben Franklin.
    (ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1775        Feb, Englishman Thomas Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, owned by printer Robert Aitken.
    (ON, 6/2011, p.1)

1775        Apr 13, Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act forbade trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1775        Apr 14, The first American society for the abolition of slavery was organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 4/14/97) (HN, 4/14/98)

1775        May 5, Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia, from London where he had lived since 1757. He soon began working with Thomas Paine on a pamphlet urging independence from Britain, an idea proposed by physician Benjamin Rush.
    (AH, 2/06, p.52)(ON, 6/2011, p.2)

1775        May 10, The Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania. It named George Washington as supreme commander. Benjamin Franklin represented Pennsylvania soon presented his reworked Plan of Union under the title The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress)(AH, 2/06, p.47)

1775        Jul 26, The Continental Congress established a postal system for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/26/97)(HN, 7/26/98)

1776         Jul 4, The Continental Congress approved adoption of the amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson and signed by John Hancock--President of the Continental Congress--and Charles Thomson, Congress secretary, without dissent. However, the New York delegation abstained as directed by the New York Provisional Congress. On July 9, the New York Congress voted to endorse the declaration. On July 19, Congress then resolved to have the "Unanimous Declaration" inscribed on parchment for the signature of the delegates. Among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, two went on to become presidents of the United States, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson. John Hancock said, "There, I guess King George will be able to read that." referring to his signature on the Declaration of Independence. Most delegates signed the parchment copy on August 2. Other signers later included Benjamin Rush and Robert Morris. Of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, eight were born outside North America. In 2007 David Armitage authored “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History.”
     (SFC,12/19/97,p.B6)(SFC,2/9/98, p.A19)(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)(SFC, 7/4/13, p.A14)

1776        Jul 5, The Declaration of Independence was first printed by John Dunlop in Philadelphia. 200 copies were prepared July 5-6 and distributed to the states.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(HNQ, 7/4/99)(SFC, 7/4/01, p.A3)

1776        Jul 6, The US Declaration of Independence was announced on the front page of "PA Evening Gazette."
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1776        Jul 8, Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence to a crowd gathered at Independence Square in Philadelphia. The reading was announced by the "Liberty Bell." The bell had the inscription: "proclaim liberty throughout all the land onto all the inhabitants thereof."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)

1776         Aug 2, In Philadelphia most members of the Continental Congress began attaching their signatures to the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Harrison was one of the signers. His son and grandson later became the 9th and 23rd presidents of the US. Most of the 55 signatures were affixed on August 2, but Matthew Thornton of New Hampshire, who was not a member of Congress when the declaration was adopted, added his name in November.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.61)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)(AP, 8/2/97)(HNQ, 7/4/99)

1775        Dec 18-1775 Dec 27, In Philadelphia Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.
    (AH, 2/06, p.58)

1775        Nov 10, The US Marines were organized under authority of the Continental Congress. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
    (AP, 11/10/97)(www.usmcpress.com/heritage/usmc_heritage.htm)

1776        Jan 10, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), British émigré and propagandist, anonymously published "Common Sense," a scathing attack on King George III's reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence. The first 1,000 sold within days at 2 shillings. By the end of the year some 150,000 copies were sold, greatly affecting public sentiment and the deliberations of the Continental Congress leading up to the Declaration of Independence. An instant bestseller in both the colonies and in Britain, Paine baldly stated that King George III was a tyrant and that Americans should shed any sentimental attachment to the monarchy. America, he argued, had a moral obligation to reject monarchy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine)(AP, 1/10/98)(ON, 6/2011, p.3)

1776        Mar 2, The American Secret Committee of Correspondence appointed Connecticut lawyer Silas Deane as a special envoy to negotiate with the French government for aid.
    (AH, 2/06, p.59)

1776        Dec 2, George Washington's army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania. In 2004 David Hackett Fischer authored "Washington's Crossing."
    (WSJ, 2/6/04, p.W8)

1776        Dec 8, George Washington's retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1776        Dec 23, Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, “The American Crisis,” which included the line "These are the times that try men's souls…" was read out loud by George Washington to the Continental Army.
    (ON, 6/2011, p.4)

1776        Dec 25, Gen. George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River for a surprise attack against Hessian forces at Trenton, N.J.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

1776        The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
    (AH, 10/02, p.50)

1777        Jun 14, The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Stars and Stripes as the national flag. America's Flag Day, commemorates the date when John Adams spoke the following words before the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. "Resolved, that the Flag of the thirteen United States shall be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation." Over the years, there have been 27 versions of the American flag. The present version was adopted on July 4, 1960, when Hawaii became the 50th state.
    (AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 6/14/98)

1777        Jul 4, No member of Congress thought about commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence until July 3 - one day too late. So the first organized elaborate celebration of independence occurred the following day: July 4, 1777, in Philadelphia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mpsa8y)

1777        Sep 11, General George Washington and his troops were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe at the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania. Posing as a gunsmith, British Sergeant John Howe served as General Gage's eyes in a restive Massachusetts colony.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1777        Sep 20, British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at  Paoli, Pa.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1777        Sep 25, English general William Howe conquered Philadelphia. [see Sep 26]
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1777        Sep 26, The British army launched a major offensive during the American Revolution, capturing Philadelphia. [see Sep 25]
    (HN, 9/26/99)(AP, 9/26/97)

1777        Sep 27, At the Battle of Germantown the British defeated Washington's army. English General William Howe occupied Philadelphia. [see Sep 25,26]
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1777        Sep 30, The Congress of the United States, forced to flee in the face of advancing British forces, moved to York, Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 9/30/00)

1777        Oct 4, George Washington's troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Penn., resulting in heavy American casualties. British General Sir William Howe repelled Washington's last attempt to retake Philadelphia, compelling Washington to spend the winter at Valley Forge.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)

1777        Nov 15, The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in York, Pa. These instituted the perpetual union of the United States of America and served as a precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
    (PCh, 1992, p.325)(AP, 11/15/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.2)(HN, 11/15/98)

1777        Dec 2, British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh listened in on the plans and sent word to Whitemarsh of the impending attack.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777        Dec 5, A British advance column met unexpected resistance at Germantown, Penn. Gen. Howe refrained from a direct attack on Whitemarsh, where Gen. Wasinington was based, and the battle dissolved in a series of inconclusive skirmishes that lasted 3 days. The Americans lost 90 men killed or wounded and the British lost 60.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777        Dec 8, Britain’s Gen. Howe withdrew to Philadelphia following a failed attempt on American forces encamped at Whitemarsh.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)

1777        Dec 19, Gen. George Washington led his army of about 11,000 men to Valley Forge, Pa., to camp for the winter. [see Dec 17]
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1777        George Washington led a campaign against the British and their Iroquois allies in Pennsylvania, New York, and the Ohio country. These included the Six Nations Indians: Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora. In 2005 Glenn F. Williams published “The Year of the Hangman: George Washington’s Campaign Against the Iroquois.
    (WSJ, 7/26/05, p.D8)

1777-1778    Some 2,000 American soldiers died at Washington’s Valley Forge encampment over a harsh weather period of 7 months.
    (WSJ, 1/3/02, p.A7)

1778        Jun 18, American forces entered Philadelphia as the British withdrew during the Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)

1778        Jun 19, General George Washington’s troops finally left Valley Forge after a winter of training. Washington left to intercept the British force on its way to New York City.
    (HN, 6/19/98)(MC, 6/20/02)

1778        Jun 27, The Liberty Bell came home to Philadelphia after the British left.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1778        Jun, George Washington appointed Benedict Arnold as military governor of Philadelphia.
    (ON, 11/01, p.1)

1778        Jul 3, The Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers in the frontier during the war, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot's Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
    (HNQ, 11/5/98)(MC, 7/3/02)

1778        Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1779        May 23, Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
    (ON, 11/01, p.1)

1779        Dec 25, A court-martial was convened against Benedict Arnold. He defended himself successfully on 6 of 8 charges but was convicted of illegally issuing a government pass and using government wagons to transport personal goods.
    (ON, 11/01, p.2)

1780         Mar 1, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only). It was followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New York in 1785, and New Jersey in 1786. Massachusetts abolished slavery through a judicial decision in 1783 (see July 8 1777).
    (http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/clementsmss/umich-wcl-M-230dau?view=text)

1780        Apr, George Washington censured Benedict Arnold for his misdeeds as governor of Philadelphia.
    (ON, 11/01, p.2)

1782        Jan 7, The 1st US commercial bank, Bank of North America, opened in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1782        Jun 20, Congress approved the Great Seal of the United States and the eagle as its symbol.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(MC, 6/20/02)

1783        May 30, The first American daily newspaper, The Pennsylvania Evening Post, began publishing in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 5/30/01)

1785        Jan 6, Haym Salomon (44) died in Philadelphia. He helped finance the US revolution.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1785        Mar 1, Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture was organized.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1785        May 9, James Pollard Espy, meteorologist (Philosophy of Storms), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1785        Oct 18, Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. Special balloting unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson.
    (AH, 2/06, p.47)(http://help.com/post/275760-why-is-benjamin-franklin-important)

1787        Apr 12, Philadelphia's Free African Society formed.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1787        May 25, The Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia after enough delegates showed up for a quorum. The Founding Fathers turned to the Rushworth's Collections of England for revolutionary precedents. George Washington presided. [see May 25, 1777] Rhode Island refused to send delegates.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(HN, 5/25/99)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.44)

1787        Aug 6, The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia began to debate the articles contained in a draft of the United States Constitution.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1787        Sep 17, The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789. Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to "regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes." Two of the signers went on to become presidents of the United States. George Washington, the president of the Constitutional Convention, and James Madison both signed the Constitution. The US Constitution is the world's oldest working Constitution. George Mason of Virginia refused to sign the document because he thought it made the federal government too powerful believed that it should contain a Bill of Rights.
     (AP, 9/17/97)(WUD, 1994, p.314)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W17)(HNQ, 5/19/99)(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)
1787        Sep 17, The US Constitution included the Connecticut, or "Great," Compromise in which every state was conceded an equal vote in the Senate irrespective of its size, but representation in the House was to be on the basis of the "federal ratio," an enumeration of the free population plus three fifths of the slaves.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)
1787        Sep 17, The "College of Electors" (electoral college) was established at the Constitutional Convention with representatives to be chosen by the states. Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system. [see Sep 13, 1788]
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)
1787        Sep 17, The Electoral College, proposed by James Wilson, was the compromise that the Constitutional Convention reached. In 2004 George C. Edwards III authored “Why the Electoral College Is Bad for America.”
    (www.usconstitution.net/consttop_elec.html)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M3)

1787        Dec 10, Thomas H. Gallaudet, a pioneer of educating the deaf, was born in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

1787        Dec 12, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1787        Peter Markoe (1752?-1792) authored “An Algerine Spy in Pennsylvania.” His satirical provocation helped to push the US Congress authorized a Navy and to dispatch Marines to subdue the pirates of Tripoli.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1787        Rev. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia.
    (www.pbs.org)

1789        Mar 2, Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1789        Dec 28, Lydia Darrragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.
    (ON, 8/07, p.8)(www.lexidigital.com/bcdarwomen4.htm)

1790        Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
    (HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)

1790        Apr 17, Benjamin Franklin (born 1706), American statesman, died in Philadelphia at age 84. He mechanized the process of making sounds from tuned glass with his glass armonica. In 2000 H.W. Brands authored his Franklin biography: "The First American." In 2003 Walter Isaacson authored "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life."
    (AP, 4/17/97)(SFEC,12/28/97, DB p.17)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.D8)

1790        Jun 9, The "Philadelphia Spelling Book" was the first US work to be copyrighted.
    (WSJ, 6/14/00, p.A1)(MC, 6/9/02)

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1790        Dec 6, Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia, where Washington served out his two terms. He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(HNPD, 12/22/98)

1791        Mar 11, Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia was the 1st to obtain more than 1 US patent.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1791        Apr 23, James Buchanan, was born in Franklin County, Pa. He was the fifteenth U.S. president (1857-1861) and the only president not to marry.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1791        Jul 25, Free African Society (FAS) leaders drew up a plan to organize a church for African-Americans.
    (www.pbs.org)

1791        William Sprague opened the 1st US carpet mill in Philadelphia.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.8)

1793        Jan 9, The first US manned balloon flight occurred as Frenchman Jean Pierre Blanchard, using a hot-air balloon, flew between Philadelphia and Woodbury, N.J. He stayed airborne for 46 minutes, traveled close to 15 miles and set down at the "old Clement farm" in Deptford, New Jersey. [see Jun 23, 1784, Mar 9, 1793]
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/9/99)(ON, 6/09, p.2)

1793        Jun 20, Eli Whitney petitioned for a cotton gin patent in Philadelphia.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h1517t.html)

1793        There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1794        Feb 14, 1st US textile machinery patent was granted, to James Davenport in Phila.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1794        May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, "House of God." The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794        Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.
    (www.pbs.org)

1794        Aug 7, George Washington issued a proclamation telling a group of Western Pennsylvania farmers to stop their Whiskey Rebellion. In the US in western Pennsylvania, angry farmers protested a new federal tax on whiskey makers. The protest flared into the open warfare known as the Whiskey Rebellion between US marshals and whiskey farmers.
    (http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml)(A&IP, ESM, p.16)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1794        French Azilum near Towanda was planned as an asylum for Marie-Antoinette, her children and other loyalists of the monarchy seeking refuge from the French Revolution. Loyalists who kept their heads did come and settle.
    (HT, 5/97, p.18)

1797        Jul 10, 1st US frigate, the "United States," was launched in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1798        Jan 30, A brawl broke out in the House of Representatives in Philadelphia. Matthew Lyon of Vermont spat in the face of Roger Griswold of Connecticut, who responded by attacking him with a hickory walking stick. Lyon was re-elected congressman while serving a jail sentence for violating the Sedition Acts of 1798.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1798        The first big US bank robbery was at the Philadelphia Carpenter's Hall, which was leased to the Bank of Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, Z1 p.2)

1799        Feb 15, The 1st US printed ballots were authorized in Pennsylvania.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1803        Feb 14, An apple parer was patented by Moses Coats in Downington, Penn.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1803        Sep 13, Commodore John Barry, considered by many the father of the American Navy, died in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1804        Feb 6, Joseph Priestley (b.1733), English-born US writer, philosopher and chemist, died in Pennsylvania. He became best known for having discovered oxygen. Priestley also figured out how to manufacture carbonated water and is sometimes called “the father of the soft-drink industry.” In 2008 Steven Johnson authored “The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America.”
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9061366)(ON, 10/05, p.1)(SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)

1805        The Philadelphia harbor was dredged with a high-pressure steam engine invented by Oliver Evans. He was unable to get a proper patent for it.
    (WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A19)

1806        Shoemakers in Philadelphia formed a union.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1807        May 22, Townsend Speakman 1st sold fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Phila.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1808        Feb 11, Anthracite coal was 1st burned as fuel, experimentally, in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1810        Feb 28, The 1st US fire insurance joint-stock company was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1810        Apr 17, Lewis Norton of Troy, PA., introduced his pineapple cheese.
    (440 Int'l, 4/17/03)

1811        Oct 29, The 1st Ohio River steamboat left Pittsburgh for New Orleans.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1811        A group of amateur naturalists formed the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.
    (AH, 10/04, p.20)

1812        Dec 4, Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pa., patented a horse-drawn mower.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1812        The steamboat New Orleans was built in Pittsburgh and steamed to New Orleans but lacked sufficient power to return upstream.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1813        Aug 23, Alexander Wilson (b.1766), Scottish-born poet and naturalist, died in Philadelphia. He had completed 7 volumes of “American Ornithology” and was working on a 8th volume when he died.
    (AH, 10/04, p.23)(www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/PA_Env-Her/alexandar_wilson.htm)

1814        Dec 1, The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to Gen. Jackson.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1814        Dec 14, The steamboat Enterprise, designed by keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, arrived in New Orleans with guns and ammunition for Gen. Jackson. It was immediately commandeered for military service.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1815        Sep 8, Alexander Ramsey (d.1903), territorial governor of Minnesota (1849-1853), was born near Harrisburg, Pa.
    (www.bioguide.congress.gov)

1816        Dec 2, The first savings bank in the United States, the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, opened for business.
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1816        Pittsburgh was incorporated on the site of old Fort Pitt.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1817        Mar 2, The 1st US Evangelical church building was dedicated in New Berlin, PA.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1818        Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH) was founded in Philadelphia as John A. Brown and Company, an importer of linen. On January 1, 1931, Brown Brothers And Company merged with Harriman Brothers & Company, an investment company started in 1912 with railway money.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Brothers_Harriman_%26_Co.)

1819        In Philadelphia Dr. Thomas W. Dyott, (druggist, patent-medicine vendor, and physician) purchased the Kensington Glass Works. He expanded the business and changed the name to the Dyottville Glass Works. He was forced out of the firm in 1838, but the glassworks continued operating until about 1923.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)

1821        Feb 23, College of Apothecaries, the 1st US pharmacy college, was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1821        Nov 9, The 1st US pharmacy college held 1st classes in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1824        The Second Bank of the United States, established by federal charter in 1791, was completed in Philadelphia by William Strickland. It was modeled after the Parthenon. From 1841-1934 it served as a Custom House. It was acquired by the National Park Service in 1939 and in 1974 became the home of the Peale portraits. The renovated museum reopened Dec 1, 2004.
    (WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)

1825        Philadelphia druggist Elie Magliore Durand first touted the effervescent soda water as a health drink. Shortly afterward, New York inventor John Matthews originated the fountain apparatus that conveniently rested on a pharmacist's counter to dispense carbonated drinks.
    (HNQ, 6/12/98)

1829        Jul 4, Cornerstone laid for 1st US mint (Chestnut & Juniper St, Phila).
    (Maggio, 98)

1829        Oct 23, The Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia received its 1st prisoner, burglar Charles Williams (18). It was based on the Quaker idea of reform through solitude and reflection. It opened to tourists in 1971 after being closed to prisoners. The prison was designed by John Haviland.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.B1)(AHHT, 10/02, p.18)

1829        The Yeungling Brewery began producing beer in Pottsville, Pa.
    (WSJ, 3/23/04, p.B5)

1830        Sep 20, The National Negro Convention convened in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing slavery.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1830        George Brinton began constructing a home later called Rondelay in Chadds Ford. After extensive renovations the 6 bedroom home on 38.9 acres was listed for sale in 1998 for $2.9 mil.
    (WSJ, 4/3/98, p.W8)

1830-1850    The Pennsylvania German community made traditional hand-stitched show towels and most show towels date from this period. They were hung on a door in the main room of a house.
    (SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)

1831        Feb 19, The 1st practical US coal-burning locomotive made its 1st trial run in Penn.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1832        Aug, In Pennsylvania 57 Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. In 2010 evidence indicated that at least some of the men’s remains showed signs of violence.
    (AP, 3/25/09)(AP, 8/16/10)

1832        Nov 29, Louisa May Alcott (d.1888), American author who wrote "Little Women," was born in Germantown, Pa. Under the pen name A.M. Barnard she wrote stories of violence and revenge that included "Pauline’s Passion and Punishment." "It takes people a long time to learn the difference between talent and genius, especially ambitious young men and women."
    (WUD, 1994, p.35)(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/12/98)(HN, 11/29/98)

1832        The Girard Bank of Pennsylvania was founded.
    (Panic, p.16)

1832        The Pittsburgh riverfront home of coal baron Abraham Hays flooded. Hays built a new mansion,  which later became a stop on the Underground Railroad, harboring slaves who traveled a tunnel from the Monongahela River to the vast brick-lined basement.
    (www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_640258.html)

1833        Aug 7, Powell Clayton, Brig. General (Union volunteers), (Gov-R-Ark), was born in Pa.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1833        Dec 4, American Anti-Slavery Society was formed by Arthur Tappan in Phila.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1833        John Mohler Studebaker was born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1858 joined his two older brothers in a South Bend firm producing wagons. The company went on to become the world’s largest producer of farm wagons and carriages.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)(HNQ, 1/21/02)

1833        Richard Allen (73) published his autobiography: "The Life, Experience, and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen."
    (www.pbs.org)

1833        American Navy pensioners moved into what was then called the Naval Asylum, a 180-room stone building on the bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. The name was later changed to the Naval Home. It closed in 1977.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Naval_Asylum)

1834        William Russell Birch (b.1755), English-born artist, died. He had settled in Philadelphia with his son in 1794 and in 1800 published 28 drawn and engraved hand-colored images of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.E6)

1835        Jul 6, John Marshall, the third chief justice of the Supreme Court, died at the age of 79. Two days later, while tolling in his honor in Philadelphia, the Liberty Bell cracked.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1835        Jul 8, The US Liberty Bell in Philadelphia cracked while being tolled for Chief Justice John Marshall. It was never rung again.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)

1835        John Wise built and took off from Philadelphia in his first homemade balloon. In 1859 he attempted an express mail service by balloon from St. Louis to NYC.
    (ON, 11/00, p.6)

1836        The LaPorte house was built by John LaPorte, son of one of the founders of French Azilum
    (HT, 5/97, p.18)

1837        Feb 25, Cheyney University was established in Pennsylvania through the bequest of Richard Humphreys, and became the oldest institution of higher learning for African Americans. It was initially named the African Institute. However, the name was changed several weeks later to the Institute for Colored Youth (ICY). In subsequent years, the university was renamed Cheyney Training School for Teachers (July 1914), Cheyney State Teacher’s College (1951), Cheyney State College (1959), and eventually Cheyney Univ. of Pennsylvania (1983).
    (www.cheyney.edu/pages/index.asp?p=428)

1838        Jul 11, John Wanamaker (d.1922), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)(ON, 12/05, p.6)

1839        Feb 24, A steam shovel was patented by William Otis, Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1839        Dec 4, The Whig Party opened a national convention in Harrisburg, Pa., where delegates nominated William Henry Harrison for president.
    (AP, 12/4/99)

1840        Apr 2, The Association of American Geologists held its first meeting in Philadelphia.
    (www.lib.uwaterloo.ca/society/history/1840aagn.html)

1840        A US no-bail-out policy forced some state into default. Several US states had loaded up on unsustainable debt following an extended period of easy credit. These states consequently found payments on their existing bonds increasingly unaffordable. Between 1841 and 1843 Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and one territory – a proto-state called Florida – defaulted.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/6pgf4wq)

1840s        The Chain Gang, the earliest Mummers club, was formed in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.A10)

1841        In Philadelphia Volney B. Palmer began the first advertising agency. He sold newspaper space to out-of-town advertisers.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E3)
1841        The Bartleson-Bidwell Party made the trek to California. John Bidwell was on the 1st wagon train over the Sierra Nevada and later founded Chico. Also in the group was Paul Geddes, who had robbed a bank in Philadelphia, and renamed himself Talbot Green. His true ID was exposed in 1851 as he was about to run for mayor of SF.
    {California, SF, USA, Pennsylvania}
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.E4)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.B3)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)

1844        May 22, Mary Cassatt, impressionist painter, was born in Alleghany City (later Pittsburgh). [see May 22, 1845]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.209)(HN, 5/22/98)(WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A20)

1845        Apr 10, Over 1,000 buildings were damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1845        May 22, Mary Cassatt (d.1926), American impressionist painter and printmaker, was born in Alleghany, Pa. Much of Cassatt’s early life was spent in Europe with her wealthy family. She attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1861 to 1865 and worked briefly with Charles Joshua Chaplin in Paris, but preferred working her own way and copying old masters. She was a close friend of and greatly influenced by Edgar Degas. He admired her entry in the Salon of 1874, and at his invitation she joined the Impressionists and afterward showed her works at their exhibits. Degas’ influence is apparent in Cassatt’s mastery of drawing and in her unposed, asymmetrical compositions. Initially, Cassatt was a figure painter whose subjects were groups of women drinking tea or on outings with friends. After the great exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris in 1890, she brought out her series of 10 colored prints, such as "Woman Bathing," and "The Coiffure," in which the influence of the Japanese masters Utamaro and Toyokuni is apparent. Cassatt urged her wealthy American friends and relatives to buy Impressionist paintings, and in this way, more than through her own works, she exerted a lasting influence on American taste. She was largely responsible for selecting the works that make up the H.O. Havemeyer Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.209)(FAMSF, Mar, 98)

1846        Feb 23, The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia tolled for the last time, to mark George Washington’s birthday. A hairline fracture had developed since 1817 and a failed attempt to repair it resulted in the crack. In 2010 Tristram Riley-Smith authored “”The Cracked Bell: American and the Afflictions of Liberty.”
    (HN, 2/23/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T5)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.93)

1847        May 7, The American Medical Association was founded in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 5/7/97) (HN, 5/7/98)

1847        Sep 11, Stephen Foster’s "Oh! Susanna" was first performed in a saloon in Pittsburgh.
    (HN, 9/11/00)

1848        Oct 16, The 1st US homeopathic medical college opened in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1849        Dec 19, Henry Clay Frick (d.1919), coal and steel magnate, was born in West Overton, Penn.
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/pa_hcf.htm)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.
    (http://homeoint.org/cazalet/histo/pennsylvfem.htm)

1850        Oct 12, The 1st women's medical school, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, opened to students.
    (http://homeoint.org/cazalet/histo/pennsylvfem.htm)

1850-1859    The Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, became an iron-making center in the 1850s thanks to discoveries of coal and iron ore nearby.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1851        Sep 11, Edward Gorsuch, a wealthy slave owner from Maryland, confronted William Parker and accused him of harboring 4 runaway slaves near the abolitionist town, Christiana, Pennsylvania. This was one year after the second fugitive slave law (first law was on February 12, 1793) was passed by Congress, requiring the return of all escaped slaves to their owners in the South. Gorsuch was killed during the skirmish and Parker was forced to flee to Canada.
    (AH, 10/02, p.49)

1851        Dec 11, In Philadelphia 37 men, on trial in federal court for defying the Fugitive Slave Law, were deemed not guilty by a jury with 15 minutes of deliberation.
    (AH, 10/02, p.54)

1851        In Pennsylvania Bernard Lauth, founded the American Iron Company. The firm of Jones and Lauth was founded in 1852 by B. F. Jones a few miles (~4 km) south of Pittsburgh along the Monongahela River. Lauth's interest was bought in 1854 by James H. Laughlin.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jones_and_Laughlin_Steel_Company)

1852        Feb 16, Charles Taze Russell (d.1916) was born in Pittsburgh. In 1872 Russell abandoned the Adventist movement and formed the International Bible Students Association, which was later named Jehovah’s Witnesses (1931).
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/302393/Jehovahs-Witness)(AH, 4/07, p.30)

1852        John Neumann, Catholic missionary, became the bishop of Philadelphia. he was later made a saint.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1855        Jul 18, In Philadelphia William Still, a leader in the Underground Railroad, liberated Jane Johnson and her 2 sons from Col. John H. Wheeler, the recently appointed US Minister to Nicaragua. Still was tried and acquitted. "The Underground Railroad" by William Still  was published in 1871.
    (ON, 10/01, p.5)

1855        Organic chemist Benjamin Stillman laid the foundations for the Pennsylvania oil rush by his discovery that petroleum could be distilled into lubricants and kerosene for cooking and illumination. Suddenly there was a use for the crude oil that seeped to the surface, annoying farmers by ruining the land and polluting the water supply.
    (HNPD, 10/4/98)

1856        Jun 17, In Philadelphia, the Republican Party opened its first national convention.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 6/17/98)

1856-1930    Henry Chapman Mercer, archeologist and collector. He designed and constructed the Mercer Museum in Doylestown.
    (AH, 4/01, p.18)

1857        Jan 6, Patent for reducing zinc ore was granted to Samuel Wetherill in Penn.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1857        Sep 13, Milton S. Hershey, chocolate manufacturer and philanthropist, was born in Dauphin County, Pa.
    (www.hersheys.com/about/milton.shtml)(AP, 9/13/07)

1857        Nov 5, Ida M. Tarbell (d.1944), muckraking journalist, was born in Erie County, Pa.
    (AP, 11/5/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ida_Tarbell)

1858        Mar 23, Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia patented the cable street car, which ran on overhead cables.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1858        Mar 30, Hyman L. Lipman of Philadelphia patented the pencil.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1858        The Market Square Presbyterian Church was built in Harrisburg.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1859        Mar 21, Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the 1st in US, was incorporated.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1859        Aug 27-28, The US oil business was born in Titusville, Pa. Former army officer Colonel Edwin L. Drake drilled the first oil well in Titusville, Pa., striking oil at 70 feet and setting off a wild scramble for wealth similar to the California gold rush of 1849. The land belonged to the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Until that time, the company had simply collected oil that seeped out of the ground. Drake's plan was to produce it in large quantities for use in heating and illumination. Overnight oil fields sprang up in Pennsylvania but competition, disorganization and oversupply kept oil prices low. It was not until John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company came onto the scene in 1870 that the petroleum industry developed into a vastly profitable, although much hated, monopoly.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(AP, 8/27/97)(HNPD, 10/4/98)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A9)(HNQ, 2//99)

1860        Jul 14, Owen Wister (d.1938), novelist, was born in Germantown, Pa.  His 1902 novel "The Virginian" inspired 5 films.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(SFC, 1/9/02, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.18)

1860        William McGillin began opened McGillin’s Olde Ale House in Philadelphia. In 2009 it celebrated its sesquicentennial.
    (SFC, 8/5/09, p.A4)

1860        John and Frank Wyeth established a drugstore in Philadelphia. It grew to become Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories in 1926 and was later acquired by American Home Products.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.B2)

1860        John Neumann, the 4th Bishop of Philadelphia, died. He was later made the patron saint of the Mummers.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.A10)

1861        Feb 5, The kinematoscope was patented by Coleman Sellers in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1861        William Wrigley, Jr., was born in Philadelphia. He began his business career by selling soap manufactured by his father. In 1891, Wrigley moved to Chicago where he founded and became president of Wm. Wrigley, Jr.  Company, manufacturers of chewing gum, earning him the money to acquire the Chicago Cubs and to build Wrigley‘s Stadium. Wrigley is especially noted for his effective advertising techniques.
    (AP, 4/9/00)

1861        James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States, retired to Wheatland, his Pennsylvania home, on the eve of the American Civil War. Attracted to the privacy, quiet and beauty of its rural location, Buchanan bought the 22-acre property in 1848 while he was finishing out his term as secretary of state under President James Polk. The Federal-style house was built in 1828 for William Jenkins, a wealthy lawyer and banker who named his estate "The Wheatlands" because of its setting among wheat fields.
    (HNQ, 4/15/01)

1861        The Bassett family became making ice cream in Philadelphia. The ice cream was later called Bassetts and considered by some to be the best in the world.
    (WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A24)

1861        In Philadelphia John Wanamaker (1838-1922) and Nathan Brown (d.1868) purchased a 6-story men’s clothing store called McNeill’s Folly and renamed it the Oak Hall Clothing Bazaar.
    (ON, 12/05, p.4)

1861        John Wallace Cowden founded the Cowden pottery in Harrisburg, Pa. It became Cowden & Son from 1888-1904.
    (SFC, 3/29/06, p.G6)

1862        Feb 26, Cornelius Felton (b.1807), president of Harvard Univ., died in Chester, Pen., after 2 years in office.
    (WSJ, 2/21/06, p.A3)(www.nndb.com/people/711/000107390/)

1862          May 18, William High Keim (b.1813), US Union Brigadier-General, died in camp of fever in Harrisburg, Pa.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(http://home.ptd.net/~nikki/usagen3.htm)

1862        A dam across the South Fork Creek, a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River, collapsed and damaged some property in Johnstown.
    (ON, 12/99, p.9)

1863        Jun 26, Jubal Early and his Confederate forces moved into Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1863        Jun 28, General Meade replaced General Hooker three days before the Battle of Gettysburg.
    (HN, 6/28/98)
1863        Jun 28, Officers of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia’s Second Corps were looking at Harrisburg through field glasses from across the Susquehanna River just a day or two before a developing battle at Gettysburg called them away. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the Keystone State’s capital was a major hub for rail traffic from every direction. Consequently, it was also the point through which the hard, slow-burning coal used by ships, locomotives, and furnaces traveled on its way from the mines of north central Pennsylvania to military and industrial customers. Philadelphia, an important ocean port east of Harrisburg and connected to it by rail, would have been virtually defenseless against an attack from its landward side. If Lee had taken Harrisburg, he would also have been perfectly positioned to threaten Washington, D.C., from the north.
    (HNQ, 3/5/02)

1863        Jun 29, Lee ordered his forces to concentrate near Gettysburg, PN.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1863        Jun 30, Union and Confederate cavalries clashed at Hanover, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1863          Jul 1, The opening shot at the Battle of Gettysburg was at 7:30 a.m. In the first day's fighting at Gettysburg, Federal forces retreated through the town and dug in at Cemetery Ridge and Cemetery Hill. Gen. Robert E. Lee's ordered Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell, "Take the hill if practicable, but do not bring on a general engagement..." Books on the campaign included "The Gettysburg Campaign, A Study in Command," by Edwin B. Coddington and "Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill," by Harry W. Pfanz. The novel "While Gods and Generals" by Jeff Shaara, son of Michael Shaara, describes the years leading up to the battle.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(AP, 7/1/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D5)(HN, 7/1/98)
1863        Jul 1, John Fulton Reynolds (42), Union general, died in battle at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1863        Jul 1-3, From the opening shot at 7:30 a.m. on July 1, 1863, to 4 p.m. on July 3, when the last rebel assault was repulsed, the Union and Confederate armies suffered an estimated 50,000 casualties in the Battle of Gettysburg. It was the bloodiest battle the country had yet seen. Upon whom the responsibility for the South's failure at Gettysburg rests has been widely debated, but five months after the epic battle, Confederate General Robert E. Lee admitted, "I thought my men were invincible." The fighting in the small Pennsylvania town marked a pivotal point in the Union's ascent to victory and helped decide the outcome of the Civil War.
    (HNPD, 7/6/98)

1863        Jul 2, The Union left flank held at Little Round Top during 2nd day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Union Gen. Daniel Sickles was severely wounded and had his leg amputated. In 2002 Thomas Keneally authored "American Scoundrel: The Life of the Notorious Civil War General Dan Sickles."
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.W10)(SFC, 4/17/02, p.D1)(AH, 2/05, p.49)

1863        Jul 3, The Civil War's Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania ended after three days in a major victory for the North as Confederate troops retreated. The last Confederate assault at Gettysburg was Pickett’s Charge against the center of the Union line that left some 7,000 of 13,000 [15,000] Confederate troops dead. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet gave Maj. Gen. George Pickett the assent. General Lee took responsibility. In 1974 Michael Shaara published "The Killer Angels," a novel about the 3-day battle.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T6)(SFC,2/17/97, p.A3)(AP, 7/3/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D5)(HN, 7/3/98)(WSJ, 9/11/98, p.W10)

1863        Jul 4, General Lee’s army limped toward Virginia after defeat at Gettysburg. 28,063 of 75,000 confederate soldiers were lost. General Meade’s army suffered 23,049 soldiers killed, wounded and missing.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T6)
1863        Jul 4, Paul Joseph Revere, US grandson of Paul Revere, Union brig-gen, died from wounds at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1863        Jul 6, Vincent Strong (b.1837), US Union brig-general, died from wounds at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 6/17/02)(MC, 7/6/02)

1863        Nov 19, President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address as he dedicated a national cemetery at the site of the Civil War battlefield in Pennsylvania. Lincoln had been asked to deliver a few "appropriate remarks" to the crowd at the dedication of the National Cemetery at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. His address was almost ignored in the wake of the lengthy oration by main speaker Edwin Everett, the former governor of Massachusetts. In fact, Lincoln's speech was over before many in the crowd were even aware that he was speaking. Lincoln concluded his speech with this vow: "We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
    (http://condor.stcloudstate.edu/~brixr01/theTIMEMACHINE.html)(AP, 11/19/97)(ON, 8/07, p.1)

1863        Nov, In Pennsylvania the Harrisburg Patriot and Union newspaper described Pres. Lincoln’s speech at Gettysburg as “silly remarks” that deserved a “veil of oblivion.” In 2013 the Patriot-News of Harrisburg retracted the editorial  penned by its predecessor. 
    (SFC, 11/15/13, p.A7)

1863        The Mütter Museum was founded as part of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia was an educational service for practicing physicians.
    (NW, 11/18/02, p.14)
1863        A locomotive named the Gov. Stanford was built by Richard Norris & Son in Philadelphia and shipped around Cape Horn to California by schooner. It hauled the Central Pacific’s 1st freight and passenger trains and later was made a centerpiece at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.D5)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.P2)

1864        Jul 30, Gen. Jubal Early ordered Confederate troops to attack Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The town was burned by Confederate forces under Gen. McCausland (1836-1927).
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McCausland)

1865        Daniel C. Ripley founded a lamp manufacturing firm in Pittsburgh, Pa. the following year he joined with 5 partners to form Ripley & Co. Ripley was granted a patent in 1868 for a glass oil lamp. The company merged with others in 1891 to form the U.S. Glass Co. of Pittsburgh.
    (SFC, 12/14/05, p.G4)(SFC, 4/4/07, p.G2)

1865-1877    In eastern Pennsylvania the Molly McGuires, a secret society of Irish miners, waged a war with arson, murders and beatings, on coal-mine owners.
    (WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1868        Aug 11, Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868), Pennsylvania Republican and architect of Radical Reconstruction, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaddeus_Stevens)

1869        Jun 9, Charles Elmer Hires sold his 1st root beer in Phila.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1869        Sep 6, 110 miners, a number of them young boys, were killed in coal mine disaster which occurred early in the morning in Avondale, Pennsylvania, when a fire broke out in a mineshaft, cutting off the miners' escape route and their only source of air.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1869        The first Lithuanian community was established in Danville, Pennsylvania.
    http://w3.arobas.net/~simunye/coalmine.html

1869        Henry J. Heinz partnered with L.C. Noble to form Heinz & Noble in Sharpsburg, Pa., selling fruit and vegetable preserves. They produced tomato and walnut ketchup for 24 cents per gallon and sold them from whiskey barrels.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)(www.hfp.heinz.org/aboutus/heinzhistory.html)

1870        Feb 5, The 1st motion picture was shown to a theater audience in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1870        Mar 21, The grave of Ellen Shannon in Girard, Pennsylvania reads: Ellen Shannon, Who was fatally burned March 21, 1870 by the explosion of a lamp filled with "R.E. Danforth’s Non-Explosive Burning Fluid."
    (e-mail, Riddiough, 5/16/99)

1870        Harry "the Sundance Kid" Longabaugh was born in Lancaster County.
    (MesWP)

1870-1882    Alexander Conrad was a stoneware manufacturer in southwestern Pennsylvania during this time.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1871        The construction of City Hall in Philadelphia began.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1871        The Red Star Line, an ocean passenger line, was founded as a joint venture between the International Navigation Company of Philadelphia, which also ran the American Line, and the Société Anonyme de Navigation Belgo-Américaine of Antwerp, Belgium.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Star_Line)(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.H4)

1871        The Knights of Labor organization was started as a secret order at a meeting of tailors called by Uriah Stephens in Philadelphia. The Knights of Labor was organized on a national basis in 1878. It was an industrial union open to all gainfully employed skilled or unskilled workers and headed by a General Assembly. By 1886 there were 5,892 local assemblies and more than 700,000 members. Among other reforms, the Knights supported an 8-hour day, graduated income tax, boycotts, arbitration, and consumer and producer cooperatives. The organization began to decline after 1886. [other sources give 1869 as the founding year.]
    (HNQ, 9/5/99)

1872        Aug 1, The first long-distance gas pipeline in the U.S. was completed. Designed for natural gas, the two-inch pipe ran five miles from Newton Wells to Titusville, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 8/1/00)

1872        The International Bible Students Association was founded in Pittsburgh by Charles Taze Russell. During the 1870s, Charles Taze Russell established himself as an independent and controversial Adventist teacher. Russell was succeeded as president in 1917 by Joseph Franklin Rutherford (Judge Rutherford; 1869–1942), who changed the group’s name to Jehovah’s Witnesses in 1931 to emphasize its members’ belief that Jehovah, or Yahweh, is the true God and that the Witnesses were his specially chosen followers.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/302393/Jehovahs-Witness)

1874        Feb 3, Gertrude Stein (d.1946), poet and novelist, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. Her older brother, Michael, managed the family business, which included San Francisco's Market Street railway line. Her parents were Daniel and Milly. The family returned to America from Europe in 1878, and settled in Oakland, California, where Gertrude attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. Her relationship with her brother, Leo (1872-1947), abruptly ended in 1914. Her work included "Three Lives," "G.M.P." and "Tender Buttons." Stein coined the term "Lost Generation" in reference to the disillusioned intellectuals and aesthetes of the post-World War I years. The 40-year relationship between Gertrude and Leo is told by Brenda Wineapple in "Sister Brother, Gertrude and Leo Stein." "Everybody gets so much information all day long that they lose their common sense." "It is awfully important to know what is and what is not your business."
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_Stein)(AP, 12/27/97)(AP, 9/3/98)

1874        Jun 25, Rose Cecil O’Neill (d.1944), illustrator, writer and creator of the Kewpie doll, was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
    (AH, 2/05, p.24)(www.britannica.com/ebi/article?tocId=9331987)

1874        Jul 1, The 1st US zoo opened in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1876        May 10, Centennial Fair opened in Philadelphia. Centennial Hall was built in Philadelphia, Pa., to commemorate the country’s 100th birthday. The US Centennial Exhibition was a world’s fair celebrating the founding of the US and drew over 9.9 million people. The US population at this time was 46 million.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.108)(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)(MC, 5/10/02)

1876        Jun 5, Bananas became popular in US following the Centennial Exposition in Phila.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1876        Jun 26, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)

1876        Dec 6, The 1st US crematorium began operation in Washington, Penn.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1876        Edward Mitchell Bannister, African-American artist, won a 1st place prize at the Centennial Exposition, but was turned away from the exhibition hall when he went to collect his medal.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1876        In the US the Workingmen’s Party of the United States (WPUS) was founded in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1878 it reformed as the Socialist Labor Party.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workingmen%27s_Party_of_the_United_States)
1876        The high-wheel bicycle was introduced in the US at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia.
    (ON, 2/10, p.3)

1877        Mar 12, In Philadelphia the first department store, The Grand Depot, opened. John Wanamaker turned an abandoned railway depot into one of the world’s 1st department stores.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(Econ, 4/2/05, p.11)(ON, 12/05, p.5)

1878        Mar 20, Thomas Fisher, an alleged member of the Molly McGuires, was hung at the Carbon County Prison of Mauch Chunk, Pa. He had been convicted of the murder of Morgan Powell, a supervisor for the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. Fisher insisted up to his death on his innocence.
    (HT, 4/97, p.20)

1878        Jul 3, John Wise flew the first dirigible in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1878        Dec 26, The 1st US store to install electric lights was in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1878        The Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) painting "The Gross Clinic" was bought for $200 by Thomas Jefferson University, a medical and health sciences school in Philadelphia. In 2006 The National Gallery of Art agreed to buy the painting for a record $68 million, however the deal was matched by local institutions and the painting remained in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 11/11/06)(WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)

1879        Apr 9, W.C. Fields (Claude William Dukinfield [Dukenfield]), comedian, was born in Philadelphia. He began his career as a vaudeville juggler, appeared on Broadway and in motion pictures. [see Jan 29, 1880]
    (HN, 4/9/98)(HNQ, 9/30/01)

1879        Jun 21, F.W. Woolworth opened his 1st store. It failed almost immediately. Frank Woolworth added 10-cent items to the Great 5-Cent Store in Lancaster, Pa., and created Woolworth’s five-and-ten. This was his 2nd attempt after a failure in Utica. He took in $127 during his first day of business.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.B1)(SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(MC, 6/21/02)

1879        In downtown Philadelphia the Provident Life and Trust Building was completed. It was designed by Frank Furness (1839-1912).
    (WS, 6/26/01, p.A21)

1879        Lt. Col. Richard Henry Pratt persuaded Washington to hand over the mothballed Carlisle military barracks in Pennsylvania for use as a school for American Indians. In the early 20th century the school became a football powerhouse, beating Army in 1912. In 1918 the school was turned into a hospital to receive soldiers wounded in WW I.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)

1880        Jan 6, Tom Mix, silent screen cowboy actor (Dick Turpin), was born in Mix Run, Pa.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1880        Jan 29, W.C. Fields, comedian and actor, was born as Claude William Dukinfield [Dukenfield]. His films included David Copperfield and My Little Chickadee. [see Apr 9 1879]
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1880        Jun 18, John Sutter (b.1803), Swiss-born California settler (gold discovered on his land), died in Lititz, Pa.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)(MC, 6/18/02)

c1880-1920    In Philadelphia the Juvenile Aid Society was begun by the 15,000 Jews of German extraction to deal with the wave of some 200,000 East European Jews who arrived during this time.
    (WSJ, 6/18/99, p.A20)

c1881        The Norristown State Hospital was established. It served the chronically mentally ill and the worst of the criminally insane.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.A4)

1881        The South Fork Hunting and Fishing Club purchased the old damn site across a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River and rebuilt the old damn without the original sluice pipes. They blocked the spillway to prevent fish from escaping.
    (ON, 12/99, p.9)

1881        The Wharton School was founded in Pennsylvania. In 2003 it was recognized as the oldest and best business school in the US.
    (WSJ, 9/17/03, p.A1)

1883        Feb 23, American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1883        Haverford College was founded in Haverford, Pa., by Quakers.
    (WSJ, 7/24/03, p.A1)

1884        French artist Paul Philippoteaux (1846-1923) and team of 20 created in Paris the massive Cyclorama painting titled “The Battle of Gettysburg.” It was originally 377 feet in circumference. They then shipped it to the US, where it was first displayed in Boston. The US National Park Service acquired it in 1942. In 2008 a 5-year, $15 million restoration project was completed and it was reopened to the public at the Gettysburg National Military Park in Gettysburg, Pa.
    (SSFC, 9/28/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Philippoteaux)

1885        Mar, In Loganville, Pa., Dr. George E. Holtzapple (22) saved Fred Gable (16), who was suffering from pneumonia, by supplying the boy with pure oxygen. Oxygen therapy became the only effective treatment for pneumonia until antibiotics became available in the 1940s.
    (ON, 4/07, p.10)

1885        The Cincinnati Stock Exchange was founded. It closed its trading floor in 1980 and became America's first fully computerized exchange. Bernard Madoff, a former chairman of the NASDAQ Stock Market and founder of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities, was one of the few NASDAQ market-makers who competed with the New York Stock Exchange, by trading stocks listed on the Big Board. His broker/dealer firm did this through an electronic market that was operated at the Cincinnati Stock Exchange.
    (http://tinyurl.com/58xb7g)
1885        Isaac Mayer Wise united pockets of Jewish immigrants and assembled 15 rabbis in Pittsburgh to articulate a platform for the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the Hebrew Union College, and the Central Conference of American Rabbis. The organization of Reform Judaism discussed the Mitzvot,  the 613 commandments in the Torah, and accepted only the moral laws as binding.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W15)
1885        Elizabeth Cochran (21) began to produce article for the Pittsburgh Dikspatch under the name “Nelie Bly.” In 1887 she moved to NYC hoping to find work at the New York World.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.11)

1886        Feb 13, Painter Thomas Eakins resigned from the Philadelphia Academy of Art over controversial use of male nudes in a coed art class.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1887        Feb 2, People began gathering at Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney, Pa., to witness the groundhog's search for its shadow.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.B1)

1887        Ford City, Pa., was founded by John B. Ford, head of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. on the shore of the Allegheny River. Later some 47 acres of the factory grounds were fenced off due to contamination from arsenic left behind by decades of industrial glassmaking.
    (WSJ, 8/12/97, p.B1)
1887        The Pennsylvania Railroad train station at Harrisburg opened.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)
1887        Pennsylvania House was founded in Lewisburg, Pa., to make high-quality case furniture. In 2000 La-Z-Boy bought the company and in 2004 moved production to China.
    (SFC, 6/4/08, p.G3)
1887        The Lanston Monotype Machine Company was founded by Tolbert Lanston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lanston had a patented mechanical method of punching out metal types from cold strips of metal which were set (hence typesetting) into a matrix for the printing press.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotype_Imaging)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.52)

1889        Jan 9, A tornado struck Brooklyn, NY, when Flatbush was farmland. A twister blew through what are now the neighborhoods of Carroll Gardens, Boerum Hill, Downtown, Fort Greene and Williamsburg, blowing roofs off houses and uprooting trees, but killing no one. 14 people were killed by the tornado in Pittsburg, Pa.
    (http://tinyurl.com/349275)(http://tinyurl.com/395f4q)

1889        May 31, Johnstown, Pennsylvania was destroyed by a massive flood. The South Fork Dam across a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River collapsed under pressure from the rain-swollen Lake Conemaugh. Water slammed into Johnstown, Pa., 55 miles southeast of Pittsburgh and killed 2,209 people in a flood and related fire. Torrential rains had weakened the poorly constructed dam, located 14 miles upstream from the city. By the afternoon of May 31, after desperate efforts to shore up the earthen dam had failed, it broke and unleashed a 40-foot-high wave of water and debris into Johnstown with the force of Niagara Falls. Buildings and trees, along with animals and people--both dead and alive--piled up against the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's Stone Bridge. The mountain of debris then caught fire, trapping hundreds. More than 2,000 people lost their lives in the devastating Johnstown Flood. The South Fork Dam had been constructed to create Lake Conemaugh, a playground for the wealthy members of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. In 1959 Richard O'Connor published "Johnstown, the Day the Dam Broke." In 1968 David McCullough authored “The Johnstown Flood.”
    (SFC, 3/24/97, p.C2)(AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)(WSJ, 1/27/06, p.P8)

1889        Nov 16, George S. Kaufman, American playwright and screenwriter, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. His plays included "Dinner at Eight," "You Can't Take it With You" and "The Man Who Came to Dinner."
    (HN, 11/16/99)(MC, 11/16/01)

1889        Clara Barton and her Red Cross group spent 5 months helping victims of the Johnstown flood.
    (SFC, 9/17/01, p.A6)

1890        Aug 27, Man Ray (d.1976) was born as Emmanuel Radinski in Philadelphia, Pa. A painter and photographer, he and Marcel Duchamp founded the Dadaism movement.
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)

1890        The Westmoreland Glass Co. began making glass containers in Grapeville, Pa. Operations continued to 1984.
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.G4)

1891        Pennsylvania’s first free library was chartered.
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)

1892        Mar 3, 1st cattle tuberculosis test in US was made at Villa Nova, PA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1892        In Pennsylvania the Reading Railroad station opened in Philadelphia. It later became the home of the Reading /Terminal Market.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P4)
1892        Pennsylvania’s Mansfield Univ. played college football’s first night game.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A1)

1892        Henry Clay Frick, partner of Andrew Carnegie, engineered a bloody clash with the labor union at the Pittsburgh Homestead Mill. 9-10 workers and 3 Pinkerton guards were killed and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union was crushed.
    (SFEC,1/20/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)

1893        Feb 28, Edward Acheson of Pennsylvania, patented an abrasive he named "carborundum."
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1893        Jun 14, Philadelphia observed the first Flag Day.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1894        Apr 5, 11 strikers were killed in riot at Connellsville, Penn.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1894        May 11, Martha Graham, choreographer (Appalachian Spring), was born in Allegheny, Penn.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1894        Milton Hershey (1857-1945) founded Hershey Foods in Pennsylvania. He built an industrial town near where he was born and named it after himself.
    (WSJ, 7/26/02, p.B1)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D1)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.18)

1895        Sep 3, The first professional American football game was played in Latrobe, Pennsylvania between the Latrobe Young Men’s Christian Association and the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe wins 12-0.
    (HN, 9/3/00)

1896        Feb 28, Philip Showalter Hench, physician (cortisone-Nobel), was born in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1896        May 7, Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (b.1860), serial killer, was hanged to death in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Born as Herman Webster Mudgett in Gilmantown, New Hampshire, to a devout Methodist family, Holmes spent much of his childhood torturing animals. He later graduated from the University of Michigan with a medical degree. Holmes financed his education with a series of insurance scams whereby he requested coverage for nonexistent people and then presented corpses as the insured. In 1886, Holmes moved to Chicago to work as a pharmacist. A few months later, he killed the elderly owner of the store but told everyone that the man had left him in charge. With a new series of cons, Holmes raised enough money to build a giant, elaborate home across from the store. The home, which Holmes called "The Castle," had secret passageways, fake walls, and trapdoors. Young women in the area, along with tourists who had come to see the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, and had rented out rooms in Holmes' castle, suddenly began disappearing. Medical schools purchased many human skeletons from Dr. Holmes during this period but never asked how he obtained the anatomy specimens. Holmes was finally caught after attempting to use another corpse, his assistant Benjamin Pitezel, in an insurance scam. He confessed, saying, "I was born with the devil in me. I could not help the fact that I was a murderer, no more than a poet can help the inspiration to sing." Reportedly, authorities discovered the remains of over 200 victims on his property.
    (www.thecrimeweb.com/hhholmes.htm)

1896        In Pennsylvania American Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf bought 118 acres of land about 25 miles north of Philadelphia. The National Farm School (later Delaware Valley College), open to all faiths, began the following year with 10 students. Krauskopf had met Leo Tolstoy on an 1894 trip to Russia, during which the author of "War and Peace" said US immigrants would be better off tilling soil than living in cramped industrial cities. In 2010 the Warwick Foundation of Bucks County gave the school an estimated $30 million in property and cash.
    (AP, 11/7/10)

1897        Feb 2, Fire destroyed the Pennsylvania state capitol in Harrisburg. A new statehouse was dedicated on the same site nine years later.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1897        May 14, "Stars and Stripes Forever" by John Phillip Sousa was performed for the first time in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 5/14/01)

1897        Sep 10, Police shot at striking mine workers in Pennsylvania and 20 people were killed.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1897        Sep 11, A strike by some 75,000  coal miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia ended after 10 weeks. Concessions included an eight-hour work day, semi-monthly pay, and the abolition of company stores (which were famous for over charging workers). The day before, about 20 miners were killed when sheriff's deputies opened fire on them in Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(MC, 9/11/01)

1899        The Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology opened.
    (WSJ, 5/7/03, p.D10)

1900        The construction of the rococo City Hall in Philadelphia was completed. The architect was John McArthur Jr.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)
1900        In Philadelphia, Pa., the 8-million, 110-room Lynnewood Hall, home to the uber-wealthy Widener family, was completed. It came to be called "the last of the American Versailles." French landscape architect Jacques Greber designed the formal French gardens, which were graced by his brother Henri-Louis Greber's fountain of bronze and marble statuary. P.A.B. Widener's son, Joseph, died there in 1943 and the younger generation deemed the property too large to maintain. Much of the acreage was sold to developers and the opulent furnishings were auctioned. In 1952, the Rev. Carl McIntire of Collingswood, N.J., a controversial fundamentalist preacher, bought the property for $190,000 and established a Christian seminary. In 1993 New York physician Richard Sei-Oung Yoon, a former student of McIntire and one-time chancellor of the cash-strapped seminary, bought its mortgage for $1.6 million with plans of establishing his own church there.
    (AP, 7/26/10)

1901        Jan 1, The 1st annual Mummers parade was held in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.A10)

1901        Feb 25, United States Steel Corp. was incorporated by J.P. Morgan Charles Schwab and Andrew Carnegie. Morgan combined Federal Steel and Carnegie Steel to form US Steel. It was the biggest corporate merger of the time. As president of US Steel Schwab acquired the Bethlehem Steel. In 1904 Schwab resigned his position at US Steel to run Bethlehem Steel.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)(WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1901        Jan 28, Byron Bancroft Johnson announced that the American League would play the 1901 baseball season as a major league and would not renew its membership in the National Agreement. The new league would include Baltimore and Washington, DC, recently abandoned by the National League. The league would also invade 4 cities where National League teams existed: Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and Philadelphia. The 8 charter teams included: the Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_League)

1901        Jul 15, Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1901        The first US escalator, manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company, was installed in a Philadelphia office building. It was patented in 1859 and first displayed at the 1900 Paris Exposition.
    (HN, 8/9/00)

1901        The Pittsburgh Lamp, Brass & Glass Co. (Pilabrasgo) began operations and continued to 1926.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.G3)

1902        May 10, David O. Selznick, film producer (Gone with the Wind, Rebecca), was born in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 5/10/02)(MC, 5/10/02)

1902        May 12, Over 100,000 miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the mines closed all summer. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt intervened. [see Oct 3]
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1902        Jun 9, The 1st Automat restaurant opened at 818 Chestnut Street, Phila.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1902        Oct 3,    President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take unprecedented action. A presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and a shorter work week. [see May 12]
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1902        Oct 25, Henry Steele Commanger, American historian, was born in Pittsburg, Pa. He wrote the fifty-five volume "Rise of the American Nation."
    (HN, 10/25/98)(MC, 10/25/01)

1903        Oct 1, The Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the home team Boston Pilgrims (Red Sox), 7-3, in the first World Series game. Boston, however, went on to win the series, five games to three.
    (AP, 10/1/03)

1903        Oct 13, Boston defeated Pittsburgh in baseball’s first World Series. In 2003 Roger I. Abrams authored "The First World Series and the Baseball Fanatics of 1903;" Louis P. Masur authored "Autumn Glory: Baseball's First World Series;" and Bob Ryan authored "When Boston Won the World Series."
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A8)(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W9)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M6)

1903        The 1st trolley with an electric 3rd rail was installed in Scranton, Pa.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.B8)

1903        Andrew Carnegie donated $1.5 million for the construction of 2 dozen libraries in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.40)

1904        Jan 25, Two-hundred (179) coal miners were entombed in an explosion in Cheswick, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 1/25/99)(MC, 1/25/02)

1904        Feb 29, Jimmy Dorsey (d.1957), orchestra leader, was born in Shenandoah, Pa.
    (HN, 2/29/00)(AP, 2/29/04)

1904        Dec 10, Charles M. Schwab incorporated a revamped Bethlehem Steel. As president of US Steel he had acquired the Pennsylvania steel maker in 1901. Schwab resigned his position at US Steel to run Bethlehem Steel. In 2008 Kenneth Warren authored “Bethlehem Steel: Builder and Arsenal of America.”
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1905        Jan 31, John O'Hara, novelist (Appointment at Samarra), was born in Pottsville, Penn.
    (SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M2)

1905        Jun 11, Pennsylvania Railroad debuted the fastest train in world (NY-Chicago in 18 hrs).
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1905        Jun, In Pittsburgh, Penn., the world's 1st theater geared exclusively for motion pictures opened.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A27)

1905        Nov 19, Tommy Dorsey, band leader, was born in Shenandoah, Pa.
    (AP, 11/19/05)

1905        Dec 7, Leonard H. Goldenson (d.1999), later chief of ABC broadcasting, was born in Scottdale.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.B3)

1906        Apr 16, In Pennsylvania 3 men were shot dead in a riot among striking coal miners at Windber. An appeal was made to Gov. Pennypacker for troops.
    (SFC, 4/17/06, p.A9)

1906        Jul 17, American playwright Clifford Odets was born in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/18/06)

1906        Oct 22, 3000 blacks demonstrated and rioted in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1906        Dec 27, Oscar Levant, American composer and actor, was born in Pittsburgh.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

1906        The Capital building in Harrisburg, Pa., featured a dome modeled on St. Peter’s in Rome.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)
1906        The John C. Bell building was completed in Philadelphia, Pa. It was later listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
    (SFC, 1/13/14, p.A4)

1907        May, The idea of a day set apart every year to honor motherhood is credited to Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia, who, in 1907, suggested the wearing of carnations on the second Sunday in May to honor mothers. Her enthusiastic campaign for a nationwide observance attracted enough public support that President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation designating the second Sunday in May 1914 the first national Mother’s Day.
    (HNPD, 5/9/00)

1907        Dec 19, A gas explosion killed 239 workers in a coal mine in Jacobs Creek, Pa.
    (AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)

1907        Dec 23, The 1st all-steel passenger railroad coach was completed at Altoona, Pa.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1907        Dec 24, I.F. Stone (d.1989), American investigative journalist, was born in Philadelphia. "Those who nobly set out to be their brother's keeper sometimes end up by becoming his jailer. Every emancipation has in it the seeds of a new slavery, and every truth easily becomes a lie."
    (AP, 10/17/99)(AP, 12/24/07)

1907        Milton Hershey, chocolate tycoon, opened Hershey Park, an admission-free amusement park in Hershey, Pa.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)

1907        Clayton S. Reaser purchased a 5-year old Pennsylvania furniture company named Gettysburg Manufacturing Co. and renamed it Reaser Furniture Manufacturing Co.
    (SFC, 1/10/07, p.G2)

1907        Charles B. Gillespie, physician and artist, died in Pennsylvania. He had traveled to California during the gold rush and made a number of sketches, including depictions of Sutter’s Mill, some of which he turned into paintings upon returning to Freeport in 1851. In 2008 119 pen-and-ink sketches and 5 oil paintings were put up for auction.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1908        May 10, The first Mother’s Day observance took place during church services in Grafton, W.Va., and Philadelphia. In 1997 Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia first proposed the idea that all mothers wear a carnation on the 2nd Sunday of May.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)

1908        May 20, Jimmy Stewart, actor, was born in Indiana, Pa. He is best remembered for his roles in "It's a Wonderful Life" and "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington."
    (WSJ, 5/20/97, p.A18)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 5/20/08)

1908        Nov 18, Imogene Coca d.2001), later co-star with Sid Caesar of the 1950s "Your Show of Shows" TV program, was born in Philadelphia.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A29)(AP, 11/18/08)

1908        Nov 28, 154 men died in a coal mine explosion at Marianna, Pa.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1908        In Pennsylvania the Rotunda Building in Philadelphia opened as the Girard Trust. It was built as a replica of the Pantheon in Rome. In 2000 it was converted from a bank into a Ritz-Carlton Hotel.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.P4)
1908        The Univ. of Pittsburgh introduced the 1st football jerseys with numbers on the back.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.B6)

1909        Nov 13, In Pennsylvania the Cherry Mine disaster killed 259 men and boys. In 2002 Karen Tintori authored “Trapped: The 1909 Cherry Mine Disaster.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1909_Cherry_Mine_disaster)(AH, 2/03, p.61)

1909        Dec 14, The Labor Conference in Pittsburgh ended with a "declaration of war" on U.S. Steel.
    (HN, 12/14/98)

1909        Harry V. Warehime established Hanover Pretzel Company in Pennsylvania with a single recipe, Hanover Olde Tyme Pretzels.
    (http://factorytoursusa.com/full.htm)
1909        In Hershey, Pennsylvania, Milton Hershey and his wife Catherine established the Milton Hershey School for the "maintenance, support and education of as many poor, white orphan boys as it could afford." The racial restriction ended in 1970. By 2002 the 1200-student school had an endowment of some $5.4 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)(SFC, 7/26/02, p.B3)

1909        The Pittsburgh Pirates, led by pitcher Honus Wagner, defeated the Detroit Tigers 4-3 in the World Series. This marked the last world series appearance by Ty Cobb.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)

1910        May 23, Franz Kline (d.1962), American painter of abstract expressionist style, was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
    (www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_77.html)

1910        Aug 15, Hugo Winterhalter, composer, was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1910        Nov 27, In NYC the Pennsylvania Railroad began service at Pennsylvania Station. It was begun under the direction of PRR president Alexander J. Cassatt (d.1906) and designed by the architectural firm of McKim, Mead and White. In 2007 Jill Jonnes authored “Conquering Gotham: A Gilded Age Epic: The Construction of Penn Station and its Tunnels.” Penn Station was demolished in 1963.
    (AP, 11/27/06)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.95)(SSFC, 7/8/07, p.M2)

1910        Dec 19, Rayon was 1st commercially produced by Marcus Hook in Penn.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1910        In Philadelphia John Wanamaker’s The Grand Depot department store, was replaced by a 250-foot tall, 12-story edifice known as Wanamaker’s.
    (ON, 12/05, p.6)

1911        Oct, The Philadelphia Athletics, forerunners of the Oakland A’s, won the World Series, beating the New York Giants of the National League, today’s SF Giants.
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)

1912        May 18, Richard Brooks, director (Blackboard Jungle, In Cold Blood), was born in Philadelphia, PA.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        Aug 23, Gene Kelly, dancer and actor who starred in "An American in Paris" and "Singing in the Rain," was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as Eugene Curan. Kelly debuted on Broadway in 1938 musical "Pal Joey" and in the film "For Me and My Gal" four years later
    (HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)

1912        Nov 9, The football team of Pennsylvania’s Carlisle Indian School, with running back Jim Thorpe, defeated the Army team, with Dwight D. Eisenhower as linebacker, 27-6. In 2007 Sally Jenkins authored “The Real Americans: The Team That Changed a Game, a People, a Nation.”
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)(www.footballfoundation.com/news.php?id=242)

1912        Engraver George T. Morgan is believed to have produced 5 Liberty Head V nickels at the Philadelphia Mint with a 1913 stamped date. In 2004 one sold for $3 million.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.C1)(SFC, 4/27/13, p.A4)

1912-1938    Leopold Stokowski was the music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.107)(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)

1913        May 18, Perry Como (Pierino Roland Como, d. 2001), singer, was born in Canonsburg, Pa.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A27)

1913        Dec 1, The first drive-in automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in Pittsburgh. [see Cincinnati in 1912] 
    (AP, 12/1/06)

1913        In Pennsylvania a fire at the Red Ash colliery ignited a coal mine. As of 2009 it was still burning and was the oldest of 36 ongoing mine fires.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.34)

1914        Apr 19, Charles Sanders Peirce (b.1839), American polymath, philosopher and scientist, died in Milford, Pa. In 1883 he used randomization in a psychological experiment at Johns Hopkins Univ.
    (www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charles_Peirce)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.17)

1915        Geisinger Health Systems was founded in Pennsylvania.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.75) 

1916        Jul 28, Laird Cregar, actor (Charley's Aunt, Hangover Square), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1916        The Mercer Museum in Doylestown was completed by Henry Chapman Mercer (1856-1930), archeologist and collector.
    (AH, 4/01, p.18)

1916        Charles Taze Russell (b.1852) died. He founded the International Bible Students Association. In the 1870’s Russell abandoned the Adventist movement and formed his own in Pennsylvania, which was later named Jehovah’s Witnesses. His early followers were called "Russellites."
    (HN, 2/16/02)

1917        Apr 10, A munitions factory explosion at Eddystone, PA., killed 133 workers.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1917        Jul 12, Andrew Wyeth, painter who focused on the northeastern United States, was born in Chadds Ford, Pa. In 1998 Beth Venn and Adam Weinberg published "Unknown Terrain," a companion piece to a Whitney Museum exhibition of his art.
    (HN, 7/12/98)(MC, 7/12/02)(www.wyethcenter.com)

1917        Oct 22, Leopold Stokowski led Philadelphia Orchestra in its first recording.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1917        Theresa Bernstein, artist, helped found the Philadelphia Ten, a female art group. It was created in response to the Eight, a male-dominated group later called the Ashcan School.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.E2)

1917        John G. Johnson, Philadelphia lawyer, died and left his home an collection of Renaissance art to the city. Within 20 years the collection was taken over by the Pennsylvania Museum of Art.
    (WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W18)

1918        May 18, A TNT explosion in chemical factory in Oakdale, PA, killed 200.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1918        Jul 25, A race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left 3 blacks and 2 whites dead.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1918        Milton Hershey endowed the Milton Hershey School with $60 million in stock.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)

1918        The influenza epidemic killed 11,000 people in Philadelphia.
    (LSA, Fall/06, p.58)

1919        Feb 18, Jack Palance (d.2006), later film and TV star, was born as Volodymir Ivanovich Palahniuk in Latimer Mines, Pa.
    (SFC, 11/11/06, p.B6)

1919        Nov 17, Hershy Kay, composer and arranger, was born Philadelphia, Penn.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1920        Jan 15, John J. "Cardinal" O'Connor, Roman Catholic Archbishop of NY, was born in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1920        Nov 2, The first radio broadcast of presidential elections in the United States were made by radio. Westinghouse had built radio station KDKA on its factory roof in Pittsburgh and was among the first to broadcast returns from the Harding-Cox presidential election. 8MK, the first US station owned by a newspaper (the Detroit News), also broadcast the election returns.
    (www.oldradio.com/current/the1st.htm)(WSJ, 1/12/98, p.A19)(HN, 11/2/98)(AP, 11/2/99)

1920        Nov 25, The 1st Thanksgiving Parade was held in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1921        Jan 2, Religious services were first broadcast on radio when KDKA aired the regular Sunday service of Pittsburgh's Calvary Episcopal Church.
    (AP, 1/2/00)

1921        Jan 31, Mario Lanza (d.1959), actor, singer (Great Caruso, Toast of New Orleans), was born in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1921        Mar 6, Police in Sunbury, Penn., issued an edict requiring Women to wear skirts at least 4 inches below the knee.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1921        May 10, Nancy Walker, Bounty ads, actress (Rhoda, McMillan & Wife), was born in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1921        Aug 5, The first radio broadcast of a baseball game took place in Pittsburgh.
    (WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B8)

1921        Aug 20, Jacqueline Susann, author (Valley of the Dolls), was born in Phila., Pa.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1921        Aug 21, Nancy Kulp, actress (Jane-Beverly Hillbillies), was born in Harrisburg, Pa.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1921        Nov 3, Charles Bronson (d.2003), [Buchinsky], actor (Death Wish, Dirty Dozen), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.A2)

1921        Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia built Engine 2472. In 1975 it was acquired for the San Mateo Fairgrounds in California.
    (SSCM, 12/2/01, p.15)

1922        Aug 26, The Philadelphia Phillies beat the Chicago Cubs 26-23.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, Z1 p.2)

1922        Dec 12, John Wanamaker (b.1938), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, died. He introduced department stores and price tags to the US and became the first modern advertiser when he bought ads in newspapers to promote his stores.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ck74o)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.61)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.15)

1922        Mennonites from Canada and Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)

1923        Jul 10, Jean Kerr (d.2003), playwright and author, was born in Scranton, Pa. Her later books included "Please Don’t Eat the Daisies."
    (SFC, 1/7/03, p.A22)

1924        In Philadelphia, Pa., the 18-story Philadelphia Inquirer building was completed as home for the Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.B1)

1925        Jun 25, Robert Venturi, architect (Levittown NY, Las Vegas), was born in Phila.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1925        Dr. Albert C. Barnes (1872-1951) built a mansion to house his collection of French impressionist and post-impressionist masterpieces in Merion, Pennsylvania. The collection grew to some 2,500 objects and their setup and access was highly restricted by Dr. Barnes’ trust indenture. Barnes had made his fortune with a pediatric antibiotic called Argyrol. By 2000 his foundation was broke. In 2003 John Anderson authored ""Art Held Hostage," an account of the Barnes collection.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W18)

1925        The Pottsville Maroons beat the Chicago Cardinals for the NFL championship, but lost it on a technicality after they played a college all-star team in Philadelphia.
    (Econ, 11/1/03, p.30)

1926        Sep 23, Gene Tunney (1897-1978), an ex-marine, defeated Jack Dempsey for the World Heavyweight Boxing championship in Philadelphia. Tunney defeated Dempsey again in a 1927 rematch and retired undefeated in 1928. In 2006 Jack Cavanaugh authored “Tunney: Boxing’s Brainiest Champ and His Upset of the Great Jack Dempsey.”
    (Smith., 5/95, p.12)(SFC, 10/19/99, p.A22)(WSJ, 11/17/06, p.W6)

1926        Oct 13, Ray Brown (d.2002), jazz bass player, was born in Pittsburgh.
    (HN, 10/13/00)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A21)

1927        Feb 2, Stan Getz, jazz saxophonist, was born in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)

1927        Mar 11, The 1st armored commercial car hold-up in US took place in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1927        Sep 17, George Blanda, NFL kicker and quarterback (Bears, Oilers, Raiders), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1927        Elsie Driggs created her painting "Pittsburgh."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)

1928        Mar 20, Fred Rogers, television performer (Mr. Roger's Neighborhood), was born in Latrobe, Pa.
    (HN, 3/20/01)

1928        May 19, "Firedamp" exploded in Mather, Pa. coal mine killing 195 of 273 miners.
    (DT internet 5/19/97)

1928        Nov 2, L. Stokovski conducted the premiere of Dmitri Shostakovitch's 1st Symphony, in Phila.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1928        Andy Warhol (d.1987) was born in Pittsburgh. He went to school there and graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T11)

1928        Walter E. Diemer (23), an accountant for Fleer Chewing Gum in Philadelphia, began testing recipes for a gum base. He invented the first batch of bubble gum, making it pink because that was the only shade of food coloring on hand. It was sold under the Dubble Bubble name for a penny.
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A19)(SFC, 8/2/99, p.A22)

1929        In Pennsylvania the Rodin Museum opened in Philadelphia. In 2012 it re-opened following a 3-year, $9 million restoration.
    (SFC, 7/13/12, p.A8)
1929        Lefty O’Doul hit .398 becoming the National League batting champ of the Philadelphia Phillies. He went on to manage the San Francisco Seals and in 1958 opened Lefty’s, a bar in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.C1)(SFC, 7/18/97, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/28/11, p.A2)

1930        Mar 17, James Benson Irwin, Col. USAF, astronaut (Apollo 15), was born in Pittsburgh, Penn.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1930        Jun 2, Charles Conrad (d.1999), astronaut, was born in Philadelphia. He walked on the moon during the Apollo XII mission in 1969.
    (SFC, 7/9/99, p.A6)

1930        In Philadelphia, Pa., Pat’s King of Steak’s opened at Ninth and Passyunk Ave. They helped make famous the Philadelphia cheese steak sandwich.
    (SSFC, 9/17/06, p.G5)

1930s        Hubley Manufacturing of Lancaster, Pa., made cast-iron toys that later became valued as collectibles. The Arcade Manuf. Co. of Freeport, Ill., also made similar toys.
    (SFC, 1/28/98, Z1 p.3)

1931        Jan 20, Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) began serving a 2nd term as the 28th governor of Pennsylvania and continued to 1935. His first term was from 1923-1927. Following the of Prohibition in 1933, Pinchot kept restrictions on the sale of alcohol.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.34)

1931        Apr 7, Donald Barthelme (d.1989), US writer, was born in Philadelphia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Barthelme)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)

1932        Apr 4, Vitamin C was 1st isolated by C.C. King at the Univ. of Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1932        Jul 25, Paul J. Weitz, astronaut (Skylab 2, STS 6), was born in Erie, Pennsylvania.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1933        Mar 7, George Darrow added some copyrighted art work to the board game Monopoly and began selling it commercially in Philadelphia. He sold it to Parker Brothers in 1934. The game had originally been patented in 1904 as the Landlord’s Game by Elizabeth J. Magie. In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to George Darrow.  
    (http://richard_wilding.tripod.com/history.htm)(HN, 3/7/98)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)


1933        Mar 31, Shirley Jones, actress (Partridge Family, Elmer Gantry), was born in Smithton, Pa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1933        May 7, Johnny Unitas (d.2002), the son of Lithuanian immigrants, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. He became a NFL Quarterback for the Baltimore Colts and San Diego Chargers. He was voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1979.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnny_Unitas)

1933        Nov 7, Pennsylvania voters overturned blue law, by permitting Sunday sports.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1933        Dec 21, Dried human blood serum was 1st prepared at the Univ. of Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1933        Hugh J. Ward author a rule book on Bingo. He had standardized the modern game at carnivals in and around the Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania areas in the early 1920's and went on to copyright the name.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bingo_%28U.S.%29)
1933        In Pennsylvania the Pymatuning Dam impounded the Pymatuning Reservoir. It was constructed to regulate the flow of the Shenango and Beaver rivers. The reservoir later became a major attraction for tourists, who came to feed the local carp.
    (www.dnr.state.oh.us/parks/parks/pymatuning.htm)(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.A1)
1933        Milton Hershey, chocolate tycoon, opened Hotel Hershey in Hershey, Pa.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)
1933        Art Rooney founded the Pittsburgh Pirates football team for $2,500.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A17)

1934        Feb 17, 1st high school auto driving course was offered by State College, Penn.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1934        Jun 27, Anna Moffo, soprano (Lucia, Traviata), was born in Wayne, Penn.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1934        Aug 24, In Philadelphia, Pa., Philo T. Farnsworth (28), a San Francisco scientist, produced a televised picture of the moon, the first recorded use of television in astronomy.
    (SSFC, 8/16/09, p.46)

1934        Pennsylvania passed legislation to limit alcohol consumption and protect the state's brewers from outside competition.
    (WSJ, 3/23/04, p.B5)

1935        Feb 10, Pennsylvania RR began passenger service with new electric locomotive.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1935        Apr 21, Charles Grodin, actor, Woman in Red, Lonely Guy, Heartbreak Kid), was born in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1935        Dec 4, Some 1,200 at St Joseph's College, Philadelphia, enrolled in an anticommunism class.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1935        The Pittsburgh Crawfords were considered to have been the greatest Negro League baseball team of all time.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T4)

1936        Jun 11, Presbyterian Church of America was founded at Philadelphia.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1936        Aug 21, Wilt Chamberlain (d.1999 at age 63), later basketball star, was born in Philadelphia. From 1952-1955 he led Overbrook High School to a 56-3 record.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.D4)

1936        Aug, Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt accepted his re-nomination and gave his "rendezvous with destiny" speech in Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C17)

1936        Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Fallingwater house near Mill Run in Western Pennsylvania. He was warned by structural engineers that there was not enough support for the cantilevered floors, but dismissed their warnings. Sag began immediately after construction and in 1997 steel support beams were added as a temporary measure. Edgar Kaufmann Jr. later published "Fallingwater, A Frank Lloyd Wright House."
    (WSJ, 10/24/97, p.B18)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T10)

1936        Moses Annenberg bought the Philadelphia Enquirer, a reputed bible of Republican politics.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

1936        A major flood hit Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania soon passed a 10% tax on alcohol in an emergency measure to help cover the flood damage. Repairs were completed in about 5 years, but the tax remained and was later increased twice to 15% and then 18%.
    (WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/15/08, p.A11)

1938        Jun 24, A 500 ton meteorite landed near Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1938        Jul 4, 1st game at Shribe Park, Phila; Braves beat Phillies 10-5.
    (Maggio)

1938        Jul 14, Owen Wister (b.1860), novelist, died.  His 1902 novel "The Virginian" inspired 5 films. He had earlier begun a novel set in his native Philadelphia but stopped work on it when his wife died during childbirth on Aug 24, 1913.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(SFC, 1/9/02, p.D8)

1938        Nov 8, Crystal Bird Fauset of Pa., became the first African American woman to be elected to a state legislature.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1938        Tennessee Williams wrote his play "Not About Nightingales." It was based on an incident in Pennsylvania's Philadelphia County prison, where 4 inmates died after 25 inmates, who threatened a hunger strike due to bad food, were locked in an isolation chamber with giant radiators pumping 200-degree heat.
    (WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A17)

1938        Byron White signed a $15,800 contract with the Pittsburgh Pirates becoming the NFL’s first big money player. He later served for 31 years as a US Supreme Court Justice.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A17)

1939        Jun 6, In Pennsylvania the first Little League baseball game was played. The league was founded by Carl Stotz in Williamsport. The Little League World Series began in 1947. Girls were banned from 1951-1974.
    (SSFC, 6/1/14, Par. p.8)

1939        Aug 11, Moses Annenberg, owner of the Philadelphia Enquirer, was indicted by a federal jury in Chicago for evading some $3.2 million in income taxes.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

1939        St. John Terell (d.1998 at 81), actor and impresario, founded the Bucks County Playhouse in New Hope.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C3)
1939        Jim Rex founded the Ranger Joe Breakfast Food Co. in Philadelphia. It was sold in the 1940s to Philadelphia businessman Moses Berger and sold again in 1954 to Nabisco and renamed "Wheat and Rice Honeys."
    (SFC,11/19/97, Z1 p.7)
1939        Latrobe Brewing of Latrobe, Pa., began making Rolling Rock, a pale lager. It was later acquired by InBev SA. In 2006 Rolling Rock was acquired by Anheuser-Busch, which moved operations to Newark NJ. In 2008 Anheuser-Busch was acquired by InBev SA.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/nyregion/08brew.html?fta=y)(WSJ, 4/13/09, p.B1)

1940        Apr 20, RCA publicly demonstrated its new and powerful electron microscope in Philadelphia, Pa.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)(MC, 4/20/02)

1940        Jun 24, The Republican Convention, opened in Philadelphia. In 2005 Charles Peters authored “Five Days in Philadelphia.” An account of the convention and how it freed FDR to move against Hitler.
    (WSJ, 7/6/05, p.D10)(http://tinyurl.com/e3xrw)

1940        Jun 28, The Republican Convention, held in Philadelphia, nominated Wendall Willkie (d.1944) for US president on 6th ballot. Senator Charles L. McNary from Oregon was his running mate. They were defeated by President Franklin Roosevelt who won his third term. In 2005 Charles Peters authored “Five Days in Philadelphia.” An account of the convention and how it freed FDR to move against Hitler.
    (WSJ, 7/6/05, p.D10)(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C17)(http://tinyurl.com/e3xrw)

1940        Oct 1, The first section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, 160 miles in length, was opened to the public.
    (AP, 10/1/00)

1940        Oct 24, F. Murray Abraham, actor (Amadeus, Mad Man), was born in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1940        Nov 1, 1st US air raid shelter was made in Fleetwood, Pa.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1940        Art Rooney renamed the Pittsburgh Pirates football team to the Pittsburgh Steelers.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A17)

1940-1953    John W. Nason (d.2001 at 96) served as president of Swarthmore College. From 1942-1945 he served as chairman of the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council and helped over 3,000 students out of detention camps and into institutions of higher learning.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A21)

1941        May 26, American Flag House, the Betsy Ross Home, was given to the city of Phila.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1941        Aug 28, Paul Peter Plishka, bass (Met Opera), was born in Old Forge, Penn.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1941        Matt Cvetic (d.1962 at 53) infiltrated the Communist party in Pittsburgh. The 1951 film "I Was a Communist for the FBI" was based on his true story. In 2001 Daniel J. Leab authored "I Was a Communist for the FBI."
    (WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1942            Jan 10, Jim Croce, (d.1973) rock vocalist (Time in a Bottle, Workin' At The Car Wash Blues), was born in Philadelphia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Croce)

1942        Mar 26, 20 tons of gelignite killed 21 in a stone quarry in Easton, PA.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1942        Nov 20, Joseph Biden, later US Senator for Delaware, was born in Scranton, Pa. In 2008 Barack Obama named Biden as his vice presidential running mate.
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A15)

1942        Moses Annenberg, owner of the Philadelphia Enquirer, died. His son Walter took over as editor and publisher.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

1943        May 31, Joe Namath, NFL QB (NY Jets), $400,000 man (1969 Superbowl), was born in PA.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1943        Jun 17, Newt Gingrich, later Republican Speaker of the House (1995-1998), was born in Hummelstown, Pa.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A4)

1943        Richard James (d.1974) observed a torsion spring balance bounce off a ship’s deck while working at a Philadelphia shipyard and conceived the idea of a "slinky" toy for children, named by his wife Betty James (d.2008). In 1945 they founded James Industries. In 1998 the company was sold to POOF Products of Michigan.
    (IBCC, 10/97, #9)(SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1944        Jan 28, Leonard Bernstein's "Jeremiah," premiered in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1945        Milton Hershey (b.1857), Philadelphia chocolate tycoon, died.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)

1946        Jul 6, Jamie Wyeth, artist (An American Vision-Boston), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1947        Feb 9, Bank robber Willie Sutton escaped jail in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1947        Sep 13, WPVI TV channel 6 in Philadelphia, PA., (ABC) began broadcasting.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1948        Feb 14, Winthrop Rockefeller (1912-1973), later governor of Arkansas (1967-1971), married Barbara Sears (1916-2008), the Pennsylvania-born daughter of Lithuanian immigrants. They had one child, Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, but the marriage dissolved in a high-profile divorce in 1954. Barbara Bobo Rockefeller, born as Jievute Paulekiute in Noblestown, Pa., was featured as Miss Lithuania at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. She later was known as Eva Paul.
    (www.thetimes.co.za/PrintEdition/Insight/Article.aspx?id=772208)

1948        Jun 2, Albert Innaurato, playwright, director (Age in Soho), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1948        Jun 17, A United Air Lines DC-6 crashed near Mount Carmel, Penn., killing all 43 people on board.
    (AP, 6/17/98)

1948        Jun 21, The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia. The delegates ended up choosing Thomas E. Dewey to be their presidential nominee.
    (AP, 6/21/07)

1948        Jun 24, The Republican National Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, nominated New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey for president.
    (AP, 6/24/98)

1948        Jun 25, The Republican national convention in Philadelphia chose California Gov. Earl Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey's running mate.
    (AP, 6/25/98)

1948        Jul 12, The Democratic national convention opened in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/12/98)

1948        Jul 15, President Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1948        Jul 24, Henry A. Wallace accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

1948          Oct 31, By this date some 20 people died and 6,000 were made ill by smog from steel and zinc plants in Donora, Pennsylvania. Between October 26 and October 31, 1948, an air inversion trapped fluoride effluent from the Zinc Works. In three days, 18 people died. After the inversion lifted, another 50 died. Hundreds more finished the rest of their lives with damaged lungs and hearts. Both plants closed in 1966. In 2002, “When Smoke Ran Like Water” was published by Devra Davis.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donora,_Pennsylvania)(SSFC, 11/2/08, p.A6)

1948        The John Murtha Airport opened in Jonestown, Pennsylvania. From 1989-2009 Congressman John Murtha steered some $150,000,000 to the airport. In 2009 there were a total of 18 commercial flights per week, all of which went to Dulles Airport in Washington, DC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nsdv8k)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.26)

1949        Jun 16, A gas turbine, electric locomotive was demonstrated in Erie, Pa.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1949        Aug 31, Richard Gere, actor (Breathless, Cotton Club), was born in Phila., Pa.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1949        Pennsylvania enacted a state law requiring the reading of 10 Bible verses each day in schools followed by joint recitation of the Lord's Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance.
    (SFC, 11/24/03, p.A18)
1949        There was a cholera outbreak in Philadelphia, Pa.
    (SFC, 3/8/14, p.C3)

1951        Jun 14, UNIVAC, the first computer built for commercial purposes, was demonstrated in Philadelphia by Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, Jr.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1951        Jun 15, 1st commercial electronic computer was dedicated in Philadelphia. [see Jun 14]
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1951        Jul 24, Dr. Albert C. Barnes, eccentric collector of impressionist art, died in an automobile crash. [see 1925 Barnes] His will specified that his art collection be kept forever in Lower Merion Township, Pa. In 2004 a judge allowed trustees to move the collection to Philadelphia.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 12/15/04, p.E5)(www.barnesfoundation.org/h_bio.html)

1951        Pennsylvania passed a law requiring a loyalty oath from candidates for public office. In 2006 the oath was deemed unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 8/28/06, p.A3)

1951        Elizabeth Ralph, physicist at the Univ. of Pennsylvania, created the Museum Applied Science Center for Archeology (MASCA).
    (AM, 11/04, p.30)

1952        Mar 18, The 1st plastic lens for cataract patients was fitted in Phila.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1952        Oct 7, The 1st "Bandstand" broadcast in Philadelphia on WFIL-TV. Dick Clark joined in 1955 as a substitute-host. [see 1956]
    (SFC, 11/10/99, p.E3)(SFC, 4/15/00, p.D3)(MC, 10/7/01)

1952        John J. Rigas founded Adelphia Communications in Coudersport, Pa., with a dream and a $300 check for a local cable franchise.
    (WSJ, 5/28/02, p.A1)(USAT, 7/9/04, p.3B)

1952        Crigler-Najjar syndrome was named for two doctors who identified it this year. Patients began living longer in the 1970s when doctors realized that the wavelength and energy of blue light changes the nature of the bilirubin, allowing it to be excreted from the body. In 2007 there were about 110 known cases of Crigler's worldwide, including about 35 in the US. About 20 are among the Amish and Mennonite in Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

1953        Mar 26, Dr. Jonas Salk of the University of Pittsburgh announced that a vaccine against polio had been successfully tested in a small group of adults and children. By April 1955, the vaccine had undergone further testing and gained federal approval for public use, as shown in this photo of Salk administering the vaccine at Colfax School in Pittsburgh. Salk’s polio vaccine was so successful that by 1961 the incidence of polio had decreased by 95 percent.
    (HNPD, 3/26/99)

1954        Feb 23, The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh. Jonas Salk created the Salk vaccine against polio. It used a killed virus to induce immunization. Poliomyelitis is a viral attack of the central nervous system and can cause paralysis and death by asphyxiation. [see Apr 26]  In 2005 David M. Oshinsky authored “Polio: An American Story – The Crusade That Mobilized the Nation Against the 20th Century’s Most Feared Disease.”
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)(HN, 2/23/98)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/18/05, p.79)

1956        Jul 4, Independence National Historical Park formed in Philadelphia.
    (Maggio)

1956        Dick Clark (27) joined the TV show "American Bandstand" in Philadelphia after one of the 2 original hosts was arrested fro drunk driving. He was replaced by David Hirsch for the last season in 1989.
    (SFC, 11/10/99, p.E3)(SFC, 5/2/02, p.D1)

1956        Whirling disease infecting the salmon family of fish was first detected in the US in 1956 in Pennsylvania. It was native to Eurasia and caused by a fungus carried in spores hosted by the Tubifex tubifex worm. In 1995 it was detected in Montana fish.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1957        Jan 3, The Hamilton Watch Company was the first to introduce an electric watch in Lancaster, Pa.
    (http://rondeau.net/history.html)

1957        Aug 5, "American Bandstand," a teenage dance show hosted by Dick Clark (1929-2012) in Philadelphia, made its network debut on ABC-TV.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.B1)(SFC, 11/10/99, p.E3)(AP, 8/5/07)(SFC, 4/19/12, p.C5)

1957        Aug 21, Kim Sledge, vocalist (Sister Sledge-We are Family), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1957        Dec 2, The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first full-scale commercial nuclear facility to generate electricity in the US, went critical. [see July 12] It was taken out of service in 1982.
    (SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A18)(AP, 12/2/07)

1957        Dec 18, The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first nuclear facility to generate electricity in the United States, went on line [see July 12].
    (AP, 12/18/07)

1957        Bill and Daisy Myers became the first Black couple to buy a house in Levittown (Willingboro), Pa. State police were required to protect them. They lived there until 1961. In 1999 Daisy was given a reception and an apology from the Bristol Township Mayor Sam Fenton. Levittown was created by William Levitt, who kept costs down by bringing in ready made walls and buying appliances directly from manufacturers. In 2009 David Kushner authored “Levittown: Two Families, One Tycoon, and the Fight for Civil Rights in America’s Legendary Suburb.”
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.A6)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.28)(WSJ, 2/5/08, p.A11)

1957        Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via “serial passage” that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored “The River,” a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)(www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)

1958        The Hearst Corp. launched WTAE-TV, Pittsburgh.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1959        The Rev. Willie James launched a lawsuit that led to the desegregation of Willingboro (Levittown), Pa.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.29)

1959        Bassetts produced 50 tubs of borscht sorbet in honor of Premier Nikita Khrushchev’s visit to Philadelphia.
    (WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A24)

1959        Mario Lanza (b.1921) died in Italy at age 38. He was born as Freddy Cocozza in South Philly. A museum dedicated to the Italian singer is tucked inside of the Settlement Music School of Philadelphia.
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.95)(SFEC, 3/21/99, DB p.9)

1960        Jul 4, The 50-star flag made its debut in Philadelphia. A 50th star was added to the American flag in honor of Hawaii's admission into the Union on August 21, 1959.
    (HN, 7/4/98) (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1960        Aug 23, Broadway librettist Oscar Hammerstein II (65) died in Doylestown, Pa.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

1960        Oct 13, The Pittsburgh Pirates won the World Series at Forbes Field with a 9th inning homerun by Bill Mazeroski. A Univ. of Pittsburgh academic building was later built on the site.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.D1)

1960        A mutated gene on the "Philadelphia chromosome" was found to be responsible for chronic myelogenous leukemia. It caused white blood cells to divide uncontrollably.
    (WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A1)

1962        Feb 26, Wilt Chamberlain of NBA Philadelphia Warriors scored 67 points vs. New York.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1962        Mar 5, The US Supreme Court in Griggs v. Allegheny County ruled that airports must compensate people living in the near vicinity for noise and vibrations.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/369/84/)

1962        Mar 10, The Phillies baseball club left the Jack Tar Harrison Hotel due to its refusal to admit black players, and moved to Rocky Point Motel, 20 miles outside Clearwater, Florida.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mdtvxu)

1962        Jul 28, 19 died in a train crash in Steelton, Pa.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1962        The Philadelphia Warriors basketball franchise with star Wilt Chamberlain moved to the SF Bay Area.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.D4)

1962        Walter Annenberg, owner of the Philadelphia Enquirer, established the M.L. Annenberg School for Communication at the Univ. of Pennsylvania.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

1962        A fire broke out in a garbage dump above an abandoned coal mine in Centralia, Pen. The property had been deeded to the town in 1954 for $1. The fire spread and burned for years. In 1983 US Congress approved $42 million to help the residents move, and by 2005 only about a dozen residents remained. In 2007 Joan Quigley authored “The Day the Earth Caved In: An American Mining Tragedy.”
    (WSJ, 4/17/07, p.D6)

1963        Jun 17, The US Supreme Court ruled 8-1 to strike down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord's Prayer or reading of Biblical verses in public schools. The case began in 1956 when Edward L. Schempp (d.2003), on behalf of his son, objected to a 1949 Pennsylvania law requiring 10 Bible verses each day followed by the Lord's Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 6/17/98)(SFC, 11/24/03, p.A18)

1963-1976    Albert W. Johnson (d.1998 at 92) served in the US Congress. He was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1946.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1964        Aug 28, Race riots took place in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1964        Nov 3, Philadelphia voters approved $25 million to build a new sports stadium.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1964        Stefan Lorant (1901-1997), Hungarian-born filmmaker and writer, authored "Pittsburgh: the Story of an American City." He wrote the book following a chance meeting with Edgar Kaufman, the Pittsburgh department store mogul.
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.C5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Lorant)

1965        The American Conservatory Theater was founded by William Ball in 1965 in Pittsburgh. ACT moved west and settled in at the Geary Theater in SF in 1967.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W29)
1965        Richard Scaife (1932-2014) of Pittsburgh, heir to the Mellon banking fortune, inherited $500 million. With more family bequests, income from trust funds and investments he nearly tripled his net worth over his lifetime.
    (SFC, 7/5/14, p.C4)

1967        Mar 7, Convicted Teamster boss Jimmy Hoffa began an eight-year prison term at Lewisburg Federal Prison in Pennsylvania for defrauding the union and jury tampering. The sentence was commuted by President Nixon Dec 23, 1971.
    (HN, 3/7/98)(www.moldea.com/One-9.html)

1967        May 6, 400 students seized the administration building at Cheyney State College, Pa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1968        Feb 1, The Pennsylvania Railroad and NYC Central merged into Penn Central.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penn_Central)

1968        Sep, The Big Mac was created by McDonald’s franchisee Jim Delligatti in Pittsburgh. It sold for 49 cents.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.B2)

1968        Oct 1, The cult horror movie "Night of the Living Dead" had its world premiere in Pittsburgh.
    (AP, 10/1/98)

1968        The Delfonics soul singing group of Philadelphia recorded their hit "La-la Means I Love You."
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Delfonics)

1969        Jul 21, Riots in York, Pa., left 2 people dead, Lillie Belle Allen (27) along with rookie officer Henry Schaad (22). Schaad was mortally wounded 3 days before Allen was killed. Over 60 people were arrested as one city block burned. In 2001 Arthur (47) and Robert Messersmith (52) were arrested for the slaying of Allen. In 2001 Rick Lynn Knouse (48) and Gregory Henry Neff (53), former members of the Girarders white street gang, were also charged in the murders. In 2001 York Mayor Charles Robertson was arrested on homicide charges for allegedly handing out ammunition to white gang members and exhorting them to "Kill as many niggers as you can." In 2001 Thomas P. Smith was accused in the ambush shooting of Allen. In 2001 Stephen Freeland (49) and Leon Wright (53) were charged in the murder of officer Schaad. Robertson was acquitted in 2002. Messersmith and Neff were found guilty of 2nd degree murder. 6 white men were sentenced up to 3 years in prison. Wright's brother Michael implicated himself in 2003 and was charged for the murder of Schaad. In 2005 York city officials announced a $2 million settlement with the children and sisters of Lillie Belle Allen.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A5)(SFC, 5/10/01, p.A7)(SFC, 5/17/01, p.A2)(SFC, 5/22/01, p.A5)(YD, 5/24/01)(YD, 6/25/00)(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.A7)(SFC, 11/14/02, p.A8)(BS, 6/26/03, 5A)(SFC, 12/7/05, p.A3)

1969        Dec 31, In Clarksville Joseph Yablonski was murdered with his wife and daughter.
    (SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1969        Philadelphia initiated a program of “career academies,” which combined academic and technical curriculums and gave students work experience.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.34)

1969        Leonard Tose (1915-2003) and several others bought the Philadelphia Eagles pro football team for $15.155 million. Tose bought out his partners in 1977. He sold the team in 1985  to Norman Braman of south Florida for $65 million.
    (SFC, 4/17/03, p.A23)

1970        Jan 5, Joseph A. Yablonski, an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of the United Mine Workers, was found murdered with his wife and daughter at their Clarksville, Pa., home. Nine people were later charged in the killing including UMW Pres. W.A. Boyle.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1970        Jun 21, Penn Central was forced into bankruptcy. The default caught the market by surprise, largely because commercial paper ratings were in their infancy. Fed chairman Arthur Burns reacted by making discount window loans to banks that lent to CP issuers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penn_Central_Transportation)(WSJ, 8/30/07, p.A3)

1970        Apr 22, The first Earth Day and Earth Week was celebrated and millions protested pollution on Earth and their concern for the environment. The event was organized by a 33-member committee in Philadelphia. Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson suggested Earth Day as a means to focus national attention on ecological issues. Gaylord selected Pete McCloskey as co-chairman. Organizers later identified 12 anti-environment members of the US House and Senate, 7 of whom soon lost their seats.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A23)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E3)(http://www.nelsonearthday.net/)

1970        The Shostakovich (1906-1975) 13th symphony "Babi Yar," smuggled on microfilm to the US, was premiered in the US by the Philadelphia Orchestra.
    (WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A12)(http://tinyurl.com/69xuxx)

1971        Jan 25, The Philadelphia mint made its 1st trial strike of the Eisenhower dollar.
    (www.usmint.gov/search/index.cfm?flash=yes&criteria=&hf=1&group=166)

1971        Jan, Fred Speaker (1930-1996), attorney general of Pennsylvania, ordered the dismantling of the electric chair at the Rockview Correctional Institution on his last day in office.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/6qxtu6)

1971        Mar 8, Catholic radicals in Media, Pa., broke into the local FBI offices and stole documents that revealed the agency’s illegal activities against radical groups and leaked them to the media. In 2014 Betty Medsger authored “The Burglary: The Discovery of J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret FBI.”
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.8)(SSFC, 1/12/14, p.F1)

1971        Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia opened. Demolition felled it in 2004.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.D1)

1971        Rev. Leon Sullivan (1922-2001), a noted Philadelphia minister, became GM’s 1st black board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored “Moving Mountains.”
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Sullivan)

1972        Apr 5, The Harrisburg 7 trial ended in mistrial after 11 weeks. Philip Berrigan & Sister Elizabeth McAllister were declared guilty, but only of smuggling letters in & out of prison. Librarian Zoia Horn (d.2014) had refused to testify at the trail, becoming the first US librarian to be jailed for refusing to testify. She was freed after 20 days when a jury deadlocked on conspiracy charges.
    (www.well.com/~mareev/TIMELINE/1971-1972.html)(SFC, 7/16/14, p.E5)

1972        Nov 8, The Green Channel of Manhattan became Home Box Office (HBO). Time Life gained control of HBO in March, 1973. HBO soon began transmitting programs to cable TV subscribers in Wilkes-Barre, Pa. The 1st cablecast was a National League Hockey game.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)(SFC, 4/3/01, p.C1)

1972        John J. Rigas incorporated Adelphia Communications in Pennsylvania. The name came from the Greek word for “brother.” He took the company public in 1986.
    (USAT, 7/9/04, p.3B)(www.answers.com/topic/adelphia-communications)

1972-1975    Soul music peaked in Philadelphia. In 2004 John A. Jackson authored “A House on Fire: The Rise and Fall of Philadelphia Soul.”
    (SSFC, 11/7/04, p.M3)

1973        Eugene Ormandy (1899-1985) ended his direction of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_Ormandy)

1974        Feb 5, John Murtha (1932-2010), became Pennsylvania’s Democratic representative following a special House election. He became the first Vietnam veteran to serve in Congress.
    (SFC, 2/9/10, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murtha)

1974        Apr 11, United Mine Workers president W. A. "Tony" Boyle was found guilty of first-degree murder, for ordering the assassination of union reformer Joseph A. "Jock" Yablonski in 1969. Yablonski, his wife and daughter were murdered on December 30, 1969. Boyle had defeated Yablonski in the UMW election earlier in the year-an election marred by intimidation and vote fraud. In 1972 the election was set aside by a federal court after Boyle had been convicted of illegal use of UMW funds in the federal elections of 1968. In a new election held in December, 1972, Boyle was defeated by rank and file reformist Arnold Miller. Soon after the election Boyle was put on trial for murdering the Yablonskis and was sentenced to three consecutive life terms in prison.   
    (HNQ, 11/8/99)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1974        Jul 29, The Episcopal Church ordained female priests in Philadelphia.
    (www.episcopalchurch.org/41685_42321_ENG_HTM.htm)

1974        The Pittsburgh Area Theater Organ Society acquired a Mighty Wurlitzer from the Prospect Theater in Brooklyn for $5,000.
    (WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A1,4)

1974        The $2.5 million, 393-foot Gettysburg National Tower was erected on private land on the edge of the Gettysburg Civil War battlefield site. It was destroyed in 2000.
    (SFC, 7/4/00, p.A3)

1974        The firefly was named as the official state insect.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, Z1p.2)

1975        Jan 12, The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Minnesota Vikings (16-6) in the Superbowl in New Orleans. Bob McCurry of Chrysler Corp. introduced the auto rebate in a 1975 Superbowl commercial.
    (www.jt-sw.com/football/pro/results.nsf/Teams/1974-pit)

1975        May 6,  In hockey the Philadelphia Flyers won the semifinal series over Boston 4 games to 1.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975-76_Philadelphia_Flyers_season)

1975        May 16, The Montreal Canadiens won the Stanley Cup hockey finals in 4 games over the Philadelphia Flyers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975-76_Philadelphia_Flyers_season)

1975        In Pennsylvania a company called McAdoo Associates began operating to extract and recycle metals from chemical wastes. The company accepted hundred of thousands of gallons of paint sludge, waste oils, used solvents, PCBs, cyanide, pesticides and many other known or suspected carcinogens. In 1979, when the EPA stepped in, McAdoo Associates had stockpiled enough chemicals to nearly fill an Olympic-size swimming pool. The EPA placed it on the Superfund list and began a cleanup. The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began looking into polycythemia vera (PCV) in August 2006 after 97 cases in Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne counties were reported to the state cancer registry between 2001 and 2005.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

1976        Jan 23, Paul Robeson (b.1898), black athlete, lawyer, singer, died in Philadelphia. Lloyd L. Brown later wrote the biography "The Young Paul Robeson: On My Journey Now." His granddaughter Susan Robeson in 1981 wrote "The Whole World in His Hands: A Pictorial Biography of Paul Robeson."
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A26)(WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Robeson)

1976        Apr 27, Jimmy Carter clinched the Democratic presidential nomination by beating Henry “Scoop” Jackson and Morris Udall in the Pennsylvania primary.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carter/timeline/index.html)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.31)

1976        Jul 4, The nation held a 200th anniversary party across the land in celebration of America's 200 years of independence. President Ford made stops in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, and New York, where more than 200 ships paraded up the Hudson River in Operation Sail.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1976)(IB, 12/7/98)(AP, 7/4/01)
1976        Jul 4, The National Museum of American Jewish History opened in Philadelphia. It was established to tell the story of the American Jewish experience.
    (SFC, 7/3/08, p.E15)(www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_jewish.htm)

1976        Jul 21, "Legionnaire's Disease" struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia. It was identified as Legionella pneumophila and found to infest water systems in general and the hotel ventilation system in this case.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-17)

1976        Jul 27, Air Force veteran Ray Brennan became the first person to die of so-called "Legionnaire’s Disease" following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1976        J. Howard Marshall II (d.1995), Texas oil tycoon and alumnus of Haverford College, Pa., pledged $4 million to Haverford. In 1994 Marshall married Playboy Playmate Anna Nicole Smith (26) and by his death had donated less than $2 million to the college.
    (WSJ, 7/24/03, p.A1)

1977        Jun 19, Pope Paul VI proclaimed a 19th-century Philadelphia bishop, John Neumann, the first male US saint.
    (AP, 6/19/07)

1977        Jul 20, A flash flood hit Johnstown, Pa., killing more than 80 people and causing $350 million worth of damage.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

1978        Aug 8, James Ramp (52), Philadelphia police officer, was killed during a standoff with MOVE. 9 members of MOVE, a Black group that espoused equality with animals and preached against technology, were convicted. Members of the group adopted the surname Africa.
    (SFC, 3/16/98, p.A20)(www.odmp.org/officer/10987-police-officer-james-j.-ramp)

1977        Sep, In Philadelphia Helen "Holly" Maddux, a Bryn Mawr College graduate from Tyler, Texas, was murdered and stuffed into a steamer trunk for 18 months until her body was discovered. Ira Einhorn, "hippie guru" was arrested for the murder in 1979 but released on bail. He fled to hide in France. Fred Maddux, Holly's father, committed suicide in 1988. Einhorn was convicted in absentia in 1993. In June,1997, he was arrested in France. A French court ruled against extradition and released Einhorn. Einhorn was arrested in 1998 under a new extradition warrant. The events were broadcast as a TV crime story in 1999 titled "The Hunt for the Unicorn Killer." In 1999 The French Supreme Court ruled that Einhorn should be returned to the US. In 1999 a civil suit ordered Einhorn to pay $907 million to the Maddux family. Einhorn was extradited to the US in 2001. he was convicted of murder Oct 17, 2002.
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.A2)(SFC,12/5/97, p.A17)(SFC, 9/22/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A23)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.D3)(SFC, 7/29/99, p.A8)(SFC, 7/20/01, p.A14)(SFC, 10/18/02, p.A7)

1978        Dec 13, The Philadelphia Mint began stamping the Susan B. Anthony dollar, which went into circulation the following July. This was the 1st US coin to honor a woman.
    (AP, 12/13/97)(MC, 12/13/01)

1979        Jan 21, The Pittsburgh Steelers became the first team to win three Super Bowls as they defeated the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in Super Bowl 13.
    (AP, 1/22/04)

1979        Mar 28, America's worst commercial nuclear accident occurred inside the Unit Two reactor at the Three Mile Island plant near Middletown, Pa., almost to meltdown. Thousands living near the plant left the area before the 12-day crisis ended, during which time some radioactive water and gases were released. A combination of mechanical and human factors allowed the Unit 2 reactor to lose cooling water. It cost more than $1 billion and more than a decade to remove the damaged nuclear fuel. A 1997 study indicated increased cancer rates for people living downwind.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1979)(SFC, 6/8/96, p.A2)(SFC, 2/24/96, p.A3)(AP, 3/28/97) (HN, 3/28/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1979        Nov 1, Mamie Doud Eisenhower (b.1896), wife of former Pres. "Ike" Eisenhower, died at a family farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 11/1/99)(www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/me34.html)

1979        August Wilson, playwright, wrote "Jitney." It was set in the Hill District of Pittsburgh and first performed in 1982.
    (WSJ, 8/4/99, p.A20)

1979        The song "We Are Family" by Sister Sledge became a hit. It was made the theme song for the 1979 Pittsburgh Pirates.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/We_Are_Family_%28song%29)

1980        Oct 2, Michael Myers (D-Pa) became the 1st representative expelled in over 100 years (ABSCAM).
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1980        Ron Perelman acquired MacAndrews & Forbes, a Philadelphia candymaker, for $45 million. Howard Gittis (1934-2007) advised Perelman on the acquisition and in 1985 joined Perelman and his MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.A8)(www.forbes.com/free_forbes/2005/1010/050.html)
 
1980        Norman, Bruce and David Johnston were sentenced to life in prison for the murder of 4 teenagers to cover up a family burglary ring.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A3)

1981        Dec 9, In Philadelphia Mumia Abu Jamal shot and killed Officer Daniel Faulkner shortly after the officer stopped William Cook, Jamal’s brother (see July 3, 1981).
    (SFC, 3/28/08, p.A4)

1981        Philadelphia school teachers stage a strike.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A9)

1982        Jul 3, Mumia Abu-Jamal (b.1954), radio reporter and former Black Panther, was convicted for the 1981 murder of police officer Daniel Faulkner in Pittsburgh. Jamal supporters said he was framed. Prosecutors said Jamal shot Faulkner after seeing the officer struggling with Jamal’s brother, William Cook, who had been stopped for a traffic violation. In 1996 Jamal was still on death row. In 1999 Gov. Tom Ridge signed a 2nd death warrant for lethal injection on Dec 2. In December, 2001, a federal judge affirmed his murder conviction but ordered that Abu-Jamal should either receive a new sentencing hearing or have his sentence commuted to life in prison because of an error by the trial judge in presenting rules of sentencing to the jury (see March 27, 2008).
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Mumia_Abu-Jamal)

1982        Sep 9, Robert Thibadeau at CMU-10A: Pittsburgh Zoo Options: The zoo is a worthwhile place to visit, but in my three years in Pittsburgh I have watched it deteriorate for lack of funds. Fortunately they have this wonderful 'adopt an animal' program. The adoption can be a day or month. Orangutanns (sic) eat light at $.75 a day or $22.50 a month, and for $15 a day or $450 a month you get yourself an entire elephant. Double that and you can probably have his name changed to Clyde. Triple it and I bet they will let you dye him pink. Visitation rights come with any adoption. The flyer is on my office door -- 5321.
    (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~sef/Orig-Smiley.htm)

1982        Sep 25, Pennsylvania prison guard George Banks killed 13 people including 4 that were his own children.
    (www.internationaljusticeproject.org/illnessGBanks.cfm)

1983        Jan 23, Joseph Coogan (28), an auditor from Pennsylvania, was swept into the sea at Pescadero Point, Ca. His remains washed up at Point Reyes six months later but remained unidentified until 2005.
    (SFC, 4/14/05, p.A1)

1982        Rich Skrenta (b.1967), a freshman in Pennsylvania, developed Elk Cloner as a practical joke. It was the 1st virus to hit computers worldwide and later became known as a "boot sector" virus. When it boots, or starts up, an infected disk places a copy of the virus in the computer's memory. Whenever someone inserts a clean disk into the machine and types the command "catalog" for a list of files, a copy gets written onto that disk as well. The newly infected disk is passed on to other people, other machines and other locations.
    (AP, 9/1/07)(SFC, 9/3/07, p.C3)

1983        Oct 23, Jessica Savitch (36), news anchor (NBC-TV), died in an automobile accident with Martin Fischbein in New Hope, Pa.
    (www.accuracyproject.org/cbe-Savitch,Jessica.html)

1983        Nov 8, Wilson Goode was elected as the first black mayor of the city of Philadelphia.
    (AP, 11/8/08)

1984        May 26, A frisbee was kept aloft for 1,672 seconds in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1984        Aug 22, The VW plant at Westmoreland, Pa., produced its last Volkswagen Rabbit.
    (http://tinyurl.com/34j6lf)

1984        A 60-by-13-foot tile mural was created by Romare Beardon for a Pittsburgh subway station. In 2008 the mural was valued at $15 million as the station faced demolition.
    (WSJ, 4/25/08, p.A2)

1985        Mar 12, Conductor Eugene Ormandy (85), director of the Philadelphia Philharmonic for more than four decades, died.
    (AP, 3/12/05)

1985        May 13, Police in Philadelphia dropped a bomb on the headquarters of the radical group MOVE. A fire resulted that killed 11 people, 5 of them children. Ramona Africa and her 13 year old son were the only two people to escape the inferno at 6221 Osage St. Africa was charged with rioting and conspiracy, was convicted and served 7 years in state prison. No charges have ever been filed against any city officials or employee. The lawsuit was re-opened in 1996. On Jun 24, 1996, a jury in Philadelphia awarded $1.5 mil to the survivors of the MOVE cult. In 2013 the documentary “Let the Fire Burn,” directed by Jason Osder, covered the MOVE story with archival footage.
    (SFC, 4/3/96, p.A-4)(USAT, 6/25/96, p.3A)(AP, 5/13/97)(SFC, 11/1/13, p.E7)

1985        May 31, Some 41 tornadoes swept through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Ontario, Canada, during an eight-hour period killing 88 people with over 1,000 injured.
    (AP, 5/31/05)

1985        Berry Prevor and Steven Shore of Long Island, NY, opened their first Steve and Barry’s store Philadelphia, selling discount Univ. of Pennsylvania apparel. In 2008 the 276-store chain faced Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 7/9/08, p.B1)(WSJ, 7/14/08, p.A1)

1986        Aug 5, It was revealed that Andrew Wyeth secretly created 240 drawings and paintings of his neighbor Helga Testorf, in Chadds Ford, Pa.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1986        A consent decree in Philadelphia limited the number of prisoners who could be held in city jails. Over the next 18 months police rearrested 9,732 defendants. In 2002 Ross Sandler and David Schoenbrod authored "Democracy by Decree," a critique of "institutional reform litigation."
    (WSJ, 12/30/02, p.A1)

1986        The Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center opened.
    (SFC, 3/9/98, p.A7)
1986        Abhay Ashtekar, a physicist at Pennsylvania State Univ., proposed an explanation called “loop quantum gravity” to relate quantum mechanics with general relativity. This rivaled a popular alternative model called string theory.
    (Econ, 9/30/06, p.89)

1986-1994    Robert P. Casey (d.2000 at 68) served as governor.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.D4)

1987        Jan 22, R. Budd Dwyer, Penn. State Treasurer, facing prison for conspiracy & perjury, shot himself to death at a televised news conference.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._Budd_Dwyer)

1987        Sep 17, The city of Philadelphia, birthplace of the U.S. Constitution, threw a big party to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the historic document.
    (AP, 9/17/97)

1987        In the Philadelphia mayor’s race Frank Rizzo lost to black accountant Wilson Goode. Rizzo took 97% of the white vote while Goode won with 98% of the black vote.
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)

1987        Pennsylvania officials declared the city of Aliquippa as economically distressed.
    (WSJ, 5/27/04, p.A1)

1987        Hawks Aloft Worldwide was conceived as a cooperative project by the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, in Kempton, Pennsylvania.
    (NH, 10/96, p.41)

1988        Jan 2, An Ashland Oil Company tank collapsed at Floreffe near Elizabeth, Penn., sending more than 700,000 gallons of diesel oil into the Monongahela River.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1988        Jan 4, Drinking water began to dry up in Pittsburgh suburbs because of a massive diesel oil spill two days earlier that fouled the Monongahela and Ohio rivers.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1988        William Post III (1940-2006) won a $16.2 million Pennsylvania lottery jackpot. His annual installment payments of $498,000 after taxes led to problems with siblings, his wife and girlfriend, who successfully sued for a third of his earnings. In 1996 a bankruptcy judge auctioned off the remainder of his prize payments to pay off his debts leaving him with $1 million.
    (SFC, 1/23/06, p.B4)

1989        Apr 12, Abbie Hoffman (52), radical activist, was found dead at his home in New Hope, Penn. He suffered from bipolar mental illness that was only diagnosed in 1980. In 1996 Jonah Raskin wrote: "For the Hell of It: The Life and Times of Abbie Hoffman." In 1994 Jack Hoffman, Abbie’s brother, wrote a biography, as did Marty Jezer in 1992. His wife, Anita, died in 1998. She wrote "Trashing," a fictional memoir of her activity as a Yippie. In 1999 Larry Sloman published "Steal This Dream: Abbie Hoffman and the Countercultural Revolution in America."
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.5,6)(SFC, 12/31/98, p.D4)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.7) (AP, 4/12/99)

1989        May 11, The Franklin Mills mega-mall, the former Liberty Bell Racetrack, opened in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A15)(www.northeasttimes.com/2000/1108/franklinmills.html)

1989        Jul 29, Ji Yun Lee (20) died in a fire at a church camp near East Stroudsburg, Pa. Her father Han Tak Lee (54), a South Korean-born operator of a clothing store in NYC, was arrested for arson. He was convicted of murder on Sep 17, 1990. In 2006 Lee’s attorneys appealed to the state Supreme Court citing new advances in arson investigations.
    (SSFC, 12/10/06, p.A39)

1989        Oct, Al Martino, pop singer, was inducted into the Philadelphia Hall of Fame.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.74)

1989        Nov 18, Pennsylvania became the 1st state to restrict abortions after Supreme Court gave states the right to do so.
    (http://tinyurl.com/fef7u)

1989        Philip Berman (d.1997 at 82), art collector and philanthropist, became chairman of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He had prospered and retired from the trucking business and led a capital campaign that raised $63.4 million for the museum between 1989 and 1993.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)

1990        Apr 25, Dexter Gordon (67), jazz saxophonist, died in Philadelphia.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1990        Aug 17, Pearl Bailey (b.1918), Broadway actress, singer, died in Philadelphia from a heart attack at age 72.
    (www.blackpressusa.com/history/Archive.asp?week=33)

1990        Nov 11, Stormie Jones, the world’s first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13.
    (AP, 11/11/00)

1991        Apr 4, Pennsylvania Senator John Heinz III, a leading 3-term Republican voice on health and trade policy, and six other people, including two children, were killed when a helicopter collided with Heinz’s plane over a schoolyard in Merion, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Teresa Heinz took his place as head of the family philanthropies. In 1995 she married Sen. John Kerry.
    (SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)(AP, 4/4/01)(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.A1)

1991        Jun 30, The federal base-closing commission voted to shut down 17 military bases, including the massive Philadelphia Navy Shipyard, in addition to seven facilities ordered closed two days earlier.
    (AP, 6/30/01)

1991        Jul 16, Frank Rizzo (70), (Mayor-D-Phila, 1972-80), died of a heart attack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Rizzo)

1991        Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail at Pennsylvania State Univ. reported evidence of 3 extra-solar planets (exoplanets) orbiting around the spinning remains of Pulsar B1257+12. They found the pulsar in 1990 using the Arecibo radio telescope.
    (SSFC, 9/30/01, Par p.5)(www.economicexpert.com/a/PSR:1257:plus:12.htm)

1992        Oct 27, In Oil City, Pennsylvania, Shauna Howe (11) was kidnapped while walking home from a pre-Halloween party. Her battered body was found 3 days later. For every year afterward, the City Council voted to allow trick-or-treating in the afternoon only. In 2004 a witness came forward and police turned to DNA evidence. Two brothers were arrested and convicted of murder and sexual assault. A third man pleaded guilty to murder. In 2008 the city council voted to allow Halloween back to night hours.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

1992        Scranton, Pa., entered Act 47, a state program that provides assistance to financially distressed cities.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.26)

1993        Jan 10, An unidentified 62-year-old man at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center underwent the world's second baboon liver transplant. The man died less than a month later without regaining full consciousness.
    (AP, 1/10/98)

1993        Mar 18, In Pennsylvania Amish man Edward Gingerich outraged his normally peaceful religious community of Rockdale Township, where he crushed his wife's skull and used a kitchen knife to remove her stomach organs from her dead body. Gingerich was diagnosed with schizophrenia and convicted of manslaughter in 1994. After serving his maximum sentence of four years in prison for the killing, moved to a mental institution in Michigan before going to Indiana and eventually returning to Pennsylvania and the Brown Hill Amish community in 2007. In 2011 Gingerich (44) committed suicide in a barn in Cambridge Springs, Pa.
    (www.bellaonline.com/articles/art68724.asp)(Reuters, 1/16/11)

1993        Jul 26, Ret. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway (98), US Army Chief of Staff (1953-55), died in Fox Chapel, Pa.
    (AP, 7/26/98)

1993        Oct 16, The Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 8-5, in game one of the World Series.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1993        Oct 17, The Philadelphia Phillies defeated the Toronto Blue Jays, 6-4, evening the World Series at one game each.
    (AP, 10/17/98)

1993        Oct 19, The Toronto Blue Jays took a 2-1 lead in the World Series by defeating the Philadelphia Phillies 10-3.
    (AP, 10/19/98)

1993        Oct 20, Toronto took a 3-1 lead in the World Series as the Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 15-14.
    (AP, 10/20/98)

1993        Oct 21, The Philadelphia Phillies beat the Toronto Blue Jays 2-0 in game five of the World Series; Toronto still led the Series 3-2.
    (AP, 10/21/98)

1994        Jun 7, Vicki Van Meter 912) of Meadville, Pa., completed a trans-Atlantic flight, landing in Glasgow, Scotland. She was accompanied by her flight instructor.
    (www.zinkle.com/p/articles/mi_m1590/is_n3_v51/ai_15823355)

1994        Sep 8, A US Air Boeing 737 from Chicago crashed near Pittsburgh Int’l. Airport and killed all 132 people onboard. USAir Flight 427 crashed 6 minutes before it was due to land.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(AP, 9/8/97)(SFC, 11/13/01, p.A12)

1994        Nov 1, In Cherry Hill, Pa., Len Jenoff and Paul Daniels clubbed to death Carol Neulander (52), the wife of Rabbi Fred J. Neulander (53), under a contract from Rabbi Neulander. Neulander stood trial in 2001 in New Jersey. He was convicted of murder Nov 20, 2002 and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A18)(SFC, 11/21/02, p.A6)(SFC, 11/23/02, p.A4)

1994        Nov 11, Eddie Polec (16), a Fox Chase high school student, died after being clubbed to death by students of Abington High School. On March 20, 1996, Carlo Johnson (20) and Bou Khathavong (18) – believed by prosecutors to be the ring leaders in the assault, although neither beat Polec – received maximum five- to 10-year sentences for conspiracy. Prosecutors believe the two organized the rumble and provided the baseball bats. Anthony Rienzi and Nick Pinero, both 18, were sentenced to the maximum 15- to 30-year terms for third-degree murder and conspiracy. Thomas Crook (19) sobbed and apologized to his family before receiving 14.5 years to 30 years on the same charges. Dawan Alexander (18) who was convicted of manslaughter for kicking Polec, received an eight- to 20-year term. Seventh defendant Kevin Convey (19) had pleaded guilty earlier to third-degree murder in exchange for testifying against the others. In February he had been sentenced to five to 20 years. In 2000 Bryn Freedman and William Knoedelseder authored "In Eddie’s Name: One Family’s Triumph Over Tragedy."
    (SFEC, 5/14/00, BR p.12)(www.cnn.com/US/9603/teen_sentencing/)

1994        The Andy Warhol Museum opened in Pittsburgh.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T11)

1994        Steven Spielberg helped establish the Righteous Persons Foundation. In 2008 $1 million from the foundation was given toward establishing a new Museum of American Jewish History in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.E15)

1994        Judith Rodin (b.1944) began serving as president of the Univ. of Pennsylvania. She served until 2004 and in 2005 became president of the Rockefeller Foundation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Rodin)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.68)

1995        Aug 7, Ten days before he was to be put to death for the murder of a police officer, black activist and radio reporter Mumia Abu-Jamal won a reprieve from the original trial judge in Philadelphia. As of 2008, his legal appeals are still unsettled and he is a prisoner at State Correctional Institution Greene near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 8/7/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumia_Abu-Jamal)

1995        Oct, Jonny Gammage died from asphyxiation when police officers subdued him following a traffic stop in Overbrook. In 1999 the Justice Dept. closed its case against the officers due to lack of evidence that they used unreasonable force.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A5)

1995        Dec 24, Fire broke out at the Philadelphia Zoo, killing 23 rare gorillas, orangutans, gibbons and lemurs.
    (AP, 12/24/05)

1995        Erie’s congressman Tom Ridge became governor.
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A28)

1995        Abu-Jamal, in jail for a 1981 murder conviction, published "Live from Death Row."
    (SFC, 1/22/99, p.A2)

1996        Jan 14, The Pittsburgh Steelers defeated the Indianapolis Colts, 20-to-16, to win the AFC championship. The Dallas Cowboys beat the Green Bay Packers, 38-to-27, to win the NFC championship.
    (AP, 1/14/01)

1996        Jan 26, Olympic wrestler Dave Schultz was fatally shot at the suburban Philadelphia estate of John E. du Pont; du Pont surrendered 48 hours later. Du Pont was later convicted of third-degree murder but mentally ill; he's serving a 13- to 30-year sentence.
    (AP, 1/26/06)

1996        Jun 27, Anne Marie Fahey (30), the secretary of Delaware Gov. Thomas Carper, disappeared from Wilmington after dining at a Philadelphia restaurant with Thomas Capano. Capano, a prominent lawyer who had dated Fahey, was later accused of her murder based on testimony from his two brothers. In 1998 Capano admitted that he disposed Fahey’s body but insisted that her death was an accident. In 1998 Capano testified that Fahey was shot accidentally by former mistress Deborah MacIntyre, who denied the charge. Capano was convicted by a jury on Jan 17, 1999. On Mar 16, 1999, Capano was sentenced to death.
    {Pennsylvania, Murder, Delaware}
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A4)(SFEC, 10/5/98, p.A5)(SFC, 10/27/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/22/98, p.A2)(SFC, 1/18/99, p.A2)(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A2)

1996        Nov 13, An all-white jury in Pittsburgh acquitted a suburban police officer, John Vojtas, in the death of black motorist Jonny Gammage in a verdict that angered black activists.
    (AP, 11/13/97)

1996        Binney & Smith Inc. established the Crayola Factory Museum in Easton, Pa.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A1)
1996        Peter Wright (1917-2007), founder of started Wright’s Keystone Helicopter Corp. (1953), served as the founding chairman of the American Helicopter Museum in West Chester, Pa.
    (WSJ, 6/16/07, p.A6)

1996        David Nam broke into the Philadelphia house of Anthony Schroeder (75) to rob him and killed the retired police officer when he resisted with his own gun. Nam was arrested in 1997 but fled to South Korea in 1998 while under house arrest. In 2008 Nam was arrested by police in South Korea.
    (AP, 3/19/08)   

1997        Feb 23, In Philadelphia a group of white men attacked a black family in the Grays Ferry section. Nine men were tried in 1998 and 6 were convicted on a variety of felony accounts.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A3)

1997        Feb 25, A jury in Media, Pa., convicted multimillionaire John E. du Pont of third-degree murder, deciding he was mentally ill when he killed world-class wrestler David Schultz. Du Pont was sentenced to serve 13- to 30-years in prison.
    (AP, 2/25/07)

1997        Mar 26, Former drug counselor John G. Bennett Jr. pleaded no contest in Philadelphia to charges stemming from a $100 million charity fraud. Bennett was sentenced to 12 years in prison for fraud, tax violations and money laundering.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

1997        Aug 12, Steel workers in West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania ended a 10-month strike at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. with a new contract. It was the longest strike by a major steel company.
    (SFC, 8/13/97, p.A3)

1997        Sep, Devon Capital Management under John Gardner Black was shut down by the SEC. Mr. Black was charged with fraud after losing millions in high-risk bonds and derivatives and then trying to cover up the losses. Some $70 million was lost from the investments of 64 cash-strapped school districts in the state.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 24, A firebomb killed a grandmother, her daughter and three children in a blighted neighborhood of crack houses.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A4)

1997        Oct 25, A Million Woman March was planned to occur in Philadelphia to revitalize black families and communities.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A3)

1997        Nov 26, It was reported that Philadelphia agreed with the Norwegian shipbuilder Kvaerner ASA to a 99-year lease on 114 acres of the former Naval Shipyard that includes 2 drydocks with the option to buy the property for 1 dollar at the end of the lease.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.B8)

1997        Dec 21, Johnny Coles (71), jazz trumpeter, died in Philadelphia. His records included "The Warm Sound of Johnny Coles" and "Little Johnny C."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.B6)

1997        The Zippo Manufacturing Co. opened a Zippo museum in Bradford to celebrate its 65th anniversary.
    (Hem., 10/97, p.78)

1997        John Street, Philadelphia City Council president and later mayor, proposed a rigid anti-loitering law aimed at clearing city streets of panhandlers. An estimated 4,500 homeless lived in Philadelphia at the time. A campaign to move the homeless into shelters reduced the number on the streets to 130 in 2004.
    (SSFC, 6/13/04, A22)

1998        Jan 7, The book "A Prayer for the City" by Buzz Bissinger was about Philadelphia mayor Ed Rendell and his last 3 years in office. Rendell served 2 terms from 1990-1998.
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A7)

1998        Mar 22, In Miles Township, Pa., 11 students were killed in a cabin fire while on a camping trip.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.A2)

1998        Apr 13, An Amtrak train collided with Conrail freight cars near Pittsburgh and injured 20 people.
    (WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 24, In Pennsylvania a 14-year-old boy was arrested after he shot a teacher to death and injured 2 others during a dance for 8th graders in Edinboro. Andrew Wurst (14) later pleaded guilty to third-degree murder and was sentenced to 30 to 60 years in prison.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A3)(AP, 4/24/03)

1998        May 10, In Clearfield, Pa., Kimberly Jo Dotts (15) was hanged to death by teenagers who planned to run away to Florida. Seven young people 14-24 were arrested for murder and the trial of Jessica Holtmeyer (16) and Aaron Straw (19) began in 1999. Holtmeyer was convicted Jan 28.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.A8)(SFC, 1/29/99, p.A6)

1998        Jun 1, In Philadelphia the largest transit union went on strike and shut down a system that served 435,000 people a day. This followed 3 months of negotiations with the transportation authority (SEPTA).
    (SFC, 6/2/98, p.A5)

1998        Jun 10, Dr. Stephen Grosse, a flamboyant gay dentist, was found shot dead in his burning car near Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.A3)

1998        Jun 15, Police and federal agents and garbage trucks began Operation Sunrise in Philadelphia to clean up a blighted neighborhood.
    (SFC, 6/16/98, p.A3)

1998        Jun 20, Seven people were killed on the Pennsylvania Turnpike when a Greyhound bus crashed into a tractor-trailer parked on the shoulder. At least 18 people were hurt. The driver was on his last run before retirement. he was among the dead with his wife and boy that they took care of.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 23, Laboratory grown adult nerve cells were implanted into a human brain for the first time to treat a stroke at the Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A2)

1998        Jun, Federal prosecutors accused 2 Amish men of buying cocaine from a local chapter of the Pagan Motorcycle Club and distributing it to their friends at "running around" parties (rumschpringes in Dutch).
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A7)

1998        Jul 11, Public transit resumed and the 40-day transit strike came to a tentative end after a contract agreement was reached.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 5, Marie Noe of Philadelphia (69), was arrested and charged with murdering 8 of 10 children by suffocation over a 19 year period (1949-1968). In 1999 Noe (70) pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20 years probation.
    (SFC, 8/6/93, p.A3)(SFC, 6/29/99, p.A2)(AP, 8/5/99)

1998        Sep 17, In Apollo, Pennsylvania, nuclear-processing plant operators were ordered to pay 8 cancer-stricken victims $36.5 million.
    (WSJ, 9/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep, The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys), an insect not previously seen in North America, was first collected in Allentown, Pa. It had probably arrived several years earlier. It is known as an agricultural pest in its native range of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.36)(http://tinyurl.com/nkexo3)

1998        Dec 17, In Gabon Karen Phillips (37), a US Peace Corps worker from Philadelphia, was raped and stabbed to death in Oyem. 3 people were arrested in connection with her death.
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.C10)

1999        Feb 19, In Allentown, Pa., An explosion at a chemical processing plant in the Lehigh Valley Industrial Park killed 5 people and injured 14.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 18, In Norristown Dennis Czaikowski (40) shot and killed Carol Kepner (54) and wounded Maria Jordan (37) before being subdued by police following a standoff at the Norristown State Hosp. where he had been fired.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.A4)

1999        Aug 7, In China Song Yongyi, a research librarian at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pa., was imprisoned while collecting data on the Cultural Revolution. On Dec 12 he was charged with "the purchase and illegal provision of intelligence to foreigners." Yongyi was released on Jan 28, 2000.
    (SFC, 1/26/00, p.A8)(SFC, 1/29/00, p.A8)

1999        Aug 16, Gov. Tom Ridge ordered a lockdown of all state prisons following the escape Michael McCloskey (43) and Anthony Yang (31) from the State Correctional Institution at Dallas.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.A3)

1999        Sep 7-19, Hurricane Floyd caused one death in Caribbean and 56 in United States. Storm hit Bahamas before striking Florida, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Delaware, New York, Connecticut, and Vermont.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1999        Oct, The plum pox virus made its first appearance in North America in Pennsylvania orchards.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.A20)

1999        Nov 2, Democrat John F. Street became the 2nd black mayor of Philadelphia with his win over Sam Katz.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.A17)

1999        Nov 21, A Penn State student and a bus driver were killed when 4 charter buses crashed on I-80 in heavy fog.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A9)

1999        Dec 5, W. Russell G. Byers (59), a Daily News columnist, was stabbed to death as he fought off a robber by a convenience store in the Chestnut Hill section of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.B2)

2000        Feb 3, Nancy Hershey Bromer, publisher of "Old News," died at age 78. Old News had begun as a monthly magazine about Pennsylvania history in the 1980s and later expanded to national and world history.
    (ON, 3/00, p.3)

2000        Feb 5, An oil pipeline began leaking and released some 25,000 gallons below the surface of a frozen pond in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in southwest Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 1, In Pennsylvania Ronald Taylor (39) killed 3 people and wounded 2 at an apartment and 2 fast food restaurants in Wilkinsburg. In 2001 Taylor was sentenced to death for the killing of 3 white men.
    (SFC, 3/2/00, p.A3)(AP, 3/1/01)(SFC, 11/12/01, p.A12)

2000        Mar 19, At Bloomsburg Univ. a fire at the off-campus Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity killed 3 members.
    (SFC, 3/20/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 21, In Sinking Spring Carlos Angel Diaz Santiago (22) pushed the car of his former girlfriend onto the tracks of an oncoming train. Candace Wertz (20), her son (2), Cynthia Jacques (22), and her daughter (2) were killed.
    (SFC, 4/22/00, p.A3)

2000        Apr 28, In Pennsylvania Richard Baumhammers (34) shot and killed 5 people in a racially motivated shooting spree in McKees Rocks. He was sentenced to death in 2001.
    (SFC, 4/29/00, p.A3)(BS, 5/12/01, p.3A)

2000        May 18, In Philadelphia a 91-year-old pier at a new open-air bar collapsed into the Delaware River and 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.B1)

2000        May 21, In Pennsylvania a commuter plane, returning from Atlantic City, NJ, crashed near Wilkes-Barre and all 19 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 5/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 26, The new United Religions organization planned a charter signing ceremony at Carnegie Mellon Univ. in Pittsburgh. Episcopal Bishop William Swing first announced his dream June, 1995, at Grace Cathedral in SF. A 41-member Global Council will coordinate activities. 24 members will be chosen by a worldwide membership in 8 regional elections, with a dozen at-large trustees and 5 seats from the current board. The basic unit of the organization will be a group of 7 or more people from a mix of religious traditions.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.A1,5)

2000        Jun 18, A US F-14 Tomcat fighter jet crashed during an air show at Willow Grove, Pa. Two naval aviators were killed.
    (SFC, 6/20/00, p.A9)

2000        Jul 3, The $2.5 million, 393-foot Gettysburg National Tower, erected in 1974, was destroyed.
    (SFC, 7/4/00, p.A3)

2000        Jul 12, In Philadelphia a WPVI News camera showed city police beat and kick Thomas Jones (30) over nationwide TV. Jones had stolen a patrol car and shot at an officer. Jones later pleaded guilty to carjacking and other crimes, and was sentenced to 18 to 36 years in prison. Ballistic tests later showed that Officer Michael Livewell was shot in the thumb by another officer during their struggle with Jones. 13 police officers were later suspended for up to 15 days in connection with the incident.
    (SFC, 7/14/00, p.A1,16)(SFC, 8/8/00, p.A5)(AP, 7/12/05)

2000        Jul 31, The Republican National Convention opened in Philadelphia.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 1, In Philadelphia police arrested at least 280 protesters and raided a warehouse site used as a staging area for passive resistance demonstrations. 15 police officers were injured.
    (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A9)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A3)

2000        Oct 1, Pope John Paul II on China’s national day, canonized as martyrs 87 Chinese believers and 33 European missionaries killed between 1648 and 1930. He also canonized Mother Katherine Drexel (d.1955), a Philadelphia heiress, who became a nun.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A12)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.78)

2000        Oct 27, Philadelphia teachers called a strike. Mayor John Street planned a talk with Gov. Tom Ridge on arranging a "friendly takeover" of the school system by the state to force teachers back to work.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A9)

2000        Dec 28, Masked men shot and killed 7 people in a suspected drug house in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A3)

2001        Mar 7, In Williamsport a 14-year-old girl at Bishop Neumann High School shot and wounded a 13-year-old classmate with a .22 caliber handgun.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A5)

2001        Apr 13, In Philadelphia a fire at a boarding house killed 7 people. The unlicensed house was home to seniors and disabled people.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.A5)

2001        Apr 28, It was reported that researchers at the Univ. of Pennsylvania had used gene therapy to reverse a form of congenital blindness in dogs.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A3)

2001        Apr, Willie Stargell (61), former Pittsburgh Pirates baseball Hall of Fame star (1962-1982), died in North Carolina of a stroke.
    (WSJ, 4/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 17, Tropical Strom Allison moved into southeastern Pennsylvania and killed 4 people. This raised the toll from Allison to at least 43.
    (SFC, 6/18/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 11, 10:10 a.m. United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 carrying 45 people, crashed southeast of Pittsburgh. The plane had left Newark for SF but was believed to be directed by hijackers to Camp David. Passengers appeared to have overcome the hijackers. In 2002 it was reported that Congress was the target.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A6,10,12)(WSJ, 9/12/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/6/01, p.A6)(WSJ, 9/12/01, p.A1,3) (WSJ, 2/24/05, p.A1)

2001        Sep 13, The data flight recorder for United Flight 93 was found at the Pennsylvania crash site. 18 hijackers were identified as ticketed passengers in the Sep 11 terrorist attack.
    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 20, Pres. Bush named Gov. Tom Ridge (56) of Pennsylvania to direct the new office of Homeland Security.
    (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A16)

2001        Oct 19, In Philadelphia luggage, from a baggage locker that was deposited Sep 29, was found to contain C-4 plastic explosives.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A17)

2001        Dec 9, An Amtrak Acela train killed 3 people on tracks northeast of Philadelphia.
    (WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 10, In Philadelphia a gunman opened fire outside the Great Valley Shopping Center in East Whiteland Township and killed 2 people. A 3rd was wounded.
    (SFC, 12/11/01, p.A9)

2001        Dec 18, A federal judge in Philadelphia threw out Mumia Abu-Jamal's death sentence for the 1981 shooting of a Philadelphia police officer and ordered a new sentencing hearing for the former Black Panther alternately portrayed as a vicious cop-killer and a victim of a racist frame-up. Both sides appealed the ruling.
    (SFC, 12/19/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/17/02)

2001        Dec 21, Gov. Mark Schweiker announced an agreement on a state takeover of the Philadelphia school system. Plans called Edison Schools Inc. to help run the district.
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A4)

2001        Dec 28, In Pennsylvania a 30-50 car crash on snow-slickened I-80 left 5 people dead near Williamsport. Another 50 cars were involved in 2 pileups that left at least 2 people dead.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A6)

2001        Dec, The $265 million Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts approached completion. The Philadelphia structure was designed by Rafael Viñoly.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

2001        Verizon Hall, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra, opened at the Kimmel Center in Philadelphia, Pa.
    (WSJ, 5/18/06, p.D8)

2002        Jan 7, Louis Pollak, a federal judge in Philadelphia, challenged the scientific validity of fingerprint evidence. In March Pollak declared fingerprint id to be the "bedrock of forensic science."
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 25, In Pittsburgh 2 masked gunmen killed 2 men and a young girl in a sandwich shop.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.A17)

2002        Feb 4, A New Jersey teenager (16) began a 2-day shooting spree on the outskirts of Philadelphia that left 6 people dead. He was arrested Feb 22.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 18, Researchers in Pittsburgh reported a strain of Group A streptococci resistant to erythromycin (the macrolide class of antibiotics).
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 23, Chaim Potok (73), rabbi and author of novels that included "The Chosen," died at his home in suburban Philadelphia. "Literature presents you with alternative mappings of the human experience."
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 24, John Rigas (78), CEO of Adelphia Comm. Corp., was arrested with his 2 sons on charges of that they looted the company of more than $1 billion.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 24, In Pennsylvania 9 coal miners were trapped by a flood 240 feet underground. All 9 were rescued Jul 27.
    (WSJ, 7/26/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 25, Encouraged by a tinny tapping sound coming up from the depths, rescuers in Somerset, Pa., brought in a huge drill in a race to save nine coal miners trapped 240 feet underground by a flooded shaft.
    (AP, 7/25/03)

2002        Jul 26, Hershey Foods in Hershey, Pa., announced that it would put itself up for sale under directions by the Hershey Trust Co.
    (SFC, 7/26/02, p.B3)

2002        Jul 28, In Somerset, Pennsylvania 9 coal miners, trapped July 24 by a flood 240 feet underground, were rescued after 77 hours underground in the Quecreek Mine.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/03)

2002        Aug 7, Destiny Wright disappeared at a sleepover with other children in Philadelphia. Abdul El-Shabazz (18) was arrested the next day and led police to her body.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A5)

2002        Aug 10, Leaders of Roman Catholic religious orders, meeting in Philadelphia, approved details of their plan to keep sexually abusive clergy away from children, while retaining them in the priesthood, creating review boards to monitor how their communities handle offenders.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2002        Oct 1, Walter H. Annenberg (94), media tycoon, philanthropist and former ambassador, died in Wynnewood, Pa. Biographies included "Legacy: A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg" by Christopher Ogden and "The Annenbergs" by John Cooney.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

2002        Oct 15, A listeria outbreak blamed for at east 7 deaths in the northeast was traced to a Wampler Foods plant in Franconia, Pa.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A5)

2002        Oct 17, Ira Einhorn, the '70s hippie guru who had fled to Europe after being charged with murder, was convicted in Philadelphia of killing his girlfriend, Holly Maddux, and stuffing her corpse in his closet a quarter-century earlier. He was later sentenced to life without parole.
    (AP, 10/17/03)

2002        Nov 10, A series of pulverizing storms barreled through more than a half-dozen US states including Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi and Pennsylvania, killing at least 36 people. More than 100 were injured.
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.A4)(AP, 11/10/07)

2002        Semion Mogilevich (b.1946), a Ukrainian businessman, and Igor Fisherman were indicted in Philadelphia on charges of money laundering and securities fraud in connection with the collapse of YBM Magnex, Inc. in which investors lost some $150 million. In 2006 Mogilevich was under investigation for possible links to natural gas deals between Russia and Ukraine.
    (WSJ, 12/22/06, p.A11)

2002        The US Geological Survey estimated there may be 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania. In 2008 Prof. Terry Engelder of Pennsylvania State Univ. estimated the amount at 168 trillion cubic feet. US consumption in 2007 was 23.05 trillion. The Marcellus shale formation stretched some 600 miles along the Appalachians from New York to West Virginia.
    (WSJ, 4/2/08, p.A2)(Econ, 3/16/13, SR p.6)

2003        Mar, Philadelphia school officials began an inventory of stored art. By 2004 some 1,200 works were counted with an estimated value in the millions.
    (SFC, 7/8/04, p.A2)

2003        Apr 19, In northeast Pennsylvania Hadley Bilger (13) was abducted by her uncle after he shot and killed her parents. Bilger was released the next day and Robert Lee Hixson (42) surrendered to police.
    (AP, 4/20/03)(SFC, 4/21/03, p.A3)

2003        Apr 24, In Red Lion, Pa. James Shetts (14), a student armed with at least two handguns, fatally shot Eugene Segro (51), his school principal, in a crowded cafeteria before killing himself.
    (Reuters, 4/24/03)(SFC, 4/25/03, A7)

2003        Jun 17, John Redwood (60), actor and playwright, died in south Philadelphia. His plays included "No Niggers, No Jews, No Dogs" (2001).
    (SFC, 7/1/03, p.A17)

2003        Aug 28, In Erie, Pa., Brian Douglas Wells (46), pizza delivery man, was killed when a bomb strapped to his chest exploded while under police custody. Wells claimed a customer had strapped on the bomb and ordered him to rob a bank. In 2007 a grand jury indicted 2 people in connection with the crime. Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong (59), described as the ringleader, pleaded guilty but mentally ill for killing her boyfriend to keep him silent about the robbery. Diehl-Armstrong was trying to raise money to hire Kenneth Barnes to kill her father due to an inheritance dispute. In 2008 Kenneth Barnes (54) pleaded guilty to conspiracy. In 2010 Diehl-Armstrong was convicted for her role in the robbery. In 2011 she was sentenced to life plus 30 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 8/31/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/11/07)(SFC, 9/4/08, p.A7)(SFC, 11/2/10, p.A5)(SFC, 3/1/11, p.A4)

2003        Nov 14, In Pittsburgh, Pa., a 3rd person died from an outbreak of hepatitis A that infected nearly 600 people. They all had recently eaten at a Chi-Chi's Mexican mall restaurant. Green onions were blamed for the outbreak.
    (SFC, 11/15/03, p.A3)(AP, 11/16/03)(SFC, 11/22/03, p.A5)

2003        Dec 4, Federal prosecutor Jonathan Luna was attacked after leaving his office in Baltimore around midnight. His body was found 6 hours later, stabbed 36 times apparently in a furious fight for his life before drowning in a Pennsylvania creek. Luna was involved in the prosecution of rapper Deon Lionel Smith (32) and Walter Oriley Poindexter.
    (AP, 12/5/03)(SFC, 12/5/03, p.A6)

2003        Dec 15, Charles Cullen (43), a former nurse, was charged with murder after telling prosecutors that he killed 30-40 severely ill patients in Pennsylvania and New Jersey since 1987 by injecting them with drugs. Cullen later pleaded guilty to killing 29 people and attempting to kill six others; he was sentenced to 18 life prison terms.
    (SFC, 12/17/03, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/30/04, p.A1)(SFC, 5/20/04, p.A3)(AP, 12/15/08)

2003        Dec 29, Paul Goldman, a native of Uzbekistan, stabbed and killed Faina Zonis in the Philadelphia suburb of Bensalem. Goldman soon fled the country. Police found his parents dead by suicide on Jan 13. Goldman was captured in France on Jan 20, 2004. Zonis committed suicide Apr 11, 2004.
    (SFC, 1/17/04, p.A4)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.A3)(AP, 4/13/04)

2003        Pittsburgh joined 14 other Pennsylvania cities classified as economically distressed.
    (WSJ, 5/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 19, The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission voted to raise tolls an average of 42% for all vehicles.
    (USAT, 1/20/04, p.12A)

2004        Mar 21, Veterans Stadium (b.1971) in Philadelphia was demolished in 62 seconds following 2,800 explosions.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.D1)

2004        Mar 27, Edward J. Piszek (87), founder of Mrs. Paul's Kitchens, died in Fort Washington, Pa.
    (SFC, 4/1/04, p.B7)

2004        Jul 5, Gov. Ed Rendell signed laws authorizing 61,000 slot machines in Pennsylvania, more than any other state except Nevada. Most of the state's share will pay for a $1 billion cut in property taxes a year.
    (AP, 7/5/04)

2004        Jul 8, John Rigas (79), founder of Adelphia Communications Corp. (1952), was convicted along with his son Timothy of looting the cable company to line their own pockets.
    (SFC, 7/9/04, p.C1)(USAT, 7/9/04, p.1B)

2004        Jul 12, A foot or more of rain fell in parts of the Northeast. No injuries had been reported in the stricken areas of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.
    (AP, 7/13/04)

2004        Jul 16, PNC Financial, based in Pennsylvania, agreed to by Riggs National of Washington DC for $779 million. Riggs was fined $25 million in May for violating money laundering regulations.
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.69)

2004        Sep 1, It was reported that for about $10 million, Philadelphia city officials planned to turn all 135 square miles of the city into the world's largest wireless Internet hot spot. EarthLink was given the contract and planned to rent 4,000 city light posts for its equipment. Completion of the network was expected in Spring 2007.
    (AP, 9/1/04)(SFC, 3/2/06, p.C2)

2004        Oct 18, The Dover, Pa., school district voted 6-3 to mandate the teaching of “intelligent design” in public schools along with the theory of evolution. A number of parents soon filed suit. In 2007 Edward Humes authored “Monkey Girl: Evolution, Education, Religion, and the Battle for America’s Soul.”
    (SFC, 11/30/04, p.A1)(SFC, 12/15/04, p.A4)(WSJ, 2/8/07, p.D7)

2004        Nov 19, Police in Abington, Pennsylvania, arrested Michael Cornelius Burke Jr. (38) for the assault and rape of 2 girls ages 10 & 13. In Apr 2006 Burke pleaded guilty but failed to show up for sentencing. In 2009 Burke was arrested in Mexico’s in central Veracruz state.
    (www.amw.com/fugitives/brief.cfm?id=66637)(AP, 12/9/09)

2004        Dec 13, A Montgomery County, Pa., judge allowed trustees of the Barnes Foundation to move the Barnes art collection to downtown Philadelphia from Lower Meriod Township.
    (SFC, 12/15/04, p.E5)

2005        Jan 23, The Philadelphia Eagles defeated the Atlanta Falcons 27-10 to win the NFC championship game; the New England Patriots won the AFC championship by beating the Pittsburgh Steelers, 41-27.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2005        Feb 25, Hall of Fame basketball coach John Chaney was suspended for the rest of the regular season by Philadelphia’s Temple Univ. for ordering rough play by one of his players during a game against Saint Joseph's.
    (AP, 2/25/06)

2005        Mar 26, A small plane, carrying 2 Rhode Island families from vacation in Florida, crashed near Penn. State Univ. All 6 people aboard were killed.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.A3)

2005        Jun 7, Terry Long, former Pittsburgh Steelers lineman, died in a hospital about five hours after he was found unresponsive in his suburban Pittsburgh home. An Oct 19 revised death certificate indicated that he had committed suicide by drinking antifreeze, and did not die as a direct result of football-related head injuries.
    (AP, 1/26/06)

2005        Jun 12, I fire in Philadelphia left 5 children dead. Security bars on windows may have hampered escape attempts.
    (SFC, 6/13/05, p.A3)

2005        Jul, Pennsylvania legislators increase their salaries 16 percent to 34 percent to at least $81,050, more than any state except California, and crafted the package in secret without debate or public scrutiny. They also found a way around a constitutional provision barring them from collecting any salary increase during the term in which it is approved. Democratic Gov. Ed Rendell signed the bill into law. A lawsuit was soon filed in state court challenging the legality of paying the raises early as unvouchered expenses, though no hearing date has been set. A ruling against the unvouchered expenses would nullify the entire law, including their raises.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Jul 18, LaToyia Figueroa, who was five months' pregnant, was last seen in West Philadelphia. Police recovered her remains a month later. On August 20, 2005, They arrested Steven Poaches, her former boyfriend and the father of the unborn child. On October 17, 2006, in a nonjury trial, Common Pleas Judge M. Teresa Sarmina found Stephen Poaches, guilty of two counts of first-degree murder in the deaths of 24-year-old LaToyia Figueroa and her fetus. Poaches waived his right to appeal and, in exchange, prosecutors agreed not to seek the death penalty. He was given an automatic life sentence with no parole.
    (AP, 8/20/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LaToyia_Figueroa)

2005        Sep 24, Monica Lozada-Rivadineira (26), a immigrant from Bolivia, disappeared in NYC. Her daughter, Valery, was found in the evening wandering barefoot in Queens. On Oct 6 Police found her body in a Pennsylvania landfill and police said she was killed by her boyfriend. In 2006 Cesar Ascarruna (32) pleaded guilty to manslaughter and reckless endangerment. He was sentenced to 32 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/7/05)(SFC, 3/16/06, p.A3)

2005        Oct 7, John Rigas and his son, founders of bankrupt Adelphia Communications, were indicted for failure to pay some $300 million in taxes.
    (SFC, 10/8/05, p.C1)

2005        Oct 31, A transit strike in Philadelphia brought the city’s buses, subways and trolleys to a halt.
    (SFC, 11/1/05, p.A3)

2005        Nov 8, Pennsylvania voters came down hard on school board members who backed a statement on intelligent design being read in biology class, ousting eight Republicans and replacing them with Democrats who want the concept stripped from the science curriculum.
    (AP, 11/9/05)

2005        Nov 13, In Lititz, Pennsylvania, David G. Ludwig (18) killed 14-year-old Kara Beth Borden's parents, Michael F. and Cathryn Lee Borden, after they and their daughter argued about her curfew. David and Kara were arrested Nov 14 in Indiana following a police chase and crash. On June 14, 2006, Ludwig agreed to a plea deal and was sentenced to two terms of life imprisonment without chance of parole.
    (AP, 11/14/05)(SFC, 11/15/05, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_G._Ludwig)

2005        Nov 17, Pennsylvania Democratic congressman John Murtha argued that it was time to bring US troops home from Iraq.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.35)

2005        Nov 18, In Pennsylvania an oil painting by Jackson Pollock and a silkscreen by Andy Warhol were stolen from the Everhart Museum by thieves who shattered a glass door in the back of the building. The thieves had disappeared by the time police arrived, four minutes after the alarm sounded at 2:30 a.m.
    (AP, 11/19/05)

2005        Dec 6, Philadelphia won the first NHL scoreless game that was decided by a shootout, beating Calgary 1-0.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2005        Dec 20, A US federal court in Pennsylvania ruled it was unconstitutional to teach schoolchildren the intelligent design theory of life as an alternative to evolution, dealing a blow to religious conservatives. Local parents had sued the Dover, Pa., school board after the board required that ninth-grade biology students be read a statement critical of evolution.
    (AFP, 12/21/05)(SFC, 12/21/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 23, In a NYC probe, first reported by the Daily News in October, authorities confirmed this week that investigators found paperwork indicating that bones of British broadcaster Alistair Cooke had been removed and sold by Biomedical Tissue Services, before he was cremated in 2004. Human bone, skin and tendons were allegedly removed from the bodies of hundreds of others without required permission from their families. The Brooklyn case stemmed from a deal struck between Michael Mastromarino (42), a Fort Lee, NJ, dentist who started Biomedical Tissue Services, and Joseph Nicelli (49), an embalmer and funeral parlor operator from Staten Island. In 2006 seven funeral directors pleaded guilty to undisclosed charges and agreed to cooperate with investigators. In 2008 Mastromarino pleaded guilty to hundreds of counts of abusing corpses, forgery, theft and other allegations stemming from the operation, which he ran with 3 Philadelphia funeral directors.
    (AP, 12/23/05)(SFC, 2/24/06, p.A2)(SFC, 10/19/06, p.A7)(SFC, 8/30/08, p.A2)

2006        Jan 3, In Pennsylvania the Dover School Board rescinded its policy of presenting intelligent design as an alternative to evolution in high school biology classes.
    (SFC, 1/4/06, p.A2)

2006        Jan 4, In a triple-overtime game that began Jan. 3 and finished after midnight, No. 3 Penn State beat No. 22 Florida State 26-23 in the Orange Bowl.
    (AP, 1/4/07)

2006        Jan 25, It was reported that Wyoming rancher Allen Cook (57), with no connection to the University of Pittsburgh, has given the school 4,700 acres of land littered with dinosaur fossils.
    (AP, 1/25/06)

2006        Feb 5, In Detroit, Mich., the Pittsburgh Steelers won the Super Bowl over the Seattle Seahawks 21-10.
    (AP, 2/6/06)

2006        Feb 16, Pennsylvania Sen. Arlen Specter asked the Senate Ethics Committee to investigate whether a top aide improperly helped direct nearly $50 million in Pentagon spending to clients represented by her husband. His request followed a USA TODAY report that he secured $48.7 million in projects for six clients of the aide's spouse's firm.
    (USAT, 2/17/06)

2006        Feb 23, A New Zealand teenager hacked into the University of Pennsylvania computer system. Owen Thor Walker (18), known by his online name "AKILL," also was linked to a network accused of infiltrating 1.3 million computers and skimming millions of dollars from victims' bank accounts. In 2008 Walker was ordered to pay more than $11,000 in fines but avoided a conviction so that he can help police solve computer crimes.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2006        Apr 12, Police checking on a home in Leola, Pennsylvania, discovered a gruesome scene: the bodies of six people, some wrapped in sheets and blankets in the basement, and blood, bone fragments and a hammer upstairs. Jesse Dee Wise (21) was charged the next day for the murder of 6 relatives.
    (AP, 4/13/06)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.A3)

2006        May 11, The Philadelphia City Council unanimously approved a plan to blanket the city's 135 square miles with a high-speed wireless Internet connection, a measure the mayor is expected to sign soon.
    (AP, 5/12/06)

2006        Jun 29, East Coast rains, which began over the weekend, have been blamed for five deaths in Pennsylvania, four in Maryland, one in Virginia and three in New York.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Jul 11, The American League edged the National League 3-2 in the All-Star Game in Pittsburgh.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2006        Jul 13, Hazleton, Pa., passed Mayor Louis Barletta’s Illegal Immigration Relief Act in an effort to get rid of undocumented immigrants. In August federal lawsuits were filed against Hazleton and other local governments for attempting to regulate immigration. A 1976 US Supreme Court decision said regulation of immigration is exclusively a federal power. In 2007 a federal judge struck down the Hazleton anti-illegal immigration law.
    (SFC, 8/16/06, p.A5)(SFC, 7/27/07, p.A13)

2006        Jul 18, A heat wave in the US left at least 7 people dead including 5 in Oklahoma and 2 in Pennsylvania.
    (SFC, 7/19/06, p.A2)

2006        Aug 4, In Philadelphia Danieal Kelly (14), a disabled girl, was found dead in her mother's squalid house covered with bone-deep, maggot-infested bedsores. She weighed 42 pounds. In 2008 4 social workers were among 9 people charged in relation to her death. In 2008 Andrea Kelly, the mother, was charged with murder and Daniel, the father, was charged with child endangerment. Both parents retained lawyers who filed suits against their criminal co-defendants, blaming them for the girl's demise. In 2009 mother Andrea Kelly pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20-40 years in prison. In 2010 case worker Julius Murray was sentenced to 11 years in prison on fraud and obstruction in the case. He had skipped visits and still faced involuntary manslaughter charges.
    (AP, 8/1/08)(www.philly.com/philly/news/26859869.html)(SFC, 4/30/09, p.A4)(SFC, 6/12/10, p.A9)

2006        Sep 6, Philadelphia’s Art Commission voted 6-2 to move a 2,000-pound bronze statue of Rocky Balboa, commissioned by actor Sylvester Stallone, out of storage and onto a street-level pedestal near the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 9/7/06, p.A2)

2006        Sep 17, In Pennsylvania 5 Duquesne basketball players were shot and wounded during an apparent act of random violence on campus. As of 2007 two alleged gunmen and two women who allegedly helped facilitate the shooting awaited trial.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2006        Oct 2, In Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania, Charles Carl Roberts IV (32), a local truck driver, lined at least 11 girls against a blackboard and shot them in the head at a one-room Amish schoolhouse in Lancaster County. He shot himself as police stormed the schoolhouse. Two young students were killed, along with a female teacher's aide who was slightly older than the students. Seven others, most shot at point-blank range, were taken to hospitals, and two of them died early the next day.
    (AP, 10/3/06)(SFC, 10/3/06, p.A1)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.38)

2006        Oct 4, A Philadelphia jury awarded a woman $1 million and her husband $500,000 in compensatory damages after finding that Wyeth's hormone replacement drug Prempro was a cause of her breast cancer. In the first federal Prempro trial, a jury last month in Little Rock, Arkansas found Wyeth was not negligent and had adequately warned patients and doctors of the cancer risk associated with the drug. Wyeth faced some 5,000 lawsuits involving its hormone replacement drugs.
    (Reuters, 10/4/06)

2006        Oct 13, A jury in Philadelphia said US retail giant Wal-Mart must pay 78 million dollars for violating labor laws in Pennsylvania.
    (SFC, 10/14/06, p.C1)

2006        Oct 20, In Pennsylvania 24 rail cars carrying ethanol derailed and 9 caught fire on a bridge over the Beaver River in New Brighton, 25 miles northwest of Pittsburgh.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.A5)

2006        Nov 16, A state regulatory board approved Gov. Ed Rendell's proposal to make deeper cuts in mercury emissions from Pennsylvania's coal-fired power plants, despite opposition from power plants and mining companies.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Dec 20, Pennsylvania cleared the way for 2 slot machine casino licenses in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.
    (SFC, 12/21/06, p.A3)

2006        Dec 22, Rafael Robb (56), tenured economics professor at the Univ. of Pennsylvania, bludgeoned his wife (39) to death in Norristown. In 2007 he pleaded guilty to manslaughter.
    (SFC, 11/27/07, p.A8)

2006        Dec 29, In Allentown, Pa., a fire swept through 4 downtown row houses killing 5 people. An extension cord overload was blamed.
    (SFC, 12/30/06, p.A3)

2006        An auto accident in Pennsylvania that left 2 men dead was later attributed to a defective replacement tire from China. In 2007 it was estimated that some 450,000 tires imported by Foreign Tire Sales Inc. of New Jersey from Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Co. were defective.
    (WSJ, 6/26/07, p.A1)

2007        Feb 12, In Philadelphia, Penn., 3 men were shot to death in a marketing company conference room and another was critically injured by a gunman who killed himself as police closed in. The gunman had put a gig sum in a failed venture.
    (AP, 2/13/07)(WSJ, 2/14/07, p.A1)

2007        Feb 15, Hundreds of drivers became stranded on a stretch of eastern Pennsylvania that had been hit by a monster storm. The National Guard was called in to deliver food and other necessities to a 50-mile line of vehicles trapped on I-78.
    (WSJ, 2/16/07, p.A1)(AP, 2/16/08)

2007        Feb 16, A thick layer of ice kept major highways closed, a day after hundreds of drivers became stranded on a stretch of eastern Pennsylvania that had been hit by a monster storm.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 17, In southwestern Pennsylvania fire swept through a house in Waynesburg, killing six young children and a woman and injuring one other person.
    (AP, 2/17/07)

2007        Jun 19, James Cockayne (21) of New Hope, Pa., was beaten and stabbed to death in the Virgin Islands. 3 men, Anselmo Boston, Kamal Thomas and Jahleel Ward, were arrested after the parents of Cockayne appeared on US news programs and accused Virgin Islands detectives of botching an investigation into their son's death. On Oct 10, 2008, Ward was found guilty of first-degree murder and other charges. Anselmo Boston and Kamal Thomas were found guilty on two counts each of third-degree assault, among other charges.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(AP, 10/10/08)

2007        Jul 8, In Pennsylvania Gov. Ed Rendell ordered a range of government services shutdown after last minute negotiations failed to break a budget stalemate. The shutdown took about 24,000 workers off the job. A budget deal was hammered out the following night.
    (AP, 7/9/07)(SFC, 7/9/07, p.A3)(AP, 7/8/08)

2007        Jul 10, Railroad Development Corp., a Pittsburgh-based railroad company under Henry Posner III, planned to shut down Guatemala's only train service after years of fighting thieves, squatters and government-backed lawsuits. Posner expected to take his case to int’l. arbitration under CAFTA with a demand for $65 million in lost revenues and investments.
    (AP, 7/10/07)(WSJ, 1/23/07, p.A14)

2007        Aug 15, Pennsylvania Superior Court Judge Michael Thomas Joyce, an appeals court judge, was indicted on charges of scamming $440,000 from insurers by claiming he suffered debilitating injuries in a car crash, even while he golfed, skated and went scuba diving.
    (AP, 8/16/07)

2007        Aug 27, Police arrested Paul Devoe III (43) in Shirley, NY, following 5 recent murders in Texas and one in Pennsylvania. On December 19, 2007, the Texas Travis County District Attorney announced his office's intention to pursue the death penalty.
     (SFC, 8/28/07, p.A6)(www.nytimes.com/2007/08/28/us/28texas.html)

2007        Sep 10, It was reported that John Kanzius of Erie, Pa., had accidentally discovered a way to burn salt water when he tried to desalinate seawater with a radio-frequency generator he developed to treat cancer. He discovered that as long as the salt water was exposed to the radio frequencies, it would burn.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 13, In Philadelphia police chief Sylvester Johnson acknowledged that police alone could not quell the city’s deadly violence and planned to introduce “Call to Action: 10,000 Men,” an effort to get volunteers on the streets as of Oct 21.
    (SFC, 9/14/07, p.A5)

2007        Sep 17, The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh said it has created a $1.25 million fund to settle 32 lawsuits alleging abuse or injury by priests.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Oct 4, In Philadelphia Mustafa Ali (36), a convicted bank robber, shot and killed two armored car guards servicing an ATM outside a bank. Several schools were locked down amid a massive manhunt for the gunman, who was arrested the next day.
    (AP, 10/4/07)(AP, 10/6/07)

2007        Oct 12, In Norristown, Pa., Michele Cossey (46), the mother of a 14-year-old who authorities say had a cache of guns, knives and explosive devices in his bedroom for a possible school attack, was charged with buying her son 3 weapons. Authorities said the teenager felt bullied and tried to recruit another boy for a possible attack at Plymouth Whitemarsh High School.
    (AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Oct 26, Friedman Paul Erhardt (63), television's "Chef Tell," died in Upper Black Eddy, Pa.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2007        Oct 29, Democrats Barack Obama and John Edwards sharply challenged Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton's candor, consistency and judgment in a televised debate in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2007        Oct 30, It was reported that John Murtha, US Democratic Congressman from Johnstown, Pa., and chairman of the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense, had steered at least $600 million in earmarks to his district over the past 4 years. Since 1992 he has sent some $2 billion to his home district.
    (WSJ, 10/30/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov 3, Boss, a robotic Chevrolet Tahoe from Carnegie Mellon Univ., won the annual DARPA sponsored race in San Bernadino County, Ca. 6 of 11 starting vehicles finished the 10-mile race, designed to simulate a town. No car finished the first race in 2004.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.100)

2007        Nov 12, It was reported that a donor had given a staggering $100 million to the Erie Community Foundation in Pennsylvania, and all of the charities would receive a share.
    (AP, 11/12/07)
2007        Nov 12, A new study said US researchers have developed a method of producing hydrogen gas from biodegradable organic material, potentially providing an abundant source of this clean-burning fuel. The method used by engineers at Pennsylvania State University combines electron-generating bacteria and a small electrical charge in a microbial fuel cell to produce hydrogen gas.
    (AFP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 30, New Zealand officials said police have questioned the suspected teenage kingpin of an international cyber crime network accused of infiltrating 1.3 million computers and skimming millions of dollars from victims' bank accounts. Earlier this month, Ryan Goldstein, 21, of Ambler, Pa., was indicted in the case. Authorities allege that the New Zealand suspect and Goldstein were involved in crashing a University of Pennsylvania engineering school server Feb. 23, 2006. On Feb 29 Owen Thor Walker (18) was charged with two counts of accessing a computer for dishonest purpose, damaging or interfering with a computer system and possessing software for committing crime, and two counts of accessing a computer system without authorization.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(AP, 2/29/08)

2007        Dec 16, Street and highway crews were at work trying to clear roads across the Great Lakes states into New England as a storm blamed for three deaths spread a hazardous mix of snow, sleet and freezing rain. The storm was blamed for at least 10 deaths including 4 in Indiana, 2 in Michigan and Wisconsin, one in Pennsylvania and one in Nova Scotia.
    (AP, 12/16/07)(SFC, 12/18/07, p.A19)

2007-2008    Rep. John Murtha, D-Pa., sponsored $14.7 million in defense earmarks for Kuchera Defense Systems, a campaign donor. The Pentagon went along with it, despite the fact that two convicted drug dealers had been deeply involved with the company.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2008        Jan 30, In Philadelphia Nurse Lee Cruceta (35) admitted he cut body parts from 244 corpses and helped forge paperwork so the parts, some of them diseased, could be used in unsuspecting patients. Cruceta has also pleaded guilty to related charges in New York and negotiated pleas to serve concurrent sentences of 6 1/2 to 20 years.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        May 1, Philadelphia’s Mayor Michael Nutter and police commissioner hoped to have 200 more police officers on the streets by this time as part of a new 33-page crime-fighting plan. Murders in the city had reached 392 in 2007. Gov. Ed Rendell agreed to help foot the bill.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.33)

2008        Mar 27, A US appeals Court in Philadelphia overturned the death sentence of Mumia Abu Jamal, who had been convicted of killing Officer Daniel Faulkner on Dec 9, 1981.
    (SFC, 3/28/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 7, In Ohio 9 mortgage lenders agreed to modify adjustable-rate mortgages for borrowers facing foreclosure. In Pennsylvania mortgage companies and consumer advocates opened talks to help cash-strapped homeowners avoid foreclosure. Last week Maryland’s Gov. signed a measure creating a 150-day moratorium on foreclosures.
    (WSJ, 4/8/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 22, In Pennsylvania Hillary Clinton won the primary with about 55% of the vote to 45% for Obama.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

2008        May 1, Philadelphia’s Police Commissioner Charles H. Ramsey announced a major reorganization of the department's command structure and the addition of nearly 250 officers on street patrols, part of a crime-fighting strategy he said was already showing results. Mayor Michael Nutter and the police commissioner had hoped to have 200 more police officers on the streets by this time as part of a new 33-page crime-fighting plan. Murders in the city had reached 392 in 2007. Gov. Ed Rendell agreed to help foot the bill.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.33)(http://ydr.inyork.com/ci_9120792)

2008        May 3, In Philadelphia police officer Liczbinski was shot with an assault rifle after a robbery. One suspect was fatally shot by police soon after, another was arrested the next day and a third was captured May 7.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 5, Philadelphia police stopped the suspects' car while investigating a triple shooting. No weapons were found in the car or on the suspects, but officers said they had seen them shoot three people on a drug corner moments earlier. Video shot by WTXF-TV from a helicopter showed officers gathered around the vehicle as they pulled three men out. About a half-dozen officers held two men on the ground on the driver's side. Both were kicked repeatedly, while one was punched; one also appeared to be struck with a baton. A review of the video led to the firing of 4 officers with disciplinary action for 4 others. In 2009 a grand jury cleared the officers involved saying no excessive force was used.
    (AP, 5/8/08)(WSJ, 5/20/08, p.A2)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.A5)

2008        May 13, EarthLink said it is pulling out of its high-speed Internet network in Philadelphia, and that it would shut down the operation on June 12.
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.C3)

2008        Jun 12, Deaths due to the heat wave across the US East Coast climbed past 30 with at least 15 dead in Philadelphia and 7 in NYC.
    (WSJ, 6/13/08, p.A2)

2008        Jul 9, In western Pennsylvania the bodies of 22-year-old Ashley Guarino, her 2-year-old daughter Dreux and 11-month-old son Orlando Jr. were found by relatives. Orlando Maurice Guarino (38) was arrested the next day and charged with the murders of his wife and children.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 14, In Pennsylvania Luis Ramirez (25), an illegal Mexican migrant worker, died in Shenandoah after being beaten by white youths. 4 young men were charged and found responsible for the fight, but most of the federal charges against them were dropped. Local police were later accused of tampering with evidence and witnesses or lying to the FBI. In 2010 Derrick Donchak and Brandon Piekarsky were convicted for a federal hate crime. In 2011 former police chief Matthew Nestor was found guilty of falsifying his police report, a charge that carries up to 20 years in prison. Officer William Moyer was found guilty of lying to the FBI but was acquitted of four other counts. Officer Jason Hayes, who's engaged to the mother of one of Ramirez's attackers, was acquitted of both charges against him. In all, the jury convicted on two of nine counts. On Feb 23, 2011, Donchak and Piekarsky were sentenced to nine years each in prison for roles in the death of Ramirez.
    (www.maldef.org/luis_ramirez_petition/)(SFC, 10/15/10, p.A6)(AP, 1/27/11)(Reuters, 2/24/11)

2008        Jul 15, In Pennsylvania Betty Schirmer (56) was killed in an apparent car accident. In 2010 her husband, Pastor Arthur Burton Schirmer, was charged with killing her and staging the car accident. The charge also prompted an investigation into the suspicious death of his 1st wife, Jewel Schirmer, in 1999.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A4)(www.delmarvanow.com/article/20100914/NEWS01/100914005)

2008        Jul 25, Randy Pausch (47), a Carnegie Mellon University computer scientist, died at his home in Virginia. His "last lecture" in September 2007, about facing terminal cancer, has become an Internet sensation and a best-selling book.
    (AP, 7/25/08)

2008        Oct 3, The Great Lakes Governors (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin) applauded President George W. Bush for signing a joint resolution of Congress providing consent to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact.  It barred new diversions beyond the Great Lakes Basin.
    (www.cglg.org/projects/water/CompactConsent.asp)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.36)

2008        Oct 17, In Philadelphia college student Jocelyn Kirsch (23) was sentenced to five years in prison and ordered to pay more than $100,000 in restitution. She and her former boyfriend, Edward Anderton, had stolen the identities of friends and neighbors in 2006 and 2007 to net more than $116,000 in goods and services. Anderton’s sentence was pending.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Oct 29, The Philadelphia Phillies won the baseball World Series over the Tampa Bay Rays 4-3 with the conclusion of Game 5, which had been stopped by rain 2 days earlier.
    (SFC, 10/30/08, p.D1)

2008        Nov 6, Philadelphia’s Mayor Nutter said a budget deficit crises will force the city to close libraries and swimming pools, suspend planned tax reductions, cut more than 800 jobs and trim salaries to deal with a $1 billion shortfall.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.A7)

2008        Nov 19, FBI agent Sam Hicks was shot and killed while serving a warrant at a home near Pittsburgh, during a roundup of drug suspects in the greater Pittsburgh area. Christina Korbe was charged with homicide. Her husband, Robert Korbe, was one of 35 people charged in a 27-count drug-trafficking indictment.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A4)

2008        Dec 26, In Philadelphia a duplex fire apparently caused by fuel spilling from an overfilled kerosene heater killed seven people, including 3 kids, in a basement that had only one exit.
    (AP, 12/27/08)

2008        Dec 31, SF ended the year with 98 homicides. In Milwaukee, Wisc., the total number of homicides dropped 32%, from 105 in 2007 to 71 in 2008, the lowest number since 1985. Detroit had 344 slayings, a 13% drop from the 396 in 2007; Philadelphia's 332 killings were a 15% drop from the 392 in 2007; and the 234 homicides in Baltimore were 17% less than the 392 the year before. Cleveland recorded 102 homicides in 2008, down from a 13-year high of 134 in 2007. Homicides in New York rose 5.2%, to 522 from 496 the year before. Slayings in Los Angeles were down to 376 in 2008 compared to 400 the prior year. Preliminary data in Chicago showed 508 homicides were reported in 2008, the first time the city had more than 500 murders since 2003 and about 15% more than the 442 homicides reported in 2007. Washington, D.C., ended 2008 with 186 homicides, up from 181 in 2007.
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.1)(AP, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 7, The SEC charged Joseph S. Forte of Broomall, Pennsylvania, an investment fund manager, with running a Ponzi scheme since at least 1995. Losses to investors were estimated at $50 million.
    (WSJ, 1/28/09, p.A12)(www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2009/lr20847.htm)

2009        Jan 16, Artist Andrew Wyeth (b.1917), American artist, died at his home in the Philadelphia suburb of Chadds Ford. He had portrayed the hidden melancholy of the people and landscapes of Pennsylvania's Brandywine Valley and coastal Maine in works such as "Christina's World."
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 22, US federal agents raided Kuchera Industries and Kuchera Defense systems, 2 small Pennsylvania defense contractors. They were given millions in federal funding by Rep. John Murtha, chairman of the defense appropriations committee. In 2007 the WSJ identified Murtha as the largest earmarker in the House.
    (WSJ, 1/22/09, p.A6)

2009        Feb 1, In Super Bowl XLIII at Tampa, Florida, the Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Arizona Cardinals 27-23.
    (SFC, 2/2/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 26, Two Pennsylvania judges were charged with taking millions of dollars in kickbacks to send teenagers to two privately run youth detention centers. Prosecutors later said Luzerne County Judges Mark Ciavarella (58) and Michael Conahan (56) took $2.6 million in payoffs to put juvenile offenders in lockups run by PA Child Care LLC and a sister company, Western PA Child Care LLC. Conahan soon pleaded guilty to a single count of racketeering. The “kids for cash” trial against Ciavarella began in 2011. On Feb 18, 2011, Ciavarella was convicted of racketeering. On Aug 11, 2011, Ciavarella was sentenced to 28 years in prison. On Sep 23 Conahan was sentenced to 17.5 years in prison. On Nov 4, 2011, Robert Powell, the former owner of 2-for profit juvenile detention centers, was sentenced to 18 months in prison for his role in the scheme. In 2014 builder Robert Mericle was sentenced to a year in jail and fined $250k for his role in the kids for cash scandal.
    (AP, 2/11/09)(SFC, 2/7/11, p.A4)(SFC, 2/19/11, p.A6)(SFC, 8/12/11, p.A5)(SFC, 9/24/11, p.A4)(SFC, 11/5/11, p.A5)(SFC, 4/26/14, p.A6)

2009        Feb 19, In Pennsylvania Roger Leon Barlow (19) was charged with setting 9 fires in arson-prone Coatesville, 35 miles west of Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/20/09, p.A10)

2009        Feb 20, In Wampum, Pennsylvania, Jordan Brown (11) shot his father's pregnant fiancee, Kenzie Marie Houk (26), in the back of the head as she lay in bed. He then put his youth model 20-gauge shotgun back in his room before going out to catch his school bus. On March 29, 2010, a judge ruled that boy will be tried as an adult.
    (AP, 2/22/09)(SFC, 3/30/10, p.A10)

2009        Feb 21, The Journal Register Co., a Yardley, Pa.-based company, filed for bankruptcy protection. The company owned 2o daily and 159 nondaily newspapers with some 3,500 employees.
    (SSFC, 2/22/09, p.A8)

2009        Mar 2, A massive late winter snow storm roared out of the Southeast and into the Northeast overnight, idling hundreds of flights and making the morning rush treacherous as motorists contended with nearly a foot of snow in spots. Some 950 flights were canceled at the three main New York area airports, an almost 300 canceled in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 3/2/09)(SFC, 3/3/09, p.A5)

2009        Mar 12, Leonore Annenberg (b.1918), the widow of billionaire publisher Walter Annenberg (d.2002), died in southern California. She had continued directing the philanthropy of the Annenberg Foundation based in Radnor, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pa.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.B8)

2009        Mar 14, In Coatesville, Pennsylvania, the 20th arson fire this year was set, one day after Roger Leon Barlow (19) was held for trial in connection with fires set between Jan 2 and Feb 3.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, p.A10)

2009        Mar 16, Vincent Fumo (65), former Pennsylvania state senator, was convicted of 137 counts of corruption for schemes that defrauded the state senate of more than $3.5 million.
    (WSJ, 3/17/09, p.A6)

2009        Apr 4, In Pittsburgh, Pa., Richard Poplawski (23) shot and killed 3 police officers, who were responding to a domestic violence disturbance. Poplawski received gunshot wounds in his legs and was charged with 3 counts of murder. The shooting began following an argument between Poplawski and his mother over a dog urinating in their house. On June 28, 2011, a jury sentenced Poplawski to death.
    (SSFC, 4/5/09, p.A12)(SFC, 4/6/09, p.A5)(SFC, 6/28/11, p.A6)

2009        Apr 28, Veteran Republican Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania switched parties with a suddenness that seemed to stun the Senate, a moderate's defection that pushed Democrats to within a vote of the 60 needed to overcome filibusters and enact President Barack Obama's top legislative priorities.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        May 7, Seven Pittsburgh-area ACORN workers were charged with falsifying voter registration forms, with six accused of doing so to meet the group's alleged quota system before last year's general election.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 23, It was reported that millions of bats in at least 7 US states (Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia) have died from white-nose syndrome, a fungal diseases. In 2011 the fungus Geomyces destructans was identified as the cause.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.36)(SFC, 10/28/11, p.A18)

2009        Jun 10, In Pennsylvania a car fleeing a robbery scene jumped a curb in Philadelphia, smashed into a crowd and killed three young children. One robber had fled on the motorcycle and the other in a car. Both were arrested. Latoya Smith (22), the mother and aunt of two of the children, died the next days from her injuries.
    (AP, 6/11/09)(AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jul 14, In Pennsylvania former lawmaker Vincent Fumo was sentenced to less than 5 years in prison for misappropriating millions from the state and two nonprofits.
    (SFC, 7/15/09, p.A6)

2009        Aug 4, In Bridgeville, Pennsylvania, George Sodini (48) sprayed bullets into a fitness class filled with women, killing three and then himself. He kept a Web page in which he wrote about years of rejection by women and an earlier plan for violence at the gym.
    (AP, 8/5/09)

2009        Aug 6, Ethiopia’s Federal High Court issued the guilty verdicts against 13 men, including a US-based professor, convicted in absentia for plotting to overthrow the government. Berhanu Nega, Ethiopian-born professor with US nationality and teacher of economics at Philadelphia's Bucknell Univ., was accused of masterminding a plan to topple PM Meles Zenawi..
    (Reuters, 8/7/09)

2009        Aug 14, Real estate lender Colonial BancGroup Inc. was shut down by federal officials in the biggest US bank failure this year. The FDIC, which was appointed receiver of the Montgomery, Ala.-based Colonial and its about $25 billion in assets, said the failed bank's 346 branches in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Nevada and Texas will reopen at the normal times starting on Aug 15 as offices of Winston-Salem, N.C.-based BB&T. Regulators also closed four other banks: Community Bank of Arizona, based in Phoenix; Union Bank, based in Gilbert, Ariz.; Community Bank of Nevada, based in Las Vegas; and Dwelling House Savings and Loan Association, located in Pittsburgh. The closures boosted to 77 the number of federally insured banks that have failed in 2009.
    (AP, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug, Pennsylvania Central Bucks East High School English teacher Natalie Munroe started a blog for friends and family in suburban Philadelphia. Munroe blogged about 85 times and only about 15 to 20 of the posts involved her being a teacher. In 2011 she was suspended for the profanity-laced blog in which she called her students "disengaged, lazy whiners," and daring to ask: “Why are today's students unmotivated, and what's wrong with calling them out?”
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2009        Sep 16, In Pennsylvania Andrew Mogilyansky, a wealthy Russian-American car exporter from suburban Philadelphia, was sentenced to 8 years in prison for procuring girls from a Russian orphanage to have sex with them.
    (SFC, 9/17/09, p.A7)

2009        Sep 21, The Philadelphia Daily News reported that police officer Thomas Strain was put on desk duty this month because of braids, even though the paper reported dozens of black officers wear cornrows. The white officer, who came to work with cornrows, was ordered by a black superior to get a haircut because the braids violated department standards.
    (AP, 9/21/09)

2009        Sep 24, In Pennsylvania US Pres. Obama hosted a 2-day meeting of the G20 as it opened in Pittsburgh.
    (SFC, 9/26/09, p.A4)

2009        Sep 25, In Pennsylvania police arrested 83 people during protests at the meeting of the G20 Pittsburgh. A “People’s March” attracted nearly 5.000 people. The G20 ended a 2-day meeting and reached a series of agreements aimed at navigating the world out of recession. The alliance announced that it will replace the G7 as the main forum for int’l. economic cooperation. The G7 will now concentrate mainly on security issues.
    (http://articles.latimes.com/2009/sep/26/business/fi-protest26)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.88)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.51)

2009        Sep, George Zimmermann, a Pennsylvania landowner, filed suit against Atlas Energy Inc. for polluting his soil and water in an attempt to link a natural gas drilling technique with environmental contamination. Atlas was exploiting the Marcellus Shale, a vast gas reserve that underlies about two-thirds of Pennsylvania and parts of West Virginia, Ohio and New York State. Experts estimated that it contains enough natural gas to meet total US demand for at least a decade. Baseline tests on Zimmermann's water a year before drilling began were "perfect," he said. In June, water tests found arsenic at 2,600 times acceptable levels, benzene at 44 times above limits and naphthalene five times the federal standard.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Oct 15, Colleen R. LaRose (46), a self-described "Jihad Jane," was arrested in Philadelphia. LaRose was later accused, in an indictment filed March 9, 2010, of actively recruiting fighters, as well as agreeing to murder Swedish artist Lars Vilks, marry a terrorism suspect so he could move to Europe and martyr herself if necessary.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2009        Nov 3, In Philadelphia, Pa., transit workers went on strike after rejecting a proposed contract that included an 11.5% wage increase over 5 years.
    (SFC, 11/4/09, p.A6)

2009        Nov 4, The New York Yankees beat the Philadelphia Phillies 7-3 in Game 6, finally seizing the World Series crown, the team's first since winning three straight from 1998-2000, making it championship No. 27.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 9, Pennsylvania Gov. Ed Rendell said the Philadelphia transit strike has ended and that system would be up and running for the morning commute.
    (SFC, 11/9/09, p.A8)

2009        Dec 6, In Pennsylvania parolee Ronald Robinson (32) fatally shot a man in Penn Hills over a $500 drug debt and then shot and killed police officer Michael Crawshaw (32).
    (SFC, 12/8/09, p.A12)

2009        Dec 10, Pennsylvania police charged Alfonso Frank Frazetta (52) with theft, burglary and trespass after he was caught loading artwork into his trailer and SUV. He had used a backhoe to break into a museum owned by his father, fantasy artist Frank Frazetta (b.1928) loading artwork.
    (SFC, 12/11/09, p.A11)

2010        Jan 13, R&B singer Teddy Pendergrass (b.1950) died of colon cancer in suburban Philadelphia. He was one of the most electric and successful figures in music until a 1982 car crash left him in a wheelchair.
    (AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 25, In Pennsylvania Andrea Curry-Demus (40) was found to be mentally ill but guilty of 2nd degree murder and kidnapping for luring a pregnant teenager to her apartment, cutting out the baby and killing the mother. The infant, now 18 months old, was living with relatives.
    (SFC, 1/26/10, p.A4)

2010        Feb 5, In Pennsylvania about 18,000 people turned out before dawn for the 18th Wing Bowl, an eating competition dubbed the world's biggest, and an annual celebration of Philadelphia's raucous sports-crazed culture.
    (Reuters, 2/5/10)

2010        Feb 8, John Murtha (b.1932), Pennsylvania’s Democratic representative, died in Arlington, Va., following complications from gall bladder surgery. He had won a special House election in 1974 to become the first Vietnam veteran to serve in Congress.
    (SFC, 2/9/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 12, In Pennsylvania Max Ray Vision, formerly Max Ray Butler, of San Francisco was sentenced to 13 years in prison and ordered to pay $27.5 million to the banks and credit card companies that he victimized. In 2009 Butler (36) had identified himself in court as “Max Vision,” the name he gave himself in the 1990s when he became a superstar in the computer security community.
    (SFC, 2/13/10, p.D1)(www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/06/butler_court/)

2010        Mar 13, A storm battered parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York and Connecticut with gusts of up to 70 mph.
    (AP, 3/14/10)

2010        Jun 25, In Richmond, Va., Quanis Phillips, a co-defendant with Philadelphia Eagles’ QB Michael Vick in a 2007 federal dogfighting charge, died in a shooting. Vick had pleaded guilty to the 2007 charges. Police said Vick has not been ruled out as suspect or person of interest in the shooting which occurred shortly after a birthday party for Vick had ended at a club. An investigation was ongoing. 
    (AP, 7/01/10)

2010        Jun 26, Pennsylvania police found the bodies of three men and a woman, each stabbed multiple times, in the brick twin house in Northampton. Steven Zernhelt (53), a married father of three, was stabbed to death as he responded to screams next door. Police discovered the bodies after responding to a car crash about a half-mile from the house. The driver, Eric Ballard (36), was covered in blood and police knew it wasn't all from the crash. Ballard was charged the next day with the stabbing murder of his former girlfriend and 3 others.
    (AP, 6/27/10)(SFC, 6/28/10, p.A4)

2010        Jul 6, The East Coast roasted under an unrelenting sun as record-setting temperatures soared past 100 from Virginia to Massachusetts, utility companies cranked up power to the limit to cool the sweating masses and railroad tracks were so hot commuter trains had to slow down. The temperature reached 100 in Philadelphia toppling a record set in 1999.
    {WeatherUS, USA}
    (AP, 7/6/10)(SFC, 7/7/10, p.A5)

2010        Jul 7, In Philadelphia, Pa., a 250-foot barge collided on the Delaware River with a stalled amphibious sightseeing boat. 2 visitors from Hungary were killed. In 2011 tug pilot Matt Devlin agreed to plead guilty to involuntary manslaughter following evidence that he was talking on a cell phone during the accident.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(SFC, 7/15/11, p.A7)

2010        Jul 19, Despite being rebuffed twice by the US Supreme Court, five states (Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Minnesota and Pennsylvania) filed suit with a lower court demanding tougher federal and municipal action to prevent Asian carp from overrunning the Great Lakes and decimating their fishing industry.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Sep 9, In Pennsylvania Kraft worker Yvonne Hiller of northeast Philadelphia shot and killed two co-workers after she was suspended from a Kraft Foods plant.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Oct 10, Solomon Burke (b.1940), the larger-than-life "King of Rock and Soul," died at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport. The Philadelphia-born singer was revered as one of music's greatest vocalists but never reached the level of fame of those he influenced. He joined Atlantic in 1960 and went on to record a string of hits in a decade with the label. He wrote "Everybody Needs Somebody to Love" in 1964 and it was later featured in the Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi movie "The Blues Brothers."
    (AP, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 23, The SF Giants won a trip to the World Series. In Pennsylvania Juan Uribe hit a tiebreaking homer off Ryan Madson with two outs in the eighth inning and the Giants held off the Phillies 3-2 in Game 6 of the NL championship series. This finished off the Phillies' bid to become the first NL team in 66 years to win three straight pennants.
    (AP, 10/24/10)(SSFC, 10/24/10, p.1)

2010        Nov 2, Iowa (Terry Branstad), Kansas (Sam Brownback), Maine (Paul LePage), Michigan (Rick Snyder), New Mexico (Susana Martinez), Ohio (John Kasich), Oklahoma (Mary Fallin), Pennsylvania (Tom Corbett), Tennessee (Bill Haslam), Wisconsin (Scott Walker), Wyoming (Matt Mead) all replaced the Democratic governors with Republicans. Snyder (R) defeated Michigan Gov. Jennifer Granholm (D) by bragging about his managerial skills.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.45)

2010        Nov 13, In Erie, Pa., an apparent suicide-murder by a father (29) left the mother and 2 daughters dead.
    (SSFC, 11/14/10, p.A14)

2011        Jan 18, Philadelphia Gas Works employee, Mark Keeley (19), was killed in a gas main explosion. 6 people were sent to the hospital with 3 in critical condition.
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.A6)

2011        Jan 19, In New Castle, Pa., Ljuba Novosel shot and killed her son (12) and elderly mother (81) before turning the gun on herself.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4h8hja5)(SFC, 1/24/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 6, In Dallas, Texas, Wisconsin’s Green Bay packers won Super Bowl XLV 31-25 win over the Pittsburgh Steelers.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 8, Claudia Aderotimi (20), a London woman, died at a Philadelphia hospital at 1:32 a.m., some 12 hours after a botched buttocks enhancement at a Hampton Inn near the Philadelphia Int’l Airport. Authorities sought to question Padge Victoria Windslowe, a self-described Goth hip hop singer know as "Black Madam" from Ardmore, Pa., in the death.
    (Reuters, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 10, The Hershey Trust Co. fired board member Robert Reese, a former top Hershey Co. executive. Reese had filed documents in Pennsylvania saying the Hershey Trust has allowed excessive compensation for board members, violations of federal banking regulations and free limousine rides and rounds of golf.
    (SFC, 2/11/11, p.A6)(http://freedomofspeech.kicks-ass.org/?q=node/5034)
2011        Feb 10, In Allentown, Pennsylvania, a natural gas explosion rocked a downtown neighborhood overnight, leveling two houses and spawning fires that burned for hours through an entire row of neighboring homes. One person was killed, and at least five others were unaccounted for.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 24, A US federal jury convicted Mohammad Reza Vaghari (43), of Broomall Pa., of sending the products to Iran by way of the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb, In Pennsylvania Kermit Gosnell, his wife and eight workers were charged in the operation of a clinic in West Philadelphia where illegal late term abortions were performed and where babies born alive and viable were killed. In 2014 the last of two workers in the case were sentenced to 5 to 10 years in prison after pleading guilty and testifying against Gosnell.
    (SFC, 6/27/14, p.A6)

2011        Mar 8, The Archdiocese of Philadelphia said it has suspended 21 priests from active ministry in connection with a grand jury’s Feb 10 accusations that they sexually abused or otherwise acted inappropriately with minors.
    (SFC, 3/9/11, p.A5)
2011        Mar 8, In central Pennsylvania a farmhouse fire killed 7 of 8 children of Theodore and Janelle Clouse. A propane heater was suspected as the cause.
    (SFC, 3/10/11, p.A8)

2011        Mar 22, In central Pennsylvania 5 people were killed in an apartment fire in Altoona.
    (SFC, 3/23/11, p.A4)

2011        Apr 27, The city of Altoona, Pa., enacted a 60-day name change to "POM Wonderful Presents: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold," after the latest film by sarcastic documentarian Morgan Spurlock, in order to make some money and to help Spurlock make a point about the proliferation of advertising in American life.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 5, A federal judge in Pennsylvania sentenced conman Donald Young (39) to nearly two decades in prison for a $23 million pyramid scheme.
    (SFC, 5/6/11, p.A8)

2011        May 23, Reputed Philadelphia mob boss Joseph Ligambi and 12 others were indicted with charges of racketeering and gambling.
    (SFC, 5/24/11, p.A4)

2011        May, Joseph Cohen, Dan Getelman and Jim Grandpre quit the Univ. of Pennsylvania to launch Coursekit, soon rebranded as Lore, a social learning network for the classroom.
    (Economist, 8/25/12, p.52)

2011        Jun 1, Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia embarked on a 25-year, $2 billion effort to reduce storm water pollution through eco-friendly measures.
    (SFC, 6/2/11, p.A6)

2011        Jun 2, In Maryland Sukanya Roy (14) of South Abington Township, Pa., won the 84th Scripps national Spelling Bee.
    (SFC, 6/3/11, p.A7)

2011             Jun 6, Former Pennsylvania congressman Rick Santorum, a social conservative, announced that he is a candidate for the Republican nomination for president.
            (LAT, 6/6/11)

2011        Jun 18, In Warrington, Pa., Christopher Moyer killed his wife, Irina (39), and their son (7) and then committed suicide on a set of train tracks. Financial problems were suspected.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A8)

2011        Jul 4, In Pennsylvania Mark Richard Geisenheyner (51) was killed by a SWAT team in Trainer for shooting 5 people, 2 of them fatally, a day earlier in a suburban Philadelphia home over an insurance fraud scheme.
    (SFC, 7/5/11, p.A6)

2011        Jul 12, A federal indictment unsealed in St. Louis said The Wheels of Soul motorcycle club, with a "Mother Chapter" in Philadelphia, was responsible for killings, robberies, drug distribution and other crimes. The indictment accused 18 men in seven states of racketeering, with some of the men also accused of crimes that include murder, attempted murder, robbery and kidnapping.
    (AP, 7/12/11)

2011        Aug 8, The US Justice department and 4 the attorney generals of California, Illinois, Florida, and Indiana accused Pittsburgh-based Education Management Corp. of paying recruiters to enroll students in an $11 billion fraud case.
    (SFC, 8/8/11, p.A5)

2011        Aug 10, Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania reported the first clear success with a new approach for treating leukemia, turning the patients' own blood cells into assassins that hunt and destroy their cancer cells.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 15, In Philadelphia Corey White (22) was shot to death hours after a judge held two people for trial for conspiring to kill him in a murder-for-hire plot on Facebook.
    (SFC, 8/17/11, p.A6)

2011        Aug 28, In Pennsylvania Leonard John Egland (37) of Fort Lee, Va., an Army officer suspected of killing four people in Pennsylvania and Virginia, was found dead in Bucks County. He had fired a semiautomatic rifle at SWAT team members who discovered his truck and found him before dawn in a trash bin. Officers earlier in the day had found the bodies of Egland's ex-wife, her boyfriend and his child. His former mother-in-law, Barbara Reuhl (66) of Buckingham, was believed to have been killed the previous night.
    (AP, 8/28/11)

2011        Sep 8, Tropical Storm Lee dumped heavy rain in the Northeast. The Susquehanna River and its tributaries in New York and Pennsylvania swamped thousands of homes. At least 15 deaths were blamed on the storm and its aftermath: 7 in Pennsylvania, 3 in Virginia, one in Maryland and 4 others when it came ashore on the Gulf Coast a week earlier.
    (SFC, 9/10/11, p.A6)

2011        Oct 12, The City Council in Harrisburg, Pa., filed for bankruptcy, despite opposition by the Mayor Linda Thompson and state Gov. Tom Corbett. Harrisburg faced $300 million in debt connected to a city-owned rubbish incinerator.
    (SFC, 10/13/11, p.A8)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.89)

2011        Oct 15, In Philadelphia apartment landlord Turgut Gozleveli found 4 mentally disabled adults held inside a basement boiler room. Police arrested 3 people for kidnapping, false imprisonment and other charges. Linda Ann Weston (51), Eddie Wright (50) and Gregory Thomas (47) were implicated in a broad scheme to steal disability checks from vulnerable people.
    (SFC, 10/18/11, p.A5)

2011        Oct 20, Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett signed a state law giving him unprecedented power to force Harrisburg to pay off its staggering debt on a $300 million trash incinerator.
    (SFC, 10/21/11, p.A7)

2011        Nov 5, Penn State assistant coach Jerry Sandusky (67) was arrested for 40 sex crimes against boys dating from 1994 to 2005. All of the boys were under the care of the Second Mile Foundation, a charity that Sandusky founded in 1977.
    (SFC, 11/9/11, p.A12)(http://tinyurl.com/864sytk)

2011        Nov 7, Joe Frazier (67), the boxer who first beat Muhammad Ali in March 1971, died in Philadelphia after a brief battle with liver cancer.
    (AP, 11/7/11)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.106)

2011        Nov 10, Thousands of enraged Penn State students tore through the streets of State College, Pa., overnight to protest the firing of Joe Paterno after the longtime head football coach was removed from his position effective immediately. The turmoil followed the arrest of former assistant coach Jerry Sandusky, charged with abusing at least eight boys over 15 years. Paterno and Univ. Pres. Graham Spanier, who was also fired, have come under intense pressure because they were also told of at least one incident, but did not alert police. 
    (http://tinyurl.com/7algouk)

2011        Nov 16, Oscar Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez (21), a man with an apparent obsession with President Barack Obama, was arrested in Pennsylvania after the Secret Service discovered two bullets struck the White House while the president was away.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Dec 7, In Pennsylvania prosecutors abandoned their 30-year push for the execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal, a former Black Panther convicted in 1982 of killing police Officer Daniel Faulkner. Abu-Jamal (58) will spend the rest of his life in prison.
    (SFC, 12/8/11, p.A11)

2011        Dec 19, In, Webster, Pennsylvania, police shot and killed Eli Franklin Myers (58) during a standoff hours after he killed East Washington officer John David Dryer during a traffic stop.
    (SFC, 12/20/11, p.A8)

2012        Jan 22, Joe Paterno (85), the longtime Penn State coach, died. He won more games than anyone in major college football but was fired amid a child sex abuse scandal that scarred his reputation for winning with integrity.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Feb 6, In Pennsylvania Democrat state Rep. Bill DeWeese (61) was convicted of conspiracy, conflict of interest and theft in a investigation into the use of taxpayer resources for political purposes. 11 other Democrats and 9 Republicans have already been convicted or pleaded guilty in the investigation.
    (SFC, 2/7/12, p.A9)

2012        Feb 14, Hackers claimed to have broken into Combined Systems Inc.'s website and stolen personal information belonging to clients and employees of the Jamestown, Pennsylvania-based firm, whose tear gas has been used against Egyptian demonstrators. They accused the company of being run by war profiteers who sell "mad chemical weapons to militaries and cop shops around the world."
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Mar 8, In Pennsylvania John Shick (30) opened fire at a psychiatric clinic at the Univ. of Pittsburgh killing Michael Schaab (25) and wounding 6 others before killing himself.
    (SFC, 3/9/12, p.A6)(SFC, 3/10/12, p.A5)

2012        Mar 29, In Pennsylvania the bodies of Charles (81) and Adrienne Snelling (81) were found in their home in Trexlertown. Charles killed his wife and himself. He had written in the NY Times last December about his love for his Alzheimer’s-stricken wife.
    (SFC, 3/31/12, p.A5)

2012        Mar 30, The US government agreed with Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, New York and Pennsylvania to cut red tape and speed up consideration for wind farms in the Great Lakes.
    (SFC, 3/31/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 9, In Pennsylvania 2 firefighters were killed while battling a massive blaze in an abandoned warehouse in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 4/10/12, p.A7)

2012        Apr 10, Rick Santorum suspended his campaign during a press conference in Pennsylvania, his home state.
    (SFC, 4/11/12, p.A1)

2012        Jun 19, In Pennsylvania Patricia Smith (58), the former controller of the Baierl Automotives auto dealership, was sentenced to 78 months in prison and pay restitution of $10,349,569.14 for embezzling from her former boss in a stunning case of a trusted employee looting the business then squandering the cash on luxuries.
    (http://tinyurl.com/74sosfk)

2012        Jun 22, In Pennsylvania Jerry Sandusky (68), former defensive coach at Penn State, was convicted of sexually assaulting 10 boys over 15 years.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.A4)

2012        Jul 18, The city of Scranton, Pa., restored the salaries of its 400 civil servants. Earlier this month Mayor Chris Doherty had slashed all municipal employees’ salaries to the federal minimum wage because the city did not have funds to pay their wages.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.26)

2012        Jul 23, The US NCAA imposed penalties on Penn State and its football program related to the cover-up of pedophile charges against former defensive coach Jerry Sandusky. The penalties included $60 million and the abdicating of all wins since 1998.
    (SFC, 7/25/12, p.A10)

2012        Jul 27, In Pennsylvania Kevin Cleeves (35) confronted his estranged wife about custody arrangements for their daughter and shot the woman to death and killed her boyfriend and his mother in Quincy Township. He then fled with his daughter (4) before the two were found the  next day about 250 miles away in Ohio.
    (AP, 7/28/12)

2012        Aug 18, Philadelphia police Officer Moses Walker (40) was shot to death, while out of uniform, by a suspected street robber near his station.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.A12)

2012        Sep 23, It was reported that Germany has launched a war crimes investigation against Johann Breyer, (b.1925) a Philadelphia man it accuses of serving as an SS guard at the Auschwitz death camp.
    (AP, 9/23/12)

2012        Oct 2, Pennsylvania's divisive voter identification requirement became the latest of its kind to get pushback from the courts ahead of Election Day, delivering a hard-fought victory to Democrats who said it was a ploy to defeat President Barack Obama and other opponents who said it would prevent the elderly and minorities from voting.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 11, A batch of newly designed $100 bills, that aren't going into circulation until next year, was stolen from a plane that arrived at Philadelphia International Airport around 10:25 a.m. from Dallas. The Benjamins are easy to spot. The new bills have sophisticated elements to thwart counterfeiters, like a disappearing Liberty Bell in an orange inkwell and a bright blue security ribbon.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 14, Arlen Specter (b.1930), Pennsylvania's longest-serving US senator and prominent Republican moderate in Congress, died at his home in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 10/15/12)(SFC, 10/15/12, p.A4)

2012        Nov 7, A wintry storm dropped snow and rain on the Northeast, bringing dangerous winds and knocking out power in a region where hundreds of thousands were still in the dark after Superstorm Sandy. A mix of rain and snow fell on parts of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, causing airport delays.
    (Reuters, 11/7/12)

2012        Dec 21, In Pennsylvania Jeffrey Lee Michael of Geeseytown (44) fatally shot a woman decorating for a children's Christmas party at a tiny church hall and killed two men elsewhere in a rural township before he was shot dead in a gunfight with state troopers.
    (AP, 12/22/12)(AP, 12/22/12)

2013        Jan 26, Pennsylvania police said Stephen Baker (62), a Franciscan brother, was found dead of a self-inflicted knife wound at the St. Bernardine monastery. Baker was named in recent settlements involving 11 men who alleged that he sexually abused them 3 decades ago in Ohio. More people soon came forward with abuse claims in Pennsylvania, where Baker had taught and coached.
    (SSFC, 1/27/13, p.A6)(SFC, 2/25/13, p.A4)

2013        Jan 31, In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a federal indictment charged 9 judges with fixing traffic tickets for friends, relatives, business associates and political allies.
    (SFC, 2/1/13, p.A7)

2013        Feb 21, Suspended Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice Joan Orie Melvin along with her aide and sister, Janine Orie, were convicted on campaign corruption charges. They could join a third sister — former state Sen. Jane Orie — in state prison.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 25, In Pennsylvania an inmate assaulted and killed a guard with a homemade weapon at the Canaan federal penitentiary.
    (SFC, 2/27/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 16, In Pennsylvania a tour bus carrying a women’s lacrosse team from Seton Hill Univ. crashed killing a pregnant coach and the driver.
    (SSFC, 3/17/13, p.A9)

2013        Apr 20, In Pennsylvania Dr. Autumn Klein died after falling ill at home. A coroner later found cyanide in her system. On July 25 her husband, Univ. of Penn. researcher Dr. Robert Ferrante, was arrested on charges that he had poisoned her.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.A7)

2013        May 6, The SEC issued a long report on the financial misdeeds of Harrisburg, Pa. The state capital has been bankrupt since 2011.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.80)

2013        May 12, In Pennsylvania a late night house fire in Pottsville killed 4 children, their father and an aunt as the mother did laundry at a friend’s house across the street.
    (SFC, 5/14/13, p.A5)

2013        May 13, Pennsylvania Dr. Kermit Gosnell (72) was convicted of first-degree murder in the deaths of 3 babies and involuntary manslaughter in the overdose death of an abortion patient. The next day Gosnell gave up his right to appeal in exchange for a life sentence.
    (SFC, 5/14/13, p.A4)(SFC, 5/15/13, p.A6)

2013        May 18, In Pennsylvania Richard DeCoatsworth (27), a former Philadelphia police officer, was arraigned on charges including rape, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, trafficking of persons, false imprisonment and aggravated assault. His bail was set at $60 million. He had hailed as a hero after he was shot in the face during a traffic stop in September 2007 but still managed to chase after his attacker, who was later sentenced to 36 to 72 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/19/13)

2013        May 22, In Pennsylvania Herbert (44) and Catherine Schaible (43), advocates of faith healing, were arrested following the death of their 9th child, 8 months old, in April. Herbert said “Medicine is against our religious beliefs.” They had received a 10 year probation in Feb, 2011, following the death of their son, Kent.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.A7)

2013        Jun 5, In Pennsylvania a four-story building being demolished collapsed on the edge of downtown Philadelphia. 6 people were killed and at least 14 others injured. On June 7 police said Sean Benschop (42), a heavy equipment operator with a lengthy rap sheet, was high on marijuana when the building collapsed. Benschop turned himself in on June 8. On Nov 25 contractor Griffin Campbell was charged with 6 counts of third-degree murder. In 2014 a judge upgraded charges against Benschop to 3rd degree murder.
    (AP, 6/5/13)(SFC, 6/6/13, p.A8)(AP, 6/8/13)(SSFC, 6/9/13, p.A12)(SFC, 11/26/13, p.A8)(SFC, 2/19/14, p.A5)

2013        Jul 15, In Philadelphia Michael Scripps (36), a descendent of the founder of the Detroit News, was sentenced to 9 years in priuson for stealing $3.6 million from his mother and disabled uncle.
    (SFC, 7/16/13, p.A4)

2013        Jul 24, In Pennsylvania at least 5 same-sex couples obtained marriage licenses in Montgomery County. It was up to Republican Gov. Tom Corbett or other state officials to challenge the actions. A 1996 state law defined marriage as a civil contract in which a man and a woman take each other as husband and wife.
    (SFC, 7/25/13, p.A11)

2013        Jul 28, William Scranton (b.1917), former US ambassador to the UN (1976-1977) and the 38th governor of Pennsylvania (1964-1967), died in southern, California.
    (SFC, 8/2/13, p.D7)

2013        Aug 5, In Pennsylvania Rockne Newell (59) blasted shots through a wall of the state municiple building in Ross Township and then barged into a meeting room and continued firing. 3 people were killed before he was tackled by a local official and shot with his own gun. Newell was taken into police custody.
    (SFC, 8/6/13, p.A6)

2013        Oct 19, In Pennsylvania an SUV crossed a center line and ran into two motocycles. 4 people on the motorcycles and one person in the SUV were killed in Franklin County.
    (SFC, 10/21/13, p.A3)

2013        Nov 12, In Pennsylvania the body of Troy LaFerrara was found in an alley in Sunbury. He had responded to an online ad for companionship in exchange for money and was stabbed to death. On Dec 6 Elytte Barbour (22) and wife Miranda (18) were arrested. The couple, married for three weeks, said they had wanted to kill someone together.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.A12)

2014        Jan 2, In Pennsylvania Monsignor William Lynn left prison after 18 months behind bars. He was the first US church official ever charged for hiding complaints that priests were molesting children.
    (SFC, 1/3/14, p.A6)

2014        Jan 6, In Pennsylvania Colleen LaRose (50), aka “Jihad Jane,” was sentenced to ten years in prison for plotting to kill a Swedish artist. She had pleaded guilty and helped in the indictment of two others.
    (SFC, 1/7/14, p.A6)

2014        Jan 17, A Pennsylvania judge struck down a state requirement that voters show photo identification at the polls.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.A6)
2014        Jan 17, In Pennsylvania a school shooting wounded two students at the Delaware Valley Charter High School. Raisheem Rochwell (17) was charged the next day as an adult.
    (SSFC, 1/19/14, p.A8)

2014        Feb 6, In Pennsylvania a winter storm left some 849,000 people without power for a 2nd day. The 2nd winter storm this week in the mid-Atlantic had dumped more than a foot of snow in some places.
    (SFC, 2/7/14, p.A8)

2014        Feb 16, In Pennsylvania the FBI said it was in contact with Sunbury police regarding Miranda Barbour (19) who says she wants to plead guilty to the killing Troy LaFerrara last November. She said she has also killed at least 22 people across the country over the last six years as part of her involvement in a satanic cult.
    (SFC, 2/17/14, p.A6)

2014        Feb 19, In Pennsylvania Herbert and Catherine Schaible were sentenced to 3½ to seven years in prison in the death of a 2nd child who never saw a doctor despite being stricken with pneumonia.
    (SFC, 2/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Apr 9, In Pennsylvania Alex Hribal (16) stabbed and slashed 21 fellow students and a security guard at the Franklin Regional High School in Murrysville.
    (SFC, 4/10/14, p.A7)

2014        May 20, A US federal judge overturned Pennsylvania’s ban on same-sex marriage.
    (SFC, 5/21/14, p.A8)

2014        May 31, Lewis Katz (72), a co-owner of the Philadelphia Inquirer, was among 7 people killed in the crash of his small plane in Bedford, Mass.
    (AP, 6/1/14)(SFC, 6/3/14, p.A6)

2014        Jun 14, Pres. Obama intervened in a commuter rail strike in Philadelphia, granting Gov. Tom corbett’s request to create an emergency board to mediate a contract dispute.
    (SSFC, 6/15/14, p.A10)

2014        Jun 15, In Pennsylvania Jeff Hooten (47), the pilot of a hot air balloon, fell from the basket while trying to land near Philadelphia and died after becoming trapped under it.
    (SFC, 6/17/14, p.A7)

2014        Jun 17, US authorities in Philadelphia arrested Johann Breyer (89) after a German warrant charged him with 158 counts of complicity in the killing of Jews while he was a guard at Auschwitz in 1944.
    (SFC, 6/19/14, p.A9)

2014        Jul 5, In Philadelphia, Pa., an infant and three children (4) died as a fire engulfed at least 10 houses.
    (SSFC, 7/6/14, p.A11)

2014        Jul 8, US East Coast states experienced severe storms and high winds. 4 people were killed in New York and one in Maryland. CNN reported nearly 500,000 homes and businesses without power, mostly in Pennsylvania and New York state.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

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