Timeline Virginia

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Virginia’s state motto is Sic semper tyrannis (thus always to tyrants). John Wilkes Booth shouted the phrase after shooting Pres. Lincoln.
    (WSJ, 10/12/06, p.W13)

35Mil BC    A meteorite impacted at what is now Chesapeake Bay and formed the largest impact crater in the US. The discovery of the 53-mile wide Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater was announced in 1995.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)(SFC, 11/7/05, p.A4)

14Mil BC    In 1990 paleontologists found bones from a 35-foot whale in a quarry in eastern Virginia. It took several years to prepare and identify them as a new species. It was named Eobalaenoptera harrisoni, after Carter Harrison, a Virginia Museum of Natural History volunteer.
    (AP, 6/14/04)

17000BC-15000BC    The Cactus Hill site, 45 miles south of Richmond, Va., was reported in 2000 to contain evidence of human settlers from this period.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.A2)

1000-1400    Monacan Indian remains from west-central Virginia were unearthed in 1901 by antiquarian E.P. Valentine for display in a museum. The remains were reburied in 1998.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.58)

1561        Dec 9, Edwin Sandys, a founder of the Virginia colony, was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1570        Spanish Jesuits established the Ajacan mission on the York River, a few miles from Jamestown would be established 37 years later. The priests were all killed in 1571 and the site was abandoned.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)

1571        Feb 2, All eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were murdered by Indians who pretended to be their friends.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1571        Feb 9, Algonquin Indians attacked the Jesuit mission on the Virginia peninsula killing Fr. Juan Bautista de Segura and 4 other remaining priests.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1584        Mar 25, Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, renewed Humphrey Gilbert's patent to explore North America. He went on to settle the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island (South Carolina), naming it after the virgin queen.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(MC, 3/25/02)

1586        Jul 27, Sir Walter Raleigh returned to England from Virginia.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1587        Virginia was initially called Windgancon, meaning "what gay clothes you wear." The names Cape Fear, Cape Hatteras, the Chowan and Neuse rivers, Chesapeake and Virginia, were all names that date to the first colony.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1587        Aug 18, In the Roanoke Island colony, Ellinor and Ananias Dare became parents of a baby girl whom they name Virginia Dare, the first English child born on what is now Roanoke Island, N.C., then considered Walter Raleigh’s second settlement in Roanoke, Virginia. Virginia Dare, daughter of John White, became the first child of English parents to be born on American soil.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 8/18/98)

1587-1590    The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island disappeared during this period. It consisted of 116 colonists and included Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World. When the Roanoke Island colony was running out of supplies, John White was sent back to England for help. His return was delayed by the Spanish Armada‘s attacks against England. When he arrived on Roanoke Island in 1591, the only trace of the colonists were the cryptic messages “CRO" and "CROATOAN" carved on a tree and a palisade post, respectively.
    (NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HNQ, 7/3/00)

1588        An eye-witness account of the New World was provided by "A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia," written by Thomas Harriot. It recounted English attempts from 1584-1588 to colonize what later became known as eastern North Carolina and encouraged further settlement and investment there. In 1590 Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published an illustrated edition featuring paintings by English colonist John White.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(Arch, 5/05, p.26)

1603        Jul 29, Bartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1605-1612    Don Pedro de Zuniga served as the Spanish ambassador to England. Zuniga actively engaged in espionage while serving as ambassador to England, sending various reports and maps concerning the English colony in Virginia to the Spanish court.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)(www.she-philosopher.com/ib/bios/zuniga.html)

1606        Dec 20, Virginia Company settlers left London to establish Jamestown.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/20/01)

1606-1612    A drought in the American southeast was the worst in 770 years and caused the deaths of many Jamestown colonists in 1910.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A3)

1607        Apr 26, Ships under the command of Capt. Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestown on the James River, the first English settlement. An expedition of English colonists, including Capt. John Smith, went ashore at Cape Henry, Va., to establish the first permanent English settlement in the Western Hemisphere.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.356) (AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)

1607        May 13, English colonists landed near the James River in Virginia. They went shore the next day and founded a colony named Jamestown. In 1996 archeologist discovered the original Jamestown Fort and the remains of one settler, a young white male who died a violent death. In 2003 David A. Price authored "Love and Hate in Jamestown."
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.A2)(AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/24/98)(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.D8)(AP, 5/13/07)

1607        May 14, Some 104 men and boys filed ashore from the small sailing ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery, onto what English adventurers came to call Jamestown Island in Virginia. Capt. John Smith (27) was among the Englishmen who founded Jamestown.
    (HN, 10/3/00)(AP, 5/14/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        May 24, Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers founded Jamestown on the mouth of the James River in Virginia. They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over. The colony was near the large Indian village of Werowocomoco, home of Pocahontas, the daughter Powhatan, an Algonquin chief. In 2003 archeologists believed that they had found the site of Werowocomoco, where Powhatan resided from 1607-1609.
    (HN, 5/24/99)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A2)(Arch, 1/06, p.27)

1607        May 26, Some 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Va. 2 settlers were killed and 10 seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ 3 moored ships.
    (ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        Jun 15, Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Indians ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
    (HN, 6/15/98)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        Jun 21, The Church of England Episcopal Church, the 1st Protestant Episcopal parish in America, was established at Jamestown, Va. The 39 articles of the Episcopal Faith included the statement: "There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, wisdom and goodness; the Maker, and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible."
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(MC, 6/21/02)(WSJ, 6/20/03, p.W15)

1608        Jan 7, An accidental fire devastated the Jamestown settlement in the Virginia Colony.
    (AP, 1/7/08)

1608        Jan, John Smith met with the Indian emperor Powhatan at Werocomoco on the Pamunkey River. He studied the Powhattan language and culture. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhatan’s leadership, they had conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Pocahontas was a Powhattan Indian girl of 10-11 years when she new Smith in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhattan’s leadership, they conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Before coming to Virginia, John Smith had served as a mercenary in Hungary and was wounded, captured and sold into slavery by his Turkish adversaries; he escaped by killing his owner.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(ON, 2/07, p.8)

1608        Aug 13, John Smith's story of Jamestown's 1st days was submitted for publication.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1608        Sep 10, John Smith was elected president of the Jamestown colony council in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(AP, 9/10/97)

1608        Oct 1, Some 200 new settlers arrived at the Jamestown colony, including Dutch and Polish glass-makers, artisans and the first European women in the colony.
    (http://spuscizna.org/spuscizna/1608.html)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1608        Bowling in Jamestown was banned after workers were found bowling instead of building the fort.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
1608        Settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, shipped distilled tar back to its sponsors in England, the first manufactured item exported from the US.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1608        Capt. John Smith seeking passage to the Pacific and the South Seas sailed through a Chesapeake Bay tributary and was amazed at Indian skill in building log canoes.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.357)
1608        Robert Hunt (b.1568), the 1st chaplain at Jamestown, Va., died. The remains of Hunt and 3 other Jamestown leaders were found in 2015 amid the ruins of a church on the site of Fort James. The others were identified as Capt. Gabriel Archer, Sir Ferdinando Wainman and Capt. William West.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pnlxcqm)(SFC, 7/29/15, p.A6)

1609        Jul 25, Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda. William Strachey (1572-1621), was also aboard the Sea Venture and later sent a letter to England that described the event. The letter is thought by many to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest." Strachey became secretary of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, after his arrival there on May 23, 1610. In 2009 Hobson Woodward authored: A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare’s “The Tempest."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Venture)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.29)(SFC, 8/18/09, p.E2)

1609        Capt. John Smith returned to England from Jamestown (Virginia) after being wounded in an accidental explosion of gunpowder.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1609        In 2013 the US Smithsonian Institution reported that settlers at Virginia's Jamestown Colony resorted to cannibalism to survive the harsh winter of 1609, dismembering and consuming a 14-year-old English girl.
    (Reuters, 5/1/13)

1609-1610    A dry spell that began in 1606 was responsible for "the starving time" at the Jamestown colony. Nearly half of the 350 colonists alive in June, 1610, were dead by the end of the summer.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1610        Feb 28, Thomas West, Baron de La Mar, was appointed governor of Virginia.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)

1610        May 24, Sir Thomas Gates instituted "laws divine moral and marshal," a harsh civil code for Jamestown, Va.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1610        Jun 10, English Lord De La Ware and his supply ships arrived at Jamestown allowing the colony to recover and survive.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_West,_3rd_Baron_De_La_Warr)

c1610        In 2004 archeologists reported finding a skull fragment from Jamestown, Va., dating to about this time that showed evidence of skull surgery and an autopsy.
    (SFC, 12/2/04, p.A7)

1611        The Jamestown settlement in Virginia pushed west with the establishment of Henricus (later Henrico) on the James River.
    (AH, 6/07, p.27)

1611        Don Diego de Molina, a Spanish spy, was taken prisoner in Jamestown. Molina managed to send reports about the colony to agents in London. When he eventually returned to Spain, Molina urged King Philip to eliminate the English presence in Virginia, but Philip again demurred.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)

1613        The colonists at Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and held her for ransom to force her father to free some English hostages and to return some stolen tools.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1614        Apr 5, American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Having converted to Christianity, she went by the name Lady Rebecca. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.
    (HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(AP, 4/5/08)

1614        English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe successfully cultivated tobacco for export to England. This guaranteed the colony’s economic survival.
    (AH, 6/07, p.27)

1616        Capt. Samuel Argall, deputy governor of Jamestown and known as the kidnapper of Pocahontas, was appointed to run the colony. Within 2 years the public estate was gone, though his own plantation thrived. The Earl of Warwick sent a ship and Argall loaded his plunder and absconded to England. Argall was knighted 2 years after his return to England and later served as an adviser on the governance of Jamestown.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1616        John Smith authored “A Description of New England." It described his exploration of new England following his departure from Virginia in 1614.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1616        In a letter to Queen Anne, Capt. John Smith recalled that Pocahontas had saved the colony at Jamestown from "death, famine, and utter confusion."
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)
1616        American Indian princess Pocahontas and her husband, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe, sailed to England with their infant son.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1617        Jan 6, Pocahontas, American Indian princess, attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1617        Mar 21, Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. As Pocahontas and John Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia, she died reportedly of either small pox or pneumonia. In 2003 Paula Gunn Allen authored "Pocahontas "Medicine Woman, Spy, entrepreneur, Diplomat."
    (AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(HN, 3/21/01)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.M5)

1619        Jul 30, The first representative assembly in America the House of Burgesses, became the first legislative assembly in America when it convened at Jamestown, Va.
    (AP, 7/30/97)(HN, 7/30/98)

1619        Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America aboard a Dutch privateer. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(HN, 8/20/98)(PC, 1992, p.224)

1619        Dec 4, A group of settlers from Bristol, England, arrived at Berkeley Hundred in present-day Charles City County, Va., where they held a service thanking God for their safe arrival. Some suggest this was the true first Thanksgiving in America, ahead of the Pilgrims' arrival in Massachusetts.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

1619        The Virginia Company of London, sponsor of the Jamestown settlement, built a blast furnace for working iron. Ruins of the furnace were found in 2007 along Falling Creek in Chesterfield County, Va.
    (AH, 6/07, p.16)

1620        Jan 31, Virginia colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1621        Dec 5, A letter from the English office of the Virginia Company reported that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were shipped to America. They arrived in Virginia in March 1622.
    (www.orsba.org/htdocs/download/Honey%20Bees%20Across%20America.html)

1622        Mar 22, The Powhattan Confederacy massacred 347-350 colonists in Virginia, a quarter of the population. On Good Friday over 300 colonists in and around Jamestown, Virginia, were massacred by the Powhatan Indians. The massacre was led by the Powhatan chief Opechancanough and began a costly 22-year war against the English. Opechancanough hoped that killing one quarter of Virginia’s colonists would put an end to the European threat. The result of the massacre was just the opposite, however, as English survivors regrouped and pushed the Powhattans far into the interior. Opechancanough launched his final campaign in 1644, when he was nearly 100 years old and almost totally blind. He was then captured and executed.
    (WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(HNPD, 10/23/98)(AP, 3/22/99)

1622        Powhattan Indians attacked the outlying settlements of Jamestown and destroyed the Henricus settlement.
    (www.history.org/foundation/journal/Winter04-05/henricus.cfm)

1623        Mar 5, The 1st American temperance law was enacted in Virginia.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1624        Mar 5, Class-based legislation was passed in the colony of Virginia, exempting the upper class from punishment by whipping.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1624        May 24, James I revoked Virginia's charter after years of unprofitable operation and it became a royal colony.
    (HN, 5/24/99)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1631        Jun 21, John Smith (b.1580), English sailor, soldier and author, died in England. He had helped found the English colony at Jamestown, Va.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)(www.virtualjamestown.org/jsmith.html)

1632        Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers was founded.
    (www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Colonial_Williamsburg)

1633        Feb 1, The tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1635        Apr 28, Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1637        John Tradescant the younger, a widower with a son and daughter, undertook the first of three voyages from England to Virginia “to gather up all raritye of flowers, plants, shells." The King’s request to search for useful trees and herbs, no doubt played a role in Tradescant’s decision to take this trip during what must have been a very difficult time.
    (www.bayjournal.com/article.cfm?article=2942)

1639        Jan 6, Virginia became the 1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1646        A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County. The peace treaty unraveled the powerful confederation of local Indian tribes and large amounts of land were ceded to English settlers.
    (SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1647        Jan 2, Nathaniel Bacon (d.1676), leader of Bacon's Rebellion (1676), Va., was born.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1652        May 10, John Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Northampton, Va.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1654        Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1656        Mar 10, In the colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion.
    (HN, 3/10/99)

1660        Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1661        Virginia became the 3rd colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was preceded by Mass. in 1641 and Connecticut Virginia in 1650.
    (MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)

1662        Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1663        Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1665        Aug 27, "Ye Bare & Ye Cubb," the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at Acomac, Va.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1667        Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1670        Oct 13, Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1673        Sep 21, James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1676        May 10, Bacon's Rebellion began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book "Rural Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1676        Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1676        Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675-76 was the first internal insurrection in America. Bacon's Rebellion came in response to the governor's repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10, 1676]
    (HN, 9/1/99)(HNQ, 10/14/99)

1676        Sep 19, Rebels under Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1676        Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon (b.1647), who rallied against Virginian government, was killed.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1677        Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1677        May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

1682        Nicholas Wise founded Norfolk, Va.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1691        Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was founded.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1693        Feb 8, A charter was granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
    (AP, 2/8/99)

1693        Feb 13, The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1698        The Virginia statehouse at Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.26)

1699        Williamsburg became the capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony until 1780.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1706        Jul 10, In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the Witch of Pungo, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly 8 years. In 2006 the governor of Virginia officially cleared her name.
    (http://tinyurl.com/k42jq)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)(http://carolshouse.com/witch/)

1718        Nov 22, A force of British troops under Lt. Robert Maynard captured English pirate Edward Teach (b.~1682), better known as "Blackbeard" (aka Captain Drummond), during a battle near Ocracoke Island, off the North Carolina coast. They beheaded him. The governor of Virginia had put a price of 100 pounds on his head.
    (AP, 11/22/97)(www.outerbankschamber.com/relocation/history/ocracoke.cfm)

1725        Dec 11, George Mason (d.1792), American Revolutionary statesman, was born at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. Mason died at Gunston Hall on October 7, 1792.
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)

1736        May 29, Patrick Henry (d.1799), American Colonial patriot, orator and governor of Virginia, was born. He was a slave-owner and justified the fact by saying: "I am driven along by the general inconvenience of living here without them." He later said "Give me liberty or give me death."
    (SFC, 12/897, p.A27)(HN, 5/29/01)

1743        Apr 13, Thomas Jefferson (d.1826), the third president of the United States (1801-1809), was born in present-day Albemarle County, Va. He called slavery cruel but included 25 slaves in his daughter’s dowry, took enslaved children to market and had 10-year-old slaves working 12-hour days in his nail factory. He stated that blacks were “in reason inferior" and “in imagination they are dull, tasteless and anomalous." “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter." "History, in general, only informs us what bad government is."
    (AP, 4/13/97)(SFC, 12/897, p.A27)(AP, 4/13/98)

1748        Lord Fairfax, Virginia land owner, commissioned a survey of the Patterson Creek Manor, which later became part of West Virginia. The surveyor was accompanied by the nephew of Lord Fairfax and the nephew’s best friend, George Washington (16). The survey was unusually erroneous.
    (WSJ, 4/21/06, p.R8)

1750        The Spanish treasure ship La Galga sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)

1750-1753    The Wilton mansion on the James River in Virginia was built to house William Randolph III, his wife Anne Carter Harrison and their 8 children. It was later moved and reconstructed in West Richmond as the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial Dames of America.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A8)

1751        Mar 16, James Madison (d.1836), Jefferson’s successor as secretary of state and fourth president of the United States (1809-17), was born in Port Conway, Va. He invented the electoral college system "to break the tyranny of the majority." "If men were angels, no government would be necessary."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.222)(SFEC, 11/24/96, zone 1 p.2) (AP, 3/16/97)(AP, 10/27/97) (HN, 3/16/98)

1753        Aug 10, Edmund Jennings Randolph, governor of Virginia and first U.S. attorney general, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/00)

1753        Oct, Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, called a meeting to discuss the eviction of British settlers from homesteads west of the Appalachian Mountains by French soldiers from Canada. Major George Washington volunteered to deliver a letter of trespass to French authorities in the Ohio Valley.
    (ON, 9/05, p.1)

1753        Dec 14, French Captain Jacques Le Gardeur rejected the pretensions of the English to ownership of the Ohio Valley, but promised to forward Virginia Gov. Dinwiddie’s letter of trespass to his superiors in Canada.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1753        In the Virginia Piedmont Boswell’s Tavern was built and for some 150 years served horseback riders flagons of spirit through a barred window. The ride-up window thus predates the drive-in window.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1754        Jan 6, Major George Washington, while returning to Virginia, encountered a party of English settlers and militiamen at Will’s Creek sent by Gov. Dinwiddie to establish a fort and trading post at the Forks of the Ohio.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Apr 2, A small expeditionary force of 159 men under Lt. Col. George Washington arrived at Will’s Creek and learned that the French had taken over the new Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio from British soldiers and frontiersmen and renamed it Fort Duquesne.
    (ON, 9/05, p.2)

1754        Dec, Lt. Col. George Washington resigned his commission.
    (ON, 9/05, p.5)

1758        Apr 28, James Monroe (d.1831), later secretary of state and the fifth president of the United States (1817-1825), was born in Westmoreland County, Va. He created the Monroe Doctrine, warning Europe not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(HNQ, 7/27/99)(HN, 4/28/02)

1758        Jul 24, George Washington was admitted to Virginia House of Burgesses.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1763        British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797), Colonial Gov. of Virginia (1759-1768), distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffery_Amherst,_1st_Baron_Amherst)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)   

1765        May 29, Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act before Virginia's House of Burgesses. It was during this speech that Henry supposedly responded to cries of "Treason!" by declaring, "If this be treason, make the most of it," according to an 1817 biography of Henry by William Wirt, who wrote that he had confirmed the quote with former President Thomas Jefferson.
    (AP, 5/29/08)

1766        Feb 11, The Stamp Act was declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1768        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US President (1801-1809), was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)

1770        Aug 1, William Clark, American explorer, was born in Charlottesville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis.
    (HN, 8/1/00)(MC, 8/1/02)

1773        Feb 9, William Henry Harrison, the 9th president of the United States (March 4- April 4, 1841), was born in Charles City County, Va.
    (HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1773-1833    John Randolph, state representative from Virginia. He said of Edward Livingston, a mayor of NY and later a senator from Louisiana and US Sec. Of State, that he "shines and stinks like rotten mackerel by moonlight."
    (WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1774        May 28, First Continental Congress convened in Virginia.
    (HN, 5/28/98)

1774         Aug 18, Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, was born in Charlottesville, VA. He led the Corps of Discovery with William Clark.
    (HN, 8/18/00)(MC, 8/18/02)

1774        Oct 14, Patrick Henry, in declaring his love of country in a speech during the First Continental Congress on October 14, 1774, proclaimed, "I am not a Virginian, but an American."
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1774        Thomas Jefferson (31), US President (1801-1809), wrote the widely circulated "Summary View of the Rights of British America" and retired from his law practice.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)

1775        Mar 23, In a speech to the Virginia Provincial Convention, assembled at Henrico Church in Richmond, American revolutionary Patrick Henry made his famous plea for independence from Britain, saying, "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
    (AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 2/06, p.50)

1775        Apr 13, Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act forbade trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1775        Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1775        The 7th Virginia Volunteers first fought as militia in the War of Independence.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)
1775        Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles." The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1776        Jun 12 Virginia's colonial legislature became the first to adopt a Bill of Rights. The Virginia Declaration of Rights granted every individual the right to the enjoyment of life and liberty and to acquire and possess property. The Virginia document was written by George Mason and was a precursor to the Declaration of Independence. In 1787 Mason refused to endorse the Declaration of Independence because it did not include a Bill of Rights.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Par p.8)(AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1776        Dec 5, Phi Beta Kappa was organized as the first American college scholastic Greek letter fraternity, at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va. In 2005 the honor society had some 600,000 members with about 15,000 new members joining annually.
    (AP, 12/5/97)(HN, 12/5/98)(WSJ, 11/4/05, p.W12)

1776        Dec 6, Phi Beta Kappa, the first scholastic fraternity, was founded at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va. [see Dec 5]
    (HN, 12/6/00)

1776        Col. George Rogers Clark was charged by the Virginia Assembly to seize the Northwest Territory. By 1778, Clark was in control of the land between Virginia and the Mississippi River—except Fort Sackville.
    (HNQ, 7/24/00)

1776-1781    During the Revolutionary War some 100 ships were scuttled in the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, Virginia, to prevent their capture by the British.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.15)

1777        Thomas Jefferson (34), US President (1801-1809), drafted Virginia’s Statute for Religious Freedom. It was passed by Virginia’s General Assembly in 1786.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)

1779        Thomas Jefferson (36), US President (1801-1809), was elected as the 2nd Governor of Virginia succeeding Patrick Henry. Jefferson served for 2 years with James Madison (28) in his cabinet.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/timeline-jeffersons-life)(WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)

1780        May, The Virginia continentals surrendered to Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, commander of the British Legion, following his victory at Waxhaws, SC. Tarleton then led the British troops to a massacre of the surrendering Virginia regulars and militiamen,  eliminating the last organized force in South Carolina. During the course of the Revolutionary War, Tarleton became one of the most hated men in America.
    (HNQ, 9/26/00)(AH, 10/07, p.29)

1781        Jan 5, A British naval expedition led by Benedict Arnold burned Richmond, Va. Arnold led some 1,600 British and Loyalist troops in the destructive raid on Richmond.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(AH, 2/06, p.14)

1781        Feb, Gen. Washington, sensitive to the pleas of the Virginia Governor, ordered Lafayette south with a picked force of some 1,200 New England and New Jersey troops.
    (http://xenophongroup.com/mcjoynt/laf_va.htm)

1781        May 13, British Gen. William Phillips died of a fever Petersburg, Va., as his forces confronted the American army under Lafayette. Phillips had commanded the artillery battery whose fire had killed Lafayette’s father at the Battle of Minden (1759).
    (ON, 2/09, p.5)

1781        Jul 6, In Virginia the Battle of Green Spring took place on the Jamestown Peninsula. It was the last major engagement of the Revolutionary War prior to the Colonial’s final victory at Yorktown in October.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.60)

1781        Aug 1, English army under Lord Cornwallis occupied Yorktown, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1781        Aug 20, George Washington began to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1781        Aug 22, Col. William Campbell (36), West Virginia Patriot militia leader, died of an apparent heart attack during the siege of Yorktown. Campbell had led his militia in the Patriot victory on October 7, 1780, at the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina
    (ON, 12/07, p.7)

1781        Sep 5, The British fleet arrived off the Virginia Capes and found 26 French warships in three straggling lines. Rear Adm. Thomas Graves waited for the French to form their battle lines and then fought for 5 days. Outgunned and unnerved he withdrew to New York. The French had some 37 ships and 29,000 soldiers and sailors at Yorktown while Washington had some 11,000 men engaged. French warships defeated British fleet, trapping Cornwallis in Yorktown.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.763)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 9/5/01)

1781        Sep 6, Martha Jefferson (b.1748), wife of Thomas Jefferson, died.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/mj3.html)

1781        Sep 28, American forces in the Revolutionary War, backed by a French fleet, began their siege of Yorktown Heights, Va. 9,000 American forces and 7,000 French troops began the siege of Yorktown.
    (AP, 9/28/97)(MC, 9/28/01)

1781        Oct 6, Americans and French began the siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown, the last battle of Revolutionary War.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1781        Oct 9, General George Washington commenced a bombardment of the Lord Cornwallis's encircled British forces at Yorktown, Virginia (Battle of Yorktown Revolutionary War). For eight days Lord Cornwallis endured the Americans heavy bombardment and had no choice but to surrender his 9,000 troops. It was considered that Washington had achieved the inconceivable with victory at Yorktown and that the British were defeated.
    (HN, 10/9/99)(MC, 10/9/01)

1781        Oct 19, Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis, surrounded at Yorktown, Va., by American and French regiments numbering 17,600 men, surrendered to George Washington and Count de Rochambeau at Yorktown, Va. Cornwallis surrendered 7,157 troops, including sick and wounded, and 840 sailors, along with 244 artillery pieces. Losses in this battle had been light on both sides. Cornwallis sent Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara to surrender his sword. At Washington's behest, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln accepted it. "The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown" was painted by artist John Trumbull. After conducting an indecisive foray into Virginia, Lt. Gen. Charles Lord Cornwallis retired to Yorktown on August 2, 1781. On August 16, General Washington and Maj. Gen. Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, began marching their Continental and French armies from New York to Virginia. The arrival of a French fleet, and its victory over a British fleet in Chesapeake Bay, sealed the trap.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.808)(AP, 10/19/97)(HNPD, 10/19/98)(HN, 10/19/98)

1781        Oct, French siege engineers under American command destroyed the British fortifications at Yorktown.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)

1783        Oct 23, Virginia emancipated slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1783        Dec 23, George Washington resigned as commander-in-chief of the Army and retired to his home at Mount Vernon, Va.
    (AP, 12/23/97)

1783        Thomas Jefferson (40) of Virginia, US President (1801-1809) began serving in US Congress and continued for two years.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1784        Nov 24, Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.
    (AP, 11/24/97)

1784        Virginia Congressman Thomas Jefferson (41) became the US Commissioner and Minister to France. He continued there to 1798 and negotiated commercial treaties with European nations along with Ben Franklin and John Adams.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1785        James Madison wrote the petition "Memorial and Remonstrance" for circulation in Virginia to oppose the use of public funds for Christian education.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A24)

1786        Jan 16, The Council of Virginia passed the Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom. Thomas Jefferson had drafted The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1779 three  years after he wrote the Declaration of Independence. 
    (HN, 1/16/99)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W17)(http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/sacred/vaact.html)

1787        May 29, The "Virginia Plan" was proposed.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1787        Sep 17, The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789. Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to "regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes." Two of the signers went on to become presidents of the United States. George Washington, the president of the Constitutional Convention, and James Madison both signed the Constitution. The US Constitution is the world's oldest working Constitution. George Mason of Virginia refused to sign the document because he thought it made the federal government too powerful believed that it should contain a Bill of Rights.
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/17/97)(HN, 9/17/98)(WUD, 1994, p.314)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W17)(HNQ, 5/19/99)(WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)

1788        Jun 25, Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1788        Virginia’s state Capitol was completed.
    (SFC, 5/10/13, p.E3)

1790        Mar 1, President Washington signed a measure authorizing the first US Census. The Connecticut Compromise was a proposal for two houses in the legislature-one based on equal representation for each state, the other for population-based representation-that resolved the dispute between large and small states at the Constitutional Convention. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman's proposal led to the first nationwide census in 1790. The population was determined to be 3,929,625, which included 697,624 slaves and 59,557 free blacks. The most populous state was Virginia, with 747,610 people and the most populous city was Philadelphia with 42,444 inhabitants. The average cost of this year’s census was 1.13 cents per person.
    (HNQ, 7/13/01)(AP, 3/1/08)(http://www.genealogybranches.com/censuscosts.html)

1790        Mar 29, The 10th president of the United States, John Tyler, was born in Charles City County, Va. He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.    
    (AP, 3/29/97)(HN, 3/29/99)

1790        Mar 21, Thomas Jefferson (46) reported to President Washington in New York as the new US Secretary of state.
    (AP, 3/21/97)(www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)

1790        Jul 16, The District of Columbia was established as the seat of the United States government.
    (AP, 7/16/97)

1790        Jul 26, US Congress passed Alexander Hamilton’s Assumption plan making it responsible for state debts. Virginia had withdrawn its opposition in return for having the nation’s new capital located on its borders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Report_on_the_Public_Credit)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.132)

1791        Aug 1, Robert Carter III, a Virginia plantation owner, freed all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in U.S. history.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1791        Dec 15, The US Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, took effect following ratification by Virginia. The First Amendment declared the separation of church and state and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, the press and assembly. In 2007 Anthony Lewis authored “Freedom for the Thought That We Hate: A biography of the Frist Amendment."
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(AP, 12/15/97)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)

1792        Oct 7, James Mason (b.1725), American Revolutionary statesman, died at Gunston Hall Plantation, situated on the Potomac River some 20 miles south of Washington D.C. Mason framed the Bill of Rights for the Virginia Convention in June 1776. This was the model for the first part of fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and the basis of the first 10 Amendments to the federal Constitution. In 2006 Jeff Broadwater authored “George Mason."
    (HNQ, 2/18/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mason)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1792        Nancy Randolph (18) gave birth to a baby that she claimed was born dead. She said the father was Theodoric Randolph, who had recently died. Gossip said the father was Richard Randolph, who was acquitted under defense attorneys Patrick Henry and John Marshall. Nancy later married Governor Morris of New York. In 2000 Alan Pell Crawford authored "Unwise Passions," an account of these events.
    (WSJ, 11/21/00, p.A24)

1793        Feb 25, The department heads of the U.S. government met with President  Washington at his Mt. Vernon home for the first Cabinet meeting on record.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1793        Mar 2, Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44), was born near Lexington, Va. He fought for Texas' independence from Mexico; President of Republic of Texas; U.S. Senator; Texas governor
    (AP, 3/2/98)(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1797        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the third president of the United States (1801-1809), began serving as US Vice President. He was also elected president of the American Philosophical Society this year and continued to 1815. A philosopher-statesman of the Enlightenment, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, was George Washington’s first Secretary of State and vice-president under John Adams.
    (www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/private-banks-quotation)
1797        John Anderson, a Scottish farm manager, convinced George Washington that distilling whiskey would make money.
    (AM, 9/01, p.80)

1798         US Vice President Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Congressman James Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Jefferson became the active head of Republican Party. The Virginia Senate agreed to the Virginia Resolution on Dec 24.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_and_Virginia_Resolutions)
1798        In the Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Jefferson protested the Alien and Sedition Acts and maintained that "free government is founded in jealousy, not in confidence; it is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind down those whom we are obliged to trust with power."
    (WSJ, 5/18/95, p.A-14)

1799        Jun 6, Patrick Henry, American orator, died at Red Hill Plantation, Va. Henry urged the restoration of the property and rights of Loyalists after the Revolutionary War. He believed that Loyalists would make good citizens of the new republic. Henry also bitterly opposed the Constitution as a threat to the liberties of the people and rights of the states. He believed that once the war had been won, a central authority was no longer needed. In 1998 Henry Mayer (d.2000) authored a biography of Patrick Henry.
    (SFC, 7/28/00, p.D5)(HN, 7/12/02)(AP, 6/6/08)

1799        Dec 12,  Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a nationally military academy. Washington wrote that letter at the end of a long, cold day of snow, sleet and rain that he had spent out-of-doors. He remained outside for more than five hours, according to his secretary Tobias Lear, did not change out of his wet clothes or dry his hair when he returned home.
    (HNQ, 10/25/02)

1799        Dec 14, George Washington (b.1732), the first president of the United States, died at his Mount Vernon, Va., home. Richard Brookhiser authored "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." The Washingtons at this time had 317 slaves. His 5 stills in Virginia turned out some 12,000 gallons of corn whiskey a year. In 1993 Richard Norton Smith authored "George Washington and the New American Nation." In 2010 Ron Chernow authored “Washington: A Life."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.16)(AP, 12/14/97)(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W15)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A40)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1799        Dec 18, George Washington's body was interred at Mount Vernon.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1800        Oct 2, Nat Turner, slave and the property of Benjamin Turner, was born in Southampton county, Va. He was sold in 1831 to Joseph Travis from Jerusalem, Southampton county, Va.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)

1800        Oct 7, Gabriel, slave revolt leader in Virginia, was hanged. Gabriel Prosser had mounted a slave rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(MC, 10/7/01)

1800        Dec, In Virginia Martha Washington set all her slaves free.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)

1800        Virginia congressman John Randolph described Edward Livingston of New York as follows: “He was a man of splendid abilities, but utterly corrupt. Like rotten mackerel by moonlight, he shines and stinks."
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.16)

1801        Feb 17, The House of Representatives broke an electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, electing Jefferson president. Burr became vice president. When George Washington announced that he would retire from office, he set the stage for the nation’s first two-party presidential campaign.
    (AP, 2/17/98)(HN, 2/17/98)
1801        Feb 17, Thomas Jefferson won the White House vowing to get rid of all federal taxes. He was supported by a new coalition of anti-Federalists that was the ancestor of the Democratic Party. In 2003 Jules Witcover authored "Party of the People: A History of the Democrats."
    (WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M1)

1802        Jan 29, John Beckley of Virginia was appointed 1st Librarian of Congress.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1802        Oct 28, The 34-gun Spanish frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico [Puerto Rico], ran into a storm off the coast of Virginia. Captain Don Juan Ignacio Bustillo perished along with 425 men, women and children and an estimated half-billion dollars in treasure. A boy from the wreck survived on Assateague Island and was named James Alone. He later changed his name to James Lunn. Many Chincoteague islanders later traced their descent to James.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A3)

1802        James Callender, an English-born journalist, published a report in the Richmond, Va., Recorder about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with the slave Sally Hemmings [Hemings]. In 1997 Annette Gordon-Reed published: "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings, an American Controversy." DNA tests of descendants in 1998 indicated that Jefferson fathered at least one child with Hemmings, her youngest son Eston Hemmings in 1808. Dr. Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have fathered Eston. In 2008 Annette Gordon-Reed authored “The Hemmingses of Monticello: An American Family."
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1,7)(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B11)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.W15)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.A3)(SSFC, 10/19/08, Books p.4)

1803        In Virginia the Alexandria Baptist Society was formed when members split from another church. A slave was soon baptized as its first black member. In 1818 the Alfred Street Baptist Church in Alexandria was founded.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Street_Baptist_Church)(SFC, 4/6/15, p.A6)

1805        May 1, The state of Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state, or risk either imprisonment or deportation.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1807        Jan 19, Robert E. Lee, the commander-in-chief of the Confederate  Armies, was born in Stratford, Va.
    (AP, 1/19/98)

1807        May 22, The treason trial of former VP Aaron Burr began in Richmond, Va. [see Sep 1]
    (PCh, 1992, p.367)(MC, 5/22/02)

1807        Jun 24, A grand jury in Richmond, Va., indicted former Vice President Aaron Burr on charges of treason and high misdemeanor. He was later acquitted.
    (AP, 6/24/07)

1807        Aug 3, Former Vice President Aaron Burr went on trial before a federal court in Richmond, Va., charged with treason. He was acquitted less than a month later.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

1809        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US president (1801-1809) retired to Monticello, Va.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson)

1811        Mar 20, George Caleb Bingham (d.1879), Missouri painter, was born in Virginia. His paintings included "Fur Traders on the Missouri."
    (WUD, 1994, p.149)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)

1814        Aug 19, British forces landed on the Patuxent River and routed the Americans in the Battle of Bladensburg, and then marched to Washington.
    (HNQ, 12/10/00)

1807        Sep 1, Former Vice President Aaron Burr was found innocent of treason. [see 1806] Aaron Burr had been arrested in Mississippi for complicity in a plot to establish a Southern empire in Louisiana and Mexico.
    (AP, 9/1/97)(HN, 9/1/99)

1816        Dec 4, James Monroe of Virginia was elected the fifth president of the United States.
    (AP, 12/4/97)

1819        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) almost single-handedly created the University of Virginia and served as its first president. The university opened for classes in 1825.
    (http://www.virginia.edu/uvatours/shorthistory/)(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.F2)

1821        May 3,    The Richmond  [Virginia] Light Artillery was organized.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)

1826        Apr 9, Chatham Roberdeau Wheat was born in Alexandria, Va. He studied law at the University of Nashville and then served in the 1st Tennessee Cavalry as a lieutenant during the Mexican War. He became a Confederate commander of the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War, also known as Wheat's Tigers.
    (HN, 4/9/00)

1826        Jul 4, Thomas Jefferson, the nation's third president, died at age 83 at one o'clock in the afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind, published "The Sage of Monticello," the sixth and final volume of his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J. Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for "American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson." "Nothing gives one person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled in all circumstances."
    (A&IP, Miers, p.29)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1827        Jan 15, At Monticello 130 slaves and other possessions of Thomas Jefferson were sold at auction. Sally Hemmings and 5 members of the Hemings family were freed shortly thereafter.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A9)

1831        Aug 21, Nat Turner led a rebellion in Southampton county, Va. This became known as "Nat Turner's Rebellion" or the "Southampton Slave Revolt." Turner and about seven followers murdered 55 white people, including the entire family of his owners, the Joseph Travis's. Turner had been taught to read by the Travis children and his studies of the bible led him to have visions of insurrection. Turner was later executed. A 1998 play by Robert O’Hara "Insurrection: Holding History" centered on the event.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(SFC, 1/16/98, p.D1)(AP, 8/21/07)

1831        Sep 9, Eleven men, accused and convicted for participating in the revolt led by Nat Turner, were hanged. The death sentence for 7 others was commuted by the governor to "transportation," i.e. sale outside the state.
    (ON, 10/99, p.10)

1831        Oct 31, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was caught by Mr. Benjamin Phipps and locked up in Jerusalem, Va. Thomas Gray, his court appointed attorney, spent 3 days talking to Turner and compiled his notes into "The Confessions of Nat Turner," which were published in 1969.
    (ON, 10/99, p.10)

1831        Nov 5, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was tried in Southampton county, Va.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)

1831        Nov 11, Nat Turner was hanged and skinned in Southampton county, Va. Hysteria surrounded this rebellion and over 200 slaves, some as far away as North Carolina, were murdered by whites in fear of a generalized uprising. A martyr to the anti-slavery cause, Turner's actions had the adverse effect of virtually ending all abolitionist activities in the south before the Civil War.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(HN, 11/11/98)

1832        Uriah Phillips Levy, a US naval lieutenant, commissioned a statue of Thomas Jefferson by Paris sculptor Piere-Jean David D’Anger. In 1847 Pres. Polk set the statue in front of the white House, where it stood for 27 years.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.D8)

1834        Uriah Phillips Levy (d.1862), purchased Monticello. The levy family owned the home for the next 9 decades. In 1923 it was transferred to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.D8)

1836        May 16, Edgar Allan Poe (27) married Virginia Clem (13) in Richmond, Virginia.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.67)

1838        Aug 18, Six US Navy ships departed Hampton Roads, Va., led by Lt. Charles Wilkes on a 3-year mission called the US South Seas Exploring Expedition, the "U.S. Ex. Ex." The mission proved Antarctica to be a continent. In 2003 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "Sea of Glory," an account of the expedition.
    (NG, 10/1988, Geographica)(ON, 3/00, p.6)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.D12)

1838        A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Tennessee and Virginia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/d337x96)

1839        In the US the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) for young men was founded  in Lexington, Virginia.
    (WSJ, 6/27/96, p.B7)(SFEC, 7/20/97, p.A20)

1850        A building census in Norfolk, Virginia indicated that there were 10,000 18th and early 19th century structures. Of these only a handful survive.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 69)

1851        Sep 13, Walter Reed (d.1902), U.S. Army doctor, was born in Gloucester County, Va. In 1900 he went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 9/13/02)

1851        The US state of Virginia switched to a voter-elected chief executive.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1855        Yellow Fever broke out in Norfolk, Va., after a steamship carrying mosquitoes in its cisterns docked from the West Indies.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1856        Apr 5, Booker T. Washington, Black American educator, was born in Franklin County, Va. The former slave later founded the Tuskegee Institute. Booker Taliaferro Washington later became the 1st black on US stamp.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 4/5/99)(MC, 4/5/02)

1856        Dec 28, Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States (1912-1921), who brought the country into World War I, was born in Staunton, Va. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. "The American Revolution was a beginning, not a consummation."
    (AP, 12/28/97)(HN, 12/28/98)(AP, 7/2/99)(MC, 12/28/01)

1858        Jan 28, John Brown organized a plan to raid the Arsenal at Harper's Ferry. [see Oct 16, 1859]
    (MC, 1/28/02)(ON, 7/02, p.7)

1858        Feb 1, John Brown went to see Frederick Douglass in Rochester and told him of his plan to steal weapons at Harper’s Ferry, Va.
    (ON, 7/02, p.6)

1858        Aug 24, Richmond "Daily Dispatch" reported 90 blacks arrested for learning.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1858        A monument to George Washington was completed in Richmond’s Capitol Square.
    (AH, 10/04, p.58)

1859        Oct 16, On Sunday evening radical abolitionist John Brown and a tiny army of five black and 13 white supporters seized the Federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). Convinced that local slaves would rise up behind him, Brown planned to establish a new republic of fugitives in the Appalachian Mountains. Brown's plans immediately went awry when the expected slave rebellion did not happen and the townspeople trapped Brown's men inside the engine house at the Federal arsenal. Within 24 hours, Brown and his four surviving men were captured by a force of 90 U.S. Marines under the command of Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee, pictured here. Brown, quickly convicted of criminal conspiracy and treason and sentenced to death, was hanged on December 2, 1859. As he went to the gallows, Brown handed a note to one of his guards: "I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood." The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel "Flashman and the Angel of the Lord." Brown was convicted and executed at Charlestown for treason against the state of Virginia. In 2011 Tony Horwitz authored “John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War."
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, p. A-16)(AP, 10/16/97)(HNPD, 10/16/98)(HNQ, 2/3/00)(SSFC, 10/30/11, p.F4)

1859        Dec 2, John Brown, US abolitionist, was hanged for his raid on Harper’s Ferry the previous October. Brown was convicted and executed at Charlestown for treason against the state of Virginia after his unsuccessful October 16-18 raid at Harpers Ferry. Six of Brown‘s men were later convicted and hanged. In 1910 Oswald Garrison Villard authored an account of Brown’s life. In 1972 Richard O. Boyer authored "The Legend of John Brown." In 1998 Russell Banks published his novel "Cloudsplitter," narrated by Owen Brown (1824-1889), the 3rd son of John Brown. In 2005 David S. Reynolds authored “John Brown: Abolitionist."
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.8)(ON, 7/02, p.8)(WSJ, 4/19/05, p.D8)(SSFC, 4/24/05, p.B1)

1860        Apr 27, Thomas J Jackson (the future "Stonewall") was assigned to command Harpers Ferry.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1860        Gov. John Letcher took office.
    (AH, 6/02, p.22)

1861        Feb 18, Jefferson F. Davis was inaugurated as the Confederacy’s provisional president at a ceremony held in Montgomery, Ala., where the Confederate constitutional convention was held. Davis was sworn in on Feb 22 in Virginia.
    (AP, 2/18/98)(HN, 2/18/98)(AH, 10/04, p.60)

1861        Feb 22, Jefferson Davis was sworn in as the permanent president of the Confederate States of America on Washington’s birthday. Davis was sworn in as president of the Confederacy in Richmond, Va., following his inauguration in Alabama on Feb 18.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(AH, 10/04, p.60)

1861        Apr 17, The Virginia State Convention voted to secede from the Union. Virginia became the eighth state to secede from the Union and moved troops to take over National Capital. Federal troops were rushed down the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal and arrived in time to stop Confederate troops from taking Washington D.C. The Wheeling Conventions declared Virginia’s secession from the Union unconstitutional and named Francis H. Pierpont governor of the Reorganized Government of Virginia, which was quickly recognized by the federal government. At the outbreak of the Civil War, representatives of Virginia’s western counties had gathered in the city of Wheeling (as the temporary capital) to form the Reorganized Government of Virginia. In 1862 a state constitution was adopted by the convention and on June 20, 1863, West Virginia was admitted as the 35th state in the Union.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(HN, 4/17/98)(NG, Sept. 1939, p.379)(HNQ, 6/16/99)

1861        Apr 18, Battle of Harpers Ferry, VA.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1861        Apr 20, Robert E. Lee resigned from U.S. Army.
    (HN, 4/20/98)
1861        Apr 20, Battle of Norfolk, VA. [see Apr 21]
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1861        Apr 21, The Gosport Navy Yard on the Elizabeth River near Norfolk was burned and U.S. Navy ships destroyed by Federal troops carrying out the orders of Commodore Hiram Paulding. With the Confederate noose tightening around Gosport following Virginia‘s secession, and Union defenders dispatched by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles unable to reach the yard, Paulding determined he must destroy and abandon the installation. Considered the most extensive and valuable naval shipyard in the Union, the loss of Gosport and 10 ships docked there, including the Merrimack—later refitted by the rebels and known as the CSS Virginia—was called by Horace Greeley as "The most shameful, cowardly, disastrous performance that stains the annals of the American Navy."
    (HNQ, 2/16/01)

1861        Apr 22, Robert E. Lee was named commander of Virginia forces.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1861        Apr 23, Robert E. Lee assumed command of the military and naval forces of Virginia, which he organized thoroughly before they were absorbed by the Confederacy.
    (www.us-civilwar.com/lee.htm)

1861        May 5, CS troops abandon Alexandria, VA.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1861        May 8, Richmond, Va, was named the capital of the Confederacy.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1861        May 18, Battle of Sewall's Point VA was the 1st Federal offense against South.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1861        May 21, The Confederate Congress, meeting in Montgomery, Ala., voted to move the capital of the Confederacy from Montgomery to Richmond, Va.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

1861        May 22, Union Major General Benjamin F. Butler took command of Fort Monroe on the southern tip of the Virginia peninsula.
    (ON, 2/12, p.1)

1861        May 23, Virginia citizens voted 3 to 1 in favor of secession, becoming the last Confederate state.
    (HN, 5/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)

1861        May 24, General Benjamin Butler, Union commander of Fort Monroe, Va., declared slaves to be the contraband of war in order to avoid returning them to their owners under the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act.
    (ON, 2/12, p.1)(www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butler_Benjamin_F_1818-1893)
1861        May 24, Shortly after Union troops quietly occupied Alexandria, Va., 24-year-old Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth and a handful of friends from the 11th New York Regiment impulsively entered the Marshall Hotel to forcibly remove a Confederate flag from the roof. Hotel proprietor James W. Jackson shot and mortally wounded Ellsworth as he descended the stairs, flag in hand. Jackson himself was then shot by a Union soldier. Only weeks after the outbreak of the Civil War, both the North and the South had received the first martyrs to their respective causes.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1861         Jun 1, The first skirmish in the Civil War was at Fairfax Court House, Arlington Mills, Va.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1861        Jun 3, In the first Civil War land battle, Union forces defeated Confederates at Philippi, in Western Virginia.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1861        Jun 10, The Virginia village of Big Bethel became the site of the 1st major land battle of the Civil War. Private Henry L. Wyatt was the 1st Confederate soldier killed in a Civil War battle. 18 Union soldiers were killed.
    (AH, 10/01, p.50)

1861        Jun 16, Battle of Vienna, VA., and Secessionville, SC (James Island).
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1861        Jun 19, Loyal Virginians, in what would soon be West Virginia, elected Francis Pierpoint as their provisional governor.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1861        Jun 24, Federal gunboats attacked Confederate batteries at Mathias Point, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1861        Jul 13, Battle of Corrick's Ford, VA (Carrick's Ford): Union army took total control of western Virginia.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1861        Jul 14, Gen McDowell advanced toward Fairfax Courthouse, VA, with 40,000 troops.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1861        Jul 17, At Manassas, VA, Gen Beauregard requested reinforcements for his 22,000 men and Gen Johnston was ordered to Manassas.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1861        Jul 18, Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Blackburn's Ford, Virginia, in a prelude to the Battle of Bull Run.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1861        Jul 20, The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, Va.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1861        Jul 20, In the first major battle of the Civil War [see June 10], Confederate forces repelled an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run.  It was fought on Judith Carter Henry’s farm.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 5/10/02)

1861        Jul 21, In the first major battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces repelled an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia. The battle became known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run. The 33rd Virginia Infantry held Henry House Hill at the first Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Virginia, resulting in a Confederate victory. This was the spot from which Jackson took on the title of "Stonewall" and his brigade the "Stonewall Brigade." Union forces had 3,000 men killed, wounded, or missing in action while the Confederates suffered 2,000 casualties.  Bernard Bee coined the nickname associated with Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. At the Battle of First Manassas, it is General Bee who supposedly rallied his troops by calling out, "Look! There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally to the Virginians!" Though there is some controversy about exactly what was said, when Bee said it, and what exactly he meant by it, the words helped create a legend. Bee couldn‘t explain further; he was mortally wounded during the battle and died the next day. Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell was in command of the Union forces at the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas).
    (HT, 3/97, p.48)(AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/99)(HN, 1/18/00)(HNQ, 7/30/01)(MC, 7/21/02)

1861        Jul 27, Battle of Mathias Point, VA. Rebel forces repelled a Federal landing.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1861        Aug 1, Sally Louisa Tompkins opened Robertson Hospital in Richmond, Virginia. She ceased operating the hospital on June 13, 1865.
    (HNQ, 5/17/01)

1861        Sep 9, Sally Louisa Tompkins (b.1833) was commissioned as a Confederate captain of cavalry. Born into a wealthy and altruistic family in coastal Mathews County, Virginia, Tompkins was destined for a life of philanthropy. After moving to Richmond, she spent much of her time and a considerable portion of her fortune assisting causes she considered worthy. With the onset of civil war, she labored on the behalf of the South's wounded soldiers, and for this she became the first and only woman to receive an officer's commission in the Confederate army.
    (HNQ, 5/17/01)

1861        Sep 10, Confederates at Carnifex Ferry, Virginia, fell back after being attacked by Union troops. There were 170 casualties. The action was instrumental in helping preserve western Virginia for the Union.
    (HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1861        Sep 17, Mary Smith Peake, the daughter of a white Englishman and a free woman of color, began teaching the runaway slaves under an oak tree near Fort Monroe, Va., thus founding the first American school for freed slaves. The tree became known as the Emancipation Oak after Pres. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was read there in 1863.
    (ON, 2/12, p.2)

1861        Oct 11, Battle of Dumfries, Va., at Quantico Creek.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1861        Oct 21, Battle of Ball's Bluff, Va., was a disastrous Union defeat which sparked Congressional investigations.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1861        Oct 24, West Virginia voters chose to secede from Virginia. A Constitutional Convention began on November 26, 1861 and finished its work on February 18, 1862, and the instrument for secession was ratified on April 11, 1862.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_West_Virginia)

1861        Nov 18, The first provisional meeting of the Confederate Congress was held in Richmond.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1861        Dec 6, Union General George G. Meade led a foraging expedition to Gunnell’s farm near Dranesville, Va.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

c1861-1865    Walt Whitman went to Virginia during the Civil War to nurse his brother George, who had been wounded in battle. Afterward, Whitman volunteered in army hospitals in Washington.
    (HN, 9/5/00)

1862        Jan 7, Battle of Manassas Junction, VA.
    (MC, 1/7/02)
                   
1862        Jan 18, John Tyler (71), 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), died and was buried at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Va. He drank a mint julep every morning for breakfast. Tyler had joined the Confederacy after his presidency and was designated a "sworn enemy of the United States."
    (AP, 1/18/98)(SFEC, 11/15/98, Z1 p.10)(SFEC, 12/20/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 1/18/99)

1862        Feb 22, Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president of the Confederacy in Richmond, Va. for the second time.
    (HN, 2/22/98)
1862        Feb 22, Mary Smith Peake (1823-1862), American teacher and humanitarian, died of tuberculosis. She is best known for teaching runaway slaves under an oak tree, the Emancipation Oak, near Fort Monroe, Va.
    (ON, 2/12, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_S._Peake)

1862        Mar 2, Gen’l. Frederick W. Lander (b.1821), transcontinental engineer and Union General, died of “congestion of the brain" at Paw Paw, Virginia. He was the chief engineer of the Central Overland route. In 2000 Gary L. Ecalbarger authored “Frederick W. Lander: The Great Natural American Soldier."
    (www.picturehistory.com/find/p/16832/mcms.html)(ACC, 2004)

1862        Mar 8, The ironclad CSS Virginia (formerly USS Merrimack) rammed and sank the USS Cumberland and inflicted heavy damage on the USS Congress, both frigates, off Newport News, Va. Popular during the Crimean War, the floating battery was revived by hard-pressed Confederates.
    (AP, 3/8/07)(HN, 3/8/98)

1862        Mar 9, The ironclads, CSS Virginia, (formerly Merrimac) of the South, battled the USS Monitor, designed by John Ericsson, in their first battle for five hours to a draw at Hampton Roads, Va. The story is told by James Tertius deKay in his 1998 book “Monitor: The Story of the Legendary Civil War Ironclad and the Man Whose Invention Changed the Course of History."
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, Par p.16)(AP, 3/9/98)(HN, 3/9/98)

1862        Mar 23, The Battle of Kernstown, Va., began. Winchester, Va., was another embattled town. Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson faced his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va., as he began his Valley Campaign. Union intelligence officers learned that Isabella Boyd had been spying on their army.
    (HN, 3/23/98)(HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)(ON, 4/10, p.1)

1862        Mar 28, US Civil War skirmish at Bealeton Station, Virginia.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1862        Apr 1, Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, VA.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1862        Apr 4, Battle of Yorktown, Virginia, began as Union gen. George B. McClellan closed in on Richmond. This began the Peninsular Campaign aimed at capturing Richmond.
    (HN, 4/4/99)(MC, 4/4/02)

1862        Apr 5, Siege of Yorktown, VA., continued.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1862        May 4, Battle at Williamsburg, Virginia. [see May 5]
    (MC, 5/4/02)
1862        May 4, At Yorktown, VA., McClellan halted his troop before town as it was full of armed land mines left by CS Brig. general Gabrial Rains.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1862        May 5, Battle of Williamsburg commenced as part of the Peninsular Campaign. Confederate Captain Charles Bruce kept his father apprised of conditions during the crucial Peninsula campaign.
    (HN, 5/5/98)

1862        May 7, At the Battle of Eltham's Landing in Virginia, Confederate troops struck Union troops in the Shenandoah Valley.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1862        May 8, General 'Stonewall' Jackson repulsed the Federals at the Battle of McDowell, in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1862        May 11, The Confederates scuttled the CSS Virginia off Norfolk, Virginia.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1862        May 15, The Union ironclad Monitor and the gunboat Galena fired on Confederate troops at the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, Virginia.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1862        May 23, Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson took Front Royal, Virginia, in the Valley Campaign. Jackson captured 691 federal soldiers. His success was based on information from Confederate spy Isabella Boyd.
    (HN, 5/23/98)(ON, 4/10, p.2)

1862        May 25, Battle of Winchester, VA.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1862        May 27, Battle of Hanover Court House, VA (Slash Church, Peake's Station).
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1862        May 30, Battle of Front Royal, VA.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1862        May 31, At the Battle of Fair Oaks, also known as the Battle of Seven Pines, Gen. McClellan defeated the Confederates outside of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Joe Johnston was injured and evacuated to Richmond. Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith took temporary command.
    (HN, 5/31/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fair_Oaks)

1862        Jun 1, Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis appointed General Robert E. Lee as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, following the injury a day earlier of General Joe Johnston at Seven Pines (Fair Oaks).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fair_Oaks)

1862        Jun 8, The Army of the Potomac defeated the Confederates at the Battle of Cross Keys, Virginia, during the Peninsula Campaign.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1862        Jun 9, Battle of Port Republic, last of 5 battles in Jackson's Valley camp.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1862        Jun 12, Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart began his ride around the Union Army outside of Richmond, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/12/99)

1862        Jun 25, The first day of the Seven Days Campaign began with fighting at Oak Grove, Virginia, with Robert E. Lee commanding the Confederate Army for the first time.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1862        Jun 26, General Robert E. Lee attacked McClellan's line at Mechanicsville of day 2 of the Seven Days battle near Richmond, Va.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1862        Jun 27, Confederates broke through the Union lines at the Battle of Gaines’ Mill on the 3rd day of the Seven Days Battle in Virginia.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1862        Jun 28, At Garnett’s and Golding’s farms, fighting continued for a 4th day between Union and Confederate forces during the Seven Days in Virginia.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1862        Jun 29, Union forces continued to fall back from Richmond, but put up a fight at the Battle of Savage’s Station on day 5 of the 7 Days Battle.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(MC, 6/29/02)

1862        Jun 30, The Confederates failed to coordinate their attacks at the Battle of White Oak Swamp, allowing the Union forces to retreat to Malvern Hill in Virginia on Day 6 of the 7 Days-Battle. This battle in Virginia was alternately known as the battle of White Oak Swamp, Frayser’s Farm, Glendale, Charles City Cross Roads, Nelson’s Farm, New Market Cross Roads and Turkey Bend!
    (HN, 6/30/98)(HNQ, 3/5/01)(AM, 11/04, p.28)

1862        Jun, Some 5,000 wounded soldiers came into Richmond after the Battle of Seven Pines.
    (AH, 6/02, p.23)

1862        Jul 1, In day 7 of the 7 Days Battle Union artillery stopped a Confederate attack at Malvern Hill, Virginia. Casualties totaled: US 15,249 and CS 17,583.
    (HN, 7/1/98)(MC, 7/1/02)

1862        Jul 16, Two Union soldiers and their servant ransacked a house and raped a slave in Sperryville, Virginia.
    (HN, 7/16/99)

1862        Jul, Another 10 thousand wounded men came into Richmond along with thousands of Federal prisoners.
    (AH, 6/02, p.23)

1862        Aug 2, Union General John Pope captured Orange Court House, Virginia.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1862        Aug 9, At Cedar Mountain, Virginia, Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson repelled an attack by Union forces. Gen Charles S. Winder was killed
    (HN, 8/9/98)(MC, 8/9/02)

1862        Aug 25, Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Waterloo Bridge, Virginia, during the Second Bull Run Campaign.
    (HN, 8/25/98)

1862        Aug 26, Confederate General Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson encircled the Union Army under General John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1862        Aug 27, As the Second Battle of Bull Run raged, Confederate soldiers attacked Loudoun County, Virginia.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1862        Aug 28, The Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, VA.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1862        Aug 30, Union forces were defeated by the Confederates at the Second Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Va.
    (AP, 8/30/97)

1862        Sep 1, Battle at Chantilly (Ox Hill), Virginia, left 2100 casualties. One-armed Union Gen. Philip Kearny was shot and killed as he inadvertently rode into Confederate lines at Chantilly.
    (AM, 11/04, p.24)(AH, 2/03, p.35)
1862        Sep 1, Oliver Tilden of the Bronx was killed in the Civil War in Virginia.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1862        Oct 11, The Confederate Congress in Richmond passed a draft law allowing anyone owning 20 or more slaves to be exempt from military service. This law confirmed many southerners opinion that they were in a ‘rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight.’
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1862        Oct 17, Battle of Leetown and Thoroughfare Gap, Va.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1862        Dec 11, Union General Burnside occupied Fredricksburg and prepared to attack the Confederates under Robert E. Lee.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1862        Dec 13, Confederate forces dealt Union troops a major defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. The Battle of Fredricksburg ended at Marye’s Heights with the bloody slaughter of Union troops, while Confederate President Davis reviewed Braxton Bragg’s troops at Murfreesboro, Tenn. Burnside, newly appointed commander of an army of over 120,000, planned to cross the Rappahannock River and advance on the Confederate capital of Richmond. Some 78,000 troops under Confederate General Robert E. Lee took a strong position on the high ground near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burnside’s assault resulted in over 12,500 casualties for the Union compared with about 5,000 for the entrenched Confederates. Burnside was relieved of command the following month.
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(AP, 12/13/97)(HN, 12/13/98)(HNQ, 10/14/00)

1862        Dec 26-28, Battle of Dumfries, Va.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1862-1863    Smallpox broke out in Richmond.
    (AH, 6/02, p.23)

1863        Jan 22, In an attempt to out flank Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, General Ambrose Burnside led his army on a march north of Fredericksburg, but foul weather bogged his army down in what became known as "Mud March."
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1863        Mar 17, The Battle of Kelly's Ford, Va., was fought.
    (http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/va/va029.html)

1863        Mar 31, Battle of Grand Gulf,  MS & Dinwiddie Court House,  VA.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1863        Mar, A foot of snow fell in Richmond.
    (AH, 6/02, p.23)

1863        Apr 2, In Richmond, Va., a large crowd of hungry women from one of Richmond's working-class neighborhoods demanded bread from Governor John Letcher. When the governor did not respond favorably to the rioters' demands, the women marched down Main Street, shouting "Bread" as they made their way to the commissary, where they smashed store windows and grabbed food and anything else they could get their hands on. Not until the mob faced President Davis and his troops did the rampage end. Varina Howell Davis wrote an account of the riots after her husbands death in 1889.
    (HNQ, 5/8/02)(AH, 6/02, p.24)

1863        Apr 11, Battle of Suffolk, VA (Norfleet House).
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1863        Apr 27, The Army of the Potomac began marching on Chancellorsville.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1863        May 1, The beginning of the Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., in the East and the Battle Port Gibson in the west. The new Union commander, ‘Fighting Joe’ Hooker, planned to encircle Robert E. Lee at the Virginia crossroads hamlet of Chancellorsville.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1863        May 2, The Confederates smashed Hooker's flank and won a smashing victory at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Confederate Gen’l. Stonewall Jackson was shot by friendly fire as he returned to his lines; he died eight days later. Captain J. Keith Boswell, an officer with Jackson, was also shot and killed.
    (HT, 3/97, p.48)(AP, 5/2/99)(HN, 5/2/99)

1863        May 3, In Virginia the Battle of Chancellorsville raged for a second day, as Confederate General Robert E. Lee parried Union General Joseph T. Hooker's thrusts. [see May 1-2]
    (HN, 5/3/00)

1863        May 3-1863 May 4, The Battle of Salem Church took place in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, as part of the Chancellorsville campaign.
    (AH, 12/02, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Salem_Church)

1863        Jun 5, Battle of Franklin's Crossing, VA (Deep Run).
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1863        Jun 9, At the Battle of Brandy Station in Virginia, Union and Confederate cavalries clashed. This was the largest cavalry battle in the Civil War. Confederate Gen. Rooney Lee was wounded in the thigh during the battle and was captured by a Union raiding party several days later while convalescing. He was exchanged on March 1, 1864, and returned to the war in Va.
    (HN, 6/9/01)(AH, 2/06, p.72)

1863        Jun 13, Confederate forces on their way to Gettysburg clashed with Union troops at the Second Battle of Winchester, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1863        Jun 15, The 2nd battle at Winchester, Va., ended in Federal defeat with 1350 casualties.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1863        Jun 17, Battle of Aldie: Confederates failed to drive back Union in Virginia.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1863        Jun 19, Battle at Middleburg Virginia (100+ casualties).
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1863        Jun 24, Planning an invasion of Pennsylvania, Lee's army crossed the Potomac.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1863        Jun 27, There was a skirmish at Fairfax Courthouse in Virginia.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1863        Jul 24, Battle at Battle Mountain, Virginia.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1863        Jul 28, Confederate John Mosby began a series of attacks against General Meade's Army of the Potomac as it tried to pursue General Robert E. Lee in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby was known as "The Gray Ghost." The rather ordinary looking Mosby led his Partisan Rangers in guerilla warfare operations that continually confounded Union commanders in the Piedmont region of Virginia. Learn more about Mosby‘s Confederacy in Faquier and Loudoun counties.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(HNQ, 7/15/00)

1863        Sep 1, 6th Ohio Cavalry ambush at Barbees Crossroads, Virginia.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1863        Sep 13, The Loudoun County Rangers routed a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
    (HN, 9/13/99)

1863        Oct 9, Battle of Brady Station, Va. (Culpeper Court House, Bristoe Station).
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1863          Nov 7, The Battle of Rappahannock Station, Va., was fought.
    (http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/va043.htm)

1863        Nov 27, Battle of Payne's Farm, Va.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1863        Dec 12, Orders were given in Richmond that no more supplies from the Union should be received by Federal prisoners.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1864        Feb 28-Mar 3, A skirmish took place at Albemarle County, Virginia (Burton's Ford).
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1864        Feb 29, Union Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick split his forces at the Rapidan River ordering Col. Ulric Dahlgren to lead 500 men his men to Goochland Court House, while the remainder followed Kilpatrick in his raid on Richmond.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1864        May 5, The Battle of Wilderness began as Robert E. Lee caught U.S. Grant's forces in the Virginia woods. It was the first in a series of clashes fought as Grant's army advanced on Richmond, Va. During the close range fighting in the dense woods of Virginia, forest fires broke out, killing many wounded soldiers. While the battle ended as a tactical draw, Lee was unable to halt Grant's progress toward Richmond.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(HNPD, 5/5/99)
1864        May 5, Battle between Confederate & Union ships at mouth of Roanoke.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1864        May 6, In the second day of the Battle of Wilderness between Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet was wounded by his own men.
    (HN, 5/6/99)

1864        May 7, In Virginia the Battle of Wilderness ended, with heavy losses to both sides. Union losses were 17,666; CSA-7,500. In 2002 the US federal government bought the 465-acre tract of the battle site and incorporated it into Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Military Park.
    (HN, 5/7/98)(AARP, 7/05, p.12)

1864        May 8, Union troops arrived at Spotsylvania Court House to find the Confederates waiting for them.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1864        May 9, Union General John Sedgwick was shot and killed by a confederate sharpshooter during fighting at Spotsylvania, Va. His last words before getting hit were " From this distance they couldn't hit an elephant."
    (AH, 2/03, p.35)
1864        May 9, Battle of Cloyd's Mt. and Swift Creek, VA (Drewry’s Bluff, Ft. Darling).
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1864        May 10, Battles at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia. [see May 8]
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1864        May 12, The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia, was fought.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)
1864        May 12, Battle of Todd's Tavern, VA (Sheridan's Raid).
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1864        May 13, Union soldier William Christman became the first US soldier to be laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery. His death was due to measles.
    (SFC, 5/14/14, p.A6)

1864        May 15, At Battle of New Market, Virginia, Military Institute cadets repelled a Union attack.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1864        May 18, The fighting at Spotsylvania in Virginia, reached its peak at the Bloody Angle.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1864        May 19, The last engagement in a series of battles of Spotsylvania was fought. Following the American Civil War Battle of Spotsylvania in 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant said, "The world has never seen so bloody and so protracted a battle as the one being fought and I hope never will again."
    (HN, 5/19/98)(HNQ, 2/12/99)
1864        May 19, Battle of Port Walthall Junction, VA (Bermuda Hundred).
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1864        May 20, Battle at Ware Bottom Church, Virginia, killed or injured 1,400.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1864        May 20, Spotsylvania-campaign ended after 10,920 were killed or injured person.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1864        May 22, Battle of North Anna River, VA.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1864        May 23, Union General Ulysses Grant attempted to outflank Lee in the Battle of North Anna, Virginia.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1864        May 26-30, There was a skirmish along the Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1864        May 30, Battle of Bethesda Church, VA.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1864        Jun 1, Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, began as Lee tried to turn Grant’s flank.
    (HN, 6/1/98)
1864        Jun 1-Nov, Shenandoah Valley campaign began. (MC, 6/1/02)

1864        Jun 2, This was day 2 in the Battle of Cold Harbor.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1864        Jun 3, Some 7,000 Union troops were killed within 30 minutes during the Battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia. General Lee won his last victory of the Civil War at the Battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia
    (HN, 6/3/98)(MC, 6/3/02)

1864        Jun 5, Battle of Piedmont, VA (Augusta City).
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1864        Jun 11, Gen. Wade Hampton (1818-1902) led a company of Citadel cadets at the battle of Trevilian Station in Virginia.
    (WSJ, 6/7/08, p.W9)(http://civilwarcavalry.com/?p=207)

1864        Jun 12, Lee sent Early into the Shenandoah Valley.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1864        Jun 15, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton signed an order establishing a military burial ground at Robert E. Lee's home estate at Arlington. This became Arlington National Cemetery. It was founded by Union Quartermaster Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, who had lost a son in the war. The first soldier buried at Arlington was on May 13, 1864.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(SFC, 2/16/09, p.E6)(SFC, 5/14/14, p.A6)
1864        Jun 15, Battle for Petersburg began as Union forces skirmished against the Confederate line.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1864        Jun 16, Siege of Petersburg and Richmond began after a moonlight skirmish.
    (HN, 6/16/98)
1864        Jun 16, Battle of Lynchburg, VA.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1864        Jun 17, A 640 meter long pontoon bridge over the James River in Virginia was finished.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1864        Jun 18, At Petersburg, Union General Ulysses S. Grant realized the town could no longer be taken by assault and settled into a siege.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1864        Jun 20, Battle of Petersburg, VA, in trenches.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1864        Jun 22, Confederate General A. P. Hill turned back a Federal flanking movement at the Weldon Railroad near Petersburg, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/22/98)
1864        Jun 22, Battle of Ream's Station, VA (Wilson's Raid).
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1864        Jun 25, Union troops surrounding Petersburg, Virginia began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines. With the Army of Northern Virginia stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1864        Jul 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA, began.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1864        Jul 10, During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant established a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed. Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for one last miracle.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1864        Jul 11(Jun 11), Battle of Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1864        Jul 18-20, Battle of Winchester, VA (Stephenson's Depot).
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1864        Jul 24, In the Battle of Winchester, VA, casualties numbered US1200 and CS600.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1864        Jul 27, Battle of Darbytown, VA (Deep Bottom, Newmarket Road) (Strawberry Plains).
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1864        Jul 29, During the Civil War, Union forces tried to take Petersburg, Va., by exploding a mine under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed. [see Jul 30]
    (AP, 7/30/97)
1864        Jul 29, 3rd and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1864        Jul 30, Gen Burnside failed on an attack of Petersburg and in an effort to penetrate the Confederate lines around Petersburg, Va., Union troops exploded some 8,000 pounds of gunpowder underneath the Confederate trenches. The blast killed 100s of Confederates. Union forces could not capitalize on the assault and ended up trapped in the bloody crater. The ensuing action is known as the Battle of the Crater. 4,000 Union soldiers were killed, wounded or captured in the Battle of the Crater during the Siege of Petersburg. [see Jul 29]
    (HN, 7/30/98)(HNQ, 8/23/00)(MC, 7/30/02)

1864        Aug 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1864        Aug 13, Battle of Deep Bottom, Va., (Strawberry Plains) and Fussell's Mill, Va.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1864        Aug 14, A Federal assault continued for a 2nd day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1864        Aug 16, Battle of Front Royal, VA. (Guard Hill).
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1864        Aug 18,  Day 1 of 3 day Petersburg Campaign-Battle of Weldon Railroad, Va.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1864        Aug 19, The 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1864        Aug 20, The 8th and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Va., left about 3900 casualties.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1864        Sep 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1864        Sep 3, Battle of Berryville, VA.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1864        Sep 7, Union General Phil Sheridan’s troops skirmished with the Confederates under Jubal Early outside Winchester, Virginia.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1864        Sep 19, Union forces under Gen. Sheridan defeated Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early at Winchester, Virginia. The Battle of Opequon is more commonly known as the Third Battle of Winchester. Archibald Campbell Godwin (b.1831), Confederate brig-general, died in the battle.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_C._Godwin)

1864        Sep 22, Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early's troops at the Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia. Gen Early retreated to Brown's Gap. Sheridan set up camp in Harrisonburg, Va.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(www.civilwar.org/battlefields/fisher-s-hill.html)

1864        Sep 23, Confederate and Union forces clashed at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
    (HN, 9/23/98)
1864        Sep 23, Battle of Athens, Va.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1864        Sep 28-30, The Battle of Fort Harrison Va. (Chaffin's Farm New Market Heights).
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1864        Sep 29, Union troops captured the Confederate Fort Harrison, outside Petersburg, Virginia. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1864        Sep 29-30, Christian A. Fleetwood was one of 13 African-American soldiers who won the Medal of Honor at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1864        Sep 30, Confederate troops failed to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the siege of Petersburg.
    (HN, 9/30/98)
1864        Sep 30, Battle of Preble's Farm, Va. (Poplar Springs Church).
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1864        Oct 7-13, Battle of Darbytown Road, Va.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1864        Oct 9, At the Battle of Tom's Brook the Confederate cavalry that harassed Sheridan's campaign was wiped by Custer and Merrit's cavalry divisions.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1864        Oct 13, Battle at Darbytown Road Virginia resulted in 337 casualties.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1864        Oct 19, Philip Sheridan and his gelding horse Rienzi made their most famous ride to repulse an attack led by Lt. General Jubal A. Early at Cedar Creek, Virginia. Sheridan had been on his way back from a strategy session in Washington, D.C. when Early attacked. The Union scored a narrow victory which helped it secure the Shenandoah Valley. Thomas Buchanan Read later wrote a poem, "Sheridan‘s Ride," and created a painting immortalizing the Union general and his steed.
    (AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/98)(HNQ, 6/29/00)

1864        Oct 27, Battle of Boydton Plank Road, Va. (Burgess' Mill, Southside Railroad).
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Battle of Fair Oaks, Va.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Siege of Petersburg, Va.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1864        Oct 28, Battle at Fair Oaks, Virginia, ended after 1554 casualties.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1865        Jan 24, A Confederate fleet attempted to raid City Point, Va. Most of the fleet ran aground. Two ironclads make a desperate attempt to push through to the supply center. One gunboat was sunk and the other mysteriously turns around.
    (www.qmfound.com/citypt.htm)

1865        Feb 3, President Lincoln and Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens held a peace conference aboard a ship off the Virginia coast. The talks deadlocked over the issue of Southern autonomy.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AP, 2/3/97)

1865        Feb 5, Three-day Battle of Hatcher's Run, Va., began.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1865        Mar 2, General Early's army was defeated at Waynesborough, Va.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1865        Mar 25, Confederate forces captured Fort Stedman during the siege of Petersburg, Va., but were forced to withdraw by counterattacking Union troops.
    (AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/01)   

1865        Mar 29, Battle of Quaker Road, Va.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1865        Mar 29-Apr 9, The Appomattox campaign in  Virginia left 7582 killed.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1865        Mar 31, Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1865        Mar 31, Gen. Pickett moved to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Petersburg.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1865        Apr 1,  At the Battle of Five Forks in Petersburg, Va., Gen. Robert E. Lee began his final offensive.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)

1865        Apr 2, Confederate President Davis and most of his Cabinet fled the Confederate capital of Richmond, Va. Grant broke Lee’s line at Petersburg. President Jefferson Davis moved his government headquarters to Danville, Va., when its previous capital, Richmond, became engulfed in flames. Though it would have been safer to secure a location further south, Danville was naturally protected by the Dan and Staunton rivers, and it was in close proximity to Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army to the north and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army to the south. The Piedmont Railroad connected Danville and Greensboro, N.C. and offered easy access to supplies.
    (AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)(HNQ, 11/1/01)
1865        Apr 2, Battle of Petersburg, Va. (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station).
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1865        Apr 3, Union forces captured the Confederate capital of Richmond, Va.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AP, 4/3/97) (HN, 4/3/98)
1865        Apr 3, Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign).
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1865        Apr 4, Lee's army arrived at the Amelia Courthouse.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1865        Apr 5, As the Confederate army approached Appomattox, it skirmished with Union army at Amelia Springs and Paine's Cross Road, Va.
    (HN, 4/5/99)(MC, 4/5/02)

1865        Apr 6, At the Battle of Sayler's Creek, a third of Lee's army was cut off by Union troops pursuing him to Appomattox. Skirmish at High Bridge, VA, (Appomattox).
    (HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)

1865        Apr 7, Battle of Farmville, VA.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1865        Apr 8, Lee's retreat was cut off near Appomattox Court House. The 7th Regiment of Virginia Volunteers fought at Clover Hill, Appomattox Court House.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)(HN, 4/8/98)

1865        Apr 9, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and ended the Civil War. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Seneca Indian Ely Parker was at his general's side at the surrender at Appomattox. The Union 20th Maine Infantry Unit was designated as one of the regiments to receive the surrender of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. One in four Southern men of military age died vs. one in ten for the Yankees.
    (A&IP, p.92)(AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)(HN, 4/9/98)

1865        Apr 10, At Appomattox Court, Va, General Robert E. Lee issued Gen Order #9, his last orders to the Army of Northern Virginia. Seneca Indian Ely Parker was at his general's side at Appomattox. In 2001 William C. Davis authored "An Honorable Defeat."
    (HN, 4/10/99)(WSJ, 6/13/01, p.A18)(MC, 4/10/02)

1865        Apr 14, On the evening of Good Friday, just after 10 p.m.,  Pres. Lincoln was shot and mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth while attending the comedy "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington DC. Southern sympathizer John Wilkes Booth burst into the presidential box and shot Lincoln behind the ear. Booth shouted out “sic semper tyrannis" (thus always to tyrants), Virginia’s state motto, after shooting Pres. Lincoln. He leaped to the stage, breaking his left leg on impact, and escaped through a side door. Lincoln was carried to a nearby house where he remained unconscious until his death at 7:22 the following morning. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who had kept vigil at Lincoln's bedside, said, "Now he belongs to the ages." As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.277)(AP, 4/14/97)(AP, 4/14/98)(HNPD, 4/14/00)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.W13)

1865        Apr 26, Battle of Ft. Tobacco, VA.
    (MC, 4/26/02)
1865        Apr 26, John Wilkes Booth (27) was tracked to a Virginia farm near Bowling Green, and shot in the neck by federal troops when he tried to escape from a burning barn. At some time prior to this Booth’s leg was operated on by Dr. Samuel Mudd, ancestor of news commentator Roger Mudd, who obtained a presidential pardon for Dr. Mudd’s financial ruin. Dr. Mudd served time at the Fort Jefferson Prison in the Dry Tortugas. [see Apr 27]
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A8)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 4/26/98)

1865        Apr 27, John Wilkes Booth was killed by Federal Cavalry in Virginia. In 2004 Michael W. Kauffman authored “American Brutus." In 2006 James L. Swanson authored “Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln’s Killer. [see Apr 26]
    (HN, 4/27/98)(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P10)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1865        Apr 30-May 1, Gen Sherman's "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1865        May 9, William Smith (1797-1887) was forced out of office as governor of Virginia following the Confederate surrender.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lnq3flb)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.28)

1865        Jun 17, Edmund Ruffin (b.1794), Virginia-born secessionist, writer, committed suicide after Confederacy defeat. For most of his life, Ruffin was a farmer and a renowned agricultural reformer. Increasingly, however, he turned his attention in the 1850s to politics, especially the defense of slavery and secession. Plagued by ill health, family misfortunes, and the rapid collapse of Confederate forces in 1865, Ruffin proclaimed "unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule," and on June 17, 1865, at his estate of Redmoor, in Amelia county, Virginia, he pulled the trigger on his silver-mounted gun and joined other fallen Confederate soldiers, the casualty of what some call the “last shot of the Civil War." . His act, sometimes considered the "last shot" of the Civil War, become identified with the Confederacy's defeat and a symbol of the lost cause.
    (www.famousamericans.net/edmundruffin/)

1865        Aug 21, Confederate General A.P. Hill attacked Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at the Weldon railroad. His attack was repulsed, resulting in heavy Confederate casualties. [suspect year error, see Jun 22, 1864]
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1865        Oct 2, Former Confederate General Robert E. Lee became president of Washington and Lee University in Virginia.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1866        Apr 2, Pres. ended war in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Ten & Va.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1867        Apr 24, Black demonstrators staged ride-ins on Richmond, Va., streetcars.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1868        Apr 1, The Hampton Institute was founded in Hampton, Va.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1868        May 5, Memorial Day was officially proclaimed by General John Logan, national commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, in his General Order No. 11, and was first observed on 30 May, 1868, when flowers were placed on the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers at Arlington National Cemetery. The preferred name for the holiday gradually changed from "Decoration Day" to "Memorial Day", which was first used in 1882. It was not declared the official name by Federal law until 1967.
    (http://www.usmemorialday.org/backgrnd.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorial_Day)

1870        Jan 26, Virginia rejoined the Union.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1870        Oct 12, Gen. Robert E. Lee (63) died in Lexington, Va. In 1998 David J. Eicher published "Robert E. Lee: A Life Portrait." In 2001 Michael Fellman authored "The Making of Robert E. Lee." In 2007 Elizabeth Brown Pryor authored “Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee Through His Private Letters.“
    (AP, 10/12/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.20)(SSFC, 1/28/01, Par p.12)(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.D6)

1883        Nov 3, Race riots took place in Danville, Virginia, and 4 blacks were killed.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1887        An electric-powered car in Richmond got its power from a four-wheeled carriage trolled along wires overhead, hence the name trolley car.
    (SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)

1893        Sep 14, In Virginia the Randolph-Macon Women’s College opened under Pres. William Waugh Smith.  The first session began with 36 boarding students and 12 professors.
    (SSFC, 9/10/06, p.A2)(www.rmwc.edu/about/history.asp)

1899        May 5, Freeman F. Gosden, radio comedy writer and performer (Amos 'n' Andy), was born in Richmond, Va.
    (HN, 5/5/01)(MC, 5/5/02)

1900s        In the early 1900s an absentee landlord forced the inhabitants of Assateague Island to move by closing access to the best clam beds. The people all moved to Chincoteague Island.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A8)

1901        In Virginia the Sweet Briar Institute was founded. It opened its doors in 1906. Sweet Briar was chartered as Sweet Briar Institute for the education of white girls and young women as indicated in the will of Indiana Fletcher Williams (1828-1900).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_Briar_College)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A7)

1901        E.P. Valentine, antiquarian, removed hundreds of Monacan remains from a burial site in Virginia later known as the Hayes Creek Mound. The remains were reburied in 1998.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.56)

1905        May 15, Joseph Cotton, actor, was born in Petersburg, Va.
    (AP, 5/15/05)

1907        Apr 26, The Jamestown, Va., Tercentenary Exposition opened.
    (www.jamestown2007.org/past-1907.cfm)(Econ, 5/1/07, p.40)

1907        Dec 16, US Navy battleships, which came to be known collectively as the "Great White Fleet," set sail from Hampton Roads, Va., on a 14-month round-the-world voyage at the order of President Theodore Roosevelt, who wanted to demonstrate American sea power.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

1908        Sep 3, Orville Wright began two weeks of flight trials that impressed onlookers with his complete control of his new Type A Military Flyer. In addition to setting an altitude record of 310 feet and an endurance record of more than one hour, he had carried aloft the first military observer, Lieutenant Frank Lahm.
    (HNPD, 9/16/98)

1908        Sep 9, Orville Wright made the 1st 1-hr airplane flight at Fort Myer, Va.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1909        Feb 22, The Great White Fleet returned to Norfolk, Va., from an around-the-world show of naval power. 1st US fleet to circle the globe.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1909        May 10, Maybelle Carter, country singer (Johnny Cash Show), was born in Nickelsville, Va.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1909        Jul 27, Orville Wright tested the U.S. Army's first airplane, flying himself and a passenger for 1 hour, 12 minutes and 40 seconds over Fort Myer, Virginia.
    (AP, 7/27/97)(HN, 7/27/02)(MC, 7/27/02)

1908        Sep 17, Orville Wright's passenger on a test flight was Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. They were circling the landing field at Fort Myer, Va., when a crack developed in the blade of the aircraft's propeller. Wright lost control of the Flyer and the biplane plunged to the ground. Selfridge became powered flight's first fatality, and Wright was seriously injured in the crash. But despite the tragic mishap, the War Department awarded the contract for the first military aircraft to Wright.
    (HNPD, 9/16/98)

1909        Feb 22, The Great White Fleet returned to Norfolk, Va., from an around-the-world show of naval power.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1909        Virginia executed 17 people.
    (SFC,12/15/97, p.A1)

1910        The Embrey Dam was constructed on the Rappahannock River in Fredericksburg, Va. The 22-foot dam was removed in 2004 to open up the river to migratory fish.
    (SFC, 2/24/04, p.A2)

1912        Aug 16, Virginia executed Virginia Christian (b.1895) in the electric chair. Christian, an African-American maid, was convicted for the murder of her white employer Mrs. Ida Virginia Belote (72), a white woman, in her home at Hampton on March 18.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Christian)

1913        Mar 16 The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, Va.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1914        DuPont of Wilmington, Del., ordered 61 prefabricated houses from Aladdin Homes for a new town called Hopewell Farm, Va., being built for workers in its dynamite factory.
    (WSJ, 10/31/05, p.B1)

1915        Oct 21, The 1st transatlantic radio-telephone message was transmitted from Arlington, Va., to Paris.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1916        Virginia schoolboy Antonio Gentile won a nation-wide contest and $5 to create a logo for a snack food company. His Mr. Peanut idea was enhanced by a professional artist and became the logo for the  Planters Company.
    (www.drloriv.com/appraisals/mrpeanut.asp)

1918        Feb 9, Army chaplain school organized at Ft. Monroe, Va.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1919        The 1st rotary-dial telephones were installed in Norfolk, Va.
    (SFC, 7/23/04, p.C1)

1921        Nov 11, President Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery. The unknown soldier was buried in Virginia’s Arlington National Cemetery on Armistice Day. He had been taken from an American cemetery in France.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.B8) (AP, 11/11/97)

1921        Dec 1, The US Navy flew the first nonrigid dirigible to use helium; the C-7 traveled from Hampton Roads, Va., to Washington.
    (AP, 12/1/06)

1922        Feb 21, Airship Rome exploded at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and 34 died.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1922        Jul 6, Vice-president Calvin Coolidge gave a speech at Fredericksburg City Park on behalf of a fund raising campaign to save and restore the Kenmore House, the home of Elizabeth (sister of George Washington) and Fielding Lewis.
    (HT, 5/97, p.44,68)

1924        Mar 20, The Virginia Legislature passed two closely related eugenics laws: SB 219, entitled "The Racial Integrity Act" and SB 281, "An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases", henceforth referred to as "The Sterilization Act". The Racial Integrity Act (one drop law) required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, and felonized marriage between "white persons" and non-white persons. The law was the most famous ban on miscegenation in the US, and was overturned by the US Supreme Court in 1967, in Loving v. Virginia. Virginia repealed the sterilization in 1979. In 2001 the House of Delegates voted to express regret for the state’s selecting breeding policies that had forced sterilizations on some 8,000 people. The Senate soon followed suit.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_Integrity_Act_of_1924)(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A3)(SFC, 2/15/01, p.C16)

1926        Nov 27, Restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia, began.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1927        Aug 1, The Bristol Sessions, a series of historic recording sessions, took place in in Bristol, a small town on the Tennessee-Virginia state line, and helped spread what was then known as "hillbilly music" to the rest of the country. The Carter Family (A.P., wife Sara, and cousin Maybelle) came down from the mountains of Virginia and began recording their country style "hillbilly" music for Ralph Peel of the Victor Talking Machine Co. Peel had set up a makeshift studio in the Taylor-Christian Hat Co. warehouse on State Street, recording 76 songs in 10 days.  Jimmy Rogers (1898-1933) came from Mississippi to record. In 2002 Mark Zwonitzer and Charles Hirshberg authored "Will You Miss me When I’m Gone: The Carter Family and Their Legacy in American Music."
    (WSJ, 8/1/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M3)(AP, 9/30/14)

1927        Oct 18, George Campbell Scott (d.1999), later Hollywood actor, was born in Wise, Va. He grew up in Detroit and graduated from Redford High School.
    (SFC, 9/24/99, p.D2)

1927        The Supreme Court decision of Buck vs. Bell supported a 1924 Virginia compulsory sterilization bill and Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes commented "three generations of imbeciles are enough." Carrie Buck was sterilized by physicians at the Virginia Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-minded in Lynchburg. In 2006 Harry Bruinius authored “Better For All the World: The Secret History of Forced Sterilization and America’s Quest for Racial Purity."
    (NH, 7/02, p.12)(WSJ, 2/28/06, p.D8)

1928        Nov 12, The ocean liner Vestris sank off the Virginia Cape with 328 aboard, killing 111.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1929        Jun 23, Valerie June Carter (d.2003) was born in Maces Springs, Va., to Mother Maybelle Carter, a founding member of the Carter Family trio. She married Johnny Cash in 1968.
    (SFC, 5/16/03, p.A24)

1930        Mar 11, Taft was the first U.S. president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, Va.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1930        The Mariner’s Museum opened in Newport News.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1931        Mar 2, Tom Wolfe, journalist, author (Right Stuff), was born in Richmond, VA.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1932        Feb 27, Explosion in coal mine in Boissevain, Virginia, left 38 dead.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1932        Sep 8, Patsy Cline (d.1963), country singer, was born in Winchester, Va. Her hits included "Crazy" and "I Fall to Pieces."
    (HN, 9/8/00)(MC, 9/8/01)

1933        Aug 11, Jerry Falwell (d.2007), founder of the conservative political lobbying organization, the Moral Majority, was born in Virginia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Falwell)

1934        Apr 24, Shirley MacLaine, actress, mystic (Irma la Douce), was born in Richmond, Va.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1935        Jan 24, The 1st canned beer, "Krueger Cream Ale," was sold by Krueger Brewing Co. of Richmond, Va.
    (www.bcca.com/bccacan1.html)

1935        Alice Stuart (d.2001 at 88), a black graduate student, sought admission to the Univ. of Virginia but was rejected. Virginia then established a tuition supplement program to fund black students for graduate schools outside the state, which Stuart accepted. The program was declared unconstitutional in 1950.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.D5)

1937        Mar 30, Warren Beatty, American actor and director, was born in Richmond, Va., as Henry Warren Beaty. His older sister became famous as actress Shirley MacLaine (b.1934). In 2010 Peter Biskind authored "How Warren Beatty Seduced America."
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, Books p.F1)

1938         Apr 22, In Virginia 45 workers were killed in a coal mine explosion at Keen Mountain in Buchanan County.
    (AP, 4/22/08)

1938        The town of Jarratt was incorporated. The Death House of Greensville Correctional Center was located just 2 miles away.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A6)

1939        The Carter Family left Virginia and went to Texas to pioneer border radio broadcasts.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M3)

1941        Jun 16, The new Washington National Airport opened southwest of DC. In 1945, Congress passed a law that established the airport was legally within Virginia but under the jurisdiction of the federal government. In 1998 it was renamed Ronald Reagan National Airport.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan_Washington_National_Airport)

1941        Jul 17, Brigadier-General Brehon Somervell gathered a small group of officer’s from the army’s construction division and told them they were to build a single headquarters to house the entire war department, then scattered over sites, in Virginia.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1941        Sep 11, Ground breaking ceremonies were held for the Pentagon. The 38-acre Pentagon was built in Arlington, Va., over the next 2 years. Construction was ordered by Brig. Gen. Brehon B. Sommervell to consolidate the 17 War Dept. buildings. It cost $83 million and was located on a plot known as Arlington Farms, that was bordered by 5 roads. In 2006 James Carroll authored “House of War: The Pentagon and the Disastrous Rise of American Power."
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A6)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.81)

1942        Oct 23, The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads, Virginia.
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1943        Jan 15, Work was completed on the Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense in Arlington, Va. In 2007 Steve Vogel authored “The Pentagon: A History."
    (AP, 1/15/98)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1944        Jul, In Virginia Irene Morgan was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat. A suit followed that led to the Jun 3, 1946 Supreme Court decision that struck down Virginia’s segregation statute on interstate buses.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.D2)

1946        Jun 3, A Supreme Court decision struck down Virginia’s segregation statute on interstate buses. The case stemmed from the 1944 incident where Irene Morgan was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.D2)

1949        Oct 29, Alonzo G. Moron of the Virgin Islands became the first African- American president of Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia.
    (HN, 10/29/98)

1951        Oliver W. Hill (1907-2007), a black lawyer, argued on behalf of students protesting deplorable conditions at a high school for African Americans in Farmville, Va. The case became one of 5 that were decided in the 1954 Supreme Court Brown vs. Board of Education decision.
    (SFC, 8/6/07, p.A2)
 
1954        Nov 10, The US Marine Corps Memorial, depicting the raising of the American flag on Iwo Jima in 1945, was dedicated by President Eisenhower in Arlington, Va.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

1957        Jan 7, Katie Couric, [Katherine], TV news host (Today), was born in Arlington, VA.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1957        Apr 26, Jamestown, Va., 350th Anniversary Festival opened.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1957        Apr 29, The 1st military nuclear power plant was dedicated at Fort Belvoir, Va.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1957        Oct 16, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip began a visit to the United States with a stopover at the site of the Jamestown settlement in Virginia.
    (AP, 10/16/07)

1957        The Jamestown Settlement was created by the state to celebrate 350 years of Jamestown. It was intended as a one-year memorial but continued on.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)

1957        George Mason Univ. began as an extension of the Univ. of Virginia. It became independent in 1972.
    (WSJ, 3/31/06, p.W11)

1958        Jun, Richard Loving, a white man, and Mildred Jeter, of African American and American Indian ancestry, traveled from Caroline County, Va., to marry in Washington, DC. Upon returning home they were arrested for violating the state’s 1924 Racial Integrity Act. Their one year sentenced was suspended on condition that they leave the state.
    (SFC, 2/14/12, p.E4)

1958        Jul, Mildred Loving (1940-2008), a woman of American Indian and black heritage, and her white husband, Richard (d.1975), were arrested in Virginia within weeks of arriving from Washington DC and convicted on charges of "cohabiting as man and wife. In 1967 the US Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, struck down state laws prohibiting interracial marriages.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.105)

1958        In Virginia miners and financiers settled on the banks of the Levisa Fork River and founded the town of Grundy to extract local coal deposits. Repeated flooding forced the town in 1997 to plan for a move to higher ground.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A3)
1958        Jim Haslam (aka Big Jim) founded Pilot when he paid $6,000 for a filling station in Virginia. In 2015 Pilot Flying J had revenues of more than $30 billion.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, p.60)

1959        Feb 2, Arlington and Norfolk, Va., peacefully desegregated public schools.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1959        Jun, Supervisors of Prince Edward County, Va., passed a $210,654 budget that provided no money for public schools and cut the property tax in half rather than comply with school desegregation. The public schools closed down for 5 years. The county whites opened a tuition-free, private academy for white children.
    (WSJ, 5/17/04, p.A1)

1959        Nov 3, Pres. Eisenhower laid the cornerstone for the CIA headquarters building in Langley, Va.
    (SFC, 9/17/97, p.A3)

1960        Sep 24, The USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was launched at Newport News, Va.
    (AP, 9/24/97)(HN, 9/24/98)

1960        Alvin Pleasant Carter, legendary country musician (A.P. Carter), died in his Virginia mountain cabin. His brother Ezra pressed his 3 daughters and Maybelle Carter to form a 2nd generation Carter Family music group. Johnny Cash was Maybelle’s son-in-law.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M3)

1961        Nov 8, Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8, a Lockheed Constellation L-049 four-engine propliner, aircraft crashed as it attempted to land at Byrd Field, near Richmond, Va. It was chartered by the US Army to transport new recruits to Columbia, South Carolina, for training.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Airlines_Flight_201/8)

1961        Dec, The Woodrow Wilson Bridge opened on I-95 over the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia. The 6-lane bridge was demolished in 2006 following the completion of one of 2 new 6-lane drawbridges.
    (SFC, 8/30/06, p.A2)

1962        Nov 17, Washington's Dulles International Airport opened in rural Virginia and was dedicated by President Kennedy. The terminal was designed by Finnish-born architect Eero Saarinen. The airport spawned a high-tech corridor that by 2005 sat in the fastest growing county in the US.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.68)(AP, 11/17/97)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.80)

1962        The planned community in Reston, Va., was built.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, Z1 p.4)

1962        The Virginia General Assembly declared George Lincoln Rockwell’s American Nazi Party an enemy of the state.
    (AH, 2/06, p.64)

1963        Jul 4, Naturalization ceremonies began to be held annually at Monticello.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1964        Apr 15, Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel opened top northbound traffic with two tunnels and four man-made islands. It stretched 20 miles from Virginia Beach and Norfolk to Virginia’s eastern shore. A parallel span was added in 1995.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.D1)(http://www.cbbt.com/facts.html)

1964        The US Supreme Court ruled that Prince Edward County, Va., had to provide public schools.
    (WSJ, 5/17/04, p.A13)

1967        Jun 12, The US Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, struck down state laws prohibiting interracial marriages. Mildred Loving (1940-2008) and her white husband, Richard (d.1975), married in 1958, had been arrested in Virginia within weeks of arriving from Washington DC and convicted on charges of "cohabiting as man and wife.
    (AP, 6/12/97)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B1)(AP, 5/5/08)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.105)      

1967 Aug 25, George Lincoln Rockwell (b.1918), founder of the American Nazi Party, was shot to death in the parking lot of a shopping center in Arlington, Va. Former party member John Patler (29) was later convicted of the killing. In 1999 Frederick J. Simonelli authored “American Fuehrer" George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party."
(AP, 8/25/07)(AH, 2/06, p.60,64)

1967 Dec 15, John Patler (b.1938) was convicted for the August 25 murder of George Lincoln Rockwell, head of the American Nazi Party. He was sentenced top 20 years, but served only 4 before being paroled in August, 1975.
(AH, 2/06, p.66)

1968 May 8, William Styron (1925-2006), a white author, received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for “The Confessions of Nat Turner." The book was based on the true story of an 1831 slave revolt in Virginia. Some black intellectuals, including Cornell historian John Henrik Clarke, published a critical response to the book.
(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rfk/sfeature/sf_1968_text_05.html)

1969 The Young America’s Foundation of Fairfax was founded to teach patriotism, limit government and other values espoused by later Pres. Ronald Reagan. In 1998 the foundation purchased the 680-acre Reagan ranch north of Santa Barbara.
(SFC, 4/21/98, p.A3)

1970 Mar 30, Secretariat (d.1989), triple crown race horse (1973), was born in Virginia.
(http://espn.go.com/sportscentury/features/00016464.html)

1971 May 28, Audie Murphy (b.1926), WW II hero and actor, was killed in plane crash near Roanoke, Va.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audie_Murphy)

1972 Oct 29, Charles A. Tuller, his 2 sons and William White Graham hijacked an Eastern Airlines jet from Houston and flew to Cuba 4 days after an abortive bank robbery in Arlington, Va. The robbery left 2 people dead in Arlington and a ticket agent dead in Houston. This was the second-to-last successful hijacking from the United States to Cuba before the signing of an anti-hijacking agreement between the two countries in February, 1973.
(www.latinamericanstudies.org/hijackers/72-killings.htm)

1972 Virginia named a new state university after George Mason, paying tribute to one of the least remembered of the major figures among the Founding Fathers. Mason was among those who opposed adopting the draft US constitution because it had no language to protect individual rights.
(AP, 3/28/06)

1973 Feb 27, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a Virginia pool club could not bar residents because of color.
(HN, 2/27/98)

1974 Apr 3, A series of 148 deadly tornadoes struck wide parts of the South and Midwest before jumping across the border into Canada; some 330 people were killed in 13 states: Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Total property damage was estimated at $600 million. In 2007 Mark Levine authored “F5: Devastation, Survival, and the Most Violent Tornado Outbreak of the 20th Century."
(AP, 4/3/99)(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.A7)(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P10)

1978 In Virginia the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad Regional Park, a ribbon of open space created from a railroad’s abandoned right-of-way, was opened.
(NG, 5.1988, intro)

1979 Virginia repealed its 1924 eugenics law.
(SFC, 2/15/01, p.C16)

1981 Dec 28, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American test-tube baby, was born in Norfolk, Va. Dr. Mason Andrews (1919-2006) performed the delivery by cesarean section.
(AP, 12/28/97)(SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

1982 Mar 22, The US submarine Jacksonville collided with a Turkish freighter near Virginia.
(http://navysite.de/ssn/ssn699.htm)

1982 Virginia banned uranium mining. It remained legal to process enriched uranium into usable nuclear fuel. In 2008 it was reported that the largest undeveloped uranium deposit in the US was in Virginia’s Pittsylvania County.
(www.cleanwateraction.org/publication/keep-ban-uranium-mining-virginia)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A7)

1982 Rebecca Lynn Williams was raped and killed. Earl Washington Jr., with an IQ of 69, confessed to the murder and was sentenced to be executed. In 2001 DNA evidence cleared Washington.
(SFC, 2/13/01, p.D2)

1982 Orbital Sciences, a Virginia-based company, was founded by David Thompson, Bruce Ferguson and Scott Webster. It later built the first private space rocket. In 1990, the company successfully carried out eight space missions, highlighted by the initial launch of the Pegasus rocket, the world's first privately-developed space launch vehicle.
(Econ, 8/23/08, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_Sciences_Corporation)

1983 A tire fire burned a pile of 7 million tires for 9 months.
(SFC, 8/10/98, p.A20)

1984 A mass death row prisoner escape took place from the Mecklenburg prison in Virginia. In 2000 Joe Jackson and William F. Burke Jr. authored "Dead Run: The Untold Story of Dennis Stockton and America’s Only Mass Escape From Death Row."
(SFEC, 4/16/00, BR p.12)

1985 Mar 30, In Virginia Jens Soering (b.1966), the son of a Germany diplomat, stabbed to death the parents of his girlfriend, Derek (72) and Nancy Haysom (53). In court, Jens Soering claimed that Elizabeth Haysom (b.1964) was the murderer and he wanted to spare her the death penalty by confessing.
(SFC, 7/7/10, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jens_Soering)

1985 In Virginia Helen Schartner was murdered. Joseph O’Dell III was tried and convicted for the murder and was executed in 1997. He pleaded innocence right to the moment of death and married Lori Urs just before his execution.
(SFC, 7/24/97, p.A3)

1986 Dec, Tony Albert Mackall shot a killed Mary Dahn during a robbery at a Shell gas station in Woodbridge. Mackall was executed by lethal injection in 1998.
(SFC, 2/11/98, p.A3)

1986 Rev. Sri Swami Satchidananda (1914-2002) founded the Yogaville ashram in Virginia.
(SFC, 8/20/02, p.A22)

1987 Aug 21, Sgt. Clayton Lonetree, the first Marine ever court-martialed for spying, was convicted in Quantico, Va., of passing secrets to the KGB after becoming romantically involved with a Soviet woman while serving as a U.S. Embassy guard in Moscow. Lonetree ended up serving eight years in a military prison, and was released in February 1996.
(AP, 8/21/97)

1988 Apr 6, Black Arctic explorer Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was re-buried next to Robert Peary in Arlington, Va.
(www.answers.com/topic/matthew-henson)

1989 Jan 26, L. Douglas Wilder, the lieutenant governor of Virginia, launched his successful campaign to become the first elected black governor of a U.S. state.
(AP, 1/26/99)

1989 Nov 7, L. Douglas Wilder won the governor's race in Virginia, becoming the first elected black governor in US history.
(AP, 11/7/97)

1990 Jan 13, L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia, the nation's first elected black governor, took the oath of office in Richmond.
(AP, 1/13/00)

1990 Nov 3, The Kryptos sculpture, created by sculptor Jim Sanborn, was dedicated in the courtyard of the CIA headquarters in Virginia.
(SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kryptos)

1990 Thomas H. Beavers raped and suffocated a 61-year-old widow. He was executed in Greensville in 1997 by lethal injection.
(SFC,12/15/97, p.B1)

1991 Mar 22, Law enforcement officers raided fraternities at Univ. of Virginia seizing drugs.
(http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1991-3/1991-03-22-ABC-9.html)

1991 Sep 13, Virginia Gov. L. Douglas Wilder declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
(AP, 9/13/01)

1991 Oct 17, Tennessee Ernie Ford (b.1919), country singer (16 Tons), died in Reston, Va.
(AP, 10/17/01)(www.ernieford.com/Bio.htm)

1992 Mar 30, Walter Mickens Jr. robbed, attempted sodomy, and stabbed Timothy Hall (17) 143 times in Newport News, Va. Mickens was convicted of murder in 1993 and was executed in 2002.
(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A3)(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A5)

1992 May 20, Proclaiming his innocence to the end, Roger Keith Coleman was executed in Virginia's electric chair for the 1981 rape-murder of his sister-in-law, Wanda McCoy. In 2006 DNA evidence confirmed that Coleman was guilty.
(AP, 5/20/97)(AP, 1/13/06)

1992 Angel Francisco Breard of Paraguay was convicted in the murder of Ruth Dickie in Arlington, Va. The consulate of Paraguay was not notified and the death sentence of Breard was under int’l. attention in 1998 for treaty violations. Breard was executed Apr 14,1998.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.A3)(SFC, 4/15/98, p.A3)

1993 Jan 25, Five commuters were shot outside the gates of the US CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. Two people died. Mir [Amil] Aimal Kasi, a Pakistani national, was tracked down for the shooting in 1997 in Afghanistan and returned to the US. He was convicted of murder in 1997 and was executed Nov 14, 2002.
(SFC, 6/18/97, p.A3)(SFC,11/11/97, p.A3)(SFC,11/15/97, p.A3)(AP, 1/25/98)(SFC, 11/15/02, p.A3)

1993 Jun 23, John Wayne Bobbitt had his penis severed by his wife, Ecuadorian born Lorena Bobbitt, in a domestic dispute. In 1996 he was ordained a minister in the Universal Life Church. Lorena Bobbitt of Prince William County, Va., sexually mutilated her husband, John, after he allegedly raped her. John Bobbitt was later acquitted of marital sexual assault; Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding by reason of insanity.
(SFC, 12/5/96, p.A3)(AP, 6/23/98)

1994 Jan 10, In Manassas, Va., Lorena Bobbitt went on trial, charged with malicious wounding of her husband, John. She had cut off her husband's penis and was acquitted by reason of temporary insanity.
(AP, 1/10/99)

1994 Jan 15, George Allen began serving as Virginia’s 67th governor and served to 1998.
(Econ, 4/29/06, p.34)(http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=A000121)

1994 Jul 21, Hugh Scott (93) former US Senate Republican leader died in Falls Church, Va.
(AP, 7/21/99)

1994 Dec 31, John C. Salvi III, accused of killing two receptionists at two Boston-area abortion clinics on Dec 30, was arrested in Norfolk, Va. Salvi, later convicted of murder, committed suicide in prison.
(AP, 12/31/04)

1994 Virginia passed legislation to abolish parole and extend prison time for violent criminals effective as of Jan 1, 1995.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.40)(www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3566617.html)

1995 Jun 19, The Richmond Virginia Planning Commission approved plans to place a memorial statue of tennis professional Arthur Ashe.
(HN, 6/19/00)
1995 Jun 19, Jennifer Lea Evans (21), a vacationing college student, was killed outside a Virginia Beach nightclub. Navy SEAL trainees Dustin Turner and his best friend, Billy Joe Brown, were convicted for the same crime. When they were arrested, each man accused the other of being the killer. In 2009 Brown said he killed Evans with no help from Turner. Brown said he wanted to tell the truth after almost 13 years because he had found religion in prison. A court soon overturned the convictions against Turner (33).
(SFC, 8/5/09, p.A4)(http://freedusty.com/Story/Dusty_Story.html)

1995 Jun 26, In southern Virginia Jason Callahan (19) of Myrtle Beach, SC, was killed in a car crash that left his body unidentifiable. In 2015 DNA evidence confirmed his identity.
(www.myrtlebeachonline.com/news/local/crime/article16706255.html)

1995 Sep 10, A plane carrying members of a skydivers club crashed in Shacklefords, Virginia, killing ten parachutists, the plane’s pilot and a man on the ground.
(AP, 9/10/00)

1996 Jun 1, The bodies of Julianne Williams (24) and Laura Winans (26) were found in Shenandoah National Park, a week after they were last seen alive. Their hands were bound and their throats were slashed. On Apr 10, 2002 Darrel David Rice (34) of Maryland was indicted for the murders along with hate charges.
(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A15)

1996 Aug 16, Eric Nesbitt (21), an airman at Langley AFB, was shot and killed after he was abducted and forced to withdraw money from an ATM machine by Daryl R. Atkins and another man. Atkins scored 59 on an IQ test in 1998, below the Virginia cut-off of 70 for retardation. In 2002 the US Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to execute the mentally retarded. In 2004 Atkins scored 74 and faced another trial. In 2005 a jury found Atkins to be mentally competent.
(SSFC, 2/6/05, p.A9)(SFC, 8/6/05, p.A4)(www.vuac.org/capital/row.html)

1996 Jack Allen Powell, a Virginia Alcohol Beverage Control agent, authored "A Dying Art," a history of moonshine production in Appalachia.
(SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A12)

1996 Ann Olson (25) and Keith O'Connell (23), students at James Madison Univ, were shot to death. Brent Simmons was convicted under reduced charges and sentenced to 20 years.
(USAT, 3/5/04, p.9A)

1997 Apr, The state Legislature voted to bench the state song, "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny," which some felt extolled slavery.
(WSJ, 3/5/98, p.A1)

1997 May 19, An indictment was filed against NBC sportscaster Marv Albert for biting a woman in an Arlington, Va., hotel on Feb 12 as many as 15 times and forcing her to perform oral sex. At trial, Albert ended up pleading guilty to assault and battery; he served no jail time.
(AP, 5/19/07)(www.eonline.com/News/Court/0597.albert.html)

1997 Jul 8, Michelle Moore-Bosko (18) of Pittsburgh, who had recently moved to Norfolk, Va., and secretly married her longtime boyfriend, William Bosko, was found raped and killed. 4 sailors, who became known as the Norfolk Four, were later convicted for her rape and murder. In 2009 Danial Williams (37), Derek Tice (39) and Joseph Dick (33) were pardoned, culminating a four-year campaign for clemency based on the sailors' claims that they were coerced into falsely admitting their involvement, that the details they provided were wrong and that there was no physical evidence linking them to the crime. A fourth sailor, Eric Wilson (33), served more than eight years in prison and has been released. A fifth man, Omar Ballard, was also convicted in the crime, and was sentenced to 100 years in prison, 59 of which were suspended. He is the only man whose DNA matched that found at the scene. His confession stated that he committed the crime by himself. In 2017 Virginia’s governor pardoned the four former sailors.
(SFC, 8/7/09, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Norfolk_Four)(SFC, 3/23/17, p.A8)

1997 Jul 24, William J. Brennan (91), retired Supreme Court Justice, died in Arlington, Va.
(AP, 7/24/98)

1997 Jul 25, In Elk Creek, Virginia, Louis Ceparano and Emmett Cressell Jr. doused Garnett Paul "G.P." Johnson with gasoline, set him on fire and cut off his head. They were both indicted for murder and robbery. Ceparano pleaded guilty to murder and was sentenced to life in prison in 1998. Cressell (38) was convicted of 1st degree murder in 1998 and sentenced to life in prison in 1999.
(SFC, 8/14/97, p.A3)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A4)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.A3)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A2)(SFC, 1/30/99, p.A4)

1997 Aug 18, In Virginia the VMI class of 2001 included 30 women among the 460 freshman students. Beth Ann Hogan became the first coed in the Virginia Military Institute's 158-year history.
(SFC, 8/18/97, p.A3)(AP, 8/18/98)

1997 Sep 22, Sportscaster Marv Albert went on trial in Arlington, Va., on charges of sodomy and assault. Albert later pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault, received no jail time and later had his record cleared.
(AP, 9/22/02)

1997 Dec 9, Michael Charles Satche (29) was put to death for the rape and murder of a woman. It was the state’s 8th execution this year.
(SFC,12/10/97, p.A7)

1997 Dec, In Louisa Tammy Baker (24) was killed by an explosive device detonated outside her apartment. Baker was pregnant at the time.
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A5)

1997 In Grundy, Va., the new Appalachian School of Law opened. The 1st class of 34 graduated in 2000.
(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A3)

1997 Virginia executed 9 people.
(SFC,12/15/97, p.A1)

1998 Jan 23, A judge in Fairfax, Va., sentenced Mir Aimal Kasi to death for an assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters in 1993 that killed two men and wounded three other people. Kasi was executed November 2002.
(AP, 1/23/03)

1998 Feb 16, Mr. Jefferson, the 1st cloned calf, was born in Virginia.
(www.revivicor.com/MrJefferson.htm)

1998 Apr 17, Homemade bombs injured 3 people in Louisa and Mineral.
(SFC, 4/18/98, p.A5)

1998 May 18, In Roanoke a suspected arson fire destroyed a 3-story rooming house and killed 5 people, 3 men and 2 women.
(SFC, 5/19/98, p.A3)

1998 Jun 15, In Richmond, Virginia, Quinshawn Booker (14) fired 8-9 rounds from a .32 caliber semiautomatic pistol at Armstrong High School and wounded a coach and a volunteer aide.
(SFC, 6/16/98, p.A3)

1998 Aug 25, Lewis F. Powell Jr. (90), former Supreme Court Justice (1972-1987), died in Richmond, Va. He wrote the majority opinion allowing colleges and universities to consider race among other factors in student admittance.
(SFC, 8/26/98, p.A4)

1998 Sep 20, The Univ. of Calif. at Berkeley tied with the Univ. of Virginia as the best public university in the country according to a US News & World Report.
(SFC, 8/21/98, p.A24)

1998 Sep 19, Nicole Johnson (24) from Roanoke, Va., was crowned Miss America for 1999.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, p.A2)

1998 Dec 25, A storm snapped power lines in Virginia and left thousands without power as cold weather hit across the South.
(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A9)

1998 Child support authorities in Fairfax began immobilizing the cars of deadbeat parents with baby blue and pink "boots."
(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A5)

1999 Jan 29, In Virginia Paul Warner Powell (20) stabbed and killed Stacie Reed (16). He also raped and attempted to kill her sister (14). Powell was executed on March 18, 2010.
(SFC, 3/19/10, p.A8)

1999 Feb, The City Council of Richmond passed an ordnance that restricted the content of pop music performances where minors are allowed.
(SFC, 2/27/99, p.A5)

1999 Apr 5, At Newport News, Va., members of local 8888 of the United Steelworkers went on strike. The shipyard offered a $2.49 per hour raise over 3 years as opposed to the union demand for $3.95.
(SFC, 4/6/99, p.D1)

1999 Jul 1, In Dale City Natalie Giles Davis died after 2 days in a coma from injuries inflicted in a brutal beating by Teresa Hattie Dixon (18) and a 16-year-old girl. Davis had complained that the girls were blocking the street with their car.
(SFC, 7/2/99, p.A3)

1999 Sep 6, Gregory Smith (10), boy genius, began his first day of class at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland.
(SFC, 9/9/99, p.A11)

1999 Sep 7-19, Hurricane Floyd caused one death in Caribbean and 56 in United States. Storm hit Bahamas before striking Florida, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Delaware, New York, Connecticut, and Vermont.
(AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1999 Nov 2, Republicans took control of the Virginia General Assembly for the first time with 52 of 100 seats.
(SFC, 11/3/99, p.A17)

1999 Dec 15, In Virginia a rule took effect for prison inmates to either cut their hair no longer than their collars and shave their beards, or be placed in administrative segregation. Kendall Gibson (21), a Rastafarian by faith and sentenced to 47 years on robbery, abduction and gun charges, refused to have his hair cut and was placed in administrative segregation where he still remained as of 2010.
(AP, 5/8/10)

2000 Mar 5, PPL Therapeutics of Scotland cloned 5 piglets in Blacksburg, Va.
(SFC, 3/15/00, p.A3)

2000 Mar 5, In Virginia an explosion at an auto parts factory killed 3 people in at New River Castings in Radford.
(SFC, 3/7/00, p.A5)

2000 Sep 22, Ronald Edward Gay (53) killed one person and wounded 6 when he opened fire at the Backstreet Café, a gay bar in Roanoke.
(SFEC, 9/24/00, p.A2)

2000 Oct 2, Virginia Gov. James Gilmore granted an absolute pardon to Earl Washington Jr., 17 years after the mentally retarded man was convicted for the rape and homicide of a mother of 3. An initial 1994 DNA test indicated another man in the case. A new DNA test identified a convicted rapist. In 2006 a federal jury awarded $2.25 million to Washington.
(SFC, 10/3/00, p.A4)(SFC, 5/6/06, p.A3)

2000 Patrick Henry College opened in suburban Virginia. It was founded by Michael Farris: “Your calling is to turn our nation into a Godly foundation." In 2007 Hanna Rosin authored “God’s Harvard: A Christian College on a Mission to Save America."
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.33)(SSFC, 9/2/07, p.M1)

2000 In Virginia Elizabeth Renee Otte was sentenced to 5 years in prison for killing her month-old son in a microwave in 1999. Experts said the she suffered from epilepsy and that her seizures were followed by blackouts.
(SFC, 11/29/06, p.A8)

2000 A shipping concern in Virginia, LISCR, helped Pres. Taylor procure weapons in violation of the UN arms embargo. The Liberian International Ship and Corporate Registry began managing Liberia’s shipping registry this year.
(WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A1)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.45)

2001 Feb 2, The House of Delegates voted to express regret for the state’s selecting breeding policies that had forced sterilizations on some 8,000 people since 1924.
(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A3)

2001 Mar 18, An accident that injured 17 shut down several heavily traveled highways around Washington DC for several hours. The Virginia crash involved a Quebec tour bus, a truck and two cars.
(AP, 3/19/02)

2001 May, Louis A Bloomfield, a Univ. of Virginia physics professor, acting on tip from student; used computer program to find 60 term papers out of 1,800 papers that were nearly identical; findings raise questions about whether Internet has increased cheating. 48 students were dismissed or had their degrees revoked in the cheating scandal.
(http://tinyurl.com/yacr6w)(WSJ, 1/21/06, p.P8)

2001 Sep 11, 8:45 a.m. American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 92 people, crashed into the North tower of the World Trade Center in NYC.
9:03 a.m. United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767 carrying 65 people, crashed into the South Tower of the WTC.
9:38 a.m. American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 carrying 64 people, crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington, Va.
9:40 a.m. The FAA grounded all domestic flights and ordered all airborne craft to land immediately.
10:00 a.m. The South Tower of the WTC collapsed.
10:10 a.m. United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 carrying 45 people, crashed southeast of Pittsburgh. The plane was believed to be headed for Camp David.
10:29 a.m. The North Tower of the WTC collapsed.
5:25 p.m. Building 7 of the WTC complex collapsed.
(SFC, 9/12/01, p.A6)

2001 Oct 25, A State Dept. mail worker in Virginia was diagnosed with the inhalational form of anthrax.
(SFC, 10/26/01, p.A1)

2001 Nov 6, In Virginia Democrat Mark Warner defeated Republican Mark Earley in the race for governor.
(SFC, 11/7/01, p.A14)

2001 Dec 10, Robert Schwartz (57), a DNA researcher, was found dead at his farmhouse in Leesburg. 3 friends in Maryland, Kyle Hulbert (18), Michael Pfohl (21) and Katherine Inglis (19) were later charged in the murder committed with a 2-foot sword that left an "x" carved on the back of the neck. The suspects were acquaintances of the victim’s daughter.
(SFC, 12/15/01, p.A8)

2001 Dec, A new $100 million, 1,536-bed federal penitentiary opened at Dot in Lee County.
(SFC, 12/19/01, p.E6)

2001 Dec, The World Bank approved $175 million in financing for the construction of a $550 million power project on the Nile River in Uganda by AES Corp. of Arlington, Va. The African Development Bank was to provide an additional $55 million. Some $370 million in loans were suspended in June, 2002, over an alleged 1999 bribe to an Ugandan official.
(WSJ, 7/3/02, p.A4)

2001 Federal agents in Virginia and North Carolina conducted Operation Lightning Strike to curtail moonshine production in the region.
(SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A12)

2002 Jan 16, In Grundy, Va., Peter Odighizuwa shot and killed the dean, a professor and a student at the Appalachian School of Law following suspension due to low grades. He was later found incompetent to stand trial.
(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A3)(AP, 1/16/03)

2002 Jan 20, John Jackson, Virginia bluesman, died at age 77.
(SFC, 1/22/02, p.A20)

2002 Feb 5, A federal grand jury in Alexandria, Va., indicted John Walker Lindh on 10 charges, alleging he was trained by Osama bin Laden's network and then conspired with the Taliban to kill Americans. Lindh later pleaded guilty to lesser offenses and was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison.
(SFC, 2/6/02, p.A1)(AP, 2/5/07)

2002 Mar 18, Flooding hit Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia following a 2nd day of heavy rains.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A3)

2002 May 3, Flash flooding in Appalachia killed 4 people. Virginia, W. Va. and Kentucky were hit at their intersection.
(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A3)

2002 Jun 20, The US Supreme Court in Atkins v Virginia ruled that the constitution bans the death penalty for mentally retarded convicted killers.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atkins_v._Virginia)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.23)

2002 Aug 15, In Virginia the bodies of Michael and Mary Short were found shot to death south of Roanoke. Bones of their daughter Jennifer (9) were found Sep 25 in Stoneville, NC, some 30 miles away.
(SFC, 8/17/02, p.A3)(SFC, 10/5/02, p.A5)

2002 Oct 4, John Walker Lindh, the so-called "American Taliban," received a 20-year sentence after a sobbing, halting plea for forgiveness before a federal judge in Alexandria, Va.
(AP, 10/4/07)

2002 Oct 9, Dean Meyers (53) of Gaithersburg, Md., was shot to death in Manassas, Va., in a shooting that appeared to be linked to 6 previous sniper attacks in the area. In 2009 sniper John Allen Muhammad (48) was executed in Virginia for the killing of Meyers.
(SFC, 10/10/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A4)(SFC, 11/11/09, p.A7)

2002 Oct 11, Kenneth Bridges (53) was shot and killed in Spotsylvania, Va., the 8th victim of the DC area sniper. In 2004 Lee Boyd Malvo (19) in a plea bargain accepted life in prison for the murder of Bridges.
(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A4)(SFC, 10/27/04, p.A3)

2002 Oct 14, Linda Franklin (47) of Arlington, Va., was shot in the head and killed as she and her husband loaded packages into their car outside a Home Depot at the Seven Corners Shopping Center. She had worked as an analyst for the FBI.
(SFC, 10/15/02, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/02)

2002 Oct 19, In Ashland, Va., Jeffrey Hopper (37) was shot and seriously wounded in what appeared to be another sniper attack. The sniper left a note that included a request for $10 million and threats to focus on children.
(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.A3)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.A1)(AP, 10/19/07)

2003 Feb 20, Former Air Force Master Sgt. Brian Patrick Regan was convicted in Alexandria, Va., of offering to sell U.S. intelligence to Iraq and China but acquitted of attempted spying for Libya. Regan was later sentenced to life without parole.
(AP, 2/20/04)

2003 Apr 7, The US Supreme Court voted 6-3 to uphold a 50-year-old Virginia law making it a crime to burn a cross as an act of intimidation.
(AP, 4/7/04)

2003 Apr 29, The governor of Virginia signed a tough antispam law that called for prison and asset seizures.
(WSJ, 4/30/03, A1)

2003 Jul 13, Brenda Paz (17), a federal witness, was found stabbed to death on the banks of Virginia’s Shenandoah River. A federal jury convicted two members of the MS-13 street gang of her murder. MS-13 gang members wanted Paz dead for cooperating with police and prosecutors in cases against MS-13 members in Northern Virginia and Texas.
(Econ, 1/7/06, p.23)(http://tinyurl.com/8tlnm)

2003 Sep 19, Hurricane Isabel knocked out power to more than 4.5 million people as it weakened into a tropical storm and raced toward Canada after swamping tidal communities along Chesapeake Bay. 21 of 36 storm victims were in Virginia.
(AP, 9/19/03)(AP, 9/20/03)(WSJ, 9/23/03, p.A1)

2003 Nov 17, John Allen Muhammad was convicted of masterminding the 2002 sniper attacks in the Washington DC region.
(SFC, 11/18/03, p.A1)

2003 Nov 24, A Virginia jury decided that John Allen Muhammad, convicted of masterminding the 2002 sniper attacks in the Washington DC region, should be executed.
(SFC, 11/25/03, p.A3)

2003 Dec 11, A new 2nd home for the National Air and Space Museum opened in Chantilly, Va., some 28 miles west of the original's home in Washington D.C.
(AP, 12/11/04)

2003 Dec 18, Lee Boyd Malvo (18) was convicted in Virginia for his role in the 2002 sniper shootings.
(SFC, 12/19/03, p.A3)

2003 Dec 23, A Virginia jury recommended a sentence of life in prison for Lee Boyd Malvo.
(AP, 12/23/03)

2003 The new National Air & Space Museum annex at Dulles Int'l. Airport was scheduled for completion. Steven F. Udvar-Hazy (53), a Hungarian-American and president of the largest aircraft leasing company, donated $60 million to the project in 1999.
(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A12)

2004 Jan 19, Gov. Warner said his proposed budget and tax reform plan would revive some projects that were dropped from a 6-year highway construction plan.
(USAT, 1/20/04, p.12A)

2004 Jan, A museum dedicated to the photography of Winston Link (1915-2001) opened in Roanoke, Va. He had spent the years 1955-1960 photographing the last steam railroad in America, the Norfolk & Western RR.
(WSJ, 8/5/04, p.D8)

2004 Feb 20, In Virginia 1 person won at least $230 million in the Mega Millions lottery, becoming the biggest winner in the game's history.
(AP, 2/21/04)

2004 Feb 28, The Bow Mariner, a tanker carrying 3.5 million gallons of ethanol, exploded and sank off Virginia's Eastern Shore. Three crewmen were known dead and six others were rescued. 18 crew members were left missing.
(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.A3)(SFC, 2/02/04, p.A3)

2004 Mar 9, John Allen Muhammad (43) was sentenced to death in Manassas, Va., for his 2002 murder rampage in the Washington DC area.
(SFC, 3/10/04, p.A3)

2004 Mar 10, Lee Boyd Malvo, teenage sniper, was sentenced in Chesapeake, Va., to life in prison.
(AP, 3/10/05)

2004 Apr, Virginia legislators mistakenly revived a Colonial-era law giving workers the right to take Sunday off as a day of rest. In July Gov. Mark Warner signed a bill to correct the error.
(USAT, 7/4/04, p.3A)

2004 Jul 30, Abdurahman Alamoudi pleaded guilty in a Virginia court to moving cash from Libya and involvement in a Libyan plot to assassinate Saudi Prince Abdullah.
(SFC, 7/31/04, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Rahman_al-Amoudi)

2004 Aug 31, Tropical Storm Gaston flooded Richmond and other parts of central Virginia with a foot or more of rain. Five people were killed.
(AP, 8/31/04)(WSJ, 9/1/04, p.A1)

2004 Oct 24, A plane owned by Hendrick Motorsports crashed in thick fog en route to a NASCAR race in Martinsville, Va., killing all 10 people aboard, including the son, brother and two nieces of owner Rick Hendrick.
(AP, 10/25/04)

2004 Nov 3, Jeremy Jaynes of North Carolina became the first person in the US to be convicted of a felony for sending unsolicited bulk email. He was charged in Virginia because his emails went through an AOL server there. In 2008 the Virginia Supreme Court declared the state’s antispam law unconstitutional and reversed Jaynes’ conviction.
(WSJ, 9/13/08, p.A2)(www.phonebusters.com/english/legal_2004_nov3.html)

2004 FiXs was founded and based in Fairfax, Virginia, to pilot a federated identity transaction model and was incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation. A long-standing affiliation with the DoD credentialing program has enabled participating government organizations and industry members to establish secure and interoperable identity verification and authentication for secure facility and system access.
{USA, Virginia, Internet}
(http://www.fixs.org/)

2005 Feb 8, Virginia lawmakers passed a bill authorizing a $50 fine for anyone who displays his or her underpants in a “lewd or indecent manner."
(SFC, 6/9/04, p.A3)

2005 Apr 26, A federal jury in Virginia convicted Islamic scholar Ali al-Timini of urging followers to join the Taliban and fight the US after the 9/11 attacks.
(WSJ, 4/27/05, p.A1)

2005 Jul 13, In Virginia a federal judge sentenced Ali Timini (41), a prominent Muslim spiritual leader, to life in prison for inciting his followers for villent jihad against the US. Timini was convicted in April.
(SFC, 7/14/05, p.A9)

2005 Jul 25, In Virginia 4 adult Scout leaders from Alaska were killed on the opening day of their Jamboree when a tent pole apparently struck a power line.
(AP, 7/26/05)

2005 Sep 3, US Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist (80), 33 years on the Supreme Court died in Arlington, Va. He oversaw the high court's conservative shift and presided over the impeachment trial of President Clinton.
(AP, 9/4/05)

2005 Sep 5, Taylor Behl (17), a Virginia Commonwealth University student, disappeared. Her body was found in Mathews County, about 70 miles east of Richmond, a month later. Behl’s body was found in a shallow grave with the help of photos on Benjamin Fawley’s Web site. In 2006 Fawley (39) was sentenced to 30 years in prison for her death.
(AP, 8/10/06)

2005 Nov 8, Democratic Lt. Gov. Tim Kaine won a solid victory in GOP-leaning Virginia, beating Republican Jerry Kilgore by more than 5 percentage points.
(AP, 11/9/05)

2005 Nov 15, The FBI arrested Candice R. Martinez, a 19-year-old woman, suspected of robbing four Virginia banks while apparently talking on her cell phone.
(AP, 11/15/05)

2005 Nov 22, A federal jury in Virginia found Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (24), a US citizen, guilty of numerous charges to commit acts of terrorism. Abu Ali was arrested in Medina in June 2003 as Saudi authorities were investigating a wave of bombings. In 2008 a federal appeals court upheld the conviction, but ordered a new sentencing hearing. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill Pres. George W. Bush.
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.A14)(SFC, 6/7/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/27/09, p.A5)

2005 Nov 29, In Virginia Gov. Mark Warner granted clemency to convicted killer Robin Lovitt, who faced death for the 1998 killing of Clayton Dicks, a pool hall manager in Arlington.
(SFC, 11/30/05, p.A16)

2006 Jan 1, A family of 4 was found murdered in Richmond, Va. [see Jan 7]
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Richmond_spree_murders)(SSFC, 1/8/06, p.A3)

2006 Jan 7, Police in Richmond, Va., arrested 2 men for the recent killing of 7 people. Ray Joseph Dandridge (28) and Ricky Gavon Gray (28) were charged with conspiracy to commit murder and auto theft.
(SSFC, 1/8/06, p.A3)

2006 May 3, Vernon Jackson (53), owner of iGate, pleaded guilty in Alexandria, Virginia, to bribing Rep. William Jefferson, D-La., with more than $400,000 to promote the Kentucky’s firm’s high tech business in Africa between 2001 and 2005.
(SFC, 5/4/06, p.A3)

2006 May 4, In Virginia US Judge Leonie Brinkema sent Zacarias Moussaoui to prison for life, to "die with a whimper," for his role in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. He declared: "God save Osama bin Laden, you will never get him." The US military released video footage of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in which the al-Qaida leader was seen wearing American tennis shoes and unable to operate his automatic rifle.
(AP, 5/4/07)

2006 Jun 29, East Coast rains, which began over the weekend, have been blamed for five deaths in Pennsylvania, four in Maryland, one in Virginia and three in New York.
(AP, 6/29/06)

2006 Sep 9, In Virginia officials of the Randolph-Macon Women’s College announced that men would be admitted starting in 2007.
(SSFC, 9/10/06, p.A2)

2006 Oct 6, In Virginia opening ceremonies were held for the new $13 million American Civil War Center in Richmond’s former Civil War gun foundry.
(WSJ, 10/12/06, p.W13)

2006 Oct 7, In Virginia the Bush family christened the USS George H.W. Bush, the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier named after the 82-year-old former president.
(AP, 10/7/06)
2006 Oct 7, Michelle Gardner-Quinn (21), a Univ. of Vermont senior from Arlington, Va., was reported missing. After chasing leads for nearly a week, police investigating her disappearance got a break when a group of hikers spotted a body in a rocky ravine. A suspect, Brian Rooney (36), was arrested Oct 13 on unrelated charges of sex abuse in two other Vermont counties.
(AP, 10/14/06)

2006 Oct 14, Pres. Bush dedicated the new $30 million US Air Force Memorial in Arlington, Va. The memorial, designed to evoke the “bomb-burst maneuver of the Thunderbirds, was the last major work of architect James Ingo Freed (d.2005).
(SSFC, 10/15/06, p.A16)

2006 Oct 31, In Roanoke, Virginia, Sheriff Frank Cassell and 12 of his uniformed employees were indicted in a racketeering case that claims drugs seized from criminals were being resold, sometimes out of a sergeant's home.
(AP, 11/2/06)

2006 Nov 9, Virginia Republican Sen. George Allen conceded his defeat to Democrat James Web. Sen. Conrad Burns conceded the Montana Senate race to Democrat Jon Tester.
(SFC, 11/10/06, p.A17)

2006 Nov 10, Pres. Bush dedicated the new National Museum of the Marine Corp. in Virginia.
(SFC, 11/11/06, p.A4)

2006 Dec 16, A rocket carrying two experimental satellites blasted off in the first launch from the mid-Atlantic region's commercial spaceport. The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, a state agency, built the commercial launch pad in 1998 on land leased from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to try to help bring jobs to the economically depressed Eastern Shore region. Maryland later joined the venture.
(AP, 12/16/06)

2006 Dec 31, Seymour Martin Lipset (1922), renowned social scientist, died in Virginia. His books included “Political Man" (1960). Lipset had served as a political sociologist and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and as the Hazel Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University.
(SSFC, 1/7/07, p.B6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seymour_Martin_Lipset)

2006 Virginia voters in a referendum passed a ban on gay marriage.
(Econ, 2/22/14, p.24)

2007 Feb 1, The National Academy of Engineering announced that the 2007 Grainger Challenge Prize for Sustainability would go to Abul Hussam, a chemistry professor at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va. He had developed an inexpensive, easy-to-make system for filtering arsenic from well water, and planned to use most of the $1 million engineering prize to distribute the filters to needy communities around the world.
(AP, 2/3/07)

2007 Feb 24, The Virginia General Assembly, meeting in Richmond on the grounds of the former Confederate Capitol, voted unanimously to express "profound regret" for the state's role in slavery.
(AP, 2/25/07)

2007 Mar 14, A US judge in Virginia ruled that Sudan should pay damages to the families of 17 sailors killed in the October 2000 bombing of the U.S.S. Cole.
(Reuters, 3/14/07)

2007 Apr 8, In the Philippines Julia Campbell (40), American Peace Corps volunteer from Fairfax, Va., was last seen in the town of Banaue in Ifugao province. Her body was found April 18 in a shallow grave near Batad village. In 2008 Juan Duntugan was convicted of the murder and sentenced to 40 years in prison without parole.
(AP, 4/14/07)(AP, 4/18/07)(SFC, 4/19/07, p.A8)(AP, 6/30/08)

2007 Apr 16, Shootings in a dorm and classroom at Virginia Tech left 32 people dead. Two people died in a dorm room, and 31 others were killed in Norris Hall, including the gunman, who put a bullet in his head. At least 15 people were hurt, some seriously. Two professors from India and Israel were among the dead at the Virginia Tech shooting, the deadliest in US history. The gunman was a South Korean national named Seung-Hui Cho (23). Cho was an undergraduate student in his senior year majoring in English who lived on campus. His residence was in Centerville, Virginia, and he had resident alien status. Between shootings Seung-Hui took time to e-mail videos, photos and writings to NBC. Virginia law allowed Cho to buy one gun each month. In 2009 Lucinda Roy, head of English at Virginia Tech, authored “No Right To Remain Silent: The Tragedy at Virginia Tech."
(AP, 4/16/07)(AP, 4/17/07)(AFP, 4/17/07)(WSJ, 4/19/07, p.A1)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.27)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.32)

2007 Apr 20, The family of Virginia Tech gunman Seung-Hui Cho, who shot and killed 32 people and himself, said they felt ‘‘hopeless, helpless and lost,’’ and ‘‘never could have envisioned that he was capable of so much violence.’’
(AP, 4/20/08)

2007 May 10, In Virginia the maker of the powerful painkiller OxyContin and three of its current and former executives pleaded guilty to misleading the public about the drug's risk of addiction. Purdue Pharma L.P., its president, top lawyer and former chief medical officer will pay $634.5 million in fines for claiming the drug was less addictive and less subject to abuse than other pain medications.
(AP, 5/11/07)

2007 May 13, President Bush made a pilgrimage to the site of the Jamestown settlement in Virginia to mark the 400th anniversary of its founding.
(AP, 5/13/08)

2007 Jul 1, Virginia became home of the $3,000 traffic ticket. In an effort to raise money for road projects, the state started to hit residents who commit serious traffic offenses with huge civil penalties. Beginning today Virginia added new civil charges to traffic fines. They range from $750 to $3,000 and will be added to existing fines and court costs.
(USAT, 7/1/07)

2007 Jul 17, In Virginia Michael Vick, quarterback of the Atlanta Falcons, was indicted by a federal grand jury along with 3 others on charges related to competitive dog fighting. In Dec. Vick was sentenced to 23 months in prison for his role in a dogfighting conspiracy that involved gambling and killing pit bulls.
(SFC, 7/19/07, p.A6)(AP, 12/10/07)

2007 Sep 5, In Virginia US Rep. Paul Gillmor (68), a Republican from Ohio, was found dead in his apartment in Arlington.
(SFC, 9/6/07, p.A7)

2007 Oct 6, US Representative Jo Ann Davis (57), Virginia’s first Republican woman elected to Congress, died of breast cancer.
(SSFC, 10/7/07, p.A5)

2007 Oct 17, The US Supreme Court stopped the execution of Virginia death row inmate Christopher Scott Emmet (36). Legal experts said the move signals a nationwide halt to lethal injections until the court decides in 2008 whether the procedure violates constitutional standards.
(SFC, 10/18/07, p.A15)

2007 Nov 10, Miami ended its 70-year stay at the famed Orange Bowl with the biggest shutout loss in the stadium's history, a 48-0 rout to Virginia.
(AP, 11/10/08)

2008 Feb 12, Barack Obama won 75% of the vote in Washington DC, nearly two-thirds in Virginia and approximately 60% in Maryland. McCain's victory in Virginia was a relatively close one, the result of an outpouring of religious conservatives who backed Mike Huckabee.
(AP, 2/13/08)

2008 Feb 29, A divided Virginia Supreme Court affirmed the nation's first felony conviction for illegal spamming, ruling that Virginia's anti-spamming law does not violate free-speech rights.
(AP, 2/29/08)

2008 Apr 1, Virginia’s Gov. Timothy Kaine ordered a moratorium on executions until the US Supreme Court decides whether lethal injections are constitutional.
(SFC, 4/3/08, p.A6)

2008 Apr 10, In Virginia a jury convicted Rev. James Bevel (71), a noted civil rights figure, of incest after concluding he had sex with his teenage daughter 15 years ago. His had daughter testified that Bevel had begun molesting her at age 6.
(SFC, 4/11/08, p.A4)

2008 Apr 10, Most families in the April 16, 2007, Virginia Tech mass shootings agreed to an $11 million state settlement.
(WSJ, 4/11/08, p.A2)

2008 Apr 27, It was made public that Mars Inc. of McLean, Va., together with Berkshire Hathaway had agreed to acquire Wrigley Co. of Chicago, Ill., for about $23 billion.
(WSJ, 4/29/08, p.A1)

2008 Apr 28, In southeast Virginia 6 destructive tornadoes resulted in much devastation and over 200 injuries but no deaths. Gov. Timothy Kaine declared a state of emergency in the hardest hit areas.
(AP, 4/29/08)(SFC, 4/30/08, p.A3)

2008 Sep 6, Tropical Storm Hanna blew hard and dumped rain in eastern North Carolina and Virginia, but caused little damage beyond isolated flooding and power outages as it quickly headed north toward New England.
(AP, 9/6/08)

2008 Sep 11, Pres. Bush attended the dedication of a new memorial at the Pentagon in honor of 9/11 attacks in 2001. In NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg led a ceremony attended by presidential candidates Barack Obama and John McCain.
(SFC, 9/12/08, p.A3)

2008 Oct 9, Virginia’s Gov. Timothy M. Kaine ordered 570 state employee layoffs, cut college funding by at least 5%, ordered some older prisons closed and postponed state employee raises to deal with a $2.5 billion fiscal crises.
(WSJ, 10/10/08, p.A6)

2009 Jan 16, Circuit City, a bankrupt electronics retailer based in Richmond, Va., said it failed to find a buyer and will liquidate its 567 US stores resulting in the loss of some 30,000 jobs. Circuit city’s last day of sales was on March 8.
(SFC, 1/17/09, p.C1)(SFC, 3/9/09, p.B1)
2009 Jan 16, Kellogg Co. of Battle Creek, Mich., recalled 16 products containing peanut butter due to possible salmonella contamination as federal officials confirmed contamination at a Georgia facility that ships peanut products to 85 food companies. On Jan 21 federal health authorities confirmed that peanut butter and paste made by a Virginia company were the sole sources of the outbreak. The Blakely, Ga., facility was owned by Peanut Corp. of America, based in Lynchburg, Va. In 2013 four former executives of Peanut Corp. were indicted for the outbreak that left 9 people dead and hundreds sickened.
(SFC, 1/17/09, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/22/09, p.A4)(SFC, 2/22/13, p.A11)

2009 Jan 28, President Barack Obama signed requests from Kentucky Gov. Steve Beshear and Arkansas Gov. Mike Beebe for federal emergency declarations as crews worked around the clock to resurrect power lines downed by thick ice in both states. Since the storm began building on Jan 26, the weather has been blamed for at least six deaths in Texas, four in Arkansas, three in Virginia, six in Missouri, two in Oklahoma, and one each in Indiana and Ohio.
(AP, 1/29/09)

2009 Feb 13, The Lynchburg, Va.-based Peanut Corp. of America, at the heart of a national salmonella outbreak, filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy in US Bankruptcy Court.
(AP, 2/14/09)

2009 Feb 19, Virginia’s House of Delegates voted 60-39 on a partial ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The Senate had voted 27-13 earlier on the bill, which was supported by Gov. Timothy Kaine.
(WSJ, 2/20/09, p.A6)

2009 Mar 9, Virginia Gov. Tim Kaine signed a bill that generally restricts smoking in bars and restaurants to separate rooms that have their own ventilation.
(SFC, 3/10/09, p.A5)

2009 Mar 19, High Okun, a Miami businessman, was convicted in Virginia of bilking nearly 600 people across the country out of $126 million.
(SFC, 3/20/09, p.A8)

2009 Mar 29, The mysterious boom and flash of light seen over parts of Virginia was not a meteor, but actually exploding space junk from the second stage of a Russian Soyuz rocket, launched March 26, falling back to Earth.
(www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,511501,00.html)

2009 May 6, Virginia police found former NASCAR driver Kevin Grubb (31) dead from an apparent self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. Grubb was suspended from NASCAR indefinitely in 2006 because he refused to submit to a random drug test following the Busch Series race at Richmond International Raceway.
(AP, 5/7/09)

2009 May 23, It was reported that millions of bats in at least 7 US states (Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia) have died from white-nose syndrome, a fungal diseases. In 2011 the fungus Geomyces destructans was identified as the cause.
(Econ, 5/23/09, p.36)(SFC, 10/28/11, p.A18)

2009 Jun 19, Federal prosecutors in Virginia indicted Texas financier Allen Stanford (59) and 4 others on fraud and other charges in connection with a multi-billion Ponzi scheme.
(SFC, 6/20/09, p.C2)

2009 Jun 27, In Roanoke, Virginia, William Ronald Carter (56), a retired tire factory worker, shot and killed his wife Bonnie (56) and a son (29) and summoned home another son Timothy (22), who was shot but survived. Carter then set the house on fire and killed himself.
(SFC, 6/30/09, p.A5)

2009 Aug 5, Federal jurors in Alexandria, Va., convicted former Louisiana Rep. William Jefferson on 11 0f 16 counts that included bribery, racketeering and money laundering. The next day jurors said Jefferson must forfeit $470,000 in bribery receipts. On Nov 13 he was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
(SFC, 8/6/09, p.A6)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.A5)(SFC, 11/14/09, p.A7)

2009 Sep 18, In Virginia the bodies of four people were found at a Longwood University professor's home near campus in Farmville, about 50 miles west of Richmond. Richard Alden Samuel McCroskey III (20) was arrested the next day as he tried to catch a flight back to his home in Castro Valley, California. McCroskey had recorded songs that spoke of death, murder and mutilation under the name Syko Sam. His MySpace Web page said he has only been rapping for a few months but has been a fan for years of the horrorcore genre. The victims included his girlfriend, Emma Niederbrock (16), her mother, Prof. Debra Kelley (53), her father, Pastor Mark Niederbrock (50), and Emma’s best friend, Melanie Wells (18). In 2010 McCroskey pleaded guilty to the murders and was sentenced to life in prison.
(AP, 9/20/09)(SFC, 9/22/09, p.A12)(SFC, 9/23/09, p.D1)(SFC, 9/21/10, p.A5)

2009 Oct 17, In Virginia Morgan Harrington (20), a Virginia Tech student, disappeared folowing a Metallica in Charlottesville. A farmer found her remains three months later in a hayfield.
(SFC, 10/1/14, p.A12)

2009 Nov 3, Democrats suffered humiliating gubernatorial losses in traditionally Democratic New Jersey and in Virginia. In New Jersey Chris Christie still defeated Gov. Jon Corzine by 4 points — the largest victory by a New Jersey Republican in nearly a quarter-century. In Virginia Bob McDonnell cruised to an easy victory in the governor’s race, leading a sweep of the state’s three top offices that decisively ended a string of Democratic victories in the state.
(Politico, 11/4/09)

2009 Nov 10, In Virginia sniper John Allen Muhammad (48) refused to utter any last words as he was executed, taking to the grave answers about why and how he plotted the killings of 10 people that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for three weeks in October 2002.
(AP, 11/11/09)

2009 Nov 12, The Atlantic seaboard was drenched in rain from Tropical Storm Ida. 3 deaths were reported in Virginia and one in North Carolina.
(SFC, 11/13/09, p.A8)

2009 Dec 16, It was reported that nearly 40 people have been arrested in Virginia this week on charges of dealing heroin and prescription narcotics in the suburbs of Washington, DC.
(SFC, 12/15/09, p.A9)

2010 Jan 19, In Virginia a gunmen killed 8 people before firing on law enforcement officers and hitting a police helicopter. Suspect Christopher Speight (39), a former security guard, surrendered the next morning in a wooded area of Appomattox County. On Feb 15, 2013, Speight was sentenced to 5 life terms.
(SFC, 1/20/10, p.A4)(SFC, 1/21/10, p.A6)(SFC, 2/16/13, p.A5)

2010 Jan 30, In Las Vegas Caressa Cameron (22) of Virginia became the nation's newest Miss America, emerging from a field of 53 contestants picked for their beauty, compassion and interview savvy. Cameron, the first black Miss America since Ericka Dunlap in 2005, said she wants to get a master's degree and eventually become a news anchor.
(AP, 1/31/10)

2010 Mar 4, In Virginia John Patrick Bedell (36) of Hollister, Calif., was killed in a shootout with Pentagon police. He died from head wounds received when the two injured officers and another officer returned fire. Bedell had driven cross-country and arrived at the Pentagon’s subway entrance armed with two semiautomatic weapons. Bedell apparently left behind Internet postings resentful of the government and airing suspicions about the 9/11 attacks.
(AP, 3/5/10)

2010 Mar 10, Virginia’s general assembly became the first state legislature to ban mandatory health insurance. Idaho followed suit a week later. Some 35 other states planned similar measures.
(Econ, 3/20/10, p.34)

2010 Apr 6, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell proclaimed April to be Confederate History Month with no mention of slavery. The next day he conceded that this was a major omission and amended the document to acknowledge the state’s complicated past.
(SFC, 4/8/10, p.A4)

2010 Apr 8, A federal judge in New Orleans awarded seven Virginia families $2.6 million in damages to pay for the removal of sulfur-emitting drywall made in China that has been linked to corrosion and possible health effects. The decision could affect thousands of other US homeowners whose homes were made with the defective wallboard.
(AP, 4/8/10)

2010 May 3, George Huguely (22), a men's lacrosse player at the University of Virginia, was arrested hours after the body of Yeardley Love (22), a female lacrosse player, was found in her apartment. He has been charged with murder.
(AP, 5/4/10)(SFC, 5/4/10, p.A4)

2010 Jun 25, In Richmond, Va., Quanis Phillips, a co-defendant with Philadelphia Eagles’ QB Michael Vick in a 2007 federal dogfighting charge, died in a shooting. Vick had pleaded guilty to the 2007 charges. Police said Vick has not been ruled out as suspect or person of interest in the shooting which occurred shortly after a birthday party for Vick had ended at a club. An investigation was ongoing.
(AP, 7/01/10)

2010 Jul 28, Aaron Cooper, an inmate at Red Onion State Prison in Pound, Va., was murdered by cellmate Robert Gleason. On Feb 11, 2011, Gleason (40), who already faced the death penalty for the May, 2009, murder of cellmate Harvey Watson Jr. (63), pleaded guilty to Cooper’s murder. Gleason was executed in the electric char on Jan 16, 2013.
(SFC, 2/12/11, p.A6)(SFC, 1/17/13, p.A6)

2010 Aug 20, US regulators shut down 8 more banks including 4 in California, one in Chicago, one in Virginia and two in Florida. This brought the total number of failed US banks to 118 for the year thus far.
(SFC, 8/23/10, p.D2)

2010 Aug 22, In Louisa, Virginia, Charles Steadman (52) shot and killed his son and nephew and wounded 4 others in an apparent property dispute. Steadman then shot at officers arriving on the scene and was killed.
(SFC, 8/24/10, p.A4)

2010 Sep 23, The state of Virginia executed Teresa Lewis (41) by lethal injection. She had plotted the murder of her husband and stepson 8 years ago and hired 2 gunmen, one of whom became her lover, for the murder.
(SFC, 9/24/10, p.A6)

2010 Oct 14, Regulators in New York approved Verizon's request to stop mass-printing residential phone books. There, the company estimates it will save about 3,575 tons of paper per year and conserve the energy associated with printing, binding and distributing the directories. The company's August request with Virginia regulators was estimated to save about 1,640 tons of paper annually.
(AP, 11/11/10)

2010 Oct 22, In Virginia Glenn Shriver (28) of Detroit pleaded guilty to trying to get a job with the Central Intelligence Agency in order to spy for China and to hiding contacts and money he got from Chinese intelligence agents. Shriver acknowledged that he met with Chinese officials about 20 times beginning in 2004 and that he received a total of about $70,000 from Chinese intelligence officers. His plea agreement called for a sentence of 48 months in prison.
(Reuters, 10/22/10)

2010 Oct 27, Farooque Ahmed, a Pakistani-born Virginia man, was arrested and charged with trying to help people posing as Al-Qaida operatives to bomb Washington-area subway stations. The plot was a bombing ruse by the FBI who monitored his activities the whole time. On April 11, 2011, Ahmed pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 23 years in prison.
(SFC, 10/28/10, p.A8)(SFC, 4/12/11, p.A4)

2010 Nov 24, In Virginia 5 Somali men, accused of attacking the USS Nicholas on April 1, were convicted on federal piracy charges. On March 14, 2011, the 5 men were sentenced to life in prison.
(SFC, 11/25/10, p.A19)(SFC, 3/15/11, p.A4)

2010 Nov 29, In Virginia Jama Idle Ibrahim, a Somali citizen, was sentenced to 30 years in prison for his role in an attack on a US Navy ship on April 10.
(SFC, 11/30/10, p.A9)

2010 Dec 6, In Virginia the body of Tina Smith (41) was found slain in her home near Salem. Her daughter Brittany Mae Smith (12) was missing as was the suspected killer, Jeffrey Scott Easley (32). He had been living with the Smiths since meeting Tina online last October. On Dec 9 police in California arrested Easley in San Francisco and rescued the girl.
(SFC, 12/11/10, p.A1)

2010 Dec 10, The US Navy completed its latest test of an electromagnetic rail gun at the naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren, Va. The gun generated a record 33 megajoules of force out of the barrel and sent a 20-pound slug of aluminum at 7 times the speed of sound. The electric gun was able to send a projectile over 100 miles.
(SFC, 12/15/10, p.A17)

2010 Dec 31, In western Virginia a small aircraft collided with a medical helicopter in the air, killing two people on the plane.
(AP, 12/31/10)

2011 Jan 21, Gulet Mohamed (19), a Virginia teenager who claims he was beaten and tortured while stuck in Kuwait for a month after he was apparently placed on the US government's no-fly list, was reunited with his family at a Washington-area airport. In March of 2009, Mohamed traveled to Yemen and Somalia, where he still has family, to learn Arabic. He stayed in those countries for just a few months and settled in Kuwait in August 2009, where he lived with an uncle.
(AP, 1/22/11)

2011 Jan 29, Massey Energy, based in Richmond, Va., agreed to be taken over by Alpha natural Resources for $7.1 billion in cash and stock. Massey was struggling with losses following and explosion that killed 29 workers in West Virginia.
(SSFC, 1/30/11, p.A10)

2011 Feb 24, In Virginia Zachary A. Chesser (21) of Bristow pleaded guilty to charges of providing material support to terrorists and communicating threats. He had threatened the creators of the “South Park" cartoon series for insulting the prophet Muhammad and tried to join a terror group in Somalia. Chesser was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
(SFC, 2/25/11, p.A4)

2011 Mar 2, In Germany a gunman shot dead 2 US airmen at Frankfurt airport. The gunman was identified as Arid Uka (21), a Kosovo national who was working on a short-term contract at the Frankfurt international postal center. The airmen were later identified as Senior Airman Nick Alden (25) of South Carolina and Airman 1st Class Zachary R. Cuddeback (21) of Virginia. On Feb 10, 2012,Uka was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
(AP, 3/2/11)(Reuters, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/10/11)

2011 Mar 13, In Vansant, Virginia, a gunman opened fire on sheriff’s deputies investigating a possible robbery. Two officers were killed and two injured before the gunman was shot dead.
(SFC, 3/14/11, p.A4)

2011 Apr 17, A furious storm system that kicked up tornadoes, flash floods and hail as big as softballs has left at least 45 people dead on a rampage that stretched for days as it barreled from Oklahoma to North Carolina and Virginia. 11 people were confirmed dead in Bertie County, NC, bringing the state's death toll to at least 18 people. Authorities have said 7 died in Arkansas; 7 in Alabama; 2 in Oklahoma; one in Mississippi and at least 5 in Virginia.
(AP, 4/17/11)(AP, 4/18/11)

2011 Apr 19, A Virginia jury convicted Lee Farkas (58), the majority owner of what had been one of the nation's largest mortgage companies, on all 14 counts in a $2.9 billion fraud trial. Prosecutors said Farkas led a fraud scheme of staggering proportions for roughly eight years as chairman of Florida-based Taylor Bean & Whitaker. The fraud not only caused the company's 2009 collapse and put its 2,000 employees out of work, but also contributed to the collapse of Alabama-based Colonial Bank, the sixth-largest bank failure in US history.
(AP, 4/20/11)

2011 Apr 27, Dozens of tornadoes spawned by a powerful storm system wiped out neighborhoods across a wide swath of the South, killing at least 350 people in the deadliest outbreak in nearly 40 years. Alabama had 254 deaths, 34 in Mississippi, 34 in Tennessee, 15 in Georgia, 8 in Arkansas, 5 in Virginia and one in Kentucky.
(AP, 4/28/11)(AP, 4/29/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)

2011 Aug 11, Virginia sued the Bank of Mellon alleging that it defrauded state and local pension funds 73,000 times since 2000.
(SFC, 8/12/11, p.A5)

2011 Aug 23, The most powerful earthquake to strike the East Coast in 67 years shook buildings and rattled nerves from South Carolina to Maine. Frightened office workers spilled into the streets in New York, and parts of the White House, Capitol and Pentagon were evacuated. The magnitude 5.8 earthquake and was centered 40 miles northwest of Richmond, Va. The Washington Monument obelisk closed indefinitely due to earthquake damage.
(AP, 8/23/11)(SFC, 9/27/11, p.A7)

2011 Aug 27, Hurricane Irene knocked out power to nearly 250,000 customers in North Carolina and Virginia and a nuclear power station in the storm's path reduced power but remained undamaged.
(Reuters, 8/27/11)

2011 Aug 28, Seawater surged into the streets of Manhattan as Tropical Storm Irene slammed into New York, downgraded from a hurricane but still unleashing furious wind and rain. The flooding threatened Wall Street and the heart of the global financial network. At least 16 people were reported killed in 6 states: 5 in North Carolina, 4 in Virginia, 3 in New Jersey, 2 in Florida and one each in Maryland and Connecticut.
(AP, 8/28/11)(SFC, 8/29/11, p.A10)

2011 Sep 8, Tropical Storm Lee dumped heavy rain in the Northeast. The Susquehanna River and its tributaries in New York and Pennsylvania swamped thousands of homes. At least 15 deaths were blamed on the storm and its aftermath: 7 in Pennsylvania, 3 in Virginia, one in Maryland and 4 others when it came ashore on the Gulf Coast a week earlier.
(SFC, 9/10/11, p.A6)

2011 Dec 6, US top FAA administrator Randy Babbitt (65) resigned following his weekend arrest in Virginia on charges of drunken driving.
(SFC, 12/7/11, p.A10)

2011 Dec 8, In Virginia Ross Truett Ashley (22) shot and killed police officer Derrick Crouse on Virginia Tech's campus during a routine traffic stop, putting the campus on lockdown for several hours. Ashley, who then took his own life, used a legally purchased handgun in the shooting.
(AP, 12/8/11)(SFC, 12/14/11, p.A8)

2011 Dec 29, Virginia Republican Gov. Robert McDonnell signed off on state rules to regulate abortion clinics like hospitals.
(SFC, 12/30/11, p.A8)

2012 Mar 6, Ten US states voted in the Super Tuesday Republican primaries. Republican presidential frontrunner Mitt Romney edged out conservative rival Rick Santorum in the vital battleground of Ohio and won five of the night's other contests. Romney also notched victories in Alaska, Idaho, Vermont, Virginia and his home-state of Massachusetts, while Santorum won North Dakota, Oklahoma and Tennessee, and Newt Gingrich carried his home state of Georgia.
(SFC, 3/7/12, p.A6)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.18)

2012 Apr 6, A US Navy F/A-18 Hornet jet crashed into the courtyard of a Virginia Beach apartment complex after taking off from US Naval Air Station Oceana. The two pilots ejected safely before impact. There were no deaths in the crash.
(AP, 4/6/12)(SSFC, 4/8/12, p.A13)

2012 Apr, A new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy found that genetic evidence shows that Tennessee families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin. Beginning in the early 1800s, or possibly before, the term Melungeon (meh-LUN'-jun) was applied as a slur to a group of about 40 families along the Tennessee-Virginia border.
(AP, 5/24/12)

2012 May 28, In Virginia 2 small planes collided in midair near Warrenton. 2 people were killed and another injured. Only one plane landed safely.
(SFC, 5/29/12, p.A6)

2012 Jun 30, Millions across the mid-Atlantic region sweltered in the aftermath of violent storms that pummeled the eastern US with high winds and downed trees, killing 24 people and leaving 3 million without power during a heat wave. At least six of the dead were killed in Virginia. 2 young cousins in New Jersey were killed when a tree fell on their tent while camping. 2 were killed in Maryland, one in Ohio, one in Kentucky and one in Washington.
(AP, 6/30/12)(SFC, 7/3/12, p.A8)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.32)

2012 Jul 20, In Virginia Mohamad Soueid (48) was sentenced to 18 months in prison for acting as an unregistered foreign agent of the Syrian government. He had earlier admitted to spying on Syrian dissidents in the US.
(SFC, 7/21/12, p.A5)

2012 Nov 30, US Interior Sec. Ken Salazar said the government plans to sell leases for wind farms off the coasts of Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Virginia.
(SFC, 12/1/12, p.A5)

2012 Dec 1, At a ceremony in Norfolk, Va., the USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was retired after 51 years from active service. This temporarily reduced the number of carriers in the US fleet to 10 until 2015.
(AP, 12/1/12)(SSFC, 12/2/12, p.A12)

2013 May 4, Linwood Lambert Jr. (46) of Richmonmd, Va., died after being tasered multiple times by police in South Boston, Va. In 2015 his family filed a $25 million lawsuit accusing officers of unlawful arrest and excessive use of force.
(http://tinyurl.com/qc2tt6h)(SFC, 11/13/15, p.A14)

2013 Mar 10, Virginia authorities reported a string of arson fires in Accomack county that have torched 64 unoccupied structures since Nov 12, with 7 burned in the past week.
(SSFC, 3/10/13, p.A8)

2013 Mar 21, In northern Virginia a Marine at the Quantico Marine Corps Base shot 2 of his colleagues, a man and a woman, to death and then killed himself. Sgt. Eusebio Lopez (25) gunned down Lance Cpl. Sara Castromata (19) and Cpl. Jacob Wooley (23).
(SFC, 3/23/13, p.A5)(AP, 3/23/13)

2013 Apr 2, Virginia state police arrested Charles R. Smith III, a former volunteer firefighter, and his girlfriend for all but a handful of the 77 arsons set on Virginia's Eastern Shore over the past five months.
(AP, 4/2/13)

2013 Apr 19, David Rubenstein, co-CEO of the Carlyle Group, announced his donation of $10 million to help visitors see the full plantation of Thomas Jefferson’s home at Monticello, Va.
(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.A9)

2013 May 6, US Air Force Lt. Col. Jeffrey Krusinsky (41), head of Air Force sexual assault prevention, was arrested on charges of groping a woman a day earlier in a suburban Virginia parking lot.
(SFC, 5/8/13, p.A8)

2013 May 17, Two FBI agents were killed in a training accident off the coast of Virginia Beach, Va.
(SFC, 5/20/13, p.A4)

2013 May 29, It was reported that Wan Long, chairman of China’s Shuanghui International has made a 4.7 billion bid for Virginia-based meatpacker Smithfield Foods. The purchase was endorsed by Smithfield's board but still require approval from shareholders and US regulators.
(AP, 5/31/13)(http://tinyurl.com/k4sdobs)(Econ, 6/8/13, p.38)

2013 Jun 20, The corporate office of 7-Eleven told its 5,600 franchise owners of the chain's convenience stores that it was requiring an internal review of personnel files after federal authorities seized 14 stores in New York and Virginia this week that employed undocumented workers in a "modern-day plantation system."
(abcNEWS, 6/20/13)

2013 Aug 29, In Virginia police officer Adam Torres fatally shot John Geer (46) of Springfield during a standoff as Geer had his hands up. Torres (33) was indicted in 2015 and pleaded guilty to involuntary manslaughter on April 18, 2016.
(www.policestateusa.com/2013/john-geer-shot-by-police/)(SFC, 4/19/16, p.A4)

2013 Sep 7, NASA launched the unmanned LADEE spacecraft from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. It aimed to study the Moon's atmosphere was the US space agency's third lunar probe in five years.
(AP, 9/7/13)(SSFC, 9/8/13, p.A8)

2013 Jul 8, In Virginia three Somalis were convicted of piracy, kidnapping and murder in the 2011 shooting deaths of four Americans sailing in the Indian Ocean off of Oman and could face the death penalty.
(Reuters, 7/9/13)

2013 Sep 27, In Virginia George Washington’s Mount Vernon estate formally opened the new $47 million Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington.
(SFC, 9/28/13, p.A5)

2013 Oct 10, In southeastern Virginia 4 people from Florida were killed when their small plane crashed in the Great Dismal Swamp.
(SSFC, 10/13/13, p.A7)

2013 Nov 5, Virginia held elections for governor. Democrat Terry McAuliffe won in the otherwise strongly Republican state.
(SFC, 11/5/13, p.A4)(AFP, 11/6/13)

2013 Nov 19, Virginia state Sen. Creigh Deeds (55) suffered stab wounds at his home inflicted by his son, Gus Deeds (24), who was found dead from apparently a self-inflicted gunshot wound.
(SFC, 11/20/13, p.A8)
2013 Nov 19, Orbital Sciences launched a rocket from the Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia carrying 29 small satellites and launched them into a low-Earth orbit. Thirty hours later Kosmotros, a Russian-joint venture, carried 32 satellites into a similar orbit.
(Econ, 6/7/14, TQ p.18)

2013 Dec 30, The US FAA selected six states (Alaska, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Texas and Virginia) to test how drones can be more widely used in US airspace. 24 states had competed for selection.
(SFC, 12/31/13, p.A6)

2014 Jan 8, A US navy helicopter went down in the Atlantic off of Virginia killing 2 crew members and wounding two others. A 5th remained missing.
(SFC, 1/9/14, p.A4)

2014 Jan 21, Former Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell and his wife were indicted on 14 counts of federal corruption charges. They were charged with accepting over $165,000 in gifts and loans from the CEO of a dietary supplements company.
(SFC, 1/22/14, p.A5)(SFC, 7/29/14, p.A5)

2014 Jan 23, Virginia's attorney general has concluded that the state's ban on gay marriage is unconstitutional. His office said he will no longer defend it in federal lawsuits challenging it.
(AP, 1/23/14)

2014 Feb 13, A US federal judge found Virginia’s ban on same sex marriage unconstitutional.
(SFC, 2/14/14, p.A10)

2014 Mar 24, In Virginia US Navy security forces at the Norfolk Naval Station killed civilian truck driver Jeffrey Tyrone Savage after he shot and killed Petty Officer 2nd class Mark Mayo aboard the USS Mahan.
(SFC, 3/28/14, p.A6)

2014 May 9, In Virginia a hot air balloon carrying three people crashed and burned after it hit a power line and burst into flames.
(SSFC, 5/11/14, p.A16)

2014 Jul 28, A US federal appeals court struck down Virginia’s same-sex marriage ban.
(SFC, 7/29/14, p.A5)

2014 Aug 20, The US Supreme Court agreed to delay an appeals court ruling striking down Virginia’s gay marriage ban.
(SFC, 8/21/14, p.A4)

2014 Aug 25, In Virginia a sergeant at Fort Lee fatally shot herself while barricaded in the building that houses the Army’s Combined Arms Support Command.
(SFC, 8/26/14, p.A4)

2014 Aug 27, An F-15 fighter jet enroute to Louisiana crashed in a mountainous area western Virginia. Pilot Lt. Col. Morris Fontenot Jr. was killed.
(SFC, 8/28/14, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/kgw6bvm)

2014 Sep 4, Former Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell and his wife were convicted of using his office to promote a dietary supplement in exchange for gifts in a public corruption case.
(SFC, 9/5/14, p.A7)

2014 Sep 13, Univ. of Virginia student Hannah Graham (18) went missing. Police later identified Jesse Leroy Matthew Jr. (32) as a suspect. He was returned to Virginia on Sep 27 after being found in Texas. Matthew was also linked to the 2009 murder of Virginia Tech student Morgan Harrington (20). Graham’s body was found on Oct 18. On March 2, 2016, Matthew pleaded guilty to both murders and was sentenced to 4 consecutive life sentences.
(SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/mk4k2ac)(SSFC, 9/28/14, p.A10)(SFC, 10/1/14, p.A12)(SSFC, 10/19/14, p.A8)(SFC, 3/3/16, p.A10)

2014 Oct 6, The US Supreme Court denied review of cases in five states that had limited marriage to opposite sex couples. This in effect granted equal marriage rights to gays and lesbians in Indiana, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin.
(SFC, 10/7/14, p.A1)

2014 Oct 28, An unmanned US supply rocket exploded shortly after lifting off from a commercial launch pad in Virginia, the first disaster since NASA turned to private operators to run cargo to the Int’l. Space Station. The 14-story Antares rocket was built and launched by Orbital Sciences Corp.
(Reuters, 10/29/14)

2014 Nov, Rolling Stone magazine published a distressing story recounting an alleged brutal gang rape of a woman named Jackie in the Alpha Chapter of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity house at the University of Virginia. In 2017 the fraternity settled a suit against Rolling Stone for $1.65 million.
(Reuters, 12/5/14)(AFP, 4/6/15)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.A5)

2014 Dec 25, Virginia’s Gov. Terry McAuliffe fell from a horse and broke seven ribs while visiting his daughter in Tanzania.
(SFC, 1/20/15, p.A6)

2015 Jan 6, Former Virginia Governor Robert McDonnell was sentenced to two years in federal prison and two years of probation for taking a bribe from a businessman seeking to promote a dietary supplement.
(Reuters, 1/7/15)

2015 Feb 18, In Virginia two Colombians were sentenced to prison for the 2013 kidnapping and murder of US Drug Enforcement Administration Special Agent James Watson in Bogota. Edwin Gerardo Figueroa Sepulveda (39) and Wilson Daniel Peralta-Bocachica (31) were among seven Colombians in a robbery-and-kidnapping ring extradited to the United States in July 2014 to face charges stemming from Watson's killing.
(Reuters, 2/19/15)

2015 Feb 20, In Virginia former state first lady Maureen McDonnell was sentenced to one year and one day in prison for her role in a bribery scheme that destroyed her usband’s political career.
(SFC, 2/21/15, p.A7)

2015 Apr 5, Rolling Stone magazine withdrew and apologized for a discredited story last November about a gang rape on a US college campus in Virginia, publishing a review of the debacle that found "avoidable" failures in basic journalism practices.
(AP, 4/6/15)

2015 Apr 22, In Virginia Portsmouth police Officer Stephen Rankin shot and killed William Chapman (18) outside a Wal-Mart store following a shoplifting incident. Witnesses said chapman had his hands up. On August 4, 2016, Rankin (36) was convicted of voluntary manslaughter.
(http://tinyurl.com/hl8k98x)(SFC, 8/5/16, p.A6)

2015 May 1, Philanthropist David Rubenstein, co-founder of the private equity Carlyle Group, announced a $10 million donation for Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello plantation.
(SSFC, 5/3/15, p.A8)

2015 Jun 11, Virginia resident Ali Shukri Amin (17), a tech-savvy US teen, pleaded guilty to using social media to aid the Islamic State group, a crime punishable by up to 15 years in prison.
(AFP, 6/11/15)

2015 Jun 20, Virginia’s attorney general announced a settlement to keep open Sweet Briar College using $12 million raised by alumnae. The women’s college was founded in 1901 as the Sweet Briar Institute.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_Briar_College)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A7)

2015 Jul 14, In western Virginia two trains collided, leaving two crewmembers hurt and more than 20,000 gallons of lubricant oil seeping onto the ground near Dublin.
(CSM, 7/15/15)

2015 Aug 3, Virginia-based Alpha Natural, one of America’s largest coal firms, filed for bankruptcy.
(Econ, 8/8/15, p.22)

2015 Aug 7, In Virginia a federal jury convicted Irek Hamidullin (55), a former Russian military tank commander, of planning and leading a Taliban attack on US forces in Afghanistan. He allegedly led three groups of insurgents in a 2009 attack on Afghan border police in Khost province.
(AP, 8/7/15)

2015 Aug 6, A US District Judge dissolved an injunction that allowed the Confederate battle flag to appear on Virginia license plates. Virginia’s DMV planned to recall and replace existing plates.
(SFC, 8/8/15, p.A4)

2015 Aug 26, In Virginia WDBJ reporter Alison Parker (24) and cameraman Adam Ward (27) were shot dead while conducting an on-air interview in Moneta, near Roanoke. Television footage captured a fuzzy image of the gunman. Vester Lee Flanagan II died soon after of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. He had been terminated from WDBJ in 2013.
(AFP, 8/26/15)(SFC, 8/27/15, p.A1)

2015 Aug 28, Virginia teenager Ali Shukri Amin (17) was sentenced to more than 11 years in prison for helping another teen travel to Syria to join the Islamic State and providing other aid to the militant group.
(AP, 8/28/15)

2015 Sep 24, In Virginia David W. Landersman, a senior navy intelligence officer, was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of theft and conspiracy as part of a long-running investigation into a secretive military operation. His brother, Mark S. Landersman, was convicted in October, 2014, on conspiracy charges for building untraceable silencers and shipping them across state lines without a proper firearms license.
(SSFC, 10/4/15, p.C3)

2015 Oct 1, In Virginia Alfredo Prieto (49), a twice-condemned serial killer, was executed by lethal injection with drugs received from Texas.
(SFC, 10/2/15, p.A8)

2016 Feb 24, Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes lashed the US Southeast and mid-Atlantic region, killing at least 4 people in Virginia and one in South Carolina.
(Reuters, 2/25/16)

2016 Feb 27, In Virginia Officer Ashley Guindon (28) was shot to death while answering a domestic violence call in Woodbridge. Army staff sergeant Ronald Williams Hamilton (32) was arrested for shooting Guindon and fatally shooting his wife Crystal Hamilton (29).
(SFC, 1/29/16, p.A4)





2016 Mar 31, In Virginia a gunman fatally shot state Trooper Chad Dermeyer (37) at a bus terminal in Richmond, before he was shot dead by two other troopers.
(SFC, 4/1/16, p.A6)

2016 Apr 1, In Virginia Romanian hacker Marcel Lazar, aka Guccifer, made an initial court appearance on charges of wire fraud, cyberstalking and alleged hacks into accounts of the Bush family.
(SSFC, 4/3/16, p.A6)

2016 May 1, Virginia officials said a fire that has burned over ten thousand acres in Shenandoah National Park has been fully contained.
(SFC, 5/2/16, p.A6)

2016 Jun 18, In Virginia 6 people were killed early today when a van carrying 16 people overturned multiple times on I-95 in Caroline County.
(SSFC, 6/19/16, p.A7)

2016 Jun 23, Ralph Stanley (b.1927), a patriarch of bluegrass music, died in Matoaca, Virginia. He and his brother had formed the Stanley Brothers and their Clinch Mountain Boys in 1946.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Stanley)(SFC, 6/23/16, p.A8)

2016 Jun 27, The US Supreme Court voted unanimously to overturn the bribery conviction of former Virginia Gov. Bob McDonald, sending the case back to lower courts to decide whether prosecutors have enough evidence to try McDonald again. The court voted to narrow the scope of a law that bars public officials from taking gifts in exchange for official action.
(SFC, 6/28/16, p.A4)

2016 Aug 12, In Virginia Lisa Borinstein (52) of Indiana, two of her four children and a foreign exchange student were among six people killed in a small plane crash.
(AP, 8/13/16)

2016 Nov 8, Rolling Stone, its publisher, and reporter Sabrina Rubin Erdely were ordered to pay $3 million to University of Virginia administrator Nicole Eramo for her portrayal in the debunked cover story "A Rape on Campus" from 2014.
(CSM, 11/8/16)

2017 Jan 18, Virginia executed Ricky Gray (39) for the 2006 murders of a couple and their two daughters.
(SFC, 1/19/17, p.A6)

2017 Feb 10, In Virginia Mohamed Jalloh (27) was sentenced to 11 years in prison for attempting to provide material support to a terrorist group. He had admitted traveling to Africa to join the Islamic State group and had pleaded guilty last October.
(SFC, 2/11/17, p.A6)

2017 Feb 23, It was reported that agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) in southern Virginia had used shadowy cigarette sales to funnel millions of dollars into a secret bank account to finance undercover investigations and pay informants in an effort to catch cigarette smugglers.
(SFC, 2/23/17, p.A12)

2017 Mar 24, A federal judge in Virginia rejected a petition to block the Trump administration’s proposed travel ban.
(SFC, 3/25/17, p.A6)

2017 May 4, US Navy Lt. Cmdr. Edward Lin agreed to plead guilty to mishandling classified information, communicating national defense information, failing to report foreign contacts and lying about his whereabouts while on leave during his court martial in Norfolk, Va.
(SFC, 5/5/17, p.A6)

2017 May 25, In Virginia the Fourth US Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a lower court ruling that blocks the Republican administration from temporarily suspending new visas for six Muslim majority countries.
(SFC, 5/26/17, p.A5)

2017 May 26, A US federal judge tossed out two life sentences for DC sniper lee Boyd Malvo and ordered Virginia courts to hold new sentencing hearings. Malvo was 17 when he was arrested in 2002 for a series of shootings that killed 10 people.
(SFC, 5/27/17, p.A6)
2017 May 26, In Virginia Robert Porter, an ex-National Guard colonel, was sentenced to a year and a half in prison for bribery. For six years he was involved in taking and facilitating bribes for recruiting and marketing contracts.
(SSFC, 5/28/17, p.A8)
2017 May 26, In Virginia Travis Ball (27) fatally shot Special Agent Michael Walter in a public housing project in Richmond. Walter died the next day and Ball was arrested following an overnight manhunt.
(SSFC, 5/28/17, p.A8)

2017 Jun 14, In Alexandria, Virginia, several people, including Republican Congressman Steve Scalise, were wounded in a Washington suburb early today when a gunman opened fire as they practiced for an annual baseball game between lawmakers. The gunman was killed and later identified as James T. Hodgkinson (66) of Belleville, Illinois.
(AFP, 6/14/17)(AFP, 6/15/17)

2017 Jul 6, Virginia executed William Morva (35). He had killed a security guard and sheriff’s deputy after escaping from custody in 2006.
(SFC, 7/7/17, p.A4)

2017 Jul 7, In Virginia Kevin Mallory (60), a former covert CIA case officer, was ordered held without bond after being caught earlier this year with $16,500 in undeclared cash on a flight from Shanghai. He was charged with violating the Espionage Act.
(SFC, 7/10/17, p.A4)

2017 Jul 22, Pres. Donald Trump helped commission the $12.9 billion Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier in Norfolk, Va.
(SSFC, 7/23/17, p.A7)

2017 Jul 29, In Virginia Kariem Ali Muhammad Moore (43) was arrested during a welfare check. Moore was accused of holding a woman and her two children captive for at least two years.
(SFC, 8/4/17, p.A4)

2017 Aug 12, In Virginia a car plowed into a crowd protesting a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville killing Heather Heyer (32) and injuring a dozen others. The driver was identified as James Alex Fields Jr. (20) of Ohio. The US Dept. of Justice opened a federal civil rights investigation into the attack. A state police helicopter assisting in public safety crashed in a wooded area killing Lt. H. Jay Cullen (48) and Trooper Berke M.M. Bates.
(SSFC, 8/13/17, p.A1,12)(SFC, 8/23/17, p.A5)

2017 Aug 22, The City Council of Charlottesville, Va., decided to shroud the statues of Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson in black following the chaos at the white nationalist rally last week.
(SFC, 8/23/17, p.A5)

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