Timeline Architects and Architecture

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221BC-220AD        A section of the Great Wall was built during the Qin (221-206 BC) and Han (206 BC to 220 AD) dynasties in northeastern Jilin province. In 2009 the Xinhua news agency reported the discovery of this section, 11km (6.7 miles) further east than what was previously thought to be the wall's terminus.
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

40-60CE    The Pont du Gard was built to carry an aqueduct serving Nimes, France. The 160-foot high structure is 900 feet long with 3 tiers of stone arches.
    (www.vers-pont-du-gard.fr/anglais/tpatrimoine11.php)

1149        In Jerusalem the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, rebuilt by the Crusaders, was consecrated.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.28)

1173        The first stone of the Tower of Pisa was laid. It began tilting in 1174 and became known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Work halted for nearly a century as Pisa warred with Florence.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1180        Aug 11, Guillaume de Sens, French master builder (Canterbury), died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1220        Construction began on the English Cathedral of Salisbury. It was inaugurated in 1258.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)

1278        Work resumed on the Leaning Tower of Pisa, whose tilt had shifted from north to south. By 1995 it was 5.5 degrees off plumb.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1580        Aug 19, Andrea Palladio (b.1508), Renaissance architect, writer (Il Redentore, Venice), died. He designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vincenza just before his death. It was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio authored "The Four Books on Architecture." In 2002 Witold Rybczynski authored "The Perfect House," on the villas of Palladio.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1600-1750    The Baroque Era in music, as practiced by its greatest figures, has pronounced mannerist qualities: mysticism, exuberance, complexity, decoration, allegory, distortion, the exploitation of the supernatural or grandiose, all commingled. The baroque saw the rise of four-part harmony and the figured bass, in which numerals indicated the harmonies to be used. In 1968 Claude Palisca authored "Baroque Music." The Baroque style (1620-1680) extended to art, architecture and theater, represented by a spirit of opulence, drama and sensuality.
    (LGC-HCS, p.24-25)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.86)

1632        Oct 20, Sir Christopher Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)

1635        Sep 6, Adrian A. Metius, mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1657        Pope Alexander VII entrusted Italian Baroque master Gian Lorenzo Bernini with building the colonnade surrounding St. Peter’s Square. A restoration project was lauched in 2009. In 2012 the Vatican sought funds directly from pilgrims, stamp collectors and tourists to pay for the ambitious restoration.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

1660        Aug 21, Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote 1st book on bridge building, was born in Nimes, France.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1711        Dec 25, London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, was declared officially complete by Parliament. In fact construction was to continue for several years after that, with the statues on the roof only being added in the 1720s. In 2008 Leo Hollis authored “The Phoenix: St Paul’s Cathedral and the Men Who Made Modern London."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1748        Apr 12, William Kent (b.c1685), English sculptor and architect (Kensington Palace), died. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kent)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.83)

1753        Aug 19, [Johann] Balthasar Neumann (66), German architect, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1763        Aug 8, Charles Bulfinch, 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1822        Apr 26, Frederick Olmstead, landscape architect, was born in Connecticut. His work included Yosemite Nat’l. Park, Central Park in New York City (1858), and other city parks in Boston, Ma., Hartford, Ct., and Louisville, Ky.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.5)(SFC, 4/5/04, p.B5)

1836        Augustus Pugin (1812-1852), English Gothic architect and designer, authored “Contrasts," the first ever architectural manifesto.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)

1837        In London construction began on the new Palace of Westminster. Architect Charles Barry and his assistant A.W.N. Pugin had won the open competition for the design.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)

1843        Aug 15, The Tivoli Gardens opened in Copenhagen.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T8)(MC, 8/15/02)

1846        Sep 4, Daniel Burnham, US architect, city planner and builder of skyscrapers, was born.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(MC, 9/4/01)

1851        May 1, The Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, opened in London’s Hyde Park. Some 6 million people came to see the new glass and iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton (1823-1865). Paxton used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

1852        Sep 14, Augustus Pugin (b.1812), English Gothic architect and designer, died. He had just this year helped oversee the completion of the new Palace of Westminster and sketched a design for the clock tower shortly before his death. In 2007 Rosemary Hill authored “God’s Architect: Pugin and the Building of Romantic Britain.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)

1853        Sarah Losh (b.1785), English architect, died. In 2012 Jenny Uglow authored “The Pinecone: The Story of Sarah Losh, Forgotten Romantic Heroine – Antiquarian, Architect and Visionary."
    (www.stmaryswreay.org/sara_losh.html)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.96)

1862        Feb 7, Bernard Maybeck (d.1957), architect, was born in NYC. He designed the Palace of Fine Arts in SF and the First Church of Christ Scientist in Berkeley.
    (SFEM,12/797, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Maybeck)

1868        Aug 11, Thaddeus Stevens (76), architect of Radical Reconstruction, died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1877        The building of the American Museum of Natural History, designed by Calvert Vaux, was erected.
    (NH, 6/96, p.43)

1877        Europe's 2nd oldest shopping center, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, opened in Milan. It was designed by Giuseppe Mengoni, who died the night before the grand opening. Mengoni used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T14.15)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

1880        Aug 14, Construction of Cologne Cathedral, begun in 1248, was completed 633 years after it was begun.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1883        Sep 11, James Goold Cutler, architect, patented the postal mail chute. The first one was installed in Rochester N.Y. He later became the mayor of Rochester.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A1)(MC, 9/11/01)

1887        In Mumbai, India, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (aka Victoria Terminus) was completed in Gothic Revival style, designed by British architect F.W. Stevens.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.N4)

1888        In San Francisco a 2-story Victorian home at 50 Liberty St., designed by Absalom J. Barnett, was completed.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.C2)

1893        The Chicago Stock Exchange, designed by Louis Sullivan, was completed. It was demolished in 1972.
    (WSJ, 10/8/03, p.D6)

1897        Sep, In San Francisco the cornerstone of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church was laid. It was built in the Lombardi style on Fillmore Street. In 1910 three altars of Carrera marble, designed by Attilio Moretti, were installed. In 2004 plans were made to close it due to $8 million in costs for repairs from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. In 2014 it opened up for disco roller skating.
    (SFC, 9/25/04, p.B1)(SFC, 5/13/05, p.F5)(SFC, 4/4/14, p.A1)

1898        Henry Doelger (d.1978), SF and Daly City home builder, was born in SF.
    (SFC, 10/15/02, p.A20)

1898        The First Unitarian Church at 2401 Bancroft Way was built. It wa designed by Arts and Crafts architect A.C. Schweinfurth.
    (SFC, 1/29/03, p.F7)

1900        In Philadelphia, Pa., the 8-million, 110-room Lynnewood Hall, home to the uber-wealthy Widener family, was completed. It came to be called "the last of the American Versailles." French landscape architect Jacques Greber designed the formal French gardens, which were graced by his brother Henri-Louis Greber's fountain of bronze and marble statuary. P.A.B. Widener's son, Joseph, died there in 1943 and the younger generation deemed the property too large to maintain. Much of the acreage was sold to developers and the opulent furnishings were auctioned. In 1952, the Rev. Carl McIntire of Collingswood, N.J., a controversial fundamentalist preacher, bought the property for $190,000 and established a Christian seminary. In 1993 New York physician Richard Sei-Oung Yoon, a former student of McIntire and one-time chancellor of the cash-strapped seminary, bought its mortgage for $1.6 million with plans of establishing his own church there.
    (AP, 7/26/10)

1901        Louis Kahn (d.1974), architect, was born in Estonia. His designs included the capital building of Bangladesh, completed in 1983.
    (PBS, Internet)(SFC, 2/6/04, p.D5)

1902        In SF the 12-story building at One Kearny was built in a French Renaissance style. It was designed by William Curlett. In 1964 an addition, designed by Charles Moore, included new circulation systems and bathrooms. In 2009 a 10-story addition was completed on its other side.
    (SFC, 11/10/09, p.E1)

1905        The SF Jewish Congregation Sherith Israel completed a new Beaux Arts structure, designed by Albert Pissis (1852-1914) at California and Webster streets. Emile Pissis (1854-1934) designed many of its stained-glass windows. Frescoes in the dome were done by Attilion Moretti (1852-1915). The structure survived the 1906 earthquake.
    (SFC, 3/12/05, p.E1)

1906        Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Westcott House in Springfield, Ohio. In 2000 the non-profit Westcott House Foundation purchased the house for $300,000 and then spent 5 years and $5.8 million in renovations.
    (WSJ, 8/16/07, p.D7)

1907        In SF the building at 261 Columbus, designed by Oliver Everett, was completed. It later became the home of City Lights Bookstore.
    (SSFC, 5/31/09, p.B2)

1908        Chicago’s Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave., was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. It was completed in 1910.
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.W2)(www.wrightplus.org/robiehouse/robiehouse.html)

1909        In San Francisco a 6-story department store, designed by George A. Applegarth, was built at 1019 Market St. The Greek revival structure was framed by Corinthian columns.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.C2)

1911        In SF the First St. John’s United Methodist Church, designed by George Washington Kramer, was constructed at Larkin and Clay. It went empty in 2005 as the church agreed to sell the land to Pacific Polk Properties to build a 27-unit condominium. It failed to attain status as a city landmark and was slated for demolition in 2009.
    (SFC, 5/27/09, p.B1)

1912        In San Francisco the Sharon Building was built by the descendants of William Sharon (1821-1885), a US senator from Nevada, who made his fortune in silver. It was designed by NYC architect George Kelham.
    (SFC, 2/23/10, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Sharon)

1913        Feb 2, The new Grand Central Terminal in NYC opened. It first opened in 1871 and was rebuilt by Cornelius Vanderbilt at 42nd and Park Ave. It was designed by the architectural firms of Reed and Stem and Warren and Wetmore, and was extensively remodeled in 1998.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Central_Terminal)(WSJ, 12/9/04, p.D10)(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.L4)

1913        In San Francisco the Hotel Senate, aka Crescent Manor, opened at 467 Turk Street. It was designed by architect Charles J. Rousseau.
    (SFC, 12/13/10, p.D1)
1913        The New York Times building was constructed. [see 1904]
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.22)
1913        The 60-story, 792-foot Woolworth Building by architect Cass Gilbert was completed at 233 Broadway and became the tallest building in the world. The Woolworth Building in New York reigned as the world's tallest building from its opening until the Chrysler Building was completed in 1930. It was first conceived in 1910 with a simple drawing by architect Cass Gilbert. Commissioned by retail giant Frank Winfield Woolworth as the headquarters of his "five and ten cent" store chain, the Woolworth Building was the first to utilize many key developments in skyscraper technology. The building was supported by a foundation of concrete piers sunk below street level to bedrock. Men worked in caissons, or chambers kept dry with high-pressure air, to sink the foundation below the water line. Above ground, the building's steel framework rose 792 feet--very tall for its day--and its wind bracing was highly developed. High-speed express and local elevators were also used in this building, which instantly became a symbol of the vitality of New York. Gilbert dressed it in Gothic raiment.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)(HNPD, 2/27/99)(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.D7)
1913        The Bain Morgan bath house in Montreal was constructed for C$300,000.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.64)

1913-1928    Julia Morgan, architect, designed 16 buildings for the YWCA conference center in Monterey, Ca., known as Asilomar.
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.C5)

1914        Aug 15, Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the mistress of Frank Lloyd Wright, was axed to death along with her 2 children and 4 others by a crazed servant at Wright’s rural Taliesin home. Wright restored the house, which was set aflame in the rampage. The house was ravaged by fire again in 1925 and again restored by Wright.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.48)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/4w943ss)

1915        The 38-story Equitable Building, located at 120 Broadway in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, was completed. It was designed by Ernest R. Graham.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equitable_Building_%28Manhattan%29)

1916        Oct 10, Antonio Sant’Elia (b.1888), Italian architect,  was killed during the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo. He was a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)

1917        Apr 26, Ieoh Ming Pei (IM Pei), architect (1961 Brunner Prize), was born in Canton, China. He designed the East Wing of the US National Gallery of Art.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A18)(www.archpedia.com/Architects/IM-Pei.html)

1917        Willis Polk designed the SF Hallidie Building. It was completed at 130 Sutter St. in 1918 and was the first building in America to feature glass curtain walls.
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.42)(SFC, 11/30/10, p.C1)

1919        Walter Gropius co-founded the Bauhaus in Germany. Two existing schools in Weimar were combined into a single institution. The new school, "the house of building," also combined two important trends in art education: artistic training and arts and crafts. Henry van de Velde was one of the founders. Gropius served as the founding director until 1927.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)(SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)

1923        Le Corbusier (1887-1965), Swiss-French architect and writer, authored “Vers une architecture" (Towards a New Architecture) (1923).
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lecorbu.htm)

1924        Sep 10, Willis Polk (b.1867), San Francisco architect, died. He had designed the Filoli estate on the Peninsula and the glass-fronted Hallidie Building on Sutter St.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willis_Polk)

1924        In San Francisco the Park Lane Apartments, designed by architect Edward E. Young, were built at 1100 Sacramento St. Three stories were added in 1929 making it 11 stories.
    (SSFC, 9/1/13, p.C2)

1925        Jun 25, Robert Venturi, architect (Levittown NY, Las Vegas), was born in Phila.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1925        Chicago's Soldier Field, designed by Holabird & Root, was dedicated. It was built largely for track and field and had over 100,000 seats. In 2003 a new football stadium was completed within the colonnades of the original memorial.
    (WSJ, 10/8/03, p.D6)

1926        In SF the 25-story Hunter-Dulin building was built at 111 Sutter St. It was designed by NY architects Schultze and Weaver. It was built on the old site of the Lick Hotel and is the only Chateauesque/Romanesque design in the city. Fiction detective Sam Spade had his office on the 6th floor.
    (SSFM, 10/12/02, p.13)(SSFC, 7/10/11, p.D2)(http://tinyurl.com/68rn88y)
1926        In SF the 13-story Castle Apartments at 823-829 Geary St., designed by C.O. Clausen, were built.
    {SF, Architect, USA}
    (SSFC, 8/28/11, p.C2)

1927        In Germany Hannes Meyer succeeded Walter Gropius as director of the Bauhaus and continued to 1930.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)

1929        In San Francisco the 12-story Gaylord Apartment building at 620 Jones St. was completed. It was designed by H.C. Baumann.
    (SFC, 7/28/12, p.C4)
1929        Joseph A. Leonard (b.1850), California architect, died. He designed homes in every style of the day. He created the Leonardville neighborhood in Alameda (1980-90s) and a residence park in the Ingleside Terraces of SF (1910s).
    (SFC, 4/10/04, p.F1)

1930        In San Francisco the 3-story Roosevelt Middle School, designed by Miller & Pflueger in the Dutch Expressionist style, was built at  460 Arguello.
    (SSFC, 5/10/09, p.B2)
1930        In San Francisco a 28-story tower, designed by Miller and Pflueger and Lewis Hobart, was built at 100 McAllister St. It opened as a hotel atop a church. The federal government used it for offices during WWII. As of 2009 it contained apartments for UC Hastings Law College.
    (SSFC, 6/21/09, p.B2)
1930        In San Francisco the 6-story building at 130 Montgomery St. was completed. The Art Moderne style was by architects O’Brien Bros. and Wilbur Peugh.
    (SSFC, 10/14/12, p.C4)

1930        In Germany Mies van der Rohe succeeded Hannes Meyer as director of the Bauhaus and continued to 1933 when the Nazis shut it down.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.104)

1931         In San Francisco Seals Stadium at 16th and Bryant streets, a $1.5 million single-deck cement structure, was designed by H.J. Brunnier. The baseball stadium had a public address system and lights for night games. It was also home to the Mission Reds until 1938. Seals Stadium was demolished in 1959
    (SFEC,12/797, Z1 p.4)(SSFC, 10/4/09, p.50)

1932        In San Francisco the 3-story, Art Deco style, telephone exchange building at 1930 Steiner, designed by E.V. Colby, was completed.
    (SSFC, 8/11/13, p.C2)

1934        Aug 12, Hendrik Petrus Berlage (b.1856), the father of  modern Dutch architecture, died at The Hague.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hendrik_Petrus_Berlage)(Econ, 9/27/14, IL p.11)

1934        Oct 12, In San Francisco the new Coit Tower in Pioneer Park on Telegraph Hill opened to the public. At least 8 frescoes, painted by artists employed by the WPA, were washed out and eliminated because they were “architecturally inharmonious."
    (SSFC, 10/4/09, p.50)

1940        Jul 1, The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington state opened to the public. The initial design by Clark Eldridge had been redesigned by NYC consultant Leo Moisseiff, who replaced a 25-foot deep stiffening truss with an 8-foot truss to reduce costs.
    (ON, 6/09, p.8)

1940        Nov 7, The middle section of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington state, nicknamed "Galloping Gertie," collapsed during a windstorm. In 1950 a new fortified bridge was built on the original piers.
    (AP, 11/7/08)(ON, 6/09, p.9)

1940        In San Francisco a 7-story residential, Art Moderne tower was built at 290 Lombard St. It was designed by H.C. Baumann. Dismayed neighbors called for a 40-foot limit on future hillside structures.
    (SSFC, 12/15/13, p.C6)

1942        Feb 17, Sidney Newsom (b.1877), California architect, died. He and his brother Noble created homes that recalled Spanish haciendas, English cottages, French chateaus and American colonial homesteads.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.F1)(https://digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/architects/1794/)

1942        Nikolaus Pevsner (1902-1983), German-born British architectural researcher, authored “An Outline of European Architecture." 
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Pevsner)

1945        Noble Newsome (b.1887), California architect, died. He and his brother Sidney created homes that recalled Spanish haciendas, English cottages, French chateaus and American colonial homesteads.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.F1)

1946        May 12, Daniel Libeskind, architect, was born in Poland. His family emigrated to Israel and then to the US where he grew up.
    (SFC, 5/5/05, p.E6)

1949        In SF the V.C. Morris Gift Shop at 140 Maiden Lane was converted to the 2-story Circle Gallery Building by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1979 it became the Xanadu Gallery.
    (SSFC, 5/17/09, p.B2)

1950        Oct 14, In Washington state westbound traffic opened on the new fortified bridge over the Tacoma Narrows. The new design was approved after a model passed wind tunnel tests designed by engineering Prof. Frederick Burt Farquharson.
    (ON, 6/09, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge)

1951        Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed the modernist Farnsworth House in Plano, Ill. The one-story space was walled on all sides by glass and is considered one of the greatest private houses of the 20th century. In 2003 it was purchased by preservationists at auction for $7.5 million.
    (WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.A2)

1953        Sep 15, Eric Mendelsohn (b.1887), German-born Jewish expressionist architect, died. From 1941 he lived in the US and established himself in San Francisco. The Russell at 3778 Washington St. in SF is the only house he designed in SF.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, p.B2)

1953        Mario Gaidano (1914-2003) designed the Marin Joe's restaurant in Marin, Ca.
    (SFC, 9/20/03, p.A20)

1953        Durell Stone received a commission to design the American Embassy in New Delhi. From this time on his work incorporated the tropes of Mughal architecture.
    (WSJ, 12/2/03, p.A1)

1955        The new American Embassy in Baghdad was designed by architect Jose Luis Sert.
    (WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)

1957        Bernard Maybeck (.b1862), architect, died. Most of his Arts and Crafts style homes were done in Berkeley, Ca., where he lived.
    (SFC, 1/29/03, p.F7)

1958        The Lafayette Pavilion Apartments, a part of the Lafayette Park development in Detroit, Mich., was completed. The 78-acre urban renewal project, planned by Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Hilberseimer and Alfred Caldwell, was originally called the Gratiot Park Development. It was built over the old neighborhood called Black Bottom. Chicago developer Herbert Greenwald (d.1959) assembled the team to demolish the build the project, which was completed in 1965. In 1966 the US national Park Service listed Lafayette Park on the national Register of Historic Places.
    (WSJ, 12/22/07, p.W12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafayette_Park,_Detroit)

1958        Durell Stone received a commission to design 2 Columbus Circle in NYC.
    (WSJ, 12/2/03, p.D10)

1959        Apr 9, Frank Lloyd Wright (b.1869), American architect (Guggenheim Museum, NYC), died in Arizona. In 1998 Ken Burns produced his video documentary "Frank Lloyd Wright." An earlier British documentary of Wright was made c1983. In 1987 Brendan Gill authored the Wright biography: "Many Masks." In 2004 Ada Louise Huxtabel authored “Frank Lloyd Wright."
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)(SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.48)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T10)(WSJ, 11/9/04, p.D12)

1959        Oct 21, The Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959), opened in NYC. In 2009 the museum published “The Guggenheim: Frank Lloyd Wright and the Making of the Modern Museum."
    (AP, 10/21/97)(AH, 10/04, p.15)(SSFC, 7/26/09, p.F5)

1959        William Wurster (1895-1973), American architect and teacher, co-founded the College of Environmental Design at UC Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/9/10, p.D3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wurster)
1959        In San Francisco the barrel-vaulted Marina Safeway grocery store, designed by Wurster Bernardi & Emmons, was built.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.C4)

1961        In Cuba construction began on a dance building designed by Italian architect Vittorio Garatti as one of five adjacent arts complexes personally requested by Fidel Castro, who dreamed of building the world's finest art school on the golf course of a country club seized by his revolution. Work was abruptly halted in 1965, with the ballet school lacking only windows, doors and floors. In 2012 dancer Carlos Acosta pledged to rescue the dance school and turn it into an international center for culture and dance.
    (AP, 11/3/12)

1963        The 59-story Pan Am building on Park Ave. was completed. Walter Gropius was the principal designer. In 2004 Meredith D. Clausen authored “The Pan Am Building."
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A26)(WSJ, 12/9/04, p.D10)

1964        Jan 18, Plans were disclosed for the World Trade Center in NYC. It was commissioned in 1962 to Minoru Yamasaki.
    (HN, 1/18/99)(WSJ, 12/2/03, p.D10)

1965        Aug 27, Le Corbusier (b.1887), Swiss-French architect and writer, died in France. He was born as Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. His book included books include “Vers une architecture" (Towards a New Architecture) (1923), “The City of Tomorrow" (1925), and “When the Cathedrals Were White" (1937). In 2014 Anthony flint authored “Modern man: The Life of Le Corbusier, Architect of Tomorrow."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lecorbu.htm)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.85)

1966        Robert Venturi, architect, authored “Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture."
    (WSJ, 12/28/06, p.D6)

1966        In Los Angeles the 19-story Century Plaza Hotel, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, was completed. In 2009 the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed it on its list of most endangered historic places.
    (SFC, 4/29/09, p.B4)

1969        Jan 27, Transamerica Corp., under the leadership of John Beckett (1918-2010), announced its wish to build a 1,000-foot tower in San Francisco. Work on the 48-floor Pyramid, designed by architect William Pereira, began in December, 1969. The 853-foot tower was completed in 1972.
    (SSFC, 12/27/09, p.A19)(SFC, 6/28/10, p.C4)(http://tinyurl.com/2acu688)

1969        Aug 17, Mies van der Rohe (b.1886), German-born American architect, died. He founded the Int’l. Style and designed early steel-framed and glass-jacketed buildings. He coined the phrase: "Less is more."
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.C5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe)

1969        Bernard Rudofsky laid out some practical guidelines to urban design in his book “Streets for People: A Primer for Americans."
    (SFCM, 8/1/04, p.25)

1970        Dec 23, The NY World Trade Center reached its highest point. The World Trade Center was completed at a cost of $350 million. The twin 110-story towers housed 55,000 employees working for 350 firms. [see 1973]
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A6)(MC, 12/23/01)

1971        In SF the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, designed by McSweeney, Ryan & Lee with Pietro Belluschi and Pier Luigi Nervi, opened at Gough and Geary.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A13)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.D7)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.D2)
1971        In SF the 46-story Hilton San Francisco, designed by John Carl Warnecke, opened at 333 O’Farrell St.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, p.D2)
1971        The Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes (1915-2004), was completed.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.B7)

1972        The $32 million Transamerica Pyramid building opened in San Francisco. It was designed by William Pereira.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 5/29/04, p.C2)

1973        May 3, Chicago's Sears Tower, the world's tallest building (443 m), topped out. Sears soon moved its headquarters to the Sears Tower. The building was designed by Bruce Graham (d.2010 at 84) of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. In 2009 the name of the structure was changed to Willis Tower as Willis Group Holdings, a London-based insurance broker, consolidated its area offices in the building.
    (WSJ, 11/18/04, p.B1)(SFC, 3/9/10, p.C4)(http://tinyurl.com/dhd3y6)

1973        Oct 20, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Sydney Opera House. It was designed by Danish architect Joern Utzon and cost 102 million Australian dollars, 14 times the original estimate. Utzon left the project in 1966. In 2000 Utzon was named consulting architect and in 2003 was called back to redo the interiors.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)(WSJ, 10/2/03, p.D10)

1973        The Glen Park BART station opened at 2901 Diamond St. in San Francisco. It was designed by Ernest Born with Corlett and Spackman in a style called “Big-boned Brutalism."
    (SFC, 5/26/00, Wb p.8)(SSFC, 10/4/09, p.C2)

1974        Mar 17, Louis Kahn (1901), Estonia-born architect, died. His designs included the capital building of Bangladesh, completed in 1983. In 2004 his son Nathaniel Kahn directed the documentary film "My Architect: A Son's Journey."
    (PBS, Internet)(SFC, 2/6/04, p.D5)

1974        Apr 6, Willem Dudok (b.1884), Dutch architect (Hilversum Town Hall), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Marinus_Dudok)

1974        The J. Paul Getty Museum was established in Malibu, Ca., by the billionaire oilman. It was designed by Robert E. Langdon Jr. (d.2004) and Ernest C. Wilson Jr.
    (WSJ, 1/30/97, p.A14)(SFC, 8/26/04, p.B6)

1974        In New York the Solow Building was completed. The 50-floor building was designed by architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.B10)(www.thecityreview.com/57w9.html)

1977        Christopher Alexander and co-authors laid out practical guidelines to urban design in their book “A Pattern Language."
    (SFCM, 8/1/04, p.25)

1978        Durell Stone, architect, died.
    (WSJ, 12/2/03, p.D10)

1979        Aug 10, SF planners approved a 48-story silo-shaped office tower for 101 California St. The building was designed by Philip Johnson (1906-2004).
    (SFC, 8/6/04, p.F2)(SFC, 1/27/05, p.A2)

1979        Architect Christopher Alexander authored “The Timeless Way of Building". This book, on the architecture of towns and buildings, has inspired a lot of software patterns work.
    (www.testing.com/test-patterns/intro.html)

1979        Sir Norman Foster, English architect, designed the 41-story Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank headquarters in Hong Kong.
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.B1)

1979        The Pritzker Prize, an Int’l. for award for Architecture, was begun by Jay Pritzker, founder of the Hyatt Hotel chain. The first winner was Philip Johnson for his Glass House in New Canaan, Conn.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A24)(SFEC, 1/24/99, p.D8)(WSJ, 6/15/99, p.A16)

1980        Victor Gruen (b.1903), Austrian-born Jewish architect, died. He was later considered the father of the modern shopping mall. In 2003 Jeffrey Hardwick authored "Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream." His 1956 mall in Edina, Minn., the 1st enclosed mall, was designed as a center of community.
    (WSJ, 12/24/03, p.D7)

1983        Aug 18, Nikolaus Pevsner (b.1902, German-born British architectural researcher, died. His work included the 46 volume series “The Buildings of England" (1951-1974). 
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Pevsner)

1983        The IBM corporate headquarters at Madison and 57th Ave. in Manhattan, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes (1915-2004), was completed.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.B7)

1983        The capital building of Bangladesh was completed. It was designed by Louis Kahn (1901-1974), Estonia-born architect
    (PBS, Internet)

1988        Nov 22, Louis Barragan (b.1902), considered the most important Mexican architect of the 20th century, died in Mexico City. A 1996 book: "Barragan: The Complete Works" focuses on 119 works and projects.
    (SFEM, 9/22/96, p.36)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Barrag%C3%A1n)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P12)

1988        In Oklahoma City the Crystal Bridge Tropical Conservatory, designed by I.M. Pei, was built. The 224-foot long steel and acrylic cylinder stood 7-stories.
    (SFCM, 3/20/05, p.30)

1990        The Pritzker Int’l. Prize for Architecture was awarded to Aldo Rossi (d.1997) of Italy. He had designed the World Theater in Venice and the Museum of Maastricht in the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A24)

1994        John Lautner, modernist architect, died. In 2003 Alan Hess authored "The Architecture of John Lautner." His houses included Chemosphere (1961) on Balboa Island in Newport Beach, Ca.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.E7)

1996        Mar, The 1,476-foot [1483, 1,491] Petronas Towers were completed in Kuala Lumpur as the world’s tallest building. The twin buildings stood 88-stories with 241-foot spires. It stood 29 feet taller than the Sears Building in Chicago but would be eclipsed by the World Financial Center in Shanghai scheduled to open in 2000.
    (HT, 5/97, p.28)(WSJ, 12/10/97, p.B16)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B2)

1996        Chicago’s Museum of Contemporary Art opened on Chicago Ave. It was designed by Josef Paul Kleihues (d.2004), German-born architect. The Kleihues theory of “poetic rationalism" described a style that sought to reinvent the way cities were designed and enrich the functionalist trend of late-modern architecture.
    (SSFC, 8/22/04, p.B7)

1996        James Rouse (b.1914), visionary urban developer and shopping mall pioneer, died. In 2004 Joshua Olsen authored “Better Places, Better Lives," a biography of Rouse. Nicholas Dagen Bloom authored the more critical work “Merchant of Illusion."
    (WSJ, 8/19/04, p.D8)

1999        Theodore Osmundson (d.2009 at 88), SF architect, authored “Roof Gardens: History, Design and Construction." It became widely considered as the bible of roof gardening.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.B5)

2002        Mar 31, In Taiwan a 6.8-7.1 earthquake hit and 5 construction workers were killed in Taipei when 2 construction cranes fell from the 60th floor of a new building projected to be the tallest in the city. Taipei 101 reached 1,679 feet on completion and claimed to be have the highest structural top, tallest roof and highest occupied floor.
    (SFC, 4/1/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/8/04, p.A22)

2003        Oct 17, Taiwanese officials celebrated the completion of the world's tallest skyscraper after crews installed the pinnacle on the 1,676-foot-tall building.
    (AP, 10/17/03)

2003        Oct 23, The new Walt Disney Concert Hall in LA, designed by Frank Gehry, was set to open.
    (SFC, 10/16/03, p.A1)

2003        Oct 28, In SF it was announced that the Helen Diller Family Foundation would make a $35 million donation to the new cancer research center of UCSF at Mission Bay. The new 5-story Diller Building, designed by Uruguay-born architect, Rafael Vinoly, opened in 2009.
    (SFC, 10/28/03, p.B1)(SFC, 6/2/09, p.E8)

2003        Dec, The 40-story London building at 30 St. Mary Axe, designed by Norman Foster, opened. Its peculiar shaped was frequently compared to a gherkin.
    (WSJ, 7/13/04, p.D8)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

2003        Peter Eisenman authored "Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Techniques." The book focused on 2 1930s buildings by Italian modernist Terragni.
    (SSFC, 10/5/03, p.M6)

2004        Mar 21, Zaha Hadid (53), a Baghdad-born designer, became the third Briton to win the Pritzker Prize in Architecture, and the 1st woman to win the prize in its 25-year history.
    (AP, 3/21/04)

2004        Jul, The Diana memorial fountain opened in Hyde Park. It was designed by Kathryn Gustafson, American architect, and soon closed due to numerous problems.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.49)

2004        Aug 16, J. Irwin Miller (95), former head of Cummins Engine Corp., died in Columbus, Ind. Miller had used his wealth to promote good architecture for the city of Columbus.
    (WSJ, 9/1/04, p.D10)

2004        Nov 27, In India Aga Khan, billionaire spiritual leader of the world's 15 million Shia Ismaili Muslims, presented the triennial Aga Khan awards for architecture.
    (AP, 11/27/04)

2004        Dec 16, An apartment building was inaugurated in Brazil, each of whose 11 storeys turned independently, giving residents 360-degree views of the eco-friendly city of Curitiba.
    (AP, 12/16/04)

2004        Jim Rasenberger authored "High Steel" and Deborah Cadbury authored "Dreams of Iron and Steel." Both covered the developments of modern architecture from the 1st use of a steel skeleton in the 1883 Home Insurance Building in Chicago.
    (WSJ, 4/15/04, p.D6)

2004        John Zukowsky and Martha Thorne authored “Masterpieces of Chicago Architecture."
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.E4)

2004        The $1.7 billion Time Warner Center in NYC was completed. It measured 2.8 million square feet.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.J1)

2005        Jan 25, Philip Johnson (98), architect, died in Conn. His buildings included 101 California St. in SF and the AT&T building in NYC.
    (SFC, 1/27/05, p.A2)

2005        Feb 1, In SF plans for a $43 million, 60,000-sq.-foot Contemporary Jewish Museum, designed by Daniel Libeskind, were unveiled for a site between Market and Mission across from the Yerba Buena Gardens.
    (SFC, 2/1/05, p.B1)

2005        Mar 22, Kenzo Tange (91), Japanese architect, died. His work included the stadiums for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.
    (SFC, 3/23/05, p.B7)

2005        Mar 31, Rho on the outskirts of Milan, Italy, inaugurated a trade fair over the site of a polluted refinery closed in 1992. The site featured a new structure by Massimilian Fuksas.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.61)

2005        May 21, In Oakland, Ca., groundbreaking took place for the new Cathedral of Christ the Light at the northwest tip of Lake Merritt. It was built on the site of an 1893 neo-Gothic brick church damaged by the 1989 earthquake. The $131 million Catholic project was designed by Craig Hartman. Completion was expected in 2008. Dedication ceremonies for the $190 million cathedral were later set for Sep 25, 2008.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.A1)(SFC, 9/13/08, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.D7)

2005        Aug 9, Officials in San Jose, Ca., opened their new $390 million, 18-story City Hall. It was designed by Richard Meier with an original budget of $214 million.
    (SFC, 8/10/05, p.B4)

2005        Aug 27, In Sweden the HSB Turning Torso skyscraper was completed and became the new landmark for the city of Malmo.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning_Torso)

2006        A new federal government complex at Seventh and Mission was expected to be completed. It was designed by Thom Mayne, winner of the 2004 Pritzker Prize.
    (SFC, 3/21/05, p.C1)

2006        Abu Dhabi initiated the development of Masdar, a new smart city built on a raised platform and expected to house 40,000 people.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, SR p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masdar_City)

2007        Mar 28, Briton Richard Rogers (73), the famed architect of a series of iconic buildings all over the world, was announced winner of the 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (AFP, 3/29/07)

2007        The over 700-meter Burj Dubai tower complex, a part of the Dubai Mall, was expected to be completed. The design was by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill of Chicago.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.57)

2008        Jun 24, In NYC David Fisher, an Italian architect, said he is poised to start construction on a new skyscraper in Dubai that will be "the world's first building in motion," an 80-story tower with revolving floors that give it an ever-shifting shape.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Nov 29, Joern Utzon (b.1918), the Danish architect who designed the iconic Sydney Opera House (1957), died.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

2008        Ada Louise Huxtable authored “On Architecture: Collected Reflections on a Century of Change."
    (WSJ, 11/29/08, p.W11)

2009        Jan 14, Jan Kaplicky (b.1937), a British-based Czech architect, died in Prague just hours after his wife Eliska gave birth to their daughter Johanka. He designed the award-winning media center at Lord's cricket ground in London.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Feb 23, Norwegian architect Sverre Fehn (b.1924) died in Oslo. His unique style of blending modern forms with Scandinavian traditions earned him the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize (1997). His white concrete Glacier Museum (1991), which has been hailed as a landmark within contemporary architecture. It stands on a plain carved by Norway's Jostedal Glacier at Fjaerland Fjord.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

2009        Apr 12, The Pritzker jury named Peter Zumthor (65), a Swiss architect, as the 2009 winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (AFP, 4/12/09)(SFC, 4/13/09, p.A7)

2009        May 29, In Argentina Swiss architect Peter Zumthor (66) received the 2009 Pritzker Architecture Prize. He compared his creative process to the arc of a love affair.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 2, In Belgium a new museum, designed by architect Christian de Portzamparc, opened in Louvain-la-Neuve dedicated to Georges Remi (1907-1983), creator of the comic book hero Tintin (1929).
    (Econ, 5/30/09, p.87)

2009        Oct 25, Lawrence Halprin (b.1916), SF Bay Area landscape architect, died. His work included the design of San Francisco’s Ghirardelli Square in 1968 and the FDR Memorial in Washington DC, completed in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/27/09, p.A1)

2010        Jan 4, Dubai inaugurated the world's tallest skyscraper, the Burj Khalifa, hoping to shift international attention away from the Gulf emirate's deep financial crisis and rekindle the optimism that fueled its turbocharged growth. The name was secretly switched from Burj Dubai and unveiled to the public as the Burj Khalifa, after the emir of Abu Dhabi and UAE president Sheik Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. The observation deck was the only part of the tower that opened. It was closed in February following an elevator malfunction that left visitors trapped. The deck reopened on April 4. Work continued on the rest of the building's interior.
    (AP, 1/4/10)(AFP, 1/5/10)(AP, 1/6/10)(AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Feb 3, Israel announced that British and American architects were named winners of its prestigious Wolf Prize. British architect David Chipperfield was recognized for overseeing the reconstruction of Berlin's Neues Museum in a building that had been abandoned since World War II. American architect Peter Eisenman designed the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, inaugurated in 2005.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Mar 28, The Pritzker Architecture Prize was awarded to Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, partners in Sanaa Ltd. of Tokyo. Their work included NYC’s New Museum of Contemporary Art, completed in 2007.
    (SFC, 3/29/10, p.A6)

2011        Jan 25, Miami, Florida, unveiled its New World Center concert hall designed by Frank Gehry.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.30)

2011        Nov 23, Czech architect Karel Hubacek (87) was reported dead. His famed 1973 tower hotel, which also serves as a television transmitter on the nearby Jested mountain was named the most significant Czech building of the 20th century.
    (AP, 11/26/11)

2012        Jan 7, Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon led the lighting of a soaring independence monument, "The Pillar of Light," that was supposed to be ready for the 2010 bicentennial, but came in nearly 1½ years late and way over budget. The quartz-clad light tower has been dubbed "the monument to corruption." Costs nearly tripled from about 400 million pesos to more than 1 billion (equivalent at current rates to about $75 million).
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        May 22, In Japan a new 634-meter (2,080-foot) tower with special technology meant to withstand earthquakes, opened to the public. The Tokyo Skytree became the world's second-tallest structure behind the 828-meter (2,717-foot) Burj Khalifa in Dubai, according to owner Tobu Tower Skytree Co.
    (AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Jul 5, Europe's tallest skyscraper the Shard was inaugurated in London by Qatari PM Hamad bin Jassem al-Thani, whose country has funded it, and Queen Elizabeth II's son Prince Andrew. The name was coined by its Italian architect Renzo Piano.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Dec 5, Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer (104) died in Rio de Janeiro. He had designed Brazil's futuristic capital and much of the United Nations complex.
    (AP, 12/6/12)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.154)

2013        Mar 17, Japanese architect Toyo Ito (71) won the Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (SFC, 3/18/13, p.A4)

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