Atrocities by Country and by Top 100

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Afghanistan
1842        cJan 2-12, Akbar Khan, Afghan hero, was victorious against the British. Out of 4,500 (16,500) soldiers and 12,000 dependents only one survivor, of a mixed British-Indian garrison, reached the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony. The British retreated from Kabul to Jalalabad. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel “Flashman.”
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)
1988        May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan. Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the wounded, suicides, and murders. Mujahideen continued to fight against Najibullah's regime. Some 130,000 Red Army troops fought in Afghanistan and 15,000 were lost.
    (AP, 5/18/98)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)

Algeria
1995        Some 40,000 people were reported killed since the government cancelled elections in 1992. The government planned presidential elections for Nov. 16, but Muslim militants vowed to derail the plans.
    (WSJ, 8/21/95, p.A-1)
1999        Jun 27, The president raised the death toll in the 7-year civil war against rebel groups to 100,000.
    (WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A1)

America
1778        Nov 11, Iroquois Indians, led by William Butler, massacred 40 inhabitants of Cherry Valley, N.Y.
    (HN, 11/11/98)(MC, 11/11/01)
1814        Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)
1862        Aug 18, A Sioux Uprising began uprising in Minnesota. It resulted in more than 800 white settlers dead and 38 Sioux Indians condemned and hanged. The Minnesota Uprising began when four young Sioux murdered five white settlers at Acton. The Santee Sioux, who lived on a long, narrow reservation on the south side of the Minnesota River, were reacting to broken government promises and corrupt Indian agents. a military court sentenced 303 Sioux to die, but President Abraham Lincoln reduced the list. The 38 hangings took place on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minn.
    (MC, 8/18/02)(HNQ, 1/4/00)
1870        Jan 23, 173 Blackfoot, including 140 women and children, were killed in Montana by US Army.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
1906        Mar, American forces killed some 900 Muslims including women and children on Mount Dajo, Philippines.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.D3)
1945        Mar 10, American B-29s bombed Tokyo, killing 100,000. It was the second atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, that induced the Japanese to surrender.
    (HN, 3/10/98)
1945        Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed. A book was published in 1995 by Col. Hiromishi Yahara, chief Japanese strategist of Okinawa titled “The Battle for Okinawa.” A counterpoint to the colonel's account is a collection of first hand accounts from US soldiers in Gerold Astor's “Operation Iceberg.”
    (WSJ, 8/29/95, p.A-12) (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)
1945        Jun 22, The World War II battle for Okinawa officially ended; 12,520 Americans and 110,000 Japanese were killed in the 81-day campaign. The battle for Okinawa proved to be the bloodiest in the Pacific Theater. A huge assemblage of American forces from both Admiral Chester W. Nimitz's Central Pacific drive and General Douglas MacArthur’s Southwest Pacific thrust converged on Okinawa--over 180,000 troops. For three months they faced more than 100,000 Japanese troops of Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima's Thirty-Second Army. Tokyo needed time to prepare for the expected American invasion of the home islands, so Ushijima wanted to make his adversary wrench each hill and ridge from his well-armed men.
    (AP, 6/22/97)(HN, 6/27/01)
1945        Aug 6, Hiroshima, Japan, was struck with the uranium bomb, Little Boy, from the B-29 airplane, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets of the US Air Force. The atom bomb killed an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/6/97)(HN, 8/6/98)
1945        Aug 9, The 10,000 lb. plutonium bomb, Fat Man, was dropped over Nagasaki after the primary objective of Kokura was passed due to visibility problems. It killed an estimated 74,000 people. The B-29 bomber plane Bock’s Car so named for its assigned pilot, Fred Bock, was piloted by Captain Charles W. Sweeney. Kermit Beahan (d.1989) was the bombardier.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(SFC, 3/17/00, p.D6)(HNQ, 3/31/00)
1969-1973    The US Air Force dropped 539,129 tons of bombs on Cambodia and killed some 700,000 people. The bombing drove rural people into the cities and caused a collapse of the agricultural system that contributed to the rise of the Khmer Rouge and a famine that was later blamed on the Khmer Rouge.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.A25)
1973        Aug 7, A U.S. plane accidentally bombed a Cambodian village, killing 400 civilians.
    (HN, 8/7/98)
2001        Sep 11, World leaders expressed outrage at terrorist attacks in NYC and the Pentagon and pledged solidarity with the US. In the West Bank town of Nablus, some 3,000 people celebrated the attacks and chanted “God is great.” Later the estimates of the WTC dead dropped to 4,396.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A14)(SFC, 11/3/01, p.A3)

American Indians

Argentina
1976-1983    Mass killings marked these years known as the “Dirty War” period. At least 9,000 people, suspected by the government of being leftist dissidents, were arrested, tortured and never seen again. In 1997 Adolfo Scilingo, a former naval officer, testified in Spain that as many as 1,500 Argentine navy officials participated in death flights, where people were hurled into the ocean. In 1998 Marguerite Feitlowitz published “A Lexicon of Terror,” covering the “Dirty War.” In 2000 an Italian court convicted 7 Argentine officers in absentia for kidnapping and killing Italian citizens in the “dirty war.”
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.D2)(SFC, 7/1/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 12/7/00, p.A1)
1997        Aug 15, It was reported that Argentina would issue bonds to pay indemnities to the relatives and descendants of the 1970s “dirty war.” As many as 30,000 people disappeared and about 8,000 families have applied for payments authorized at $224,000 per victim.
    (WSJ, 8/15/97, p.A1)

Armenians
1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the “Armenian Question.”
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1915        Apr 24, The Ottoman Turkish Empire began the brutal mass deportation of Armenians during World War I. A massacre of Armenians by Turks took place. Turkish police arrested hundreds of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through Turkish Armenia spearheaded by the “Special Organization” of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. Of the 1.75 million Armenians in Turkey at the outset of World War I, 250,000 fled into Russia and 1 million were systematically killed. Henry Morgenthau, US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, alerted Pres. Wilson of massacre of Armenians by the Turks. Evidence and photographs of the camps were provided to Morgenthau by Armin Wegner, German Red Cross official and Johannes Lepsius, a German missionary. British diplomat Lord Bryce hired Arnold Toynbee to document the slaughter. Franz Werfel later wrote "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)
1915-1923    Some 1 million Armenians were massacred under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. The Turks claimed that hundreds of thousands died as casualties of war.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A22)

Bangladesh
1971        Dec 6, India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)

Belarus
1937-1941    Some 2 million people were killed during Stalinist purges on the outskirts of Minsk.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)
1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1942        Nov 6, Nazis executed 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

Belgian Congo
1880-1920    The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)
1903        Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

Bosnia
1992        May 24-Aug 30, Serbian forces confined over 3,000 Bosnian Muslims and Croats in inhuman conditions at the Keraterm prison camp. Detainees were killed, sexually assaulted and beaten. In 1999 Dragan Kulundzija, a shift commander at Keraterm, was arrested on charges of killing and torturing prisoners.
    (SFC, 6/8/99, p.A12)
1992        Aug 21, Serbian soldiers separated over 200 men, mostly Croats and Muslims, from a convoy of civilians from the Trnopolje detention camp in Bosnia. The captives were taken to a wooded ravine and shot dead. In 2003 Darko Mrdja, commander of a special police unit, admitted to a court in the Hague of playing a role in the slaughter.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A8)
1992        In Brcko Serb soldiers and militiamen conquered the town and expelled the Muslim and Croat population. As many as 7,000 unarmed captives were killed.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.A10,11)
1992        In Mostar 3,200 Serbs disappeared and 27,000 were forced to move.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A15)
1995        Jul, A UN War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague issued indictments. Dusko Sikirica, who commanded a camp at Prijedor in 1992 where over 3,000 Bosnian Muslims and Croats were killed and tortured, was among the indicted. Sikirica was arrested in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/26/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/26/00, p.A1)
1995        Aug, Some 200,000 Serbs were moved from the Krajina region. More than 4,500 were killed and some 3,000 are still listed as missing in an operation that was directed by retired American generals through MPRI of Alexandria, Va. About 14,000 Krajina Serbs ended up in Kosovo until 1998, when they left as violence spread.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A15)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.B1)
1992-1995    Gen'l. Momir Talic of Bosnia commanded the 1st Krajina Corps. Talic and Radoslav Brdjanin planned and ordered a terror offensive early in the war that killed hundreds of Muslims and Croats and forced thousands to flee Prijedor a d Sanski. Talic was arrested in Austria in 1999 on a secret UN war crimes indictment. Both men pleaded not guilty to 12 counts of genocide at the Hague. During the 3 years of war some 200,000 Bosnians were dead or missing and an estimated 20,000 women were raped.
    (SFC, 8/26/99, p.A12)(SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)(SFC, 3/30/00, p.A18)
1995        Jul 6, 3:15AM The UN safe area at Srebrenica came under attack by the Bosnian Serb army’s Drina corps under Genl. Radislav Krstic, and some 7,500 Muslim men and boys were killed. The acquisition and delivery of arms was organized by Yugoslav army officer Mirko Krajisnik, brother to Momcilo Krajisnik, president of the Bosnian Serb assembly. In 1998 Chuck Sudetic published “Blood and Vengeance: One Family’s Story of the War in Bosnia.” The book focused on the Srebrenica killings. 300 Dutch troops were later accused of not preventing the Serbs from overrunning the town. Bosnian Serb Gen’l. Radislav Krstic was arrested in 1998 for genocide in the 1995 takeover of Srebrenica. In 1999 the UN issued a 155-page report that admitted its failure to block the massacre. Krstic was convicted in 2001.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 8/12/98, p.A14) (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A16)(SFC, 11/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/14/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/3/01, p.A1)
1995        Feb 13, The Hague War Crimes Tribunal indicted 21 Serbs for atrocities against Croats and Muslims interned in a Bosnian prison camp. Zeljko Meakic, Bosnian Serb police officer, was charged with commanding the Serb Omarska camp in northwest Bosnia. Dusan Tadic, Bosnian Serb cafe owner, was charged for visiting Serb-run camps to beat and kill non-Serb inmates.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/13/00)

Brazil
1964-1985    A military dictatorship ruled over Brazil. As many as 353 people died while under custody. The dead of the leftist opposition were either “disappeared” or  registered as suicides or fatalities from accidents or shootouts.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A17)
1973-1996    The Pastoral Land Commission, a Catholic supported human rights group, said that there have been 575 murders of rural workers over this time in the Para state and only three trials. One defendant received a suspended sentence and the other 2 escaped from jail.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

Britain
1461        Mar 29, Edward IV secured his claim to the English thrown in defeating Henry VI’s Lancastrians at the battle of Towdon (Towton). Some 50,000 fought and an estimated 28,000 were killed.
    (HN, 3/29/99)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(AM, 7/01, p.68)
1944        Sep 18, British submarine Tradewind torpedoed Junyo Maru: 5,600 killed.
    (MC, 9/18/01)
1982         May 3, The British sank Argentina's only cruiser in Falkland Islands War. Some 600 Argentine sailors were killed when the Belgrano was sunk. Lord Terence Thornton Lewin (d.1999 at 78), British military commander, was regarded as the one who persuaded Margaret Thatcher to order the sinking.
    (HN, 5/3/98)(SFC, 1/25/99, p.A20)
1982        Jun 14, Argentine forces surrendered to British troops on the disputed Falkland Islands. 970 people were killed including 255 British soldiers. Argentine dictator Leopaldo Galtieri led the initial attack in the 74-day war.
    (AP, 6/14/97)(SFC, 10/23/98, p.D5)

Bulgaria
1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)
1903        Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

Burma (Myanmar)
1988        Aug 8-Aug 13, The police killed nearly 3,000 protesters in the streets of Rangoon.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Par. p.5)(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T8)

Burundi
1996        Apr, The Red Cross said more than 55,000 people of Burundi have been driven from their homes by ethnic fighting that intensified last month. More than 100,000 have been killed since 1993 in the conflict between majority Hutus and minority Tutsis. The fighting occurred  in the capital city of Bujumbura. 235 civilians died when the Burundi army attacked villages at Buhoro
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.C-12)
1996        Jul 27, In Burundi a Tutsi-led army killed at least 30 Hutu rebels in retaliation for an attack on a coffee plantation. Independent sources said that Hutus set fire to the factory and rice plantation in Giheta to justify a retaliatory attack on villages where Hutu rebels were thought to have taken refuge. Villagers said Tutsi soldiers massacred about 1,000 Hutus as they roamed from village to village in Gitega province.
    (WSJ, 7/30/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A8)
1997        Jan 11, In Burundi soldiers shot and killed 126 Burundian Hutu refugees trying to break out of a holding camp in the northeast. Seven soldiers were arrested for the slayings.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.A12)

Cambodia
1973        Aug 7, A U.S. plane accidentally bombed a Cambodian village, killing 400 civilians.
    (HN, 8/7/98)
1975-1979    Pol Pot, whose real name is Saloth Sar, led the Khmer Rouge and ruled Cambodia. In 1987 Joan D. Criddle and Teeda Butt Mam authored "To Destroy You Is No Loss: The Odyssey of a Cambodian Family." The work was recorded on cassette in 1992 and told the extraordinary story of a Cambodian family caught up in the genocide under Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge. An estimated 1.7 million people were killed under the Khmer Rouge. In 2000 Loung Ung authored “First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers.”
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A11)(AR, 9/4/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A15)(SFEC, 6/11/00, BR p.6)
1975-1979    As many as 20,000 men, women and children entered Tuol Sleng prison and only 7 are known to have survived. In 1997 two of the administrators of the prison, known as Duch and Chan, were living openly in territory controlled by the government.
    (SFC, 8/5/97, p.A9)

Chechnya
1944        Feb 23, Stalin ordered the mass deportation of Chechens to Central Asia for resisting Soviet rule and abetting the Germans. More than a third of the population died before the rest were allowed to go home.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A9)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A32)
1996        Sep 3, In Russia Alexander Lebed said that about 80,000 people had died in the fighting in Chechnya during the 21 months of the war.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A10)
2000        Jan 25, The Russian government announced that 1,055 servicemen had been killed and 3,206 wounded in Chechnya since Oct 1.
    (SFC, 1/27/00, p.A13)
2000        Aug 4, It was reported that the war in Chechnya had killed 2,508 Russian soldiers since 8/2/99. A mother’s group put the figure up to 6,000.
    (WSJ, 8/4/00, p.A1)

China
1030-1093    In China Shen Kua was an engineer and high official Chinese astronomer. In his1086 work “Dream Pool Essays,” Shen Kua made the first reference to the magnetic compass. The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)
1853-1864     The Taiping army of Hong Xiuquan took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital in the Taiping Rebellion. He claimed to be Jesus' brother and ruled there until 1864. Imperial troops crushed his movement and tens of millions died. Some 10,000 people were killed at Nanjing.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/99, p.A10)
1867        Jul 20, Imperial troops in Guizhou, China, killed 20,000 Miao rebels.
    (HN, 7/20/98)
1900        Jun 21, After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing. An international force of Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. In 2000 Diana Preston authored “The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China’s War on foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900.”
    (HNPD, 6/21/99)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A24)
1937        Dec-Feb, In the Japanese “Rape of Nanjing” more than 200,000 people were killed. Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997 Iris Chang (29) published “The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of world War II.” The largest execution of prisoners took place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and soldiers were gunned down.
    (WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)
1958        China tried to modernize its economy in “The Great Leap Forward” and urged factories and farms to meet impossible production targets. Rather than concede failure, local officials misled central planners about output. The result: a famine that may have killed as many as 30 million people by the end of 1960. The story is told by Jasper Becker in his 1997 book “Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine.”
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)

Colombia
1948-1958    The period known as “La Violencia.” Over 200,000 people were killed in massacres by the 2 rival parties, the Conservatives and the Liberals.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)
1999        There were some 5,000 killings this year in Medellin. Some 220 gangs with 8,500 gang members fought turf battles on a daily basis.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A20)

Congo
2000        Jun 9, The 22-month civil war averaged some 2,600 deaths every day. The total was estimated at 1.7 million dead.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A20)

Croatia
1941-1945    Croatia was occupied by Nazi forces and with its Moslem allies some 700,000 Serbs and 75,000 Jews and Gypsies were killed. [This was a letter with reference to the Encyclopedia Britannica as source material] The Independent State of Croatia was set up after the German and Italian invasions and run by the fascist Ustashe regime as a puppet state. The central Ustashe aim was to cleanse Croatia of “foreign” elements and to turn Croatia into a "100% Roman Catholic state." Jasenovac was the site of the largest Ustashe death camp, and some estimates claim as many as several hundred thousand dead. Ante Pavelic was the leader of the Ustashe regime.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/3/96, p.A-22)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
1991        Sep 21, Yugoslav army tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the 3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)
1995        Aug, Some 200,000 Serbs were moved from the Krajina region. More than 4,500 were killed and some 3,000 are still listed as missing in an operation that was directed by retired American generals through MPRI of Alexandria, Va. About 14,000 Krajina Serbs ended up in Kosovo until 1998, when they left as violence spread.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A15)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.B1)

Egypt
1992        Muslim militants began an insurgency with attacks largely in southern Egypt to overthrow the government of Hosni Mubarak. By 1996 more than 920 people had been killed, mostly police and militants.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)(SFEC,12/28/97, p.A17)
1997        Nov 17, In Egypt 6 gunmen killed over 65 [62] [58] tourists at the Hatshepsut Temple in Luxor. The assailants, members of the Gamaa al-Islamiya, were all killed. The attack was meant to force the US to release Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman who was serving a life term for a plot to bomb NYC landmarks.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A1)(SFC,11/22/97, p.C1)

El Salvador

1932        Jan 23, El Salvador army killed 4,000 protesting farmers.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
1980-1992    A civil war raged during which security forces have been blamed for killing 40,000 civilians with torture commonplace. It was later reported that the US had pumped $1.5 million a day into the fight “to make El Salvador safe for democracy.”
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)
1992        Jan 16, Officials of the government of El Salvador and rebel leaders signed a pact in Mexico City ending 12 years of civil war that had left at least 75,000 people dead.
    (AP, 1/16/98)
1993        Mar 14, An independent U.N.-sponsored commission released a report blaming the bulk of atrocities committed during El Salvador's civil war on the country's military.
    (AP, 3/14/98)
1994        In el Salvador there were 7,673 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)
1995        In El Salvador there were 7,877 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)
1996        There were 6,792 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

Eritrea
1993        Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia after a 30-year civil war. Some 65,000 Eritreans lost their lives in the fight for independence. Pres. Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia allowed Eritrea to secede as a reward for the support of its rebel forces in 1991.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1999        Jun 14, Eritrea and Ethiopia battled for a 5th day. Eritrea claimed to have killed, wounded or captured over 12,000 soldiers, while Ethiopia claimed the same for 8,200 soldiers. Over half a million soldiers were stationed along the 600-mile border.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C5)(SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

France
1572        Aug 24, The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of Catholics began in Paris as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. France’s fourth war of religion started with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots and their leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, were killed in and around Paris.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)
1792        Sep 2, In the "September Massacres"- mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, slaughtering them.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1795        May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.
    (HN, 5/4/99)
1795        May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography “Napoleon Bonaparte” by Alan Schom.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)
1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)
1942        Nov 11, 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

Germany
1096        May 18, Crusaders massacred the Jews of Worms. Before embarking on the First Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim Turks, Count Emich von Leiningen and his army swept through their own German homeland, murdering thousands of Jews, whom they had declared "murderers of Christ." When Emich arrived in the town of Worms in May, the town's Roman Catholic Bishop tried to protect the Jewish population, but the Crusaders overran his palace and slaughtered some 500 people who had taken shelter there. Another 300 were killed over the next two days. The graves of the massacre victims can still be seen at the Jewish Cemetery at Worms.
    (HNPD, 5/12/99)(SC, 5/18/02)
1349        Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
    (HN, 2/14/98)
1904        The Hereros, a cattle-herding tribe of what was German South West Africa, were the first genocide victims of the 20th century. When the Hereros rebelled against the German colonialists in 1904, Kaiser Wilhelm II sent General Lothar von Trotha to the colony, who drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal “extermination order” authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries.
    (HNPD, 4/14/99)
1914        Aug 23, Gen. von Hausen executed 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium. Felix Fivet (3 weeks old), Belgian baby, was among those executed by German troops.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1915        Jun 21, Germany used poison gas for the first time in warfare in the Argonne Forest.
    (HN, 6/21/98)
1915        Sep 25, At the Battle at Loos: 8,246 British and 0 German casualties.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1915        Oct 8, The WWI Battle of Loos ended with virtually no gains for either side. There was loss of over one hundred thousand French, British, and German lives in this battle. It marked the first use of poisonous gas by the British, which drifted back to the British trenches.
    (MC, 10/8/01)
1916        Dec 18, The Battle of Verdun ended with the French and Germans each having suffered more than 330,000 killed and wounded in 10 months. [see Dec 15]
    (HN, 12/18/98)
1937        Apr 26, German planes attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,650 Basque civilians.
    (440 Int’l. internet, 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98)
1938        Nov 9, Kristallnacht took place in Germany. Nazi leaders heard that a Jew had shot a German diplomat in Paris and ordered reprisals. Nazis looted and burned synagogues as well as Jewish-owned stores and houses in Germany and Austria in what became known as Kristallnacht. 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps. The event is depicted by Peter Gay in his 1998 book “My German Question.”
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(TL, 1988, p.111)(AP, 11/9/97)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20) (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A12)
1941        Apr 9, In Czestochowa, Poland, a ghetto for Jews was created. By the end of WW II some 45,000 of Czestochowa's Jews were murdered by the Germans, almost the entire Jewish community living there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)
1939-1945    Of the 330,000 Jews in France at the start of the war, about 76,000 were deported to Nazi concentration camps and only 2,500 survived. Prof. Irving Halperin (d.2000) later authored “”Messengers from the Dead,” a book on Holocaust literature.
    (SFC, 4/18/00, p.A8)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)
1940        In Poland “the Nazis packed 450,000 human beings into 75 square blocks of the Warsaw ghetto, then walled it off and left them to starve.”
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1940        In Greece the occupying Germans started transporting the 50,000 Jews of Thessaloniki to Auschwitz. Up to 1943 there were 36 synagogues in the city. In 1997 there was one. The Jewish population at Salonika was wiped out.
    (WSJ, 4/29/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.3)
1941        Aug 29, The German Einsatzkommando in Russia killed 1,469 Jewish children.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1941        Aug, In Germany public protests curtailed the Nazi euthanasia program that had already gassed some 70,000 mentally handicapped German adults and children.
    (WSJ, 3/23/04, p.D8)
1941        Sep 15, Nazis killed 800 Jewish women at Shkudvil Lithuania.
    (MC, 9/15/01)
1941        Sep 29, 30,000 Jews were gunned down in Kiev when Henrich Himmler sent four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other “undesirables.”
    (HN, 9/29/00)
1941        Sep 26, In Ukraine some 33,761 Jews of Kiev were killed over 3 days before Yom Kippur in the ravine at Babi Yar by the Nazis. Over the next 2 years some 100-200 thousand more people, mostly Jews, were killed at the site.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A8)(SFC, 6/26/01, p.A8)(MC, 9/26/01)
1941        Oct 22-23, Some 39,000 Jews were killed by Romanian troops over 2 days in Odessa. Many of them were burned to death in a public square or in warehouses that were locked shut. Altogether some 90,000 Jews were killed in Odessa.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)
1942        Jun 10, The Gestapo massacred 173 male residents of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, in retaliation for the killing of a Nazi official. Germany razed the town of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, and killed more than 1,300 citizens in retribution of the murder of Reinhard Heydrich.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)
1942        Jun, By this month 100,000 people of the Nazi imposed Warsaw ghetto had died due to disease or starvation.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1942        Sep 30, The German SS exterminated some 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland, in 6 week period.
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1942        Sep, In Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, some 50,000 Jews were held by the German SS in crowded conditions and half the inmates died that year from disease.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A11)
1942        Oct 5, 5,000 Jews of Dubno, Russia, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/5/01)
1942        Oct 29, Nazis murdered some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1942        Oct, On Yom Kippur 2,900 Jews were killed in Domachevo, Belarus.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)
1942        Oct, By this month some 300,000 occupants of the Warsaw ghetto had been shipped off to the Nazi gas chambers at Treblinka, Poland.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)
1943        Nov, The 2-day Nazi “Operation Harvest” at the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland executed men, women and children. Nazi officer Alfons Goetzfried later admitted to having personally shot 500 people. Over 42,000 people, mostly Jews, were killed in the operation. In 1999 Alfons Goetzfrid (79) was convicted for assisting in the murders of 17,000 Jews at the camp. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)
1945        Feb 14, 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany following the British assault. The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people. At least 35,000 died and some people place the toll closer to 70,000. The novel “Slaughterhouse Five” by Kurt Vonnegut was set in Dresden during the firebombing where he was being held as a prisoner of war. US B-17 bombers dropped 771 more tons on Dresden while P-51 Mustang fighters strafed roads packed with soldiers and civilians fleeing the burning city. [see Feb 13]
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(HN, 2/13/99)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)
1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

Guatemala
1980-1984    Some 4,000 people were killed in the area of Rabinal in central Guatemala during the civil war.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.A10)
1999        Feb 25, A 100-page summary of a 3,600 page report by the UN mandated Historical Clarification Committee was released. It indicated that the US government and US corporations played a key role in maintaining the right-wing military governments during most of the 36 years of civil war in Guatemala. The report documented a genocide against Mayan Indians with a death toll of some 200,000. The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (UNRG) was responsible for 3% of the atrocities. The Guatemalan Army was blamed for 93% of the human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A1,17)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.A13)

Guyana
1978        Nov 18, California Rep. Leo J. Ryan and four other people were killed in Jonestown, Guyana, by members of the Peoples Temple. The killings were followed by a night of mass murder and suicide by 912 cult members. Greg Robinson, a SF Examiner photographer, Don Harris, NBC correspondent, Bob Brown, NBC cameraman, and Patricia Parks, a temple defector, were shot dead. The 914 suicides at Jonestown included 260 children.
    (AP, 11/18/97)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A18)

Haiti
1522        A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
    (TL-MB, p.12)
1991-1994    Emmanuel “Toto” Constant headed the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti. He was also a paid US CIA agent and members of FRAPH were believed responsible for many of the 3,000 political killings over this period.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)

India-Pakistan
1971        Dec 6, India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
1992        Dec 6, In Uttar Pradesh, India, thousands of Hindu extremists destroyed a mosque, setting off two months of Hindu-Muslim rioting that claimed at least 2,000 lives. Attackers set off 13 bomb blasts in Bombay that destroyed skyscrapers and killed 600 people. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) inspired Hindus to raze a 16th century mosque in the northern town of Ayodhya. The demolition caused Hindu-Muslim riots across India and 3,000 people were killed. Hindus believe that the site was the birthplace of the god Ram and that Mogul invaders tore down a temple at the site to build the Babri Mosque. In 1998 the Congress Party apologized for the mosque destruction.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-14)(AP, 12/6/97)(SFEC, 1/25/98, p.A20)
1993        In Bombay Hindus killed some 800 Muslims in revenge for earlier killings. In 2000 Bal Thackeray, a Hindu supremacist, was arrested for inciting the killings, but was released because the case was filed too late.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A13)

Indonesia
c1959        In the later 50s the Permesta and PRRI rebellions engulfed several islands from Sulawesi to Sumatra and some 30,000 troops were killed.
    (SFEC, 11/6/99, p.A30)
1965         Sep 30, A coup was attempted in Indonesia. Suharto crushed the coup and seized power from Pres. Sukarno. The 1983 film “The Year of Living Dangerously” with Mel Gibson was set in Indonesia’s 1965 civil war. An estimated 250-500 thousand Indonesians were killed on suspicion of being Communist Party members or sympathizers. US CIA and Embassy officials later admitted that they furnished as many as 5000 names of “communist” leaders to the Indonesian army.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T6)(SFC, 5/16/00, p.A12,14)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)
1965        Oct 20, Mass arrests of communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the government in 1965.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(MC, 10/20/01)
1975        Dec 7, Indonesia invaded East Timor nine days after the Timorese political party Fretilin claimed independence. Some 600,000 were left dead after a prolonged war.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, zone 1, p.8)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)(HNQ, 11/9/00)
2001        Aug 16, In Indonesia Pres. Sukarnoputri, in her 1st state of the nation speech, apologized for atrocities in rebellious provinces, urged the military to reform itself and ruled out independence for Aceh and Irian Jaya.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.A12)

Iran-Iraq
1980-1988    Iran and Iraq engaged in war. The number of casualties was estimated at well over a million.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.312)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)
1987-1988    Some 50-100 thousand Kurds were killed by poisonous gas from Iraqi forces.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.B6)

Israel
1948        Apr 9, In Deir Yassin about one-third of 750 Palestinians were killed by Jewish fighters of the National Military Organization, an underground group better known as the Irgun, and a splinter group called Lehi. The catastrophe is called Al-Nakbah by the Palestinians. 30 similar massacres happened on other Palestinian villages. The death toll was said to be inflated by Jewish forces to invoke fear and cause maximum flight.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A1,11)

Italy
1377        Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
    (MC, 2/3/02)
1935-1936    The Italian army used chemical warfare against Ethiopia in violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)
1936        Mar 29, Italy firebombed the Ethiopian city of Harar.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

Japan
1937        Dec-Jan, John Rabe (1882-1950), a German businessman for Siemens living in China, recorded the 2-month terror of the Japanese “Rape of Nanking” in his diary. The Japanese sacked and pillaged the city. They raped at least 20,000 women and killed at least 50,000 people. Rabe established a neutral safe zone for hundreds of thousands of Chinese refugees. Noncombatant deaths may have reached 300,000. Reporter Tillman Durdin (d.1998 at 91) filed reports for the New York times. Later Iris Chang wrote “The Rape of Nanking.”
1937        Dec-Feb, In the Japanese “Rape of Nanjing” more than 200,000 people were killed. Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997 Iris Chang (29) published “The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of world War II.” The largest execution of prisoners took place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and soldiers were gunned down.
    (WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/10/98, p.D3)

Kashmir
1988-1998    The fighting in Kashmir left 300,000 dead over this period.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)

Korea
1950        Jun 25, The Korean War started as forces from the communist North invaded the South. It lasted till 1953. A Truman administration statement that Korea was “outside the US defense perimeter” in the Pacific was said to have invited the attack. Gen. McArthur led a UN expeditionary force in response to North Korea’s attack on South Korea. The Chinese entered the war and the UN forces were pushed into a Christmas retreat. 2.5 million people were killed. No peace treaty was ever signed. About 1.7 million Americans were involved and there was an estimated 3 mil casualties including 150,000 (54,246) Americans and over 1 mil Chinese. In 1990 North Korean officials revealed that Stalin knew about and encouraged North Korea’s aggression as did Mao Tse-Tung.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, H. E. Kim, p.255)(TMC, 1994, p.1950)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A15) (SFC, 4/8/96, p.A-9)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 2/17/96, p.A26)(AP, 6/25/97)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A22)
1950-1953     The Korean War started on Jun 25, 1950. 2.5 million people were killed. No peace treaty was ever signed. About 1.7 million Americans were involved and there was an estimated 3 mil casualties including 150,000 (54,246) Americans and over 1 mil Chinese. In 1999 W.D. Ehrhart and Philip K. Jason edited "Retrieving Bones: Stories and Poems of the Korean War."
    (NG, Aug., 1974, H. E. Kim, p.255)(SFC, 4/8/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A15) (SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 2/17/96, p.A26)(SFEC, 8/29/99, BR p.3)
1995-1998    In 1999 North Korea reported that some 220,000 people died from famine over this period. South Korean officials estimated that the population had fallen from 25 million to 23 million. In 1998 a US congressional delegation estimated the number to be 2 million.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A21)

Kosovo
1999        Jun 9, The Pentagon revealed aerial photographs that indicated the destruction of evidence of Serb atrocities in Kosovo. Some 143 graves at Izbica where 270 residents were reported killed, appeared to have been obliterated.
    (USAT, 6/10/99, p.10A)
2001        May 25, In Serbia police linked former Pres. Slobodan Milosevic to a 1999 coverup of Kosovo atrocities that included the dumping of bodies in the Danube.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.A8)

Kurdistan
1991        Mar 2, The Kurds rose up against Iraqi forces but were crushed by Iraqi armor that killed 50,000 and forced more than a million Kurds to flee to Turkey and Iran.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)

Laos
1964-1973    US warplanes carried out 580,000 bombing missions over Laos and dropped an estimated 2.3 million tons of bombs.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A22)
1973-1997    Some 11,000 Laotians were killed or wounded by left over American bombs.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A19)

Lebanon
1975-1990    An estimated 17,000 Lebanese were reported missing during the civil war. In 2000 a government commission ended a 7-month investigation and said the missing were probably all dead.
    (SFC, 7/27/00, p.C16)

Mexico
1519        Cortez discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1521        Jan, Cortez returned to Tenochtitlan and destroyed the city. Thousands of Aztecs were killed. The surviving children of Montezuma were sent to Spain and were granted compensatory titles to the Spanish nobility.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)
1528        The fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Veracruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

Mozambique
1992        A peace accord ended 17 years of civil war during which some 600,000 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.B13C)

Nigeria
1967        Jul 6, The Biafran War erupted. The war, which lasted more than two years, claimed some 600,000 lives. The Republic of Biafra was proclaimed when the eastern region of Nigeria, the homeland of the Ibo people, seceded. This was followed by civil war. The federal troops of Nigeria held most of rebellious Biafra by the end of 1968 but the Ibos attempted to hold out in a small and crowded area.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(HNQ, 5/27/98)

Palestine
1982        Sep 16-18, The massacre of hundreds of Palestinian men, women and children by Lebanese Christian militiamen began in west Beirut's Sabra and Chatilla (Shatilla) refugee camps. Up to 2,000 Palestinian civilians were killed. Israel’s defense minister, Ariel Sharon, was held responsible and lost his top post. In 2001 survivors lodged a complaint in Belgium against Sharon.
    (AP, 9/16/97)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(SFC, 6/19/01, p.A8)

Peru

Philippines
1603        Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1902        Jul, The Philippine-American War officially ended. Estimates for the civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive account of the conflict.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)
1942        Apr 9, In the Battle of Bataan, some 70,000 soldiers gathered at the bottom of the Bataan peninsula during World War II. American and Philippine defenders on Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by the notorious 55-mile “Bataan Death March” which claimed nearly 10,000 lives. 12,000 American soldiers surrendered to the Japanese and some 1000 died on the march. [see Apr 10]
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, Par p.4)
1942        Apr 10, The 65-mile Bataan Death March began. 10-15,000 soldiers perished on the march. Bataan is a peninsula of western Luzon in the Philippines. It was surrendered to the Japanese in this year and retaken by American forces in 1945. [see Apr 9]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A26)
1972        The conflict between the government and Muslim rebels began. A full-scale guerrilla war began in which some 120,000 people were killed by 1999.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A19)
1996        Jun, Talks opened between the government and Muslim rebels to end the 24-year conflict that has killed 50,000 people in the southern islands.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A1)

Poland
1941        Apr 9, In Czestochowa, Poland, a ghetto for Jews was created. By the end of WW II some 45,000 of Czestochowa's Jews were murdered by the Germans, almost the entire Jewish community living there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

Russia
1759        Jul 23, Russians under Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
    (AP, 7/23/97)
1904        Sep 19, Gen. Nogi assaulted Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.
    (MC, 9/19/01)
1905        Feb 21, The Mukden campaign of the Russo-Japanese War, began. In one of the largest battles ever fought up to that time, some 750,000 Japanese and Russian soldiers engaged in the battle for Mukden in the Russo-Japanese War. The three-week battle pitted 400,000 Japanese and 350,000 Russians stretched over a front extending more than 90 miles. More than 100,000 were left dead or injured as the Russians began a retreat toward Harbin on March 9.
    (HN, 2/21/98)(HNQ, 4/23/99)
1914        Nov 25, Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw, Poland. The Russians lost 90,000 to the Germans’ 35,000 in two weeks of fighting.
    (HN, 11/25/98)
1916        Mar 18, On the Eastern Front, the Russians countered the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch. The Russians lost 100,000 men and the Germans lost 20,000.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1919        The Bolsheviks began repressions and millions of Cossacks died. Their institutions were destroyed and many fled the country.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)
1933        Aleksandr Rodchenko was dispatched to document the White Sea Canal project in which some 200,000 political prisoners were killed.
    (WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)
1937        Jul 31, The Russian Politburo enabled Operative Order 00447. This led to the execution of some 193,000 people.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1937        Oct-Nov, A 3-man panel, the “Osobaya Troika,” signed death sentences  that were sent to thousands of gulags across Russia and led to the massacre of 9,000 victims in the Karelia Forest at Medvezhyegorsk. The grave site was opened in Jul, 1997, and a monument was planned.
    (SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)
1937-1938    Their were sweeping purges across the Soviet Union. 14 million people across Russia were estimated to have died in the purges. Several hundred Americans were arrested in Karelia, near the Finnish border. Several thousand Americans and Canadians had moved there to help develop the Soviet timber industry. 40,000 people a month were executed.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)(SFEC,11/9/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)
1940        Apr-May, Some 25,700 (15,000) Polish citizens were massacred by the Soviets in the Katyn and Miednoje (Mednoye) forests on the outskirts of Moscow and at Kharkov in western Russia (later Ukraine). Some 14,700 Polish officers were identified by their uniforms. Excavations of the sites began in 1994. 6,313 Polish officers were all shot in the back of the head near Mednoye. 9,000 Russians were also massacred at the site.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.16)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.A18)
1942        May 29, The German Army completed its encirclement of the Kharkov region of the Soviet Union. The Red Army had lost over 250,000 men including many prisoners.
    (HN, 5/29/99)
1942        Aug 23, German forces began an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad. From Aug. to Feb. 1943, The Battle of Stalingrad, 600 miles southeast of Moscow, was fought and ended with the encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army Group. Stalingrad has since been renamed to Volgograd. In 1998 Antony Beevor published “Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege.” The German in charge was Gen’l. Friedrich Paulus. Luftwaffe air raids killed 40,000 people in the first week of fighting.
    (WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(HN, 8/23/98)
1944        Some 150,000 Hungarian troops fought under Nazi command at the Don River. The Red army killed about 90,000 and thousands died trying to walk back to Hungary.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)
1945        Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium where 1.1 - 1.5 million people were murdered. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-10)(AP, 1/27/98)
1945        Apr 15, The deadly battle for Berlin began. The Seelow Heights posed the last natural barrier to Berlin in April 1945 from an advancing Red Army. The rolling plains and plateaus of the Seelow Heights were only 35 miles from the German capital and were well defended. The battle, which raged for a week, was extremely costly to both sides, leaving some 30,000 Red Army soldiers and at least 80,000 Germans killed.
    (HNQ, 4/16/99)
1982        Mar 8, The U.S. accused the Soviets of killing 3,000 Afghans with poison gas.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

Rwanda
1994         Apr - Jul, 500,000 - 1 Million people in Rwanda, Africa, were killed by Hutu extremists. Most of them were minority Tutsis and opponents of the ruling Hutu majority.
    (SFEC, 1/15/1995, A-10)
1997        Nov 17, In Rwanda at least 27 civilians were killed by suspected rebels in Mukamara. Nearly 300 people were killed when Hutu rebels attacked a prison in the northwest at Giciye. 200 rebels, 88 prisoners and 2 soldiers died in the clash.
    (SFC,11/21/97, p.D3)

Serbia
1941        Apr 6-8, German Luftwaffe Marshall Alexander Lohr commanded a surprise air attack on Belgrade. Lohr was later tried and executed for the bombings. Over 17,000 citizens of Belgrade were killed in the bombing.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
1944        Apr, Orthodox Easter, Allied bombing of Nazi occupied Serbia resulted in the deaths of some 4,000 Serbian civilians. An account of the raids, requested by US Gen'l. Carl Spaatz, found that most of the bombs struck at least 600 yards from their targets.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)
1991        A Serb rebellion set off a 6-month war in which at least 10,000 people were killed. Serb rebels backed by Yugoslavia seized a third of Croatia, but the territory was regained in 1995.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)
1992        Aug 21, Serbian soldiers separated over 200 men, mostly Croats and Muslims, from a convoy of civilians from the Trnopolje detention camp in Bosnia. The captives were taken to a wooded ravine and shot dead. In 2003 Darko Mrdja, commander of a special police unit, admitted to a court in the Hague of playing a role in the slaughter.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A8)
1995        Jul 11, Srebrenica, a UN declared “safe area,” fell to the Bosnian Serbs. 7,000 Muslim men supposedly escaped but were never heard from again. Drazen Erdemovic (24) later admitted that he participated in killing 70 men at Srebrenica. Victims were shot in the back in groups of 10 by himself and fellow soldiers in the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Sabotage Detachment. He was told that he would be killed if he refused to follow orders.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12) (SFC, 7/7/96, A10) (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A10)

Sierra Leone
1991        Civil war began and by 1996 10,000 had been killed. Foday Sankoh’s Revolutionary United Front began fighting a bush war. In 1998 Sankoh was charged with treason.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1999        Jan 31, Rebels freed 11 Indian nationals abducted a week ago. The government said that as many as 3,000-5000 people died during the fighting in Freetown. The number of dead was raised to 6,350.
    (WSJ, 2/1/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/12/99, p.A8)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A14)

Somalia
1991-1992    Some 350,000 Somalis died from disease, starvation and civil war.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)
1992        At least 350,000 people died in the famine that was compounded by clan warfare.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.B10)

South Africa
1899-1902    In the Boer War some 12,000 blacks and 18,000 whites were killed from epidemics in British concentration camps. Some 25,000 blacks and 94,000 whites were herded into the world's first concentration camps. Thomas Packenham later authored "The Boer War."
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)
1990-1994    Over 5,000 people were killed in KwaZulu-Natal province prior to the first all-race elections.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.C3)
1984-1993    In South Africa from Sep ‘84 to Dec ‘93, some 19,000 people were killed in political violence.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E1)
1988        Dec 3, In South Africa, 11 black funeral mourners were slain in Natal Province in an attack blamed on security forces.
    (AP, 12/3/98)

Spain
1355        May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

Sri Lanka
1989-1990    In 1997 the government admitted that nearly 17,000 people died or vanished during an offensive against the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna ( JVP, People’s Liberation Front), a Marxist rebel group. Human rights groups estimated that some 60,000 people were killed or disappeared.
    (WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/97, p.A3)
1995        Dec. 6, The flag of Sri Lanka was raised over the Tamil stronghold of Jaffna. This marked the biggest victory in the 12 year war in which 39,000 people have died.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-1)
1995        5,000 people were killed this year in fighting with the Tamil Tigers.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)

Spain
1937        Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
    (440 Int’l. internet, 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98) (HNPD, 4/26/99)

Sudan
1898        Sep 2, Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers, machine guns and rifles. Lt. Winston Churchill led one of the last (and most useless) cavalry charges in history. Sir Herbert Kitchener led the British to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman and took Khartoum. The Dervishes left 11,000 dead and 16,000 wounded. The Anglo-Egyptian army suffered fewer than a dozen casualties. In 1899 Winston Churchill published "The River War, An Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan." This was the 1st use of the machine gun in battle.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 9/2/98)(ON, 10/99, p.3)(MC, 9/2/01)
1983-1998    The Sudan civil war killed some 1.5 million people over this period.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)
1988-1989    The war induced famine killed some 250,000 people.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)
1998        Dec 10, The death toll from the 15 year civil war was reported to have reached at least 1.9 million. A 40 nation African conference on refugees opened in Khartoum.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D3)

Sweden
1520        Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

Syria
1982        Feb, Pres. Hafez Assad ordered the Syrian army under his brother, Rifaat Assad, to crush a fundamentalist Muslim revolt in Hama and 10-20,000 residents were massacred.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)(WSJ, 6/13/00, p.A26)(SSFC, 11/18/01, p.A5)

Thailand

Uganda
2000        Mar 17, Some 330 followers of the Movement for the Restoration of Ten Commandments of God, led by Joseph Kibweteree, burned to death in a mass suicide in Kanungu. Children were involved and it was not clear if Kibweteree was killed. More bodies were found at the house of Kibweteree. Foul play was later suspected instead of suicide. 448 other victims were later found.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, p.A19)(SFC, 3/20/00, p.A13)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.A18)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A13)
2000        Apr 27, Workers in Ggaba, a residential area south of Kampala, exhumed the bodies of 55 more people associated with the Movement for the Restoration of Ten Commandments. Total deaths stood at 979.
    (SFC, 4/28/00, p.D2)

Ukraine
1648        Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)
1941        Nov 6, Einsatz death groups killed 15,000 Jews of Rovno, Ukraine.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

Vietnam
1954        May 7, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam ended after 55 days with Vietnamese insurgents overrunning French forces and the US began to get involved. Vietnamese insurgents expelled the French but the country was divided into a communist north and a pro-US south. In the 8 years of the French Indochina War some 52,000 French soldiers were killed. Vietnam was soon partitioned between a regime in Hanoi led by Ho Chi Minh and an anti-communist regime in Saigon under Ngo Dinh Diem. Howard Simpson later wrote: "Dien Bien Phu: The Epic Battle America Forgot."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1954)(TL, 1988, p.114)(SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)(SFC, 2/22/96, p.B3)(AP, 5/7/97)(SFC, 5/24/99, p.C4)
1962-1972    In Vietnam giant US tanker planes sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange on the once lush DMZ in order to eradicate the enemy’s jungle cover. Some 12 million gallons of Agent Orange were sprayed over parts of southern and central Vietnam from 1961-1971. The total included some 375 pounds of dioxin. In 1998 a nationwide survey was planned to count the victims. American involvement in the Vietnam War was analyzed by H.R. McMaster In his 1997 book: “Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam.” Agent Orange used dioxins as the active ingredient in the herbicide. Anti-war activist Jane Fonda at one point laid nude in a rice field near Sacramento and California Republican Assembly leader Charles J. Conrad (d.1998) suggested spraying defoliants on her.
    (WSJ,2/12/97, p.A1)(SFC, 10/13/97, p.A23)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.E4)(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A10)
1968        Feb 18, Three U.S. pilots who were held by the Vietnamese arrived in Washington. Today, the Vietnamese people are pressuring Hanoi to account for their own 300,000 MIAs.
    (HN, 2/18/98)
1968        Mar 16, US troops under the command of Lt. William L. Calley Jr. massacred Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. 504 [407] villagers were massacred. Hugh Thompson, a helicopter pilot, observed the end of the massacre. He landed between some remaining villagers and his fellow soldiers and ordered his gunner to fire on American troops if necessary. With 2 other gunships he airlifted to safety a dozen villagers. He and his gunner were awarded the Soldier’s Medal in 1998. The atrocity was exposed by Ron Ridenhour (d.1998 at 52), a door gunner on an observation helicopter, who flew over the village a few days after the event. He waited several months until he was out of the service before reporting the event to state and congressional officials. In 1999 Trent Angers authored "The Forgotten Hero of My Lai: The Hugh Thompson Story."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFEC, 10/13/96, BR p.4)(AP, 3/16/97)(SFC, 3/5/98, p.A9)(SFC, 3/16/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/11/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/2/99, p.A24)
1971        Mar 14, US Senator Edward Kennedy estimated that 25,000 Vietnamese civilians had been killed in 1970.
    (HN, 3/14/98)
1972        Dec 18, US Pres. Nixon ordered the heaviest bombing of North Vietnam that began on this day over Hanoi. “Operation Linebacker II” lasted 11 days and killed over 1600 civilians with 70 US airmen killed or captured. (The bombardment ended 12 days later.) President Nixon declared that the bombing of North Vietnam would continue until an accord was reached.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)(AP, 12/18/97)(HN, 12/18/98)
1973        The Vietnam War resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 [1.2] million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet cong), and 2 million civilians.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

Zimbabwe
1982-1987    Some 200 guerrillas of the minority Ndebele tribe in Matabeleland province fought troops of Pres. Mugabe and as many as 20,000 civilians were killed. In 1999 Mugabe ordered provincial officials to prepare compensation claims for the victims of army atrocities.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A14)
1983-1984    In Zimbabwe the Matabeleland atrocities occurred when the government of Robert Mugabe sent in its North Korean trained Fifth Brigade to terrorize the Ndebele-speaking region that supported opponent Joshua Nkomo. Thousands of civilians died. The terror ended in 1987 when Nkomo reconciled with Mugabe.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)



1998        Nov 25, President Jiang Zemin arrived in Tokyo for the first visit to Japan by a Chinese head of state since World War II. Zemin and Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi decided not to sign a joint declaration on the relationship between their countries during the Jiang’s 6-day visit, the first ever by a Chinese head of state. Zemin wanted a written apology from Japan for WW II atrocities that began with a 1931 Japanese invasion. Only verbal apologies were made.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B3)(AP, 11/25/99)

1998        Aug 21, In South Africa former Pres. Botha (82) was convicted of ignoring a subpoena to testify about apartheid atrocities in front of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He was fined $1,577 and given a suspended 1 year jail sentence.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)

1999        Feb 25, A 100-page summary of a 3,600 page report by the UN mandated Historical Clarification Committee was released. It indicated that the US government and US corporations played a key role in maintaining the right-wing military governments during most of the 36 years of civil war in Guatemala. The report documented a genocide against Mayan Indians with a death toll of some 200,000. The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (UNRG) was responsible for 3% of the atrocities. The Guatemalan Army was blamed for 93% of the human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A1,17)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.A13)

1999        May 27, The Int'l. War Crimes Tribunal at the Hague announced an indictment against Pres. Milosevic and 4 senior aides for atrocities and mass deportations and multiple counts of crimes against humanity. Also indicted were: Milan Milutinovic, president of Serbia; Vlajko Stojilkovic, Serbian interior minister; Nikola Sainovic, deputy prime minister of Yugoslavia; and Gen'l. Dragoljub Ojdanic, chief of staff of the Yugoslav army.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.A1)
1999        Jun 9, The Pentagon revealed aerial photographs that indicated the destruction of evidence of Serb atrocities in Kosovo. Some 143 graves at Izbica where 270 residents were reported killed, appeared to have been obliterated.
    (USAT, 6/10/99, p.10A)

1999        Oct 22, In Bosnia Zeljko Kopanja, editor-in-chief of Nezavisne Novine, lost both legs due to a bomb attack as he opened his car door. He had recently published a series of war time atrocities committed against non-Serbs by Bosnian and Serb forces.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A11)
2000        Sep 25, In NYC a US District court ordered Radovan Karadzic, a former Bosnian Serb leader, to pay $4.5 million in damages for 1992 war atrocities committed by his soldiers.
    (SFC, 9/26/00, p.A16)

1999        Sep 13, Indonesia agreed to an int'l. commission to investigate possible atrocities in East Timor and to create no obstacles to the deployment of a foreign peacekeeping force.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A1)

xxxx Top  100 plus

1347-1350    Oct, The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, in Sicily. From this time forth the disease became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.151)(NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1958        China tried to modernize its economy in “The Great Leap Forward” and urged factories and farms to meet impossible production targets. Rather than concede failure, local officials misled central planners about output. The result: a famine that may have killed as many as 30 million people by the end of 1960. The story is told by Jasper Becker in his 1997 book “Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine.”
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)

1853-1864     The Taiping army of Hong Xiuquan took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital in the Taiping Rebellion. He claimed to be Jesus' brother and ruled there until 1864. Imperial troops crushed his movement and tens of millions died. Some 10,000 people were killed at Nanjing.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/99, p.A10)

1937-1938    Their were sweeping purges across the Soviet Union. 14 million people across Russia were estimated to have died in the purges. Several hundred Americans were arrested in Karelia, near the Finnish border. Several thousand Americans and Canadians had moved there to help develop the Soviet timber industry. 40,000 people a month were executed.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)(SFEC,11/9/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1919        The Bolsheviks began repressions and millions of Cossacks died. Their institutions were destroyed and many fled the country.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1971        Dec 6, India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)

1950        Jun 25, The Korean War started as forces from the communist North invaded the South. It lasted till 1953. A Truman administration statement that Korea was “outside the US defense perimeter” in the Pacific was said to have invited the attack. Gen. McArthur led a UN expeditionary force in response to North Korea’s attack on South Korea. The Chinese entered the war and the UN forces were pushed into a Christmas retreat. 2.5 million people were killed. No peace treaty was ever signed. About 1.7 million Americans were involved and there was an estimated 3 mil casualties including 150,000 (54,246) Americans and over 1 mil Chinese. In 1990 North Korean officials revealed that Stalin knew about and encouraged North Korea’s aggression as did Mao Tse-Tung.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, H. E. Kim, p.255)(TMC, 1994, p.1950)(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A15) (SFC, 4/8/96, p.A-9)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 2/17/96, p.A26)(AP, 6/25/97)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A22)

1937-1941    Some 2 million people were killed during Stalinist purges on the outskirts of Minsk, Belarus.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)

1973        The Vietnam War resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 [1.2] million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet cong), and 2 million civilians.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

2000        Jun 9, The Congo 22-month civil war averaged some 2,600 deaths every day. The total was estimated at 1.7 million dead.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A20)

1975-1979    Pol Pot, whose real name is Saloth Sar, led the Khmer Rouge and ruled Cambodia. In 1987 Joan D. Criddle and Teeda Butt Mam authored "To Destroy You Is No Loss: The Odyssey of a Cambodian Family." The work was recorded on cassette in 1992 and told the extraordinary story of a Cambodian family caught up in the genocide under Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge. An estimated 1.7 million people were killed under the Khmer Rouge. In 2000 Loung Ung authored “First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers.”
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A11)(AR, 9/4/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A15)(SFEC, 6/11/00, BR p.6)

1983-1998    The Sudan civil war killed some 1.5 million people over this period.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)

1945        Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium where 1.1 - 1.5 million people were murdered. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-10)(AP, 1/27/98)

1915-1923    Some 1 million Armenians were massacred under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. The Turks claimed that hundreds of thousands died as casualties of war.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A22)

1980-1988    Iran and Iraq engaged in war. The number of casualties was estimated at well over a million.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.312)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)

1941-1945    Croatia was occupied by Nazi forces and with its Moslem allies some 700,000 Serbs and 75,000 Jews and Gypsies were killed. [This was a letter with reference to the Encyclopedia Britannica as source material] The Independent State of Croatia was set up after the German and Italian invasions and run by the fascist Ustashe regime as a puppet state. The central Ustashe aim was to cleanse Croatia of “foreign” elements and to turn Croatia into a "100% Roman Catholic state." Jasenovac was the site of the largest Ustashe death camp, and some estimates claim as many as several hundred thousand dead. Ante Pavelic was the leader of the Ustashe regime.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/3/96, p.A-22)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)

1969-1973    The US Air Force dropped 539,129 tons of bombs on Cambodia and killed some 700,000 people. The bombing drove rural people into the cities and caused a collapse of the agricultural system that contributed to the rise of the Khmer Rouge and a famine that was later blamed on the Khmer Rouge.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.A25)

1975        Dec 7, Indonesia invaded East Timor nine days after the Timorese political party Fretilin claimed independence. Some 600,000 were left dead after a prolonged war.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, zone 1, p.8)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)(HNQ, 11/9/00)

1967        Jul 6, The Biafran War erupted. The war, which lasted more than two years, claimed some 600,000 lives. The Republic of Biafra was proclaimed when the eastern region of Nigeria, the homeland of the Ibo people, seceded. This was followed by civil war. The federal troops of Nigeria held most of rebellious Biafra by the end of 1968 but the Ibos attempted to hold out in a small and crowded area.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(HNQ, 5/27/98)

1992        A Mozambique peace accord ended 17 years of civil war during which some 600,000 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.B13C)

1994         Apr - Jul, 500,000 - 1 Million people in Rwanda, Africa, were killed by Hutu extremists. Most of them were minority Tutsis and opponents of the ruling Hutu majority.
    (SFEC, 1/15/1995, A-10)
1994        Spring-summer, Hutus slaughtered more than 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, in Rwanda and fled to refugee camps in Zaire (Congo).
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1528        The Mexican fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Veracruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1965        Oct 20, Mass arrests of communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the government in 1965.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(MC, 10/20/01)
1965         Sep 30, A coup was attempted in Indonesia. Suharto crushed the coup and seized power from Pres. Sukarno. The 1983 film “The Year of Living Dangerously” with Mel Gibson was set in Indonesia’s 1965 civil war. An estimated 250-500 thousand Indonesians were killed on suspicion of being Communist Party members or sympathizers. US CIA and Embassy officials later admitted that they furnished as many as 5000 names of “communist” leaders to the Indonesian army.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T6)(SFC, 5/16/00, p.A12,14)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)

1991-1992    Some 350,000 Somalis died from disease, starvation and civil war.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)

1916        Dec 18, The Battle of Verdun ended with the French and Germans each having suffered more than 330,000 killed and wounded in 10 months. [see Dec 15]
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1988-1998    The fighting in Kashmir left 300,000 dead over this period.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)

1902        Jul, The Philippine-American War officially ended. Estimates for the civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive account of the conflict.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)

1995-1998    In 1999 North Korea reported that some 220,000 people died from famine over this period. South Korean officials estimated that the population had fallen from 25 million to 23 million. In 1998 a US congressional delegation estimated the number to be 2 million.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A21)

1948-1958    In Colombia the period known as “La Violencia.” Over 200,000 people were killed in massacres by the 2 rival parties, the Conservatives and the Liberals.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A11)

1933        Aleksandr Rodchenko was dispatched to document the White Sea Canal project in which some 200,000 political prisoners were killed.
    (WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)

1992-1995    Gen'l. Momir Talic of Bosnia commanded the 1st Krajina Corps. Talic and Radoslav Brdjanin planned and ordered a terror offensive early in the war that killed hundreds of Muslims and Croats and forced thousands to flee Prijedor a d Sanski. Talic was arrested in Austria in 1999 on a secret UN war crimes indictment. Both men pleaded not guilty to 12 counts of genocide at the Hague. During the 3 years of war some 200,000 Bosnians were dead or missing and an estimated 20,000 women were raped.
    (SFC, 8/26/99, p.A12)(SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)(SFC, 3/30/00, p.A18)

1999        Feb 25, A 100-page summary of a 3,600 page report by the UN mandated Historical Clarification Committee was released. It indicated that the US government and US corporations played a key role in maintaining the right-wing military governments during most of the 36 years of civil war in Guatemala. The report documented a genocide against Mayan Indians with a death toll of some 200,000. The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (UNRG) was responsible for 3% of the atrocities. The Guatemalan Army was blamed for 93% of the human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A1,17)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.A13)

1937        Dec-Feb, In the Japanese “Rape of Nanjing” more than 200,000 people were killed. Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997 Iris Chang (29) published “The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of world War II.” The largest execution of prisoners took place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and soldiers were gunned down.
    (WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)

1945        Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed. A book was published in 1995 by Col. Hiromishi Yahara, chief Japanese strategist of Okinawa titled “The Battle for Okinawa.” A counterpoint to the colonel's account is a collection of first hand accounts from US soldiers in Gerold Astor's “Operation Iceberg.”
    (WSJ, 8/29/95, p.A-12) (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)
1945        Jun 22, The World War II battle for Okinawa officially ended; 12,520 Americans and 110,000 Japanese were killed in the 81-day campaign. The battle for Okinawa proved to be the bloodiest in the Pacific Theater. A huge assemblage of American forces from both Admiral Chester W. Nimitz’s Central Pacific drive and General Douglas MacArthur’s Southwest Pacific thrust converged on Okinawa--over 180,000 troops. For three months they faced more than 100,000 Japanese troops of Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima’s Thirty-Second Army. Tokyo needed time to prepare for the expected American invasion of the home islands, so Ushijima wanted to make his adversary wrench each hill and ridge from his well-armed men.
    (AP, 6/22/97)(HN, 6/27/01)

1945        Aug 6, Hiroshima, Japan, was struck with the uranium bomb, Little Boy, from the B-29 airplane, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets of the US Air Force. The atom bomb killed an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/6/97)(HN, 8/6/98)

1945        Feb 14, 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany following the British assault. The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people. At least 35,000 died and some people place the toll closer to 70,000. The novel “Slaughterhouse Five” by Kurt Vonnegut was set in Dresden during the firebombing where he was being held as a prisoner of war. US B-17 bombers dropped 771 more tons on Dresden while P-51 Mustang fighters strafed roads packed with soldiers and civilians fleeing the burning city. [see Feb 13]
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(HN, 2/13/99)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)

1914        Nov 25, Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw, Poland. The Russians lost 90,000 to the Germans’ 35,000 in two weeks of fighting.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1916        Mar 18, On the Eastern Front, the Russians countered the Verdun assault with an attack at Lake Naroch. The Russians lost 100,000 men and the Germans lost 20,000.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1945        Apr 15, The deadly battle for Berlin began. The Seelow Heights posed the last natural barrier to Berlin in April 1945 from an advancing Red Army. The rolling plains and plateaus of the Seelow Heights were only 35 miles from the German capital and were well defended. The battle, which raged for a week, was extremely costly to both sides, leaving some 30,000 Red Army soldiers and at least 80,000 Germans killed.
    (HNQ, 4/16/99)

1972        The conflict between the Philippine government and Muslim rebels began. A full-scale guerrilla war began in which some 120,000 people were killed by 1999.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A19)

1999        Jun 27, The president of Algeria raised the death toll in the 7-year civil war against rebel groups to 100,000.
    (WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A1)

1939-1945    Of the 330,000 Jews in France at the start of the war, about 76,000 were deported to Nazi concentration camps and only 2,500 survived. Prof. Irving Halperin (d.2000) later authored “”Messengers from the Dead,” a book on Holocaust literature.
    (SFC, 4/18/00, p.A8)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)

1996        Apr, The Red Cross said more than 55,000 people of Burundi have been driven from their homes by ethnic fighting that intensified last month. More than 100,000 have been killed since 1993 in the conflict between majority Hutus and minority Tutsis. The fighting occurred  in the capital city of Bujumbura. 235 civilians died when the Burundi army attacked villages at Buhoro
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.C-12)

1905        Feb 21, The Mukden campaign of the Russo-Japanese War, began. In one of the largest battles ever fought up to that time, some 750,000 Japanese and Russian soldiers engaged in the battle for Mukden in the Russo-Japanese War. The three-week battle pitted 400,000 Japanese and 350,000 Russians stretched over a front extending more than 90 miles. More than 100,000 were left dead or injured as the Russians began a retreat toward Harbin on March 9.
    (HN, 2/21/98)(HNQ, 4/23/99)

1945        Mar 10, American B-29s bombed Tokyo, killing 100,000. It was the second atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, that induced the Japanese to surrender.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1944        Some 150,000 Hungarian troops fought under Nazi command at the Don River. The Red army killed about 90,000 and thousands died trying to walk back to Hungary.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)

1996        Sep 3, In Russia Alexander Lebed said that about 80,000 people had died in the fighting in Chechnya during the 21 months of the war.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A10)

1992        Jan 16, Officials of the government of El Salvador and rebel leaders signed a pact in Mexico City ending 12 years of civil war that had left at least 75,000 people dead.
    (AP, 1/16/98)

1945        Aug 9, The 10,000 lb. plutonium bomb, Fat Man, was dropped over Nagasaki after the primary objective of Kokura was passed due to visibility problems. It killed an estimated 74,000 people. The B-29 bomber plane Bock’s Car so named for its assigned pilot, Fred Bock, was piloted by Captain Charles W. Sweeney. Kermit Beahan (d.1989) was the bombardier.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(SFC, 3/17/00, p.D6)(HNQ, 3/31/00)

1941        Aug, In Germany public protests curtailed the Nazi euthanasia program that had already gassed some 70,000 mentally handicapped German adults and children.
    (WSJ, 3/23/04, p.D8)

1993        Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia after a 30-year civil war. Some 65,000 Eritreans lost their lives in the fight for independence. Pres. Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia allowed Eritrea to secede as a reward for the support of its rebel forces in 1991.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1030-1093    In China Shen Kua was an engineer and high official Chinese astronomer. In his1086 work “Dream Pool Essays,” Shen Kua made the first reference to the magnetic compass. The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1904        The Hereros, a cattle-herding tribe of what was German South West Africa, were the first genocide victims of the 20th century. When the Hereros rebelled against the German colonialists in 1904, Kaiser Wilhelm II sent General Lothar von Trotha to the colony, who drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal “extermination order” authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries.
    (HNPD, 4/14/99)

1987-1988    Some 50-100 thousand Kurds were killed by poisonous gas from Iraqi forces.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.B6)
1991        Mar 2, The Kurds rose up against Iraqi forces but were crushed by Iraqi armor that killed 50,000 and forced more than a million Kurds to flee to Turkey and Iran.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)

1937        Dec-Jan, John Rabe (1882-1950), a German businessman for Siemens living in China, recorded the 2-month terror of the Japanese “Rape of Nanking” in his diary. The Japanese sacked and pillaged the city. They raped at least 20,000 women and killed at least 50,000 people. Rabe established a neutral safe zone for hundreds of thousands of Chinese refugees. Noncombatant deaths may have reached 300,000. Reporter Tillman Durdin (d.1998 at 91) filed reports for the New York times. Later Iris Chang wrote “The Rape of Nanking.”
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/10/98, p.D3)

1572        Aug 24, The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of Catholics began in Paris as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. France’s fourth war of religion started with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots and their leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, were killed in and around Paris.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)
1903        Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1988        May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan. Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the wounded, suicides, and murders. Mujahideen continued to fight against Najibullah's regime. Some 130,000 Red Army troops fought in Afghanistan and 15,000 were lost.
    (AP, 5/18/98)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)

1943        Nov, The 2-day Nazi “Operation Harvest” at the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland executed men, women and children. Nazi officer Alfons Goetzfried later admitted to having personally shot 500 people. Over 42,000 people, mostly Jews, were killed in the operation. In 1999 Alfons Goetzfrid (79) was convicted for assisting in the murders of 17,000 Jews at the camp. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)

1980-1992    A civil war raged in El Salvador during which security forces have been blamed for killing 40,000 civilians with torture commonplace. It was later reported that the US had pumped $1.5 million a day into the fight “to make El Salvador safe for democracy.”
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)(SFEM,11/16/97, p.28)

1942        Aug 23, German forces began an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad. From Aug. to Feb. 1943, The Battle of Stalingrad, 600 miles southeast of Moscow, was fought and ended with the encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army Group. Stalingrad has since been renamed to Volgograd. In 1998 Antony Beevor published “Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege.” The German in charge was Gen’l. Friedrich Paulus. Luftwaffe air raids killed 40,000 people in the first week of fighting.
    (WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(HN, 8/23/98)

1899-1902    In the Boer War some 12,000 blacks and 18,000 whites were killed from epidemics in British concentration camps. Some 25,000 blacks and 94,000 whites were herded into the world's first concentration camps. Thomas Packenham later authored "The Boer War."
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1944        Hundreds of natives died during the US invasion of the Northern Marianas. 5,000 American troops and 40,000 Japanese also died.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1997        Aug 15, It was reported that Argentina would issue bonds to pay indemnities to the relatives and descendants of the 1970s “dirty war.” As many as 30,000 people disappeared and about 8,000 families have applied for payments authorized at $224,000 per victim.
    (WSJ, 8/15/97, p.A1)

1941        Sep 26, In Ukraine some 33,761 Jews of Kiev were killed over 3 days before Yom Kippur in the ravine at Babi Yar by the Nazis. Over the next 2 years some 100-200 thousand more people, mostly Jews, were killed at the site.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A8)(SFC, 6/26/01, p.A8)(MC, 9/26/01)
1941        Sep 29, 30,000 Jews were gunned down in Kiev when Henrich Himmler sent four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other “undesirables.”
    (HN, 9/29/00)
1941        Oct 22-23, Some 39,000 [20,000] Jews were killed by Romanian troops over 2 days in Odessa. Many of them were burned to death in a public square or in warehouses that were locked shut. Altogether some 90,000 Jews were killed in Odessa.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)(WSJ, 3/23/04, p.D8)

1759        Jul 23, Russians under Saltikov defeated Prussians at Kay in eastern Germany, and one-fourth of Prussian army of 27,000 was lost.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1940        Apr-May, Some 25,700 (15,000) Polish citizens were massacred by the Soviets in the Katyn and Miednoje (Mednoye) forests on the outskirts of Moscow and at Kharkov in western Russia (later Ukraine). Some 14,700 Polish officers were identified by their uniforms. Excavations of the sites began in 1994. 6,313 Polish officers were all shot in the back of the head near Mednoye. 9,000 Russians were also massacred at the site.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.16)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.A18)

1971        Mar 14, US Senator Edward Kennedy estimated that 25,000 Vietnamese civilians had been killed in 1970.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1603        Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1867        Jul 20, Imperial troops in Guizhou, China, killed 20,000 Miao rebels.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1982-1987    Some 200 guerrillas of the minority Ndebele tribe in Matabeleland province fought troops of Pres. Mugabe and as many as 20,000 civilians were killed. In 1999 Mugabe ordered provincial officials to prepare compensation claims for the victims of army atrocities.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A14)
1983-1984    In Zimbabwe the Matabeleland atrocities occurred when the government of Robert Mugabe sent in its North Korean trained Fifth Brigade to terrorize the Ndebele-speaking region that supported opponent Joshua Nkomo. Thousands of civilians died. The terror ended in 1987 when Nkomo reconciled with Mugabe.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)

1982        Feb, Pres. Hafez Assad ordered the Syrian army under his brother, Rifaat Assad, to crush a Muslim Brotherhood revolt in Hama. 10-20,000 residents were massacred.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)(WSJ, 6/13/00, p.A26)(SSFC, 11/18/01, p.A5)

1941        Apr 6-8, German Luftwaffe Marshall Alexander Lohr commanded a surprise air attack on Belgrade. Lohr was later tried and executed for the bombings. Over 17,000 citizens of Belgrade were killed in the bombing.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)

1989-1990    In 1997 the Sri Lanka government admitted that nearly 17,000 people died or vanished during an offensive against the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna ( JVP, People’s Liberation Front), a Marxist rebel group. Human rights groups estimated that some 60,000 people were killed or disappeared.
    (WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/97, p.A3)
1995        Dec. 6, The flag of Sri Lanka was raised over the Tamil stronghold of Jaffna. This marked the biggest victory in the 12 year war in which 39,000 people have died.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-1)

1999        Jun 14, Eritrea and Ethiopia battled for a 5th day. Eritrea claimed to have killed, wounded or captured over 12,000 soldiers, while Ethiopia claimed the same for 8,200 soldiers. Over half a million soldiers were stationed along the 600-mile border.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C5)(SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

1984-1993    In South Africa from Sep ‘84 to Dec ‘93, some 19,000 people were killed in political violence.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E1)

1975-1990    An estimated 17,000 Lebanese were reported missing during the civil war. In 2000 a government commission ended a 7-month investigation and said the missing were probably all dead.
    (SFC, 7/27/00, p.C16)

1842        cJan 2-12, Akbar Khan, Afghan hero, was victorious against the British. Out of 4,500 (16,500) soldiers and 12,000 dependents only one survivor, of a mixed British-Indian garrison, reached the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony. The British retreated from Kabul to Jalalabad. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel “Flashman.”
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1862        Aug 18, A Sioux Uprising began uprising in Minnesota. It resulted in more than 800 white settlers dead and 38 Sioux Indians condemned and hanged. The Minnesota Uprising began when four young Sioux murdered five white settlers at Acton. The Santee Sioux, who lived on a long, narrow reservation on the south side of the Minnesota River, were reacting to broken government promises and corrupt Indian agents. a military court sentenced 303 Sioux to die, but President Abraham Lincoln reduced the list. The 38 hangings took place on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minn.
    (MC, 8/18/02)(HNQ, 1/4/00)

1904        Sep 19, Gen. Nogi assaulted Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1942        Oct 29, Nazis murdered some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1941        Nov 6, Einsatz death groups killed 15,000 Jews of Rovno, Ukraine.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1648        Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
    (PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)

1942        Nov 6, Nazis executed 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1898        Sep 2, In Sudan Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers, machine guns and rifles. Lt. Winston Churchill led one of the last (and most useless) cavalry charges in history. Sir Herbert Kitchener led the British to victory over the Mahdists at Omdurman and took Khartoum. The Dervishes left 11,000 dead and 16,000 wounded. The Anglo-Egyptian army suffered fewer than a dozen casualties. In 1899 Winston Churchill published "The River War, An Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan." This was the 1st use of the machine gun in battle.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 9/2/98)(ON, 10/99, p.3)(MC, 9/2/01)

1973-1997    Some 11,000 Laotians were killed or wounded by left over American bombs.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A19)

1991        A Serb rebellion set off a 6-month war in which at least 10,000 people were killed. Serb rebels backed by Yugoslavia seized a third of Croatia, but the territory was regained in 1995.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)

1984        Apr, India sent troops to occupy the Siachen glacier following suspicious mountaineering expeditions from Pakistan. Over the next 15 years some 10,000 Indian and Pakistani casualties, largely due to frostbite and mountain sickness, resulted.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A25)

1991        Civil war began in Sierra Leone and by 1996 10,000 had been killed. Foday Sankoh’s Revolutionary United Front began fighting a bush war. In 1998 Sankoh was charged with treason.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)

1937        Oct-Nov, A 3-man panel, the “Osobaya Troika,” signed death sentences  that were sent to thousands of gulags across Russia and led to the massacre of 9,000 victims in the Karelia Forest at Medvezhyegorsk. The grave site was opened in Jul, 1997, and a monument was planned.
    (SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)

1915        Jun 21, Germany used poison gas for the first time in warfare in the Argonne Forest.
    (HN, 6/21/98)
1915        Sep 25, At the Battle at Loos: 8,246 British and 0 German casualties.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1915        Oct 8, The WWI Battle of Loos ended with virtually no gains for either side. There was loss of over one hundred thousand French, British, and German lives in this battle. It marked the first use of poisonous gas by the British, which drifted back to the British trenches.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1995        In El Salvador there were 7,877 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1994        In El Salvador there were 7,673 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1995        Jul 6, 3:15AM The UN safe area at Srebrenica came under attack by the Bosnian Serb army’s Drina corps under Genl. Radislav Krstic, and some 7,500 Muslim men and boys were killed. The acquisition and delivery of arms was organized by Yugoslav army officer Mirko Krajisnik, brother to Momcilo Krajisnik, president of the Bosnian Serb assembly. In 1998 Chuck Sudetic published “Blood and Vengeance: One Family’s Story of the War in Bosnia.” The book focused on the Srebrenica killings. 300 Dutch troops were later accused of not preventing the Serbs from overrunning the town. Bosnian Serb Gen’l. Radislav Krstic was arrested in 1998 for genocide in the 1995 takeover of Srebrenica. In 1999 the UN issued a 155-page report that admitted its failure to block the massacre. Krstic was convicted in 2001.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A8)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 8/12/98, p.A14) (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A16)(SFC, 11/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/14/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/3/01, p.A1)
1995        Jul 11, Srebrenica, a UN declared “safe area,” fell to the Bosnian Serbs. 7,000 Muslim men supposedly escaped but were never heard from again. Drazen Erdemovic (24) later admitted that he participated in killing 70 men at Srebrenica. Victims were shot in the back in groups of 10 by himself and fellow soldiers in the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Sabotage Detachment. He was told that he would be killed if he refused to follow orders.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A12)(SFC, 7/7/96, A10) (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A10)

1996        In El Salvador there were 6,792 people murdered in this year according to the attorney general’s office.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B5)

1999        Jan 31, Rebels in Sierra Leone freed 11 Indian nationals abducted a week ago. The government said that as many as 3,000-5000 people died during the fighting in Freetown. The number of dead was raised to 6,350.
    (WSJ, 2/1/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/12/99, p.A8)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A14)

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the “Armenian Question.”
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1519        Cortez discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1521        Jan, Cortez returned to Tenochtitlan and destroyed the city. Thousands of Aztecs were killed. The surviving children of Montezuma were sent to Spain and were granted compensatory titles to the Spanish nobility.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1942        Oct 5, 5,000 Jews of Dubno, Russia, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1999        There were some 5,000 killings this year in Medellin. Some 220 gangs with 8,500 gang members fought turf battles on a daily basis.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A20)

1995        Aug, Some 200,000 Serbs were moved from the Krajina region. More than 4,500 were killed and some 3,000 are still listed as missing in an operation that was directed by retired American generals through MPRI of Alexandria, Va. About 14,000 Krajina Serbs ended up in Kosovo until 1998, when they left as violence spread.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A15)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.B1)

2001        Sep 11, World leaders expressed outrage at terrorist attacks in NYC and the Pentagon and pledged solidarity with the US. In the West Bank town of Nablus, some 3,000 people celebrated the attacks and chanted “God is great.” Later the estimates of the WTC dead dropped to 4,396.
    (SFC, 9/12/01, p.A14)(SFC, 11/3/01, p.A3)

1944        Apr, Orthodox Easter, Allied bombing of Nazi occupied Serbia resulted in the deaths of some 4,000 Serbian civilians. An account of the raids, requested by US Gen'l. Carl Spaatz, found that most of the bombs struck at least 600 yards from their targets.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)

1932        Jan 23, El Salvador army killed 4,000 protesting farmers.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1942        Sep 30, The German SS exterminated some 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland, in 6 week period.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1982        Mar 8, The U.S. accused the Soviets of killing 3,000 Afghans with poison gas.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1988        Aug 8-Aug 13, The Burma police killed nearly 3,000 protesters in the streets of Rangoon.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Par. p.5)(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T8)

1984        Nov 3, Some 3,000 died in a 3 day anti-Sikh riot in India.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1942        Oct, On Yom Kippur 2,900 Jews were killed in Domachevo, Belarus.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)

1349        Feb 14, 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured the Turkish citadel at Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners. [see Mar 26] The prisoners were massacred because Napoleon claimed that he could not feed them. About this time bubonic plague broke out among his troops.
    (HN, 3/7/99)(ON, 12/99, p.2)

1992        Dec 6, In Uttar Pradesh, India, thousands of Hindu extremists destroyed a mosque, setting off two months of Hindu-Muslim rioting that claimed at least 2,000 lives. Attackers set off 13 bomb blasts in Bombay that destroyed skyscrapers and killed 600 people. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) inspired Hindus to raze a 16th century mosque in the northern town of Ayodhya. The demolition caused Hindu-Muslim riots across India and 3,000 people were killed. Hindus believe that the site was the birthplace of the god Ram and that Mogul invaders tore down a temple at the site to build the Babri Mosque. In 1998 the Congress Party apologized for the mosque destruction.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-14)(AP, 12/6/97)(SFEC, 1/25/98, p.A20)

1982        Sep 16-18, The massacre of hundreds of Palestinian men, women and children by Lebanese Christian militiamen began in west Beirut's Sabra and Chatilla (Shatilla) refugee camps. Up to 2,000 Palestinian civilians were killed. Israel’s defense minister, Ariel Sharon, was held responsible and lost his top post. In 2001 survivors lodged a complaint in Belgium against Sharon.
    (AP, 9/16/97)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A8)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)(SFC, 6/19/01, p.A8)

1944        Mar 27, Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania. Forty Jewish policemen were shot in the Riga, Latvia, ghetto by the Gestapo.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1096        Oct 21, Seljuk Turks under Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea slaughtered thousands of German crusaders at Chivitot.
    (HN, 10/21/99)(MC, 10/21/01)

1991        Sep 21, Yugoslav army tanks and artillery began an invasion of eastern Croatia. The Croats said that some 600 soldiers and 1200 civilians perished in the 3-month bombardment of Vukovar by rebel Serbs.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1937        Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
    (440 Int’l. internet, 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98) (HNPD, 4/26/99)

1941        Aug 29, The German Einsatzkommando in Russia killed 1,469 Jewish children.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1355        May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1998        May 12-15, It was later reported that 1,188 people died in Jakarta in the riots over this period. The nationwide toll was believed to be much higher.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)

1991        Oct, During the siege of Vukovar the Yugoslavian army and Serbian paramilitary troops killed and buried as many as 1000 Croatian soldiers and civilians. The bodies began to be uncovered in Apr 1998.
    (SFC, 4/29/98, p.A12)

1997        May 13, Congo rebel troops reached Wendji and Mbandaka and proceeded to kill Hutu refugees. Estimates of deaths varied from 550-2000.
    (WSJ, 6/6/97, p.A11)(SFC, 9/23/97, p.A11)

1978        Nov 18, California Rep. Leo J. Ryan and four other people were killed in Jonestown, Guyana, by members of the Peoples Temple. The killings were followed by a night of mass murder and suicide by 912 cult members. Greg Robinson, a SF Examiner photographer, Don Harris, NBC correspondent, Bob Brown, NBC cameraman, and Patricia Parks, a temple defector, were shot dead. The 914 suicides at Jonestown included 260 children.
    (AP, 11/18/97)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A18)

1992        Muslim militants in Egypt began an insurgency with attacks largely in southern Egypt to overthrow the government of Hosni Mubarak. By 1996 more than 920 people had been killed, mostly police and militants.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)(SFEC,12/28/97, p.A17)

1906        Mar, American forces killed some 900 Muslims including women and children on Mount Dajo, Philippines.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.D3)

1096        May, Before embarking on the First Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim Turks in 1096, Count Emich von Leiningen and his army swept through their own German homeland, murdering thousands of Jews, whom they had declared "murderers of Christ." When Emich arrived in the town of Worms in May 1096, the town's Roman Catholic Bishop tried to protect the Jewish population, but the Crusaders overran his palace and slaughtered some 500 people who had taken shelter there. Another 300 were killed over the next two days. The graves of the massacre victims can still be seen at the Jewish Cemetery at Worms.
    (HNPD, 5/12/99)

1993        In Bombay Hindus killed some 800 Muslims in revenge for earlier killings. In 2000 Bal Thackeray, a Hindu supremacist, was arrested for inciting the killings, but was released because the case was filed too late.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A13)

1942        Nov 11, 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1862        Aug 17, The Sioux Uprising, which resulted in more than 800 white settlers dead and 38 Sioux Indians condemned and hanged, took place in Minnesota. The Sioux, or Minnesota, Uprising began when four young Sioux murdered five white settlers at Acton. The Santee Sioux, who lived on a long, narrow reservation on the south side of the Minnesota River, were reacting to broken government promises and corrupt Indian agents. a military court sentenced 303 Sioux to die, but President Abraham Lincoln reduced the list. The 38 hangings took place on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minn.
    (HNQ, 1/4/00)

2000        Mar 17, In Uganda some 330 followers of the Movement for the Restoration of Ten Commandments of God, led by Joseph Kibweteree, burned to death in a mass suicide in Kanungu. Children were involved and it was not clear if Kibweteree was killed. More bodies were found at the house of Kibweteree. Foul play was later suspected instead of suicide. 448 other victims were later found.
    (SFEC, 3/19/00, p.A19)(SFC, 3/20/00, p.A13)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.A18)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A13)
2000        Apr 27, Workers in Ggaba, a residential area south of Kampala, exhumed the bodies of 55 more people associated with the Movement for the Restoration of Ten Commandments. Total deaths stood at 979.
    (SFC, 4/28/00, p.D2)

1976        Jun 16, In South Africa white police gunned down black schoolchildren and caused a nationwide riot that left 700 people dead. Students at Morris Isacson High School in Soweto had marched to protest a new rule that called for Afrikaans as the medium of instruction.
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.C12)

1814        Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)

1520        Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1999        Aug 4, In Congo at least 518 people, mostly civilians, were killed when Sudanese planes, at the request of Congo's government, bombed the rebel-held towns of Makanza and Bogbonga. Sudan denied the charges and Congolese Pres. Kabila denied responsibility.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1998/99    Dec 30-Jan 1, Some 500 people were massacred in eastern Congo during the 3 day New Year holiday. The killings were by soldiers aligned with rebels led by Tutsi, but the victims were not Hutu.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1942        Sep, More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China’s eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China, until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)

1870        Jan 23, 173 Blackfoot, including 140 women and children, were killed in Montana by US Army.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

2001        Jan 8, The Taliban massacred some 150-300 unarmed Hazaras, a Shiite Muslim minority group, in Yakalang.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A9)(SFC, 11/10/01, p.A4)

1997        Jan 11, In Burundi soldiers shot and killed 126 Burundian Hutu refugees trying to break out of a holding camp in the northeast. Seven soldiers were arrested for the slayings.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.A12)

1999        Nov 11, In Pakistan Javed Iqbal (40) killed his 87th victim, Mohammad Imran (15). Iqbal dissolved the bodies in vats of chemicals and left photos and notes that described his victims. The story became public in Dec. when his killings reached 100 and he made his story public. Iqbal surrendered in Lahore on Dec 30. Iqbal committed suicide in 2001.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B2)(WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A1)

1778        Nov 11, Iroquois Indians, led by William Butler, massacred 40 inhabitants of Cherry Valley, N.Y.
    (HN, 11/11/98)(MC, 11/11/01)

1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

xxxx No numbers on killed

722BC        The Assyrians conquered Israel and left nothing behind. The Hebrew kingdom of Judah managed to survive. Descendants of the Israelites not exiled by the Assyrians were later known as the Samaritans.
    (eawc, p.7)(WSJ, 10/13/00, p.W15)

149-146BC    Rome and Carthage fought the 3rd Punic War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. All inhabitants of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the ground. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.
    (eawc, p.15)

642        Sep 17, Arabs conquered Alexandria and destroyed the great library. Omar, the second caliph, successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of world scholarship.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.103)(MC, 9/17/01)

1019        Machmud of Ghazni, a kingdom in central Asia (Afghanistan), invaded India and took so many captives that the prices of slaves plummeted for several years. He invade India annually for 25 years.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1096        May 18, Crusaders massacred the Jews of Worms. Before embarking on the First Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim Turks, Count Emich von Leiningen and his army swept through their own German homeland, murdering thousands of Jews, whom they had declared "murderers of Christ." When Emich arrived in the town of Worms in May, the town's Roman Catholic Bishop tried to protect the Jewish population, but the Crusaders overran his palace and slaughtered some 500 people who had taken shelter there. Another 300 were killed over the next two days. The graves of the massacre victims can still be seen at the Jewish Cemetery at Worms.
    (HNPD, 5/12/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1099        Jul 15, Jerusalem fell to the crusaders who slaughtered the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 7/15/98)

1160        Feb 3, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1221        Genghis Khan razed the city of Bamiyan, Afghanistan, and exterminated its inhabitants.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1243        Jun 26, The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1377        Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1396        Sep 25, The last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajazet I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1522        A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1880-1920    The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)
1906        Edmund Morel wrote “Red Rubber: the Story of the Rubber Slave Trade Flourishing on the Congo in the year of Grace 1906.”
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1900        Jun 21, After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing. An international force of Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. In 2000 Diana Preston authored “The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China’s War on foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900.”
    (HNPD, 6/21/99)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A24)

1903        Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1914        Aug 23, Gen. von Hausen executed 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium. Felix Fivet (3 weeks old), Belgian baby, was among those executed by German troops.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1915        Jan 31, Germans used poison gas on the Russians at Bolimov.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1935-1936    The Italian army used chemical warfare against Ethiopia in violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)
1936        Mar 29, Italy firebombed the Ethiopian city of Harar.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1937        Jul 31, The Russian Politburo enabled Operative Order 00447. This led to the execution of some 193,000 people.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1941        Apr 9, In Czestochowa, Poland, a ghetto for Jews was created. By the end of WW II some 45,000 of Czestochowa's Jews were murdered by the Germans, almost the entire Jewish community living there.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa)

1940        In Poland “the Nazis packed 450,000 human beings into 75 square blocks of the Warsaw ghetto, then walled it off and left them to starve.”
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1942        Jan 23, At Novi Sad, Serbia, some 1200 people (predominantly Jewish), rounded up over a period of three days, were shot along the shores of the Danube. Their bodies were dumped into the frozen waters. Sandor Kepiro (b.1914), a Hungarian gendarmerie officer, participated in the mass murder. In 1944 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the atrocities, but conviction was later annulled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o5n5j3)(AP, 9/15/09)

1942        May 7, A Nazi decree ordered all Jewish pregnant women of Kovno Ghetto executed.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1944        Josef Stalin deported some 250,000 Tatars from Crimea to Uzbekistan. They did not being to return home until the fall of the Soviet Union.
    (SFC, 1/4/99, p.A8,9)
1944        Feb 23, Stalin ordered the mass deportation of Chechens to Central Asia for resisting Soviet rule and abetting the Germans. More than a third of the population died before the rest were allowed to go home.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.A9)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A32)

1944        In Hungary Sandor Kepiro (b.1914) was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the Jan, 1942, atrocities at Novi Sad, Serbia, in which 1,200 Serb and Jewish civilians were killed by Hungarian forces, who raided Serbia in the wake of the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia. He was freed by Hungary's fascist regime shortly after his trial and fled to Argentina after the war. In 1946, the Communist government of Hungary tried him again and sentenced him to 14 years in absentia. He returned to Budapest in 1996.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/09/28/world/europe/28iht-hungary.2970014.html?_r=1)(AP, 9/15/09)

1950-1980    In South Africa about 3.5 million blacks were forcibly trucked off to ethnic territories, often abandoning land, houses and cattle.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-10)

1964-1973    US warplanes carried out 580,000 bombing missions over Laos and dropped an estimated 2.3 million tons of bombs.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A22)

c1976        Black prisoners were killed by injections supplied by Dr. Wouter Basson, head of the chemical and biological and weapons program. In 2000 Johan Theron, a former special forces officer, testified how he flung the victim’s corpses from an airplane into the Atlantic. Theron and Gen. Fritz Loots had decided that there were too many guerrillas of the South West African People’s Organization in the prison camps.
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)

1992        Aug 21, Serbian soldiers separated over 200 men, mostly Croats and Muslims, from a convoy of civilians from the Trnopolje detention camp in Bosnia. The captives were taken to a wooded ravine and shot dead. In 2003 Darko Mrdja, commander of a special police unit, admitted to a court in the Hague of playing a role in the slaughter.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A8)

1993        Jan 7, A preliminary report prepared for the European Community said Serb fighters may have raped about 20,000 women in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 1/7/98)

1996        Jul 27, In Burundi a Tutsi-led army killed at least 30 Hutu rebels in retaliation for an attack on a coffee plantation. Independent sources said that Hutus set fire to the factory and rice plantation in Giheta to justify a retaliatory attack on villages where Hutu rebels were thought to have taken refuge. Villagers said Tutsi soldiers massacred about 1,000 Hutus as they roamed from village to village in Gitega province.
    (WSJ, 7/30/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A8)

2000        Sep 1, The Afghanistan mine-clearing operations were scheduled to be cut by 50% after the UN reported lack of funds. 300 people were reported injured by mines every month. Estimates of mines varied from 5-10 million.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.C16)

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