Timeline Cars

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1831        Mar 12, Clement Studebaker, auto maker, was born.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1863        Mar 26, Henry Royce, founder (Rolls-Royce Limited in 1884), was born. [see Mar 27]
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1863        Mar 27, Sir Henry Royce, Rolls Royce founder, was born. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1867        Aug, The first recorded race of two self powered road vehicles over a prescribed route was between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by Isaac Watt Boulton against Daniel Adamson, each in steam cars of their own manufacture.

1875        Apr 2, Walter Chrysler, founder of Chrysler automobile company, was born. He grew up in Ellis, Kansas.
    (HN, 4/2/98)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)

1875        May 23, Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr., president and chairman of the board for General Motors, was born. His foundation started the cancer research center Sloan-Kettering Institute. Sloan defined the modern automobile industry and helped rescue General Motors in 1920.
    (HN, 5/23/99)(WSJ, 1//03, p.D8)

1876        Aug 29, Charles F. Kettering, inventor (automobile self-starter), was born in Ohio.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1876        Nikolaus Otto (1832-1891), German inventor, first demonstrated the four-stroke engine.

1877        Aug 27, Charles Stewart Rolls, British auto manufacturer (Rolls-Royce Ltd), was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1882        Apr 28, Alberto Pirelli, Italian industrialist, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1882        James Atkinson, British engineer, invented the Atkinson cycle engine, an ultra-lean internal combustion engine.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.77)(www.jyrojak.com/steamtime.htm)

1885        Apr 3,  Gottlieb Daimler’s four-stroke, single-cylinder engine, was registered for patent. It was  prerequisite for the riding car and simultaneously the world’s first motorcycle.

1885        Nov 18, Paul Daimler, son of Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new invention, Daimler Reitwagen, on a round trip of 5-12 km. The seat caught fire on that excursion.

1886        Jan 29, Karl Benz (1844.1929) in Karlsruhe applied for a patent on his 1st successful gasoline-driven car. The date of the application became the patent date for the invention once the patent was granted, which occurred in November of that year.

1886        Jul 3, In Germany Karl Benz drove the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1888        Jul 27, Philip Pratt unveiled the 1st electric automobile.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1888        Aug 12, Bertha, wife of inventor Karl Benz, made the 1st motor tour.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1890        Jul 18, Charles Wilson, Pres. of General Motors (1940-53), Sec. of Defense (1953-57), was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1891        The first US reported car accident was in Ohio.

1892        Apr 19, The prototype of the first commercially successful American automobile was completed in Springfield, Mass., by Charles E. Duryea and his brother Frank.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1893        Rudolph Diesel, German engineer, developed his diesel engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1894        Jun 26, Karl Benz of Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1894        Jul 4, Elwood Haynes successfully tested one of 1st US autos at 6 MPH.
    (Maggio, 98)

1894        Jul 22, The first major automobile race with prizes and a promoter was organized as a reliability trial by Le Petit Journal of Paris. It took place on the 78-mile route between Paris and Rouen, France [see Aug 30, 1867]. Only 21 vehicles qualified for the race. The internal combustion engine was the clear winner.
    (http://wapedia.mobi/en/Auto_racing)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.7)(http://tinyurl.com/ycbvsah)

1895        Sep 8, Adam Opel (58), German manufacturer of sewing machines and bicycles, died. In 1899 the firm acquired a car factory.
    (MC, 9/8/01)(www.histomobile.com)

1895        Nov 5, George B. Selden of Rochester, N.Y., received the first U.S. patent for an "improved Road Engine."
    (AP, 11/5/07)

1896        Mar 6, Charles B. King rode his "Horseless Carriage," the 1st auto in Detroit.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1896        May 9, The 1st horseless carriage show in London featured 10 models.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1896        May 30, The 1st car accident in NYC occurred when Henry Wells hit cyclist Ebeling Thomas on the "Western Boulevard" (Broadway).

1896        Jun 8, The 1st car was stolen.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1896        Jun 16, Jean Peugeot, French auto manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1896        The Michelin brothers introduced pneumatic tires in the Paris-to-Bordeaux automobile race. They had come up with the removable tire, but the pneumatic tire was invented in the US by John Dunlap.
    (WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)
1896        German inventor Gottlieb Daimler constructed the world's first lorry.
    (Econ., 2/6/21, p.52)

1897        Ransom E. Olds started the Olds Motor Vehicle Co. In 2004 the last Oldsmobile Alero rolled of a GM assembly line in Lansing, Mich.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.C1)

1898        Feb 18, Enzo Ferrari (d.1988), Italian sports car manufacturer, was born.

1898        Mar 24, The 1st automobile was sold.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1898        In France the Michelin Tire company began using its tire-man logo. The first ad offered a toast with broken nails and glass and told consumers that the Michelin tire "drinks up obstacles."
    (SFC, 3/19/98, p.A3)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T3)

1899        May 24, The 1st US auto repair shop opened in Boston.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1899        Aug 15, Henry Ford (36) quit his job with the Edison Illuminating Company. He soon found backers and started the Detroit Automobile Company, with himself as chief engineer.
    (ON, 3/03, p.1)

1899        Sep 13, The first reported fatal car accident in the US was in Ohio when Henry H. Bliss, a "real estate dealer" was hit by an electric taxi as he exited a trolley on West 74th Street and Central Park West.
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.A21)

 1899        Hiram Percy Maxim, engineer for the Pope Manufacturing Co., raced the new Mark VIII against a Stanley Steamer in Branford, Conn., and won. Twins Francis E. Stanley (1849–1918) and Freelan O. Stanley (1849–1940) had founded the Stanley Motor Carriage Company in Watertown, Mass., after selling their photographic dry plate business to Eastman Kodak. They made their first car in 1897.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ybekr8vc)(ON, 7/00, p.6)

1900        Mar 6, Gottlieb Daimler (65), designer of the 1st motorcycle, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1900        Nov, Henry Ford’s Detroit Automobile Company failed. It was revived in 1901 as the Henry Ford Co.

1900        America had some 500 carmakers at this time. By 1908 the number fell to 200.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.83)
1900        The Lohner-Porsche was introduced at the World’s Fair in Paris. The hybrid car relied on batteries and a generator to produce electricity for its motors. Ferdinand Porsche working for Jacob Lohner in Vienna put electric motors into the hubs of the wheels of the Lohner-Porsche.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)

1901        Apr 15, The 1st British motorized burial took place.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1901        Apr 25, New York became the first state to require automobile license plates; the fee was one dollar. The first automobile license plates were issued in Paris, France in 1893. The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston, but the trend quickly spread.
    (AP, 4/25/98)(HNQ, 7/18/00)

1901        Henry Ford founded the Henry Ford Co. but soon left. In 1902 the remaining owners dissolved operations and formed the Cadillac Co.

1901        In Lanark, Illinois, Charles Cotta built the Cottamobile, a steam-powered car with individual chains driving each of 4 wheels.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1901        Cixi, China’s empress dowager, received a new wood-bodied Duryea automobile to mark her 66th birthday. She is said to have fortified her driver, Sun Fuling, with a generous bowl of rice wine. Fuling promptly lost control of the car and ran over and killed a palace eunuch.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.40)

1902        Mar, Henry Ford (38) left the Detroit Automobile Company and soon found backers for the new Ford Motor Co., which incorporated in 1903.
    (ON, 3/03, p.1)

1902        Aug 13, Felix Wankel, inventory of the rotary engine which bears his name, was born in Germany.
    (HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)

1902        Aug 22, The Cadillac Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. when Henry Ford left. Ford formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903.

1902        Sep 10, In San Francisco the first recorded arrest of a motorist took place when a mounted policeman pulled a driver over for speeding on what was later called the Great Highway.
    (SSFC, 10/10/21, p.A8)

1902        David Dunbar Buick (1854-1929) established the Buick Manufacturing Company in Detroit, with the objectives of marketing engines to other car companies, and manufacturing and selling its own cars.
1902        The Franklin Automobile Company, an American manufacturer of automobiles, began manufacturing cars in Syracuse, New York. The company closed down in 1934.

1903        May 19, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson bet $50 that he could cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton Touring car. He and his mechanic reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)

1903        May 23, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson set off to cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car with his mechanic Sewell Croker. They reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/18/03, p.A23)(ON, 9/04, p.10)

1903        Jun 15, Barney Oldfield (1878-1946), race car driver, drove a Ford 999 at a record mile per minute.
    (Ind, 10/6/01, 5A)

1903        Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was incorporated.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

1903        Jun 18, 1st transcontinental auto trip began in SF and arrived in NY 3-months later. [see Jul 26]
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1903        Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1903        Jul 26, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson of Vermont and his mechanic Sewell Croker arrived in NYC completing the first cross-country automobile trip in 63 days after leaving SF. On July 26, 2003 Peter Kesling and Charlie Wake completed a rerun of the original trip.
    (WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/7/03, p.B1)(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A2)(ON, 9/04, p.12)

1903        Burton Westcott (1868-1926) brought his family business, the Westcott Motor Car. Co., from Richmond Ind., to Springfield, Ohio, where its cars were assembled by hand.
    (WSJ, 8/16/07, p.D7)

1904        Jan 27, Willie Vanderbilt (1878-1944) reached 92.3 mph in his new German motorcar at the Daytona Beach Road Course at Ormond Beach, Florida, establishing a new land speed record. He was the 2nd child and first son of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.122)(www.racechase.com/ftopic254.html)

1904        The British Rover Motor Car Company was founded.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.H1)

1905        May 6, In San Francisco lobbyists from the Automobile Club of America brokered a probationary deal to allow cars in Golden Gate Park during daylight hours limited to a speed of 8mph.
    (SSFC, 10/10/21, p.A8)

1905        Studebaker of South Bend, Indiana, produced an electric car, the Victoria Phaeton, that could be charged at home.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.22)
1905        Mary Anderson of Alabama received a patent for a streetcar windshield wiper. Her effort was the result of a trip to NYC in 1903 where she watched drivers coping with the weather.
    (WSJ, 5/9/05, p.R10)
1905        Some automakers introduced motor trucks and ignition locks; and auto plants were opened in Canada.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1905        Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement, Czech bicycle makers, began making cars. They later merged with Skoda Pilsen.

1906        Henry Ford used stock purchases to acquire 51% of the Ford Motor Co. and concentrated on producing inexpensive cars. His highest priced vehicle in 1906 cost $750.
    (ON, 3/03, p.2)

1907        May 31, Taxis  began running in NYC.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1907        Jun 10, In China 11 men in five cars set out from the French embassy in Beijing on a race to Paris. Prince Scipione Borghese of Italy was the first to arrive in the French capital two months later. The 62-day race was won by an Italian built Itala.
    (AP, 6/10/07)(AH, 6/03, p.21)

1907        Nov 20, The McLaughlin Motor Car Company was in Ontario, Canada, founded under Samuel McLaughlin (1871-1972). In 1910 he became a director of General Motors and sold his company in 1918 becoming president of General Motors of Canada.

1907        The Detroit auto show began when a group of dealers held a show in a city park. The show was largely a regional event showcasing Detroit automakers until 1989, when the name was changed to the North American International Auto Show and Toyota and Nissan used it to introduce their new luxury brands.
    (AP, 1/12/14)
1907        The Detroit-based Anderson Electric Car Company began producing the Detroit Electric car and continued to 1939. During this period  the company built 13,000 electric cars. The Detroit Electric brand was revived again in 2008 to produce modern all-electric cars by Detroit Electric Holding Ltd. of the Netherlands.

1908        Feb 12, The first round-the-world automobile race began in New York City. It ended in Paris the following July with the drivers of the American car, a Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. The Flyer was made by the E.R. Thomas Motor Co. of Buffalo, NY, was initially driven by Montague Roberts and George Schuster. Roberts dropped out in Wyoming. Schuster took over as captain and chief driver from San Francisco, which was reached on March 24.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(ON, 4/08, p.8,9)

1908        Jul 30, An around the world automobile race ended in Paris. The American Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. In 1966 driver George Schuster authored “The Longest Auto Race." The restored Flyer was later displayed at the National Automobile Museum in Reno, Nevada.
    (ON, 4/08, p.10)(AP, 7/30/08)

1908        Aug 12, Henry Ford's first Model T rolled off the assembly line.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1908        Sep 16, General Motors Holding Company was formed in Flint, Mich., by William Durant.
    (AP, 9/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)

1908        Oct 1, The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hit the market. Each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black. The Model T automobile cost $850 when it was first introduced to the public. Ford lowered the price of automobiles—previously regarded as a toy of the rich—by maintaining control of raw materials and using new mass production techniques. The price of this two-seater, affectionately known as the “tin Lizzy," fluctuated over the years, dipping below $300 in 1924. Electric lights and an optional electric starter were among the few improvements over the years. The model was discontinued in 1927 after more 15,000,000 had been produced.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.56)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)(HNQ, 7/11/00)

1909        Jun 1, Pres. William Howard Taft touched a key in Washington, DC, sending a signal to Seattle, opening the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Expo at the Seattle World’s Fair, as well as a signal to NYC initialing the New York to Seattle Automobile Race.
    (AH, 6/03, p.18)

1909        Jun 23, A Ford Model T crossed the finish line in the NYC to Seattle Automobile Race after 22 days and 55 minutes to claim the Guggenheim Cup and a $2,000 first prize. A Shamut came in 17 hours later to win the 2nd-place prize of $1500. An Acme car came in on June 29 to claim a $1000 3rd prize. The Ford was later disqualified for having switched engines enroute.
    (AH, 6/03, p.23)

1909        Aug 7, Alice Huyler Ramsey (22) arrived in San Francisco on a ferry boat after driving a 1909 Maxwell Model DA across the country. She had left New York on June 9 on the first ever cross-country trip by a woman.
    (SFC, 7/10/09, p.D3)

1909        Aug 19, The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened with a 2.5 mile race track. It was founded in 1906 and the 1st 500 race was held in 1911.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1909        The California State Automobile Association produced its first road map. In 2008 it planned to stop production of paper maps and shift to digital technology.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.D1)
1909        John H. Eagal, manager of the automobile department of the Studebaker, San Francisco branch, said “The future of the electric automobile is assured… The past few months have seen an increase in demand for the electric cars that has been surprising to manufacturers all over the country." Studebaker sold battery-powered cars from 1902 to 1912.
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studebaker_Electric)
1909        The first roundabout, a one-way gyratory for car management not to circumvent a monument, was intoduced in England’s Letchworth Garden City. By 2013 there were some 60,000 around the world.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.16)
1909        Englishman Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan (1981-1959) made his first 3-wheel car. In 1912 his company became the Morgan Motor Company Ltd.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)
1909        Milanese engineer Ettore Bugatti (1881-1947) founded a car factory in the then German town of Molsheim in the Alsace region, later part of France.

1910        Mar 23, 1st race at Los Angeles Motordrome (1st US auto speedway).
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1910        William Durant (1861-1947), the founder of General Motors, was turfed out by the company’s bankers. In 1911 he joined forces with Louis Chevrolet, a Swiss-born racing driver, to set up a new carmaker that was later folded into GM.
    (Econ, 10/29/11, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)
1910        Henry Ford opened a new plant in Highland Park, Mich., the largest plant in the world. It was designed by Albert Kahn. The retail price of the Model T dropped to $780.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.72)
1910        In NYC car maker Pierce-Arrow unveiled the Touring Landau at Madison Square Garden. It was later widely considered as the first motor home.
    (SSFC, 7/20/14, p.L1)

1911        Mar 11, The Cadillac Division of General Motors demonstrated the first electric self starter, enabling women to drive alone. Charles Kettering created the first successful electric self-starter for Cadillac. It was introduced in the 1912 model. The perfection of the self-starter by inventor Charles Kettering enormously expanded the market for the automobile. Kettering, born in Londonville, Ohio, in 1876, had invented an electric cash register motor while at the National Cash Register Company in 1906. In 1909 he organized the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, later known as Delco, and soon made notable improvements in automobile ignition and lighting systems. His self-starter was introduced in the 1912 Cadillac. He founded the Charles F. Kettering Foundation dedicated to natural science research and was co-founder of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.  Kettering died in 1958.
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)(F, 10/7/96, p.67)(HNQ, 3/3/99)

1911        May 29, The first running of the Indianapolis 500. Ray Harroun won at 74.59 mph (120 kph). [see May 30]
    (HN, 5/29/98)(SC, 5/29/02)

1911        May 30, The first long-distance auto race in Indianapolis was won by Ray Harroun. One driver was killed and the average speed was 74.4 mph. [see May 29]
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)(AP, 5/30/97)

1911        Henry Ford reduced the retail price of the Model T to $690.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)
1911        The first Michelin guide to the British Isles was published to help travelers and included information on how to change a tire.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

1912        Jan 22, Second Monte-Carlo auto race began.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1912        Apr 6, Cadillac adopted an electric self-starter. Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958), as president of Delco, introduced the electric-starter on the 1912 Cadillac.

1912        May 18, Georg von Opel, German auto manufacturer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        Henry Ford doubled production and reduced the price of the Model T to $600.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)
1912        San Francisco replaced the horse-drawn wagons of the police force with automobiles.
    (SFC, 3/2/18, p.C2)

1913        Jul 1, The Lincoln Highway Association decided to call its coast-to-coast highway the Lincoln Highway, and it was officially incorporated as the Lincoln Highway Association.

1913        Aug, Henry Ford began his 1st large-scale automobile assembly tests. It initially took 12 hours and 30 minutes to assemble a Model T.
    (ON, 3/03, p.4)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1913        Sep 14, The Lincoln Highway Association announced the route of the Lincoln Highway. Its leaders, particularly Henry Joy, President of the Packard Motor Car Company, decided on as straight a route as possible and that decision dictated the course. That initial line was 3,389 miles long. Less than half of it, 1,598 miles, was improved. (Eventually, as segments of the route were improved, the length shrunk to about 3,140 miles).

1913        Oct 7, In attempting to find ways to lower the cost of the automobile and make it more affordable to ordinary Americans, Henry Ford took note of the work of efficiency experts like Frederick Taylor, the "father of scientific management." The result was the assembly line that reduced the time it took to manufacture a car, from 12 hours to 93 minutes. Ford reversed the slaughter house production process of removing parts from a moving line to adding parts. Production more than doubled and the price of the Model T was reduced from $600 to $550.
    (HN, 10/7/00)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(ON, 3/03, p.4)

1914        Apr 14, Stacy G. Carkhuff patented a non-skid tire pattern.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1914        Aug 5, One of the first, if not the first, electric traffic light systems were installed in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

1914        Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced his $5 a day pay that made it possible for the average worker to buy a car. 231,000 "Tin Lizzies" were built this year. Assembly time for the Model T over the last year was reduced to one hour and 33 minutes.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1914        Dodge cars were introduced.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1914        Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford founded Aston Martin. They produced their 1st car in 1915. Ford bought a controlling interest in 1987 and acquired full ownership in 1994. In 2007 Ford sold a controlling stake to a consortium of investors that included racing mogul David Richards, car collector John Sinders, and the Kuwaiti companies Investment Dar and Adeem Investment Co.
    (SFC, 3/13/07, p.E2)

1915        Oct 12, Ford Motor Company manufactured its 1 millionth Model T automobile. [see Dec 10]
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1915        American financier and bus manufacturer Roland Conklin unveiled his luxurious, 8-ton "Conklin Family Gypsy Van."
    (SSFC, 7/29/18, p.F2)
1915        Thomas Edison, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone rode in a private Pullman car to visit Luther Burbank in Santa Rosa, Ca. From 1915 to 1924 the trio made annual "auto-camping" trips often in the company of naturalist John Burroughs.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T8)(SSFC, 7/29/18, p.F2)
1915        Edsel Ford (21) drove a Model T from Detroit to San Francisco for the Panama-Pacific Expo and visited Hughson Ford on Van Ness Ave., the world’s first Ford dealership. Edsel was accompanied by a 1915 Cadillac and a Stutz Six Touring Car on the 39-day trip.
    (SFC, 8/20/15, p.D6)
1915        Car maker Henry Ford took a ship of leading business people and peace activists to Europe to try to end WWI.
    (Econ, 4/30/15, p.64)
1915        There were some 450 automotive and auto parts makers in the US by the end of this year.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1915        Louis Chevrolet sold his interest in the Chevrolet Motor Company and focused his interest on auto racing.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 1/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1916        A broken wheel on a General Motors car caused product liability to be expanded  beyond an explicit violation of contract.
    (Econ, 8/30/14, p.22)
1916        Joe Saunders of Nebraska launched the first car hire business when he began lending his ford Model T to traveling salesmen.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.91)
1916        The Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. of Clintonville, Wis., got a boost from WW I demand for its trucks.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1916        Hand operated windshield wipers, stop lights and rearview mirrors became standard on some cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1917        The Fleetwood Body Corp. began building exteriors for the carmakers.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.D1)
1917        The Electric Welding Co. renamed to the Steel Products Company introduced the first one-piece forged engine valve.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1919        General Motors established General Motors Acceptance Corp. (GMAC) to handle loans for its sales. In 2006 Cerberus Capital Management moved to acquire a 51% controlling stake.
    (WSJ, 4/4/06, p.A1)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.68)

1920        Britain introduced a tax on motor vehicles and the first tax discs appeared a year later. In 2013 the discs were replaced by an electronic system for paying road tax.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

1921        Walter P. Chrysler, president of the General Motor’s Buick Motor Co., became chairman of Maxmell Motor Corp.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.D9)

1921        Ford’s car production comprised nearly 56% of the total output.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1923        Apr 5, Firestone Co. put their inflatable tires into production.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1923        Alfred P. Sloan Jr. (1875-1966), a ball-bearing magnate, became president of a troubled GM and brought in corporate management and tight financial controls. He introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for every purse and purpose."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)

1923        Benz & Cie introduced a diesel truck with a 50-horsepower engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1924        Aug 5, The comic strip "Little Orphan Annie" by Harold Gray (d.1968) made its debut in the NY Daily News. Daddy Warbucks was her millionaire guardian. Leonard Starr took over the strip in 1979. Her image was updated in 2000 by cartoonist Andrew Pepoy. [see Oct 5]
    (AP, 8/5/97)(SFEC, 10/17/99, p.C12)(SFC, 6/12/00, p.A2)

1925         Mar 2, State and federal highway officials developed a nationwide route numbering system and adopted the familiar U.S. shield-shaped, numbered marker. For instance, in the east, there is U.S. 1 that runs from New England to Florida and in the west, the corresponding highway, U.S. 101, from Tacoma, WA to San Diego, CA.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1925        Dec 12, Arthur Heinman opened the first motel, the "Motel Inn," in San Luis Obispo, Calif.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1925        The Michelin Guide introduced its star system for hotels and restaurants.
    (WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)
1925        Burton Westcott (1868-1926) was forced to close his Westcott Motor Car. Co. in Springfield, Ohio.
    (WSJ, 8/16/07, p.D7)

1926        Henry Ford (1863-1947) authored “Today and Tomorrow." Here he wrote that vertical integration was the key to his success.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.58)
1926        Frederic J. Fisher (1878-1941) and his brother Charles (1880-1963), founders of the Fisher Body Co., sold their operations to GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1926        Charles Stewart Mott (1875-1973) established a family foundation that focused on social enterprises around Flint, Mich. He had earlier sold the family’s wheel and axle business to General Motors and become its largest shareholder.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Stewart_Mott)
1926        GM opened a plant in Osaka, Japan.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1926        Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. created the world's largest plantation at Harbel, Liberia, and rubber became the backbone of the economy.
    (AP, 7/1/03)(NG, Feb, 04)

1927        Apr 14, Swedish automaker Volvo was officially founded. Volvo was established in 1915 as a subsidiary of SKF, a ball bearing manufacturer; however the Volvo Group and Volvo Cars considered themselves to have been officially founded when the first car, the Volvo ÖV 4 series, affectionately known as "Jakob", rolled out of the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volvo)(SFC, 7/10/15, p.F1)

1927        May 25, Henry Ford stopped production of the Model T car and began the Model A.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1927        May 26, Ford Motor Company manufactured its 15 millionth Model T automobile.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1927        Henry Ford obtained a Connecticut-sized land in the Brazilian jungle and began creating his Fordlandia factory town for the creation of a rubber plantation and processing facility to supply his factories with tires and gaskets. A strike in 1930 wrecked Fordlandia. It was rebuilt and struggled on for a decade until succumbing to leaf blight and insects. In 2009 Greg Grandin authored “Fordlandia: The rise and Fall of Henry Ford’s Forgotten Jungle city."
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.F7)
1927        In South Africa industrialist Isidore Schlesinger installed Johannesburg’s first traffic light. An errant motorist soon knocked it down.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.40)

1928        May 29, Fritz von Opel reached 200 kph in an experimental rocket car. [see Sep 30, 1929]
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1928        Nearly 2,000 people died on California highways.
    (SFC, 8/13/04, p.F4)
1928        Henry Ford built a factory in Brazil's Amazon rainforest at a company town called Fordlandia. It lasted 17 years as pests killed off rubber trees and vice doomed the town.
    (Econ., 1/16/21, p.24)
1928        The German firm BMW began making its first cars.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.64)

1929        Mar 5, David Dunbar Buick (b.1854), Scottish-born American Detroit-based inventor, died in Detroit. He is best known for founding the Buick Motor Company. Buick headed this company and its predecessor from 1899 until 1906, thereby helping to create one of the most successful nameplates in United States motor vehicle history.

1929        May 17, Edsel Ford cut the first sod of Ford's new British manufacturing plant in the Dagenham marshes. The first cars at Dagenham were produced in October, 1931. This was Ford’s first expansion outside the US.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Dagenham)

1929        Dec 18, Helene Delangle (1900-1984), French racing pioneer, became the fastest woman driver in the world, averaging 120.5 mph at Montlhery, France. In 2004 Miranda Seymour authored “The Bugatti Queen: In search of a Motor-Racing Legend."
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.81)

1929        The Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opened in Dearborn.
    (WSJ, 8/7/03, p.D10)
1929        General Motors purchased Opel, a German car manufacturer, for $33.3 million.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1929        In Italy sports driver Enzo Ferrari (1898-1988) founded his Ferrari motor car company. In 2015 Ferrari went public on the NYSE.
    (SFC, 10/22/15, p.C5)
1929        In Russia the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ) in Nizhny Novgorod was founded. Henry Ford was asked to help set up the Soviet car plant.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.55)

1930        Mar 26, Congress appropriated $50,000 for Inter-American highway.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1930        In Italy Battista “Pinin" Farina founded Pininfarina SpA, a car design firm.
    (SFC, 8/8/08, p.B5)

1932        Mar 31, Ford Motor Co. publicly unveiled its V-8 engine.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1932        Jun 6, A US Federal gas tax was enacted.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1932        Dec 21, Carl McGee, Oklahoma inventor, applied for a patent for his parking meter. He had came up with the 1st coin-operated, single-space, mechanical meter to be used to free up parking spaces in downtown Oklahoma City.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.B1)(www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/enc/parking.htm)

1933        Automatic shifting was introduced by the Reo Car Co. (1904-1936).
    (SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)(www.canadiandriver.com/articles/bv/reo.htm)

1934        Mar 26, Driving tests were introduced in Britain.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1934        May 2, In Germany a Chancellery meeting took place between Adolph Hitler and executives of General Motors Corp. and its German division (Opel). Opel quickly became an essential element in German rearmament. Over the next 4 years GM’s workforce in Germany grew from 17,000 to 27,000.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1934        Jun 22, "Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung für Motoren- und Fahrzeugbau" received the go-ahead from the "Reichsverband der Automobilindustrie (RDA)" (the Association of the German Reich of the Automotive Industry) to construct and build the Volkswagen. Hitler had asked Ferdinand Porsche Sr., owner of a consulting and design firm, to build a "people’s car," from which resulted the Volkswagen. Porsche took the design from the Tatra T97 of Czechoslovakia’s Hans and Erich Ledwinka.
    (http://tinyurl.com/22n6kb6)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.20)

1934        Japan began exporting three-wheelers (tuk-tuks) to Thailand.

1935        Mar 13, Driving tests were introduced in Great Britain.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1935        May 7, US Commissioner Ernest E. Williams listened as witnesses charged Walter Lord, head of Drive-Away Travel Service of Detroit, with violating the National Recovery Administration automobile code. At least 10 young men were left stranded in San Francisco after driving in cars from Detroit with no pay. Drivers figured they had worked 138 hours, which at the NRA rate of 37.5 cents and hour, would have meant $51.75 in wages for each driver.
    (SSFC, 5/2/10, DB p.46)

1935        Jul 16, The first parking meters were installed, in Oklahoma City. Carlton Magee's automatic meter, the "Park-O-Meter" was installed by the Dual Parking Meter Company in Oklahoma City. The parking meters were divided by 20-foot spaces painted on the pavement and accepted nickels.
    (AP, 7/16/97)(HNQ, 8/4/02)

1935        Sep 3, Sir Malcolm Campbell became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 MPH. Campbell drove the Bluebird Special on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah at a speed of 304.331 MPH.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1936        Apr 30, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Park-O-Meter has been recommended by Chief Administrative Officer Alfred Cleary. A trial plan called for 50 meters on Market St. charging 10 cents for 20 minutes.
    {SF, Cars, USA}
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)

1936        Jul 4, The Reich Government decided to build a separate plant for the new Volkswagen, the Volkswagenwerk. The "Company for Preparation of Deutsche Volkswagen Ltd" was established on 28 May 1937.

1937        Feb 11, In Flint, Mich., a sit-down strike against General Motors ended after 44 days, with the company agreeing to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union. The UAW was victorious in a strike against GM. GM recognized the union and agreed to a contract.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 2/11/97)

1937        Mar 1, The 1st US permanent automobile license plates was issued in Connecticut.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1937        Jul 2, Richard Petty, auto race driver (Daytona 500-1979,81), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1937        Mercedes- Benz developed an all-wheel-drive car, largely for military purposes.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1938        Aug 27, George Eyston set an automobile land-speed record.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1938        Ford introduced the Mercury line of cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1938        Wolfsburg, Germany, was founded by the Nazis as “City of the KdF car, to house labor for the factory built to produce what became the VW Beetle.
    (Econ, 2/27/15, p.56)

1939        Apr 30, The New York World’s Fair, billed as a look at "the world of tomorrow," officially opened. NY Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia mandated that the city's nude dancers cover up during the fair. The cover-up evolved into the G-string and later the thong. The General Motors exhibit was titled Futurama. Philo T. Farnsworth premiered his television at the fair. AT&T presented its first Picture Phone at the World's Fair. Salvador Dali created a pavilion that was called “Dream of Venus" and described as the “funny house of tomorrow." In 2000 Miles Beller authored "Dream of Venus (Or Living Pictures): A Novel of the 1939 New York world’s Fair." National Presto Industries introduced the home pressure cooker at the fair.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/16/00, BR p.7)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.20) (www.imdb.com/title/tt0149460/trivia)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)

1939        Ford debuted the Lincoln Continental created under the design team led by Bob Gregorie (d.2002 at 94).
    (SFC, 12/3/02, p.A21)

1939        GM’s Buick introduced electrical, directional indicator signals.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1939        Oldsmobile was the first car to offer an automatic transmission. [see 1937]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1939        Packard introduced the first auto air-conditioning system.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)

1940        Dec 30, In California the Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, officially opened as the first freeway in the Western US.
    (AP, 12/30/97)(SFC, 3/7/98, p.A18)

1940        Nov 11, Willys unveiled its General Purpose vehicle, the "Jeep." The Willys Quad, featuring 4-wheel drive, was one entry in a US government competition for a small military utility vehicle.
    (MC, 11/11/01)(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1941        Apr 3, Andre Michelin (88), French tire manufacturer, died. In 2004 Herbert Lottman authored "The Michelin Men: Driving an Empire," the story of Andre and Edouard Michelin.
    (MC, 4/3/02)(WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)

1941        Aug 2, The summary of an FBI probe of GM senior executives with links to Adolph Hitler found collusion Germany by James D. Mooney, president of GM Overseas Corp., but no evidence of any disloyalty to America.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1942        Oct, Pres. Roosevelt signed special legislation that allowed General Motors to take a complete tax write-off for the loss of Opel, its Nazi subsidiary. The tax reduction amounted to some $22.7 million, an amount equal to about $285 billion in 2007.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1943        May 26, Edsel Ford, president (49) of the Ford Motor Company, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1943        General Motors invited Peter Drucker (1909-2005), a young author, to study the company from the inside. His seminal study of General Motors: “The Concept of the Corporation" (1946) introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1945        Volkswagen, under British army engineer Ivan Hirst (d.2000), turned out 1,785 cars as part of a 20,000 car, war reparations contract with the British army.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

1946        Mar 8, Frederick William Lanchester (b.1868) died in England. He was a major contributor to the theory and practice of automobile engineering and aeronautical engineering. He also published works in radio, acoustics, relativity, music and poetry.

1946        Sep 11, The 1st mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1946        Peter Drucker (1909-2005) published his seminal study of General Motors: “The Concept of the Corporation." In it he introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)
1946        Illustrator Art Fitzpatrick (1919-2005) landed an account with the Mercury division of Ford Motors. This expanded to the Lincoln division in 1948 and Chrysler in 1950, when he was joined by Van Kaufman (1918-1995). Their work was highly regarded and led to accounts with Buick (1953), Chevy 1958) and Pontiac (1959). Dale Gustafson (b.1927) Roger Metcalf (1927-1992) joined the team in the mid-1950s. In 2021 Robe Keil authored "Art Fitzpatrick and Van Kaufman: Masters of the Art of Automobile Advertising".
1946        Michelin patented its radial tire.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

1947         Apr 7, Auto pioneer Henry Ford (b.1863) died in Dearborn, Mich. Most of his personal estate, valued at $205 million, was left to the Ford Foundation. In 2001 Neil Baldwin authored "Henry Ford and the Jews - The Mass Production of Hate." In 2003 Douglas Brinkley authored "Wheels for the World - Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress." In 2005 Steven Watts authored “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century."
    (AP, 4/7/97)(HN, 2/20/98)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.C2)

1947        Aug 21, San Francisco’s first parking meter was installed at Bush and Polk streets.
    (SFC, 1/4/13, p.D1)

1948        Feb 21, Bill France, Daytona Beach stock car mechanic and driver, founded the National Association for Stock Car Racing (NASCAR).

1948        Oct 2, In New York the 1st Grand Prix at Watkins Glen was held. Cameron Argetsinger (1921-2008) was the main driving force behind the race which was won by Frank Griswold. Formula racing continued there until bankruptcy in 1981. Two year later Corning Glass Works revived the Watkins Glen race course in partnership with Int’l. Speedway Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/26/08, p.A6)(www.nascar.com/races/tracks/wgi/index.html)

1948        General Motors agreed to annual cost-of-living pay increases.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1948        General Motors began regaining control over Opel operations in Germany. GM collected some $33 million in war reparations for Allied bombing of its German facilities.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1948        Australia’s produced its first locally made car, a Holden FX. In late 2013 Holden, a part of General Motors, said it would quit in 2017.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.58)
1948        British carmaker Rover developed the Jeep-like Land Rover.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1948        Trevor Wilkinson incorporated TVR Engineering, a small British carmaker. He left the company in 1962 and in 1965 it was sold to Martin Lilly.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)
1948        African and Indian three-wheelers (tuk-tuks) began following the original design of the Piaggio Ape C, which was originally based on the Italian Vespa.
1948        The British Jaguar XK120 was introduced as the world’s fastest standard production car. It was the brainchild of Jaguar founder Sir William Lyons.
    (SSFC, 8/21/11, p.H1)
1948        Ferdinand Porsche (1875-1951), German car inventor, rolled out the first Porsche sports car.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Porsche)
1948        Kolkata-based Hindustan Motors began making the Ambassador car, modeling it after the British Morris Oxford III. In 2013 only 2,214 of the vehicles were sold. Production was halted in 2014 pending restructuring and clearing of its debts.
    (AP, 5/26/14)

1949        Mar 2, 1st automatic street light was in New Milford, CT.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1949        Dec 12, Saab, a Swedish aircraft maker, began full-scale production of the Saab 92 automobile based on the prototype Saab 92001.

1949        The German Volkswagen Beetle was introduced in the US.
    (SSFC, 7/20/03, p.A14)

1950        General Motors agreed to free health-care coverage for life along with generous pensions. Chrysler and Ford were forced to offer similar benefits.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1950        Volkswagen debuted its iconic microbus. It became a favorite of hippies for its unique styling and copious space for travelers. The Bulli was the brainchild of a Dutch Volkswagen importer, Ben Pon, who in 1947 sketched out a simple public bus built on the wheels of the Volkswagen Beetle. The original Bulli was made from 1950 to 1967. A new version was unveiled in 2011.
    (AP, 3/1/11)
1950        Giaur was formed in Italy by the great Berardo Taraschi (previously of Urania) and the Giannini brothers, the name coming from Giannini and Urania. The engines were mainly Giannini units, although Fiat and Crosley items were also used.
    (http://ferrariexperts.com/giaur.htm)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.J3)

1951        Jan 30, Ferdinand Porsche (b.1875), German car inventor (Porsche), died.

1951        Feb 17, Packard introduced its "250" Chassis Convertible.
    (HN, 2/17/02)

1951        Chrysler introduced Hydraguide power steering. Thompson Products helped to pioneer the innovation. Chrysler also debuted hemispherical combustion heads above the cylinders of its V-8 engines.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/30/04, p.B1)

1952        May 31, In San Francisco the first Golden Gate Park Road Race was held with some 60 cars vying for first place. The races continued again in 1953 and ended in 1954.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.C1)

1952        New Jersey’s Garden State Parkway was fitted with the first rumble strips to alert inattentive drivers to vehicle drift off the carriageway.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.74)
1952        England’s Morgan Motor Company stopped making its 3-wheeled cars. In 2010 the company unveiled a new 3-wheel model, the M3W, and planned expanded sales in China.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)
1952        British engineer Charles Spencer King (1925-2010) set a land speed record of 152 mph for gas turbine cars in Jet1, which he helped design.
    (SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C9)

1952-1953    The Alba Regia was a Hungarian microcar project produced by both the Ministry of Metallurgy and Machine Industry in conjunction with the Vehicle Developing Institute.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alba_Regia_%28car%29)

1953        Jan 17, GM introduced the first American sports car, the two-seater Corvette at the annual NYC Motorama Show at the Waldorf-Astoria. It was not made available for sale to the public until June 30th.

1953        Jan, Pres. Eisenhower selected Charlie Wilson, the president of General Motors, as Secretary of Defense. During his confirmation hearing Wilson made his famous statement: “…what was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa."
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1953        Jun 30, The first Corvette rolled off the Chevrolet assembly line in Flint, MI. The brainchild of designer Harvey J. Earl sold for $3,250. GM made 300 Corvettes in 1953 and moved production to St. Louis for 1954.
    (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1953-corvette.htm)(WSJ, 7/12/02, p.W12)

1953        Nov 22, The Ford Motor Co. planned to spend an estimated $40 million to build an assembly plant in Milpitas, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.E4)

1953        Nov, In Italy the Iso Isetta microcar was introduced in Turin. The car originated with the Italian firm of Iso SpA. In the early 1950s the company was building refrigerators, motor scooters and small three-wheeled trucks. Iso's owner, Renzo Rivolta, decided he would like to build a small car for mass distribution. By 1952 the engineers Ermenegildo Preti and Pierluigi Raggi had designed a small car that used the scooter engine and named it Isetta—an Italian diminutive meaning little ISO.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isetta)

1953        Naugahyde, an imitation leather made from plastic, was sold by Uniroyal Technology to the auto industry for upholstery. It soon came to be used for office seating units and for some residential furniture.
    (SFC, 3/5/08, p.G4)
1953        Air conditioning units became widely available on American cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)
1953        Robert F. Borkenstein (d.2002) invented a Breathalyzer to test drivers for alcohol content. It stemmed from his work with Dr. R.N. Harger of the Indiana School of Medicine to make the Drunkometer.
    (SFC, 8/19/02, p.B6)
1953        Volkswagen began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)

1954        Jan 21, In Czechoslovakia Frantisek Stransky died when a test prototype of the Oskar 54 microcar crashed. In 1956, the vehicle's name was changed to "Velorex - Oskar" and then just to "Velorex". In 1959 the company produced 120 vehicles per month. Beginning in 1936, the brothers Frantisek (1914 - 1954) and Mojmír (1924) Stransky, owners of a bicycle repair shop in village Parnik near Česká Třebová, started with the design of a small, cheap three-wheeled car, inspired by three-wheelers from Morgan Motor Company.

1954        GM transferred production of the Corvette to St. Louis and 3,000 were produced in this year.
    (WSJ, 7/12/02, p.W12)

1954        Nash-Kelvinator and Hudson Motor combined to form the American Motors Co.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)

1954        The Nash Metropolitan went on sale for $1,445. The small car got up to 40 miles per gallon. American Motors discontinued production of the British-built car in 1961. Total sales reached nearly 95,000.
    (SFC, 12/19/06, p.B1)

1954        The Studebaker Co. merged with Packard Motor Car Co.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1955        Apr, Alberto Ascari, champion race car driver, lost control of his Ferrari in Milan and was killed. In 2004 Brock Yates authored “Against Death and Time."
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)

1955        May, Bill Vukovich, 2-time winner of the Indianapolis 500, was killed while going for his 3rd win.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)

1955        Jun 11, In Le Mans, France, a Mercedes-Benz racer crashed killing its driver and some 81 spectators. Pierre Levegh’s car hit the bank by the grandstand and immediately exploded. Parts of the wreckage were blown into the enclosure, killing scores of mostly-French spectators. Levegh was speeding down the straightaway in front of the pits when he clipped an Austin-Healey driven by British driver Lance Macklin.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)(http://tinyurl.com/69g9e)

1955        Jun 27, 1st automobile seat belt legislation was enacted in Illinois.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1955        Aug 3, Automobile Association of America ended support of auto racing.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1955        Aug 16, Fiat Motors ordered the 1st private atomic reactor.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1955        Aug 31, 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, Ill.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1955        Oct 5, French carmaker Citroen launched the futuristic DS 19. In French "DS" is pronounced as "Déesse" (goddess).

1955        In West Germany the Messerschmitt KR200, or Kabinenroller (Cabin Scooter), was a three-wheeled bubble car designed by the aircraft engineer Fritz Fend. Production began in the factory of the German aircraft manufacturer Messerschmitt and continued to 1964.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200)

1956        Jun 29, Pres. Eisenhower signed the US Federal Highway Act. It authorized a 42,500 mile network linking major urban centers. 90% of the cost was to be born by the federal government. Initial estimates put completion by 1968 for $25 billion. The system was completed in 1993 at a cost of $425 billion (in 2006 dollars). The Federal Highway Act included the Highway Revenue Act as Title II and created the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) to finance the construction.
    (SFC, 6/17/06, p.A1)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.34)

1956        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1956 Hudson as the number 1 worst American-made car. An average car this year sold for about $2,500.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 9/11/06, p.C2)

1956        Canadian Les Dawes (d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late 1960s.
    (SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)

1956        In Hungary the Festival microcar, designed by Kalman Szabadi (d.2010), was introduced in Vac. The car was three meters long, had a conventional door for the passengers and a gull-wing for the driver, and weighed 380 kilos. It was powered by the same 298cc engine that BMW built for its Isetta. Only one car was completed.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://tinyurl.com/23p2gt2)

1957        Apr 6, NYC ended trolley car service.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1957        Jul 4, In Italy the new 13 horsepower Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) was launched in Turin. In 1965 Fiat introduced the 500 F model. The car could get 58 mpg from its 4.25-gallon tank.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.J1)(SFC, 4/13/12, p.F1)

1957        Aug 26, Ford Motor Company revealed the Edsel, its latest luxury car.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1957        Sep 4, Ford Motor Co. introduced the 1958 Edsel. It was designed by Roy Brown and sold only 173,000 units through 1960.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.D12)(AP, 9/4/97)

1957        In Zwickau, East Germany, the first Trabant car was manufactured. Production ceased in 1991.
    (SSFC, 6/17/07, p.A2)

1957         The Italian Mille Miglia automobile race, begun in 1927, was cancelled following the crash of a Ferrari driven by the Marquis de Portago. He and his co-driver were killed along with 10 bystanders when the car ran off the road at 90 mph.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1958        Mercedes-Benz brought the 1st diesel to the US market, the rounded, pokey 190D.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1959        Mar 7, Hinsdale Smith (88), developer of roll-down auto windows, died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1959        May 20, Ford won a battle with Chrysler to call its new car "Falcon."
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1959        The 3-point seat belt, invented by Nils Bohlin (d.2002 at 82), was introduced by Volvo.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A25)

1960        Jul 21, Germany passed the Volkswagen law legislation privatizing Volkswagen. It capped a shareholder's voting rights at 20%, regardless of the number of shares held, and required a majority of 80% for "important decisions." It also gave Lower Saxony, the state in which Volkswagen is based, a controlling minority stake in the automaker. In 2007 the European Court ruled that the VW law had to go.
    (http://uk.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUKL2232313720071023)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)

1960        Stanford Ovshinsky founded Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) in Rochester Hills, Michigan. In the 1980s the company introduced a nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH) for consumer use and made it available for automobiles in the early 1990s. The technology made hybrid vehicles possible.
    (WSJ, 10/13/04, p.C1)

1960s-1970s    The Toyota Motor Company, formed as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works in the 30s, acquired several competing companies including Hino, Nippondenso and Daihitsu during the 60s and 70s in a huge expansion that included marketing more cars overseas. The “Toyota Way," its corporate culture, embodied 5 elements: Kaizen (continuous improvement), Genchi genbutsu (go to the source for facts), Challenge, Teamwork, and Respect for other people.
    (HNQ, 9/28/00)(Econ, 1/21/06, Survey p.11)

1961        Mar 6, 1st London minicabs were introduced.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1961        Raymond Loewy, industrial designer for Studebaker Corp., assembled a 4-man team in Palm Springs to design a new sports coupe called the Avanti. Thomas Kellogg (d.2003 at 71) was a member of the team. The Avanti was introduced in April 1962 to compete with GM’s Corvette. It was cancelled after two years with sales under 6000 units. In 1991 Studebaker produced 6 Avanti convertibles during an attempt at reorganization.
    (SFC, 8/19/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.K1)
1961        Engineer Harry Ferguson’s all-wheel-drive racer appeared in Formula One competition.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1961        Britain’s Jaguar Cars Ltd. Launched the Jaguar E-Type, designed by Malcolm Sayers.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, IL p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar_E-Type)
1961        Germany sold its state-owned Volkwagen car company. 60% of the cash from the sale was put into a national charitable foundation to support science.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.64)

1962        The Studebaker car company went into bankruptcy. A little money left over went into the design and production of a few hundred Avanti sports cars.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1962        The 1st Jeep Wagoneer, a precursor to the SUV, ran in a 2-or-4 wheel drive mode.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1963        Mar 31, LA ended streetcar service after 90 years.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1963        Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr., former head of General Motors Corp., authored "My Life With General Motors."
    (F, 10/7/96, p.132)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.123)
1963        Chrysler became the majority holder of Simca. By 1970 it changed the name to Chrysler France.
1963        GM introduced the Malibu, named after the California city, as a top line option on various 1964 Chevelles.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)
1963        GM opened a 380-acre assembly plant in Fremont, Ca., GM closed the plant in 1982.
    (SSFC, 2/28/10, p.D1)
1963        Studebaker halted production of its cars. Some 4,000 employees lost their company pensions as the firm permanently closed its plant in South Bend, Ind. This led to the passage of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) in 1974.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.B1)(Econ, 7/11/15, p.28)

1964        Mar 9, The first Ford Mustang rolled off the Ford assembly line.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1964        Apr 17, Ford Motor Company unveiled its new Mustang model at the New York World’s Fair. The base price was $2,368. Donald Frey (d.2010 at 86), spearheaded the design and development of the car. Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1964 Mustang as the number 1 favorite car.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 3/30/10, p.C3)

1964        Jul 2, Glenn "Fireball" Roberts, biggest NASCAR money winner, died in crash.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1964        Richard Petty won 27 NASCAR races driving a 426-horsepower Hemi-powered Charger.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A10)

1964        Mexico began producing its own version of the Volkswagen Beetle, known as the el vocho.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A10)

1965        Consumer advocate Ralph Nader published "Unsafe At Any Speed," a book criticizing the auto industry for knowingly producing unsafe cars and not installing proper safety devices. It specifically attacked the Chevrolet Corvair.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 10/13/96, Z1 p.3)

1965        Kevlar was invented by Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist for DuPont, while experimenting with polymers for new ways to reinforce car tires. In 1970 Herbert Blades of DuPont developed a process for mass production. Marketing began in 1971. Soon after that Lester Shubin (1925-2001), a US Justice Dept. researcher, began developing Kevlar, into body armor for police and soldiers.
    (SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)(SFC, 11/28/09, p.C4)

1966        Feb 17, Alfred P. Sloan Jr. (b.1875) former president GM (1923-1956), died. As president of GM he brought in corporate management, introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for every purse and purpose." In 2002 David Farber authored "Sloan Rules."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1966        In Michigan the Giant Uniroyal Tire was put on display off I-94 in Allen Park. The 80-foot tire had debuted in the 1964-1965 NYC world’s Fair as a Ferris wheel with 24 barrel-shaped gondolas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniroyal_Giant_Tire)(SFC, 5/26/15, p.D1)

1967        Feb 21, Ford recalled 217,000 cars to check brakes and steering.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1967        May 30, Robert "Evel" Knievel on his motorcycle jumped 16 automobiles.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1967        James M. Roche (d.2004) became chairman and CEO of General Motors. He stepped down as chairman in 1971.
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)

1967        Robert Kearns (1928-2005) patented automobile intermittent windshield wipers.
    (SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)
1967        Japan’s Datsun 510 sedan was first marketed in the US.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.D2)

1968        British Leyland was put together by Harold Wilson’s industrial planners. It was nationalized in 1975, and sold to British Aerospace in 1988. BMW picked up Rover in 1994.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.15)

1969        Apr 10, Harley Jefferson Earl (b.1893), car designer, died. He was a Hollywood builder of custom cars and became GM’s VP of styling from 1940-1959. He was the first to introduce tail fins in 1948. His design philosophy was "You can design a car so that every time you get in it, it’s a relief--you have a little vacation for a while."
    (www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1998/2/1998_2_10.shtml)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1969        Japan’s 1970 Datsun 240Z went on sale in the US in the fall of this year priced at $3,500.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.D2)
1969        In Japan Nissan introduced its Skyline GT-R muscle car. The car was initially introduced by the Prince Motor Co. in June, 1957. It was discontinued in 2002. A new version was introduced in 2007.
    (WSJ, 10/24/07, p.B1)(www.driftclub.com/SkylineHistory.htm)

1970        Feb 20, Students at San Jose Univ., Ca., buried a brand new Ford Maverick as part of their Survival Faire. The Maverick was exhumed one year later.
    (SFC, 4/20/10, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/yyplgjc)

1970        Apr 1, American Motors Corp. (AMC) introduced the compact Gremlin for $1879. It was designed by Richard Teague on the back of a Northwest Airlines sickness bag. The last Gremlin was made in 1978.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)

1970        May, Leonard Woodcock (1911-2001) was named head of the UAW following the death of Walter Reuther. He was elected to a full term at the union's 23rd Constitutional Convention in April, 1972, and re-elected in 1974. He retired in May 1977 and then served as US ambassador to China from 1979-1981.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.C2)

1970        Sep, Ford introduced the compact 1971 Pinto. The car became infamous for its lethally exploding gas tank. The car lasted to 1980.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)
1970        Sep, GM introduced the compact 1971 Chevrolet Vega. The car was released in 1971 and lasted to 1977. The aluminum and cast-iron engine kept breaking.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

1970        Dec 10, Ford elected Lee Iacocca (b.1924) as president.

1971        Aug 14, Georg von Opel (59), German auto manufacturer, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1971        The US government set strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included passive restraints, i.e. air bags. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) delayed a passive-restraint mandate until 1976 after Henry Ford II and Ford President Lee Iacocca lobbied President Nixon.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(www.motorvista.com/airhist.htm)
1971        Rev. Leon Sullivan (1922-2001), a noted Philadelphia minister, became GM’s 1st black board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored “Moving Mountains."
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Sullivan)
1971        Italy’s Ferrari Daytona was the world’s fastest car, capable of 174 mph.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.11)
1971        Sweden’s Saab become the first car to have heated seating.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

1972        Ford became the first company to equip vehicles with air bags.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        John DeLorean left GM to start a car company in Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1972 Corvette Stingray as the number 9 favorite car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        The Soviet Union began producing more private cars than trucks.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)

1973        Jun 1, Harvey Jr. Firestone (b.1898), American chairman of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., died in Akron, Ohio.
.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_S._Firestone,_Jr.)

1973        Jul 2, Swede Savage died from injuries at Indianapolis 500.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1973        Italian tire maker Pirelli introduced steel-belted radial tires.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, TQ p.5)

1974        Jan 2, President Nixon signed legislation requiring states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995. The legislation was conceived by Claude Brinegar (1926-2009), Nixon’s secretary of transportation.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(http://tinyurl.com/45ywak)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.B6)

1974        The 1st Volkswagen Golf, a small sporty hatchback, hit the market.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

1975        Jan 12, The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Minnesota Vikings (16-6) in the Superbowl in New Orleans. Bob McCurry of Chrysler Corp. introduced the auto rebate in a 1975 Superbowl commercial.

1975        Feb 28, AMC introduced the Pacer, the first wide, small car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMC_Pacer)

1975        Japan’s Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, rolled out its 1st 4-wheel-drive car in the US market.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1976        Italian carmaker Fiat began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)
1975        Singapore introduced the world’s first congestion-charging zone (CCZ). It used paper permits until switching to electronic sensors in 2008.
    (Econ, 8/5/17, p.46)

1977        May 29, Janet Guthrie (b.1938) became the 1st woman to drive in the Indianapolis 500. Her autobiography, "Janet Guthrie: A Life at Full Throttle," was published in 2005.

1977        Sep 13, General Motors introduced 1st US diesel auto (Oldsmobile 88).
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1977        Oct 12, The US Supreme Court ruled that communities have a right to prevent commuters from parking in residential neighborhoods.
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.E7)

1977        The Ford F-Series pickup truck became the best-selling vehicle in the US.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1977        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1977 Lincoln Versailles as the number 8 worst American-made car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1977        Jeep, a division of American Motors, launched a 4-door Cherokee, a forerunner of the SUV boom.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1977        The US stopped importation of the German Volkswagen Beetle because it did not meet safety and emissions standards.
    (AP, 8/27/03)

1978        May 13, Joie Chitwood (1912-1988), Texas-born race car driver, set a world record when he drove a Chevette 5.6 miles on just 2 wheels.

1978        Jul 13, Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II. Iacocca later joined Chrysler as its president.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)(AP, 7/13/97)

1978        Aug, PSA Group, the French owner of Citroen and Peugeot, acquired Chrysler Europe for a nominal $1. All former Chrysler products registered in Britain after 1 August 1979 bore the Talbot badge. The tie-up crashed a few years later with the demise of Talbot.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talbot)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.55)

1978        Oct 2, The first Yugo 45 was handmade. The Zastava Koral, also known simply as the Yugo, was a subcompact vehicle built in Yugoslavia by Zastava corporation. The Yugo entered the United States by means of Malcolm Bricklin, who wanted to introduce a simple, low cost car to that market. In total 141,511 cars were sold in the US from 1985 to 1991, with the most American units sold in a year peaking at 48,500 in 1987.

1978        Oct, The Holden Commodore, a medium to large sedan, began to be sold by Holden. It was manufactured from 1978 to 2017 in Australia and from 1979 to 1990 in New Zealand, with production in Australia ending on 20 October 2017. From 2018 the Holden Commodore is fully imported from Opel Germany, and is a badge-engineered Opel Insignia.

1978        Jane Lidz authored "Rolling Homes: Handmade Houses on Wheels."
    (SSFC, 7/29/18, p.F2)
1978        GM rolled out large diesel cars in its Cadillac and Oldsmobile divisions. Production of its diesel cars ended in 1985 amid consumer complaints.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1979        May 19, The Regents of the Univ. of California asked General Motors to stop doing business with the police and military forces in South Africa.
    (SFC, 5/14/04, p.F5)

1979        Sep 7, The Chrysler Corporation petitioned the United States government for $1.5 billion in loan guarantees to avoid bankruptcy.

1979        Sep, John Riccardo stepped down as Chrysler’s chairman and was succeeded by Lee Iacocca.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)

1979        Oct 1, Henry Ford II stepped down as Ford’s chairman and CEO and was succeeded by Philip Caldwell (b.1920).

1979        A second oil shortage forced US car buyers to search for smaller vehicles.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1979        Ford bought a stake in Mazda.
    (HNQ, 11/26/00)

1979-1983    Ford Motors during this period closed 13 factories and dropped its work force from 191,000 to 101,000 people.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1980        Jan 7, Pres. Carter signed the Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act. Financier James Wolfensohn persuaded 400 private lenders to restructure their debt so that a $1 billion loan from the US government could prevent Chrysler from sliding into bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.M4)

1980        Jan 11, Honda announced that it would build Japan's first US passenger-car assembly plant in Ohio.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1980        Oct 8, British Leyland started selling the Mini Metro.

1980        Audi introduced its all-wheel-drive Quattro Coupe.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1980        American Motors introduced its four-wheel-drive Eagle.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1981        Jan 1, Roger Smith (b.1925) took office as chairman and CEO of GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://tinyurl.com/2pvqps)

1981        Mar, Diesel cars in the US peaked at 6% of the market as gas prices in the hit $1.42 per gallon, the equivalent of $3.08 in 2005.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1981        Japan promised to restrict car exports to America. The restrictions boosted car prices by almost 40% in 1984.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.65)

1982        Oct 19, Carmaker John DeLorean was arrested in Los Angeles and charged in a 24-million-dollar cocaine scheme aimed at salvaging his bankrupt sports car company. He was found not guilty due to entrapment on August 16, 1984.

1982        The US Congress created a Mass Transit Fund within the Highway Trust Fund.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.34)
1982        Honda, the first Japanese auto maker to start production in the US, began making the Honda Accord at Marysville, Ohio.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl F, 10/7/96, p.71)(WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)

1983        Jun, Japan’s Nissan began to produce trucks in the US. Nissan became the first foreign carmaker in America when it opened an assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn.
    (http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=N040)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1983        Jul 13, Chrysler under Lee Iacocca paid off the last of its guaranteed loans totaling $1.2 billion, 7 years ahead of schedule.

1983        Chrysler Corp. announced plans to make minivans.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)
1983        GM increased the focus on trucks and discontinued the Malibu, introduced in 1963, after 6.5 million units were sold. The Malibu was reintroduced in 1997.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)
1983        Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., a subsidiary company of Japanese automaker Suzuki Motor Corporation, began producing cars in Delhi.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, SR p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maruti_Suzuki)
1983        In Malaysia PM Mahathir Mohamed initiated Proton, the Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional (National Car Project). Production of the 1st model, Saga, began in 1985 in association with Mitsubishi of Japan.
    (Econ, 5/8/04, p.61)(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.B2B)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.68)

1984        Aug 16, A federal jury in Los Angeles acquitted auto maker John Z. DeLorean of trafficking in cocaine due to entrapment.

1984        Aug 22, The VW plant at Westmoreland, Pa., produced its last Volkswagen Rabbit.

1984        GM and Toyota established a joint venture, the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI), to build cars in Fremont, California.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1984        Chrysler introduced the Dodge Caravan, its first Minivan.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1984        GM helped originate a jobs bank in which employees continued to be paid even though the company did not need them. Volunteer activity or clocked-in presence in a “rubber room" was required.
    (WSJ, 3/1/06, p.A1)

1984        Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. (SAIC) with government support partnered with Volkswagen  and produced the Santana model sedan. VW was the first foreign carmaker to establish operation in China.
    (WSJ, 6/30/99, p.A19)(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.4)

1985        Ford Motor Co. premiered the Taurus. Production of the car was terminated in 2006.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 10/20/06, p.D3)
1985        In China Shanghai began holding Auto Shanghai, a biennial auto show alternating with the Beijing Auto Show.

1986        Mar 31, The state-owned car company BL P.L.C., formerly British Leyland, said that it was pursuing two offers for its Land Rover division after negotiations with the General Motors Corporation collapsed. Range Rover of North America, Inc. soon established its headquarters in Lanham, Maryland with Charles R. Hughes as President and CEO. Just before Christmas 1985 Range Rover of North America (later changed to Land Rover North America), was established to pave the way for a US launch in 1987.

1986        Dec 17, A federal jury in Detroit cleared automaker John DeLorean of all 15 charges in his fraud and racketeering trial.

1986        David Halberstam authored “The Reckoning," an exploration of the American economy that compares Ford and Nissan--and telling their stories from the founders and owners to the assembly workers.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.D2)
1986        Hyundai, a South Korean auto maker, entered the US market with low cost cars.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.72)

1987        Mar 9, Chrysler Corp. announced it had agreed to buy the financially ailing American Motors Corp.
    (AP, 3/9/07)

1987        Sep 29, Henry Ford II, longtime chairman of Ford Motor Company, died in Detroit at age 70.
    (AP, 9/29/97)

1987        Greg Wallace opened up Cadillac Historical Services as a service for the vintage Cadillac owner and began serving as a historian for the Cadillac company.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.D1)(http://tinyurl.com/4f9s9cr)

1987        Dodge introduced a Cummins engine in its Ram truck.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1987        Ford purchased a 75% share of Aston Martin
    (HNQ, 11/26/00)

1987        Mazda opened a new plant in Flat Rock, Mich.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1987        Britain’s Range Rover was introduced in the US. It was designed in the late 1960s by Charles Spencer King (1925-2010).
    (SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C9)

1987        Toyota introduced All Trac models, featuring 4-wheel-drive, of Camry and other cars.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1987        The Soviet Oka car was launched.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)

1988        Mar 1, Pontiac announced the end of the Fiero automobile.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1988        Jun 2, The publishers of Consumer Reports magazine called for a ban on the Suzuki Samurai, a popular sport utility vehicle that the magazine said tended to roll over in sudden turns; American Suzuki Motor Corporation defended the vehicle as safe.
    (AP, 6/2/98)

1988        Aug 4, Hertz car rental agreed to pay out $23 million in a consumer fraud case.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1988        Aug 14, Enzo Ferrari (b.1898), Italian sportscar manufacturer (Ferrari), died.

1988        BMW began selling the 325iX all-wheel-drive sports sedan in the US. It stopped 3 years later.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1989        May 28, Emerson Fittipaldi of Brazil won the Indianapolis 500 auto race.
    (AP, 5/28/99)

1989        Dec 15, GM and SAAB agreed to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B. GM acquired the rest of SAAB a decade later.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.72)

1989        Milton Friedman authored “Agnelli, Fiat and the Network of Italian Power."
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.80)
1989        Benedict J. Dasher helped open the National Automobile Museum in Reno.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.B4)
1989        Ford acquired Jaguar.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.77)
1989        Mercedes-Benz began building all-wheel E-Class cars.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1989        Japan’s Toyoto Corp. launched the Lexus, a premium brand car, in the US.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.69)
1989        In Pakistan the Suzuki Mehran, a small boxy car, made its debut.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.34)

1990        Mar, GM and SAAB completed setting up a joint auto-making venture in Europe. They had agreed on Dec. 15, 1989, to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B.

1990        Jul 30, GM’s first Saturn car rolled off the line at Spring Hill, Tennessee. In the fall, GM introduced its all-new Saturn cars to compete against the imports in the small car market. Roger Smith, GM’s CEO, announced the secret Saturn project in 1985 in order to "leap-frog" the Japanese car makers.

1990        Aug 1, Robert Stempel took charge at GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://tinyurl.com/q8mqs)

1990        Dec, Investor Kirk Kerkorian said he had bought a 9.8% stake in Chrysler Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)

1990        Harold "RED" Poling became Ford’s chairman and CEO.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1990        Ford launched the Explorer, which soon became the best-selling SUV in America. Sales peaked in 2000 at 445,000 units.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

1991        May 14, General Motors ended production of the Buick Reatta, a two-seater sports car that had been introduced in 1988.
    (WSJ, 6/23/08, p.R2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buick_Reatta)

1991        Oct 22, General Motors announced a 9 month loss of $2.2 billion.

1991        Daniel     T. Jones, Daniel Roos and James P. Womack of MIT authored “The Machine That Change the World: The Story of Lean Production," an account of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.65)
1991        The first annual California Mille, a 4-day, 1,300 mile tour of northern California was organized by Martin Swig (1934-2012), a SF Bay Area car dealer. It was opened to drivers of cars built between 1927-1957, the years that the Mille Miglia race was run in Italy.
    (SFC, 7/7/12, p.A7)(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1992        May 24, Al Unser Jr. became the first second-generation winner of the Indianapolis 500; his father, four-time winner Al Unser, finished third.
    (AP, 5/24/97)

1992        Jun, BMW executives announced that the company was building its first full production facility outside of Germany in Greenville, South Carolina. The first BMW to roll off the production line in September 1994 was a 318i sedan as the plant transformed into BMW's largest facility in the world.
    (Good Morning America, 12/13/19)

1992        McLaren produced its first sports car, the F1. A total of 106 cars were produced between 1992 and 1998. The British McLaren F1 was designed and manufactured by Gordon Murray and McLaren Automotive. On March 31, 1998, it set the record for the fastest production car in the world, 240 mph (391 km/h).

1993        Feb 4, A jury in Atlanta found General Motors negligent in the fuel-tank design of a pickup truck and awarded $105.2 million to the parents of a teen-ager killed in a fiery 1989 crash. The negligence verdict was later overturned, and the parents of Shannon Moseley reached an out-of-court settlement with GM.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

1993        Feb 8, General Motors sued NBC, alleging that the "Dateline NBC" program had rigged two car-truck crashes to show that 1973-1987 GM pickups were prone to fires in side impact crashes. NBC settled the lawsuit the following day.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

1993        Feb 9, NBC News announced it had settled a defamation lawsuit brought by General Motors over the network's "inappropriate demonstration" of a fiery pickup truck crash on its "Dateline NBC" program.
    (AP, 2/9/03)

1993        May 11, The Senate approved the so-called "motor voter" bill, designed to make voter registration easier.
    (AP, 5/11/98)

1993          May 30, Emerson Fittipaldi won the 77th Indianapolis 500, driving at an average speed of 157.2 mph.
    (AP, 5/30/98)

1993        Jul 13, Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
    (AP, 7/13/98)

1993        Sep 6, Automakers Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they would merge; however, Volvo canceled the deal the following December.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1993        Elmer W. Johnson (1932-2008), former GM executive, authored “Avoiding the Collision of Cities and Cars."
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A6)

1993        Alabama Governor James E. Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/folsom.html)

1993        Ford’s European division launched the Mondeo, a car that reflected Ford’s new approach to improved dynamics.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.73)

1993        Ferdinand Piech left Audi and took over operations at Volkswagen, where he turned losses into profits. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the companies wartime chief, Anton Piech. In 2002 he was succeeded by Bernd Pischetsrieder. Piech (65) became chairman of Volkswagen’s supervisory board.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.70)

1993        Daimler-Benz acquired the Dutch plane-maker NV Fokker.
    (WSJ, 1/26/96, A-6)

1993        Fiat Auto SpA bought Maserati.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B1)

1994        Jan, Bernd Pischetsrieder, CEO of BMW, bought the Rover car group from British Aerospace. The move proved a disaster.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

1994        Dec 2, The US government agreed not to seek a recall of allegedly fire-prone General Motors pickup trucks. GM agreed to spend more than $51 million on safety and research.
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1994        Paul Ingrassia and Joseph B. White authored "Comeback: The Fall and Rise of the American Automobile Industry."
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

1995        Apr 12, In a move that stunned the business world, billionaire Kirk Kerkorian and former Chrysler Chairman Lee Iacocca made an unsolicited $22.8 billion-dollar bid to buy the nation's third largest automaker; Chrysler responded that it wasn't for sale.
    (AP, 4/12/00)

1995        Volkswagen built a large car factory near Lisbon, Portugal.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.78)
1995        Ratan Tata decided to enter India’s passenger car market. The 1st Tata Motors car was produced in 1998.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.53)

1995-1996    Fiat SpA of Italy invested $1 bil over this period  for new engines, updated models, and new projects in Brazil
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)

1996        Apr 25, Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about 8 million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
    (AP, 4/25/97)

1996        May 14, In France Renault outlined a plan to become majority owned by private investors after more than 5 decades of state control.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)

1996        May 16, GM was expected to pick Thailand over the Philippines for a $1 billion vehicle assembly plant.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 17, Scott Brayton, race car driver, was killed during a practice run for the US Indy 500 race. He was the 40th driver to die during practice, qualifications or the race. 66 people in all have died in accidents related to the race.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.B-1)

1996        May 26, Buddy Lazier won the Indianapolis 500.
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1996        Jun 27, The GM North Tarrytown Assembly Plant in NY produced its last minivan prior to closure for the remaining 2,100 workers.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Chrysler engineers began developing a new Hemi engine. It was introduced in 2002.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A10)

1996        GM introduced its OnStar system as a quick way to summon roadside assistance. In 2009 its slowdown feature was activated for the first time to stop a stolen GM Chevrolet Tahoe.
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.81)

1997        May 27, Arie Luyendyk won the Indianapolis 500 for the second time.
    (AP, 5/27/98)

1997        Oct 13, A British jet car, Thrust SSC, driven by Andy Green of the Royal Air Force set a land speed record of 764.168 mph in Nevada's Black Rock Desert. The record was not recorded as official because turn around time went over an hour due to braking problems. Green officially broke the record two days later.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A1,7)(AP, 10/13/98)

1997        Jim Brainard, the Republican mayor of Carmel, Indiana, built the city’s first roundabout. By 2021 Brainard was serving a 7th term and the city had 140 roundabouts, with a dozen still to come. .Brainard had studied at the University of Oxford in the 1980s and he became taken with European traffic flow.
    (NY Times, 11/21/21)

1997        GM reintroduced the Malibu in an effort to regain sales in the midsize sedan market. It had been discontinued in 1983.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)

1997-1998    Fiat SpA of Italy said it would invest $1 bil over this period in Brazil for new engines, updated models, and new projects.
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)

1998        Mar 27, Ferdinand Porsche Jr., creator of the Porsche sports car, died at age 88 in Zell am See, Austria. He was born in Wiener-Neustadt and moved to Germany with his family after WW I where his father became chief engineer of Daimler-Benz, the manufacturer of the Mercedes Benz cars. He wrote an autobiography titled "Cars Are My Life."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(AP, 3/27/99)

1998        Mar 30, In Britain the Rolls-Royce company of Vickers PLC was sold to BMW of Germany for $570 million. However, BMW was later successfully outbid by Volkswagen AG
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B4)(AP, 3/30/08)

1998        May 6, Jurgen Schrempp of Daimler Benz and Robert Eaton of Chrysler announced in London that the German auto company will purchase Chrysler in a $38 billion merger. The takeover was later documented by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz in their book "Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off with Chrysler."
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W1)(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A28)

1998        May 7, The $34.7 billion merger of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corp. was confirmed in London. The parent company of Mercedes-Benz agreed to buy Chrysler Corp. for more than $37 billion.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.1A)(AP, 5/7/99)

1998        May 15, In Washington DC Latia Robinson (7) took control of a Honda Accord after her father passed out and drove him safely to a hospital at the beginning of rush hour.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.A6)

1998        Oct 5, Rick Wagoner became the president of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 3/30/09, p.A5)

1998        Michelin first produced a PAX tire, which allowed a vehicle to travel with a puncture.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

1998        In South Korea Chung Mong-koo, eldest son of founder Chung Ju-yung, took over as head of Hyundai Motor Co.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.68)

1999        Jan 28, Ford Motor Co, confirmed the acquisition of the passenger car division of Volvo AB for $6.47 billion.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/3/00, p.R12)

1999        Jan, Tata Motors, known at this time as Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Telco), launched the Tata Indica, a modern hatchback car with a diesel engine. It was styled by IDEA in Italy.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.9)

1999        May 30, Kenny Brack won the crash-marred Indianapolis 500, driving a car owned by racing legend A.J. Foyt.
    (AP, 5/30/00)

1999        Jul 9, In LA a jury ordered GM to pay $4.9 billion to 6 people burned when their 1979 Chevrolet Malibu fuel tank exploded Dec 24, 1993 following a rear end collision. In Aug a judge reduced the award to $1.2 billion. A judge later reduced the punitive damages to $1.09 billion, while letting stand $107 million in compensatory damages; GM continued to appeal.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/99, p.A3)(AP, 7/9/00)

1999        The Ford Motor Co. began operating a small assembly plant near St Petersburg, Russia, while GM set up a joint venture with Avtovaz (at the time a byword for corruption and gangsterism).
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.7)

1999        General Motors spun off its parts supplier Delphi Automotive.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.61)

1999        Renault threw a line to floundering Nissan with Carlos Ghosn in charge. In 2003 David Magee authored "Turnaround," a look Ghosn’s leadership of Nissan.
    (WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W8)

1999        Renault of France spent $50 million to acquire a controlling stake in Dacia, a sickly Romanian car maker formerly owned by the state. The first Renault-Dacia Logan was produced in 2004. The millionth Logan was produced in mid 2008.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.14)

2000        Mar 27, DaimlerChrysler AG announced it would buy 34 percent of Japan’s Mitsubishi Motors Corporation.
    (AP, 3/27/01)

2000        May 12, Adam Petty, 19, the fourth-generation driver of NASCAR's most famous family, died in a crash during practice for the Busch 200 at New Hampshire International Speedway.
    (AP, 5/12/01)

2000        May 28, Juan Montoya won the 84th Indianapolis 500, becoming the first rookie champion since Graham Hill in 1966.
    (AP, 5/28/01)

2000        Jun 1, Rick Wagoner, the president of General Motors, was named CEO of GM.
    (WSJ, 3/30/09, p.A5)

2000        Aug 9, Bridgestone / Firestone Inc. announced the recall of 6.5 million tires used mainly on Ford SUVs and light trucks due to 46 [88] deaths and over [250] 300 accidents related to the tires.
    (SFC, 8/10/00, p.A2)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 22, In Japan Mitsubishi Motors admitted that it had concealed tens of thousands customer complaints about automobile defects since 1977.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A10)

2000        Nov, Dieter Zetsche, head of DaimlerChrysler’s commercial vehicle division, was tapped to be CEO of Chrysler.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2s2dhu)

2000        Dec 12, General Motors, under new CEO Rick Wagoner, announced a restructure and planned phase out of the Oldsmobile vehicle division following a long slide in  sales.
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A3)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.a3)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

2000        Ford Motors spun off its parts supplier Visteon.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.61)
2000        GM took full control of Saab.
2000        Toyota released its Prius in the US, the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

2001        Jan 8, Donna Bailey (43), paralyzed from a Ford Explorer rollover crash, settled her suit with Ford and Firestone for a total in the range of $20-35 million along with the disclosure of internal memos and reports on tire safety and rollover issues.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A3)

2001        Feb 18, In Florida Dale Earnhardt (b.1951), race car driver, was killed on his final turn at the NASCAR Daytona 500. Later this year Joe Menzer authored "The Wildest Ride," a history of NASCAR racing.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/9/01, p.A26)(NW, 12/31/01, p.109)

2001        May 21, Ford Motor and Bridgestone/Firestone announced the termination of their century old business relationship.
    (WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A1)

2001        May 22, Ford Motor Co. said it planned to spend more than $2 billion to replace up to 13 million Firestone tires on its vehicles because of safety concerns.
    (AP, 5/22/02)

2001        Aug 24, Bridgestone/Firestone agreed to pay $7.5 million to the family of Marisa Rodriguez, who was paralyzed in a Ford Explorer crash in 2000. Ford settled before the trial for $6 million.
    (SFC, 8/25/01, p.A3)

2002        Jan 19, Benneta Buell-Wilson (42) was left a paraplegic after her Ford Explorer rolled over in San Diego County after she swerved to avoid an obstacle on the road. An initial ruling awarded her $122 million in compensation and $246 million in punitive damages. The trial judge reduced the total to $150 million. In 2006 an appeals court reduced the total award to $82 million. In 2009 the US Supreme Court upheld her $55 million in punitive damages.
    (SFC, 7/20/06, p.B2)(SFC, 12/1/09, p.C3)

2002        Jan, Ford Motor Co. took a $1 billion write-off on its stock pile of precious metals, mostly palladium.
    (WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A1)

2002        May 26, Helio Castroneves won his second straight Indianapolis 500 despite a protest filed by Paul Tracy.
    (AP, 5/26/03)

2002        Aug 7, Ford Motor Co. and Canadian fuel cell developer Ballard Power Systems Inc. jointly unveiled a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine-driven generator they said could help pave the way toward the commercialization of fuel cell technology.
    (Reuters, 8/7/02)

2002        Aug, Porsche rolled out its new Cayenne SUV, the 1st non-sports car in the company’s 54-year history.
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.A1)

2002        In India the Mahindra & Mahindra auto maker introduced its Scorpio SUV. By 2005 it was a huge hit.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.67)
2002        The Lamborghini Murcielago supercar used all-wheel-drive to help control its 580 horsepower.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
2002        Nissan launched a joint effort in China with car manufacturer Dongfeng.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.71)

2003        Jan 24, Giovanni Agnelli (81), the patriarch of the Fiat auto company, died in Turin after a months-long illness.
    (AP, 1/24/03)

2003        Jan, BYD Auto Co., Ltd., the automotive subsidiary of the Chinese multinational BYD Co Ltd, was founded following BYD Company's acquisition of Tsinchuan Automobile Company in 2002. By 2020 BYD was the world's largest maker of electric cars.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BYD_Auto)(Econ., 8/15/20, p.20)

2003        Feb 16, Michael Waltrip raced past leader Jimmie Johnson to win the rain-shortened Daytona 500 for the second time in three years.
    (AP, 2/16/04)

2003        May, A Nissan factory in Canton, Miss., rolled out its 1st car. Mississippi had lured in Nissan with a $290 million package.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.29)

2003        May, Bernd Pischetsrieder, former CEO of BMW, took over the top job at Volkswagen.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

2003        Jun 16, The 100th anniversary of the founding of Ford Motor Co. Douglas Brinkley authored "Wheels for the World," a history of the company.
    (WSJ, 4/25/03, W6)

2003        Jul 30, The last Volkswagen Beetle was produced in Puebla, Mexico. The first Beetles had arrived in 1956. Mexico had begun producing its own version of the Beetle in 1964.
    (WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A10)

2003        Aug, Toyota sold more cars in America than did Chrysler.
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

2003        Sep 22, California signed into law a privacy bill, effective Jul 1, 2004, that prevents use of vehicle recorded data without the consent of the owner. GM began installing data boxes in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 9/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 30, Ford planned to cut some 12,000 jobs world-wide. Chrysler planned to eliminate several thousand positions.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Nov 20, Motor Trend named the Toyota's hybrid Prius as "Car of the Year."
    (AP, 11/20/03)

2003        Micheline Maynard authored "The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car market."
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

2003        The introduction of flex-fuel cars, vehicles that could run on ethanol as well as regular petrol, took off in Brazil due to a policy that dated to the 1970s of promoting fuel derived from home-grown sugar cane.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, p.79)

2003        Thailand produced some 470,000 pick-up trucks and ranked behind the US as the world’s 2nd largest producer. Production in 2004 was expected to approach 600,000.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

2004        Jan, General Motors announced the purchase of a 51% share of Delta Motors, South Africa’s 4th largest car firm.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.62)

2004        Mar 13, In the first DARPA Grand Challenge robotic vehicles began a 200-mile road race Near Barstow, California. The Pentagon sponsored race ended without a winner, as none of the autonomous vehicles built by the 15 qualifying teams was able to travel farther than 7 miles from the starting line.
    (SFC, 3/13/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/14/04)

2004        Mar, KIA Motors, a unit of South Korea’s Hyundai group, decided to build a new $850 million plant in Slovakia, where corporate and personal taxes were recently cut to a flat 19%.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.60)

2004        Apr 25, The 14th annual "California Mile" vintage 4-day car rally began in SF.
    (SFC, 4/26/04, p.B1)

2004        Apr 29, GM ended production of its Oldsmobile line (b.1897), named after Ransom E. Olds. The last Olds Alero rolled of a GM assembly line in Lansing, Mich.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.C1)

2004        Apr, Elon Musk, former head of PayPal agreed to invest about $30 million in Tesla Motors, an electric car venture based in San Carlos, Ca. The firm was founded by Martin Eberhard and marc Tarpenning, co-founders of the Rocket e-book firm. In 2006 the Tesla Roadster was assembled by Lotus Cars in England with an electric motor made in Taiwan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elon_Musk)(SFC, 8/9/06, p.A2)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.73)

2004        May 27, Umberto Agnelli (69), Fiat Chairman, died in Turin.
    (SFC, 5/29/04, p.B6)

2004        Jun 2, Romania’s Pres. Ion Iliescu unveiled the new Logan sedan, a joint venture between Renault and Romania’s Dacia. Starting prices were around $6,100. In 2007 nearly 80,000 Logans were sold in western Europe.
    (SFC, 6/3/04, C5)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.7)

2004        Sep, French auto maker Renault rolled out the no-frills Logan. The midsize sedan was launched at a cost of $7,254 (€5,700) in emerging markets like Poland. Western buyers soon clamored for the car. In June, 2005, Renault began delivering the roomy, unpretentious five-seater to France, Germany, and Spain.
    (AP, 6/25/05)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B18)

2004        Oct 14, General Motors Europe said it plans to shed 12,000 jobs, almost 20 percent of its work force, in order to halt chronic losses.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        BMW unveiled the world's fastest hydrogen-powered car at the 2004 Paris auto show. Dubbed the H2R, it can exceed 300 kilometers (185 miles) per hour and reaches 100 km per hour from a standing start in around six seconds.
    (Reuters, 9/12/06)

2004        Chinese car sales reached 2.3 million making it the world’s 4th largest car market. It was expected to overtake Germany in 2005 and Japan by 2010.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.61)
2004        A report by the World Health Organization (WHO) said some 600 people were killed daily in traffic accidents in China.
    (SFC, 12/7/07, p.A25)

2005        Jan 20, It was reported that the global car industry had an annual excess capacity of some 24 million vehicles.
    (WSJ, 1/20/05, p.A1)

2005        Jan, Carlos Ghosn’s “Shift: Inside Nissan’s Historic Revival" was published in English.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.66)

2005        Feb 16, CEO Sergio Marchionne announced Fiat SpA will buy the Maserati sportscar brand from Ferrari, a company in which it already had a majority stake, just three days after winning independence from General Motors Corp.
    (AP, 2/16/05)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.88)

2005        Mar 19, John Z. DeLorean (80), developer of the gull-winged sports car, died in Michigan. He quit GM in 1973 to launch the DeLorean Motor Car Co. in Northern Ireland. Eight years later, the DeLorean DMC-12 hit the streets.
    (AP, 3/21/05)

2005        Apr 15, Administrators for Britain’s MG Rover Group said they intend to break up the company, laying off 5,000 workers, in a bid to find buyers for different units after the Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. made clear it was not interested in a joint venture.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 19, General Motors reported a loss of $1.1 billion for the 3 months ending in March, its worst quarterly performance since 1992.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.71)

2005        May 17, Toyota said it will build a gasoline-electric hybrid version of the Camry at its plant in Georgetown, Ky.
    (WSJ, 5/18/05, p.D4)

2005        May, Carlos Ghosn, head of Nissan, was set to also become head of Renault.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.66)

2005        Jun 4, It was reported that the death rate on China’s roads, according to the WHO, was 680 per day plus 45,000 injuries. American traffic deaths in contrast were at 115 per day.
    (Econ, 6/4/05, p.25)

2005        Jun 7, General Motors announced plans to close plants and eliminate some 25,000 manufacturing jobs in the US by 2008.
    (SFC, 6/805, p.C1)

2005        Jun 14, Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corp. broke ground on a new assembly plant in St. Petersburg, in a vote of confidence in the booming Russian consumer market despite investors' jitters over the Yukos case.
    (AP, 6/14/05)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.58)

2005        Jul, In Russia the 1st Logan cars, made by Renault, went on sale. They were made at the former Moskvitch plant in Moscow.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.58)

2005        Nov 22, Motor Trend magazine named the Honda Civic as 2006 Car of the Year.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        In Belgium deaths from traffic accidents reached 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Blame was put on the lack of stop signs at most intersections.
    (WSJ, 9/25/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 2, General Motors Corp. said it has made major steps in developing a commercially viable hydrogen-powered vehicle and expects it can get the emission-free cars into dealerships in the next four to nine years.
    (AFP, 3/2/06)

2006        Jul 23, The 654-foot Singapore-flagged Cougar Ace, a cargo ship carrying 4,813 cars from Japan to Canada, began tilting to its port side late at night hundreds of miles off Alaska's Aleutian Islands. 23 crew members were rescued the next day. The ship was owned by Tokyo-based Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and listed on its side for several weeks before being righted. 4,703 of the cars were new Mazdas valued at about $100 million. After a year of planning Mazda scheduled all the cars for complete reduction to scrap in Portland, Ore.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(SFC, 7/25/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 4/29/08, p.A9)

2006        Sep 5, Bill Ford stepped down as CEO of Ford Motor Co. and was replaced by Alan Mulally, a top Boeing executive.
    (SFC, 9/6/06, p.C3)

2006        Sep 15, US automaker Ford Motor Co. unveiled sweeping job cuts and plant closures to stem losses and said it has no intention of selling its luxury brand Jaguar. Ford said it would cut 10,000 more white-collar positions, up from a previous goal of 4,000, and offer buyout and early retirement to all 75,000 hourly employees. Ford stock closed at $8.02.
    (AFP, 9/15/06)(SFC, 9/16/06, p.C1)(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 14, Honda unveiled the hydrogen powered Honda FCX in Monterey, Ca. Hondo planned to produce fuel cell cars within 2 years.
    (SFC, 11/15/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 29, Still losing money after job and factory cuts, Ford Motor Co. said 38,000 workers, almost half of its hourly production force, had accepted buyouts or early retirement offers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2006        Nov, Venezuela inaugurated its Venirauto car factory, a joint venture with Iran. The first 300 units were released on July 9, 2007.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.42)(www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2491)

2007        Jan 26, In Germany Peter Hartz, Volkswagen human resources executive, was fined $750,000 and given a 2-year suspended sentence after he pleaded guilty to funding an account that provided special travel perks for employees.

2007        Jan, China’s Changfeng Group Co., made its first appearance at the international auto show in Detroit, Mich. China numbered over 100 automakers and industry consolidation was expected.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.B1)

2007        Feb 14, German-US auto giant DaimlerChrysler said it planned to axe 13,000 jobs at its loss-making Chrysler subsidiary as part of a broad restructuring plan aimed at returning the US unit to profitability by 2009. The bulk of the job losses will affect union workers, with 9,000 hourly jobs eliminated in the United States and 2,000 in Canada.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Mar 6, Volkswagen's new chief executive Martin Winterkorn has been nominated as chairman of Swedish truck maker Scania in a new phase in the plans for a three-way tie-up with German group MAN. VW is Scania's biggest shareholder with a voting stake of 34 percent and traditionally holds the chair of the Swedish truck maker's supervisory board.
    (AFP, 3/6/07)

2007        Apr 24, Japan's Toyota Motor Corp. reported that it outsold General Motors Corp. by around 90,000 vehicles in the first quarter, moving a step closer to unseating its US rival as the world's biggest automaker. Aside from a few strike-related blips GM had been the top US car seller since 1931.
    (Reuters, 4/24/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.76)

2007        May 14, German-based DaimlerChrysler said it will sell almost all of money-losing Chrysler to Cerberus, a private equity firm, for $7.4 billion, backing out of a troubled 1998 takeover aimed at creating a global automotive powerhouse. John Snow, former US treasury secretary, served as chairman of Cerberus.
    (AP, 5/14/07)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.67)

2007        May 27, Dario Franchitti won a rain-abbreviated Indy 500.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2007        Jul 4, In Italy some 100,000 people in Turin celebrated the launch of the new Fiat 500 (Cinquecento), 50 years following the launch of the 1st Fiat 500.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)

2007        Aug 6, Cerberus Capital Management LP named Robert Nardelli, former CEO of Home Depot, to lead its newly acquired Chrysler unit.
    (WSJ, 8/6/07, p.A1)

2007        Aug 22, Lucid Motors,  an American automotive company, was founded under the name Atieva in Newark, Ca. The company rebranded to Lucid Motors in October 2016 and officially announced its intent to develop an all-electric, high-performance luxury vehicle In 2020 the company unvelied the Lucid Air, a $150,000 challenger to the Tesla Model S.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucid_Motors)(SFC, 9/14/20, p.C1)

2007        Sep 9, Volkswagen announced the Up! At the Frankfurt Motor Show. The 6,000 euro ($8,300) is a small car intended for emerging markets.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.78)

2007        Sep 24, More than 73,000 General Motors Corp workers walked off the job after marathon contract talks between the United Auto Workers union and GM stalled and the union called the first national strike since 1970 against the top U.S. automaker.
    (Reuters, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 26, The United Auto Workers union and General Motors Corp reached a tentative contract, ending a national strike by 73,000 workers with a groundbreaking deal that includes a health-care trust fund.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Oct 10, Thousands of Chrysler LLC autoworkers walked off the job after the automaker and the United Auto Workers union failed to reach a tentative contract agreement before a union-imposed deadline. Hours later negotiators reached a tentative agreement.
    (AP, 10/10/07)(WSJ, 10/11/07, p.A3)

2007        Oct 27, Despite significant dissent among some of its workers, United Auto Workers members narrowly passed a four-year contract agreement with Chrysler LLC.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2007        Nov 3, United Auto Workers agreed to a tentative contract with Ford Motor Co.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2007        Nov 11, Proton, Malaysia’s national car maker, said it planned to team up with companies in Iran and Turkey to produce "Islamic cars" for the global market.

2007        Nov 29, Roger B. Smith (82), former chairman and CEO of General Motors, died in Detroit. He was the target of Michael Moore’s 1989 film “Roger & Me." During his term GM’s market share dropped from 45% to 36%. It currently stood at 24%.
    (SFC, 12/1/07, p.B5)

2007        Rhode Island lawmakers ended a 51-year prohibition on Sunday auto sales.
    (WSJ, 11/6/08, p.A14)
2007        In China the Great Wall Motor company in Hebei province produced 108,000 vehicles this year. The company had ambitious plans for growth. It already built cars with a licensee in Iran and in 2006 had opened a factory in the Ukraine.
    (Econ, 5/10/08, p.74)
2007        Road accidents in India averaged nearly 100,000 per year.
    (SFC, 12/7/07, p.A25)

2008        Jan 3, Ford Motor Co. named Tata Motors Ltd. the top bidder for its Jaguar and Land Rover brands and entered into "focused negotiations at a more detailed level."
    (AP, 1/3/08)

2008        Jan 4, The annual 5,760 Dakar Rally was canceled on the eve of the race across the Sahara Desert because of terror threats and the recent killings of a French family in Mauritania blamed on al-Qaida-linked militants. The race, organized by the France-based Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), had been due to start in Lisbon, Portugal, and finish in Dakar, Senegal, on Jan. 20.
    (AP, 1/4/08)(WSJ, 1/5/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 10, India's Tata Motors unveiled the world's cheapest car, bringing new mobility within the reach of tens of millions of people and nightmares to environmentalists, traffic engineers and safety advocates. The Tata Nano was expected to sell for about $2,500.
    (AP, 1/10/08)(SFC, 1/11/08, p.C1)

2008        Jan 18, Renault-Nissan signed an accord with the Moroccan government for what it says will be one of its largest automobile-making operations in the world, set to be constructed near Tangiers.
    (AFP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 30, Auto giant Ford announced a multi-million dollar investment in South Africa, brushing aside fears about an electricity crisis which has alarmed other international investors.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 2, South Korean car giant Hyundai Motor Co opened a second plant in India, making the country its biggest foreign manufacturing site.
    (AP, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 12, General Motors Corp. reported a $38.7 billion loss for 2007, the largest annual loss ever for an automotive company, and said it is making a new round of buyout offers to US hourly workers in hopes of replacing some of them with lower-paid help.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 13, The WTO condemned China for the first time for taxing imports of auto parts at the same rate as foreign-made finished cars.
    (SFC, 2/14/08, p.C3)

2008        Feb 16, In Maryland a car plowed into a crowd that had gathered to watch a drag race on a suburban road, killing 8 people and injuring at least four.
    (AP, 2/16/08)(SSFC, 2/17/08, p.A2)

2008        Feb 27, The German luxury carmaker BMW said that a restructuring plan aimed at boosting profitability would see the overall elimination of 8,100 jobs worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/08)
2008        Feb 27, Italian tax police busted a ring of auto-body shops involved in creating fake Ferraris using Pontiac Fieros.
    (WSJ, 2/28/08, p.D5)

2008        Feb, Renault SA invested $1 billion for a 25% stake in Russian car maker OAO Avtovaz.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.74)

2008        Mar 21, It was reported that the French built Smart ForTwo by Daimler would be introduced in the US, the 37th country to sell the small car, for a starting price of $12,235. This followed 10 years after its European launch.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.W10)

2008        Mar 23, South Korea's Hyundai Motor said it would begin mass producing hybrid cars next year amid growing demand for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles.
    (AP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 26, India's Tata Motors said it had bought British luxury icons Jaguar and Land Rover from ailing US carmaker Ford Motor Co for 1.15 billion pounds (2.3 billion dollars).
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Apr 10, Iran reported that the SenIran Auto plant in Thies, Senegal's second largest city, has built its first Iran-Khodro Samand sedan. Iran Khodro is the largest carmaker in the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa regions with annual production of more than one million various vehicles including cars, trucks and buses.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.49)

2008        May 19, Nissan Motor Co. and NEC corp. announced plans to begin mass-producing lithium-ion batteries for electric cars. Nissan and Renault planned to have an all-electric car in the US and Japan by 2010.
    (WSJ, 5/20/08, p.B1)

2008        Jun 4, In Canada angry autoworkers blockaded the entrance to General Motors of Canada headquarters in Oshawa, Ontario, one day after GM said it would shut its Oshawa truck plant as well as 2 plants in the US and one in Mexico.
    (Reuters, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 10, Japan’s Toyota said it will start making the Camry hybrid in Australia and Thailand as part of its efforts to step up production of "green" cars around the world.
    (AP, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 16, The FCX Clarity, Honda's new zero-emission, hydrogen fuel cell car, rolled off a Japanese production line and headed to Southern California, where Hollywood is already abuzz over the latest splash in green motoring.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jul 15, Volkswagen announced that it would build a $1 billion car plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., and expected to open it as soon as 2011.
    (WSJ, 7/30/08, p.C10)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiFdSOp19gU)

2008        Jul 24, Ford Motor Co. posted the worst quarterly performance in its history, losing $8.67 billion in the second quarter.
    (AP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 24, French giant automaker Renault said it will cut about 5,000 jobs in Europe among measures to reduce costs by 10 percent as it prepares for a sharp and possibly rocky downturn.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)

2008        Aug 7, It was reported that the Dubai-based Al Yousuf Group has invested $10 million in Zap, a Santa Rosa, Ca., firm that makes electric cars.
    (SFC, 8/7/08, p.C1)

2008        Aug 24, In India about 40,000 protesters surrounded the Tata Motors factory slated to produce the Nano, the world's cheapest car, alleging land for the site was forcibly taken from local farmers. A day earlier Ratan Tata, whose Tata Motors is India's top vehicle-maker, warned he would move the plant out of the state if the demonstrations kept up, although his company has already invested 350 million dollars in the project.
    (AFP, 8/24/08)

2008        Sep 23, Chrysler LLC disclosed that it had lost $400 million so far this year just hours after it unveiled prototypes of 3 new electric cars.
    (WSJ, 9/24/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 2, Nissan unveiled the Nuvu, a prototype for an electric city car.
    (WSJ, 4/9/09, p.B2)(http://odeo.com/episodes/23832952-Nissan-NuVu-Concept-EV)

2008        Oct 3, India's Tata Group announced it was abandoning a plant in eastern India which was slated to turn out the world's cheapest car after weeks of violent demonstrations triggered by a land dispute.
    (AFP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 7, In India Tata Chairman Ratan Tata said the company had acquired 1,100 acres in Gujarat state and will relocate equipment from the failed Nano minicar project in West Bengal.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A14)

2008        Nov 6, The leaders of GM, Ford and Chrysler came to Capital Hill along with the president of the UAW to discuss billions of dollars in financial help for the struggling car industry.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.C3)

2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. reported $2.5 billion losses in the third quarter, burning through $6.9 billion in cash and warned that it could run out of cash in 2009. GM also said it has suspended talks to acquire Chrysler. Meanwhile, Ford Motor Co. said it lost $129 million in the third quarter as the struggling automaker burned through $7.7 billion in cash and set plans for more job cuts.
2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. dedicated its first Russian assembly plant, a $300 million, 70,000-car-a-year factory just outside of St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 17, US Automakers begged governments to save them amid a spreading global recession. Cash-strapped General Motors Corp. said it will sell its entire stake in Suzuki Motor Corp. for 22.37 billion yen ($230 million), the automaker's latest move to stay afloat while awaiting a decision on government aid for the industry.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, The chief executives of Detroit’s Big Three automakers appeared before the US Senate Banking Committee along with the head of the UAW union to plea for financial aid under the current economic crises.
    (WSJ, 11/19/08, p.A1)

2008        Nov 20, US Congressional efforts to rescue Detroit’s auto makers collapsed with lawmakers saying the industry lacks credibility to return to profitability. Democrats asked for a convincing turnaround plan by Dec 2.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 2, Detroit’s Big Three auto makers presented turnaround plans to Congress and sought $34 billion in aid.
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 2, Hawaii unveiled plans to be first in the nation to roll out electric car stations statewide, a move Gov. Linda Lingle  hailed as a major step toward weaning the islands off oil.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 10, Congressional officials said majority Democrats and the White House have finalized a deal to spend $15 billion on emergency loans for struggling US automakers.
    (AP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 11, The $14 billion package to aid General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC collapsed amid disputes over union wage cuts. A band of mostly Republican Southern senators, including states that subsidized foreign auto makers, formed the heart of the opposition.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A3)

2008        Dec 12, The White House and the Treasury said they were considering diverting money from the Wall Street rescue fund to stave off bankruptcy filings among the carmakers. General Motors Corp. said it will temporarily close 20 factories across North America and make sweeping cuts to its vehicle production as it tries to adjust to dramatically weaker automobile demand.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 15, In China the BYD Co. introduced the F3DB, country’s first homegrown electric vehicle for the mass market. The sedan was expected to be priced at about $22,000 and introduced to the US in the second half of 2010.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.B2)

2008        Dec 16, In Italy Fiat Group SpA for the first time shut down most of its Italian plants for a month, laying off nearly 50,000 workers for an extended holiday as it copes with the precipitous drop in demand for new cars.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 20, The Canadian and Ontario governments announced they would follow the US in providing C$4 billion ($3.3 billion) in emergency loans to the Canadian arms of Detroit's ailing automakers to keep them operating while they restructure their businesses.
    (Reuters, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Some 500 motorists rallied in Russia's far east to protest the government's decision to raise car import tariffs. Thousands of others were expected to stage similar demonstrations across Russia on Dec 21.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 21, In far east Russia riot police in Vladivostok clubbed, kicked and detained dozens of people as hundreds across the country protested an increase in car import tariffs.
    (AP, 12/21/08)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 22, Toyota Motor Corp. projected its first-ever operating loss since 1939, acknowledging  that its nine-year stretch of global vehicle-sales growth had stalled. Pres. Katsuaki Watanabe projected an operating loss of $1.7 billion.
    (AP, 12/22/08)(WSJ, 12/23/08, p.A7)

2008        Dec 29, The US federal government approved $6 billion in aid to GMAC LLC, the financing company vital to the future of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec, Bolivia banned imports of 2nd-hand cars over 5-years old. In 2011 the government provided a 25-day amnesty for owners to register illegal imports and pay a fine.
    (www.startribune.com/templates/Print_This_Story?sid=36387719)(Econ, 6/25/11, p.48)
2008        Dec, In Norway Think Global AS, a front runner in the plug-in car market, filed for Bankruptcy after its failure to get capital financing under the current credit crunch.
    (WSJ, 1/24/08, p.B2)

2008        Steven M. Gelber authored “Horse Trading in the Age of Cars: Men in the Marketplace."
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A15)
2008        Lewis H. Siegelbaum authored “Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile."
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)
2008        In what came to be called “dieselgate" German car companies agreed to install inadequately small tanks of urea, used to cut nitrogen-oxide emissions from diesel engines, in order to save cash.
    (Econ 7/29/17, p.56)
2008        The assets of Zastava, a Serbian maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles, were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija (FAS).
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.70)

2009        Jan 11, South Korea’s Hyundai Genesis was named North American Car of the Year and the Ford F-150 as the 2009 North American Truck of the Year. The awards were first given in 1994. This was the first time a Korean automaker has won.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.71)(www.northamericancaroftheyear.org/)

2009        Jan 20, Chrysler and Italy’s Fiat confirmed they had reached an agreement on an alliance that would give Fiat a 35% stake in Chrysler, but only if Chrysler gets $3 billion more in financial help from Washington.
    (WSJ, 1/21/09, p.B1)
2009        Jan 20, In Japan Toyota tapped Akio Toyoda, grandson of the automaker's founder, as president, paying homage to its roots at a time when the company faces its first operating loss in 70 years.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 21, GM reported an 11% drop in 2008 vehicle sales, relinquishing its crown as the world’s biggest auto maker to Toyota after 77 years.
    (WSJ, 1/22/09, p.B3)

2009        Jan 27, Lord Mandelson, business secretary to Britain’s PM Gordon Brown, announced loan guarantees of up to 2.3 billion pounds (2.5 billion euros, 3.2 billion dollars) in credit funding for its ailing auto industry.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.63)

2009        Jan 31, Porsche's new museum in Stuttgart, a sprawling monument to 60 years of German engineering, opened to the public.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 9, Nissan said it is slashing 20,000 jobs, or 8.5 percent of its global work force, to cope with what Japan's third-largest automaker expects will be its first annual loss in nine years.
    (AP, 2/9/09)
2009        Feb 9, The French government said it would give $8.4 million in low interest loans to Renault SA and PSA Peugeot-Citroen in exchange for pledges that the car makers won’t close any factories of lay off workers in France for the duration of the funding.
    (WSJ, 2/10/09, p.B2)

2009        Feb 10, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 10,000 salaried jobs, citing the need to restructure itself with a government deadline looming and amid some of the worst sales in the auto industry's history.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 17, Chrysler and GM told the US government they may need up to $21.6 billion in combined bailout loans. GM’s survival plan called for cutting a total of 47,000 jobs globally and closing 5 more US factories.
    (SFC, 2/18/09, p.C1)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 20, General Motors Corp.'s Swedish-based subsidiary Saab went into bankruptcy protection so the unit can be spun off or sold by its struggling US parent.
    (AP, 2/20/09)
2009        Feb 20, The Canadian units of General Motors Corp and Chrysler sought as much as C$10 billion ($8 billion) in aid from the Canadian and Ontario governments as they fought to survive an industry wide crisis.
    (AP, 2/21/09)

2009        Feb 23, Ford Motor Co. said it has reached a tentative deal with the United Auto Workers union on changes to retiree health care, becoming the first Detroit automaker to secure union concessions on the key issue.
    (Reuters, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Honda Motor Co. named Takanobu Ito (55), head of core automaking operations, as its new chief executive, in an effort to provide fresh leadership to battle a global crisis in the auto industry. He replaced Takeo Fukui (64) as CEO and president.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 26, General Motors reported a $9.6 billion 4th quarter loss bringing its loss for the year 2008 to $30.9 billion. This was its 2nd worst financial performance in its 100 year history.
    (WSJ, 2/27/09, p.B1)

2009        Mar 9, California-based Genencor, a division of Danisco A/S, announced the first transfer of BioIsoprene™ product to The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. By December the world’s first concept demonstration tires made with BioIsoprene™ technology, a breakthrough alternative to replace a petrochemically produced ingredient in the manufacture of synthetic rubber with renewable biomass, made their debut in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (http://tinyurl.com/27vewpy)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.79)

2009        Mar 23, India’s Tata Motors launched its ultra-cheap Nano car in Mumbai. The vehicle was hoped to herald a revolution by making it possible for the world's poor to purchase their first car.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 26, In Los Angeles US automaker Tesla Motors unveiled its state-of-the-art five-seat sedan, billed as the world's first mass-produced, highway-capable electric car. The San Carlos company said it would likely be built in Southern California rather than San Jose.
    (AFP, 3/26/09)(SFC, 3/27/09, p.C1)

2009        Mar 30, President Barack Obama said that neither General Motors nor Chrysler has proposed sweeping enough changes to justify further large federal bailouts, and demanded "painful concessions" from creditors, unions and others as their price for survival. Driving home the point, the White House ousted the GM Chairman Rick Wagoner as it rejected GM and Chrysler's restructuring plans. Fritz Henderson, GM's president and chief operating officer, became the new CEO. Board member Kent Kresa, the former chairman and CEO of defense contractor Northrop Grumman Corp., was named interim chairman of the GM board.
    (AP, 3/30/09)
2009        Mar 30, Malaysia's national car maker Proton and Detroit Electric, a Dutch-based company, signed a $555 million deal to make zero emission electric cars that they said would be more powerful that any existing model.
    (AP, 3/30/09)
2009        Mar 30, In Russia PM Putin pledged over $1 billion in state support to its ailing car industry in a bid to avoid heavy job losses and potential social unrest.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/csyby9)

2009        Mar 31, Fritz Henderson, GM's new chief executive said that more of the automaker's plants could close and bankruptcy is "more probable" as it works to meet new, tougher requirements for government aid. In his first news conference as CEO, Henderson said he expects the company would "need to take further measures" beyond the 5 plants the company said it would shutter when it submitted a restructuring plan to the government last month.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Volkswagen opened a new plant in western India, pledging to make further inroads into the country's growing auto market.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 7, GM and Segway announced that they are working together to develop a two-wheeled, two-seat electric vehicle designed to be a fast, safe, inexpensive and clean alternative to traditional cars and trucks for cities across the world. The project was called P.U.M.A. (Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility).
    (AP, 4/7/09)(WSJ, 4/8/09, p.B4)

2009        Apr 16, The British government promised a multimillion pound investment to try to jumpstart the market for environmentally friendly electric cars.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 19, The Shanghai Motor Show opened. Porsche kicked off the show by unveiling the Panamera, the German luxury carmaker's first foray into the sedan segment.

2009        Apr 20, At the Shanghai Motor Show Rolls Royce CEO Tom Purves announced that the company's new model would be called Ghost.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dfqycq)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.66)

2009        Apr 22, Britain’s Chancellor Alistair Darling said the government will pay drivers to swap old cars for new in a scheme to boost its stricken auto sector, mirroring moves in Germany and other European nations. He also said he saw the economy starting to grow again by the end of this year following the worst recession since World War II.
    (AP, 4/22/09)(AFP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 24, The Canadian Auto Workers union and Chrysler Canada reached a tentative concession deal that would cut about C$19 ($15.70) an hour from labor costs in a bid to keep the struggling automaker from bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 26, A deal between Chrysler and the UAW was revealed that would give the union a 55% stake in the company in return for concessions. Under the plan Fiat SpA would eventually own 35% and the US government together with secured lenders would own up to 10%.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A8B)

2009        Apr 27, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 21,000 US factory jobs by next year, phase out its storied Pontiac brand and ask the government to take more than half its stock in exchange for half of GM's government debt as part of a major restructuring that would leave current shareholders holding just 1 percent of the company.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 30, Chrysler filed for bankruptcy protection after overnight talks broke down with a small group of the company's creditors. Canada's government said it will take an ownership stake in Chrysler in exchange for more than $2 billion in loans, under a sweeping North American rescue plan. Ottawa and Washington demanded the Detroit company partner with Fiat as a condition for funding.
    (AP, 4/30/09)(Reuters, 5/1/09)

2009        May 4, In Germany Sergio Marchionne, the boss of Italy's Fiat, drummed up support in Berlin for audacious plans to snap up General Motors' European arm and merge it with the bankrupt Chrysler to create a new global auto giant. Germany's economy minister said Fiat Group SpA wants to take over GM's Opel unit without running up debt and would preserve the three main German assembly plants if successful.
    (AFP, 5/4/09)(AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 5, Pres. Obama and Democratic lawmakers reached agreement on a legislative proposal designed to stimulate US auto sales, which have fallen to near 30-year lows.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 7, General Motors Corp. lost $6 billion in the first quarter and its revenue was cut nearly in half as car buyers feared the wounded auto giant would enter bankruptcy and no longer honor its warranties.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 14, Chrysler LLC said in a bankruptcy court filing that it wants to eliminate roughly a quarter of its 3,200 US dealerships by early next month, because the network is antiquated and has too many stores competing with each other.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, General Motors said it plans to eliminate some 1,000 of 6,000 showrooms over the next year in an effort to boost profits by lessening competition among dealers.
    (SFC, 5/16/09, p.C1)

2009        May 19, President Barack Obama announced a new fuel and emission standard that he says will, at last, put the United States on the road to a cleaner environment and better fuel efficiency.
    (AP, 5/19/09)(SFC, 5/19/09, p.A1)
2009        May 19, Tesla, an electric car maker in San Carlos, Ca., sold a 10% stake to German auto giant Daimler.
    (SFC, 5/20/09, p.C1)

2009        May 30, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said General Motors Corp. will sell its Opel unit and other European assets to Canada's Magna International Inc. in a deal that would protect the assets from GM's likely bankruptcy.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 1, General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as part of the Obama administration's plan to shrink the automaker to a sustainable size and give a majority ownership stake to the federal government. GM assets were valued at $82.2 billion with liabilities at $172 billion. The US government planned to receive 60.8% of GM stock, Canada’s government 11.7%, the UAW’s trust 17.5% and bondholders 10%. GM said it will permanently close nine more plants and idle three others to trim production and labor costs under bankruptcy protection. GM was expected to lose 14 factories, 29,000 workers and 2,400 dealers.
    (AP, 6/1/09)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.9,60, 62)

2009        Jun 2, GM struck a tentative deal to sell its Hummer brand to China’s Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Co.
    (SFC, 6/3/09, p.C2)

2009        Jun 5, General Motors Corp. announced a tentative deal to sell its Saturn brand to former race car driver and dealership group owner Roger Penske.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 8, In Britain van maker LDV was placed in administration after the collapse of a rescue deal by Malaysian firm Weststar collapsed. Up to 850 jobs and thousands more in the supply chain were threatened. The company, owned by Russian giant GAZ, applied to Birmingham County Court for administrators to be appointed.
    (AFP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 10, Italy's Fiat became the new owner of the bulk of Chrysler's assets, closing a deal that saves the troubled US automaker from liquidation and places a new company in the hands of Fiat's CEO.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 16, GM and Sweden's Koenigsegg said they have struck a deal for Koenigsegg, a niche manufacturer of some of the world's fastest and most expensive sports cars, to buy loss-making Saab Automobile from General Motors.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 16, A new hydrogen car designed for use in cities and backed by Sebastian Piech, a relative of the founder of German luxury sportscar maker Porsche, was unveiled in London. The two-seater Riversimple Urban Car can travel 240 miles without refueling, weighs just 350 kilograms (770 pounds) and has a top speed of 50 miles per hour.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jul 1, A US federal “cash for clunkers" scheme went into effect providing incentives for car buyers.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)
2009        Jul 1, US car giants General Motors and Ford suspended operations on their production lines in Russia as the deepening economic crisis squeezes Russian consumers' demand for new cars.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 10, General Motors emerged from bankruptcy protection. CEO Fritz Henderson said the new GM will be far faster and more responsive to customers than the old one, and it will make money and repay government loans faster than required.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 13, German automobile group Daimler said it sold 40 percent of its stake in US electric car maker Tesla Motors to United Arab Emirate's Aabar Investments group to boost development of low-emission vehicles.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 15, Luxury carmaker Jaguar, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced it would end Liverpool production of its X-Type car by the end of the year with the loss of up to 300 jobs.
    (AFP, 7/15/09)

2009        Aug 7, Pres. Obama signed into law a measure tripling the budget of the $1 billion incentive “cash for clunkers" program.
    (SFC, 8/8/09, p.A5)

2009        Aug 11, General Motors Corp. said its Chevrolet Volt rechargeable electric car should get 230 miles per gallon of gasoline in city driving, more than four times the mileage of the current champion, the Toyota Prius.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 14, In Germany shares in Volkswagen, Europe's biggest carmaker, plunged after it approved a takeover of luxury auto manufacturer Porsche to create a sector giant.
    (AFP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 19, Germany launched a campaign to put 1 million electric cars on the road by 2020, making battery research a priority as it tries to position the country as a market leader.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 24, The US government cash for clunkers program ended.
    (SFC, 8/24/09, p.A4)

2009        Aug 27, Toyota confirmed that it would stop making cars at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, Ca., idling some 4,700 workers.
    (SFC, 8/28/09, p.A1)

2009        Sep 10, GM announced that it agreed to the sale of 55% of Ruesselsheim-based Adam Opel and Vauxhall unit to Canadian auto parts maker Magna International Inc. and Russian lender Sberbank. Detroit-based GM will keep a 35% stake and continue to work with Opel on developing vehicles, sharing technology and engineering resources.
    (AP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, Europe's biggest automaker Volkswagen said it planned to invest 4.0 billion euros (5.8 billion dollars) to boost its presence in China over the next three years.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 14, In Germany Siegfried Wolf, the co-chief executive of Magna International Inc., said as many as 10,500 Opel jobs in Europe could be cut, including nearly half of them in Germany. Opel employs some 49,000 workers in Europe and has plants in Germany, Spain, Britain, Poland and Germany.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 15, The Frankfurt auto show opened. The French company Renault unveiled a lineup that includes a purely electric sedan, without a backup internal combustion engine. Renault says the vehicle will be in showrooms by 2011.
    (www.nytimes.com/2009/09/14/automobiles/14electric.html)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.74)

2009        Sep 23, It was reported that solar power company SolarCity and Dutch Bank RaboBank have teamed together to build 5 recharging stations along Highway 101, between the SF Bay Area and Los Angeles, to support the new Tesla electric cars. The $109,000 roadster was limited to range of about 250 miles. Recharging would take 30-45 minutes. Fully charging the cars took over 3 hours at a cost of about $4.
    (SFC, 9/23/09, p.A1)
2009        Sep 23, In Canada the Globe and Mail said Ford Motor Co's Canadian subsidiary faces a $1.8 billion shortfall in its pension plan, citing a company letter to employees and retirees.
    (Reuters, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 29, Toyota Motor Corp. issued its largest-ever US recall, involving 3.8 million vehicles. Toyota and the government warned owners to remove the mats from their vehicles that could cause accelerators to get stuck and lead to a crash.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Sep 30, The Penske Automotive Group Inc. announced it is walking away from a deal to acquire the Saturn brand from GM, after being unable to find a manufacturer to make Saturn cars when GM stops producing models sometime after the end of 2011. The brand was set up in 1990 to fight growing Japanese imports.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 7, The first British-built Honda Jazz auto rolled off the assembly line after production was switched from Japan in a move the manufacturer hopes will end a troubled year for the factory.
    (AFP, 10/7/09)

2009        Nov 4, Germany's politicians fumed with anger and Opel workers canceled cost concessions and readied walkouts after General Motors Co. abandoned the sale of its European subsidiary to parts maker Magna International and Russian lender Sberbank.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 5, In Germany thousands of Opel workers, fearing widespread layoffs, walked off the job to protest General Motors Co.'s decision to abandon the unit's sale to new owners.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 9, General Motors said that it would invest C$90 million ($85.1 million) to expand a joint venture plant in Canada where it builds the Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain crossovers.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 13, The Dutch government announced to bring the polluter-pays principle into the home garage. As of 2012 rather than an annual road tax for their cars, drivers will pay a few cents for every kilometer on the road, in a plan aimed at breaking chronic traffic jams and cutting carbon emissions.
    (AP, 11/14/09)

2009        Nov 16, General Motors Co. says it lost $1.2 billion from the time it left bankruptcy protection through Sept. 30, far better than it has reported in previous quarters and a sign that the auto giant is starting to turn around its business.
    (AP, 11/16/09)
2009        Nov 16, French tire maker Michelin announced plans to invest nearly 900 million dollars to build a tire plant to supply India's fast-growing vehicle market.
    (AFP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 18, South Korean auto giant Hyundai said it would roll out another new small car in India as it jostles with rivals for a larger slice of the fast-growing Indian market.
    (AFP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 25, Toyota said it would fix accelerator pedals on 4.26 million vehicles to prevent them from becoming stuck and leading to unintentional acceleration.
    (AFP, 11/25/09)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.76)

2009        Dec 9, Germany’s Volkswagen announced that it has agreed to pay $2.5 billion for a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, a family-owned Japanese maker of small cars and motorcycles.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.72)

2009        Dec 18, General Motors Co. said it will shut down Saab after talks to sell the brand to a Dutch carmaker collapsed, marking the third time this year that a deal by GM to sell an unwanted brand has fallen through.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 20, Dutch sports carmaker Spyker said it has made a new bid for Sweden's Saab Automobile, two days after General Motors said it would close the loss-making unit.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 23, US auto giant Ford said it had agreed the main terms for selling its Swedish brand Volvo Cars to Chinese carmaker Geely, in a deal set to underline China's growing economic clout.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)
2009        Dec 23, Italian carmaker Fiat became a majority owner of Serbian car manufacturer Zastava with a 67% stake.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.39)(http://tinyurl.com/yd2lccd)

2009        Dec 30, The US government gave GMAC Financial Services an additional $3.8 billion in cash and took a majority stake in the auto lender.
    (SFC, 12/31/09, p.D1)

2009        America’s Dept. of Energy agreed to gave Fisker, a California-based maker of hybrid electric cars, a big “green energy" loan to start production of its Karma sports car. Production ceased in 2012 and the company filed for bankruptcy in 2013. Hybrid Tech Holdings of Hong Kong soon bought the DOE’s loan at a big discount and competed with Wanxiang, a Chinese maker of car parts, for control of Fisker.
    (Econ, 1/11/14, p.54)
2009        Mate Rimac (b.1988), founded Rimac Automobili, a Croatian electric-car-technology firm. The company's first car was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2011. In 2018 the company unveiled its 2nd model, the 150 C Two.
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.54)
2009        In Russia Oleg Deripaska, owner of the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ), brought in Bo Andersson, formerly of General Motors, to turn GAZ around.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.55)

2010        Jan 5, In India global car manufacturers eyeing the explosive growth of the Indian market unveiled new compact models at the Delhi auto show as they sought to break the dominance of entrenched local producers.
    (AFP, 1/5/10)

2010        Jan 8, The China Passenger Car Association reported that China overtook the US as the biggest auto market in 2009 and automakers should see more strong growth this year.
    (AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 11, In Ecuador Quito Mayor Augusto Barrera said his government will impose new driving restrictions to keep 80,000 private cars off the capital’s congested streets during rush hour.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 21, General Motor Co.'s Opel unit will cut 8,300 jobs across Europe, including 4,000 in Germany, and close a plant in Antwerp, Belgium, cutting over 2,300 jobs.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2010        Jan 21, Toyota said it is recalling 2.3 million vehicles in the US to fix accelerator pedals with mechanical problems that could cause them to become stuck. The announcement comes just months after it recalled 4.2 million vehicles due to gas pedals that could become trapped under floor mats, causing sudden acceleration.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 25, Electric vehicle network firm Better Place announced it has signed an agreement with an HSBC-led investor consortium for new equity financing of $350m (£217m), valuing the firm at $1.25bn. Better Place, led by former software entrepreneur Shai Agassi, hoped to be the leading infrastructure provider for the world’s growing fleet of electric cars.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/ycsyrdj)

2010        Jan 26, Toyota Motor Corp. announced it would halt sales of some of its top-selling models to fix gas pedals that could stick and cause unintended acceleration. Last week, Toyota issued a recall for the same eight models affecting 2.3 million vehicles. Toyota said it is also suspending production at six North American car-assembly plants beginning the week of Feb. 1. It gave no date on when production could restart.
    (AP, 1/27/10)
2010        Jan 26, General Motors agreed to sell Saab, its Swedish subsidiary, to Spyker Cars, a Dutch maker of sports cars, for $74 million in cash and preference shares worth $326 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.76)

2010        Jan 28, Ford Motor Co. said it has halted production of some full-sized commercial vehicles in China because they contain gas pedals built by the same company behind the accelerators in Toyota Motor Corp.'s recent recall. Ford spokesman Said Deep said the diesel version of its Transit Classic built by a Chinese joint venture contains accelerators built by CTS Corp., based in Elkhart, Ind. The vehicles began production in December and only about 1,600 have been produced.
    (AP, 1/28/10)
2010        Jan 28, Toyota Motor Corp extended its safety recall of millions of its most popular cars to Europe and China in a further blow to the reputation of the world's largest auto maker.
    (Reuters, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Honda Motor Co. said it would recall a total 646,000 units of the Fit/Jazz and City models globally, including 140,000 in the United States. The recall was to fix a defective master switch, which could cause water to enter the power window switch and in some cases cause a fire.
    (Reuters, 1/29/10)

2010        Feb 7, Newspapers said Toyota will recall 300,000 Prius hybrid vehicles because of brake flaws. Toyota said that it will soon announce plans to deal with braking problems in its prized Prius hybrid amid reports it has decided to issue a recall for the latest model in Japan, a possible new embarrassment for the world's biggest automaker.
    (AFP, 2/7/10)(AP, 2/7/10)

2010        Feb 9, In Germany GM's Opel unit asked European governments for billions of euros (dollars) in aid even as it formally presented a restructuring plan that will result in some 8,300 job cuts in Europe.
    (AP, 2/9/10)
2010        Feb 9, Toyota officials went to Japan's Transport Ministry to formally notify officials the company is recalling the 2010 Prius gas-electric hybrid. The automaker is also recalling two other hybrid models in Japan, the Lexus HS250h sedan, sold in the US and Japan, and the Sai, which is sold only in Japan. The total recall amounted to 437,000 Prius and other hybrid vehicles worldwide to fix brake problems.
    (AP, 2/9/10)
2010        Feb 9, Honda Motor Co. added 378,000 US vehicles and 41,000 in Canada to its 15-month-old global recall for faulty air bags in the latest quality problem to hit a Japanese automaker. The next day 17,000 cars in Japan were added to the list.
    (AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 11, Italy's Fiat SpA and Russian automobile company Sollers announced a euro2.4 billion ($3.3 billion) joint venture to produce up to 500,000 vehicles per year in Russia in a bid to become the country's second-largest car maker.
    (AP, 2/11/10)
2010        Feb 11, Volkswagen announced it was recalling nearly 200,000 vehicles in Brazil because of a problem with the rear wheels that could cause them to seize or fall off.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 18, US researchers unveiled a vehicle that earns money for its driver instead of guzzling it up in gasoline and maintenance costs. The presentation of the box-like, unassuming looking Scion was the researchers' way of introducing the "vehicle-to-grid" (V2G) concept as it begins to gain momentum in the United States and around the world.
    (AFP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 19, In San Mateo, Ca., Mahran Baranriz (47) and his wife Bita Imani (35) pleaded no contest to 10 counts of insurance fraud. They ran the Group Specialists car repair shop in Redwood City and had bilked customers by putting rats in their cars and claiming the vehicles needed costly work to fix rodent damage. Baranriz was sentenced to 4 years in prison, and his wife to 6 months in jail. A day earlier they ware ordered to pay $875,000 in restitution to 25 insurance companies.
    (SFC, 2/20/10, p.C2)

2010        Feb 23, India's biggest carmaker Maruti Suzuki India announced it has recalled 100,000 of its best-selling A-Star hatchback cars due to a fuel leakage problem.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 24, Akio Toyoda, scion of the beleaguered Toyota empire, apologized before a US House committee investigating deadly flaws that sparked the recall of 8.5 million cars.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Mar 1, General Motors Co. said it is recalling 1.3 million Chevrolet and Pontiac compact cars sold in the US, Canada and Mexico to fix power steering motors that can fail.
    (AP, 3/2/10)
2010        Mar 1, In China Toyota President Akio Toyoda apologized in Beijing to Chinese customers for the company's quality problems and emphasized the importance of the fast-growing market to his company.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 15, Honda Motor Co. said it will recall 410,000 Odyssey minivans and Element small trucks, from the 2007-2008 model years, due to braking system problems. 
    (SFC, 3/17/10, p.A9)

2010        Mar 28, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group signed a binding deal to buy Ford Motor Co.'s Volvo Cars unit for $1.8 billion, representing a coup for the independent Chinese automaker which is aiming to expand in Europe.
    (AP, 3/28/10)

2010        Apr 1, In Fremont, Ca., the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. plant (NUMMI) produced its last Toyota Corolla after 25 years of operations building cars the Toyota Way.
    (SFC, 4/2/10, p.A1)

2010        Apr 7, Auto giants Renault, Nissan and Daimler launched a partnership to save billions of euros and accelerate sales of low-pollution electric cars.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 16, Renault announced that it has pulled out of a joint venture with Indian car manufacturer Mahindra and Mahindra, which produced its first car for the growing South Asian market, the Logan.
    (AFP, 4/16/10)

2010        May 1, In China World Expo 2010 officially opened in Shanghai. Two-wheeled Electric Networked Vehicles (EN-Vs) were unveiled at Expo 2010. They used a balancing system developed by Segway.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.42)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.87)

2010        May 9, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad opened what is being dubbed as the Middle East's biggest car plant set up by Iranian state-run automobile company Saipa.
    (AFP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 20, Tesla Motors announced that it will use a $50 million investment from Toyota Corp. to help it buy the recently closed Nummi auto plant in Fremont, Ca.
    (SFC, 5/21/10, p.A1)

2010        May 21, In China some 1900 workers at a Honda auto parts factory in Guangdong province went on strike demanding higher pay. Monthly pay at the facility in Foshan city was about $117 per month. Similar companies paid between $292 and $365 a month. Honda announced a settlement on June 4.
    (www.china.org.cn/business/2010-05/28/content_20133668.htm)(SSFC, 5/30/10, p.A4)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 7, Chrysler Group LLC said it is recalling nearly 600,000 minivans and Jeep Wranglers because of brake or wiring problems that could become safety issues.
    (AP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, General Motors Co. said it was recalling about 1.5 million vehicles worldwide to address a problem with a heated windshield wiper fluid system that could lead to a fire, its second recall over the issue in two years.
    (AP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 17, Toyota said it will restart the delayed construction of its Mississippi plant, which will provide 2,000 jobs and be up and running by the fall of next year.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 29, American car maker Tesla Motors began trading shares in an IPO offered at $17. Trading closed at $23.89.
    (SFC, 6/30/10, p.A1)

2010        Jul 4, In Japan Toyota started recalling more than 90,000 luxury Lexus and Crown vehicles over defective engines.
    (AP, 7/4/10)

2010        Jul 9, Italy's Fiat, which controls Chrysler Group LCC, said it will proceed with a euro700 million ($886 million) investment to move production of its new Panda compact from Poland to a plant near Naples despite an unresolved dispute with an Italian union.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 14, NYC unveiled its first electric car charging station.
    (SFC, 7/15/10, p.A6)

2010        Jul 20, Italian engineers launched a 3-month, 8,000-mile test drive of a robotic vehicle from Parma to China.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 26, China’s Geely Holding Group received final government approval to acquire Volvo Cars from Ford Motor Co. in a $1.8 billion deal.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 28, Japan’s Nissan said is new car models will feature air conditioners that pump breathable vitamin C and stress-reducing seats.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)

2010        Aug 5, The US Export-Import Bank unveiled a loan guarantee for Ford Motor Co that will finance $3.1 billion in exports of cars and trucks to customers in Canada and Mexico.
    (Reuters, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 9, Honda Motor Co said it was recalling more than 428,000 vehicles in the United States and Canada because of a defect that could cause the cars to roll away if they are parked incorrectly.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 16, Teams from Australia, Germany and Switzerland have set off from Geneva in electric vehicles for what they hope will be the first carbon neutral race around the world. The race set up by Swiss inventor Louis Palmer will pass through 150 cities including Berlin, Moscow, Shanghai, Los Angeles and Cancun before returning to Geneva in January after 18,642 miles (30,000 km) on the road.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 24, A massive traffic jam in north China stretched for dozens of miles and hit its 10-day mark. It reportedly stemmed from road construction in Beijing that won't be finished until the middle of next month.
    (AP, 8/24/10)

2010        Sep 30, Japanese researchers said they had developed a hybrid vehicle motor that is free of rare earths, the minerals that are now almost exclusively produced by China.
    (AFP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 2, The Paris Motor Show opened. Renault unveiled the Twizzy, its smallest 4-wheeled electric vehicle.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.87)

2010        Oct 21, Toyota said it is recalling 1.53 million Lexus, Avalon and other models, mostly in the US and Japan, for brake fluid and fuel pump problems, the latest in a string of quality lapses for the world's No. 1 automaker.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 27, Elon Musk officially unveiled a new Tesla sign for the former Nummi plant in Fremont, Ca., where the new electric Tesla cars will be manufactured.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A11)

2010        Oct 28, In China 4 driverless vehicles arrived at the Shanghai Expo ending an 8,000 mile test drive from Italy.
    (SFC, 10/29/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 16, In Argentina the SRZero electric sports car, developed by engineers from Imperial College London, arrived in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, ending a 70-day, 16,000 mile journey that began on July 3 at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. It managed as much as 6 hours and over 250 miles on a single charge.
    (SFC, 11/18/10, p.A19)

2010        Nov 18, General Motors stock rose sharply as the icon of American manufacturing returned to life as a publicly traded company. The share price would needs to rise above $50 for the US government to get all its bailout money back.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 19, The Los Angeles Auto Show opened. Fiat, now associated with Chrysler, introduced its tiny Fiat 500. Fiat sales in America would begin in January, following a 27-year absense.
    (Econ, 11/27/10, p.69)

2010        Dec 11, Nissan North American delivered its first all-electric Leaf to Olivier Chalouhi (31) of Redwood City at a dealership in Petaluma, Ca. His cost was $33,500, but rebates were expected to drop the price to about $20,000.
    (SSFC, 12/12/10, p.C2)

2010        Dec 13, Mikhail Prokhorov, the Russian billionaire owner of the New Jersey Nets, introduced a new line of hybrid cars — called "Yo" — that he hopes to begin selling in 2012.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 21, Toronto-Dominion Bank said it will buy Chrysler Financial from private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management for $6.3 billion, joining the throng of Canadian institutions expanding foreign operations.
    (Reuters, 12/21/10)
2010        Dec 21, Toyota Motor Corp. agreed to pay the US government a record $32.4 million in additional fines to settle an investigation into its handling of two recalls at the heart of its safety crisis. The latest settlement, on top of a $16.4 million fine Toyota paid earlier in a related investigation, brought the total penalties levied on the company to $48.8 million.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 23, China's capital announced that it will sharply limit new vehicle registrations to try to ease massive traffic jams that are rapidly turning Beijing's streets into parking lots.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, In China a new lottery system was introduced aimed to reduce the number of cars in the notoriously gridlocked capital. Beijing counted 4.76 million vehicles, up from 2.6 million in 2005. The first batch of 20,000 plates will be awarded by lottery on Jan. 25. Every month a new batch of plates will become available.
    (AP, 1/1/10)(Econ, 1/1/11, p.34)

2010        Jason Vuic authored “The Yugo: The Rise and Fall of the Worst Car in History."
    (Econ, 1/16/10, p.83)
2010        General Motors shut down its vast Buick City manufacturing complex in Flint, Michigan. In 2019 the Buick name disappeared from its North American models.
    (SFC, 9/23/19, p.D2)
2010        In the US 33,000 Americans were killed on roads. This was 60% above the OECD average.
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.29)
2010        In the Automotive X Prize competition a fuel efficiency prize of $5 million was awarded to Edison2, a Virginia company, for a safe, cheap and easily built car that could do more than 100 miles per American gallon. The company’s Very Light Car (VLC) was a prototype design for 2- and 4-passenger automobiles.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Very_Light_Car)(Econ, 5/16/15, p.72)

2011        Jan 5, French automaker Renault suspended three top managers suspected of leaking secrets about electric cars, the auto industry's big hope for the future. Renault and the French secret service suspected Chinese involvement in the affair. In March the firm apologized to the managers after it emerged police found no trace of bank accounts the accused men were alleged to have held and that the source of the spying allegations may have been a fraudster.
    (AFP, 1/7/11)(AFP, 4/11/11)

2011        Jan 10, Italian auto giant Fiat said it has increased its stake in Chrysler to 25% from 20% as part of a deal signed after the iconic US brand emerged from bankruptcy in 2009.
    (AFP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 26, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. said it was recalling a wide range of models, including the IS and GS Lexus luxury models in North America and the Avensis sedan and station wagon models in Europe for various defects that may cause fuel leakage.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Feb 12, Italian auto giant Fiat, under pressure to abandon any plan to move its headquarters to the United States, committed to invest 20 billion euros to produce 1.4 million vehicles in Italy.
    (AFP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 18, Ford Motor Co. said it plans to team up with a Russian automaker to make and distribute cars in the country. The announcement came shortly after Italian automaker Fiat SpA backed out of a potential partnership with the same Russian company.
    (AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 24, Toyota Motor Corp. recalled 2.17 million vehicles in the United States to address accelerator pedals that could become entrapped in floor mats or jammed in driver's side carpeting, prompting federal regulators to close its investigation into the embattled automaker.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Mar 1, Swedish carmaker SAAB, now owned by Spyker Cars, showed off its new PhoeniX prototype at the Geneva motor show.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/3bmnxnx)
2011        Mar 1, Volkswagen showed a concept version of its iconic microbus van, known by its German nickname, the Bulli, at the Geneva Auto Show. Among the six-seater's modern twists: It's powered by an electric motor and uses an iPad to control the entertainment system, climate control and other functions.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Ten Japanese companies said they plan to install electric vehicle chargers at the sites of beverage vending machines across Japan in a cost-cutting tie-up.
    (AFP, 3/7/11)
2011        Mar 7, Spanish drivers slowed down under a new speed limit designed to reduce energy use, angering some motorists but pleasing others who say every euro saved helps a nation slammed by Libya's oil chaos and Europe's financial crisis.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 9, US auto giant Ford said it will start exporting its top-selling Figo compact car from India to Mexico and over 50 other countries as it strives to make the South Asian nation an export hub.
    (AFP, 3/9/11)

2011        Apr 21, Italian automaker Fiat, closing in on its goal of taking a majority stake and full control of Chrysler LLC by the end of the year, announced a deal to buy another 16 percent share sooner than expected at a price of $1.3 billion.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        May 12, Sweden’s struggling car maker Saab Automobile faced renewed uncertainty Thursday as the financing deal with China's Hawtai Motor Group fell apart, raising fresh concerns about the company's future. Spyker Cars NV, which bought Saab from General Motors Corp. in 2010, said it was "forced to terminate" the $223 million (euro150 million) agreement with Hawtai since the Chinese company was not able to obtain all the necessary consents, including approvals from different shareholders.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 15, Germany’s Welt am Sonntag newspaper said the government is prepared to pay a billion euros ($ 1.4 billion) in subsidies over the next two years to help its industry develop electric cars.
    (AFP, 5/15/11)

2011        Jun 3, The US Treasury reached an agreement to sell the rest of its holdings in Chrysler to Italy’s Fiat.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.77)

2011        Jun 4, Italy-based Fiat offered $125 million to buy the Canadian government's stake in Chrysler Group LLC as it moved swiftly to strengthen its control of the US automaker.
    (Reuters, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 17, GM said it will price its new Chevrolet Sonic subcompact at a starting price of $14,495, $500 above the price of the Ford Fiesta. It will be the only subcompact built in the US.
    (SFC, 6/18/11, p.D2)

2011        Jul 29, President Barack Obama and automobile manufacturers announced a deal  designed to save American drivers money at the pump and dramatically cut heat-trapping gases coming from tailpipes. The agreement requires that car and light trucks achieve an average fuel economy of 54.5 mpg by 2025, up from 35.5 mandated by 2016.
    (AP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/30/11, p.A1)

2011        Aug 12, General Motors said it is recalling 16,198 Chevrolet Impala and Buick LaCrosse cars in the United States and Canada to address sensor and power steering problems.
    (Reuters, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 29, In India car production was halted at the factory in Manesar after the Japanese-controlled firm Maruti Suzuki accused some workers of sabotaging production and "deliberately causing quality problems."
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 15, Brazil’s Finance Minister Guido Mantega announced a 30% tax increase on cars with less than 65% local content.

2011        Sep 19, Luxury car maker Jaguar Land Rover, part of Indian group Tata Motors, said it will invest 355 million pounds on a new engine plant in central England. The British government will provide up to 10 million pounds for a plant expected to create 750 jobs and thousands of jobs across the wider economy.
    (Reuters, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 20, General Motors Co. agreed to deepen cooperation with its flagship Chinese partner on development of electric vehicle knowhow amid pressure from Beijing to hand over proprietary technology.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, GM and the UAW unveiled a modest 4-year pay agreement. The deal included a $5,000 lump sum payment to production line workers and $4,000 more over the next 4 years plus a slightly higher share of profits. It also allowed the hiring of new “tier-two" employees.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.75)

2011        Sep 25, In India a Nano hatchback, billed as the world's cheapest car, caught fire in New Delhi under unexplained circumstances. The next day Tata Motors launched an inquiry.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 28, Cuba legalized the sale and purchase of automobiles for all citizens.
    (SFC, 9/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 9, Japan’s Toyota Motor Corp. said it is recalling about 550,000 vehicles worldwide, mostly in the United States, for problems that could make it harder to steer. Toyota has received a total of 79 reports about the defect dating back to 2007, but there have been no reports of accidents or injuries related to the problems.
    (AP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 28, Chinese automaker Chery Automobile Co. and partner Israel Corp. launched the 50-50 joint venture Qoros Automotive Co., seeking fresh appeal both overseas and in the slowing local market. Israel Corp. is Israel's largest holding company, with interests mainly in chemicals, shipping and energy.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Dec 1, Auto giants Toyota and BMW said they have agreed to collaborate on research for cleaner, next-generation car batteries.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 5, Paris, France, launched an electric car sharing program with 250 vehicles. 3000 vehicles were planned for the program over the next two years.
    (SFC, 12/5/11, p.A3)

2011        Dec 26, India's Tata Motors offered to replace the starter motor on all old Nano models, but said the move was not related to safety concerns surrounding the world's cheapest car.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

2011        Michael Dunne authored “American Wheels, Chinese Roads: The Story of General Motors in China."
    (Econ, 5/26/12, p.67)

2012        Jan 4, US car giant Ford said it is opening a new dealership in India every 10 days to feed demand in a market it expects to be the third-biggest worldwide by the end of the decade.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 25, Japan’s Nissan said it will invest $2 billion in a new auto plant in Aguascalientes, Mexico.
    (SFC, 1/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Jan 27, The California Air Resources Board approved strict vehicle emissions regulations in a package known as the Advanced Clean Car program. It would cut in half current greenhouse gas emission by 2025.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.C1)

2012        Feb 21, A senior Tata executive said India’s Tata Motors has selected a partner to build an assembly plant for its luxury British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover in China.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Apr 5, Jaguar Land Rover, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced that it plans to build its new Jaguar F-Type sports car in Britain.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 6, The Transition Roadable Aircraft, developed by Terrafugia, Inc., made its auto show debut at the 2012 New York International Auto Show. The Massachusetts firm priced the commercial flying car at $279,000.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQp.3)(www.terrafugia.com/news_media.html)

2012        Apr 28, A storm struck Louisville, Ky., and hail damaged some 3,500 Ford Escapes assembled at a plant nearby.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.A8)

2012        May 10, Carroll Shelby (b.1923), legendary car designer and champion auto racer, died in Dallas.
    (SFC, 5/12/12, p.A6)

2012        May 17, US carmaker General Motors said it has opted to build the next generation of its Astra compact in Britain, leaving its plant in Bochum, Germany in danger of closure. GM said it would invest $200 million (126 million pounds) in its Ellesmere Port plant.
    (Reuters, 5/17/12)

2012        May 27, In Ireland a race car went out of control on a rural road and crashed into a crowd of about 30 spectators, killing 2 people and seriously injuring 7. Organizers of the Cavan Stages Rally involving about 100 cars in the border county of Cavan canceled the event following the accident.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 22, Tesla Motors delivered its first all electric sedan, the Model S, from is plant in Fremont, Ca.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.D1)

2012        Jul 2, China's state media reported that the booming southern city of Guangzhou has imposed a cap on the number of cars allowed to be sold in an effort to curb worsening traffic and pollution. It became the third Chinese city, after Beijing and Guiyang, to introduce registration plate limits in an effort to combat the escalating number of cars on China's roads.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, In Italy Sergio Pininfarina (85), former head of Pininfarina SpA, died overnight in Turin. The family company was known for its designs of sleek Ferraris and other cars.
    (AP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 19, India's top carmaker Maruti Suzuki suspended production at a plant near New Delhi after a manager was burnt to death and scores of others injured in a riot by angry workers. At least 88 workers were arrested and faced possible charges from murder to rioting and arson. In 2017 thirteen factory workers were sentenced to life imprisonment for taking part in the violence. Four other workers were sentenced to five years in prison.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)(AP, 3/19/17)

2012        Jul 24, Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corp said it will invest more than $100 million to expand Lexus production in Canada.
    (Reuters, 7/24/12)

2012        Aug 15, The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission said that car importer Ateco Automotive ordered dealers to stop selling certain vehicles by China’s Great Wall Motor Co. and Chery Automobile after asbestos was found inside engine and exhaust gaskets.
    (AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, India's top carmaker Maruti Suzuki said that more than 500 workers had been sacked after riots on July 18 at a plant near New Delhi left one manager dead. Production was set to partially re-start on August 21 with 200 anti-riot police on rolling shifts inside the factory.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 27, Share of Hertz Global Holdings Inc. and Dollar Thrifty rose after Hertz struck a deal to acquire Thrifty for about $2.6 billion.
    (SFC, 8/28/12, p.D2)

2012        Sep 3, A Hong Kong-owned company, National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS), said it has completed the acquisition of bankrupt car maker Saab and will move ahead with its business plan to make electric cars under the Swedish brand.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 4, Volkswagen AG unveiled the latest version of its mainstay Golf hatchback at a Berlin museum, ahead of its premiere later this month at the Paris Auto Show. This was the 7th edition of the model introduced in 1974.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 17, The US government lodged a trade complaint alleging that China unfairly subsidizes car-part exports.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.37)

2012        Sep 25, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown signed SB1298 making robotic vehicles legal in the state. This made California the 3rd state to affirm driverless vehicles. He also signed bills that will keep the state parks open for the next two years.
    (SFC, 9/26/12, p.A1)(NYT, 9/27/12, p.A18)

2012        Sep 27, The top 4 US car rental companies agreed to ban rentals and sales of recalled cars. They also agreed to support legislation by Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., to codify the ban.
    (SFC, 9/28/12, p.A9)

2012        Oct 10, Toyota recalled 7.43 million cars, trucks and SUVs worldwide to fix faulty power window switches that can cause fires. This was the  largest recall in Toyota's 75-year history.
    (AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Nov 13, Motor Trend magazine named Tesla Model S its 2013 Car of the Year, the first time a non-gasoline powered vehicle received the honor.
    (ABC News, 11/14/12)

2012        Dec 12, Japan’s Honda Motor Co said it will recall 871,000 vehicles that could roll away after the ignition key has been removed, including 807,000 in the United States.
    (Reuters, 12/12/12)

2012        Jennifer Clark authored “Mondo Agnelli: Fiat, Chrysler, and the Power of a Dynasty."
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.80)
2012        Andrea Hiott authored “Thinking Small: The Long Strange Trip of the Volkswagen Beetle."
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, p.G1)
2012        Massachusetts passed a right-to-repair law for cars. It gave automobile owners and independent repair shops the right to access to the same diagnostic and repair information that the manufacturer makes available to its dealers and authorized repair facilities. This led to a national memorandum of understanding between carmakers and repair shops.
    (https://tinyurl.com/ybzwhtvj)Econ, 9/30/17, p.58)
2012        ZipCar, a pay-by-the-hour car rental firm, led a $14 million investment in Wheelz, a peer-rental firm.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, TQ p.15)

2013        Jan 2, Avis Budget Group agreed to buy Zipcar Inc., a rent by the hour car agency, for $491 million.
    (SFC, 1/3/13, p.C3)

2013        Jan 19, Rick Champagne, an Arizona man with a special fondness for caped crusader Batman and his sidekick Robin, bought the original Batmobile driven in the iconic television series with a bid of $4.2 million at an auction.
    (Reuters, 1/19/13)

2013        Feb 1, Chinese car maker Geely said it has bought Manganese Bronze, the maker of London's black taxis since 1948, for 11 million pounds, safeguarding jobs and production of the vehicles in Britain.
    (AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Jan 13, In Detroit General Motors unveiled its latest model of the Corvette Stingray on the eve of the Detroit motor show. The next day GM’s Cadillac ATS sedan took the show’s top prize.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.63)

2013        Mar 31, Tesla reported that it had scored the first quarterly profit in its history after selling more luxury electric cars than forecast.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.D1)

2013        Apr 11, Four Japanese automakers, including Toyota Motor Corp, and Nissan Motor Co., announced a recall of 3.4 million vehicles sold around the world because airbags supplied by Takata Corp are at risk of catching fire or injuring passengers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        May 1, Electric car maker Coda Holdings Inc. of Los Angeles filed for bankruptcy after selling just 100 cars.
    (SFC, 5/2/13, p.C3)

2013        May 11, It was reported that unsafe cars made in Brazil, coupled with the nation's often dangerous driving conditions, have resulted in a death rate from passenger car accidents that is nearly four times that of the United States.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 26, Israel's trailblazing electric car company Better Place announced that it is shutting down, less than six years after unveiling an ambitious plan that promised to revolutionize the auto industry by reducing the world's dependency on oil. On July 10 an Israeli court allowed a consortium of Better Place car owners and entrepreneurs to purchase the company’s assets for under $12 million.
    (AP, 5/26/13)(SFC, 7/11/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 10, Brazil’s government said it plans to build its first auto crash test facility in an effort to improve the poor safety record of vehicles built and sold in the world's fourth-largest automobile market.
    (AP, 6/10/13)

2013        Jun 13, Germany-based Opel said GM signed an agreement today to start building its Corsa model at facilities owned by partner Unison in Belarus.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jul 15, Nissan launched a new Datsun in India, three decades after shelving the brand that helped win Western acceptance of Japanese autos. The reimagined Datsun, a five-seat hatchback, will go on sale in India next year for under 400,000 rupees (about $6,670).
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Sep 12, French car makers Bollore and Renault said they would collaborate in the field of electric vehicles.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.68)

2013        Nov 28, Chinese media said authorities have broken up six rings that smuggled around $164 million worth of cars into the country over the past three years, including more than 80 top-end models such as BMWs and Rolls-Royces.
    (Reuters, 11/28/13)

2013        Dec 6, Indian-owned luxury carmaker Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to open a £240-million manufacturing plant in Brazil.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 10, General Motors named Mary Barra to succeed Dan Akerson as CEO making her the first female CEO in the global automotive industry.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.C1)
2013        Dec 10, Officials in Istanbul, Turkey, said they plan to introduce floating car parks to try to resolve the chronic traffic problems. They will use out-of-service ferries anchored in the Bosphorus to create multi-storey lots near traffic hotspots.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 19, Cuba announced it will allow unrestricted car imports for the first time in half a century, marking the end of an era that made icons of the island's vintage automobiles. Cubans soon found that imported cars were priced far beyond what an average salary could afford. 
    (AFP, 12/19/13)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.30)

2013        In Estonia Markus Villig (19) founded Taxify, a taxi app, in Tallinn. The company was later renamed Bolt and focused offering rides through the smartphone app in a business model similar to Uber. By 2019 Bolt was operating in more than 100 cities and 30 countries.
    (SFC, 4/29/19, p.D2)

2014        Jan 2, Italy-based Fiat secured full ownership of Chrysler in a $4.35 billion agreement.
    (SFC, 1/3/14, p.C4)

2014        Feb 12, In Kentucky a sinkhole collapsed part of the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green damaging eight cars. The sinkhole and damaged cars were later turned into part of the museum exhibit.
    (SFC, 2/13/14, p.A7)(SFC, 8/15/15, p.A4)

2014        Mar 17, Toyota said it has shut down production at its two auto-assembly plants in India, locking out 6,400 workers amid testy wage negotiations and allegations of threats against management.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 19, The US government announced a $1.2 billion settlement with Toyota Motor Corp. and filed a criminal charge alleging the company defrauded consumers by issuing misleading statements about safety issues in Toyota and Lexus vehicles. From 2010 through 2012, Toyota Motor Corp. paid fines totaling more than $66 million for delays in reporting unintended acceleration problems.
    (AP, 3/19/14)
2014        Mar 19, The European Union said it has fined two EU and four Japanese companies a total of nearly 1 billion euros ($1.4 billion) for rigging the market of key components in the car and truck industry at the expense of consumers.
    (AP, 3/19/14)

2014        Apr 9, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. said it is recalling 6.39 million vehicles globally for a variety of problems spanning nearly 30 models in Japan, the US, Europe and other places.
    (AP, 4/9/14)
2014        Apr 9, Malaysia awarded a manufacturing license to a $618 million venture that will assemble fuel-efficient SUVs for China's Great Wall Motor Co. Privately owned Go Automobile Manufacturing will invest 2 billion ringgit ($618 million) over the next four years to expand its manufacturing plant in northern Kedah state.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 16, Japanese small-car maker Suzuki Motor Corp said it will introduce an affordable, simplified gas-electric hybrid technology in its cars, joining rivals in the race for fuel efficiency.
    (Reuters, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 22, Tesla Motors Inc. delivered its first eight electric sedans to customers in China. CEO Elon Musk said the company will build a nationwide network of charging stations and service centers as fast as it can.
    (AP, 4/22/14)

2014        May 16, US Federal safety regulators slapped General Motors with a record $35 million fine for taking more than a decade to disclose an ignition-switch defect in millions of cars that has been linked to at least 13 deaths. On June 5 GM said it has forced out 15 employees for their role in the ignition-switch scandal.
    (AP, 5/16/14)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.C1)

2014        May 23, The WTO ruled that China's anti-dumping duties on imports of American-made cars and sport-utility vehicles violate international trade rules.
    (AP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 26, China's government said it plans to take 6 million older, polluting vehicles off the road this year in an effort to revive stalled progress toward cleaning up smog-choked cities.
    (AP, 5/27/14)

2014        May 28, Google said it would build 100 prototype driverless cars devoid of pedals, steering wheels or controls save an on/off switch.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.59)

2014        Jun 16, General Motors said it is recalling 3.36 million cars because they might suddenly switch off if their keys are carrying extra weight and the vehicles experience a jarring event.
    (SFC, 6/17/14, p.D6)

2014        Jun 30, General Motors added 8.2 million vehicles to its ballooning list of cars recalled over faulty ignition switches.
    (SFC, 7/1/14, p.D4)

2014        Jul 31, Tesla said that it broke ground in June at a site outside Reno for a potential 6,500-employee battery factory.
    (SFC, 8/1/14, p.A1)

2014        Aug 15, Phoenix-based Elio said it plans to start making the cars next fall at a former GM plant in Shreveport, Louisiana. Already, more than 27,000 people have reserved one. The new commuter car has two seats, three wheels, gets 84 miles highway to the gallon and will cost $6,800.
    (AP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 18, China's government said it has concluded Mercedes-Benz violated anti-monopoly law and charged excessive prices for parts, adding to a growing number of global automakers snared in an investigation of the industry.
    (AP, 8/18/14)

2014        Sep 4, Tesla Motors announced plans to build its new $5 billion battery factory in Nevada.
    (SFC, 9/4/14, p.A1)

2014        Sep 9, French carmaker Renault said it has signed a deal with conglomerate Bollore to build a three-seater version of the four-seater Bluecar electric vehicle used in Bollore's 'Autolib' self-service auto hire scheme in France. Until now, Bollore's Bluecars were all built in Italy under a joint venture with its designer Pininfarina.
    (Reuters, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 21, California Governor Jerry Brown signed several legislations to encourage the electric car market in the state, which accounts for 40 percent of all electric vehicles sold in the United States.
    (Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 25, Malaysia's national carmaker Proton launched its first small car, hoping to bolster its fortunes after ceding ground to foreign and domestic rivals.
    (AP, 9/25/14)

2014        Oct 4, General Motors posted a recall of almost 47,000 cars for the same ignition-key defect that has already forced the recall of some 2.6 million vehicles and linked to at least 23 deaths.
    (SSFC, 10/5/14, p.A12)

2014        Oct 28, General Motors said it is moving production of a critical component in the Chevrolet Volt from Mexico to Michigan.
    (AP, 10/28/14)

2014        Nov 3, In Massachusetts Tom Magliozzi (b.1937), the elder brother of NPR’s “Car Talk" brothers, died. Click and Clack, the Tappet Brothers, began their radio show on WBUR, Boston’s NPR affiliate, in 1977 and went national in 1987. They stopped taping live in 2012.
    (SFC, 11/4/14, p.C3)

2014        Nov 14, Ford Motor Co. agreed to recall more 2004 and 2005 Ranger small pickup trucks after a July 27 crash in Malaysia because their air bags are similar to the one that caused a woman's death.
    (AP, 11/15/14)

2014        Nov 21, Japan's transport ministry said it has ordered air bag maker Takata to conduct an internal investigation after cases of its air bags exploding triggered safety concerns in the US and other countries.
    (AP, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov 27, Japan’s Toyota Motor Corp. recalled more than 40,000 vehicles as part of a worldwide scare over defective air bags and is investigating a new type of air bag problem that could lead to further recalls.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nikola Motor Company was founded in Salt Lake City, Utah, to make electric and hydrogen powered cars. The company went public in June, 2020.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Corporation)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.60)

2015        Jan 5, The California Dept. of Motor Vehicles wrote an advisory saying any passenger vehicle used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation of profit is a commercial vehicle.
    (SFC, 1/24/15, p.A1)

2015        Jan 6, Japan-based Toyota said it will give away thousands of patents for its fuel-cell cars, in an effort to encourage other automakers into the new industry. The cost-free licenses will be allowed "through the initial market introduction period" of fuel cell vehicles (FCV).
    (AFP, 1/6/15)
2015        Jan 6, South Korea-based Hyundai Motor Group, the world's fifth-largest automaker, said it plans to spend 81 trillion won ($73.7 billion) over the next four years on factories, research and a new headquarters.
    (AP, 1/6/15)

2015        Feb 20, The US government said it will fine Japanese air bag maker Takata Corp. $14,000 per day for failing to fully cooperate in a long-running investigation of faulty and potentially dangerous air bag inflators.
    (AP, 2/20/15)
2015        Feb 20, In Brazil some 5,200 workers at an assembly line at one of three General Motors plants ground to a halt as workers went on strike to protest the planned layoffs of nearly 800 employees.
    (AP, 2/20/15)

2015        Mar 2, In Switzerland the large family car Volkswagen Passat was voted car of the year by European automotive editors at the Geneva International Motor Show.
    (AP, 3/2/15)

2015        Mar 18, GM said Opel will leave the Russian market by December in the face of plummeting sales in the economically troubled country. Chevrolet production will be cut back significantly to focus on top-end products such as the Corvette sports car and Tahoe SUV, which are imported into Russia from the US.
    (AP, 3/18/15)

2015        Apr 2, A US jury ordered automaker Chrysler to pay $150 million to the family of a four-year-old boy who was killed when their Jeep exploded into flames. Remington Walden was killed in March 2012 in the US state of Georgia when a car rear-ended the 1999 Jeep Grand Cherokee he was in, causing the fuel tank behind the car's rear axle to leak and set the car on fire.
    (AP, 4/3/15)
2015        Apr 2, Delphi Corp. announced that an autonomous car, equipped by the company, had completed a 3,400 mile coast-to-coast US road trip with 99% of the trip driven without human assistance.
    (SFC, 4/3/15, p.C3)

2015        May 6, Japan-based Toyoto said that eight California dealerships will be the first in the US to ofer the $57,500 Mirai fuel-cell vehicle with deliveries to begin in October.
    (SFC, 5/7/15, p.C1)

2015        May 13, Japan-based Toyota and Mazda announced an expansion of their partnership and a joint committee to figure out how best to work together.
    (SFC, 5/14/15, p.C6)

2015        Jun 5, Japanese automaker Mazda said it is recalling nearly 540,000 older cars and pickup trucks in the US and Canada, adding to the growing list of models under recall for air bags that potentially can explode with too much force. Last month Takata and the US government agreed to double the number of inflators it recalled to 33.8 million.
    (AP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 25, Mitsubishi said it is recalling about 460,000 cars in the US because the air bags have the potential to push sun visors into passengers and cause injuries in a crash. The company is also recalling about 75,000 later-model Eclipses and Spyders for anti-lock braking problems.
    (AP, 6/25/15)
2015        Jun 25, Subaru said it is recalling about 72 thousand 2015 vehicles to fix a software problem that could cause the automatic braking system to fail.
    (AP, 6/25/15)

2015        Jul 9, Honda said it is recalling 4.5 million vehicles in Japan and other markets outside North America to replace airbags supplied by Takata. Some 40 million vehicles have been affected in what has become the world’s most extensive auto-safety recall.
    (SFC, 7/10/15, p.C3)

2015        Jul 15, Japan-based Toyota said it is recalling 625,000 Prius hybrid vehicles worldwide because they can stall without warning.
    (AP, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 21, Japan-based Toshiba Corp. acknowledged a systematic cover-up, which began in 2008. Toshiba's CEO and eight other executives resigned to take responsibility for doctored books that inflated profits at the Japanese technology manufacturer by 152 billion yen ($1.2 billion) over several years.
    (AP, 7/21/15)

2015        Aug 1, Fiat Chrysler said it is recalling 322,000 sedans worldwide because side air bags can inflate if doors are slammed too hard. Last week more than 843,000 Dodge Ram pickup trucks were recalled for the same problem.
    (SSFC, 8/2/15, p.A7)

2015        Aug 3, A consortium of German automakers Audi, BMW and Daimler announced it is buying Nokia Corp.'s HERE map business in a deal that values the unit at 2.8 billion euros ($3.1 billion).
    (AP, 8/3/15)

2015        Aug 5, Mazda said it is recalling its biggest SUV to fix suspension parts that can rust and come loose, causing a loss of steering control.
    (AP, 8/5/15)

2015        Aug 13, Tesla Motors Inc CEO Elon Musk said he will invest $20 million as part of the company's $500 million stock offering in a show of confidence at a time when the electric car maker is burning through cash.
    (Reuters, 8/13/15)

2015        Sep 11, US federal safety regulators, the insurance industry and ten carmakers announced an agreement to make automatic emergency braking a standard feature in future car models sold in the US.
    (SFC, 9/12/15, p.D1)

2015        Sep 17, US federal prosecutors said GM has agreed to pay $900 million to resolve criminal charges for concealing an ignition-switch defect linked to at least 169 deaths.
    (SFC, 9/18/15, p.A6)

2015        Sep 18, America’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revealed that several diesel-engined Volkswagens and Audis had software which switched NOX-controlling technology on only when faced with highly predictable sort of demands seen under test conditions.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.24)

2015        Sep 21, In Germany Volkswagen chief Martin Winterkorn came under pressure as the company saw around 15 billion euros ($16.9 billion) wiped off its market value following revelations that the German carmaker rigged US emissions tests for about 500,000 diesel cars.
    (AP, 9/21/15)

2015        Sep 22, Volkswagen issued a profit warning and said it is setting aside $7.3 billion to cover the fallout over software in some 11 million diesel cars that was designed to manipulate emissions test results.
    (SFC, 9/23/15, p.C1)

2015        Sep 23, Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn said he is stepping down. His bonuses survived and he received €5.9m in performance related pay for 2015.
    (AP, 9/23/15)(Econ, 6/25/16, p.12)

2015        Sep 24, It was reported that Matthias Mueller, the head of German luxury sports car maker Porsche, has been picked to succeed Martin Winterkorn as the chief executive of scandal-battered auto giant Volkswagen.
    (AFP, 9/24/15)

2015        Oct 3, Spanish police said eight garges in Madrid were uinder investigation for charging custormers up to $225 to remove diesel particulate filters. The shops allegedly provided custormers with mechanical and software services to to cheat emissions checks.
    (SSFC, 10/4/15, p.A3)

2015        Oct 13, German auto giant Volkswagen announced it would slash one billion euros off its annual investment budget and push ahead with its drive to develop electric cars in the wake of the diesel pollution scandal.
    (AFP, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 15, German auto giant Volkswagen said it will recall a total of 8.5 million diesel vehicles Europe-wide that are equipped with sophisticated software enabling their engines to cheat pollution tests.
    (AFP, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 19, Oslo, Norway, officials said cars will be banned from the city center by 2019 to help reduce pollution.
    (Reuters, 10/19/15)

2015        Oct 21, The European Union demanded that Starbucks and Fiat repay up to 30 million euros ($34 million) each in back taxes.
    (AP, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, Ferrari, an Italy-based car company owned by Fiat Chrysler, went public with a 10% stake on the NYSE and closed up almost 6% at $55.
    (SFC, 10/22/15, p.C5)(Econ, 10/17/15, p.69)
2015        Oct 21, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. said it is recalling 6.5 million vehicles worldwide for a defective power window switch that can overheat, melt and lead to fires.
    (AP, 10/21/15)

2015        Oct 22, US safety regulators said 8 people have died and 98 people have been injured by exploding air bag inflators made by Takata Corp. About 23.4 million Takata driver and passenger air bag inflators have been recalled on 19.2 million US vehicles sold by 12 auto and truck makers.
    (AP, 10/22/15)

2015        Nov 3, US auto safety regulators fined Japan’s Takata Corp. $70 million for concealing evidence for years that its air bags are prone to explode. The defect was linked to 8 deaths and over 100 injuries worldwide.
    (SFC, 11/4/15, p.C2)
2015        Nov 3, Volkswagen said it had understated carbon dioxide emissions for 800,000 cars, widening its scandal over cheating on US engine tests.
    (AP, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 6, Toyota said it is investing $1 billion in a research company it's setting up in Silicon Valley to develop artificial intelligence and robotics, underlining the Japanese automaker's determination to lead in futuristic cars that drive themselves and apply the technology to other areas of daily life.
    (AP, 11/6/15)

2015        Nov 12, The Brazilian government said its environmental protection agency has fined Volkswagen $13 million over the automaker's emissions cheating scheme.
    (AP, 11/12/15)

2015        Dec 4, In Tennessee skilled-trades workers at the Volkswagen's lone US plant voted to be represented by the United Auto Workers, marking the union's first victory at a foreign-owned automaker in the South.
    (AP, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 10, The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration announced that Fiat Chrysler will pay a $70 million fine to the US government for its mishandling of 23 recalls involving 11 million vehicles.
    (AP, 12/10/15)
2015        Dec 10, Nevada’s Gov. Brian Sandoval announced plans to offer $335 million in state tax incentives and infrastructure upgrades to an upstart, Chinese investor-backed electric carmaker that wants to build $1 billion production plant in a Las Vegas suburb.
    (AP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 11, Jaguar Land Rover signed a deal with the Slovak government to build a new plant for the luxury car maker in Slovakia.
    (AP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 16, India's top court ordered a temporary ban on the sale of large diesel cars in New Delhi to combat toxic smog in the city, prompting concern in the auto sector as some carmakers say they may reconsider investment plans in the country.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 17, National Electric Vehicle Sweden, the electric vehicle company born out of the ashes of Swedish automaker Saab, said it has inked a $12 billion deal with Chinese leasing firm Panda New Energy Co.
    (AP, 12/17/15)

2015        Steve LeVine authored “The Powerhouse: Inside the Invention of a Battery to Save the World"
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.76)
2015        Levi Tillemann authored “The Great Race: The Global Quest for the Car of the Future."
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.76)
2015        Drive.ai was founded by engineers from Stanford University’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. In 2017 it received a $15 million investment from Grab, a Singapore-based ride-hailing service.
    (SFC, 9/28/17, p.C1)
2015        Chicago-based HERE, a digital map-making firm, was purchased by German carmakers: BMW, Daimler, and Volkswagen, for $3.1 billion. In late 2016 a Chinese and Singaporean consortium took a 10% stake.
    (SFC, 11/11/17, p.68)
2015        In the US there were an estimated 35,200 traffic deaths this year, making it the deadliest driving year since 2008.
    (SFC, 7/2/16, p.A6)
2015        Germany’s car makers employed one in seven workers nationwide.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.59)

2016        Jan 14, The Obama administration announced plans to pour nearly $4 billion into developing self-driving cars over the next decade.
    (SFC, 1/15/16, p.A1)

2016        Jan 21, In China General Motors Co. opened a Cadillac factory in Shanghai to target the country's growing but crowded luxury car market. The 8 billion yuan ($1.2 billion) factory operated with its main Chinese partner, Shanghai Automotive Industries Corp., will have an annual production capacity of 160,000 vehicles.
    (AP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan, GM announced that it was investing $500m in Lyft to help it understand new transport models.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.60)

2016        Feb 5, Honda Motor Co. said that it would recall 5.7 million cars worldwide in the latest round of recalls involving Takata Corp. air bag inflators that can explode and hurl shrapnel into the vehicle.
    (AP, 2/5/16)

2016        Feb 29, India introduced an additional 'green' tax on car sales, aimed at helping fight high levels of air pollution and congestion but hitting car makers that fear this could stall a fragile recovery in the market for their products.
    (Reuters, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 1, Malaysian national car company Proton said it has begun shipping left-hand drive sedans to Chile as it seeks to tap new markets and revitalize exports.
    (AP, 3/1/16)

2016        Mar 10, Japan-based Honda rolled out a new fuel cell vehicle, the first of its kind to be a five-seater. The zero-emissions Clarity may not sell in big numbers, however, given its price tag of 7.66 million yen ($67,000).
    (AP, 3/10/16)

2016        Mar 31, Tesla began taking orders for its new Model 3, a luxury electric sedan at a middle-class price of $35,000.
    (SFC, 4/1/16, p.A7)

2016        Apr 5, Ford announced plans for a new $1.6 billion auto assembly plant in Mexico, creating about 2,800 jobs and shifting small car production from the US.
    (SFC, 4/6/16, p.C6)

2016        Apr 8, The German state of Lower Saxony criticized Volkswagen's plans to pay bonuses to top managers when the carmaker is dealing with the diesel emissions crisis and set to cut costs.
    (Reuters, 4/8/16)

2016        Apr 20, It was reported that Volkswagen and the US government have reached a deal in principle for the automaker to spend over $1 billion to compensate owners of about 600,000 diesel cars that cheat on emissions tests.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.C5)
2016        Apr 20, Japan-based Mitsubishi Motors admitted that it had used improper methods to test the fuel economy of cars sold in Japan for 25 years.
    (SFC, 4/27/16, p.C6)(Econ, 4/30/16, p.58)

2016        Apr 22, A German government source said around 630,000 Audi, Mercedes, Opel, Porsche and Volkswagen cars are to be recalled in Europe owing to irregularities in their emission of pollutants.
    (AFP, 4/22/16)
2016        Apr 22, Germany-based Volkswagen announced a 4.1 billion euros ($4.6 billion) operating loss for 2015 as Europe's largest automaker took a 16.2 billion euros hit to pay for its diesel emissions test-rigging scandal.
    (Reuters, 4/22/16)
2016        Apr 22, Japanese Transport Minister Keiichi Ishii said he wanted Mitsubishi Motors Corp to respond "with integrity" after revelations that it cheated on test to measure fuel economy, including by possibly buying back the cars in question.
    (Reuters, 4/22/16)

2016        May 4, The US government said Japanese-based Takata Corp. will recall another 35-40 million air bag inflators bringing the total recall to as many as 69 million.
    (SFC, 5/5/16, p.C1)

2016        May 5, Italian Premier Matteo Renzi hailed the new Alfa Romeo sedan by Fiat Chrysler, which he says will add 3,400 jobs in Italy and symbolizes the country's economic potential.
    (AP, 5/5/16)

2016        May 7, In Florida the first self-driving car fatality took place in Williston when the driver of a Tesla S sports car, using the vehicle’s automated driving system, died in a collision with the truck.
    (SFC, 7/1/16, p.C1)

2016        May 12, Japan-based Nissan said it is investing $2.2 billion to take a 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors.
    (SFC, 5/13/16, p.C2)

2016        May 13, Japan-based Honda said it would recall millions more cars equipped with airbags made by crisis-hit supplier Takata, in a widening of a scandal that has already led to the biggest auto recall in US history.
    (AFP, 5/13/16)

2016        May 27, The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration posted documents detailing recalls by Honda, Fiat Chrysler, Toyota, Mazda, Nissan, Subaru, Ferrari and Mitsubishi. More than 12 million vehicles in the US will be recalled to replace potentially dangerous Takata air bag inflators.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 1, Ford Motor Co. said it is recalling nearly 1.9 million vehicles in North America to replace faulty passenger-side front air bags made by Japanese supplier Takata Corp.
    (AP, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 3, Volkswagen said it has received regulatory approval for technical fixes on some models, meaning it could now recall more than 800,000 of the 8.5 million cars affected by its diesel emissions scandal in Europe.
    (Reuters, 6/3/16)

2016        Jun 8, Germany-based Volkswagen said it has received regulatory approval to fix another 1.1 million cars, raising the number of VW models cleared for refitting to more than 2.5 million since the start of the year.
    (Reuters, 6/8/16)

2016        Jun 9, Japanese automaker Honda said it is recalling 784,000 vehicles in Japan due to faulty Takata Corp. air bag inflators for front passenger seats.
    (AP, 6/9/16)

2016        Jun 17, China’s product quality agency announced that Honda Motor Co.'s Chinese joint venture is recalling 1 million sedans and SUVs to replace possibly faulty air bags made by Takata Corp.
    (AP, 6/17/16)

2016        Jun 28, It was reported that German automaker Volkswagen AG has agreed to pay more than $15.3 billion in a settlement with US regulators over pollution caused by its diesel vehicles.
    (Reuters, 6/28/16)

2016        Jun 29, Japan-based Toyota announced it is recalling 1.43 million vehicles for defective air bags and another 2.87 million vehicles for faulty fuel emissions controls.
    (AP, 6/29/16)   

2016        Jul 1, Paris banned old, exhaust-belching cars from its streets in a war on air pollution that environmentalists hope will also drive dirty vehicles from the centers of other European cities. Any car registered before Jan. 1, 1997, will be barred from the city's streets from Monday to Friday, from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.
    (Reuters, 7/1/16)

2016        Jul 29, German automaker Daimler's Mercedes-Benz brand said it will build a new manufacturing plant in Hungary by the end of the decade, investing 1 billion euros ($1.11 billion) and creating 2,500 new jobs.
    (AP, 7/29/16)   

2016        Jul, Germany’s BMW, Israeli supplier Mobileye and US-based Intel said they were joining forces to build a self-driving car.
    (Econ, 9/24/16, p.63)

2016        Aug 2, The German state of Bavaria said it would sue Volkswagen for damages caused by its emissions-test cheating scandal, the first regional government in VW's home country to take legal action against the carmaker.
    (Reuters, 8/2/16)
2016        Aug 2, South Korea fined Volkswagen 17.8 billion won ($16 million) and suspended sales of 80 VW models, alleging the German carmaker fabricated documents on emissions or noise level tests.
    (AP, 8/2/16)

2016        Aug 3, Germany-based Volkswagen said it will roll out particulate filters in its petrol engined cars between 2017 and 2022, a step which reduces the pollution from particulate matter by up to 90 percent.
    (Reuters, 8/3/16)

2016        Aug 22, In Texas a woman was killed after a truck carrying airbag parts made by Japan's troubled Takata exploded in a massive fireball on a highway in Maverick County. The woman was in a house 30 feet (9m) away from the explosion. It appeared that the supply truck was in a road accident that caused a fire and then the deadly explosion.
    (AFP, 8/30/16)

2016        Aug 25, In Singapore the world's first self-driving taxis, operated by autonomous vehicle software startup nuTonomy, began picking up passengers. Six modified Renault Zoe and Mitsubishi i-MiEV electrics, carried a driver in front who is prepared to take back the wheel and a researcher in back who watches the car's computers.
    (AP, 8/25/16)

2016        Sep 8, China's Ministry of Finance punished at least five car makers, accusing them of cheating its program to subsidize electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, receiving roughly 1 billion yuan ($150 million) in illegal subsidies. By the next day it was reported that more than 20 additional car makers, including Nissan and Hyundai, were listed for breaking rules on green car subsidies, widening a scandal over a $4.5 billion annual payout program.
    (Reuters, 9/9/16)

2016        Sep 28, German carmaker Volkswagen said it has stopped buying mica from some suppliers in India, following a Thomson Reuters Foundation investigation that found child workers were dying in illegal, unregulated mines. At least seven children were killed since June mining for mica in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. The mineral puts a sparkle in makeup and car paint.
    (Reuters, 9/28/16)

2016        Nov 15, Sources said Volkswagen AG has reached an agreement with US regulators for a mix of buybacks and fixes for 80,000 polluting Audi, Porsche and VW 3.0-liter vehicles.
    (AP, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 18, Germany-based Volkswagen announced plans to cut 30,000 jobs in a wide-ranging restructuring of its namesake brand as it tries to recover from a scandal over cars rigged to cheat on diesel emissions tests.
    (AP, 11/18/16)

2016        Dec 2, Ford Motor Co said on Friday it will recall about 680,000 of its Ford Fusion and Lincoln MKZ sedans to fix a seat belt issue.
    (Reuters, 12/2/16)

2016        Dec 5, Germany-based Volkswagen said it is launching a new company dedicated to car sharing and other "mobility services" in which people may need a ride but don't necessarily want to own the car.
    (AP, 12/5/16)

2016        Dec 8, The European Union started legal action against seven countries including Germany and Britain for failing to police emissions test cheating by carmakers after the Volkswagen scandal.
    (Reuters, 12/8/16)

2016        Dec 13, General Motors delivered the first of its eagerly awaited Chevy Bolt electric hatchbacks to three customers gathered at a Fremont, Ca., dealership, less than two miles from the Tesla Motors factory.
    (SFC, 12/14/16, p.C1)

2016        Dec 14, Lucid Motors of Menlo Park, Ca., unveiled a prototype, luxury electric sedan in a ceremony at the company’s Fremont workshop. The car has been designed to challenge Tesla’s Model S.
    (SFC, 12/15/16, p.C1)
2016        Dec 14, A Chinese official warned the government could slap a penalty on an unnamed US automaker for monopolistic behavior sending shares downward of US automakers General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co.
    (Reuters, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 15, California regulators approved 7,500 PG&E car-charging stations at a cost estimated at $130 million.
    (SFC, 12/16/16, p.C1)

2016        Dec 19, A draft report released by a European Parliament probe accused France, Italy and Spain of trying to slow down the introduction of tougher auto emissions tests despite knowing that the old ones were causing more pollution.
    (AP, 12/19/16)

2016        Dec 23, China fined General Motors Co.'s main joint venture in China $29 million on charges it suppressed competition by enforcing minimum sales prices for dealers, the latest in a string of penalties against foreign auto brands under the country's anti-monopoly law.
    (AP, 12/23/16)

2016        Algeria banned car imports in an effort to keep hard currency in the country. The move created a shortage of cars in the country.
    (Econ., 2/6/21, p.39)

2017        Jan 2, In the SF Bay Area electric bus maker Proterra of Burlingame raised $140 million in its latest funding round. The company said it has sold more than 300 buses to transit agencies across North America.
    (SFC, 1/3/17, p.D1)

2017        Jan 3, Toyota began moving hundreds of jobs out of its northern Kentucky headquarters as part of a nationwide consolidation of the company's operations.
    (AP, 1/3/17)

2017        Jan 5, Mercedes-Benz said it is recalling nearly 48,000 SUVs in the US to fix a sensor problem that could stop the front passenger air bag from inflating in a crash.
    (AP, 1/5/17)

2017        Jan 7, Oliver Schmidt, a former Volkswagen US executive and champion of "clean diesel," was arrested in Florida. He headed VW's US Energy and Environmental Office in 2014 and 2015 before returning to live in Germany. He was charged with defrauding the United States in the cover up cheating of US emissions tests.
    (Reuters, 1/9/17)

2017        Jan 11,  Volkswagen agreed to pay a criminal fine of $4.3 billion for selling around 500,000 cars in America fitted with so-called “defeat devices" designed to reduce NOx emissions under test conditions.
    (Econ, 1/21/17, p.52)

2017        Jan 12, The US government EPA accused Fiat Chrysler of failing to disclose software in some of its pickups and SUVs with diesel engines that allows them to emit more pollution than allowed under the Clean Air Act. Fiat Chrysler quickly issued a statement denying any wrongdoing.
    (AP, 1/12/17)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.10)

2017        Jan 13, The US attorney’s office in Detroit announced that Japan-based Takata has agreed to plead guilty to a single criminal charge and will pay $1 billion in fines and restitution for a years-long scheme to conceal a deadly defect in its automotive bag inflators.
    (SFC, 1/14/17, p.D1)

2017        Jan 16, US motor giant Ford announced the recall of 4,500 1.6-litre Kuga cars in South Africa after nearly 40 incidents in which vehicles were reported to have burst into flames.
    (AFP, 1/16/17)

2017        Jan 30, General Motors Co (GM) and Honda Motor Co Ltd said they will jointly produce hydrogen fuel cell power systems in the United States from around 2020, to cut costs and ramp up output in the hope of increasing take-up of the zero-emission cars.
    (Reuters, 1/30/17)

2017        Jan, Ford cancelled a $1.6 billion new plant for small cars in Mexico and pledged to create 700 new jobs building electric and hybrid cars at Flatrock, Mi.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.10)

2017        Feb 1, It was reported that Volkswagen has agreed to pay at least $1.22 billion to fix or buy back nearly 80,000 polluting diesel cars in the United States, the latest move in its attempt to draw a line under its diesel emissions scandal.
    (Reuters, 2/1/17)

2017        Feb 9, French carmaker PSA Group, maker of Peugeot and Citroen vehicles, said it has been referred to prosecutors over its diesel emissions.
    (Reuters, 2/9/17)

2017        Feb 10, Ford Motor CEO Mark Fields said Ford will invest $1 billion over the next five years in Argo AI, a months-old company specializing in machine learning by former leaders of self-driving teams at Google and Uber.
    (SFC, 2/11/17, p.D1)

2017        Feb 14, Mazda said it is recalling about 174,000 small cars in the US because the seats can change angles suddenly, making the vehicles hard to drive.
    (AP, 2/14/17)

2017        Feb 21, Chinese police and media reports said a prefecture in restive Xinjiang region has ordered all vehicles to be equipped with GPS-like tracking software. An official said the policy was needed so that drivers "can be tracked wherever they go" and residents had until June 30 to comply.
    (AFP, 2/21/17)
2017        Feb 21, Authorities in southwest Germany authorized a ban on older diesel cars from driving in the city of Stuttgart starting next year.
    (AP, 2/21/17)

2017        Feb 27, In Detroit, Mi., Japanese auto parts maker Takata pleaded guilty to fraud and agreed to pay $1 billion in penalties for concealing an air bag defect blamed for at least 16 deaths, most of them in the US.
    (SFC, 2/28/17, p.D3)

2017        Mar 1, Austrians became eligible to receiving up to 4,000 euros ($4,300) in rebates to help offset the higher price of an electric vehicle. Neighboring Germany introduced a comparable premium last year.
    (Reuters, 3/20/17)

2017        Mar 3, German carmaker Mercedes said it is recalling about 1 million cars and SUVs worldwide because a starter part can overheat and cause fires.
    (AP, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 6, French carmaker PSA announced the acquisition of General Motors' European subsidiary, which includes the Opel and Vauxhall brands, for 1.3 billion euros ($1.38 billion).
    (AFP, 3/6/17)
2017        Mar 6, The French-made Peugeot 3008 was voted European car of the year on the eve of the opening of the Geneva motor show.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.63)

2017        Mar 8, The European Union said it has fined six makers of car air conditioning and engine-cooling components a total 155 million euros ($163 million) for their involvement in supply cartels.
    (AP, 3/8/17)

2017        Mar 10, In Detroit, Mi., Volkswagen pleaded guilty in federal court to criminal felony charges over the diesel emissions scandal. The plea was part of a settlement for VW to pay $4.3 billion in fines and penalties.
    (SFC, 3/11/17, p.D1)

2017        Mar 13, Intel said it will buy Israeli car tech firm Mobileye for $15.3 billion, in a deal signaling the US computer chip giant's commitment to technology for self-driving vehicles.
    (AFP, 3/13/17)(Econ, 3/18/17, p.65)

2017        Mar 16, South Korea-based Hyundai said it is recalling nearly 978,000 cars in the US because the front seat belts could detach in a crash and fail to hold people.
    (AP, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 30, Volkswagen AG said it has agreed to pay $157.45 million to settle environmental claims from 10 US states over its excess diesel emissions, as the world's largest automaker looks to move past the scandal.
    (Reuters, 3/30/17)

2017        Apr 4, London Mayor Sadiq Khan said drivers of the most polluting cars will be charged to travel into the center of the city from 2019, describing his city's air as "lethal".
    (AFP, 4/4/17)

2017        Apr 19, Venezuelan authorities took control of GM’s only factory there in what GM called an illegal judicial seizure of its assets.
    (AP, 4/20/17)

2017        Apr 20, General Motors said it was shuttering operations in Venezuela a day after authorities seized its factory in the country. The neglected factory has not produced cars since 2015, but the company still had 79 dealers employing 3,900 people.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 21, A federal judge in Detroit sentenced Volkswagen AG to three years' probation over the German automaker's diesel emissions scandal as part of a $4.3 billion settlement announced in January. US District Judge Sean Cox ordered Volkswagen to pay a $2.8 billion criminal penalty for cheating on diesel emissions tests.
    (Reuters, 4/21/17)(SFC, 4/22/17, p.D1)

2017        May 10, French carmaker Peugeot said shareholders of parent company PSA Group have agreed to the financial plans for buying General Motors' European operations, including the Opel and Vauxhall brands.
    (AP, 5/10/17)

2017        May 12, South Korea ordered Hyundai and Kia to recall 240,000 vehicles to repair five defects initially raised by a whistleblower, in the country's first compulsory recall for a domestic carmaker.
    (AP, 5/12/17)

2017        May 13, Romanian carmaker Dacia, owned by France's Renault, said some of its production had been hit by yesterday’s global ransomware cyber-attack that has infected computers in nearly 100 countries. Renault stopped production at several sites.
    (Reuters, 5/13/17)

2017        May 17, Ford said it is cutting 1,400 non-factory jobs in North America and Asia Pacific this year in an effort to boost profits and rescue its sagging stock price. The company faced heavy costs for new technology and slowing US car sales.
    (AP, 5/17/17)

2017        May 18, General Motors Co. said it is pulling its Chevrolet brand out of India, South Africa and East Africa by the end of this year. The company will retain its assembly plant in India but will only make vehicles for export. It is selling a plant in South Africa to Isuzu Motors.
    (AP, 5/18/17)

2017        May 23, The US government filed a civil lawsuit accusing Italy-American Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV of using software to bypass emission controls in diesel vehicles.
    (AP, 5/23/17)

2017        May 25, An Italian court opened the way for a class action lawsuit against automaker Volkswagen over its emissions scandal.
    (AP, 5/25/17)   

2017        May 26, Germany-based BMW said it is recalling more than 45,000 older 7-Series cars in the US because the doors can open unexpectedly while they're being driven.
    (AP, 5/26/17)

2017        May 28, In Indiana Takuma Sato became the first Japanese driver to win the Indianapolis 500.
    (AP, 5/29/17)

2017        May, Ford Motor Co. fired its boss, Mark Fields, and replaced him with Jim Hackett, whose experience as a car executive consisted of running Ford’s tech incubator.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.60)

2017        Jun 3, Japan’s Asahi Shimbun reported that Toyota has terminated its tie-up with Tesla and stepped up efforts to develop electric vehicles by itself.
    (AFP, 6/3/17)

2017        Jun 7, Mazda said it is recalling thousands of older sports cars to fix possible fuel line leaks and problems with the front suspensions. Documents posted by US regulators said that a fuel pump pipe can crack and leak gasoline, possibly causing a fire.
    (AP, 6/7/17)

2017        Jun 26, Japanese air bag maker Takata Corp. filed for bankruptcy protection in Tokyo and the US, saying it was the only way it could keep on supplying replacements for faulty air bag inflators linked to the deaths of at least 16 people. Takata sold its surviving operations to Key Safety Systems (KSS), a Michigan-based rival recently acquired by Ningbo Joyson Electronic, a Chinese auto-parts group.
    (AP, 6/26/17)(Econ 7/1/17, p.59)

2017        Jun 28, German carmakers BMW, Audi and truck manufacturer MAN agreed with Bavaria to cut pollution from diesel engines, with manufacturers promising to reduce emissions from older models and the state government planning incentives to spur sales of newer, more efficient cars.
    (Reuters, 6/28/17)

2017        Jun 30, Thai customs officials they have seized 15 of 42 luxury cars that British authorities said were stolen and sent to Thailand.
    (AP, 6/30/17)

2017        Jul 4, German car giant Volkswagen said it was returning to the Iranian market for the first time in 17 years due to the lifting of economic sanctions.
    (AFP, 7/4/17)

2017        Jul 5, China-based Baidu announced a first version of its self-driving-car software, called Apollo.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.54)

2017        Jul 6, US authorities accused Giovanni Pamio (60), a former Audi executive, of giving the orders to program diesel engines to cheat on emissions tests. He became the eighth former Volkswagen employee charged in the case that is being investigated by the FBI and the Environmental Protection Agency's criminal unit.
    (AP, 7/7/17)

2017        Jul 7, German prosecutors said they have arrested a former employee of the Volkswagen unit Audi in connection with the company's diesel scandal.
    (AP, 7/7/17)

2017        Jul 13, In Australia an unidentified man (58) became the 18th death worldwide due to exploding Takata air bag inflators. The man died in a crash in a Sydney suburb after he was hit in the neck by a metal fragment after air bags deployed in a crash.
    (AP, 7/22/17)

2017        Jul 18, In Serbia several hundred striking workers from Fiat's factory in Kragujevac marched to demand higher wages.
    (AP, 7/18/17)

2017        Jul 25, A Sydney lawyer announced a class action lawsuit against Toyota, Honda and Mazda seeking refunds for cars fitted with faulty air bags from Takata that have been linked to 18 deaths around the world.
    (AP, 7/25/17)   

2017        Jul 26, It was reported that Britain will ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars from 2040 in an attempt to reduce air pollution that could herald the end of over a century of reliance on the internal combustion engine.
    (Reuters, 7/26/17)

2017        Jul 27, The California Air Resources Board approved the first phase of Volkswagen’s plan to invest $800 million to support zero-emission vehicle use in the state over ten years.
    (SFC, 7/28/17, p.C1)

2017        Jul 28, Tesla launched its Model 3 at its Fremont, Ca., plant. Elon Musk planned to produce 500,000 such vehicles in 2018.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8ph5vzv)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.18)

2017        Aug 1, German sources said the government will not force the car industry to make costly changes to engines to cut diesel emissions but will settle for software updates for around 2 million vehicles.
    (Reuters, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 2, German automakers offered to help cut inner-city pollution by updating the software of 5 million diesel cars in an attempt to avert vehicle bans and repair their reputation.
    (Reuters, 8/2/17)

2017        Aug 4, In Michigan Volkswagen AG executive Oliver Schmidt pleaded guilty in US District Court in Detroit in connection with a massive diesel emissions scandal that has cost the German automaker as much as $25 billion. Schmidt faced up to seven years in prison and a fine of between $40,000 and $400,000.
    (Reuters, 8/4/17)
2017        Aug 4, Japanese automakers Toyota Motor Corp. and Mazda Motor Corp. said they plan to spend $1.6 billion to jointly build auto manufacturing plant in the US, a move that will create up to 4,000 jobs.
    (AP, 8/4/17)

2017        Aug 7, Iran signed the country's biggest-ever car deal o build tens of thousands of cars annually under a joint venture with French automobile manufacturer Groupe Renault, buoying its manufacturing industry in defiance of the Trump administration's moves to isolate the country.
    (AP, 8/7/17)

2017        Aug 15, It was reported that Mazda is recalling nearly 80,000 cars and SUVs, some for a second time, to replace dangerous Takata air bag inflators.
    (AP, 8/15/17)
2017        Aug 15, German efforts to overcome a diesel scandal were dealt a blow after prosecutors widened a Volkswagen probe and a key environmental group said steps proposed by automakers to cut pollution remained inadequate.
    (Reuters, 8/15/17)

2017        Aug 16, Deutsche Post DHL Group and US automaker Ford unveiled a jointly manufactured electric delivery van amid growing demand for emission-free utility vehicles.
    (AP, 8/16/17)
2017        Aug 16, Fiat-Chrysler said it will cooperate with BMW to develop self-driving cars.
    (SFC, 8/17/17, p.C2)

2017        Aug 17, South Korea-based Hyundai Motor said it plans to launch early next year a second-generation hydrogen fuel cell vehicle that will travel more than 580 km (360 miles) between fill-ups under Korean standards.
    (AP, 8/17/17)

2017        Aug 22, Austria's Transport Minister Joerg Leichtfried said he had agreed with carmakers to update the software of 600,000 diesel cars to reduce pollution following a similar deal struck in Germany after a large-scale emissions scandal.
    (Reuters, 8/22/17)

2017        Aug 29, Hyundai Motor Co., South Korea's largest automaker, said it has halted auto production at its plants in China as tensions between Seoul and Beijing over a US anti-missile system hurt its sales and left it unable to pay a supplier.
    (AP, 8/29/17)

2017        Sep 5, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said Scotland plans to phase out new petrol and diesel cars by 2032, eight years earlier than under proposals set out by the London government.
    (Reuters, 9/5/17)

2017        Sep 6, Japan-based Nissan unveiled its latest Leaf car with a capacity to travel nearly 400km between charges.
    (Econ, 9/9/17, p.66)

2017        Sep 12, In Germany carmakers at the Frankfurt auto show unveiled low-emissions vehicles and technology strategies that they hope will let them profit from the sweeping changes expected to hit the auto industry in the next few years.
    (AP, 9/12/17)

2017        Sep 21, Greenpeace activists boarded a ship arriving in Britain to stop the delivery of more than 1,000 Volkswagen cars from Germany while others sought to immobilize vehicles at a port in anti-diesel protests.
    (Reuters, 9/21/17)

2017        Sep 28, Munich prosecutors said they have arrested a second suspect in connection with an emissions scandal at carmaker Audi and have widened the number of suspects in their investigation.
    (Reuters, 9/28/17)

2017        Sep 29, French automaker Citroen said it is shutting down its car sharing service in Berlin after struggling to compete against rivals BMW and Daimler effective Oct 29.
    (AP, 9/29/17)

2017        Oct 1, Chinese authorities said Honda will recall more than 245,000 vehicles in China over concerns about airbags made by troubled Japanese giant Takata.
    (AP, 10/1/17)
2017        Oct 1, Parisians and tourists were encouraged to stroll through the City of Light as officials banned cars from its streets for a day. Only emergency vehicles, buses and taxis were allowed on the streets from 11 a.m. until 6 p.m.
    (AP, 10/1/17)

2017        Oct 3, Fiat Chrysler said it is recalling nearly 710,000 Jeep and Dodge SUVs in North America, effective Nov 7, because an improperly installed brake shield could let water leak in and limit braking ability.
    (AP, 10/3/17)

2017        Oct 5, Mitsubishi said it is recalling 66,000 cars for a second time to replace faulty Takata front passenger air bag inflators.
    (AP, 10/5/17)

2017        Oct 6, Japan-based automotive supplier Denso announced plans to invest $1 billion and create more than 1,000 new jobs in its main Tennessee facility to meet growing demand for electric vehicle parts.
    (AP, 10/6/17)

2017        Oct 12, Britain’s university city of Oxford unveiled plans to ban petrol and diesel cars from its center from 2020 as part of the most radical set of proposals so far in Britain to curb pollution.
    (Reuters, 10/12/17)

2017        Oct 18, Royal Dutch Shell opened its first electric vehicle recharging points at three gas stations in Britain, part of the oil giant's efforts to respond to a global push toward zero-emission vehicles.
    (AP, 10/18/17)

2017        Oct 23, London brought in a new levy on the oldest and most polluting cars entering the city center, almost doubling how much motorists have to pay in the latest blow to diesel.
    (Reuters, 10/23/17)

2017        Oct 24, Delphi Automotive said it would pay $450 million for NuTonomy, a small Boston company that makes software for self-driving cars.
    (SFC, 10/25/17, p.C3)
2017        Oct 24, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) reported a 50 percent increase in third quarter net earnings, with all markets contributing to growth even as sales were flat globally.
    (AP, 10/24/17)

2017        Nov 2, Volkswagen’s premium carmaker Audi said it would recall 4,997 of its A8 model vehicles with V8 diesel engines in Europe to update software after it found they emitted too much nitrogen oxide.
    (Reuters, 11/2/17)

2017        Nov, Nio, a Chinese automotive company, presented its first car, the EP9, at the Saatchi gallery in London. The company was founded three years earlier by serial entrepreneur Li Bin, who made a fortune through BitAuto, an online platform for buying and selling cars.
    (Econ, 9/23/17, p.21)

2017        Dec 7, EU negotiators agreed new rules that give Brussels the power to check up on national car approval authorities and set targets for emission checks in the aftermath of the Volkswagen emissions scandal.
    (Reuters, 12/7/17)

2017        Dec 12, Germany's KBA automotive watchdog announced a recall of Volkswagen's flagship European sport-utility vehicles (SUV) with 3-litre diesel engines after detecting two illicit emissions control devices in the models.
    (Reuters, 12/12/17)
2017        Dec 12, Singapore launched an electric car-sharing service, the latest transport innovation aimed at encouraging people away from owning vehicles and keeping gridlock at bay in the space-starved city-state.
    (AFP, 12/12/17)

2017        Dec 19, The CEO of Japanese automaker Subaru said he and all other executives would return part of their pay until next March following an inspection scandal at the company.
    (AP, 12/19/17)

2017        Dec 21, Ford and Mazda said they are recalling more than 380,000 older small pickup trucks for a second time to replace Takata air bag inflators that can explode and hurl shrapnel. The recalls cover driver and passenger inflators in certain 2004 to 2006 Ford Ranger and Mazda B-Series trucks made by Ford.
    (AP, 12/21/17)

2017        Dec 27, China’s Geely Holding Group, the owner of Sweden's Volvo Cars, said it is buying an 8.2% stake in truck manufacturer AB Volvo from Cevian Capital, a fund manager. Geely will get 15.6 percent of voting rights.
    (AP, 12/27/17)

2017        Dec 30, In Japan Tatsuro Toyoda (88), the former Toyota Motor Corp. president, died. He led the company's climb to become one of the world's top automakers.
    (AP, 1/6/18)

2017        Dec 31, In Britain an estimated 1,400 cars were destroyed in a huge fire that raged through a multi-story parking garage in the northern English city of Liverpool.
    (AP, 1/1/18)

2017        Jack Ewing authored “Faster, Higher, Farther: The Volkswagen Scandal."
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.76)

2018        Jan 1, In Malaysia an unidentified driver died from injuries inflicted by a faulty Takata air bag inflator, raising the worldwide death toll to 22.
    (AP, 1/30/18)

2018        Jan 4, South Korea’s Hyundai Motor Co. said it will begin selling its first self-driving vehicles by 2021 in partnership with US based self-driving technology startup Aurora Innovation Inc. Hyundai and Volkswagen each said they're partnering with Aurora Innovation, a US autonomous vehicle tech firm led by former executives from Google, Tesla and Uber.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 11, Alabama landed a coveted $1.6 billion joint venture plant by Japanese car giants Toyota and Mazda that will eventually employ 4,000 people.
    (AP, 1/11/18)

2018        Jan 15, Pony.ai, a company with offices in Fremont, Ca., and Guangzhou, China, reported that it has raised $112 million to develop autonomous vehicles.
    (SFC, 1/17/18, p.C3)
2018        Jan 15, It was reported that Japan's Softbank is investing 460 million euros ($558 million) in German used car trading platform AUTO1. The Berlin-based company was launched in 2012 and operates in over 30 countries, selling more than 40,000 cars a month on its associated sites.
    (AP, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 18, US safety regulators released models from 14 different automakers that are being recalled to replace potentially deadly Takata air bag inflators.
    (AP,  1/18/18)

2018        Jan 24, South Korea-based Hyundai said it is recalling nearly 88,000 cars in the US because an electrical short in the antilock brake system could cause engine compartment fires in certain 2006 Sonatas and 2006 through 2011 Azeras.
    (AP, 1/24/18)

2018        Jan 26, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown signed an executive order that aimed to curb carbon pollution from cars and trucks and boost the number of zero-emission vehicles in the state.
    (SFC, 1/27/18, p.C1)

2018        Jan 29, The German government dismissed as unjustifiable any auto emissions testing on monkeys or people. German daily Stuttgarter Zeitung reported at the weekend that a research organization funded by German carmakers sponsored scientific experiments testing nitrogen dioxide, a gas found in exhaust fumes, on people.
    (Reuters, 1/29/18)

2018        Feb 1, Industrial workers in Germany began a second day of 24-hour strikes over pay and working hours, affecting companies including carmakers VW and Ford .
    (Reuters, 2/1/18)

2018        Feb 2, Car factories across Germany were at a standstill as industrial workers staged a third day of 24-hour strikes, focusing on plants owned by Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Audi and BMW.
    (Reuters, 2/2/18)

2018        Feb 5, Software maker NVIDIA and German auto parts supplier Continental said they are teaming to build a self-driving vehicle system that will hit the market in 2021.
    (AP, 2/5/18)

2018        Feb 6, In the Philippines bulldozers and backhoes pounded more than two dozen seized luxury cars, including Porsches, Mercedes, Jaguars and Corvettes, in a dramatic demolition showcasing the no-nonsense leader's crackdown on crime and corruption. Government data showed that the Bureau of Customs seized $2.93 million worth of smuggled vehicles last year, part of the $866 million in seized goods.
    (Reuters, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 16, The Arizona Dept. of Transportation confirmed that Waymo has received a permit to operate as a transportation network company, making it the first US commercial ride-hailing service to operate without human drivers.
    (SFC, 2/17/18, p.D1)

2018        Feb 22, Japan’s Takata Corp. reached a $640 million deal to settle consumer protection claims from 44 US states and the District of Columbia. But only a small fraction will be paid to the air-bag maker’s bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 2/23/18, p.C2)

2018        Feb 26, California gave a green light to allowing robot cars with no drivers on state roads within weeks. The first permits would be possible by April 2.
    (SFC, 2/26/18, p.D1)

2018        Feb 27, A top German court ruled that cities can impose diesel driving bans to combat air pollution, a landmark decision that plunges millions of drivers into uncertainty.
    (AFP, 2/27/18)
2018        Feb 27, Rome’s Mayor Virginia Raggi announced plans to ban diesel cars from the center by 2024. Rome has no major industries, so nearly all of the air pollution in the Italian capital is caused by motor vehicles.
    (Reuters, 2/28/18)

2018        Feb 28, Australia issued a compulsory recall for all 2.7 million cars fitted with defective Takata air bags in an effort to lift the auto industry's mixed efforts to fix the fault blamed for at least 23 deaths around the world, including one in Australia.
    (AP, 2/28/18)

2018        Mar 8, Hyundai said it is recalling nearly 155,000 Sonata midsize cars in the US because the air bags may not inflate in a crash. The cars were made between Dec. 11, 2009 and Sept. 29, 2010.
    (AP, 3/8/18)

2018        Mar 14, SF-based Lyft said it is joing forces with Canada-based Magna, the largest auto-supply maker in North America, to develop and manufacture self-driving cars.
    (SFC, 3/15/18, p.C1)

2018        Mar 15, Beijing WKW Automotive Parts said it plans to invest about 16 billion yuan ($2.53 billion) in a new energy car project, to cash in on the increasing popularity of environmentally friendly vehicles as part of China's efforts to cut pollution.
    (Reuters, 3/15/18)

2018        Mar 17, The US government's road safety agency said air bags in some Hyundai and Kia cars failed to inflate in crashes and four people are dead.
    (AP, 3/17/18)

2018        Mar 18, In Arizona an Uber car operating in autonomous mode struck Elaine Herzberg (49) in Tempe, who soon died of her injuries at a local hospital. This was believed to be the first pedestrian fatality involving a self-driving car. Uber soon suspended autonomous testing in Tempe, Pittsburgh, Toronto and San Francisco. Uber later announced plans to end all autonomous-car testing in California. In 2020 Uber driver Rafaela Vasquez (46) was charged with negligent homicide.
    (SFC, 3/20/18, p.A1)(SFC, 3/28/18, p.A1)(SFC, 3/30/18, p.C1)(SFC, 9/16/20, p.A6)

2018        Mar 28, German Automakers Daimler and BMW said they agreed to merge their transportation services businesses, so they can expand offerings in ride-hailing apps, car-sharing, parking, and charging electric cars.
    (AP, 3/28/18)

2018        Mar 29, It was reported that Volkswagen AG has paid more than $7.4 billion to buy back about 350,000 US diesel vehicles through mid-February. The German automaker has been storing hundreds of thousands of vehicles around the US for months.
    (Reuters, 3/28/18)

2018        Apr 2, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that car dealerships' service advisers, like car salesmen and mechanics, are exempt under federal law from overtime pay requirements.
    (SFC, 4/3/18, p.D3)

2018        Apr 12, In Germany Herbert Diess (59) was named as the new boss of VW, replacing longtime insider Matthias Mueller.
    (AP, 4/13/18)

2018        Apr 17, China announced plans to allow full foreign ownership of automakers in five years, ending restrictions that helped to fuel its trade dispute with US President Donald Trump as it promotes electric car development.
    (AP, 4/17/18)

2018        Apr 24, Germany-based Audi said it is recalling about 1.2 million cars and SUVs worldwide because the electric coolant pumps can overeat and possibly cause a fire.
    (AP, 4/24/18)

2018        Apr 25, The Detroit-based Ford Motor co. announced that it would stop producing its Taurus sedan, a car that was once America's top seller. The Taurus had debuted in 1985 for the 1986 model year.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Taurus)(SFC, 4/28/18, p.D1)

2018        May 4, Toyota announced it would invest Can$1.4 billion ($1.09 billion) in two factories in central Canada where the Japanese manufacturer plans to build its largest hybrid hub in North America.
    (AFP, 5/4/18)

2018        May 8, German luxury carmaker Audi said it had detected "irregularities" in the emissions controls of recent A6/A7 models, prompting it to halt deliveries in the latest twist in the "dieselgate" scandal dogging parent company Volkswagen.
    (AFP, 5/8/18)

2018        May 9, Ohio's Rep. Gov. John Kasich signed an executive order authorizing autonomous vehicle research to take place across the state.
    (SFC, 5/10/18, p.A4)

2018        May 11, In Utah a Tesla sedan rear-ended a Fire Dept. truck in South Jordan without breaking before impact. It was unclear if the car's autopilot feature was engaged.
    (SFC, 5/14/18, p.A4)

2018        May 18, Germany's top administrative court confirmed that local cities are entitled to ban older diesel vehicles from streets with immediate effect to bring air pollution levels in line with European Union rules.
    (Reuters, 5/18/18)

2018        May 22, China said it will reduce auto import duties effective July 1 following a pledge to buy more US goods and end restrictions on foreign ownership in the industry.
    (SFC, 5/23/18, p.C3)

2018        May 24, Germany-based car-sharing service car2go said it is indefinitely suspending its operations in Toronto, Canada, because parking regulations make its business inoperable. It will suspend operations of the flexible, short-term rental system on May 31.
    (AP, 5/24/18)

2018        May 25, German magazine Der Spiegel reported that Daimler faces a recall order for more than 600,000 diesel-engine vehicles including C-Class and G-Class models because of suspected emissions manipulation.
    (Reuters, 5/25/18)

2018        May 31, Shares of General Motors posted their largest one-day gain since the company's rebirth from bankruptcy eight years ago, after Japanese technology conglomerate SoftBank decided to pump $2.25 billion into GM's autonomous car unit. GM said that it will add $1.1 billion to SoftBank's investment in an effort to speed large-scale deployment of self-driving robotaxis next year.
    (AP, 5/31/18)
2018        May 31, Waymo, a driverless-technology company spun off from Google, said it has agreed to purchase 62,000 minivans from Fiat Chrysler Automobiles for use in a ride-hailing service to begin commercial operations this year.
    (SFC, 6/1/18, p.C1)

2018        Jun 1, In Italy Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler, announced a big investment push to make more electrified cars, while acknowledging that traditional engines will continue to dominate production for some time.
    (AP, 6/1/18)

2018        Jun 6, Germany's Transport Ministry said the motor authority KBA has ordered a recall of Audi A6 and A7 models with 3.0 liter Euro 6 diesel engines after finding illegal emissions software in them.
    (Reuters, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 7, Honda Motor Co. of Japan and US automaker General Motors Co. agreed to work together in developing batteries for electric vehicles, mainly for the North American market.
    (AP, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 15, A German court ruled that investors pushing for damages over a sharp fall in Volkswagen shares after the carmaker disclosed emissions cheating in 2015 can also seek redress from majority shareholder Porsche SE .
    (Reuters, 6/15/18)

2018        Jun 18, General Motors said it is getting rid of three Cadillac sedans and replacing them with two new ones over the next 3½ years.
    (AP, 6/18/18)

2018        Jun 27, The first Rwandan-made Volkswagen car rolled off the assembly line on at the country's first auto factory in Kigali. The cars will be mostly for export to other African nations and will remain unaffordable to the average Rwandan.
    (AFP, 6/27/18)

2018        Jul 6, Germany's top court ruling that files of unpublished documents about Volkswagen's emission scandal seized from a US law firm may be reviewed. VW had hired law firm Jones Day and advisory firm Deloitte to investigate the issue and look at who was responsible shortly after the dieselgate scandal broke in September 2015.
    (Reuters, 7/6/18)

2018        Jul 10, Tesla said it has reached an agreement with Chinese authorities to build a battery and automobile factory in Shanghai, its first first plant outside the US.
    (SFC, 7/11/18, p.C1)
2018        Jul 10, Germany-based BMW Group and the biggest Chinese SUV brand, Great Wall Motor, announced a partnership to produce electric MINI vehicles in China as global automakers ramp up development under pressure from Beijing.
    (AP, 7/10/18)

2018        Jul 13, Nissan said it is recalling nearly 105,000 small cars to replace Takata passenger air bag inflators that can explode and hurl shrapnel at drivers and passengers.
    (AP, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 21, In Italy Sergio Marchionne (66) stepped down following 14 years heading auto giant Fiat owing to serious health problems believed to be life threatening. Jeep executive Mike Manley was chosen to replace him.
    (AP, 7/22/18)(SSFC, 7/22/18, p.A6)

2018        Jul 25, General Motors, facing rising commodity costs in a trade showdown with Europe and elsewhere, cut its outlook for the year. The rest of the auto sector was dragged down as well.
    (AP, 7/25/18)
2018        Jul 25, In Switzerland Sergio Marchionne (66) died after unexpected complications from surgery in Zurich. The charismatic and demanding CEO had engineered two long-shot corporate turnarounds to save carmakers Fiat and Chrysler from near-certain failure.
    (AP, 7/25/18)

2018        Aug 13, Tesla chief executive Elon Musk said he was in talks with Saudi Arabia's sovereign wealth fund and other investors to take the electric automaker private.
    (AFP, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 27, Nissan's first electric sedan designed for China began production at the start of a wave of dozens of planned lower-cost electrics being created by global automakers for their biggest market.
    (AP, 8/27/18)

2018        Sep 13, Volkswagen announced it would end production of its iconic "Beetle" cars in 2019 after adding a pair of final editions of the bug-shaped vehicles.
    (AFP, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 20, Nissan recalled more than 215,000 cars and SUVs in the US due to a fire risk and advised people to park the vehicles outdoors in rare cases.
    (AP, 9/20/18)

2018        Sep 23, Sports car maker Porsche said it would become the first German auto giant to abandon the diesel engine, reacting to parent company Volkswagen's emissions cheating scandal and urban driving bans.
    (AFP, 9/23/18)

2018        Sep 29, It was announced that Tesla and CEO Elon Musk have agreed to pay a total of $40 million and make a series of concessions to settle an SEC lawsuit alleging Musk had duped investors with misleading statements about a proposed buyout of the company. Musk will remain as CEO but must relinquish his role as chairman for at least three years.
    (SSFC, 9/30/18, p.A13)

2018        Oct 2, German car giant Volkswagen said it was removing Rupert Stadler, the chief executive of subsidiary Audi who has been jailed in an emissions fraud probe since June, from his post and the parent group's board.
    (AFP, 10/2/18)

2018        Oct 3, It was reported that General Motors will partner with Honda in the "large-scale" development of autonomous vehicles.
    (AP, 10/3/18)
2018        Oct 3, Aston Martin stalled after making a glitzy £4.3-billion ($5.6-billion, 4.9-billion-euro) IPO debut on the London stock market.
    (AFP, 10/3/18)

2018        Oct 9, A Berlin court ordered the city to ban older diesel vehicles from several downtown streets to reduce nitrogen dioxide levels in the German capital.
    (AP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 12, Japan-based Toyota said it is recalling nearly 188,000 pickup trucks, SUVs and cars worldwide because the air bags may not inflate in a crash.
    (AP, 10/12/18)

2018        Oct 23, British electric appliance pioneer Dyson said it had picked Singapore as the site for its first electric car plant, sparking criticism of the company's Brexit-backing billionaire founder James Dyson for not investing more in British manufacturing.
    (AFP, 10/23/18)
2018        Oct 23, German automaker BMW said it is expanding a recall to cover 1.6 million vehicles worldwide due to possible fluid leaks that could result in a fire.
    (AP, 10/23/18)

2018        Oct 24, A court in Germany ruled that Volkswagen's parent company must pay 47 million euros ($54 million) in damages to investors for not making a timely disclosure of its scandal over cars rigged to cheat on diesel emissions tests.
    (AP, 10/24/18)

2018        Oct 30, Waymo, the self-driving unit of Google parent Alphabet, said the California Dept. of Motor Vehicles has given it a permit for up to 40 fully autonomous cars to drive both day and night on city streets, rural highways and highways with posted speeds up to 65 mph.
    (SFC, 10/31/18, p.A1)
2018        Oct 30, A German court ordered the release of former Audi CEO Rupert Stadler, on condition that he refrain from contact with people relevant to the investigation, more than four months after he was arrested in an investigation into the manipulation of diesel emissions controls.
    (AP, 10/30/18)

2018        Nov 8, Tesla's board named one of its own as chairman to replace Elon Musk, complying with terms of a fraud settlement with US securities regulators. The company's board named Australian telecommunications executive Robyn Denholm (55) as chairman, effective immediately.
    (AP, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 19, Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn was arrested in Japan over allegations of financial misconduct and faced being fired this week, in a stunning fall from grace for one of the world's best-known businessmen.
    (AFP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 22, In Japan Nissan board members voted unanimously to sack Carlos Ghosn as chairman, a spectacular fall from grace for the once-revered boss who was stripped of the role while languishing in a Japanese jail. Ghosn stood accused of under-reporting his income by millions of dollars and a host of other financial irregularities.
    (AFP, 11/22/18)
2018        Nov 22, Portuguese police in riot gear broke up a picket line of striking stevedores in the port of Setubal to clear the way for strikebreakers hired to resume shipments of cars made at a nearby Volkswagen plant nearby. Thousands of cars have piled up at the port and at the Volkswagen Autoeuropa plant since the strike began on Nov. 5, forcing the manufacturer to cancel seven shipments.
    (Reuters, 11/22/18)

2018        Nov 25, French economy minister Bruno Le Maire said Renault had launched an internal audit into Ghosn's pay. Nissan's former chairman Carlos Ghosn has denied allegations of financial misconduct, claiming he had no intention of making false reports.
    (AFP, 11/25/18)

2018        Nov 26, Detroit-based General Motors said it will lay off 14,700 factory and white-collar workers in North America and put five plants up for possible closure as it restructures to cut costs and focus more on autonomous and electric vehicles.
    (AP, 11/26/18)

2018        Nov 27, Pres. Donald Trump threatened to cut off all federal subsidies to General Motors because of its planned massive cutbacks in the US.
    (Detroit Free Press, 11/27/19, p.2A)

2018        Nov 29, It was reported that China has called upon all electric vehicle manufacturers in China to report the precise location of their customer's cars to the Chinese government.
    (AP, 11/29/18)

2018        Nov 30, A Japanese court approved a 10-day extension of the detention of former Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn.
    (AP, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 10, Prosecutors in Japan charged Nissan Motor Co.'s former chairman Carlos Ghosn, executive Greg Kelly and the automaker itself for allegedly violating financial laws by underreporting income.
    (AP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 11, A Tokyo court ruled that Nissan Motor Co.'s former chairman, Carlos Ghosn, and another executive will remain in custody through Dec. 20, more than a month after their arrest. Their detention could continue for months more under the Japanese legal system.
    (AP, 12/11/18)

2018        Dec 21, The California Public Utilities Commission approved a bid by Zoox of Foster City to offer rides to the public in self-driving cars, but with a trained test driver at the wheel ready to take over. This was the state's first approval of a robot-taxi.
    (SFC, 12/22/18, p.D1)
2018        Dec 21, Prosecutors in Japan accused Carlos Ghosn of a breach of trust causing Nissan a financial loss of more than 1.8 billion yen ($16 million).
    (AP, 12/21/18)

2018        Dec 23, A Japanese court approved prosecutors' request to keep Nissan's former chairman Carlos Ghosn in detention for another 10 days.
    (AP, 12/23/18)

2018        Dec 24, South Korea said it will fine BMW 11.2 billion won ($9.9 million) and file a criminal complaint against the company with state prosecutors over an allegedly botched response to dozens of engine fires reported in the country. BMW has apologized and recalled some 172,000 vehicles of 65 different models in July and October over the fires.
    (AP, 12/24/18)

2018        Dec 25, In Japan Nissan Motor Co. executive Greg Kelly was released from detention after being granted bail over the alleged underreporting of his boss Carlos Ghosn's pay.
    (AP, 12/25/18)

2019        Jan 7, Tesla Inc. broke ground for a factory in Shanghai, its first outside the United States.
    (AP, 1/7/19)

2019        Jan 10, US carmaker Ford said it planned a major restructuring of its European operations, including job cuts, to boost profitability. Indian-owned Jaguar Land Rover also announced major restructuring in Europe as consumers dump diesel cars for greener electric vehicles.
    (AFP, 1/10/19)
2019        Jan 10, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles agreed to pay California $78.4 million as part of a larger agreement with federal regulators to settle allegations of cheating on diesel emission tests.
    (SFC, 1/11/19, p.D1)

2019        Jan 11, German automaker Volkswagen posted another annual sales record in 2018 as new SUV models boosted deliveries and the company managed to increase its share in China even as the car market there shrank for the first time in years.
    (AP, 1/11/19)
2019        Jan 11, In Japan Nissan's ex-chairman Carlos Ghosn was charged with breach of trust, making the star executive's release unlikely for months to come. Greg Kelly, another Nissan executive; and Nissan as a legal entity also were charged with additional underreporting of income, from 2015 through mid-2018.
    (AP, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 12, Japan-based Nissan confirmed that Chief Performance Officer Jose Munoz, who took a leave of absence a week ago, has resigned, the first high-profile departure at the Japanese automaker publicly acknowledged as related to the arrest of former Chairman Carlos Ghosn.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 14, In Michigan Hyundai of South Korea scored two out of three wins in the North American Car, Truck and Utility Vehicle of the Year awards, as the Detroit auto show's press previews officially got underway.
    (AP, 1/14/19)

2019        Jan 15, French carmaker Renault said it was recalling some 13,300 Dacia automobiles in Romania over safety issues with the driver's air bag inflator.
    (AP, 1/15/19)
2019        Jan 15, In Germany Volkswagen CEO Herbert Diess and Ford CEO Jim Hackett said they are forming a global alliance to develop commercial vans and medium-sized pickups together while exploring broader cooperation on future battery-powered and autonomous vehicles and services.
    (AP, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 18, Germany-based Volkswagen Group said that it will pay a fine of 1 billion rupees ($14.2 million) imposed by India for installing software on vehicles that allegedly cheated pollution testing devices, though it is still appealing the order.
    (AP, 1/18/19)

2019        Jan 22, A Tokyo court rejected former Nissan chairman Carlos Ghosn's latest request for bail, more than two months after his arrest.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        Jan 23, Carlos Ghosn, who is fighting breach of trust and other charges in Japan, resigned as head of Renault. Ghosn has been detained for more than two months in Japan. The board of French carmaker Renault SA is expected to name Jean-Dominique Senard of Michelin as chairman, and Renault executive Thierry Bollore as CEO.
    (AP, 1/24/19)

2019        Feb 3, Japan-based Nissan announced it has cancelled plans to make its X-Trail SUV in the UK. That reverses a decision in late 2016 to build the SUV at Nissan's Sunderland plant in northern England, which employs 7,000 workers.
    (AP, 2/3/19)

2019        Feb 6, Swedish automaker Volvo Cars, owned by China's Geely holding company, said it is recalling 167,000 cars worldwide because the hatch lid lift system on electric trunks can loosen, stop working in cold weather, and possibly cause damage.
    (AP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 13, French carmaker Renault said in a statement its board unanimously decided to waive Ghosn's "non-compete commitment and, consequently, not to pay the corresponding compensation equal to two years fixed and variable compensation".
    (AP, 2/13/19)

2019        Feb 18, British media reported that Honda will close a car factory in Swindon in 2022 with the potential loss of 3,500 jobs, in another blow to a British economy made jittery by Brexit.
    (AP, 2/18/19)

2019        Feb 22, German automakers Daimler and BMW say that trustworthy handling of personal data will be a key competitive advantage in their new joint venture that offers app-based services like free-floating car-sharing in big cities.
    (AP, 2/22/19)

2019        Feb 25, In Germany prosecutors fined automaker BMW 8.5 million euros ($9.66 million) for lax oversight in installing defective engine software that led to excessive diesel emissions in 7,965 cars.
    (AP, 2/25/19)

2019        Feb 26, PSA Group, the French maker of Peugeot automobiles, said it plans to reintroduce the cars to North American markets.
    (AP, 2/26/19)

2019        Feb 27, Volvo's electric performance brand Polestar unveiled a battery-powered compact car touted as a rival to Tesla's Model 3. Sweden-based Volvo is a subsidiary of Chinese automaker Geely.
    (AP, 2/27/19)

2019        Feb 28, South Korea-based Hyundai and Kia added more than a half-million vehicles to 3 ½-year string of US recalls for engine failures and fires.
    (AP, 2/28/19)

2019        Mar 4, In Switzerland the electric Jaguar I-Pace won the Car of the Year award in Europe ahead of the 89th Geneva International Motor Show, at the Palexpo in Geneva. This was first time the storied British brand has been bestowed the prize.
    (AP, 3/4/19)

2019        Mar 5, A Tokyo court approved the release of former Nissan Chairman Carlos Ghosn on 1 billion yen ($8.9 million) bail, rejecting an appeal by prosecutors to keep him jailed. The former head of the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Motors alliance has been detained since he was arrested on Nov.
    (AP, 3/5/19)

2019        Mar 7, In Geneva Volkswagen-owned Bugatti said a one-off Bugatti luxury sports car has been sold for a record 16.7 million euros ($18.9 million).
    (AP, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 12, Honda recalled about 1.2 million vehicles in North and Central America from the 2001 to 2016 model years that were not included in the massive string of Takata recalls for air bags that can hurl shrapnel into the passenger compartment. A crash on Jan. 19, 2018 involving a 2004 Honda Odyssey in Maryland initiated an investigation and today's recall.
    (AP, 3/12/19)

2019        Mar 14, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. announced it is investing an additional $750 million at five US plants that will bring nearly 600 new jobs, including the production of two hybrid vehicles for the first time at its Kentucky facility.
    (AP, 3/14/19)

2019        Mar 27, Ford said it will close three factories in Russia, causing heavy job losses, as it pulls out of passenger vehicle manufacturing in the country.
    (AP, 3/27/19)
2019        Mar 27, In Japan a Nissan committee set up to strengthen corporate governance after the arrest of former Chairman Carlos Ghosn said an investigation found he had wielded too much power and recommended the scandal-hit automaker add more independent outside directors to its board and better oversee compensation and auditing.
    (AP, 3/27/19)

2019        Mar 28, German automaker Daimler and China's Geely, its largest single shareholder, said that they are setting up a joint venture to develop and operate Daimler's Smart compact car brand worldwide as an all-electric car.
    (AP, 3/28/19)

2019        Apr 3, French carmaker Renault said it had flagged to judicial authorities serious problems with the expenses of Carlos Ghosn after during his time as chairman of the company.
    (AP, 4/3/19)

2019        Apr 4, Tokyo prosecutors arrested Nissan's former chairman Carlos Ghosn for a fourth time, on fresh allegations that cut short his brief time outside detention.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 5, European Union authorities said that German automakers BMW, Daimler and VW colluded to limit the development of emissions-cleaning technology in cars.
    (AP, 4/5/19)
2019        Apr 5, A Japanese court approved the detention of former Nissan Chairman Carlos Ghosn through April 14 after his latest arrest over financial misconduct allegations, a move that has raised questions among legal experts.
    (AP, 4/5/19)

2019        Apr 7, In Australia Dutchman Wiebe Wakker completed an epic 95,000 km (59,000 mile) journey by electric car in Sydney in a bid to prove the viability of such vehicles in tackling climate change.
    (AFP, 4/7/19)

2019        Apr 8, London introduced one of the world's toughest vehicle emissions standards, placing a tax on older, more polluting cars that drive into the center of the British capital.
    (AP, 4/8/19)
2019        Apr 8, In Japan Nissan's shareholders ousted the automaker's former chairman Carlos Ghosn from its board, seeking to shut the door on an era capped by scandal.
    (AP, 4/8/19)

2019        Apr 12, A Tokyo court approved the detention of Nissan's former Chairman Carlos Ghosn through April 22, allowing prosecutors to interrogate him daily on fresh allegations of financial misconduct.
    (AP, 4/12/19)

2019        Apr 14, In Germany Stuttgart-based Daimler confirmed it was facing a regulatory probe after a report said authorities have uncovered a previously unknown type of pollution trickery software allegedly installed by the car giant in some of its vehicles.
    (AFP, 4/14/19)

2019        Apr 15, German prosecutors charged former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn (71) and four others with fraud and other offenses in connection with the company's massive, multi-year effort to cheat on diesel emissions testing.
    (AP, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 21, In China a fire erupted in a Tesla car in an underground garage in Shanghai. Tesla later said the fire was caused by the failure of a single battery module and investigators found no defects in the car's systems.
    (AP, 6/28/19)

2019        Apr 22, Japanese prosecutors said they have indicted Nissan's former chairman Carlos Ghosn on fresh breach of trust charges that expand their allegations of financial misconduct outside Japan.
    (AP, 4/22/19)

2019        Apr 24, It was reported that Ford Motor Co. is sinking a half-billion dollars into electric vehicle startup Rivian in a deal that has the companies working together on a new Ford electric vehicle based on Rivian underpinnings. In September Amazon said it will order 100,000 electric delivery vehicles from Rivian.
    (AP, 4/24/19)(https://tinyurl.com/y5pv4wy3)

2019        Apr 25, In Japan former Nissan chief Carlos Ghosn emerged from his Tokyo detention center late today after accepting bail of $4.5 million under strict conditions including restrictions on seeing his wife.
    (AFP, 4/25/19)

2019        May 22, Daimler CEO Dieter Zetsche (66) handed off leadership to successor Ola Kallenius (49) after 13 years at the helm warning that the company will need to cut costs to invest in new technologies that are transforming the industry.
    (AP, 5/22/19)

2019        May 23, German prosecutors fined auto parts and technology company Bosch 90 million euros ($100 million) over its role in the diesel emissions scandal that erupted at Volkswagen in 2015.
    (AP, 5/23/19)

2019        May 27, Fiat Chrysler proposed to merge with France's Renault to create the world's third-biggest automaker and combine their investments in the race to make new electric and autonomous vehicles. Renault welcomed the idea.
    (AP, 5/27/19)

2019        Jun 5, China imposed a $23.6 million fine on US auto giant Ford's joint venture with Changan Automobile for "price fixing" in the latest incident of Beijing targeting an American company amid a festering trade war.
    (AFP, 6/5/19)

2019        Jun 6, Italy-based Fiat Chrysler's withdrew a merger offer with French carmaker Renault on fundamental differences over when Renault's long-time alliance partner, Nissan, would be brought in.
    (AP, 6/6/19)

2019        Jun 7, US media reported that more than a dozen car manufacturers, including Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Honda and Volkswagen have officially asked Pres. Donald Trump not to relax emission limits, to avoid a fragmentation of the car market.
    (AFP, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 21, In Japan Mitsubishi Motors Corp. shareholders approved the ouster of Carlos Ghosn, who was pivotal in the Japanese automaker's three-way partnership with Nissan and Renault until he was arrested on financial misconduct charges last year.
    (AP, 6/21/19)

2019        Jun 24, German automaker Daimler AG said its Mercedes-Benz luxury brand plans to assemble cars in Egypt in cooperation with a local partner.
    (AP, 6/24/19)

2019        Jun 25, Apple said it has acquired Mountain View self-driving startup Drive.ai, which said it planned to close its business and lay off 90 workers in a permanent closure.
    (SFC, 6/26/19, p.D1)
2019        Jun 25, In Japan scandal-battered Nissan won its shareholders' approval for a new system of committees to oversee governance and for keeping Chief Executive Hiroto Saikawa on its board.
    (AP, 6/25/19)

2019        Jul 1, Paris banned all diesel vehicles aged 13 years or over from the city center, the latest move in a campaign to tackle pollution on the city's streets.
    (AFP, 7/1/19)

2019        Jul 2, Lee Iacocca (b.1924), father of the Ford Mustang and rescuer of Chrysler Corp. died at his home in Bel Air, Los Angeles County. His 1984 book: "Iacocca: An Autobiography" became a best seller.
    (SFC, 7/3/19, p.A7)

2019        Jul 5, Jaguar Land Rover said it is making a multi-million pound investment to build electric vehicles in Britain, in a major boost for the UK government and a sector hit by the slump in diesel sales and Brexit uncertainty.
    (Reuters, 7/5/19)

2019        Jul 17, Brazilian police said they've shut down a clandestine factory that was producing fake Ferraris and sham Lamborghinis in the southern state of Catarina.
    (SFC, 7/18/19, p.A2)

2019        Jul 22, Sweden-based Volvo Cars said it is recalling about half a million cars worldwide because of a faulty engine component that may in extreme cases cause a vehicle to catch a fire. Volvo Cars has been owned by China's Zhejiang Geely Holding Group since 2010.
    (AP, 7/22/19)

2019        Jul 25, Four major automakers said they have reached a voluntary agreement with the state of California on fuel efficiency rules, bypassing a Trump administration effort to strip the state of the right to fight climate change by setting its own standards.
    (Reuters, 7/25/19)

2019        Jul 30, In Germany the former head of Volkswagen's luxury division Audi was charged along with three others with fraud over the sale of cars with software that enabled cheating on emissions tests.
    (AP, 7/31/19)

2019        Aug 21, California announced a deal with four automakers that would increase vehicle fuel efficiency and defy the Trump administration’s plan to ease tailpipe emissions standards. In response, the president vented his frustration on Twitter.
    (Yahoo News, 8/22/19)

2019        Aug 22, French insurer AXA said electric luxury cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) may be 40% more likely to cause accidents than their standard engine counterparts, possibly because drivers are still getting used to their quick acceleration.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)

2019        Aug 23, Germany-based Volkswagen AG said it is recalling 679,000 US vehicles sold since 2011 that could roll away because of an electrical issue.
    (Reuters, 8/23/19)
2019        Aug 23, Russia opened a showroom selling its first post-Soviet luxury limousine under the Aurus brand, a type of car used by President Vladimir Putin at his inauguration last year. It was priced at 18 million rubles ($274,000).
    (Reuters, 8/23/19)

2019        Aug 25, Ferdinand Karl Piech, Volkswagen AG's former chairman and chief executive, died. He had transformed the German company from a struggling midsized carmaker into a global automotive powerhouse.
    (Reuters, 8/26/19)

2019        Sep 5, Japan-based Nissan Motor Co was embroiled in another scandal over executive pay after Chief Executive Hiroto Saikawa admitted to being overpaid in violation of internal procedures under a scheme designed by ousted Chairman Carlos Ghosn.
    (Reuters, 9/5/19)

2019        Sep 9, The Volkswagen ID.3, a compact (C-segment) electric car produced by Volkswagen, was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show, after being first shown as the I.D. concept car at the 2016 Paris Motor Show. It is based on the MEB platform and the first model of the I.D. Series.

2019        Sep 11, General Motors Co said it is recalling 3.46 million US pickup trucks and SUVs to address a vacuum pump issue that could make braking more difficult and that has been linked to 113 accidents and 13 injuries.
    (Reuters, 9/11/19)
2019        Sep 11, The Association of European Carmakers (ACEA) said a no-deal Brexit should be avoided at all costs as it would hurt the automotive industry.
    (Reuters, 9/11/19)

2019        Sep 12, United Auto Workers (UAW) President Gary Jones and his predecessor were unnamed officials listed in a federal criminal complaint detailing alleged corruption and embezzlement by union leaders. The complaint was released just two days before the UAW's contracts with Detroit's automakers GM, Ford Motor Co and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV expire on Sept. 14, raising questions about the status of ongoing contract talks.
    (Reuters, 9/13/19)

2019        Sep 18, US President Donald Trump confirmed that the Environmental Protection Agency will revoke California's waiver that allows it to require automakers to build cleaner vehicles than federal requirements demand, a move that will set off a massive legal battle.
    (Reuters, 9/18/19)
2019        Sep 18, It was reported that Ineos, the petrochemicals firm run by pro-Brexit billionaire Jim Ratcliffe, Britain's third-richest person, will build a new 4x4 vehicle in the UK, a boost to an industry hit by closure announcements this year.
    (Reuters, 9/18/19)

2019        Sep 19, The Trump administration said it is revoking California's authority to set its own auto tailpipe emissions standards and to require some zero-emission vehicles, a decision that will spark a massive legal battle between Washington and the most populous state over the future of US vehicles.
    (Reuters, 9/19/19)

2019        Sep 20, Japan-based Mitsubishi Corp said a trader at its Singapore-based unit had lost $320 million through unauthorized transactions in crude oil derivatives, and the matter had been reported to the police.
    (Reuters, 9/20/19)

2019        Sep 26, General Motors Co on reversed its decision not to pay for the healthcare coverage of its striking United Auto Workers union workers, citing confusion around the issue.
    (Reuters, 9/26/19)

2019        Sep 27, It was reported that Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV and its US unit will pay $40 million for misleading investors about its monthly sales figures and will resolve a lengthy probe by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
    (Reuters, 9/27/19)

2019        Oct 1, Ford Motor Co and Mahindra & Mahindra said they would form a joint venture in India, in a move aimed at reducing risks for the US automaker's local business and cutting the cost of developing and producing vehicles for emerging markets.
    (Reuters, 10/1/19)
2019        Oct 1, In central Italy Fiat Chrysler worker Fabrizio Greco died overnight in an accident at the group's factory in Cassino, prompting unions to launch a strike at the plant to demand tighter safety measures.
    (Reuters, 10/1/19)

2019        Oct 2, The US National Transportation Safety Board said it is recommending that new vehicles that are stretched into limousines have safety belts for all seats and seats that better protect passengers in a crash.
    (AP, 10/2/19)

2019        Oct 8, Japan-based Nissan Motor Co named Senior Vice President Makoto Uchida, the head of its Chinese business, as its next CEO. The executive is known for close ties to top shareholder Renault and for a frank, straight-talking manner that has marked him as an outsider.
    (Reuters, 10/8/19)

2019        Oct 10, Japan-based Nissan said it will begin making the next-generation Juke vehicle at Britain’s biggest car plant on Oct. 14, just over two weeks before a possible no-deal Brexit which the industry has warned could bring production to a halt. Nissan warned that a no-deal Brexit tariffs of 10% on vehicles would be unsustainable for Nissan in Europe, where it runs Britain's biggest car factory.
    (Reuters, 10/10/19)

2019        Oct 11, Uber said it would buy a majority stake in online grocery provider Cornershop as the ride-hailing giant moves to expand its fast-growing delivery service into the grocery store market. Santiago-based Cornershop operates in Mexico, Chile, Canada and Peru, but Chief Executive Oskar Hjertonsson said the deal would allow it to deliver groceries "in many more countries around the world".
    (Reuters, 10/11/19)
2019        Oct 11, In Nigeria global ride-hailing firm Uber Technologies Inc launched a pilot test of a boat service in Lagos to attract commuters seeking to avoid the megacity's notoriously congested roads.
    (Reuters, 10/11/19)

2019        Oct 28, General Motors, Fiat Chrysler and Toyota said they were intervening on the side of the Trump administration in an escalating battle with California over fuel economy standards for automobiles.
    (SFC, 10/29/19, p.C1)

2019        Oct 31, US federal prosecutors charged a 12th United Auto Workers official with alleged corruption. Union official Edward Robinson was accused of conspiring with colleagues to embezzle more than $1.5 million in union money to fuel "lavish lifestyles," and to defraud the US.
    (The Week, 11/1/19)
2019        Oct 31, Fiat Chrysler and Peugeot owner PSA said they plan to join forces in a 50-50 share merger to create the world's fourth-largest automaker, seeking scale to cope with costly new technologies and slowing global demand.
    (Reuters, 10/31/19)

2019        Nov 1, UAW senior leaders at Ford's US plants recommended approval of a tentative four-year labor agreement with the automaker, sending the deal to the 52,000 UAW members at Ford for final approval. The union previously ratified a similar deal with General Motors Co and will soon move to negotiate with Fiat Chrysler.
    (Reuters, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 2, The United Auto Workers (UAW) said its president Gary Jones, who has been linked to an ongoing corruption probe by US federal officials, has taken a leave of absence.
    (AP, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 4, It was reported that Germany plans to increase by half the grants available to buyers of electric cars over the five years from 2020, the latest in a series of measures to speed the adoption of low-emissions vehicles.
    (Reuters, 11/4/19)

2019        Nov 7, Chinese electric car maker BYD Co Ltd and Japan's Toyota Motor Corp said they planned to set up a joint venture to design and develop battery electric cars as they ramp up efforts to produce zero emissions vehicles.
    (Reuters, 11/7/19)

2019        Nov 12, Tesla Chief Executive Elon Musk said the US electric vehicle pioneer will build its first European factory and design center near Berlin.
    (Reuters, 11/13/19)

2019        Nov 14, Italy-based Ferrari rolled out the Roma, a record fifth new model announced this year, as the Italian luxury carmaker with the famous "prancing horse" logo looks to sustain profit and share price growth.
    (Reuters, 11/14/19)

2019        Nov 15, Volkswagen installed former BMW executive Markus Duesmann to reinvent Audi after the German premium brand lost key engineering know-how and influence in the wake of the 2015 diesel-cheating scandal.
    (Reuters, 11/15/19)

2019        Nov 20, Gary Jones resigned as president of the United Auto Workers after the union moved to oust him and another official under the cloud of a broadening federal corruption investigation.
    (The Week, 11/21/19)

2019        Nov 24, The UAW said that union official Vance Pearson has resigned. Federal prosecutors in September charged him in connectio  with a scheme to embezzle union money for persoanl use.
    (SFC, 6/2/19, p.A5)

2019        Nov 25, Fiat Chrysler said it has already started 90% of the investments earmarked for Italy. FCA announced last year it would spend 5 billion euros ($5.5 billion) in Italy up to 2021.
    (Reuters, 11/25/19)

2019        Nov 26, Germany-based Audi announced a major restructuring scheme, slashing around 9,500 jobs until 2025 in an effort to adopt production to the e-mobility era and achieve billion-euro cost savings.
    (Reuters, 11/26/19)

2019        Nov 30, In Michigan Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV and the United Auto Workers (UAW) union announced a tentative agreement for a four-year labor contract, a boost for the automaker as it works to merge with France's Groupe PSA.
    (Reuters, 11/30/19)

2019        Dec 3, German public prosecutors raided the Wolfsburg headquarters of Volkswagen in the latest investigation into the carmaker's diesel emissions scandal.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2019        Dec 4, It was reported that Chinese startup AutoX, backed by e-commerce giant Alibaba, has applied to test self-driving vehicles without an in-car backup driver in California, the first challenger to Alphabet Inc's autonomous driving venture Waymo to say it has done so.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)

2019        Dec 5, General Motors Co and South Korea's LG Chem said they will invest $2.3 billion to set up an electric vehicle battery cell joint venture plant in Ohio, creating one of the world's largest battery facilities.
    (Reuters, 12/5/19)
2019        Dec 5, Uber launched in Ivory Coast's commercial capital Abidjan, part of its expansion into African markets with low levels of car ownership and limited mass transport.
    (Reuters, 12/5/19)

2019        Dec 18, Italian-American Fiat Chrysler and France's Peugeot maker PSA sealed a binding deal to create the world's fourth biggest carmaker.
    (Reuters, 12/18/19)
2019        Dec 18, Sweden's Volvo AB agreed to sell its Japan-based UD Trucks business to Isuzu Motors and share technology to help cut costs.
    (Reuters, 12/18/19)

2019        Dec 27, Turkey unveiled its first fully domestically-produced car, saying it aimed to eventually produce up to 175,000 a year of the electric vehicle in a project expected to cost 22 billion lira ($3.7 billion) over 13 years. The vehicle sported the TOGG label of the consortium that is building them.
    (Reuters, 12/27/19)

2019        Dec 31, Carlos Ghosn, the former chairman of Nissan, announced that he is now in Lebanon, despite being ordered by Japanese courts not to leave the country while awaiting trial on financial misconduct charges.
    (The Week, 12/31/19)

2019        Dec, Japanese carmaker Mazda shifted production of its SUVs from Thailand to Japan.
    (Economist, 4/4/20, p.29)

2019        South Korea-based Hyundai launched Nexo, its 2nd fuel-cell car.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.70)

2020        Jan 1, New or higher registration fees went into effect for electric vehicle owners in at least eight US states. For the first time, a majority of US states will impose special fees on gas-free cars, SUVs and trucks.
    (AP, 12/29/19)

2020        Jan 2, Interpol issued a wanted notice for former Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn, who jumped bail in Japan and fled to Lebanon.
    (SFC, 1/3/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 10, In Florida the 1968 Ford Mustang GT that Steve McQueen drove in the classic car chase from the movie "Bullitt," one of the most famed cars from American cinema, sold for $3.4 million at auction.
    (Reuters, 1/11/20)

2020        Jan 16, Tesla announced it is opening a new design center in China and is already recruiting talent to help make "Chinese-style" cars.
    (Good Morning America, 1/16/20)

2020        Jan 21, San Francisco-based Cruise unveiled a robot taxi called Origin. Cruise said it could be manufactured at half the cost of conventional electric SUVs.
    (SFC, 1/23/20, p.D1)

2020        Jan 22, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp said it is recalling 361,000 older vehicles worldwide for potentially defective air bag inflators. A day earlier Honda Motor Co said it will recall 2.7 million older US vehicles in North America for the same type of Takata inflator that Toyota is also recalling.
    (AP, 1/22/20)

2020        Jan 27, General Motors said it is spending $2.2 billion to refurbish a Detroit factory so that it can build the company's first electric pickup in 2021, followed by a self-driving shuttle for GM's Cruise autonomous vehicle unit.
    (SFC, 1/28/20, p.D1)

2020        Feb 6, A US safety regulator said it has allowed SoftBank Group-backed autonomous vehicle startup Nuro Inc to temporarily deploy up to 5,000 low-speed electric delivery vehicles without human controls like mirrors and steering wheels.
    (Reuters, 2/6/20)

2020        Feb 12, It was reported that automaker Nissan it is suing former chair and CEO Carlos Ghosn in Japan for 10 billion yen, or $90 million, saying it's seeking to recover damages from his alleged financial misconduct and fraud.
    (The Week, 2/12/20)

2020        Feb 13, Tesla Inc announced plans to raise $2 billion in a 2.65 million stock offering. Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk will buy up to $10 million in shares, while board member and Oracle co-founder Larry Ellison will purchase up to $1 million worth of Tesla shares.
    (Reuters, 2/13/20)

2020        Feb 14, Fiat Chrysler said it had temporarily halted production at its Serbian plant, the first such suspension by an automaker in Europe in response to the coronavirus outbreak in China.
    (Reuters, 2/14/20)

2020        Feb, General Motors pulled its car production out of Thailand.
    (Economist, 4/4/20, p.29)

2020        Mar 4, Anthony Levandowski, a former Google and Uber engineer, filed for bankruptcy in San Francisco following a court order for him to pay $179 million to Google over a contract dispute. Levandowski had left Google to form Otto a self-driging truck startup and then sold Otto to Uber for $600 million.
    (SFC, 3/6/20, p.D1)
2020        Mar 4, Fiat Chrysler defied fears over Italy's coronavirus outbreak to showcase an electric version of its 500 city car, as it strives to catch up with rivals in low-emissions driving while heading into a merger with Peugeot maker PSA.
    (Reuters, 3/4/20)

2020        Mar 6, Japanese carmaker Nissan said it is pushing on with plans to build its new Qashqai sports utility vehicle at its British factory despite warnings over Brexit. Nissan announced a 52-million pound investment in a new press line at the site.
    (Reuters, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 18, Honda Motor Co said it is temporarily halting production in North America for six days because of the anticipated decline in auto sales due to the coronavirus outbreak and will reduce production by about 40,000 vehicles.
    (Reuters, 3/18/20)

2020        Mar 19, Anthony Levandowski, a former Google and Uber engineer, pleaded guilty to stealing trade secrets from Google. Levandowski had left Google to form Otto a self-driging truck startup and then sold Otto to Uber for $600 million.
    (SFC, 3/21/20, p.C1)

2020        Mar 21, Russia's largest carmaker Avtovaz reported the first two cases of the coronavirus among its workers. Russia has so far reported 253 cases of the virus and one death, and has introduced a raft of economic and social measures to limit its spread.
    (Reuters, 3/21/20)

2020        Mar 22, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp said it would suspend production on one of its vehicle production lines at a plant near its headquarters through March 25, after a second plant worker tested positive for the COVID-19 virus.
    (Reuters, 3/22/20)

2020        Mar 27, US Pres. Donald Trump invoked emergency powers to require General Motors Co to build much-needed ventilators for coronavirus patients after he accused the largest US automaker of "wasting time" during negotiations.
    (Reuters, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 30, French carmaker Renault put most of its white collar staff in the Ile-de-France region around Paris on partial unemployment as the lockdown imposed due to the coronavirus outbreak lowered activity.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)

2020        Apr 8, The United States awarded automaker General Motors Co a contract worth $489.4 million to make ventilators needed to treat severely sick coronavirus patients.
    (Reuters, 4/8/20)

2020        Apr 9, General Motors Co said it plans to keep its Brazilian factories shut down for at least 60 more days due to the coronavirus crisis, as the final batch of unionized workers voted on the automaker's proposal for the shutdown and for a plan to cut salaries by up to 25%.
    (Reuters, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 29, The European Commission approved a 5 billion euro ($5.4 billion) loan guarantee to carmaker Renault group to mitigate the impact of the coronavirus crisis.
    (Reuters, 4/29/20)

2020        May 9, In the SF Bay Area Tesla Inc sued Alameda County authorities as the electric carmaker pushed to re-open its factory there and Chief Executive Elon Musk threatened to move its Palo Alto headquarters and future programs from the state to Texas or Nevada.
    (Reuters, 5/10/20)(SSFC, 5/10/20, p.A12)

2020        May 11, Tesla told workers to return to its California electric-car factory in defiance of a local shelter-in-place order designed to help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.
    (AP, 5/12/20)

2020        May 12, In the SF Bay Area Alameda County officials told Tesla to stop manufacturing at its Fremont plant until the county and Tesla agree on a plan to reopen in line with state and local rules.
    (SFC, 5/13/19, p.C1)

2020        May 14, France-based Renault said it is preparing to substantially reduce its vehicle range, withdrawing well-known but ailing models like the Espace minivans, as part of looming cost cutting plans.
    (Reuters, 5/14/20)

2020        May 18, The Detroit Three automakers and their suppliers began restarting assembly lines after a two-month coronavirus lockdown in a slow revival of a sector that employs nearly 1 million people in the United States.
    (Reuters, 5/18/20)

2020        May 22, Car rental company Hertz filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy amid the global economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (Good Morning America, 5/23/20)

2020        May 28, Japan-based Nissan Motor Co outlined a new plan to become a smaller, more efficient carmaker after the coronavirus pandemic exacerbated a slide in profitability that culminated in its first annual loss in 11 years.
    (Reuters, 5/28/20)

2020        Jun 3, In Michigan Gary Jones (63), the former president of the United Auto Workers Union, pleaded guilty to embezzling union funds to pay for vacations, liquor and other personal luxuries.
    (AP, 6/4/20)

2020        Jun 5, Japan-based Toyota announced a joint venture with several Chinese carmakers to develop fuel-cell technology.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.70)

2020        Jun 25, California became the first state to force trucks to go electric. The California Air Resources Control Board approved a rule that forces automakers to sell a minimum numbers of zero-emissions big rigs, delivery vans and large pickups starting in 2024.
    (SFC, 6/26/20, p.B1)

2020        Jun 26, Amazon announced that it is buying Bay Area self-driving startup Zoox. The price tag was reported to be $1.2 billion.
    (SFC, 6/27/20, p.C1)

2020        Jul 31, It was reported that Chinese electric vehicle (EV) maker Xpeng Motors has raised an additional $300 million from investors including Qatar's sovereign wealth fund.
    (Reuters, 7/31/20)

2020        Aug 4, Self-driving-car engineer Anthony Levandowski was sentenced to 18 months in prison by a federal judge in San Francisco, after pleading guilty to one count of trade secret theft in May. In 2021 Donald Trump pardoned Levandowski in the final hours of his administration.
    (Business Insider, 8/4/20)(SFC, 1/21/21, p.C1)

2020        Aug 31, A US appeals court overturned the Trump administration's July 2019 rule that sought to suspend a regulation that more than doubled penalties for automakers failing to meet fuel efficiency requirements.
    (Reuters, 8/31/20)

2020        Sep 2, Ford Motor Co said it is targeting the elimination of 1,400 US salaried jobs by year end as part of a multiyear $11 billion restructuring.
    (Reuters, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 3, QuantumScape, the 10-year-old Silicon Valley battery startup backed by Volkswagen, said it plans to go public through a reverse merger with Kensington Capital Acquisition Corp with an enterprise value of $3.3 billion.
    (Reuters, 9/3/20)

2020        Sep 14, It was reported that German carmaker Daimler AG will pay $2.2 billion to resolve a US government diesel emissions cheating investigation and claims from 250,000 US vehicle owners.
    (Reuters, 9/14/20)

2020        Sep 28, General Motors confirmed that it will repay Ohio $28 million in state tax incentives after it closed its Lordstown Assembly plant in March 2019 and failed to retain 3,700 jobs in exchange for the credits.
    (Reuters, 9/28/20)
2020        Sep 28, Electric vehicle maker Xpeng Inc said it would start building a new car plant in China's southern city of Guangzhou with 4 billion yuan ($590 million) in financing from the local government.
    (Reuters, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep, In China the new BMW ix3 electric car rolled off the production line in Shenyang, where it is wholly developed by BMW and its Chinese state-run partner, Brilliance Auto.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.54)

2020        Oct 13, Ford Motor Co said it was moving production of its plug-in Escape sport utility vehicle to next year as it reviews its vehicles with the same engine and battery parts that were recalled in Europe. The automaker said it recalled 20,500 Kuga PHEV vehicles in Europe last month and suspended their sale as it looks into potential concern with the high voltage battery, which in certain cases could result in a fire.
    (Reuters, 10/13/20)

2020        Oct 15, A cabless trailer of an articulated lorry, known as the Pod, ran the Dunsfold test track in Surrey at over 80 mph. The vehicle was made by Einride, a Swedish firm founded in 2016 by Robert Falck.
    (Econ., 10/24/20, p.72)

2020        Oct, Production shipments of the Solo, a single-seat, three-wheeled electric vehicle made by Canadian designer ElectraMeccanica, arrived in the US. The $18,500 car, categorized as a motorcycle, is manufactured in China and has a range of 100 miles.
    (SFC, 11/7/20, p.C2)

2020        Nov 23, General Motors dropped its support for a Trump administration lawsuit challenging California’s stricter fuel economy rules. The company also signaled that it would work with Biden to reduce climate-warming emissions from cars and trucks.
    (NY Times, 11/24/20)

2020        Nov 25, Tesla Inc issued two recalls covering about 9,500 vehicles for roof trim that may separate and bolts that may not have been properly tightened.
    (Reuters, 11/25/20)

2020        Nov 30, Tesla Inc shares jumped 4% in extended trade after S&P Dow Jones Indices said it would add one of Wall Street's most valuable companies to the S&P 500 index all at once on Dec. 21.
    (Reuters, 11/30/20)

2020        Dec 5, It was reported that South Korea-based Kia is recalling nearly 295,000 vehicles in the US because the engines can stall or catch fire. Engine failure and fire problems with Hyundais and Kias have plagued the companies for more than five years.
    (AP, 12/5/20)

2020        Dec 7, Uber announced the sale of its self-driving arm to a firm called Aurora. The deal would leave Uber with a 26% stake in Aurora.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.67)

2020        Dec 10, It was reported that a German court has ruled that automaker Tesla Inc. has to stop clearing trees on the site where it's building its first electric car factory in Europe. The ban would last until a decision was made on the appeal by the environmentalist groups NABU and Gruene Liga.
    (AP, 12/10/20)

2020        Dec 12, Indonesia said US automaker Tesla will send delegations to Indonesia next month to discuss potential investment in a supply chain for its electric vehicles.
    (Reuters, 12/12/20)

2020        Dec 14, Zoox of Foster City, Ca., unveiled a next-generation robot taxi. Founded in 2014, Zoox is now owned by Amazon, which bought it in June for $1.2 billion.
    (SFC, 12/15/20, p.C1)

2020        Dec 18, Shares of Tesla gained in a busy day for the electric car maker's stock ahead of its much-anticipated grand entrance into the benchmark S&P 500 index.
    (Reuters, 12/18/20)
2020        Dec 18, A German court ruled Tesla could partially proceed with clearing a forest to build a manufacturing site near Berlin.
    (AP, 12/18/20)
2020        Dec 18, Indonesia and a unit of South Korean firm LG Group signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on a $9.8 billion electric vehicle (EV) battery investment deal.
    (Reuters, 12/29/20)

2020        Dec 19, A German court ruled that automaker Tesla has to stop clearing trees on some parts of the site outside Berlin where it is building the company's first electric car factory in Europe.
    (AP, 12/19/20)

2020        Dec 22, San Francisco-based Ouster Inc, a US startup that makes lidar sensors for self-driving cars and smart cities, said it has agreed to go public through a merger with special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) Colonnade Acquisition Corp. Ouster is fifth lidar manufacturer this year to agree a SPAC merger to go public, following on from Velodyne Lidar Inc, Luminar, Innoviz and Aeva.
    (Reuters, 12/22/20)

2020        Dec 27, It was reported that BMW wants roughly every fifth car it sells to be powered by an electric engine by 2023. Chief Executive Oliver Zipse said 15,000 private and about 1,300 public charging points would have to be put into operation every week as of today.
    (AP, 12/27/20)

2021        Jan 2, Tesla said that it delivered 499,500 for the year, including 180,570 SUVs and sedans for the October through December period. CEO Elon Musk had set a goal of delivering 500,000 vehicles in 2020 before the coronavirus pandemic hit.
    (AP, 1/2/21)

2021        Jan 4, It was reported that cash-strapped Chinese startup Byton, Apple assembler Foxconn and the Nanjing Economic and Technological Development Zone have agreed to start building electric sport-utility vehicles in 2022.
    (Reuters, 1/4/21)

2021        Jan 7, Daimler AG's unveiled a new display screen that will cover almost the entire dashboard of its luxury Mercedes-Benz models, in a bid to outdo Tesla Inc's hallmark touchscreen infotainment system.
    (Reuters, 1/7/21)

2021        Jan 8, Tesla Inc launched a cheaper variant of the Model Y, bringing its sports utility vehicle's price closer to that of its Model 3 sedan, the electric-car maker's least expensive car. Shares of Tesla Inc jumped as much as 5.6%, pushing the electric-car maker's market capitalization to more than $800 billion. The rally has helped Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk surpass Amazon.com Inc's top boss Jeff Bezos to become the world's richest man.
    (Reuters, 1/8/21)

2021        Jan 9, Chinese electric vehicle (EV) maker Nio Inc launched its first sedan model ET7, eyeing a greater share of the world's largest car market. Nio's new battery technology will give the ET7 a drive range of over 1,000 km (621 miles) between charges.
    (Reuters, 1/9/21)

2021        Jan 11, Ford Brazil said it will close its factories, laying off 5,000 workers, as supply and demand were hurt by the pandemic.
    (Econ., 1/16/21, p.24)

2021        Jan 12, General Motors Co shares jumped to their highest level since the company's post-bankruptcy IPO in 2010, as the automaker announced its entry into the growing electric delivery vehicle business.
    (Reuters, 1/12/20)
2021        Jan 12, Germany-based Volkswagen said its namesake brand sold 134,000 battery-powered cars last year, up from 45,000 in 2019.
    (AP, 1/12/20)

2021        Jan 14, The outgoing Trump administration issued new rules that would allow manufacturers of automated vehicles to bypass crash standards required of conventional vehicles, cutting production costs.
    (Reuters, 1/14/20)
2021        Jan 14, The US Supreme Court said that when a person's car has been impounded and they file for bankruptcy, the car does not have to be immediately returned. Justice Sonia Sotomayor said that despite the court's ruling, bankruptcy courts are not powerless to facilitate the return of vehicles. And she said Congress could pass legislation that helps speed vehicles' return.
    (AP, 1/14/20)
2021        Jan 14, It was reported that Toyota Motor Corp has settled a lengthy US Justice Department civil probe into its delayed filing of emissions-related defect reports for $180 million, the government said in a court filing.
    (Reuters, 1/14/20)
2021        Jan 14, In Japan an executive at the Nissan carmaker told a Tokyo court at a trial of Nissan executive Greg Kelly that Carlos Ghosn hid part of his compensation because he feared the French government would force him out of Renault if it discovered how much he earned. Kelly is charged with helping Ghosn hide 9.3 billion yen ($89 million) in compensation over eight years through deferred payments after Japan introduced new rules requiring executives to disclose payments above 1 billion yen.
    (AP, 1/14/20)

2021        Jan 16, It was reported that General Motors plans to spend $800 million to turn a Canadian SUV plant into one that will make electric delivery vans.
    (AP, 1/16/21)

2021        Jan 18, Stellantis, the carmaker created by combining Fiat Chrysler and Peugeot-owner PSA, enjoyed a positive start, its shares rising 8% on their market debut in Milan and Paris, valuing the business at around 42 billion euros ($51 billion). The merger created the world's fifth-largest carmaker by vehicles produced.
    (Reuters, 1/18/21)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.55)

2021        Jan 20, Germany-based Daimler AG's Mercedes-Benz unveiled the EQA, a new electric compact SUV as part of plans to take on rival Tesla Inc and offer more emission-free vehicles to consumers to meet targets in Europe and China.
    (Reuters, 1/20/21)

2021        Jan 22, Japanese carmaker Nissan confirmed that it will maintain its operations in Britain in the wake of the post-Brexit trade deal between the country and the European Union.
    (AP, 1/22/21)

2021        Jan 27, Electric carmaker Tesla reported its first profitable year, and Apple said it had surpassed $100 billion in quarterly sales.
    (NY Times, 1/27/21)

2021        Jan 28, General Motors said it will sell only electric vehicles by 2035, phasing out the gas-powered pickup trucks and SUVs that today earn billions for the company.
    (NY Times, 1/28/21)
2021        Jan 28, Chinese ride-hailing giant Didi Chuxing said it has raised $300 million for its autonomous driving unit, tapping investors to expand its technological know-how in the field for a second time since last year.
    (Reuters, 1/28/21)

2021        Feb 2, It was reported that Tesla Inc has agreed to recall 134,951 Model S and Model X vehicles with touchscreen displays that could fail and raise the risk of a crash after US auto safety regulators sought the recall last month.
    (Reuters, 2/2/21)
2021        Feb 2, Toyota Motor Corp, Fiat Chrysler and other major automakers said they were joining General Motors in abandoning support for former President Donald Trump's effort to bar California from setting its own zero emission vehicle rules.
    (Reuters, 2/2/21)

2021        Feb 8, It was reported that Chinese government officials have met representatives from US electric carmaker Tesla Inc over reports from consumers about battery fires, unexpected acceleration and failures in over-the-air software updates.
    (Reuters, 2/8/21)
2021        Feb 8, South Korea's Hyundai Motor Co said it is not now in talks with Apple Inc on autonomous electric cars, just a month after it confirmed early-stage talks with the tech giant, sending the automaker's shares skidding.
    (Reuters, 2/8/21)
2021        Feb 8, Vietnam's first domestic car manufacturer, Vinfast, said it had obtained a permit to test autonomous vehicles on public streets in California. Vinfast said two models would be sold in the US, Canadian and European markets from 2022.
    (Reuters, 2/8/21)

2021        Feb 9, Volkswagen said it is conducting a feasibility study in China about flying cars, joining a growing number of companies looking into the potential technology.
    (Reuters, 2/9/21)

2021        Feb 15, Britain's luxury car brand Jaguar said it will be fully electric by 2025 as it outlined a plan to phase out internal combustion engines.
    (AP, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 17, Ford Motor said it will phase out gasoline-powered vehicles in Europe by 2030.
    (AP, 2/17/21)

2021        Feb 23, Shares of Churchill Capital IV Corp fell more than 40%, a day after it agreed to merge with Lucid, which makes luxury electric vehicles but is still yet to formally start producing cars or generate meaningful revenue.
    (Reuters, 2/23/21)
2021        Feb 22, Nikola Corp disclosed details on its hydrogen fuel-cell-powered product lineup that will include vehicles with a driving range of up to 900 miles.
    (Reuters, 2/23/21)

2021        Feb 24, It was reported that the price of an average new vehicle in America has jumped 6% over the last year to $40,578.
    (SFC, 2/24/21, p.B2)

2021        Mar 1, Automaker FCA US pleaded guilty to conspiracy, admitting that it paid off leaders of the United Auto Workers to try to win concessions in negotiations covering thousands of factory workers. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles is now part of Stellantis, a company created by the merger of Fiat Chrysler and PSA Peugeot.
    (AP, 3/1/21)
2021        Mar 1, It was reported that the US government is investigating complaints of engine compartment fires in nearly 1.9 million Toyota RAV4 small SUVs. 11 fire complaints have been received involving the 2013 through 2018 model years.
    (AP, 3/1/21)

2021        Mar 2, Hertz said that it may sell a controlling stake in the company to two investment firms for $4.2 billion. Knighthead Capital Management and Certares Opportunities will have the chance to buy the entire reorganized car rental company, but no less than a majority of its shares.
    (AP, 3/2/21)
2021        Mar 2, Transport minister Nitin Gadkari India is ready to offer incentives to ensure Tesla Inc's cost of production would be less than in China if the carmaker commits to making its electric vehicles in the south Asian country.
    (Reuters, 3/2/21)
2021        Mar 2, Sweden-based Volvo said it will sell only electric vehicles by 2030.
    (NY Times, 3/2/21)

2021        Mar 3, Citing a global chip shortage General Motors Co extended production cuts at three North American plants and add a fourth to the list of factories hit, and Stellantis to warn the pain could linger far into the year.
    (Reuters, 3/3/21)

2021        Mar 9, Japan-based Nissan said it is recalling more than 854,000 cars in the US and Canada because the brake lights might not come on when the driver presses on the pedal.
    (AP, 3/9/21)

2021        Mar 14, Carmaker Volkswagen said it plans to cut up to 4,000 jobs at its plants in Germany by offering early or partial retirement to older employees in a move that could cost several hundred million euros.
    (Reuters, 3/14/21)

2021        Mar 15, General Motors Co said that due to the global semiconductor chip shortage the US automaker is building certain 2021 light-duty full-size pickup trucks without a fuel management module, hurting those vehicles' fuel economy performance.
    (Reuters, 3/15/21)

2021        Mar 19, It was reported that the Chinese military has banned Tesla cars from entering its housing complexes, citing security concerns over the cameras installed on the vehicles.
    (AP, 3/19/21)

2021        Mar 24, Japanese automakers Toyota, Isuzu and Hino said they are setting up a partnership in commercial vehicles to work together in electric, hydrogen, connected and autonomous driving technologies.
    (SFC, 3/25/21, p.B2)

2021        Mar 27, It was reported that Volkswagen has issued a recall for more than 150,000 Audi vehicles in the United States on concerns that their passenger air bags might not activate.
    (AP, 3/27/21)
2021        Mar 27, Japan-based Honda said it has agreed to sell its only British car plant at Swindon in southern England to logistics giant Panattoni, as the new owner reportedly plans to make a large investment at the sprawling site.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Mar 30, Japan-based Lexus, a luxury auto brand owned by Toyota Motor Corp, said it plans to introduce 20 new or improved models by 2025, of which more than 10 will be electric.
    (Reuters, 3/30/21)

2021        Mar 31, Data firm IHS Markit said a recent fire at a Japanese semiconductor factory and severe weather in parts of the United States in February have exacerbated an ongoing chip shortage plaguing the global auto industry. The chip-making factory owned by Renesas Electronics Corp accounts for 30% of the global market for microcontroller units used in cars.
    (Reuters, 3/31/21)

2021        Apr 5, Japan's Subaru Corp said that the automaker will shut its Yajima plant between April 10 and 27 due to a chip shortage, affecting 10,000 vehicles.
    (Reuters, 4/5/21)

2021        Apr 8, General Motors and Ford said they would halt production or extend shutdowns already in place at several North American automobile plants due to an ongoing shortage of semiconductor chips.
    (The Week, 4/9/21)

2021        Apr 11, South Korean battery makers, LG Energy Solution and SK Innovation, reached an agreement to settle disputes over electric-vehicle technology.
    (Reuters, 4/11/21)

2021        Apr 12, Dubai said that US self-driving car company Cruise will become the first to operate autonomous taxis and ride-hailing services in the UAE city of more than three million people.
    (AP, 4/12/21)

2021        Apr 15, Toyota said it is recalling nearly 280,000 Venza SUVs in the US because a wiring problem can stop the side air bags from inflating in a crash. The recall covers Venzas from the 2009 through 2015 model years.
    (AP, 4/15/21)
2021        Apr 15, Chinese automaker Geely, owner of Volvo Cars, launched a high-end electric vehicle (EV) brand named Zeekr, targeting China's growing appetite for premium EVs that has boosted sales for Tesla and Chinese peer Nio.
    (Reuters, 4/15/21)
2021        Apr 15, Nissan Motor Co said it will slash production at several factories in Japan next month due to a global shortage of semiconductors.
    (AP, 4/15/21)

2021        Apr 17, In Texas a car crash left two dead. Local police said it appeared to have occurred with no one in the driver's seat. The 2019 Tesla Model S was reportedly traveling at a high speed, when it failed to negotiate a curve.
    (Reuters, 4/19/21)
2021        Apr 17, French automaker Renault said it will seek to generate more than 1 billion euros ($1.20 billion) in sales from the so-called "circular economy" by turning its Flins factory outside Paris into a research, recycling and repair center.
    (Reuters, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 20, Subaru said it is recalling nearly 875,000 cars and SUVs in the US because the engines can stall or a rear suspension part can fall off. The stalling recall covers more than 466,000 Crosstrek SUVs from 2018 and 2019 and Impreza cars from 2017 through 2019.
    (AP, 4/20/21)
2021        Apr 20, Tesla apologized to Chinese consumers for not addressing a complaint in a timely way, and said it would launch a review of its service operations in the world's biggest auto market. A day earlier a disgruntled customer had clambered on top of a Tesla at the auto show in protest over the company's handling of her complaints about malfunctioning brakes.
    (Reuters, 4/21/21)

2021        Apr 26, The US EPA announced that it is planning to reinstate California's authority to regulate vehicle emissions.
    (SFC, 4/27/21, p.B1)
2021        Apr 26, It was reported that US electric vehicle (EV) maker Tesla Inc plans to add facilities at its Shanghai factory to repair and reproduce key components such as electric motors and battery cells.
    (Reuters, 4/26/21)

2021        Apr 27, Toyota subsidiary Woven Planet Holdings said it has acquired the self-driving division of American ride-hailing company Lyft for $550 million.
    (SFC, 4/28/21, p.B2)

2021        Apr 28, Uber Technologies Inc said it was launching new features in its app to allow US customers to book COVID-19 vaccine appointments and reserve rental cars.
    (Reuters, 4/28/21)

2021        May 10, The US government's auto safety agency said it is investigating multiple complaints about steering failures that could affect more than 1.1 million Honda Accord sedans. The probe covers Accords from the 2013 through 2015 model years.
    (AP, 5/10/21)
2021        May 10, Self-driving tech company Pony.ai, backed by Toyota Motor Corp, said its next-generation technology for robotaxis will be using lidars made by Luminar Technologies, Inc. Pony.ai is an autonomous vehicle technology company co-located in Silicon Valley, Beijing and Guangzhou.
    (AP, 5/10/21)

2021        May 13, South Korea's Hyundai Motor Group said it planned to invest $7.4 billion in the United States by 2025 to produce electric vehicles, enhance production and further its investment in smart mobility solutions.
    (Reuters, 5/13/21)

2021        May 18, American electric-vehicle maker Fisker Inc said it had signed an agreement with UK-based Onto, an electric-car subscription service, to deliver up to 700 vehicles in 2023.
    (Reuters, 5/18/21)

2021        May 20, California state air-pollution regulators approved rules requiring ride-hailing services to phase out their use of gas-powered cars over the next decade.
    (SFC, 5/22/21, p.B1)

2021        May 26, Ford Motor Co outlined plans to boost spending on its electrification efforts by more than a third and said it aims to have 40% of its global volume be all electric by 2030, sending shares up 6.5% to a near five-year high.
    (Reuters, 5/26/21)

2021        May 31, Russia began production of the Aurus Senat luxury sedan car promoted by Pres. Vladimir Putin. Its most basic available features will cost 18 million rubles ($245,000).
    (Reuters, 5/31/21)

2021        Jun 2, It was reported that Tesla Inc has dropped radar sensors from its semi-autonomous driving system, Autopilot, raising concerns over the safety of the camera-only version, Tesla Vision.
    (Reuters, 6/2/21)

2021        Jun 7, General Motors Co said it plans to offer $15 per month subscriptions for its Onstar Guardian security services to anyone in the US or Canada who wants to download a smartphone app, expanding beyond owners of GM vehicles in a step to generate recurring revenue.
    (AP, 6/7/21)

2021        Jun 9, Germany-based Volkswagen said that former CEO Martin Winterkorn has agreed to pay 11.2 million euros ($13.6 million) in compensation for what the company called his failure to quickly get to the bottom of the scandal over diesel engines rigged to cheat on emissions tests.
    (AP, 6/9/21)

2021        Jun 14, Ohio-based Lordstown Motors Corp announced the sudden departure of its chief executive and finance head, just days after the electric truck maker warned that it may not have enough money to stay in business over the next year, sending shares down more than 20%.
    (Reuters, 6/14/21)

2021        Jun 17, US electric vehicle startup Canoo said it would build an assembly plant in Oklahoma that was scheduled to open in 2023 and until then would use VDL Nedcar in Netherlands as its contract manufacturer.
    (Reuters, 6/17/21)

2021        Jun 26, Klaus Zellmer, Volkswagen board member for sales, said the carmaker will stop selling combustion engines cars in Europe by 2035 as it shifts to electric vehicles, but later in the United States and China.
    (Reuters, 6/26/21)

2021        Jun 26, Chinese authorities said Tesla is recalling about 285,000 electric vehicles in China because the cruise-control function can be activated accidentally and cause cars to accelerate suddenly, creating a safety hazard.
    (AP, 6/26/21)

2021        Jun 30, Sweden's Volvo Cars laid out an extensive road map to becoming a fully electric car maker by 2030, including plans to sell 600,000 battery electric vehicles at mid-decade and build a European battery gigafactory in 2026.
    (Reuters, 6/30/21)

2021        Jul 1, Japan-based Nissan Motor Co bet on Britain to supercharge its European electric future, pledging $1.4 billion with its Chinese partner to build a giant battery plant that will power 100,000 vehicles a year including a new crossover model.
    (Reuters, 7/1/21)

2021        Jul 6, Stellantis, Vauxhall’s parent company announced that it will invest 100 million pounds ($138 million) to make electric vans and cars at its factory in northwestern England.
    (AP, 7/6/21)

2021        Jul 8, The EU handed down $1 billion in fines to major Germany car manufacturers, saying they colluded to limit development and rollout of emission-control systems.
    (SFC, 7/9/21, p.B2)

2021        Jul 9, Chinese battery maker EVE Energy said it would take a stake in a small lithium producer and establish a joint venture to build a lithium chemicals project costing up to 1.8 billion yuan ($277.8 million).
    (Reuters, 7/9/21)

2021        Jul 12, Spain's PM Pedro Sánchez said his government will invest 4.3 billion euros ($5.1 billion) from its share of European pandemic recovery funds to revamp its automobile industry and steer it toward manufacturing electric vehicles and their components.
    (AP, 7/12/21)

2021        Jul 13, Electrify America, an electric vehicle charging network funded with money paid by Volkswagen as punishment for its emissions cheating scandal, says it plans to more than double its number of charging stations throughout the United States and Canada by 2025.
    (AP, 7/13/21)
2021        Jul 13, Germany-based Volkswagen raised its long-term profitability target in a sign of the automaker's growing confidence in managing the shift to electric and self-driving vehicles.
    (Reuters, 7/13/21)

2021        Jul 14, Self-driving sensor maker AEye Inc said it had struck deals with German automotive supplier Continental AG and autonomous trucking firm TuSimple related to its lidar technology.
    (Reuters, 7/14/21)

2021        Jul 20, Intel Corp unit Mobileye said it was testing self-driving vehicles in New York City, including the bustling Manhattan borough, in an effort to prove its technology can handle jaywalkers, construction zones and even horse carriages.
    (Reuters, 7/20/21)

2021        Jul 26, Shares of Lucid Group Inc rose as much as 19% in their Nasdaq debut after the electric vehicle maker completed its merger with a blank-check company backed by Wall Street dealmaker Michael Klein.
    (Reuters, 7/26/21)
2021        Jul 26, Tesla reported a quarterly profit of $1.1 billion, or $1.02 per share, in the April-June period.
    (SFC, 7/26/21, p.B2)

2021        Jul 29, Trevor Milton, the founder and one-time executive chair of Nikola Corp., surrendered in New York to face charges alleging he lied about the electric and hydrogen-powered truck startup, duping some financially struggling novice investors looking for income during the pandemic.
    (AP, 7/29/21)

2021        Aug 3, Detroit's Big Three automakers and the United Auto Workers (UAW) union said they will reinstate requirements to wear masks at all US plants, offices and warehouses beginning on Aug. 4, but are not requiring workers to be vaccinated.
    (Reuters, 8/3/21)
2021        Aug 3, Netherlands-based automaker Stellantis said it achieved faster-than-expected progress on synergies and record margins in its first six months as a combined company, despite suffering 700,000 units in lower production due to interruptions in the semiconductor supply chain.
    (AP, 8/3/21)

2021        Aug 16, US auto safety regulators said they had opened a formal safety probe into Tesla Inc's driver assistance system Autopilot after a series of crashes involving emergency vehicles.
    (Reuters, 8/16/21)

2021        Aug 20, General Motors Co (GM.N) said it would take a hit of $1 billion to expand the recall of its Chevrolet Bolt electric vehicles due to the risk of fires from the high-voltage battery pack - a blow for the largest US automaker as it seeks to ramp up EV sales.
    (Reuters, 8/21/21)

2021        Aug 24, Alphabet Inc's Waymo said it has started taking a few San Franciscans on rides in its self-driving sport utility vehicles and hopes to open the robotaxis to anyone in the city in less than the three years it took to launch in its only other market.
    (Reuters, 8/24/21)

2021        Aug 27, Japan-based Toyota Motor said it had suspended all self-driving e-Palette transportation pods at the Tokyo Paralympic Games village, a day after one of the vehicles collided with and injured a visually impaired pedestrian.
    (Reuters, 8/27/21)

2021        Aug 30, In France the speed limit in nearly all of Paris was reduced to just 30 kph (less than 19 mph), with exceptions for a handful of wide avenues including the famed Champs-Elysees and the bypass circling the historical capital.
    {France, Cars}
    (AP, 8/30/21)
2021        Aug 30, Japan-based Toyota Motor said it would resume operations of its self-driving e-Palette pods at the Tokyo Paralympic Games village with greater operator control and more safety staff to ensure they did not hit any more people.
    (Reuters, 8/30/21)

2021        Sep 1, US auto safety regulators said they had identified a 12th crash involving Tesla Inc vehicles that were using advanced driver assistance systems in incidents involving emergency vehicles.
    (Reuters, 9/1/21)

2021        Sep 8, It was reported that India will give about $3.5 billion, down from an original plan to give about $8 billion in incentives, to auto companies over a five-year period under a revised scheme to boost the manufacturing and export of clean technology vehicles,
    (Reuters, 9/8/21)

2021        Sep 9, Ford Motor Co said it will stop making cars in India and take a hit of about $2 billion because it does not see a path to profitability in the country, becoming the latest automaker to leave the major growth market dominated by Asian rivals.
    (Reuters, 9/9/21)

2021        Sep 13, Oculii co-founder Steven Hong said General Motors Co's venture capital arm has invested millions of dollars in the US startup maker of software for radar sensors used in self-driving cars.
    (Reuters, 9/13/21)

2021        Sep 14, A government-backed agency said China is developing machines that will be able to track data sent abroad by cars as regulators in the world's biggest vehicle market implemented new rules on data protection.
    (Reuters, 9/14/21)

2021        Sep 15, CNBC reported that Rivian is planning an initial public offering of stock later this year, pegging the company’s value up to $80 billion. This week Rivian Automotive Inc. rolled its first pickup truck for regular customers off its assembly line in its Normal, Illinois, plant with first deliveries just around the corner.
2021        Sep 15, India's cabinet approved an incentive scheme for the automobile sector aimed at boosting production of electric and hydrogen fuel-powered vehicles and promoting the manufacture of drones.
    (Reuters, 9/15/21)

2021        Sep 26, China's Geely said it aims to set up 5,000 battery swapping stations for electric vehicles (EV) globally by 2025, as sales grow in the world's biggest vehicle market.
    (Reuters, 9/26/21)

2021        Sep 27, Ford Motor significantly increased its commitment to electric cars and trucks by announcing that it would spend billions of dollars to build three battery factories and an electric truck plant in the United States, creating 11,000 jobs over the next four years.
    (NY Times, 9/27/21)

2021        Sep 28, Toyota announced that it is acquiring Renovo Motors, a Silicon Valley software developer, adding to its Woven Planet team, which is owrking on automated driving.
    (SFC, 9/29/21, p.C2)

2021        Sep 29, Rolls-Royce, owned by BMW, said it will produce only electric cars by 2030, joining other premium brands making the switch such as VW's Bentley and Jaguar's Land Rover.
    (Reuters, 9/29/21)

2021        Sep 30, Carmaker Opel, which is part of the Stellantis group, said it will close one of its plants in Germany until at least the end of the year due to chip shortages.
    (Reuters, 9/30/21)

2021        Oct 1, Shareholders in Daimler AG, maker of Mercedes-Benz luxury cars, approved the spinoff of the truck division as a separate company. Stuttgart-based Daimler will rename itself as Mercedes-Benz Group AG as of Feb. 1, 2022.
    (AP, 10/1/21)

2021        Oct 2, Tesla Inc said it had delivered 241,300 electric cars in the third quarter, beating Wall Street estimates after Chief Executive Elon Musk asked staff to "go super hardcore" to meet targets.
    (Reuters, 10/2/21)

2021        Oct 5, It was reported that Volvo is recalling nearly 260,000 older cars in the US because the front driver’s air bag can explode and send shrapnel into the cabin.
    (AP, 10/5/21)
2021        Oct 5, Lidar developer Ouster Inc said it has agreed to buy solid-state lidar startup Sense Photonics in an all-stock deal, and will set up a new automotive division to be run by Sense CEO Shauna McIntyre.
    (AP, 10/5/21)

2021        Oct 7, CEO Elon Musk said Tesla will move its headquarters from Palo Alto, Ca., to Austin, Texas. The Tesla factory in Fremont, Ca., where about 10,000 workers are based, will continue to expand.
    (SFC, 10/8/21, p.A1)

2021        Oct 21, The Dutch government's forensic lab said it had decrypted electric carmaker Tesla Inc's closely guarded driving data-storage system, uncovering a wealth of information that could be used to investigate serious accidents.
    (Reuters, 10/21/21)

2021        Oct 25, Hertz said that it would convert more than 20 percent of its rental fleet to Tesla’s electric cars by the end of next year, an announcement that helped propel Tesla’s stock value beyond $1 trillion for the first time. Hertz said it will buy 100,000 electric vehicles from Tesla.
    (NY Times, 10/25/21)(SFC, 10/26/21, p.C2)

2021        Oct 27, Uber Technologies Inc said it is launching a new partnership with rental car company Hertz to offer 50,000 Tesla Inc vehicles as a rental option to its ride-hail drivers by 2023.
    (Reuters, 10/27/21)

2021        Nov 1, China's Ganfeng Lithium Co Ltd and its unit GFL International Co Ltd said they have signed a contract to supply battery-grade lithium products to US electric vehicle (EV) maker Tesla Inc.
    (Reuters, 11/1/21)

2021        Nov 2, California-based electric vehicle maker Fisker Inc said it has struck a battery supply deal for its flagship Fisker Ocean SUV with Chinese battery maker Contemporary Amperex Technology Co Ltd.
    (Reuters, 11/2/21)

2021        Nov 9, South Korean engineer Kim Gwang-ho was awarded more than $24 million by the whistleblower program of the US auto safety regulator for a tip-off about safety lapses at Hyundai Motor Co, his employer of 26 years. His action led to an agreement last year by Hyundai and its affiliate, Kia, to pay a record civil penalty of $210 million over recalls involving nearly 1.7 million vehicles.
    (Reuters, 11/12/21)

2021        Nov 25, State-backed media said Chinese tech group Baidu Inc and self-driving startup Pony.ai have won approval to launch paid driverless robotaxi services that will see the firms deploy not more than 100 vehicles in an area in China's capital Beijing.
    (Reuters, 11/25/21)

2021        Nov 27, Authorities in Beijing said Chinese smartphone giant Xiaomi Corp (1810.HK) will build a plant that can produce 300,000 vehicles annually in Beijing for its electric vehicle unit.
    (Reuters, 11/27/21)

2021        Dec 1, Tesla said it has officially moved its headquarters to a large factory under construction outside of Austin, Texas.
    (SFC, 12/2/21, p.C3)

2021        Dec 7, Ford Motor Co said it plans to launch a new subscription software service aimed at small businesses, in collaboration with enterprise software company Salesforce.com Inc.
    (Reuters, 12/7/21)

2021        Dec 10, In Sweden Volvo Cars, majority owned by China's Geely Holding, said it had launched an investigation into a cyber security breach and the theft of some research and development data that could impact the company's operation.
    (AP, 12/10/21)

2021        Dec 20, The Biden administration raised vehicle mileage standards to significantly reduce emissions of planet-warming greenhouse gases, reversing a Trump-era rollback that loosened fuel efficiency standards. The EPA announced strengthened limits on pollution from automobile tailpipes in a bid to reduce a major source of the carbon dioxide emissions that are heating the planet. The more stringent rule would require passenger vehicles to travel an average of 55 miles per gallon of gasoline by 2026, from just under 38 miles per gallon today.
    (AP, 12/20/21)(NY Times, 12/20/21)

2021        Dec 22, US auto safety regulators said they have opened a formal safety investigation into 580,000 Tesla vehicles sold since 2017 over the automaker's decision to allow games to be played on the front center touchscreen.
    (Reuters, 12/22/21)

2021        Dec 23, A US federal safety regulator said Tesla has agreed to modify software in its cars to prevent drivers and passengers from playing video games on the dashboard screens while vehicle are in motion.
    (NY Times, 12/23/21)

2021        Dec 31, China's market regulator said that Tesla Inc will recall 19,697 imported model S vehicles, 35,836 imported model 3s, and 144,208 China-made model 3 vehicles in China due to possible security risks.
    (Reuters, 12/31/21)

2021        Dec, Elon Musk's Tesla company signed an agreement with Australia's Syrah Resources, which operates one of the world’s largest graphite mines in Mozambique. Tesla will buy the material from the company's processing plant in Vidalia, Louisiana, which sources graphite from its mine in Balama, Mozambique.
    (AP, 1/16/22)

2022        Jan 1, France saw 874 empty, parked vehicles burned overnight. Hundreds of such cars go up in flames in France each New Year’s Eve, set afire by young revelers, a much lamented tradition that appeared in decline this year.
    (AP, 1/1/22)

2022        Jan 2, Tesla Inc reported record quarterly deliveries that far exceeded Wall Street estimates, riding out global chip shortages and as it ramped up China production.
    (Reuters, 1/2/22)

2022        Jan 3, It was reported that Electric cars made up nearly two thirds of Norway's new sales in 2021, with Tesla the top selling automobile brand overall, as the country pursues its goal of becoming the first to end the sale of petrol and diesel cars.
    (Reuters, 1/3/22)

2022        Jan 4, Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corp said it outsold General Motors Co in the United States in 2021, marking the first time the Detroit automaker has not led U.S. auto sales for a full year since 1931.
    (Reuters, 1/4/22)

2022        Jan 5, General Motors Co CEO Mary Barra said it aims to introduce a "personal autonomous vehicle" by mid-decade.
    (AP, 1/5/22)

2022        Jan 7, Tesla Inc Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk tweeted that the electric carmaker will raise the US price of its advanced driver assistant software dubbed "Full Self Driving" to $12,000 on Jan. 17.
    (Reuters, 1/7/22)

2022        Jan 10, Japanese automaker Toyota halted operations at its joint-venture in Tianjin, which has annual production capacity of 620,000 vehicles, due to the impact on suppliers of mandatory COVID-19 testing of city residents.
    (Reuters, 1/12/22)

2022        Jan 11, Ford's Maverick compact pickup won truck of the year, while its Bronco off-road SUV earned the utility of the year. Honda's redesigned Civic compact car won the car of the year.
    (AP, 1/11/22)

2022        Jan 12, German luxury carmaker Mercedes-Benz said it plans to start assembling the electric version of its flagship S-Class sedan, the EQS, in India.
    (Reuters, 1/12/22)

2022        Jan 20, Saudi energy minister Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman said the ministry had signed eight memorandums of understanding (MoU) with government entities to use hydrogen-powered vehicles.
    (Reuters, 1/20/22)

2022        Jan 21, Taiwan-based Foxconn said it has partnered with Indonesia's Investment Ministry and several companies to support the development of electric cars in the Southeast Asian country, adding to a string of such deals by the iPhone assembler.
    (Reuters, 1/21/22)

2022        Jan 25, South Korea-based LG Chem said its LG Energy Solution subsidiary plans to spend $2.1 billion with General Motors to build a US electric vehicle (EV) battery plant.
    (Reuters, 1/25/22)

2022        Jan 25, GM said it will spend $2.6 billion to build a new battery factory in the Lansing area and $4 billion to convert its existing factory in Orion Township to make electric pickups. It will also spend about half a billion dollars to make upgrades to its two existing vehicle assembly plants in Lansing.
    (Detroit Free Press, 1/26/22)

2022        Jan 27, France-based Renault and Japan-based Nissan said they will work more closely together to make electric cars, as they detailed a $26 billion investment plan over the next five years to stay competitive in the switch to cleaner driving.
    (Reuters, 1/27/22)

2022        Jan 28, China's Great Wall Motor said it will invest 11.5 billion yuan ($1.81 billion) over the next decade to build electric vehicles in Brazil where its has taken over a factory from Daimler AG.
    (Reuters, 1/28/22)

2022        Feb 7, Japan-based Nissan Motor Co Ltd said it plans to stop developing new internal combustion engines in all its major markets except the United States and focus on making electric vehicles.
    (Reuters, 2/7/22)
2022        Feb 7, South Korea's antitrust regulator said it has decided to fine German carmaker Mercedes-Benz and its Korean unit 20.2 billion won ($16.9 million) for false advertising tied to gas emissions of its diesel passenger vehicles.
    (Reuters, 2/7/22)

2022        Feb 8, Mexican electric car provider VEMO and US car hailing platform Uber announced an alliance to boost the number of electric vehicles in the platform's Mexico City fleet during 2022.
    (Reuters, 2/8/22)

2022        Feb 10, Chinese electric car maker Xpeng said it was expanding further to Europe, taking aim at the Swedish and Dutch markets.
    (Reuters, 2/10/22)

2022        Feb 11, Toyota Motor Corp said the disruption at the Canadian border from trucking protests had impacted production at its engine plants in West Virginia and Alabama. A day earlier the Japanese automaker said it would halt production at its Ontario and Kentucky plants through Feb. 12 because of parts shortages tied to the protests.
    (Reuters, 2/11/22)

2022        Feb 16, A fire broke out in the cargo hold of the Felicity Ace off the coast of the Azores. The ship had departed Emden, Germany, on Feb. 10 and was scheduled to arrive in Davisville, R.I. The Volkswagen Group estimated nearly 4,000 vehicles were on board, including 189 Bentleys and 1,100 Porsches. 22 crew members were rescued from the vessel. Lithium-ion batteries in electric cars kept blaze alight.
    (NY Times, 2/17/22)(Reuters, 2/18/22)

2022        Feb 17, The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) said it is opening a formal investigation into 416,000 Tesla vehicles over reports of unexpected brake activation tied to its driver assistance system Autopilot.
    (Reuters, 2/17/22)
2022        Feb 17, Nissan Motor Co said it will invest $500 million to retool its US assembly plant near Canton, Miss. to build two new electric vehicles, part of the Japanese automaker's $18 billion program to expand its electric vehicle fleet through 2030.
    (Reuters, 2/17/22)

2022        Feb 23, It was reported that Tesla Inc plans to expand parts production at its Shanghai factory to meet growing demand for exports.
    (Reuters, 2/23/22)

2022        Feb 24, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp said it has accepted labor union pay demands.
    (Reuters, 2/25/22)

2022        Feb 25, Several companies, including automakers Volkswagen and Renault and tire maker Nokian Tyres outlined plans to shut or shift manufacturing operations following Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/25/22)

2022        Feb 28, Global auto and truck makers, including Sweden's Volvo Cars and Germany's Daimler Truck, suspended some business in Russia following that country's invasion of Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/28/22)
2022        Feb 28, Toyota said it is suspending production at all 28 lines of its 14 plants in Japan because of a "system malfunction" that a domestic supplier suspects is a cyberattack.
    (SFC, 3/1/22, p.C2)

2022        Mar 1, Luxury carmaker Jaguar Land Rover paused the delivery of vehicles to Russia, saying the current global situation had presented it with trading challenges.
    (Reuters, 3/1/22)
2022        Mar 1, The Felicity Ace, a large cargo vessel carrying cars from Germany to the United States, sank in the mid-Atlantic, 13 days after a fire broke out on board off Portugal’s Azores Islands. The ship was carrying 2,000 metric tons (2,200 tons) of fuel and 2,000 metric tons (2,200 tons) of oil.
    (AP, 3/1/22)
2022        Mar 1, Toshiba Corp that Chief Executive Satoshi Ttsunakawa will resign, as the Japanese conglomerate faces increasing opposition to its controversial restructuring plans. Senior executive Taro Shimada, a former executive of Germany's Siemens AG, will become the new head of the company.
    (Reuters, 3/1/22)

2022        Mar 2, Detroit automaker Ford Motor Co. said it will split its electric vehicle and internal combustion operations into two individual businesses, Ford Model e and ford Blue.
    (SFC, 3/3/22, p.C2)
2022        Mar 2, Honda Motor said it has suspended exports of cars and motorcycles to Russia, signaling the likelihood more Japanese automakers would join the global swell of companies halting business with Russia after the invasion of Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 3/2/22)

2022        Mar 4, Japan's Sony Corp and Honda Motor Co Ltd said they would pair up to develop and sell battery-powered electric vehicles, and said they were open to bringing in other partners.
    (Reuters, 3/4/22)

2022        Mar 7, General Motors Co and South Korea's advanced materials company POSCO Chemical said they will build a facility in Canada to produce a key battery material for the US automaker that has been ramping up its electric vehicle production.
    (Reuters, 3/7/22)

2022        Mar 9, The US EPA gave California the go-ahead to set emissions standards for cars and trucks that are stricter than the federal government's.
    (SFC, 3/10/22, p.A1)
2022        Mar 9, Electric-car maker Tesla Inc raised prices of its US Model Y SUVs and Model 3 Long Range sedans by $1,000 each and some China-made Model 3 and Model Y vehicles by 10,000 yuan ($1,582.40).
    (Reuters, 3/9/22)
2022        Mar 9, Japan-based Suzuki said its Hungarian factory has suspended car exports to Russia and Ukraine as of March due to the war.
    (Reuters, 3/9/22)

2022        Mar 21, Ford Motor Co. said its all-electric F-150 Lightning will launch this spring with a battery range between 230 and 320 miles on a single charge.
    (SFC, 3/22/22, p.C2)
2022        Mar 21, Germany-based Volkswagen AG said it plans to invest $7.1 billion over the next five years in North America and add 25 new electric vehicles there by 2030.
    (Reuters 3/21/22)

2040        In 2017 France's government unveiled a law to ban all production and exploration of oil and natural gas by this time on the country's mainland and overseas territories. In 2017 Britain and France said that by this year new cars reliant on petrol or diesel will be illegal.
    (AP, 9/6/17)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.65)

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