Timeline DNA

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2Bil BC    About this time a bacterium became symbiotic with the cell from which animals and plants developed. Chromosomes from this bacterium’s mitochondria later carried 37 genes in the human body. The bacterium came from a group called the Alphaproteobacteria. The ancestral eukaryote was later believed to be a Lokiarchaeote.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.79)(Econ, 5/9/15, p.74)

140 Million BP    Older [DNA] samples have been extracted from amber--which dates back 140 million years.
    (WSUAN, Fall/95, p.5)

7.6Mil BC    In July, 2002, scientists led by Michael Brunet reported a hominid species, dating to about this time, found in the Djurab desert, Sahel region of northern Chad. They named the group Sahelanthropus tchadensis (with the nickname Toumai, "hope of life" in the Goran language). Other scientists later denied it was a human ancestor. DNA analysis in 2006 suggested that Toumai, with its human and chimp features, preceded the human-chimp split. The analysis also suggested that human lineage stemmed from a human-chimp hybrid.
    (SFC, 7/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/11/02, p.B1)(SFC, 10/10/02, p.A2)(SFC, 5/18/06, p.A3)(SFC, 2/8/13, p.D5)

100000BC    In 2008 DNA evidence indicated that much of the human population had descended from a small band of migrants that left Africa for the Middle East about this time.
    (SFC, 2/22/08, p.A4)

50000BC-20000BC    Researches in 2012 reported that DNA evidence has indicated the presence of foreign DNA indicating interbreeding during this period between humans and an unknown sister species called “a Neanderthal sibling species in Africa." Humans apparently shared the planet with this cousin species for over150,000 years.
    (SFC, 7/27/12, p.A12)

48000BC-30000BC    In 2010 scientists reported that genetic material, pulled from a pinky finger bone found in a Siberian cave dating to this period, showed a new and unknown type of pre-human living about this time alongside modern humans and Neanderthals.
    (Reuters, 3/24/10)(SFC, 3/25/10, p.A4)(Econ, 3/27/10, p.87)

400000BC - 48000BC A human group, later called the Denisovans, lived in Asia during this period. They then interbred with humans expanding from Africa along the coast of South Asia. In 2010 fossil evidence from a Siberian cave in 2008 revealed that their DNA was related to the DNA of people from New Guinea, which contained 4.8% Denisovan DNA. 3-5% of the DNA from native people of Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and other nearby islands came from Denisovans, who left Africa as far back as 800,000 BC. In 2014 scientists reported that a genetic between extinct Denisovans and some modern-day Tibetans and Sherpas.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A4)(SSFC, 9/16/12, p.C11)(SFC, 7/3/14, p.D1)

30000BC    In 2010 scientists reported that genetic material pulled from a pinky finger bone found in a Siberian cave shows a new and unknown type of pre-human lived about this time alongside modern humans and Neanderthals.
    (Reuters, 3/24/10)

2500BC    A study in 2015 said a wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe about this time left their trace in the DNA — and possibly the languages — of modern Europeans. They found that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders who lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.
    (AP, 3/3/15)

2217BC    In 2013 scientists reported DNA evidence that people from India arrived in Australia about this time and mixed with the local aboriginals.
    (Econ, 1/19/12, p.77)

c1000 AD    In Yemen in the Hadramawt region a dam burst about this time near the village of Senna and the people of the valley fled. In 1997 researchers using DNA studies found that the Lemba, a Bantu speaking people of southern Africa carry markers distinctive of the cohanim, Jewish priests believed to be descended from Aaron. Lemba oral tradition held that they came to Africa from Senna. Dr. Tudor Parfitt authored "Journey to the Vanished City," a description of his work on the Lemba.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A24)

c1200-1500     In 2005 researchers using mitochondrial DNA estimated that 3-6 individuals founded the Mlabri hunter gatherers of Northern Thailand about this time.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.71)

1802        James Callender, an English-born journalist, published a report in the Richmond, Va., Recorder about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with the slave Sally Hemmings [Hemings]. Annette Gordon-Reed later published: "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings, an American Controversy." DNA tests of descendants was planned in 1998 to test for family relationships. The tests indicated that Jefferson fathered at least one child with Hemmings, her youngest son Eston Hemmings in 1808. Dr. Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have fathered Eston.
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1,7)(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B11)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.W15)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.A3)

1808        May 21, Eston Hemmings was born to slave Sally Hemmings, who was owned by Thomas Jefferson. Genetic tests in 1998 showed that DNA from Jefferson's descendants was consistent with DNA from descendants of Hemmings. Some argued that Randolph Jefferson, brother of Thomas, was Eston's father.
    (USAT, 1/7/99, p.3A)

1880        Nov 11, In Australia Ned Kelly (b.1855), outlaw, was hanged. The day before he died Kelly wrote to the governor of the jail asking "permission for my friends to have my body that they might bury it in consecrated ground." Kelly was hanged at the Old Melbourne Gaol but documents show his remains and those of 32 other executed prisoners were exhumed and reburied at Pentridge Prison in 1929. In 2011 his headless remains were identified using a DNA sample taken from Melbourne teacher Leigh Olver, Kelly's sister Ellen's great-grandson. In 2011 Victorian state attorney general Robert Clark decided to return his bullet-ridden bones to his descendants so they could meet his last request.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A8)(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.6)(AP, 3/9/08)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AFP, 11/9/11)

1882        Apr 3, Outlaw Jesse James (34) was shot in the back and killed at his home in St. Joseph, Mo., by Robert Ford, a cousin and member of his own gang for a $5,000 reward. Jesse and Frank James, the bank robbing James brothers, were born as Woodson and Alexander. In 1995 the body of Jesse James was exhumed for DNA testing. The test proved that it was James, who was killed in 1882. In 2000 Desmond Barry authored the novel "The Chivalry of Crime" based on the story of Jesse James. In 2000 the body of a man, J. Frank Dalton (d.1951), who claimed to be Jesse James was exhumed for DNA analysis.
    (AP, 4/3/97)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)(SFEC, 4/23/00, BR p.5)(SFC, 5/31/00, p.A4)(HNQ, 6/21/00)(HN, 4/3/02)

1916        Jun 8, Francis Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA (Nobel 1962), was born.
    (HN, 6/8/98)(MC, 6/8/02)

1926        Oct 30, Marvin A. Clark of Tigard, Ore., went missing during a visit to Portland. In 1986 loggers discovered the remains of a man along with some personal effects that included a revolver and an expended .32 caliber bullet. Medical examiners ruled the man’s death a suicide and in 2014 DNA evidence was checked to verify if the man was Clark.
    (SFC, 5/1/14, p.A10)

1928        Apr 6, James Watson, [co-]discovered structure of DNA, was born.
    (HN, 4/6/98)

1940        In Florida George Owen Smith (14), disappeared from the Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys. In 2013 researchers found the remains of 55 people during a four-month excavation last year. Official records indicated 31 burials at the school. In 2014 they said DNA and other tests identified the remains of Smith, but they couldn't say how he had died.
    (AP, 8/7/14)

1950        In London Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin (d.1958) produced pictures of X-ray diffraction in aligned fibers of DNA. The lab for X-ray crystallography was set up by physicist John Randall. Data from these pictures led Watson and Crick to understand the structure of DNA. In 1975 Anne Sayre (d.1998) published "Rosalind Franklin and DNA."
    (Wired, 2/98, p.135)(SFC, 3/19/98, p.C4)

1952        Sep 20, Scientists confirmed that DNA holds hereditary data.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1953        Feb 28, Francis Crick (d.2004) and James Watson discovered the structure of DNA-molecule. Watson and Crick managed to describe the structure of DNA as a double helix consisting of two long strings coiled around one another. About 100,000 genes, short sections of DNA, tell the cells how to build proteins, the building blocks of life. Rosalind Franklin made the 1st x-ray image that revealed the double helix structure of DNA. In 2002 Brenda Maddox authored "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA." In 2003 Watson co-authored "DNA: The Secret of Life."  [see Sep 20, Apr 25, 1953]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.330)(TL, 1988, p.114)(Wired, 1/97, p.161)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W8) (AP, 2/28/04)

1953        Apr 25, The magazine Nature published an article by biologists Francis Crick and James Watson, describing the "double helix" of DNA.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1954        Jul 4, Marilyn Sheppard (31 and pregnant) was killed at her home near Cleveland and her husband, Dr. Sam Sheppard (d.1970), was later accused, tried and jailed for the murder. Sam was released from jail in 1964. His story inspired the TV series "The Fugitive" and a film in 1993. DNA evidence in 1997 indicated a third person was involved. Cleveland’s chief prosecutor ruled in 1998 that the DNA samples were too old. A civil trial in Cleveland in 2000 rejected the claim of Sam Reese Sheppard that his father was innocent. [see Dec 21]
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A6)(SFC, 3/5/98, p.A3)(SFC, 3/6/98, p.A3)(SFC, 4/13/00, p.A2)

1955        Frederick Sanger sequenced the 1st protein, human insulin. He later developed methods for sequencing DNA.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)

1958        Apr 16, Rosalind Franklin (b.1920), English chemist and one of the four scientists who discovered the structure of DNA, died in London of ovarian cancer. She made the 1st x-ray image that revealed the double helix structure of DNA (1953). In 2002 Brenda Maddox authored "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_Franklin)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)

1962        Oct 18, Dr. James D. Watson of the United States and Dr. Francis Crick and Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Britain, were named winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for their work in determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA.
    (AP, 10/18/02)(SFC, 3/19/98, p.C4)

1966        Researchers showed how proteins are made from DNA instructions.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)

1967        Jan 18, Albert DeSalvo, who claimed to be the "Boston Strangler," was convicted in Cambridge, Mass., of armed robbery, assault and sex offenses. Sentenced to life, DeSalvo was killed by a fellow inmate in 1973. DeSalvo had confessed to being the Boston Strangler and killing 13 women. He was never convicted of murder. A portrait of him with police interviews was made in 1996 for TV show Biography. In 1999 DNA evidence was sought to confirm DeSalvo's claims.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, E9)(AP, 1/18/98)(SFC, 7/10/99, p.A4)

1967        Dec 14, DNA was created in a test tube.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1968        James Watson (b.1928), American molecular biologist and Nobel Prize winner, published "The Double Helix."
    (SFC, 3/19/98, p.C4)(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_D._Watson)

1968        Dr. Allejandro Zaffaroni, native of Montevideo, Uruguay, founded ALZA Corp. The company has grown to be one of the largest medical device companies in the US specializing in drug delivery technologies. He later helped to launch Affymax, a drug discovery company, and Affymetrix, which did DNA research on semiconductor chips.
    (BJSJ, 10/30/95, p.8)

1968        Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011), India-born biochemist, shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for helping unravel how genetic information in a cell is used to make proteins vital for human life.
    (SFC, 11/12/11, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._Gobind_Khorana)

1968        Linda Harmon (14) was raped, beaten and stabbed to death in SF. In 2003 DNA evidence identified William Speer (61), a convicted sexual predator, as the murderer.
    (SFC, 12/24/03, p.A13)

1969        Sep, Susan Nason (8) of Foster City, Ca., was bludgeoned to death. Her body was found 2 months later near Crystal Springs. In Dec 1989 Nason's neighbor and schoolmate, Eileen Franklin-Lipsker, told police that she suddenly remembered seeing her father batter her friend and hide the body. In 1990 George Franklin was convicted in the first case to use recovered-memory testimony. Franklin was released after 6 1/2 years when a federal judge ruled a mistrial. DNA evidence showed Franklin was not responsible.
    (SFC, 2/4/00, p.A21)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)

1969        Benjamin Volcani (1915-1999), Palestine-born microbiologist, was the fist to show that silicon is essential for DNA synthesis in diatoms. He was also the first to find microorganisms in the Dead Sea in 1936.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.D4)(www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/kurenets/k_pages/volcani.html)

1971        Sep 11, The body of a woman was found in the Delta-Mendota Canal near Westley, Ca. she had been stabbed 65 times. In 2008 DNA evidence identified her as Mary Alice Willey (23) of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.B2)

1972        May 11, US pilot First Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie was shot down by anti-aircraft fire after having logged 137 combat missions. His remains were entombed on Memorial Day, 1984, at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington. In 1998 his remains were exhumed and identified by DNA testing.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/30/98, p.A1)

1973        Nov 25, Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, was stabbed to death in prison. DeSalvo, the self-admitted Boston strangler, had been tried and convicted on unrelated assaults. 13 women were killed in Boston between 1962-1964. DNA evidence was sought in 1999. Susan Kelly wrote a book in 1995 on the Boston Strangler.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A3)(www.us.imdb.com/name/nm1108915/)

1973        Stanley Cohen, Stanford geneticist, and Herbert Boyer of UCSF co-discovered the basic process of gene-splicing. They spliced the DNA of one bacteria into another and cultivated a new organism. The discovery was patented by Stanford and UCSF and resulted in 25 year earnings of more than $200 million. Recombinant DNA technology soon led to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in food products.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/24/04, p.W6)

1974        Aug 9, In Oakland, Ca., Julie McElhiney (13) was killed and sexually assaulted during a robbery at her home on Pleitner Ave. In 2012 DNA evidence led to the arrest of Curtis Tucker (63). His profile was in a nationwide database due to a 1978 rape arrest in Spokane, Wa.
    (SFC, 3/14/12, p.C3)

1974        Oct 28, Missionaries Mark Fischer (19) of Milwaukee, Wis., and Gary Darley (20) of Simi Valley, Calif., disappeared in Austin, Texas. Their bodies were never found. Robert Elmer Kleasen, taxidermist, was convicted for their murder and sentenced to death in 1975, but was released after 2 years due to a faulty search warrant. He moved to Britain and in 2001 was convicted again based on DNA evidence, but died in 2003 while awaiting possible extradition.
    (AP, 4/21/03)

1976        Jan, In SF Robert Swanson (28), a Silicon Valley venture capitalist, first met with Herb Boyer, a molecular biologist and co-discoverer of recombinant DNA. The 10 minute appointment extended to a few hours and the 2 men proceeded to found Genentech.
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.B1)(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/14/99, p.A22)

1976        May 18, In San Francisco Jenny Read (29), an artist and sculptor, was raped and killed at her Potrero Hill home. She was stabbed 13 times. In 2013 DNA evidence led to the conviction of James Mayfield (67) for her murder.
    (SFC, 10/11/13, p.D8)

1976        "The Selfish Gene" by Richard Dawkins was published. Here he launched the archetypal "meme," defined as a unit of cultural transmission. It described how ideas mimic the behavior of genes and propagate by leaping from brain to brain. In 2009 Fern Elsdon-Baker authored “The Selfish Genius: How Richard Dawkins Rewrote Darwin’s Legacy."
    (NH, 5/96, p.13)(Wired, 2/98, p.118)(Econ, 7/25/09, p.81)

1977        Aug 1, In Uruguay teacher Julio Castro disappeared. His remains were identified in 2011 using DNA tests.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

1977        Dr. Frederick Sangar and his lab mapped the entire 5,000 letter genome of a virus called phiX174. Sangar had developed one of the first methods of DNA sequencing. This work led to his 2nd Nobel Prize in 1980.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.78)

1977-1993    In Missouri a serial killer committed at least 12 murders during this period. In 2004 Kansas City police used DNA technology to charge Lorenzo Gilyard with 12 murders.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A1)

1978        Dec 31, Peter Seeburg, one of 3 Univ. of California scientists who had identified the DNA for human growth hormone earlier in the year, returned to UCSF in a "midnight raid" and remove genetic material. Seeburg had left the university in late 1978 to join Genentech giving up rights to his materials, for which UCSF had filed a patent. In 1990 UCSF filed a patent infringement suit against Genentech.
    (SFC, 5/21/99, p.B2)(www.mindfully.org/GE/Biotech-Born-Thief-1978.htm)

1979        Jul 28, Rachel Moncrief (50) was stabbed to death at Camino Camper in Santa Clara, Ca. In 2011 DNA evidence on a marijuana cigarette linked David Dixon (61) of Richmond, Ca., to the murder.
    (SFC, 8/19/11, p.C1)

1979        Dec 5, Teresa De Simone (22) was found strangled in her car outside the pub where she worked in Southampton, 80 miles (130 kilometers) southwest of London. Sean Hodgson initially confessed to the killing, but he later recanted and pleaded not guilty. His lawyers argued he was a pathological liar and any confession he made was false. In 2009 Hodgson was released from prison based on DNA evidence.
    (AP, 3/18/09)(http://tinyurl.com/c5jz3y)

1980        Jul, UCLA physician Martin J. Cline inserted recombinant DNA into two patients with the blood disease thalassemia, one in Israel and one in Italy. In doing so, he violated the US recombinant DNA guidelines and human subjects regulations.
    {Biotech, California, USA}
    (http://tinyurl.com/2svhm5)

1980-1989    Molecular regulators known as Hox genes, short for homeobox, were discovered. The small DNA segment of about 180 chemical letters if virtually identical in all animals from worms to primates and determines the shape and size of an organism.
    (CW, Fall ‘03, p.46)

1981        Jun 23, The body of Catherine Schilling (21), a Georgetown law student, was found raped and murdered in Rock Creek Park. She was shot in the head five times after taking a shortcut home through the park after working late at her job as a paralegal at a DC law firm. In September 1982, a D.C. jury convicted Donald Eugene Gates of killing and raping Schilling. In 2009 Gates (58) was released from prison based on DNA evidence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8smuur)(SFC, 12/15/09, p.A9)

1981        Jul 2, In southern California Jeffrey Vargo (6) was last seen alive bicycling to a fireworks stand in Pomona. On March 27, 2015, Kenneth Rasmuson (53) of Idaho was arrested after DNA evidence linked him to the murder.
    (SFC, 3/30/15, p.A5)

1982        Bernard Webster (19) was identified as a rapist in Towson, Md. He denied the charges and was freed after 20 years in jail following DNA tests that proved him innocent.
    (SFC, 11/7/02, p.A7)

1983        Jun 4, In Chino Hills, Ca., Douglas and Peggy Ryen and their 10-year old daughter, Jessica, were killed in the master bedroom of their home. Christopher Hughes (11), a neighbor, was also killed. Joshua Ryen (8) survived despite serious wounds. Kevin Cooper, who escaped from Chino prison on June 2, was arrested 47 days later and was convicted for the murders in 1985 and faced execution. Cooper claimed he was innocent and called for DNA testing of the evidence in 2000. In 2003 an execution date of Feb 10, 2004, was set for Cooper. Cooper won a last minute reprieve on Feb 9 pending a re-examination of the case.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, p.B3)(SFC, 12/18/03, p.A21)(SFC, 2/11/04, p.A4)

1983        Aug 31, In Fairfield, Ca., Kyle Stracner (15) returned home after visiting with friends and found his mother, Priscilla Strole (40), naked and beaten to death on the floor. In 2014 investigators used DNA evidence to identify Robert Hathaway (48), a childhood friend of Kyle, as the murderer. Hathaway hanged himself on Feb 15, 2014.
    (SFC, 3/6/14, p.D2)

1983        Sep 24, In North Carolina Sabrina Buie (11) went missing. Days later her body was found. Forensic tests showed she had been raped and suffocated. Henry McCollum (19) and his half-brother Leon Brown (15) were arrested and convicted following confessions that were coerced. In 2014 McCollum and Brown were freed after DNA evidence pointed to another man who lived near where Buie’s body was found. On June 4, 2015, McCollum and Brown were pardoned by Gov. Pat McCrory. On Sep 2, 2015, the two brothers were awarded $750,000 each for their wrongful conviction.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nqn7hoz)(SFC, 9/4/14, p.A8)(SFC, 6/5/15, p.A7)(SFC, 9/3/15, p.A6)

1983        Nov 18, In Ohio Jenean Brown (19) went missing. Her body  was found 36 hours later outside Toledo. She had been beaten and nearly decapitated. In 2013 DNA tests linked Andrew Gustafson (56) to her murder. In 2014 Gustafson pleaded guilty to involuntary manslaughter and rape and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/23/14, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/lrsnwx3)

1983        Nov 26, Angela Bugay of Antioch, Ca., 5-years-old, was found in a shallow grave in Concord, Ca. She had been kidnapped a week earlier. Larry Graham, who dated Angela’s mother, was later arrested as a suspect and prosecutors in 1995 received a court order to draw his blood for DNA evidence. In 1996 police matched the DNA of Graham, with samples recovered from the girl’s body and arrested him on charges of murder. Use of the DNA evidence was cleared in 1998. Graham was convicted Aug 20, 2002, and sentenced to death Oct 22. Graham (58) was found dead in his cell on June 16, 2009, of apparent suicide.
    (SFC, 4/26/96, p.A-19)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.A19)(SFC, 3/18/99, p.A19)(SFC, 4/15/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/21/02, p.A15)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.A16)(SFC, 6/17/09, p.B6)

1983        Dennis Maher was convicted in Boston of raping 3 women and spent the next 19 years in prison. In 2003 DNA evidence proved his innocence.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.A3)
1983        The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed by Kary Mullis. It is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction)(Econ, 5/12/12, IL p.13)

1983-1992    DNA Plant Technology Corp. later admitted to having worked on a secret research project over this period, at the behest of an unnamed US tobacco company, to increase the nicotine content of tobacco plants.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.A1)

1984        Apr 6, In SF Joan Baldwin (43) was killed and mutilated at an Earl Scheib paint shop at 555 Bryant St. In 2006 police arrested parolee Dwight Culton (57) based on DNA evidence. On may 4, 2011, Culton was convicted of the murder.
    (SFC, 11/22/06, p.B4)(SFC, 5/5/11, p.C3)

1984        May 28, President Reagan led a state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery at the Tomb of the Unknowns for an unidentified American soldier killed in the Vietnam War. The remains were unearthed in 1998 for DNA testing and possible identification. They were later identified as those of Air Force First Lieutenant Michael J. Blassie, and were sent to St. Louis for hometown burial.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/28/01)

1984        Jun 4, DNA was successfully cloned from a quagga, an animal extinct since 1883.
    (www.tecsoc.org/pubs/history/2003/jun4.htm)

1984        Sep 10, British scientist Alec Jeffreys and colleagues discovered that x-ray images of bits of DNA showed patterns unique to individuals. Jeffries, a geneticist at Leicester Univ., and his research team found that DNA sequences, specific to individuals, could be identified as visible bands. He dubbed his findings DNA fingerprinting. This led to the use of DNA to solve thousands of crimes.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, TQ p.34)(SSFC, 9/13/09, p.A17,20)

1985        Dr. Alec Jeffries, geneticist at Leicester Univ., used DNA fingerprinting for the 1st time to prove a maternity and paternity case.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, TQ p.33)

1985        Wayne Dumond, while waiting trial for rape, was castrated with fishing line by 2 men in stocking masks. He had been sentenced to a prison term for the rape and kidnap of a 17-year old girl. While in prison St. Francis County Sheriff, Coolidge Conlee, removed Dumond's testicles from his home and preserved them in formaldehyde and displayed them on his desk. Later DNA evidence showed that Dumond’s semen did not match that found on the victim’s pants and Governor Huckabee of Arkansas said he should be freed.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A4)

1985        A Dallas-area woman was raped and her apartment was burglarized. Thomas Clifford McGowan (26) was convicted of both crimes in separate trials in 1985 and 1986 and sentenced to life each time. In 2008 McGowan won his freedom after a DNA testing proved him innocent.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

1986        Jan 22, The body of Yvonne Coleman (15) was found in a park in Inglewood, California. In 2008 DNA evidence linked Michael Hughes (51), already in jail for 4 other murders, to her murder and 3 others.
    (SFC, 7/4/08, p.B6)

1986        Aug 13, In Texas Christine Morton was found beaten and killed in her Williamson County home. Her husband Michael Morton was convicted and spent 25 years in prison before being freed in 2011 after DNA evidence showed another man was responsible.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A7)

1986        Dec 6, Annette Thur (17) of Santa Cruz County was kidnapped, raped and killed following a party in Boulder Creek. A tourist found her body off Skyline Drive in San Mateo County. In 2012 DNA evidence linked registered sex offender John William Kelley (49) of Placerville to her murder and he was arrested.
    (SFC, 8/17/12, p.C5)

1987        Oct 29, Virginia Lowery (56) was killed in her SF home at 966 Brussels in the Excelsior. In 1998 DNA evidence led police to Robert Nawi, a local laborer with an extensive criminal record. Nawi (58) was convicted in 2001. Nawi had been hired by husband and son Bill and David Lowery.
    (SFC, 9/22/98, p.A15)(SFC, 8/28/01, p.A12)

1987        Cetus Corp. patented polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process that turns small amounts of DNA into large amounts of DNA. The enzyme Taq, which helped to automate the process, was patented in 1989. In 1991 Roche purchased the Cetus patents for PCR and Taq.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.B1)

1988        Feb 26, Gretchen Burford (49) was abducted and killed by an attacker who tried to make her withdraw money from an ATM machine in Mountain View, Ca. In 2005 DNA evidence identified Texas inmate Tyrone Hamel (39) as the killer.
    (SFC, 6/24/05, p.B4)

1989        Apr 19, A female jogger (28) was raped and beaten in Central Park and 6 teen-agers were later charged in the near-fatal attack; 5 black and Latino youths (14-16) were convicted in a case that attracted worldwide headlines. In 2002 DNA evidence identified Matias Reyes (31) as the rapist. 3,254 other rapes were reported in the park in 1989.
    (NG, 5/93, p.16)(AP, 4/19/99)(SFC, 9/6/02, p.A3)

1988        May 13, In northern California the body of Wynetta Davis (26) of Vallejo was found in a trough on Pepper Rd. in Petaluma. She was last seen two days earlier and an autopsy revealed that she had been strangled. In 2013 DNA testing led to the arrest of two men in connection to her slaying.
    (SFC, 9/25/13, p.D3)

1990        The Human Genome Project began and planned to sequence all human DNA by 2005. The database did not just store sequences, but linked them with citations to enable new discoveries. James Watson served as its 1st head. His opposition to gene patents helped force him from the position in 1992.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.198)(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.10)

1991        Feb 27, In San Francisco Karen Wong (39) was found raped and killed in her flat in the 400 block of 47th Ave. In 2008 DNA evidence identified Otis Hughes (56), a paroled burglar, as the murderer. In 2013 Hughes faced a jury trial.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.B2)(SFC, 12/13/13, p.C2)(SFC, 12/13/13, p.C2)

1991        Nov 9, Singer-actor Yves Montand died near Paris at age 70. His body was exhumed in 1998 for DNA tests in a paternity suit filed by Aurore Drossard (22).
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A17)(AP, 11/9/01)

1991        Postal worker Ray Krone was arrested for the murder of bartender Kim Ancona. Krone was convicted in 1992 and again in 1996. In 2002 DNA evidence proved his innocence.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A2)

1991        In Japan Toshikazu Sugaya, a kindergarten bus driver, was arrested in the murder of a 4-year-old girl in Tochigi, north of Tokyo, a year earlier. A local court sentenced him to life imprisonment in 1993, and Japan's top court rejected his appeal in 2000. In 2010 a court officially declared him innocent in the murder and offered a rare apology for a forced confession and wrongful conviction that kept him behind bars for more than 17 years. Sugaya (63), was serving a life sentence when new DNA tests last year showed his innocence.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

1992        Oct 27, In Oil City, Pennsylvania, Shauna Howe (11) was kidnapped while walking home from a pre-Halloween party. Her battered body was found 3 days later. For every year afterward, the City Council voted to allow trick-or-treating in the afternoon only. In 2004 a witness came forward and police turned to DNA evidence. Two brothers were arrested and convicted of murder and sexual assault. A third man pleaded guilty to murder. In 2008 the city council voted to allow Halloween back to night hours.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

1993        Apr 26, In Britain a woman named Nora was raped in the town of Bridgewater. In 2006 kinship DNA evidence led to the arrest of Geoffrey Godfrey, who was sentenced to 6 years.
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.A1)

1993        Jun 28, Kirk Noble Bloodsworth (b.1960), a former Marine discus champion, was exonerated by DNA evidence of the rape and murder of Dawn Hamilton (9). He was the first US prisoner freed from death row based on DNA.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/a7zma7h)

1993        Jul 7, Mia Zapata (27), a rising punk-rock star, was last seen alive in Seattle. In 2003 Jesus C. Mezquia was arrested in Florida on DNA evidence.
    (SSFC, 1/12/03, p.A6)

1993        The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Kary B. Mullis for developing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying fragments of DNA.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)

1994        Aug 22, DNA testing linked OJ Simpson to the murder of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1995        Apr 4, It was reported that Nuclear Matrix Proteins that act as a type of scaffolding for DNA were being used as markers for cancer. They were also thought to help turn genes off and on.
    (WSJ, 4/4/95, B-1)

1995        May, Larry Lee Hillblom, co-founder and majority shareholder of DHL Corp., disappeared into the Pacific Ocean in his World War II vintage seaplane. He was conservatively valued at 500 million and willed most of his estate to a charitable trust for medical research. $240 million was set aside for medical research at UCSF. He named the Bank of Saipan as executor but left behind a number of illegitimate children in the Philippines and the Mariana Islands who are laying claim to his estate. In 1998 4 children won $90 million settlements each. Later it was learned that many of his personal effects in Saipan were buried to avoid DNA tests for paternity confirmation.
    (WSJ, 5/15/96, p.A1,8)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)

1996        Jan, Scientists reported in Nature that analysis of protein sequences of rabbit DNA indicate that the order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares and allies) are more closely related to primates than other groups of mammals.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.46)

1996        Spring, Affymetrix Inc. planned to ship its first product, GeneChip. Building blocks of DNA proteins would be placed on a glass chip. Initial applications will be to test the effectiveness of various drugs in research settings.
    (SJBJ, Jan. '96, p.41)

1996        Jul 5, A cloned lamb, named Dolly (d.2003) after Dolly Pardon, was born in Edinburgh Scotland. The event was not announced until Feb 23, 1997 when it was made public that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. In 2001 it was reported that Dolly suffered from arthritis, a sign of premature aging.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.C1)(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A2)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A2)

1996        Jul, In France Caroline Dickinson, a 13-year-old British girl, was raped and strangled at a youth hostel in the town of Pleine-Fougeres. In 1997 a DNA test was planned to be performed on volunteers of the 170 young men in the town who fit an age profile of the murderer.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A8)

1996        Oct 29, In Alameda, Ca., Manuel Garcia (59) was found dead of trauma and stab wounds. 12 days later Diane Ely (54) was found beaten and stabbed to death in Alameda. In 2011 police with DNA evidence charged Eugene Albert Protsman (56), a convicted killer already serving a life sentence, with the murders.
    (SFC, 9/28/11, p.C2)

1996        Vincent Groves (42), serial killer, died in prison of natural causes while serving time for the murders of three women. In 2012 investigators in Denver said DNA evidence could link him to as many as 20 more killings.
    (SFC, 3/8/12, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/7j7l9xj)
1996        The Int’l. Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP) was created by the G-7 nations to help identify victims of the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia. The success of its DNA testing led to work around the world. 
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A3)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.64)

1997        Feb 23, It was announced that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. The lamb was born in Jul, 1996, and named Dolly after Dolly Pardon. Dolly was put down Feb. 14, 2003, after a short life marred by premature aging and disease.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, p.C1)(AP, 2/23/98)

1997        Apr 28, In South Africa a newborn girl was kidnapped from a Cape Town hospital. On Feb 26, 2015, she was re-united with her parents for the first time after DNA tests confirmed she was the child kidnapped from the Groote Schuur Hospital.
    {South Africa, DNA}
    (AP, 2/27/15)

1997        Jul 10, The DNA from the arm bone of Neanderthal man found in 1856 was found to represent a separate human species. Scientists in London said DNA from a Neanderthal skeleton supported a theory that all humanity descended from an "African Eve" 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/10/98)

1997        Aug 15, Scientists at Geron corp. reported that an "immortality gene" had been cloned. The key gene carries the code for a key section of the enzyme telomerase, that rebuilds the telomere of DNA. It could lead to new cancer-prevention drugs and even be used to slow the process of aging.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A1,17)(SFC, 8/16/97, p.D1)

1997        Sep 17, Dr. Sam Sheppard's body (subject of the TV show "The Fugitive") was exhumed for DNA test.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1998        Mar 21, Christina Nytsch (11) was found raped and murdered in woods 8 miles from her home in Struecklingen. In April Police began collecting saliva from 18,000 local men to test for a DNA match. Police found a match and arrested a suspect in Elisabethfehn in May, 1998. The man, a father of 3 children, confessed to another rape of an 11-year-old girl in Jan, 1996.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A18)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A24)

1998        Jun 10, It was reported that scientists had decoded the DNA sequence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A2)

1998        Jul 17, Scientists reported in the journal Science that the syphilis genome, 1.1 million base pairs of DNA, had been mapped.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.A7)

1998        Jul 27, In Chicago two boys, aged 7 and 8, reportedly killed an 11-year-old girl, Ryan Harris, with a thrown rock that caused the girl to fall and hit her head. The boys dragged her to a wooded area and began to play with her body and later lied to police. The boys faced the juvenile equivalent of first degree murder. Later evidence of semen caused prosecutors to drop murder charges against the boys. In Sep police arrested another suspect whose DNA matched that found on Ryan. The charges on the 2 boys were dropped Sept 4 and Floyd Durr was indicted for the murder of Ryan Harris in 1999.
    (SFC, 8/11/98, p.A3)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A3)(SFC, 9/23/98, p.A6)(USAT, 3/24/99, p.6A)

1998        Sep 10, In Utah Anna Palmer (10) was stabbed to death in Salt Lake City. In 2010 DNA evidence linked Matthew John Breck to her murder. Breck, serving time in Idaho for a 2001 conviction of sodomy with a minor, was extradited to Utah.
    (SSFC, 7/11/10, p.A6)(http://missing87975.yuku.com/sreply/11770)

1999        May 5, SF Superior Court Judge Robert Dondero ruled that a key DNA test, Short Tandem Repeats, was unproven and inadmissible in 5 cases before him.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A1)

1999        May 6, Scientists reported that the salmonella bacteria becomes disabled when stripped of a gene that produces the DNA adenine methylase (Dam). The research was seen as a potent new source for vaccines.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A1,17)

1999        May 27, It was reported that Dolly, the 3-year-old sheep, cloned from a 6-year-old ewe, has cells that that are 9 years old. Her DNA showed signs of wear more typical of an older animal.
    (SFC, 5/27/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 9, In SF Mark Barton was ambushed and shot to death as he left for work from his Potrero Ave. home. His girlfriend (21) was raped, thrown in a closet and shot. In 2003 police arrested Ivory Morton based on DNA evidence.
    (SFC, 3/28/03, p.A6)

1999        Dec 2, Tim Cole (b.1960), an army veteran convicted of a 1985 rape, died in a Texas prison from complications of asthma. In 2008 Cole was cleared by DNA evidence. In 2010 Texas Gov. Rick Perry pardoned Cole in the state’s first posthumous pardon.
    (SFC, 3/2/10, p.A4)(www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100249923)

2000        Apr 6, A private company mapping the human genetic blueprint announced it had decoded all of the DNA pieces that make up the genetic pattern of a single human being.
    (AP, 4/6/01)

2000        Mar 15, The unknown East Side rapist was indicted under DNA evidence in a John Doe indictment for 7 rapes between 1994-1998 to prevent the 5 year stature of limitations from expiring 3 of the cases.
    (SFC, 3/16/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 1, With about half an hour to spare, Texas Governor George W. Bush blocked the scheduled execution of convicted killer Ricky McGinn so that possibly exculpatory DNA evidence could be reviewed. The DNA tests failed to establish McGinn’s innocence, and he was put to death by injection the following September.
    (AP, 6/1/01)

2000        Jun 26, Public and private gene researchers, Celera Genomics and the National Human Genome Research Institute, announced at the White House that they had roughly mapped the human genome. Craig Venter, head of Celera, acquired private funding in 1998 and began decoding in September 1999. In 2007 Venter authored “A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life." A truly complete sequence was not published until 2003. In 2010 Victor McElheny authored “Drawing the map of Life: Inside the Human Genome Project."
    (SFC, 6/27/00, p.A1)(AP, 6/26/01)(WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W6)(Econ, 6/19/10, SR p.3)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.69)

2000        Dec 7, In Texas Claude Howard Jones was executed for the Nov 14, 1989, slaying of Allen Hilzendager in Point Blank. Jones was the 40th execution this year and the 239th since 1982. Jones was executed based on a single hair as evidence from the liquor store killing. DNA analysis later found the strand of hair did not belong to Jones.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.D4)(SFC, 11/12/10, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/33p23qm)

2001        Feb 11, It was reported that scientists had found the human genome to consist of 30,000 genes and that only some 300 were unique to humans as when compared to mice.
    (SSFC, 2/11/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 28, In Australia a leech dropped off Peter Cannon as he and an accomplice tied a woman (71) to a chair in her remote home in the Tasmanian woods and stole several hundred dollars in cash. Australian officials extracted blood from the leech. In 2009 DNA evidence led the police to Cannon, who admitted to robbing the elderly woman.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2001        Nov 22, Stanford and UCSF researchers reported a long list of genes responsible for multiple schlerosis (MS).
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 4, Edwin Huffine, US forensic scientist, launched a new DNA ID software program developed with a team of Bosnian experts at the Sarajevo-based Int’l. Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP). The program used kinship analysis.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A3)
2001        Dec 4, In South Africa Marike de Klerk (64), former wife of former Pres. F.W. de Klerk, was found stabbed and strangled in her luxury apartment near Cape Town. Police arrested Luyanda Mboniswa (21), a security guard, on Dec 5. The guard confessed Dec 7. In 2003 DNA evidence linked him to the murder.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A6)(SFC, 12/7/01, p.A6)(SFC, 12/8/01, p.A7)(AP, 4/8/03)

2001        The US National Institutes of Health began its Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project to isolate each of the estimated 30,000 human genes along with a full set of mouse genes.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.B1)
2001        Dwayne Jackson was arrested on kidnapping and robbery charges in Nevada. He spent 4 years in prison until his release in 2006. In November, 2010, an error regarding DNA evidence indicated that the wrong man had been sent to prison.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A6)

2002        Jan 6, Christa Worthington (46), fashion writer, was found dead at her home in Truro on Cape Cod, Mass. Her 2-year-old daughter was next to her, covered in blood but unharmed. In 2005 DNA evidence identified Christopher Mccowen, a local trash collector, as the murderer.
    (SFC, 4/16/05, p.A5)

2002        Dec 19, After a prosecutor cited new DNA evidence, a judge in New York threw out the convictions of five young men in a 1989 attack on a Central Park jogger who had been raped and left for dead.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        Aug 13, Chinese researchers reported that they had created hybrid embryos of human and rabbit DNA as a source for stem cells.
    (SFC, 8/14/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 6, Gene scientists published a map in Nature that shows how DNA controls protein interactions in the fruit fly.
    (WSJ, 11/7/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 13, The US Energy Dept reported that Dr. Craig Venter and colleagues had assembled a bacteriophage containing 5,386 DNA base pairs.
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.A7)

2003        A humanoid skeleton was first discovered in the remote Atacama desert region of Chile. In 2012 Stanford reasearchers traveled to Chile to obtain detailed X Rays, CAT scans and take genetic samples for testing at Stanford University. Results showed that it was human and not an extraterrestrial. Findings also show it may have been a 6-inch Chilean human that survived for 6 to 8 years.
    (www.openminds.tv/scientist-says-atacama-humanoid-is-human-but-still-a-mystery-988/)

2004        May 16, It was reported that a Scottish bus firm had begun issuing DNA “spit kits" help drivers verify assault charges on passengers spitting at drivers.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.A2)

2004        Apr 17, The body of University of North Dakota student Dru Sjodin (22) was found in a ravine northwest of Crookston, Minn. She was last seen Nov 22 at the Grand Forks, ND, mall, where she worked. Alfonso Rodriquez was arrested in Dec. and investigators matched DNA in blood in his car to Sjodin.
    (AP, 4/18/04)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.A13)

2004        Jul 28, Francis Crick (88), British Nobel laureate who with American James Watson discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, died of colon cancer in San Diego, Ca.
    (AP, 7/29/04)

2004        Aug 11, Britain granted its 1st license for human embryonic cloning research.
    (WSJ, 8/12/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep, Scientists announced that they had deciphered the genome of the black cottonwood tree, the 1st arboreal genome to be unraveled.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.70)

2004        Oct 20, Scientists of the Human Genome Project reported a new estimate of human genes at 20k to 25k.
    (SFC, 10/21/04, p.A12)

2004        Dec 23, The FDA said it approved the Ampli-Chip Cytochrome P450 Genotyping test made by Roche. The test was cleared for use with the Affymetrix GeneChip Microarray.
    (WSJ, 12/24/04, p.A9)

2004        California voters approved a ballot measure that requires police to take DNA samples from convicted felons. The law became effective in 2009. In 2012 the Ninth US Court of Appeals upheld the legislation.
    (SFC, 2/24/12, p.C1)

2005        Jan 12, It was reported that researchers had synthesized a DNA molecule of 14,500 chemical units with 21 genes used by a harmless laboratory bacterium.
    (SFC, 1/12/05, p.A2)

2005        Feb 17, Gene scientists published the 1st map of a common DNA variations.
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar, Scientists reported that they have finished sequencing the X chromosome. Scientists also reported the replication of a new artificial base pair, 3-fluoro-benzene (3FB).
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.84)

2005        Apr 13, National Geographic and IBM Corp. announced a project to collect DNA samples from people around the globe to trace the routes of human migration.
    (SFC, 4/13/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 26, Clarence Williams (58), suspected of raping at least 25 women in 3 states, was arrested in NYC following DNA tests that linked him to a 1973 rape case.
    (SFC, 4/27/05, p.A3)

2005        May 19, South Korea scientists announced the creation of 11 different stem cell lines matching the DNA of human patients with a variety of diseases.
    (SSFC, 5/29/05, p.A17)

2005        Jul 22, The Italian government approved a package of anti-terrorism measures that allow authorities to take DNA samples from suspects and jail those who provide explosives training.
    (AP, 7/22/05)

2005        Aug 11, A team of scientists from 10 countries reported that they had deciphered the genetic code of rice. This was the first cereal crop to be sequenced.
    (SFC, 8/11/05, p.A6)(Econ, 5/10/14, p.14)

2006        Nov 15, Researchers, who sequenced DNA from the leg bone of a Neanderthal man who died 38,000 years ago, said it shows the Neanderthals are truly distant relatives of modern humans who interbred rarely, if at all, with our own immediate ancestors. They concluded that Neanderthals and humans are likely to be 99.5% identical, genetically speaking.
    (Reuters, 11/15/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.84)

2007        Mar 13, Entrepreneur Marc Hodosh (34) was named senior director of the Archon Genomics X Prize. His job was to offer $10 million to the first team of researchers that can accurately map the genetic codes of 100 people in 10 days for a cost of $10,000 or less per genome. The competition was launched in 2006 year by the nonprofit X Prize Foundation of Santa Monica, Calif., which also has sponsored races to build commercial spacecraft and fuel-efficient cars.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2vfp9b)(Econ, 12/8/07, p.94)

2007        Nov 2, In Italy Meredith Kercher (21), a British university student, was found dead with her throat slashed in the bedroom of a house in the central city of Perugia. A week later 3 suspects in the murder were remanded in custody by an Italian investigating magistrate. On Nov 19 police in Perugia identified a 4th suspect as Rudy Hermann Guede, an Ivory Coast native. Guede was arrested in Germany the next day and DNA evidence confirmed that he had sex with Kercher the night she was stabbed. In 2009 roommate Amanda Knox, of Seattle, Wa.,  was convicted and sentenced to 26 years in prison. The court also convicted Knox's co-defendant and former boyfriend, Italian Raffaele Sollecito, and gave him a 25-year jail term for the murder. Rudy Hermann Guede, an Ivory Coast citizen, had already been convicted in the murder and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/07)(AFP, 11/10/07)(AP, 11/19/07)(AP, 11/22/07)(AP, 12/5/09)

2007        Nov 30, Scientists at Duke Univ. reported the creation of the first map of genes that are inherited as “silenced genes." The Duke map verified 40 and identified another 156. Humans were first shown to have silenced genes in 1991. They help explain why some people get sick and others do not.
    (SFC, 11/30/07, p.A7)

2007        23andMe, based in Mountain View, Ca., began offering customers aspects of their genome from spit samples analyzed by the company. Their personal genome test kit was named Invention of the Year by Time magazine in 2008.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/23andMe)

2007         Alberto Nava, a California cave diver, and two Mexican dive budies discovered a human skeleton in a deep underwater cave in Mexico’s Yucatan jungle. In 2014 scientists said the skeleton was that of a young girl who probably fell into the cave about this time. DNA evidence linked her to modern native Americans.
    (SFC, 5/16/14, p.D8)

2008        Jan 30, Using DNA, the blueprint of life, US researchers said they have made a three-dimensional structure from particles of gold in a development that could lead to a host of custom-designed materials.
    (Reuters, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 5, British scientists said they have created human embryos containing DNA from two women and a man in a procedure that researchers hope might be used one day to produce embryos free of inherited diseases.
    (AP, 2/5/08)

2008        Apr 29, James Woodward (55) walked out of a Dallas court after DNA testing overturned his conviction over 27 years ago for the murder and rape of his girlfriend.
    (Reuters, 4/30/08)

2008        May 21, Pres. Bush signed legislation to protect people from losing their jobs or health insurance when genetic testing reveals they are susceptible to costly diseases. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act was designed to prohibit the improper use of genetic information in health insurance and employment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_Information_Nondiscrimination_Act)(WSJ, 5/22/08, p.D6)

2008        May 26, Dutch scientists claimed they have completed the first sequencing of an individual woman's DNA.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        Dec 4, Europe's top human rights court ruled that storing DNA from people with no criminal record is in breach of their rights, a landmark decision that could force Britain to destroy the samples of nearly 1 million people on its database.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2009        Feb 12, Researchers in Germany said they have completed the first draft of the Neanderthal genome, 3 billion genetic building blocks that will shed new light on the ancient hominid as well as the origins of humans, its closest relation. Lead scientist Svante Paabo established in 1997 that Neanderthals were cousins rather than ancestors of modern humans.
    (AP, 2/12/09)

2009        Feb 15, French specialists unveiled a new weapon against cancer, a molecular "decoy" that mimics DNA damage and prompts cancerous cells to kill themselves.
    (AFP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb, Scientists published a study showing that genetically modified material did contaminate native corn in the crop's birthplace in southern Mexico. Elena Alvarez Buylla, author of the article published in the February edition of Molecular Ecology, said the difficult atmosphere surrounding the original debate persists.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Apr 2, In Connecticut a judge, citing DNA evidence, dropped murder charges against Miguel Roman, who served 20 years of a 60-year sentence after being convicted of the 1988 slaying of Carmen Lopez (17), his pregnant girlfriend. The same DNA tests that exonerated Roman implicated led police in December to charge another man, Pedro Miranda of New Britain. He is accused in the killings of Lopez, 16-year-old Rosa Valentin in 1986 and 13-year-old Mayra Cruz in 1987. Miranda (51) faced the possibility of the death penalty if convicted.
    (SFC, 4/3/09, p.A6)

2009        May 7, Britain promised it would remove the DNA records of hundreds of thousands from its vast national registry of genetic information, but said it will still keep the details of some innocent people for up to 12 years.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        Jun 18, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that William Osborne, a prisoner convicted in Alaska in 1994, has no constitutional right to DNA testing to prove his innocence. In April 2008, a three-judge panel of US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit had held that Osborne should be allowed to obtain new DNA tests.  The court said that it is up to the states and Congress to decide such rights.
    (SFC, 6/19/09, p.A7)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.25)(http://tinyurl.com/mkmte2)

2009        Sep 5, Milwaukee police arrested Walter Ellis (49) after DNA evidence linked him to the slaying of 9 women, including 8 suspected prostitutes, dating back to 1986.
    (SFC, 9/7/09, p.A6)

2009        Oct 20, Australian officials said a leech found at a crime scene in 2001 led police to a man who admitted robbing an elderly woman. The leech dropped off Peter Cannon as he and an accomplice tied a 71-year-old woman to a chair in her remote home in the Tasmanian woods on Sept. 28, 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2009        Oct 23, In Canada a judge in Winnipeg acquitted Kyle Unger (38) of the 1990 murder of Brigitte Grenier (16). DNA tests in 2005 showed that hair on the victim came from somebody else. Unger had spent 13 years in jail before he was granted bail in 2005.
    (SFC, 10/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 11, The British Home Office said DNA of innocent people arrested then cleared without charge will be held by the government for no more than six years.
    (AFP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 16, Thai police arrested Samart Chokechoyma (36) and Kanokwan Wongsaroj (38) on charges of smuggling African ivory into the country to supply shops that sell jewelry and trinkets, including to customers in the US. DNA tests showed that it was of African origin.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 18, Argentina's Congress, valuing truth over the right to privacy, authorized the forced extraction of DNA from people who may have been born to political prisoners slain a quarter-century ago, even when they don't want to know their birth parents.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Dec 15, Donald Eugene Gates (58), in prison for 28 years, was freed after DNA evidence cleared him of charges of rape and murder. His conviction had been based on the testimony of FBI forensic analyst Michael P. Malone, whose work came under fire in 1997, and a hair analysis technique that has been discredited. Gates was given $75 and a bus ticket to Ohio. Gates had been convicted in 1982 of the 1981 rape and murder of Catherine Schilling (21), a Georgetown University student, in Washington's Rock Creek Park. He was sentenced to 20 years to life in prison.
    (SFC, 12/15/09, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/y8smuur)

2009        Dec 16, In Paraguay President Fernando Lugo’s lawyer said Lugo has agreed to take a DNA test following a judicial request presented by Hortensia Damiana Moran (40), the third woman to claim he fathered her child.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2010        Jan 1, It was reported that Australian researchers have cracked the genetic origin of the deadly cancer that is threatening to wipe out Tasmanian devils, raising hopes that the animal's future is safe.
    (AFP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 14, An int’l. team of scientists reported the sequencing of the genes of 3 species of the Nasonia wasp. 157 research groups in 6 nations spent over 4 years on the project, which was expected to help reduce the use of farm pesticides and help in the development of new drugs against human disease.
    (SFC, 1/15/10, p.C2)

2010        May 5, Raymond Towler (52) was freed from prison in Ohio after DNA evidence showed that he did not rape an 11-year-old girl in 1981. Towler had spent almost 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 5/6/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/2usdrhr)

2010        May 7, Int’l. scientists reported that Eurasians today carry 1-4% of Neanderthal DNA. Analysis of the Neanderthal genome indicated that it was 99.5% identical to modern humans.
    (SFC, 5/7/10, p.A1)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.79)

2010        May 19, Nick Clegg, Britain's new deputy leader, says he'll scrap an unpopular national identity card program, limit the retention of DNA samples and tightly regulate the use of closed circuit TV cameras in a sweeping civil liberties drive.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 20, US researchers announced that they have produced a living cell powered by manmade DNA. They said the world's first synthetic cell, JCV1-syn1.0, is more a re-creation of existing life, changing one simple type of bacterium into another, than a built-from-scratch kind. Genome-mapping pioneer J. Craig Venter said his team's project paves the way for designing organisms that work differently from the way nature intended for a wide range of uses.
    (AP, 5/21/10)(Econ, 6/19/10, SR p.11)

2010        May 24, Guatemalan authorities said they will require DNA tests for all babies offered for adoption following allegations of child theft that led the government to impose a two-year freeze on international adoptions.
    (AP, 5/24/10)

2010        Aug 6, Australian scientists reported a study revealing that sea sponges share almost 70 percent of human genes.
    (AFP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 27, British researchers said they have decoded the genetic sequence of wheat.
    (SFC, 8/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 16, Australian scientists said they had made a breakthrough in the fight to save the cancer-hit Tasmanian devil by mapping the species' genome for the first time.
    (AFP, 9/16/10)

2010        Oct 7, Researchers at London’s Kew Gardens said they have discovered that the Paris japonica has a genetic code 50 times longer than that of a human being. To date this was the longest genome discovered.
    (SFC, 10/8/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 2, NASA researcher Felisa Wolfe-Simon (33) reported that a strange bacterium, Halomonadaceae, found in California's Mono Lake, thrives on arsenic and redefines life as we know it. She said the bacterium does not merely eat arsenic, but incorporates the toxic element directly into its DNA. Her finding stirred much controversy. In 2012 scientists reported that the bacteria is just resistant to arsenic and actually dependent for life on phosphorous.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)(SFC, 5/28/11, p.C1)(SFC, 7/10/12, p.C3)

2011        Jan 4, Cornelius Dupree Jr., a Texas man, was declared innocent after 30 years in prison. He had at least two chances to make parole and be set free, if only he would admit he was a sex offender. Dupree refused to do so, doggedly maintaining his innocence in a 1979 rape and robbery. In the process he serving more time for a crime he didn't commit than any other Texas inmate exonerated by DNA evidence.
    (AP, 1/4/11)

2011        Feb 22, Mexico’s government announced that it plans to include voice and DNA samples in a database of the nation's 620,000 police and public safety employees as a control measure. Police in Acapulco, where the Mexican Open tennis tournament is being held, found the bodies of seven men, some mutilated. In Mazatlan two men were shot to death in the parking lot of a hotel frequented by foreign tourists. Neither of the victims were tourists. Authorities in Acapulco found the bodies of two men and a woman in a stolen taxi.
    (AP, 2/22/11)(AP, 2/23/11)

2011        May 12, In Texas a judge freed a Dallas man who spent 27 years in prison for aggravated sexual assault before DNA evidence cleared him. Johnny Pinchback became the 22nd person to be exonerated through DNA testing in Dallas County since 2001. He was found to have been wrongly convicted of raping two teenage girls in a Dallas field in 1984.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        Jul 29, A US federal court said that human genes can be patented, reversing a 2010 decision against patents held by Myriad Genetics. Patents on genes have been awarded for almost 30 years.
    (SFC, 7/30/11, p.D2)

2011        Oct 12, A Texas appeals court formally exonerated Michael Morton, who spent nearly 25 years in prison for his wife's 1986 fatal beating, reaffirming a judge's decision to set him free last week after DNA tests linked the killing to another man.
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 26, The X Prize Foundation offered a $10 million prize to the first team to sequence  the genomes of 100 centenarians. The contest will begin in January 2013 and last for 30 days.
    (Econ, 10/29/11, p.95)

2011        A new British law allowed police to collect DNA from offenders who had been convicted of serious offenses before the DNA database was created in 1995. Europe's top human rights court in 2008 struck down a British law that allowed the government to store DNA and fingerprints from people with no criminal record.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2012        Mar 16, In California Sierra LaMar (15) was last seen at her home in Morgan Hill getting ready for school. On May 21 police arrested Antolin Garcia-Torres (21) in connection to the missing teen. His DNA was found on clothing in LaMar's bag recovered shortly after her disappearance.  In Feb, 2014, Garcia-Torres was charged with murder.
    (SFC, 5/22/12, p.C2)(SSFC, 7/13/14, p.C8)

2012        Apr 30, Robert "Rider" Dewey, a Colorado man, was exonerated on the basis of new DNA evidence and set free after spending more than 16 years behind bars. He was wrongly convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the June, 1994, rape and murder of Jacie Taylor (19), who found strangled with a dog leash. New analysis showed DNA samples matched the DNA of Douglas Thames, who is serving a life sentence without parole for the 1989 rape and strangulation of Susan Doll (39) of Fort Collins.
    (Reuters, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 30, In Texas two men who spent nearly 30 years in prison for a brutal sexual assault and attempted murder were declared innocent after DNA evidence pointed to other men. James Curtis Williams (54) and Raymond Jackson (67) had been sentenced to 99 years in prison for the November 1983 assault of a Canadian woman who identified them in a lineup as her attackers. Two other men who were connected to the crime through DNA testing have been charged with attempted capital murder.
    (Reuters, 4/30/12)

2012        Apr, A new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy found that genetic evidence shows that Tennessee families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin. Beginning in the early 1800s, or possibly before, the term Melungeon (meh-LUN'-jun) was applied as a slur to a group of about 40 families along the Tennessee-Virginia border.
    (AP, 5/24/12)

2012        May 3, The journal Science reported that a single gene mutation is responsible for the unique pairing of very dark skin and very blond hair in the Solomon Islands. The findings debunked theories Solomon Islanders got their blond hair from intermarrying with European explorers.
    (http://home.topnewstoday.org/Crime/article/2169304/)

2012        May 30, A consortium of geneticists reported that they have decoded the genome of the tomato and that is has 31,760 genes, about 7,000 times more than human beings. They sequenced both the Heinz 1706 variety, used for ketchup, and its closest wild relative, Solanum pimpinellifolium, from the highlands of Peru.
    (SFC, 5/31/12, p.A10)

2012        Jun 7, In Japan Govinda Prasad Mainali (45) was released from jail after DNA tests confirmed he could not have committed the killing of a 39-year-old Japanese woman in 1997. The Nepalese migrant worker had served 15 years in a Japanese jail. Mainali was acquitted in April 2000 but remained in prison pending an appeal by prosecutors, who maintained he had robbed and murdered the victim because he was short of cash.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)

2012        Sep 5, It was reported that the government of Kashmir has rejected wide-scale DNA testing of bodies in thousands of unmarked graves despite pleas by the families of those who disappeared during two decades of fighting in the restive region.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 17, In North Carolina new DNA evidence was presented in the case against convicted Dr. Jerry MacDonald (68) regarding the Feb 17, 1970 murders of his wife and 2 daughters. The evidence pointed to other suspects.
    (SFC, 9/18/12, p.A7)

2012        Sep 19, An int’l. team of researchers published the full genome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, making it the first mollusk fully sequenced.
    (SFC, 9/20/12, p.A7)

2012        Sep 28, Damon Thibodeaux (38) of Louisiana was released from death row after serving 15 years for a slaying that DNA evidence showed he did not commit. He was the 18th death row prisoner freed based on such evidence.
    (SFC, 9/29/12, p.A4)

2012        Oct 6, French police carried out raids across the country after DNA on a grenade that exploded last Sep 19 at a kosher grocery store led them to a suspected jihadist cell of young Frenchmen recently converted to Islam. A man named by police as Jeremy Sydney, was killed by police after he opened fire on them, slightly wounding three officers in the eastern city of Strasbourg. Eleven other suspects were arrested across the country.
    (AP, 10/6/12)

2012        Nov 1, Michela Wooldridge (24), a homeless woman, was stabbed to death in Santa Rosa, Ca. On Aug 19, 2014, police arrested Jessy Zetino (22) after DNA evidence tied him to the murder.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.D2)

2012        Dec 10, PM Cameron said Britain will be the first country to introduce a database of genetic sequences into a mainstream health service, giving doctors a more advanced understanding of a patient's illness and what drugs and other treatments they need.
    (Reuters, 12/10/12)

2012        CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) was first shown to work as a genome engineering/editing tool in human cell culture by this time. Clustered repeats were first described in 1987 for the bacterium Escherichia coli by Yoshizumi Ishino, but at that time their function was not known.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRISPR)(Econ, 8/22/15, p.19)

2013        Jan 3, The first report of genome editing was reported in separate papers by Feng Zhang, who began applying CRISPR-Cas9 in human cells in early 2011, and George Church.
    (Econ, 9/5/15, p.22)

2013        Feb 15, The EU agreed to begin random DNA checks on meat products in a bid to put a lid on a spreading scandal over horsemeat.
    (SFC, 2/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 20, The Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority said DNA tests showed two batches of frozen Nowaco Lasagne Bolognese in a branch of the Tesco supermarket chain in the western city of Pilsen contained horsemeat. Luxembourg was listed as the country of origin.
    (Reuters, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 22, Frozen food maker Birds Eye said it would withdraw some products in Britain and Ireland after it found traces of horse DNA in one of its ready meals sold in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 2/22/13)

2013        Mar 1, Britain’s Food Standards Agency said traces of horse meat has been found in ground beef sold by Taco Bell, which has only three British outlets. Horse DNA also was found in Birds Eye spaghetti Bolognese and beef lasagna and spicy minced beef skewers from catering supplier Brakes.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 5, Frozen food maker Birds Eye said horse meat DNA found in two of its products came from an Irish meat processor that is part of one of Ireland's largest agricultural businesses. The company said investigations had found its Belgian supplier Frigilunch NV had unknowingly sourced meat with horse DNA from Irish meat processor QK Meats.
    (Reuters, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 27, A team of int’l. scientists reported the discovery of dozens of signposts in DNA that can help reveal a person’s risk for breast, ovarian or prostate cancer.
    (SFC, 3/28/13, p.A10)

2013        Apr 17, Scientists reported the decoding of the coelacanth genome, whose eggs hatch inside the mother’s body. Its 2.8 billion DNA units are about the same as the human genome.
    (SFC, 4/17/13, p.A10)

2013        Jun 3, The US Supreme Court ruled in a 5-4 decision that police may take a DNA swab from people arrested for crimes without first getting a warrant to do so.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 13, The US Supreme Court ruled that companies cannot patent parts of naturally-occurring human genes, a decision with the potential to profoundly affect the emerging and lucrative medical and biotechnology industries. The court gave Myriad Genetics a partial victory, ruling that while naturally-occurring DNA was not patentable, synthetically-created DNA could be patented.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Oct 25, Greek authorities said DNA tests have confirmed that Sasha Ruseva, a Bulgarian Roma woman (35), is the mother of a mysterious girl in Greece known as Maria.
    (AP, 10/25/13)(SFC, 10/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 4, Scientists reported mitochondrial DNA results from a human thighbone found in Spain estimated to be 400,000 years old. The DNA showed a closer relation to Denisovans who lived in Siberia than to Neanderthals.
    (SFC, 12/5/13, p.A9)

2014        Jan 1, Lebanon’s defense minister said Lebanese troops have arrested Said citizen Majid al-Majid, the "emir" of the Abdullah Azzam Brigades, an al-Qaeda-linked group that claimed a double suicide bombing at the Iranian embassy in Beirut in November. DNA testing confirmed the identity of al-Majid.
    (AFP, 1/1/14)(AP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 27, South Africa’s Pres. Zuma signed a “DNA Act" to match more sexual offenders, including many who break the law more than once, with their crimes, exonerate the wrongly accused and crack cold cases.
    (AP, 2/21/14)

2014        Mar 19, IBM said it is teaming up with the New York Genome Center to help fight brain cancer. IBM said its Watson cloud computing system will be used in partnership with the genetic research center to help sequence DNA for the treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of brain cancer in US adults.
    (SFC, 3/20/14, p.C2)

2014        Apr 14, French police demanded that male students and staff at a high school in western France — 527 people in total — give DNA samples as they searched for the assailant who raped a teenage girl in La Rochelle. Investigators had exhausted all other leads in the Sept. 30 rape of the girl in a dark bathroom at the school.
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Jul 25, A Texas judge recommended that Michael Phillips (57) of Dallas be exonerated based on recent DNA evidence that absolved him of a 1990 rape for which he served 12 years in prison.
    (SFC, 7/26/14, p.A7)

2014        Oct 30, Researchers in Sweden said they have identified genetic variations at two key sites the human genome that may distinguish extremely violent individuals following a study of some 794 convicts in Finland.
    (SFC, 10/31/14, p.A7)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.75)

2015        Feb 3, British lawmakers in the House of Commons voted to allow scientists to create babies from the DNA of three people, a move that could prevent some children from inheriting potentially fatal diseases from their mothers.
    (AP, 2/3/15)

2015        May 14, In Washington DC businessman Savvas Savopoulos, president and CEO of American Iron Works, a building materials company in Maryland, his wife Amy, their 10-year-old son Philip and the family's housekeeper Veralicia Figueroa -- were found bound and bludgeoned after a fire gutted the millionaire's mansion. On May 21 Daron Dylon Wint (34) was arrested along with three other men and two women following a DNA lead gleaned from a pizza crust.
    (AFP, 5/22/15)

2015        Aug 4, Kuwait reported that the Interior Ministry will soon prepare a DNA database of all persons living or visiting the country.
    (SSFC, 8/9/15, p.A4)

2015        Oct 7, Sweden's Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich of the United States and Aziz Sancar, a Turkish-American, won the 2015 Nobel Chemistry Prize for work on how cells repair damaged DNA.
    (AFP, 10/7/15)

2015        Oct 19, Turkey’s PM Ahmet Davutoglu confirmed that one of the suicide bombers in the Oct 10 attack in Ankara had been officially identified through DNA testing.
    (AFP, 10/18/15)

2015        Matthew Cobb authored “Life’s Greatest Secret: The Story of the Race to Crack the Genetic Code."
    (Econ, 8/8/15, p.71)

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