Timeline Dow Jones

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1788        Jul 19, Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.
    (HN, 7/19/98)

1792        May 17, Stock traders gathered under a buttonwood tree not far from Wall Street in New York City and organized what later became the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street. 24 merchants formed the NY Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street. They fixed rates on commissions on stocks and bonds. A prior market crash and almost total halt in credit, trading and liquidity prompted the Buttonwood Agreement under the influence of Alexander Hamilton.
    (Hem, 8/95, p.78)(WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/17/98)(MC, 5/17/02)

1862        The San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange was established by 19 founding members as a marketplace for mining company stocks following the Comstock Lode strike.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.I3)

1864        Apr 22, Congress authorized the use of the phrase "In God We Trust" on for the 1st time on a 2 cent coin.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(MC, 4/22/02)

1869        Sep 13, Jay Gould and James Fisk attempted to control the US gold market.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1873        Sep 20, A financial panic hit the NY Stock Exchange when the high-flying bond dealer, Jay Cooke, granted too many loans to the railroads. Panic spread to Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days. The economy went into a 6 year depression. Philadelphia banker and newspaperman Anthony Drexel teamed up with J.P. Morgan to depose a rival bank run by Jay Cooke. They published allegations to undermine confidence and cause a run that led to a panic.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)(MC, 9/20/01)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1889        Jul 8, Dow Jones & Co. turned its business newsletter into a full-fledged newspaper and co-founder Charles Bergstresser dubbed it the Wall Street Journal.
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. C-1)(AP, 7/8/97)

1893        May 5, Panic hit the New York Stock Exchange; by year's end, the country was in the throes of a severe depression.
    (AP, 5/5/99)

1896        May 26, The Dow Jones Industrial Average [DJIA] was first published. Charles H. Dow set up an index of 12 industrial companies that began at 40.94. Of the current 30 stocks in the DJ, only General Electric was in the original group. The 12 companies included: The American Cotton Oil Company, American Sugar Refining Company, American Tobacco, Chicago Gas, General Electric Co., Laclede Gas Light Co., National Lead, North American Co., Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co., U.S. Leather, U.S. Rubber Co.
    (WSJ, 1/8/96, p.C-1)(WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45)

1899        Apr 21, American Tobacco, Standard Rope & Twine and Laclede Gas Light Co. were removed as components of the Dow Jones. General Electric was re-instated and Continental Tobacco, American Steel & Wire and Federal Steel were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R-45,46)

1907        Dec, The US stock market, spurred by a "bear raid," took a nose-dive and set off a widespread panic. Many banks failed.
    (SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)
1907        Dec, There was stock market panic this year when the Knickerbocker Trust Co. failed. J.P. Morgan took charge and forbade the NY stock market to close and raised $25 million in 15 minutes to add liquidity. He summoned the most important bankers to devise a plan to abort the panic and no depression was induced. Morgan also called on clergymen to preach sermons of confidence. The crises led the government to create the Federal Reserve System. Morgan got bankers to agree to settle accounts among themselves with clearinghouse certificates rather than cash and thus increased the money supply. The story was later recounted by John Steele Gordon in his 1999 book "The Great Game."
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A32)
1907        Dec, Banker J.P. Morgan saved the US financial system by putting his own money on the line in the Panic of 1907. In the Panic of 1907 J.P. Morgan, who ran US Steel, bought the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. and trustbuster Theodore Roosevelt agreed not to object to the buyout. Elbert H. Gary was the chairman of US Steel.
    (WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1913        Wesley Clair Mitchell, professor at Columbia, authored “Business Cycles and Their Causes."
    (NW, 10/7/02, p.50)

1916        Oct 4, National Lead, US Steel (preferred) and Peoples Gas were removed from the Dow Jones. AT&T was first added to the DJIA.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45,46)(WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)

1928        Oct 1, American Tobacco and US Rubber were removed as components of the Dow Jones. They were replaced by American Tobacco Class B and North American Co.   
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45)

1928        Oct 21, AT&T was removed from the DJIA.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)

1928        The Dow Jones was expanded to 30 stocks.
    (WSJ, 6/3/96, p.C1)

1929        Jan 8, The Dow Jones Industrials added National Cash Register as a replacement for Victor Talking Machine.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1929        Sep 3, The Dow Jones industrial average closed at 381.17. It was the peak of the bull market of the 1920s.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1929        Sep 5, Roger Babson (1875-1967), investment advisor, gave a speech saying, "Sooner or later a crash is coming, and it may be terrific." Later that day the stock market declined by about 3%. This became known as the "Babson Break". The Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression soon followed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Babson)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.88)(www.babson.com/)

1929        Sep 14, The Dow Jones Industrials added Curtis-Wright as a replacement for Wright Aeronautical.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1929        Oct 24, Black Thursday—the first day of the stock market crash which began the Great Depression. Stock values collapsed and 13 million shares changed hands as small investors frantically tried to sell off their holdings. Thousands of confused investors and brokers were ruined and banks, which had also invested heavily in the market, failed when they could not produce enough cash on demand for angry depositors. The 3 cent Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported the crash along with a story on the trial of a former banking superintendent for taking a $10,000 bribe for not inspecting some insolvent banks.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(HNPD, 10/29/98)(SFEC, 7/11/99, p.D9)

1929        Oct 28, The DJIA dropped 12.8%. Dow Jones plummeted 38.33 pts (13%) to 260.64. Just before the Great Crash the Ladies Home Journal proclaimed: "Everyone Ought to Be Rich."
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A1)(SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1929        Oct 29, The DJIA dropped 11.7%. "Black Tuesday" was the worst day of the market crash as panicked survivors dumped 16 million shares on the market. Clerical workers stayed up all night to find that $30 billion in paper value had been wiped out in one day. Prices collapsed amid panic selling and thousands of investors were wiped out as America's Great Depression began. On Wall street prices plunged $14 million. By mid- November $30 billion of the $80 billion worth of stocks listed in September were been wiped out. Stocks continued to slide until 1932, but the fear caused by the crash made Americans unwilling to buy or invest and the economy slowly worsened into the Great Depression. In 1994 daily trades average 200-300 million shares. In 1954 John Kenneth Galbraith authored “The Great Crash." In 2001 Maury Klein authored "Rainbow’s End: The Crash of 1929."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)(HNPD, 10/29/98)(HN, 10/29/98)(WSJ, 10/26/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)

1929        Nov 6, The DJIA dropped 9.9%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1929        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 248.48.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1930         Jan 29, North American Co. was again removed from the Dow Jones and Johns Manville was added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1930        Jul 18, American Sugar Refining Company, American Tobacco B, Atlantic Refining, General Railway Signal, Goodrich, Nash Motors and Curtiss-Wright were removed as components of the Dow Jones. Borden, Eastman Kodak, Goodyear, Ligget & Myers, Standard Oil of California, United Air Transport and Hudson Motor were added to the DJIA.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1932        Jul 8, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.22, with an intra-day low of 40.56, its lowest point during the Great Depression.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average)

1932        Jul 9, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.63, down 91% from its level exactly 3 years earlier. Trading volume for the day was 235,000 shares.
    (WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W1)

1932        May 26, Ligget & Myers, Mack Trucks, United Air Transport, Paramount Publix, Radio corp., Texas Gulf Sulphur, National Cash Register and Hudson Motor were removed from the DJIA. American Tobacco B was re-instated as a component of the Dow Jones. Drug Inc., Proctor & Gamble, Loew's, Nash Motors, Int'l. Shoe, Int'l. Business Machines and Coca Cola were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1932        Columbia professor Adolf Berle and researcher Gardiner Means wrote "The Modern Corporation and Private Property," wherein they argued that with the rise of the public corporation, the owners had lost control and that managers had gained the upper hand over small shareholders. They called for more regulation to check abuses.
    (WSJ, 4/18/96, p.C-1)(WSJ, 6/26/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A12)

1933        May 27, The US Federal Securities Act was signed.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1933        Jul 21, The DJIA dropped 7.8%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1933        Aug 15, Drug Inc., and Int'l. shoe were removed from the DJIA. Corn Products Refining and United Aircraft were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1934        Jun 6, US Congress created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This was accompanied by requirements for public companies to disclose information.
    (AP, 6/6/97)(WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A12)

1934        Aug 13, United Aircraft was removed from the DJIA. National Distillers and Chemical Corp. was added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1935        Nov 20, Borden and Coca Cola were removed from the DJIA. Du Pont and National Steel were added.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1937        Jan 8, Nash Motors, a component of the Dow Jones, changed its name to Nash Kelvinator.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1939        Mar 14, Nash Kelvinator and IBM were removed from the DJIA. AT&T was again added to the DJIA along with United Aircraft.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C4)

1939        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 150.24.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1954        Dec 29, The Dow Jones cleared the 400 barrier for the first time. It took 25 years for the Dow to return to pre-crash levels.
    (WSJ, 5/20/96, p.C-1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1955        Sep 26, The New York Stock Exchange suffered $44 million loss, the heaviest one-day loss in history following word that President Dwight D. Eisenhower had suffered a heart attack.
    (AP, 9/26/03)

1956        Jul 3, Loew's was removed from the DJIA and International Paper was added as a component of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1959        Apr 22, Texas Co. became Texaco.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1959        Jun 1, American Smelting & Refining, Corn Products Refining, National Steel and National Distillers & Chemical Corp. were removed from the DJIA. Anaconda Copper, Swift & Co., Aluminum Co. of America and Owens-Illinois Glass were added as a components of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45,46)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1959        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 679.36.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1960        Jan, The US stock market began a 10 month decline of 16%.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1962        May, The stock market decline coincided with Pres. Kennedy’s attack on the steel industry and Attorney General Kennedy’s antitrust suits against numerous American industries.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)

1964        Dec 31, The DJIA ended at 874.1.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)

1965        A long term bear market began in the US that lasted to 1982. The following bull market ran to 2000.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)

1968        Dec 4, The US stock market began a 18 month decline of 44%.

1969        Donaldson, Lufkin and Jenrette decided to take their investment bank public thereby forcing the NY Stock Exchange to abandon restrictions on public ownership of member firms.
    (WSJ, 5/2/05, p.C1)

1972        Nov 1, Standard Oil (NJ) became Exxon.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1972        Nov 14, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above 1,000 for the first time, ending the day at 1,003.16.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 11/14/97)

1973        Jan 11, The Dow Jones Industrials hit a peak of 1051.70. The market then began a 24 month decline of 46%.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1973        May 30, Swift & Co. became Esmark.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1973        Nov 19, New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1973        Burton Malkiel of Princeton Univ. wrote his influential book: “A Random Walk Down Wall Street." Here he explained the “efficient market theory." “A blindfolded monkey throwing darts… could select a portfolio… as well as… experts."
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.C1)

1974        Mar 13, The Dow Jones dropped to 577.60.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.B1)(http://tinyurl.com/4uu3s9)

1974        Dec 31, The Dow Jones closed the year at 616.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)

1975        May 1, The US brokerage industry, acting on a mandate by the SEC, deregulated commissions.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E3)
1975        May 1, United Aircraft became United Technologies Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1976        Apr 21, International Nickel became Inco.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1976        Aug 9, Anaconda Copper was removed from the DJIA and Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing was added as a component of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1976        The obsession with shareholder value began this year when economists Michael Jensen and William Meckling published their article “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency costs and Ownerships Structure."
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.65)

1978        Charles P. Kindleberger authored “Manias, Panics, and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises.
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.A1)

1979        Jun 29, Chrysler and Esmark were removed from the DJIA and International Business Machines and Merck were added as components of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1979        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 838.74.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1982        Aug 18, For the first time, volume on the New York Stock exchange topped the $100 million level as 132.69 million shares were traded.
    (AP, 8/18/02)

1982        Aug 30, Manville Corp. was removed from the DJIA and American Express was added as components of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1983        Apr 26, Dow Jones Industrial Average broke 1,200 for first time.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.3)(HN, 4/26/98)

1984        Jul 2, Standard Oil of California was renamed Chevron.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1984        Aug 3, Some 365.7 million shares traded in NY Stock Exchange.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1984        Jan 4, The new AT&T replaced the old AT&T as a component of the DJIA.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1985        Oct 30, General Foods and American Brands (American Tobacco B) were removed from the DJIA and McDonald's Corp. and Philip Morris were added as components of the Dow.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1986        Feb 20, Int'l. Harvester was renamed Navistar Int'l. Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1986        Jul 8, US Steel was renamed USX Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1986        Sep 11, The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) suffered its biggest 1-day decline ever, plummeting 86.61 points to 1,792.89. 237.57 million shares were traded. [see Oct 19, 1987]
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1987        Jan 8, For the first time, the Dow Jones industrial average closed above 2,000, ending the day at 2002.25.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1987        Jan, The S&P 500 Index rose a record 13% this January.
    (SSFC, 1/5/03, p.G5)

1987        Mar 12, Owens-Illinois Glass and Inco were removed from the DJIA and Coca-Cola and Boeing were added as components of the Dow.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1987        Apr 3, Stock prices rocketed on Wall Street as the Dow Jones industrial average soared 69.89 points, ending the day at a record 2,390.34.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1987        Apr 6, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 2,400 for the first time.
    (AP, 4/6/97)

1987        Apr 29, American Can was renamed Primerica Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1987        Aug 13, On the fifth anniversary of a bull market, the Dow Jones industrial average closed at 2,691.49 after briefly surpassing 2,700.
    (HN 8/13/97)

1987        Aug 17, The DJIA closed above 2,700 for 1st time (2,700.57).
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1987        Aug 25,  Dow Jones industrial stock avg. reached a record 2722.42.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1988        Sep 7, The Security & Exchange Commission accused Drexel of violating security laws.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1988        Dec 16, Primerica Corp. merged into Commercial Credit Group, which adopted the Primerica's name.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1989        May 19, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average passed the 2500 mark, ending the day at 2,501.10.
    (AP, 5/19/99)

1989        Dec 31, The Japanese Nikkei Index peaked at 38,915. The DJIA closed the decade at 2753.20.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1990        Jan 2, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average ended the day above 2,800 for the first time, at 2,810.15.
    (AP, 1/2/00)

1990        May 29, Dow Jones average hits a record 2,870.49.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1991        Apr 17, The Dow Jones industrial (DJIA) average closed above three-thousand for the first time, ending the day at three-thousand-four-point-46.
    (AP, 4/17/01)

1991        May 6,    Navistar Int'l., USX, and Primerica were removed from the DJIA. J.P. Morgan, Walt Disney and Caterpillar were added to the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 6/3/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1991        Dec 26, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average rose to a then-record high of 3082.96.
    (AP, 12/26/01)

1992        Jan 3, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 3,200 for the first time, ending the day at 3,201.48.
    (AP, 1/3/02)

1992        Apr 17, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan told the Senate Banking Committee the modest pace of economic expansion wasn't adequate, a remark interpreted as a signal he might cut interest rates further.
    (AP, 4/17/97)

1993        Feb 16, Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton's economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address the night before.
    (AP, 2/16/98)

1993        Mar 8, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average soared to a record high, climbing 64.84 to end the day at 3,469.42.
    (AP, 3/8/98)

1993        May 19, Dow Jones closed above 3,500 For the first Time (3,500.03).
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1993        May 27, The House of Representatives approved a massive deficit-reduction, tax-increase bill by a vote of 219-213.
    (AP, 5/27/98)

1994        Jan 21, Dow Jones passed 3900 to a record 3,914.20.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1994        Apr 4, On Wall Street, stocks plummeted in violent spasms of selling that sent the Dow industrial down more than 40 points to a six-month low.
    (AP, 4/4/99)

1994        Apr 20,    American Telephone & Telegraph became AT&T Corp.
    (WSJ, 6/3/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1994        Nov 15, The Federal Reserve increased key interest rates by 0.75 percent, the largest hike in 13 years.
    (AP, 11/15/99)

1995        Feb 23, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above the 4,000 mark for the first time, ending the day at 4,003.33.
    (WSJ, 12/16/96, p.C1)(AP, 2/23/00)

1995        Apr 24, Dow Jones Index hit a record 4303.98.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1995        Jul 19, The Dow Jones industrial average ended at 4628.87, down 57.41, after plunging more than 130 points earlier in the session.
    (AP, 7/19/00)

1995        Nov 21, The Dow Jones Industrials in the US closed above 5000 for the first time to 5023.55.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)(AP, 11/21/97)

1995        Dec 18, The Dow industrials dropped 101.52 points, its biggest one-day loss in four years amid investor worries over the budget stalemate between Congress and President Clinton.
    (AP, 12/18/00)

1996        Mar 8, Wall Street plummeted in a major sell off triggered by seemingly good economic news—a drop in the nation’s unemployment rate and the biggest jobs gain in more than a decade. Investors apparently worried that a stronger economy would mean no more interest rate cuts from the Federal Reserve.
    (AP, 3/8/01)

1996        Mar 11, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average rose 110.55 to end the day at 5581 following a 171.24-point plunge the Friday before.
    (AP, 3/11/01)

1996        Apr 8, Stock prices plunged on Wall Street amid concerns over stronger-than-expected employment data. The Dow Jones industrial average fell 88.51 to end at 5,594.37.
    (AP, 4/8/97)

1996        Jul 15, The stock market took a tumble. The Nasdaq index dropped 43.11 points, its 2nd largest decline since 10/19/87 when it dropped 46.12 points.
    (SFC, 7/16/96, p.A1)

1996        Aug 2, Wall Street investors, worried about possible interest rate increases, roared their approval after the government reported that unemployment was creeping higher, consumer spending had slipped and manufacturing may have stalled.
    (AP, 8/2/97)

1996        Sep 13, The stock market hit a new record of 5,838.52 on the Dow.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec 5, Alan Greenspan warned that investors could be succumbing to “irrational exuberance." Nasdaq closed at 1300.12.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)

1997        Feb 3, The US stock market initiated new “circuit breakers." The first stop would kick in after a 350-point drop in the DJ industrial average.
    (WSJ, 2/3/97, p.A12)

1997        Feb 13, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average broke through the 7,000 barrier for the first time, ending the day at 7,022.44.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1997        Mar 14, The Dow Jones Industrial Average was updated with 4 new companies. Bethlehem Steel, Texaco, Westinghouse Electric and Woolworth were taken off the list and replaced by Hewlett-Packard, Wal-Mart Stores, Johnson & Johnson, and the Travelers Group.
    (SFC, 3/13/97, p.A1,15)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1997        Jun 2, The NASDAQ Stock Exchange began trading in 1/16th-point increments.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.C1)

1997        Jun 16, The Dow Jones Industrial Average climbed above 8,000 for the 1st time.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.I4)

1997        Aug 6, The Dow Jones reached an all-time high at 8,259.31.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 15, The Dow Jones dropped 247 points in its 2nd biggest point loss session ending at 7,694.66.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 2, The US stock market made a record 257 point gain.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.B1)

1998        Jan 9, The US Dow Jones stock market average dropped 222 points or 2.9% over fears about the financial crises in Asia.
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 12, Stocks plunged 222 points on the Dow Jones to 7580. [see Jan 9]
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.R4)

1998        Feb 13, The Dow Jones rose to another record high of 8,370.1.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.D1)

1998        Apr 3, The Dow Jones industrial average climbed above 9,000 for the first time, but finished with a 3.23 point drop at 8,983.41.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

1998        Apr 6, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 9,000 for the first time.
    (CNBC, 4/6/98)(AP, 4/6/99)

1998        Jul 23, The Pacific Stock Exchange announced an agreement to merge with the Chicago Board of Options Exchange.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 27, The DJIA fell 350 points and markets around the world fell in response to the problems in Russia.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 31, The DJIA fell 512 points, 6.37%, while the NASDAQ fell a record 140 points to 1499 amid news of political chaos in Russia and North Korea's apparent firing of a missile over part of Japan.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/31/99)

1998        Sep 1, The DJIA rebounded 288 points and the stock market set an all-time trading volume record with 1.201 billion shares traded on the NYSE.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 8, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average continued falling and was down 275 points at one time but rallied to close down only 10 points at 7731.91. The market turned on news that interest rates would come down.

1999        Oct 19, Travelers Group became Citigroup Inc.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1998        Nov 23, The Dow Jones hit a new record high at 9,374.27.
    (SFC, 11/24/98, p.A1)

1999        Jan 4,    Aluminum Co. of America became Alcoa.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1999        Mar 16, The Dow Jones industrial average briefly topped the 10,000 level, reaching a high of 10,001.78 before retreating.
    (AP, 3/16/00)

1999        Mar 29, The Dow Jones broke the 10,000 level and closed at 10,006.
    (SFC, 3/30/99, p.A1)

1999        May 3, The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 11,000, just 24 trading days after passing 10,000.
    (AP, 5/3/00)

1999        May 7, The Dow Jones closed at a record 11,031.59.
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.D8)

1999        Aug 23, The Dow Jones industrial average soared 199.15 to a new record of 11,209.84.
    (AP, 8/23/00)

1999        Nov 1,    Chevron, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Union Carbide and Sears Roebuck  were removed from the DJIA. Microsoft, Intel, SBC Communications and Home Depot were added to the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1999        Dec 1,    Exxon became Exxon Mobil.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1999        Dec 2,    Allied Signal became Honeywell Int'l. after merging with Honeywell.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1999        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 11,497.12.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

2000        Jan 14, The Dow Jones reached a peak high.
    (NW, 3/17/03, p.44)

2000        Mar 7, The DJIA fell 374 points in its 4th largest decline ever. The Nasdaq composite crossed the five-thousand mark for the first time before retreating.
    (SFC, 3/8/00, p.A19)(AP, 3/7/01)

2000        Mar 9, The US NASDAQ market reached a record 5,000, ten weeks after passing 4,000.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 10, Nasdaq reached a record high at 5048.62.
    (NW, 3/17/03, p.44)

2000        Mar 16, The DJIA rose a record 499.19 points to close at 10,630.6. the previous record of 380.53 was set on Sep 9, 1998. The DJIA reached a high of 10,001.78 before retreating.
    (SFC, 3/17/00, p.A1)(AP, 3/16/01)

2000        Apr 3, The Nasdaq plunged 349 points while the Dow rose 300.
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 4, In a volatile day on the US stock market, the Nasdaq composite index and the DJIA each plunged 554 points before but recovered with a loss of 74.79 as buyers flooded back into the market. The Dow fell 504 but recovered with a net loss of 57.
    (SFC, 4/5/00, p.A13)(AP, 4/4/01)

2000        Apr 12, Terayon Communications stock plunged 26% to 119.75. It had peaked 2 days earlier at $277.62.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A20)

2000        Apr 13, Shareholders led by Edward Rose III of Dallas filed a 58-page suit against the Terayon Communications for securities fraud, one day after the stock fell 26%. Rose, a short seller and founder of Cardinal Investment Co. had partnered with George Bush in the 1989 bid for the Texas Rangers.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A20)

2000        Apr 14, US stock markets plunged with the Dow down 617.78 to 10305.77 and the Nasdaq down 355.49 to 3321.29. Inflation fears were cited. This capped one of the worst weeks ever for US stocks. In Washington, protesters dumped manure on Pennsylvania Avenue, seeking to disrupt meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A1)(AP, 4/14/01)

2000        Apr 18, The Nasdaq gained 254.41 (7.19%) to 3793.57 for its biggest point gain ever.
    (WSJ, 4/19/00, p.C1)

2000        May 23, The US Nasdaq market fell 6% to 3,164.55.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 19, US stocks fell sharply as the Federal Reserve left the interest rate unchanged at 6.5%. Nasdaq fell 112 to 2,511.
    (SFC, 12/20/00, p.B1)

2000        Dec 20, US stock fell sharply. Nasdaq dropped 178 to 2,332, while the Dow dropped 265 to 10,318.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A1)

2001        Jan 2, J.P. Morgan became J.P. Morgan Chase after merging with Chase Manhattan.
     (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

2001        Jan 3, The Federal Reserve reduced interest rates by a half % and sent the Nasdaq up 324 points to 2616. The Dow rose 299 to 10,945.
    (SFC, 1/4/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb, Arthur Levitt, chairman of the US Securities and Exchange Commission, retired. In 2002 he authored “Take on the Street: What Wall Street and corporate America Don’t Want You to Know."
    (WSJ, 10/4/02, p.W1)

2001        Mar 9, The DJIA fell 213.63 to 10,644, while the Nasdaq fell almost 116 to close at 2052. Intel and Cisco announced thousands of job cuts.
    (SFC, 3/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 12, The DJIA fell 436 to 10,208. The Nasdaq fell 129 to 1923. The 61% Nasdaq drop since Mar 10, 2000, was the largest in its 30 year history.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 14, The DJIA fell 317 to close at 9,973. The Nasdaq fell 42 to close at 1,972.
    (SFC, 3/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 20, The US Federal Reserve lowered interest rates 0.5% but stocks dropped. The DJIA fell 238 to 9,720; the Nasdaq fell 93 to 1,857.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 3, The DJIA fell 292 to 9,485. The Nasdaq fell almost 110 to 1,673.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 5, The DJIA rose 402 to 9,918, its 2nd largest point gain ever. The Nasdaq rose 146 to 1,785, its 3rd biggest % increase.
    (SFC, 4/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 9, The WSJ noted that his was the 10th time since WW II that the S&P 500 dropped by 20% or more. 9 of the previous occasions showed an average gain of 18% a year later. In 1973, however, stocks fell an additional 35%.
    (WSJ, 4/9/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 9, The Nasdaq 4,880 stocks completed pricings to dollars and cents instead of fractions.
    (WSJ, 4/9/01, p.C9)

2001        Apr 10, The DJIA went up 257 to 10,102. The Nasdaq increased 106 to 1,852.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.B1)

2001        Apr 27, The US GDP was reported at 2% growth due to buying by American consumers. The DJIA rose 117 to 10,810. The Nasdaq rose 40 to 2,075.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A1)

2001        May 4, The US unemployment rate went up .2% to 4.5%, its highest level in 2 ½ years. The DJIA rose 154 to 10,951. The Nasdaq rose 45 to 2,191.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.A1)

2001        May 16, The DJIA rose 342 to 11,215. The Nasdaq rose 80 to 2,166.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.B1)

2001        May 25, It was reported that the US economy grew a revised 1.3% from Jan. to March. The DJIA dropped 117 to 11,005. Nasdaq dropped 31 to 2,251.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.E1)

2001        Nov 6, The Federal Reserve lowered interest rates for the 10th time this year. The half point drop put the benchmark fed funds rate to 2% and the discount rate to 1.5%, its lowest level in 40 years. The DJIA rose 150 to 9591. The Nasdaq rose 41 to 1835.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/7/01, p.A2)(AP, 11/6/02)

2001        Dec 5, The DJIA gained 129 to finish above 10,000 for the 1st time in 3 months.
    (SFC, 12/30/01, p.D8)

2001        Dec 11, The US Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates by .25% to 1.75% in the 11th cut this year. The Dow rose 33 to 9888. the Nasdaq 9 to 2001.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)

2002        Jan 30, The US Federal Reserve finished a 2-day meeting and did not change short-term interest rates. The DJIA rose 144 to 9,762. Nasdaq rose 20 to 1,913.
    (SFC, 1/31/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 8, Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing became 3M.
     (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

2002        Apr 18, The WSJ announced the and of its expert vs. dartboard portfolio following a 14-year contest.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.c1)

2002        Jul 10, The Dow Jones fell 282 to 8,813.5 and Nasdaq closed down 35 to 1,346.
    (SFC, 7/11/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 19, The Dow Jones industrials dipped below their post-terrorist attack lows in a 390-point sell-off.
    (AP, 7/19/03)

2002        Jul 22, The DJIA fell almost 234 points to 7,785. Nasdaq fell 3% to 1,283.
    (SFC, 7/23/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 23, The DJIA fell 82 to 7702. The Nasdaq fell 53 to 1229.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.C1)

2002        Jul 24, The DJIA rose 488 to 8,191 and Nasdaq rose 61 to 1,290.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 29, The DJIA rose 447 points to 8,711. It was the 3rd largest point gain in Dow history. Nasdaq rose 73 to 1,335.
    (SFC, 7/30/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 3, The DJIA fell 355 to 8308. Nasdaq fell 51 to 1263.
    (WSJ, 9/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 27, The DJIA fell 295 to 7701.45. Nasdaq fell 22.45 to 1199.16.
    (SFC, 9/28/02, p.B1)

2002        Sep 30, The DJIA fell 109 to 7591.90. The Nasdaq fell 27.1 to 1,172.
    (SFC, 10/1/02, p.B1)

2002        Oct 4, The DJIA fell 188 to 7,528. Nasdaq fell 25 to 1,139.
    (SFC, 10/5/02, p.B1)

2002        Oct 9, The DJIA fell 215 to 7,286. Nasdaq fell 15 to 1,114.
    (SFC, 10/10/02, p.B1)

 2002        Oct 10, The DJIA rose 247 to 7,533.95. Nasdaq rose 49 to 1,163.
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.B1)

2002        Nov 6, The US Federal Reserve cut interest rates .5% from 1.75 to 1.25. The Dow rose 92 to 8771 and Nasdaq rose 17 to 1418.99.
    (SFC, 11/7/02, p.A22)

2002        Nov 27, The DJIA rose 255 to 8,931. Nasdaq rose 43 to 1,487.
    (SFC, 11/28/02, p.B1)

2003        Jan 27, Philip Morris became Altria Group.
     (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

2003        Jan, The S&P 500 Index moved higher 36 times in January while falling 21 times since the end of WW II.
    (SSFC, 1/5/03, p.G5)

2003        Feb 11, Federal Chairman Alan Greenspan said that Pres. Bush’s tax cut would increase the federal budget deficits and voiced opposition.
    (SFC, 2/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 11, The DJIA fell 44 to 7524, the lowest level of the year, on war concerns and bad corporate news.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R8)

2003        Mar 31, The DJIA fell 153 to 7992.
    (SFC, 4/1/03, p.C1)

2003        Nov 7, The Cincinnati Stock Exchange, located in Chicago, renamed itself the National Stock Exchange. The CBOE owned 68% of it.
    (Econ, 11/15/03, p.69)

2003        Dec 11, The DJIA closed over 10,000 (10,008) for the 1st time in over 18 months.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Dec 18, The NYSE named John Thain, president of Goldman Sachs, as CEO.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2004        Mar 2, Alan Greenspan said interest rates are too low for long term economic stability, but did not indicate when they would be raised. The DJIA closed at 10,592.
    (WSJ, 3/3/04, p.A3)

2004        Mar 10, The DJIA tumbled for a 3rd session, down 160 to 10,296.
    (SFC, 3/11/04, p.C1)

2004        Apr 1, The DJIA removed AT&T, Kodak and Int'l. Paper and added American Int'l. Group, Pfizer and Verizon Comm.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C1)

2004        Apr 2, The US Labor Dept. reported a 308,000 increase in jobs along with a rise in unemployment from 5.6 to 5.7%. The DJIA rose 97 points in response to close at 10,470.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 6, US payroll data fell far short of expectations and sent the US and British markets crashing to the floor. New July jobs totaled 32,000. The Dow plunged 147 points to a new 2004 low of 9815.33.
    (AP, 8/6/04)(SFC, 8/7/04, p.C1)(WSJ, 8/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 4, Pres. Bush laid out plans to revamp taxes and social security. The DJ jumped 177 to close at 10314.76.
    (WSJ, 11/5/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 5, The DJ rose 72 to 10,387. The euro reached a new high of 1.2962 to the dollar. The US dollar fell to an all-time low against the euro as EU political leaders signaled they have no unified plan to stem the rise in their five-year-old currency.
    (SFC, 11/5/04, p.C1)(AP, 11/5/04)

2004        Nov 19, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan warned about spiraling deficits and the impact on the declining dollar. The Dow Jones fell 115 to 10456.9.
    (SFC, 11/20/04, p.C1)

2004        Roger Lowenstein authored "Origins of the Crash: The Great Bubble and Its Undoing."
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M3)
2004        Maggie Mahar authored "Bull! A History of the Boom, 1982-1999: What Drove the Breakneck Market, and What Every Investor Needs to Know about Financial Cycles."
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M3)

2005        Mar 4, The DJIA rose 107 to 10,940, its highest level since June, 2001.
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.A10)

2005        Apr 1, Oil prices closed on Nymex at a record $57.27 per barrel sending the DJIA down 99 points to 10,404.
    (SFC, 4/2/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 14, The DJIA dropped 125.18 to close at 10,278.75, the worst close since Nov 3, 2004. Oil futures closed at $51.13. The US dollar strengthened against other currencies.
    (SFC, 4/15/05, p.C3)

2005        Apr 15, The DJIA dropped 191 to close at 10,087, the worst close since May 19, 2003.
    (SFC, 4/16/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 20, The US government said consumer prices jumped 0.6 percent in March, the biggest inflation surge in 5 months, as the costs of energy, clothing and airline fares all rose sharply. The DJIA fell 115.5 to 10,012.36.
    (AP, 4/20/05)(SFC, 4/21/05, p.C1)
2005        Apr 20, The NYSE, in a move toward computerized trading, agreed to buy Archipelago Holdings of Chicago in a reverse merger. The new company, to be called NYSE Group was valued at $3.5 billion.
    (WSJ, 4/21/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 22, The Nasdaq Stock Market said it will buy Instinet Group’s electronic trading network for $934.5 million.
    (SFC, 4/23/05, p.C1)

2006        Jan 3, The US DJIA rose 129.91 to 10847.41 on expectations for an end to interest rate increases based the release of minutes from the Federal Reserve meeting in December.
    (WSJ, 1/4/06, p.A1)

2006        Jan 9, The US DJIA rose 52.59 to close at 11,011.9, its 1st close above 11,000 since Jun 7, 2001.
    (SFC, 1/10/06, p.E1)

2006        May 5, The DJIA rose 138 points to a 6-year high. A report of modest job growth triggered hopes that the Federal Reserve will soon end interest rate hikes.
    (SFC, 5/6/06, p.C1)

2006        Jun 5, Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke warned of concern on core inflation. His remarks knocked the DJIA down 199 points to 11,048.72.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.C1)

2006        Jul 12, The Dow Jones fell 121 to 11013 and NASDAQ closed down 38 to 2,090.
    (SFC, 7/13/06, p.C1)

2007        Jul 17, The Dow Jones industrial average crossed 14,000 for the first time before ending the day at 13,918.22.
    (AP, 7/17/08)

2007        Sep 18, The US Federal Reserve lowered interest rates by half a point triggering a rise in the DJIA of 336 points. The Dow close at 13,739.39. The federal funds rate was lowered to 4.75% and the discount rate was lowered to 5.25%.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.C1)(WSJ, 9/19/07, p.A1)

2007        Oct 31,     The US Federal Reserve cut interest rates by a quarter point to 4.5%. The DJIA rose 137.54 to 13,930.01. Nasdaq rose 42.41 to 2,859. Oil futures rose to a new record high closing at $94.53 per barrel on the NY mercantile Exchange. Gold traded above $800 an ounce for the first time since 1980.
    (SFC, 11/1/07, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/1/07, p.C1)(AP, 10/31/08)

2007        Nov 12, The Dow Jones industrial average closed below 13,000 for first time since August 2007.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Jan 4, The US Labor Department said hiring practically stalled in December, driving the nation's unemployment rate up to a two-year high of 5 percent and fanning fears of a recession. The DJIA fell 256.54 to 12800.18.
    (AP, 1/4/08)(WSJ, 1/5/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 11, The US Federal Reserve and other central banks said they will pump $200 billion into the financial markets to help ease the strain from the credit crisis. Wall Street rebounded with its biggest rally since 2002 at the DJIA rose 416.66 to 12,156.81
    (AP, 3/11/08)(SFC, 3/12/08, p.B1)

2008        Mar 18, The US Federal Reserve approved a .75% cut in the federal funds rate to 2.25%. This was aimed at shoring up the US financial system shaken by huge losses in the housing market. The DJIA responded with a gain of 420.41 to close at 12,392.66.
    (SFC, 3/19/08, p.C1)

2008        Sep 29, The US House of Representatives rejected the Bush administration’s $700 billion emergency rescue plan. Democrats voted 140 to 90 in favor, while Republicans voted 133-65 against the plan. The Dow Jones industrial average lost 777.68 points, its biggest single-day fall ever, easily beating the 684 points it lost on the first day of trading after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Crude oil futures closed down $10.52 in their biggest decline since Jan 17, 1991, when the US opened strategic oil reserves during the first Gulf war.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(SFC, 9/30/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/30/08, p.C8)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.30)

2008        Oct 3, The US House of Representatives voted 263-171 for the $700 billion economic rescue plan and Pres. Bush quickly signed the bill. Wall Street fell 157 points to 10,325.38, its lowest close since October 2005, as more economic bad news was made public.
    (AP, 10/4/08)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 6, Stock markets around the world fell on fears that the global financial crises will worsen. The DJIA fell 800.06 intraday ending down 369.88 to close at 9555.50. Oil prices closed at $87.81, its lowest settlement since February 6.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.D3)(WSJ, 10/5/08, p.C3)

2008        Oct 10, Global stocks dove head first to five-year lows at the end of a brutal week as even the traditional safe-havens of gold and government bonds suffered as fear-stricken investors sought refuge in cash. The DJIA fell 128 to close at 8451.19 in its most volatile day ever. Oil on the NY mercantile Exchange fell over 10% to close at $77.70 a barrel, its lowest level in over a year.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.C1)

2008        Oct 13, Stock markets rejoiced after governments worldwide launched multibillion-dollar bailouts to shore up banks, and Britain called for a new Bretton Woods agreement to reshape the world financial system. The US Central Bank said it would provide unlimited dollars the European Central Bank, the Bank of England and the Swiss National Bank. Britain committed £37 billion ($64 billion) to capitalize its big banks. Wall Street rebounded with the biggest stock rally since the Great Depression. The DJIA rose 936 points to close at 9,387.61, its largest point gain ever and one of its largest percentage increases.
    (Reuters, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/08, p.A3)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.83)

2008        Oct 20, The DJIA rose 413.21 points as Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke tentatively endorsed a new stimulus package.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Oct 22, The DJIA tumbled 514.45 to close at 8519.21, its 7th biggest point drop in history, as investors believed that the global economy is heading into a deep recession. Hungary’s central bank raised interest rates by 3 points, from 8.5% to 11.5%, to prevent a run on its currency. Argentine and Brazilian stock markets each fell about 10%. Former Fed Chief Alan Greenspan said he was wrong to think that financial markets could police themselves.
    (WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/08, p.C1)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.33)

2008        Oct 27, The DJIA fell 203 to 8,175.77, a 5½ year low.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A1)

2008        Oct 28, The DJIA rose 889.35 to 9,065.12, its 2nd biggest gain in the Dow’s history.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A1)

2008        Nov 19, The US DJIA fell to levels not seen since 2003. the DJIA closed down 427.47 at 7,997.28.
    (SFC, 11/20/08, p.C1)

2008        Nov 20, The DJIA fell 444.99 to its lowest level since March, 2003.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.C1)

2008        Nov 21, The DJIA rose 494.13 to close at 8,046.42 following news that Pres.-elect Obama would likely pick Timothy Geithner, chief of the New York Federal Reserve, as the next Treasury secretary.
    (SFC, 11/22/08, p.C1)

2009        Feb 23, The DJIA fell 250.89 (3.4%) to 7114.78, nearly half the peak it hit 16 months ago, and its lowest close in over 11 years.
    (WSJ, 2/24/09, p.A1)

2009        Mar 2, The US government unveiled a revamped rescue package to insurance giant American International Group (AIG) and will provide the troubled company with another $30 billion in taxpayer money on an "as needed" basis. The DJIA fell 299.64 to close at 6763.29, falling below 7,000 for the first time in 12 years.
    (AP, 3/2/09)(WSJ, 3/3/09, p.A1)

2010        May 6, The Dow Jones fell nearly 1000 points in intraday trading, but recovered to close at 10,520.32, down 347.8. Unrest in Greece and a trading glitch were cited as causes. After 5 months regulators said the “flash crash" was sparked by a sloppily executed sell order of one mutual fund group when the market was already jittery over economic turmoil in Europe.
    (SFC, 5/7/10, p.A1)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.107)

2010        May 25, The Dow Jones industrials plunged below 10,000 as investors worried about a global economic slowdown and tensions between North and South Korea turned away from stocks.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2011        Aug 4, The US stock market finished its worst day since the financial crisis. The DJIA plunged 513 points. It was the worst day for the Dow since October 22, 2008.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 8, Global stock markets sank again as worries over the downgrade of US debt outweighed relief at a European Central Bank pledge to buy up Italian and Spanish bonds to help the two countries avoid devastating defaults. The DJIA fell 634.76 points.
    (AP, 8/8/11)(SFC, 8/9/11, p.A7)

2011        Aug 10, The Dow Jones industrial average fell 519 points to close at 10,719.94. it has lost over 2,000 points in less than three weeks.
    (SFC, 8/11/11, p.D1)

2011        Aug 11, The DJIA rose 423.37 to close at 11,143.31 the 4th straight day this week of a net change of 400 points or more.
    (SFC, 8/12/11, p.D1)

2011        Aug 18, Stock markets around the world plunged as rising signs of a US recession combined with renewed worries over the financial health of Europe's banks.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amid fears of a eurozone collapse, central banks of the United States, the eurozone, Britain, Japan, Canada and Switzerland said that they would cut the cost of providing dollars to banks. The move pushed the DJIA up 490 points, its biggest gain since March 2009.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)(SFC, 12/1/11, p.D1)

2013        Nov 21, The Dow Jones industrial average (DJIA) closed at a record 16,009, its first close above 16,000.
    (SFC, 11/22/13, p.C3)

2014        Dec 19, The DJIA passed the 18,000 mark for the first time and the S&P 500 index closed at a record high for a 2nd day in a row.
    (SFC, 12/24/14, p.C1)

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