Timeline Enron Corp.

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1942        Apr 15, Kenneth Lay, the son of a Baptist minister, was born. He grew up in Rush, Missouri, and in 1986 became the CEO of Texas-based Enron Corp.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)

1985        Chuck Watson, former Conoco executive, led Natural Gas Clearinghouse in a joint venture that grew to become Dynegy Corp. In 1995 the company began trading electricity and acquired a listing on the NY stock exchange. Watson stepped down in 2002 in the wake of the Enron scandal.
    (WSJ, 5/29/02, p.A1)

1985        Texas-based Enron Corp. was formed when Houston Natural Gas combined with InterNorth Inc., a gas-pipeline company. Kenneth Lay (1942-2006) was named chairman and CEO in 1986. Enron filed for bankruptcy in 2001.
    (NW, 12/10/01, p.50)(SFC, 1/24/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)

1986        Kenneth Lay, founder of Enron Corp. (1985), served as chairman and CEO until he stepped down in 2001.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.61)

1992        India’s central government approved a foreign owned power project. Enron Corp. was contracted to build the Dabhol Power Co. in Maharashtra state.
    (WSJ, 2/5/99, p.A1)

1993        Enron Corp. persuaded the SEC to grant it an exemption from the depression-era Public Utility Holding Company Act that prevented utilities from diversifying into unrelated businesses.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.D1)

1997        Nov 5, The Enron executive committee approved several hundred million in loan guarantees for a new partnership named Chewbacca, to be partly owned and run independently by Enron executive Michael Kopper. This set a pattern for transactions that inflated earnings and kept debt hidden.
    (WSJ, 2/1/02, p.A1)

1997        Jeffrey Skilling became Enron’s chief operating officer, reporting to Kenneth Lay, until he replaced Mr. Lay as CEO in 2001.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.61)

1997        Enron won exemption from the Investment Company Act of 1940 which allowed it to leave debt from foreign power plants off its books.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.D1)

1997        Enron formed New Power Holdings to take advantage of the imminent opening to competition of retail electricity markets around the US.
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A1)

1998        Mar, Steven Stoft, an economist for FERC, warned that California’s deregulated energy market could be manipulated be energy generators.
    (SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A7)

1999        May 24, Enron Corp. scheduled thousands of megawatts through the tiny Silver peak transmission line in Southern California and drove up energy prices 71%.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.A1)

1999        Jun, Enron Corp. announced a 20-year power purchase agreement with the Palestinian Energy Authority. A $140 million, 136-megawatt power plant in the Gaza Strip was part of the plan. Work halted in 2000.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A9)

2000        Jan 20, Enron Corp. announced a deal with Sun Microsystems in which it would buy 18,000 computer servers, just before it released its earnings statement. It was later learned that at least one Enron partnership removed a hedge to limit price swings and made a gain of $80-100 million as Enron stock soared. The sun deal died within 6 months.
    (WSJ, 2/15/02, p.C1)

2000        Jan, In 2004 accounting records from a Washington state energy case detailed how Enron traders manipulated the Western energy market on 88% of 537 days between Jan 2000 and June 2001 reaping profits of $1.1 billion.
    (SFC, 6/15/04, p.E1)

2000        Jun 13, Temperatures in Oakland hit 95 degrees and broke a 1983 record by 7 degrees.
    (SFC, 6/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 14, Some 100,000 SF Bay Area residents experienced rolling blackouts.
    (SFC, 6/15/04, p.A11)

2000        Aug 8, Audiotapes recorded Enron traders deliberately congesting Western power lines: “If you can congest it, that’s a moneymaker no matter what.”
    (SFC, 6/15/04, p.A1)

2000        Aug 23, Pres. Clinton ordered millions in relief funds for electricity users in southern California and an investigation into the state’s power market.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 6, New Power Holdings, an IPO launched by Enron, climbed 29% to close at $27. In 2002 it was sold to a British energy firm for $1.05 per share.
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A1)

2000        Dec 8, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) lifted California’s $250 per megawatt-hour price cap and prices skyrocketed. Enron Corp. issued internal memorandums that its schemes to boost profits had nearly caused the lights to go out in California.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A18)(SFC, 5/10/02, p.A1)

2000        Dec 11, PG&E warned that it could soon run out of money due to high power demands and lack of reserves.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 13, The US energy secretary exercised emergency authority and ordered 12 generating companies to sell power to California.
    (SFC, 12/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec, Enron lawyers warned company executives that some of the California electricity trading practices were deceptive and possibly illegal.
    (SFC, 5/16/02, p.A1)

2000-2001    Enron made almost $1 billion off of California’s energy crises during this period. In 2006 Timothy Belden, the architect of Enron’s market manipulation schemes, said the profits came during the 9 months at the height of the crisis. He admitted to shipping power out of California and then selling it back, creating the appearance of a shortage, and jacking up prices.
    (SFC, 3/2/06, p.C1)

2001        Jan 5, Southern California Edison announced plans to cut 1,450 jobs to save $465 million due to high power costs.
    (SFC, 1/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 8, Gov. Davis offered a series of proposals to resolve the state energy crises. These included efficiency incentives, use cutbacks and power generation capacity increases.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 14, It was reported that power generators in California were suspected of shutting down power plants to sell high-valued natural gas contributing to high costs and power shortages.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 16, Southern California Edison said it would not be able to pay its outstanding bills. PG&E said it was days away from a default.
    (SFC, 1/17/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 17, Gov. Davis declared a state of emergency and ordered the Dept. of Water Resources to buy and sell electricity to help alleviate the crises. PG&E defaulted on $76 million in short term debt.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 18, The state legislature signed a $400 million energy rescue measure as Pres.-elect Bush rejected electricity price caps sought by Gov. Davis.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.A1)
2001        Jan 18, SF sued 13 energy providers for collusion to fix prices and restrict the energy supply.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.A12)

2001        Jan 23, Spencer Abraham, energy secretary, extended 2 federal emergency orders forcing power suppliers to continue selling electricity and natural gas to California.
    (SFC, 1/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 24, In California the state received bids for long-term electricity contracts in an auction to help ease the energy crises.
    (SFC, 1/25/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 1, State lawmakers enacted legislation to spend up to $10 billion for power. Gov. Davis ordered large retail outlets to dim lights with penalties beginning Mar 15.
    (SFC, 2/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 2, Mexico agreed to sell a small amount of power to California. The Bush administration refused to impose energy price caps despite pleas by Western governors.
    (SFC, 2/3/01, p.A3,8)

2001        Feb 5, California clinched deals for long term power contracts at $60-65 per megawatt hour as federal assistance ended.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 11, It was reported that the state PUC filed law suits against El Paso Natural Gas Co. for restricting competition in the natural gas market.
    (SSFC, 2/11/01, p.A11)

2001        Feb 16, Gov. Davis began negotiations to purchase 32,000 miles of transmission lines from the utilities that would allow them to issue bonds to pay off their debt.
    (SFC, 2/17/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 22, The state PUC voted to absolve PG&E and Southern California Edison of responsibility for costs above the revenue they collect from ratepayers.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A3)

2001        Mar 9, Federal regulators warned power companies that they may have to refund $69 million to California ratepayers for charging unreasonable prices.
    (SFC, 3/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 11, It was reported that California’s alleged growth of electricity use was significantly less than that portrayed by power industry.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 19, Rolling power blackouts hit California as alternative power generators shut down due to nonpayment by PG&E and Southern California Edison.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 20, Rolling blackouts continued for a 2nd day. PG&E and Edison called for an end to the rate freeze to accompany the sale of transmission lines.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 26, California state regulators proposed a 40% rate increase to help remedy the state’s energy crisis.
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 27, The state PUC voted an average monthly 40% energy rate increase.
    (SFC, 3/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 6, In California PG&E filed for bankruptcy with $9 billion in debt. Just before filing the utility awarded bonuses and raises to 6,000 senior managers and other employees. SF Judge Dennis Montali was assigned the case.
    (SFC, 4/7/01, p.A1,3)

2001        Apr 7, Gov. Davis said “PG&E’s management is suffering from two afflictions: denial and greed.”
    (SFC, 4/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 9, Gov. Davis and California Edison agreed to a $2.8 billion bailout deal that included state possession of 12,000 miles of power lines.
    (SFC, 4/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 17, California reported that daily energy costs had soared to $73.2 million per day.
    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 25, US federal regulators voted for a “mitigation” plan to tame wholesale electricity prices in California.
    (SFC, 4/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr, Pres. Bush nominated Thomas White, VP of Enron and former general, to serve as Army Secretary. White resigned Apr 25, 2003.
    (SFC, 4/26/03, A3)

2001        May 7, Rolling blackouts hit the state following record high temperatures.
    (WSJ, 5/8/01, p.A1)

2001        May 8, A 2nd afternoon of rolling blackouts hit the state.
    (SFC, 5/9/01, p.A1)

2001        May 9, It was reported that El Paso Merchant Energy had crimped space in its desert pipeline and forced power buyers to pay some $3.8 billion in excess over the past year.
    (SFC, 5/9/01, p.A7)

2001        May 15, In California energy regulators adopted the highest rate increase in the state’s history. The residential consumer burden was raised by over $100 million.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.A1)

2001        May 17, California energy regulators uncovered evidence that some electrical power companies repeatedly shut down generating plants for unnecessary maintenance.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A1)

2001        May 24, Gov. Davis issued an executive order requiring one hour’s notice prior to energy blackouts.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.A1)

2001        May 25, PG&E filed for permission to award $17.5 million in additional payouts to the management team that guided the company to bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A1)

2001        May 29, Pres. Bush met with Gov. Davis in California. Bush ruled out federal price controls and Davis said he would sue to impose controls.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A1)

2001        May 30, Gov Davis said he would use his executive powers to claim excess power from local utilities if they do not lower their prices to the state.
    (SFC, 5/31/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 11, Gov. Davis wrote an executive order to ease air pollution standards on power plants to avoid summer power outages.
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 14, It was reported that FERC planned to impose round-the-clock price restrictions on wholesale electricity sold to California.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 18, US federal regulators imposed a price ceiling on Western wholesale electricity prices effective June 19 to the end of summer.
    (SFC, 6/19/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 22, Former Duke Energy workers testified that production was ramped up and down at one San Diego plant to drive up electricity costs.
    (SFC, 6/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 14, Jeffrey K. Skilling stepped down as CEO of Enron Corp. after 6 months in the top job.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A8)

2001        Nov 28, Dynegy Corp. called off its $8.4 billion merger with Enron and Enron stock fell below $1 in the heaviest single-day trading volume for a NYSE or Nasdaq stock. Enron Corp. collapsed after Dynegy Inc. backed out of a deal to take it over.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A18)(AP, 11/28/08)

2001        Nov 30, Enron executives awarded themselves big bonuses 2 days before the company filed for bankruptcy (Dec 2). They soon reneged on severance pay promised to 4,500 laid-off employees.
    (SFC, 2/6/02, p.A1)

2001        Dec 2, Enron Corp. under CEO Kenneth Lay filed for bankruptcy. Employee fury in November persuaded Lay to give up a severance package worth about $60 million.
    (SFC, 12/30/01, p.D8)

2001        Dec 3, Enron took steps to bolster its weak financial footing following its historic bankruptcy filing, arranging $1.5 billion in financing and slashing 4,000 jobs, or 20 percent of its work force.
    (AP, 12/3/02)

2001        In India Enron Corp. and other investors shut down the Dabhol Power project in Maharashtra state after the state’s electricity authority fell $240 million behind in payments.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.66)

2001        In the year prior to bankruptcy some $681 million was paid to 140 Enron executives. This included $135 million in restricted stock that vested in 2001.
    (WSJ, 6/17/02, p.B1)

2001        Arundhati Roy authored “Power Politics.” It covered dam development in India and included the role of Enron Corp. in Maharashtra state projects.
    (PP, 2001)

2002        Jan 23, Enron CEO Kenneth Lay (59) resigned under pressure.
    (SFC, 1/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 24, A House committee opened hearings into the collapse of energy giant Enron Corp. Officials of Enron's accounting firm, Arthur Andersen, claimed fired auditor David Duncan was solely responsible for the massive destruction of Enron documents; Duncan refused to answer questions, invoking the Fifth Amendment.
    (AP, 1/24/03)

2002        Jan 25, A senior House Democrat called for Thomas White, Sec. of the Army and former Enron executive, to testify on his role at Enron.
    (SFC, 1/26/02, p.A15)
2002        Jan 25, J. Clifford Baxter, a former Enron vice-chairman, was found dead of apparent suicide in Sugar Land, a Houston suburb. He had reportedly complained about the company's questionable accounting practices.
    (SFC, 1/26/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A14)(AP, 1/25/03)

2002        Feb 1, President George W. Bush responded to the collapse of Enron by proposing regulation reforms of 401(k) retirement plans. Justice Department investigators directed Bush's staff to preserve the paper trail of any contact with Enron. The US Justice Dept. asked the president’s staff for all Enron-related documents back to Jan 1, 1999.
    (AP, 2/1/03)(SFC, 2/2/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 4, Former Enron chairman and chief executive Kenneth Lay resigned from the board, cutting his last tie to the company beyond stock ownership.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

2002        Feb 5, Committees in both the House and Senate decided to subpoena former Enron Chairman Kenneth Lay to appear to tell what he knew of Enron's complex financial dealings. (Lay did appear, but refused to testify, citing his Fifth Amendment rights.) At a Senate hearing, Deborah Perrotta, a laid-off Enron employee, wept as she described how her retirement savings all but disappeared when the company failed.
    (AP, 2/5/07)

2002        Feb 12, Kenneth Lay, former Enron CEO, pleaded the 5th amendment before a Senate panel investigation of the Enron demise. Lay expressed "profound sadness" about the collapse of the energy giant, but refused to testify at a Senate hearing.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A1)(AP, 2/11/03)

2002        Feb 14, Sharon Watkins, Enron Vice President, testified that Jeffrey Skilling was behind the accounting that led to the company’s bankruptcy and that CEO Kenneth Lay was probably duped by his executives and was unaware of the depth of Enron’s problems.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 20, Arthur Andersen pleaded innocent to charges it had shredded documents and deleted computer files related to Enron. Andersen was later found guilty of obstruction of justice; it received probation and was fined $500,000.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2002        Mar 26, Joseph Berardino, CEO of Arthur Anderson, resigned over the Enron fallout.
    (WSJ, 3/27/02, p.C1)

2002        Apr 7, Arthur Andersen announced it would lay off more than a quarter of its US workforce, a direct result of Enron filing for bankruptcy in the fall of 2001.
    (AP, 4/8/03)

2002        Apr 9, Former Arthur Andersen auditor David B. Duncan pleaded guilty in federal court in Houston to ordering the shredding of Enron documents, and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors. Duncan later withdrew his plea.
    (AP, 4/9/07)

2002        Apr 10, Arthur Anderson LLP agreed to a government condition that it admit to having committed a crime by destroying Enron documents last fall.
    (SFC, 4/11/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 11, The US House responded to the Enron collapse by voting to add more worker protections to pension laws.
    (AP, 4/11/03)

2002        Apr 19, Jeffrey McMahon, president and COO, resigned over pressure from creditors.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A6)

2002        May 6, Federal regulators released documents that showed Enron Corp. had manipulated the California power system to increase profits.
    (WSJ, 5/7/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 15, Arthur Andersen was convicted of obstructing justice by shredding Enron-related documents in a verdict that boosted prosecutors' efforts to get to the bottom of the Enron scandal. In 2005 the US Supreme Court overturned the conviction.
    (AP, 6/14/02)(SSFC, 6/16/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/17/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A1)

2002        Jul 12, The US Senate adopted a ban on personal loans from companies to their top officials, a practice that had benefited executives from Enron to WorldCom.
    (AP, 7/12/03)

2002        Jul 18, US Army Sec. Thomas White defended his sale of $12 million in Enron stock before the company went bust. Records showed that he had made 77 phone calls to Enron in the 10 months ending Feb 2002.
    (SFC, 7/19/02, p.A3)

2002        Aug 21, Michael Kopper, former Enron financial executive, pleaded guilty to charges related to wire fraud and money laundering. He admitted to large kickbacks to the CFO, Andrew Fastow, and agreed to return $12 million.
    (SFC, 8/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 2, Andrew Fastow (40), the former chief financial officer of Enron Corp. was charged with securities, wire and mail fraud, money laundering and conspiring to inflate Enron's profits and enrich himself at the company’s expense. On Sep 26, 2006, Fastow was sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/2/02)(SFC, 9/27/06, p.C1)

2002        Oct 17, Timothy Belden, former Enron executive, pleaded guilty to conspiracy and agreed to cooperate with federal prosecutors. Belden admitted to giving grid operators false information and shipping power from within California out of state and selling it back at higher prices.
    (SFC, 10/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec 22, Time magazine named Coleen Rowley, Cynthia Cooper and Sherron Watkins as Persons of the Year for their whistle-blowing efforts against the FBI, WorldCom and Enron.
    (SFC, 12/23/02, p.A2)

2002        Brian Cruver authored “Anatomy of Greed: The Unshredded Truth About Enron.”
    (SFC, 1/4/03, p.D1)

2003        Jun 3, Federal prosecutors charged John M. Forney, a former Enron energy trader, with criminal conspiracy and wire fraud.
    (WSJ, 6/4/03, p.B5)

2003        Jul 28, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. agreed to pay $305 million to settle actions related to loans and trades made with Enron Corp. and Dynegy Inc.
    (WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 19, Royal Bank of Canada said it would get $195 million plus interest from Enron Corp. and others in a settlement agreement related to the sale of 11.5 million common shares of EOG Resources.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Sep 10, Ben Glisan, former Enron treasurer, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to commit fraud and was sentenced to 5 years in federal prison.
    (WSJ, 9/11/03, p.A3)

2003        Sep 17, Three former executives of Merrill Lynch & Co. were indicted on fraud charges related to Enron Corp.
    (SFC, 9/18/03, p.B3)

2003        Oct 1, A federal judge in Texas ruled that former Enron Chairman Kenneth Lay and Northern Trust Corp., can be sued for allegedly failing to protect the Enron employee pension plan.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 31, Neal Batson ended his tenure as bankruptcy examiner of Enron. The 18-month probe had a final tab of $90 million. It included lawyer rates of as much as $600 an hour.
    (WSJ, 3/18/04, p.C1)

2003        Rebecca Smith and John R. Emshwiller authored "24 Days," an account of how they uncovered the complex financial instruments that Enron used to boost profits and hide debt.
    (WSJ, 8/7/03, p.C1)

2003        Federal energy regulators (FERC) validated California claims to 2000-2001 overcharges for energy and said the state is owed $3.3 billion in refunds from Enron and 5 other energy firms. California called for $9 billion.
    (SFC, 3/27/03, p.A1)

2004        Jan 14, Andrew Fastow, former Enron finance chief, agreed to a 10-year prison sentence and to help prosecutors build a case against Enron's executive officers. His wife, former Enron assistant treasurer Lea Fastow (42), received a 5-month prison sentence.
    (SFC, 1/15/04, p.B3)

2004        Jan 22, Enron Corporation's former top accountant, Richard Causey, surrendered to federal authorities; he pleaded innocent to conspiracy and fraud charges.
    (AP, 1/22/05)

2004        Feb 19, Jeffrey Skilling, former CEO of Enron, pleaded not guilty to 35 felony charges and was released after posting a $5 million bail.
    (SFC, 2/20/04, p.B1)

2004        May 6, Lea Fastow, wife of former Enron finance chief Andrew Fastow, pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge and was sentenced to one year in prison.
    (SFC, 5/7/04, p.C3)

2004        Jul 7, Former Enron chairman Kenneth Lay was indicted on criminal charges related to the energy company's collapse.
    (AP, 7/7/05)

2004        Jul 8, Kenneth Lay, former CEO of Enron Corp., was charged in Houston, Texas, with 11 counts of conspiracy and fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/8/04, p.A1)(USAT, 7/9/04, p.1B)

2004        Jul 15, Enron won approval to emerge from bankruptcy under a plan in which creditors would receive less than 20 cents on the dollar. The Enron name would also disappear.
    (SFC, 7/16/04, p.C1)

2004        Aug 5, John Forney (42), Enron energy trader, pleaded guilty in SF to charges of fraud and plotting to manipulate the market during the 2000-2001 California energy crises.
    (SFC, 8/6/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, A Houston jury convicted 4 former Merrill Lynch executives and a former mid-level Enron Corp, executive for a 1999 bogus sale of power plants off the coast of Nigeria.
    (SFC, 11/4/04, p.C3)

2004        Lynn Brewer authored “Confessions of an Enron Executive.”
    (Econ, 3/25/06, p.67)

2005        Jan 31, US energy officials said Enron Corp. made over $1.6 billion during the energy crises in 11 Western states from Jan 16, 1997 to June 25, 2003.
    (SFC, 2/1/05, p.E1)

2005        Feb 3, According to audio transcripts and documents unveiled by a public utility north of Seattle, fallen energy giant Enron Corp. was running scams to drive up the cost of power years before the 2000-01 West Coast energy crisis.
    (AP, 2/3/05)

2005        Jul 15, Bankrupt Enron Corp. agreed to pay up to 1.52 billion dollars to settle charges of market manipulation during the energy crisis that hit California and other western US states in 2000 and 2001.
    (AFP, 7/16/05)

2005        Aug 16, J.P. Morgan Chase agreed to pay $350 million to settle claims over the role it played in the fraud that led to the collapse of Enron in 2001.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.C3)

2005        Kurt Eichenwald, NY Times reporter, authored “Conspiracy of Fools,” an account of the Enron saga.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.D5)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.73)

2006        May 25, In Texas a jury found former Enron chiefs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling guilty of fraud and conspiracy in the collapse of the energy giant.
    (AP, 5/26/06)

2006        Jun 30, US prosecutors asked a federal judge to force former Enron chief executives Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling to forfeit $183 million for their crimes at the collapsed energy company.
    (Reuters, 6/30/06)

2006        Jul 5, Ken Lay (64). Enron Corp. founder and chief executive, died of a heart attack at his vacation home in Colorado. He was convicted in May for his role in the in the Houston-based company's downfall.
    (Reuters, 7/5/06)

2006        Nov 3, Barclays said it will to pay 144 million dollars to settle litigation arising from the collapse of US energy trading firm Enron in 2001.
    (AFP, 11/3/06)

2008        Feb 22, In Texas 3 British bankers were sentenced to just over three years in prison for their roles in a fraudulent scheme with former Enron Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow, and they're hoping to serve some of that time back home.
    (AP, 2/22/08)

2010        Apr 28, Sempra Energy, the parent company of San Diego Gas and Electric Co., agreed to pay $410 million to settle claims that it played Enron-style games with California’s electricity market during the 2000-2001 energy crises.
    (SFC, 4/28/10, p.D1)

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