Environmental Issues and Extinctions

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440-425 Million    The oldest known mass extinction, the Ordovician extinction, occurred about this time. A long ice age followed, but it is unknown if this was a cause or an effect. It was later speculated that a supernova within 10,000 light years of Earth may have been the cause.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, Par p.12)(SFC, 1/8/04, p.A4)

365-357 Million    A 2nd known mass extinction occurred near the end of the Devonian.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, Par p.12)(SFC, 3/19/04, p.A5)

c251 Mil BP    The worst mass extinction in Earth~ez_rsquo~s history occurred about this time. 90% of life in the oceans and 70% of land animals disappeared within a million years due to a suspected asteroid impact. This was later called the "Permian-Triassic Extinction" and "The Great Dying." Scientists later suspected that an eruption of flood basalt in Russia, the Siberian Traps, caused the massive extinction. [see 225 and 200 mil]
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/10/02, p.A6)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.78)

198 Million    In 2002 scientists presented research that indicated a cataclysm about this time in the Triassic due to a comet or asteroid that killed of species competing with dinosaurs. Iridium deposits and fern spores were cited as evidence.
    (SFC, 5/27/02, p.A6)(SFC, 3/19/04, p.A5)

65.3 Million    About this time a comet struck the area of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula and created a crater, known today as Chicxulub, about 150-180 miles (200 km) in diameter. The area at this time was covered by ocean. The asteroid is believed to have been 6-12 miles (10 km) in diameter. Evidence for this was gathered by Luis Alvarez. In 1997 Walter Alvarez published "T. Rex and the Crater of Doom," an account of this critical event. The impact was estimated at 5 billion times greater than the atomic bombs of WW II.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A3)(SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.7)(NH, 9/97, p.85)(WSJ, 3/2/04, p.B1)
        The asteroid that struck Earth wiped out the dinosaurs, about 80% of the world~ez_rsquo~s plants species and all animals bigger than a cat. In 2002 it also was estimated to have wiped out 55-60% of the plant-eating insects. A high oxygen level may have contributed to a worldwide firestorm.
    (SFC, 2/25/02, p.A4)(NH, Jul, p.62)

12Mil BC    Studies in 2011 of tiny pollen fossils buried deep beneath the seafloor suggested that the last remnant of vegetation in Antarctica vanished about this time.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3lqsfzz)

c50k BP    Scientists in 2004 reported that Earth may be in the middle its 6th big extinction event, which began some 50,000 years ago. A recent survey indicated population extinctions in all the main ecosystems of Britain.
    (SFC, 3/19/04, p.A5)

1450-1890    The period of the Little Ice Age. Temperatures over this period were a few degrees lower than during the 1900s.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)

1739        In northern California and Oregon some sort of extreme climactic event slowed the growth of redwood and other trees according to later tree ring studies by researchers.
    (SFC, 8/14/13, p.A9)

1757        Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) helped set up America~ez_rsquo~s first street cleaning service in Philadelphia.
    (Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.5)

1775        Jan 17, 9 old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1821        Ignatz Venetz, Swiss civil engineer, presented a paper titled ~ez_ldquo~Temperature Variation in the Swiss Alps~ez_rdquo~ to the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences, in which he described retreating ice glaciers and acknowledged Jean-Pierre Perraudin, a hunter and mountain guide, as the originator of the idea that a glacier had once occupied the full length of the Val de Bagnes. In 1833 Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855), a German-Swiss geologist, arranged to have the paper published.
    (ON, 10/08, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Charpentier)

1851        Jan 27, John James Audubon (b. 1785), wildlife painter and conservationist (Audubon Society), died. He was buried in NYC.
    (HNQ, 7/15/01)(MC, 1/27/02)

1852-1884    Hydraulic gold-mining in the Sierra released large amounts of mercury-enriched sediments into the SF Bay. Hydraulic mining was invented in the Bear River watershed. A report in 2000 was issued on high mercury content in fish in the Bear and Yuba Rivers.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A19)(SFC, 9/27/00, p.A3)

1855-1926    In Baja, Mexico, an estimated 3,350 gray whales were harpooned in their spawning grounds in Magdalena Bay.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1862        About this time land surveyor William Magee (1806-1892) and Charles Camden discovered an enormous mass of rich ore near Redding, California, and bought the land for an iron mine. Mining at the Iron Mountain Mine commenced in the 1890s.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)(http://shastacountyhistory.com/law_enforcement_history)

1866        The word "ecology" was coined by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel from the Greek oikos, for house, and logos, for discourse. It meant the study of the relations between living organisms and their environment.
    (NH, 2/97, p.4)

1869        Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895), French artist, amateur entomologist and immigrant to the US, imported gypsy-moth eggs to set up a silk production project in the backyard of his Medford, Mass., home. The moth became a national pest.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1870        Mar 18, The 1st US National Wildlife Preserve was Lake Merritt in Oakland, Calif. Lake Merritt, actually a tidal lagoon, was named after Samuel Merritt, a physician and one of the 1st mayors of Oakland.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W31)(SFC, 1/5/01, WBb p.8)(SFCM, 8/17/03, p.3)

1870-1970    In northern California the Selby smelter near San Pablo Bay released large amounts of lead into the Bay.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A19)

1875        A Nebraskan estimated a grasshopper swarm to be 1,800 miles long and 110 miles wide. In 2004 Jeffrey A. Lockwood authored ~ez_ldquo~Locust: The Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect that Shaped the American Frontier.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.M3)

1876        Jun 21, The first gorilla arrived in Britain.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1879        Feb 25, Congress passed the 1st Timberland Protection Act.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1880-1920    Over 2 billion board feet of white pine were shipped out of northern Minnesota to build the towns and cities of a growing America. In 2004 Jeff Forester authored ~ez_ldquo~The Forest for the Trees: How Humans shaped the North Woods.~ez_rdquo~
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.70)

1885        Mar 3, California became the 1st US state to establish a permanent forest commission.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1890        Apr 7, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, environmentalist (1st Lady of Everglades), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1890        Eugene Schieffelin, a German immigrant, released 40 pairs of European starlings in NYC~ez_rsquo~s Central Park. By 1959 the birds reached the Pacific coast. To honor his new homeland he had attempted to release every species of bird mentioned in the plays of Shakespeare. In 2002 the starling population in North America exceeded 200 million.
    (HNQ, 5/1/02)(AH, 6/02, p.42)

1894        The Mountain Copper Co. of Great Britain bought the Iron Mountain Mine north of Redding, California, and developed it into the only big copper producer on the Pacific Coast. The exposure of a large concentration of pyrite to oxygen water and bacteria created a poisonous runoff that ran into the Sacramento River. The mind was abandoned in 1966 but by the 1980s tons of acidic water still flowed into the river. The site became known as one of the most polluted places on Earth. In 2004 the EPA built the Slip Rock Creek Retention Dam to capture most of the toxic sludge. EPA management costs in 2010 were estimated at $200 million over the next 30 years.
    (http://ice.ucdavis.edu/education/esp179/?q=node/164)(SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)(SSFC, 8/29/10, p.A15)

1895        Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (b.1827), French artist, amateur entomologist and immigrant to the US, died. In 1869 he imported gypsy-moth eggs to set up a silk production project in the backyard of his Medford, Mass., home. The moth became a national pest.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1896        Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius predicted a warming effect due to an increase in heat-trapping atmospheric gases due mainly to the burning of fossil fuels.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.4)

1897        Pres. Grover Cleveland established a forest reserve in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state with sharp restrictions on commercial logging. 3 years later McKinley remanded a third of the reserve back to open logging.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1900        May 1, Andrew Putnam Hill, artist and photographer, and Stanford Pres. David Starr Jordan convened a meeting of citizens and academics at Stanford Univ. with the intent of saving redwood forests. Hill had attempted to photograph the burned redwoods of the 1899 Santa Cruz fire, but was barred unless he paid a local landowner for the privilege.
    (Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)(SFC, 5/20/00, p.A13)

1900        May 18, Andrew Putnam Hill, encamped at Slippery Rock with a Subcommittee in the Big Basin of the Santa Cruz Mountains, proposed the formation of an organization to save the Big Basin redwoods. The next day he passed a hat and collected $32. This was the birth of the Sempervirens Club of California. "Save the Redwoods" became its official slogan.
    (Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C1)

1901        A silver refinery was established in Torreon in Coahuila state. Land for housing was sold next to the area in the 1970~ez_rsquo~s and in 1998 a pediatrician began noticing high levels of lead among the children. The Met Mex Penoles plant had created a mountain of slag over the years and poisonous lead seeped into the blood of thousands of children in the area. In 1999 a plan was announced to evacuate a 20-block area. 393 homes were to be bulldozed for a 15-acre buffer zone in a $36 million cleanup program, the largest ever by a Mexican company.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.C2)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.37)

1902        The US Newlands Act established the Reclamation Bureau and began to enact some of the ideas of John Wesley Powell concerning control of western water resources. It resulted in the Newlands Irrigation Project in Nevada~ez_rsquo~s Fallon area and diverted water from the Carson and Truckee Rivers to new farmland.
    (HFA, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.128)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SFC, 12/28/02, p.A20)

1903        Pres. Theodore Roosevelt set aside the 5 acres of Pelican Island off the east coast of Florida to protect pelicans and other birds from hunters. This began the wildlife refuge system that grew to 537 national wildlife refuges in 2001.
    (SFC, 2/8/01, p.A2)

1905        Jan 5, Representatives of 35 state Audubon organizations incorporated as the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.12)(MC, 1/5/02)

1905        Mar 3, US Forest Service formed. President Theodore Roosevelt successfully lobbied Congress to create the Forest Service and appointed Gifford Pinchot, a fellow conservationist, to run the agency. Pinchot had studied forestry in Europe and worked for the U.S. government in various forestry positions since 1896. He stayed with the Forest Service until 1910 and contributed greatly to its early development and national attitudes towards conservation with his enthusiasm. In 1912, he helped former President Roosevelt found the Bull Moose Party. He later went on to serve as governor of Pennsylvania. His autobiography "Breaking New Ground," was published in 1947, a year after his death.
    (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A22)(HNQ, 4/20/01)(SC, 3/3/02)

1905        The federal government built the Klamath Project, a series of reservoirs and lakes on the California-Oregon border. The Federal Bureau of Reclamation began draining the Klamath Basin to help farmers. The Audubon Society lobbied Pres. Roosevelt to preserve some of the area, a major Pacific flyway for birds, and in 1908 he agreed.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A8)(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A15)

1905        Teddy Roosevelt established the million-acre Siskiyou Forest Reserve in Oregon.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T8)

1907        May 27, Rachel Carson (d.1964), biologist and writer (Silent Spring, The Sea Around Us), was born. "If a child is to keep alive his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it, rediscovering with him the joy, excitement and mystery of the world we live in."
    (AP, 12/29/98)(HN, 5/27/01)

1907        The Hague Convention instituted what some considered the first wartime environmental protections.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)

1908        Pres. Teddy Roosevelt declared parts of the Klamath Basin the first federal wildlife refuge.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.B4)
1908        Chase Lake, about 60 miles north of Bismarck, ND, was established as a protected area by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, to save a dwindling number of pelicans from hunters. The colony, down to 50 breeding pairs, peaked in 2000 with some 17,500 pairs on the 4,385-acre site.
    (SFC, 7/13/04, p.A2)
1908        Pacific Gas and Electric co. acquired a gas-making company in Daly City, Ca. Wastes contained lamp-black, a finely powdered carbon, and thick, sticky tars containing cancer-causing compounds.
    (SFC, 3/2/09, p.B1)

1909        Pres. Theodore Roosevelt established the Farallon Islands, 28 miles off the coast of San Francisco, as a wildlife refuge.
    (SFC, 2/17/05, p.A1)

1916        Aug 25, The National Park Service was established within the Department of the Interior by the Organic Act. Horace Albright and Stephen Mather helped persuade the US Congress to establish the organization.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(www.nps.gov/legacy/organic-act.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/mr6gc)

1918        Jul 3, The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the oldest US environmental conservation law, prohibited killing or harassing birds migrating across international borders.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.A5)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.A4)(www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/migtrea.html)

1918        In Northern California the 33-mile Avenue of the Giants, a 52,000-acre area of river and redwoods, was established by the Save the Redwoods League.
    (SFCM, 7/18/04, p.29)

1921        Aug 3, The 1st aerial crop dusting was in Troy, Ohio, to kill caterpillars.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1926        U.S. Radium stopped processing radium at its Orange, NJ, facility. In 1983 the EPA put the 2-acre plant site on its Superfund national Priorities List. In2006 the EPA declared the site clean and that concerns over contaminated groundwater had been effectively addressed.
    (AH, 10/07, p.37)

1930        US Congress passed the first federal wilderness preservation law and set aside over 1 million acres in northern Minnesota as the Superior Primitive Area.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.6)

1930s        Nutria rodents were introduced to Louisiana from Argentina. The propagated rapidly and by 1997 were threatening acres of fragile wetlands due to their feeding on plant roots.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A5)

1930s        Millions of mitten crabs migrated up Germany~ez_rsquo~s major rivers. They clogged dams and climbed onto shore where they wandered city streets and entered homes. They devastated fisheries and destroyed river banks and levies causing floods and other damage.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.6)

1932-1968    The Chisso Corporation, located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. The name Minamata Disease was coined in 1956 to identify villagers suffering dizzy spells with troubles walking and speaking. Growing numbers fell into convulsions, wasted away and died.
    (www.american.edu/TED/MINAMATA.HTM)

1935        Monsanto began producing PCB in Indiana and Anniston, La. PCBs were banned in 1979. Tons of PCBs were released into the Anniston environment and hidden from the public for over 40 years.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A7)

1935        Cane toads were introduced from South America to wipe out beetles that were devastating Queensland's sugar cane industry. The beetles survived and the toads became a pest and a threat to the native quolls, small spotted marsupials.
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.38)

1937        Jun 10, San Francisco police began the destruction of some 400 slot machines seized in the past years. They planned to dump the destroyed machines in the SF Bay.
    (SSFC, 6/10/12, DB p.42)

1937-1938    An infestation of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) in Montana and Wyoming caused nearly $1 million in crop damage.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.A3)

1938        Jun 29, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, and Olympic National Park, Washington, were founded.
    (HN, 6/29/01)

1939        The California state Division of Fish and Game, concerned about dead fish near Redding, launched a study and found a creek downstream from Iron Mountain getting 2,876 pounds of copper a day. The state told mine operators to reduce metals and acid drainage.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)(SSFC, 8/29/10, p.A15)

1940-1949    During the 1940s the Associated Sportsmen of California repeatedly warned of damage to the salmon population near Redding and urged the government to release water from Shasta Lake to dilute the poisons from Iron Mountain.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)(SSFC, 8/29/10, p.A15)

1941-1974    Hunters Point Shipyard in SF was a major repair and dry-dock facility for destroyers, frigates and other warships. The work left hazardous materials such as lead, nickel, cadmium, asbestos and PCBs in the soil, groundwater and structures.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1943        Jan 17, US Tin Can Drive Day.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1944        California state officials blamed the pollution from Iron Mountain, near Redding, for killing a third of the salmon run before they could spawn.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)

1945-1947    The US West Coast sardine industry plummeted from abundance to empty nets.
    (PacDis, Summer ~ez_rsquo~97, p.2)

1945-1970    Some 47,000 55-gallon drums of radioactive waste, from US government research programs, was dumped near the northern California Farallon Islands.
    (SFC, 7/8/05, p.F2)

1946        Dec 2, The International Whaling Commission prohibited the hunting of gray whales worldwide when their numbers were down to the thousands. The IWC was set up to regulate whaling and promote whale conservation. Scientific studies and the commercial reality of fewer whales led to the implementation of bans on hunting many whale species such as the humpback whale in 1963 followed in 1965 by a hunting ban on the blue whale (the largest creature known to have ever existed). Although the IWC attempted to ban all commercial whaling in 1986, some countries refused to agree.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)(www.iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm)(HNQ, 2/20/01)

1946-1970    Some 62,000 steel drums of nuclear waste were dumped into the oceans from 1946-1970. In 1976 EPA scientists reported that they had discovered plutonium in the ocean sediment off the SF coast and radioactive cesium leaking from containers 120 miles east of Ocean City, Md.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.WB6)

1946-1977    PCBs were released into the Hudson River by 2 General Electric plants and were buried in sediment along 197 miles that was later declared a Superfund site. The EPA expected GE to dredge some 35 miles at a cost of some $1 billion. GE fought the cleanup law and was also involved in Superfund sites at Hoboken NJ and Milford NH. Cleanup of the Hudson River began in 2009 at an estimated cost of $750 million, to be paid by GE. The sludge was scheduled to be buried in West Texas.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A10)(SFC, 5/16/09, p.A5)(SFC, 6/22/09, p.A9)

1947        Jun 10, California Gov. Earl Warren signed a measure that gave each county the authority to regulate its own air pollution. This was America~ez_rsquo~s first statewide air protection law.
    (SFEC,11/10/97, p.A10)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.29)

1947        California founded a state forest system with sustained yield as a goal. The Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection assumed responsibility for a cutover area near Fort Bragg that became the Jackson Demonstration Forest.
    (SFC, 11/28/02, p.A27)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.E3)

1947-1971    In southern California Montrose Chemical Co. manufactured DDT during this period and released about 2,000 tons of the pesticide into sewers that flowed to the ocean. In 2007 fish caught off Los Angeles County's coast still contained high levels of DDT, banned since 1972, decades after a manufacturer dumped tons of the pesticide into sewers, creating a toxic plume on the ocean bottom.
    (AP, 1/28/07)

1948      Oct 31, By this date some 20 people died and 6,000 were made ill by smog from steel and zinc plants in Donora, Pennsylvania. Between October 26 and October 31, 1948, an air inversion trapped fluoride effluent from the Zinc Works. In three days, 18 people died. After the inversion lifted, another 50 died. Hundreds more finished the rest of their lives with damaged lungs and hearts. Both plants closed in 1966. In 2002, ~ez_ldquo~When Smoke Ran Like Water~ez_rdquo~ was published by Devra Davis.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donora,_Pennsylvania)(SSFC, 11/2/08, p.A6)

1948        Oct, The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Union for the Protection of Nature was formed. In 1956 it changed its name to the Int~ez_rsquo~l. Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUPN).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Union_for_Conservation_of_Nature)

1948        The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Whaling Commission (IWC) was founded by 7 countries with large whaling fleets. It included America, Australia, Britain, France, Norway, South Africa and the USSR.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.15)
1948        The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Maritime Organization (IMO) was set up. Preventing pollution was one of its original aims. An international conference in Geneva adopted a convention formally establishing IMO (the original name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, or IMCO, but the name was changed in 1982 to IMO).
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.69)(http://www.imo.org/About/Pages/Default.aspx)
1948        The Russian Mayak plant in the Chelyabinsk region of the southern Urals began processing weapons grade plutonium. By 1997 it had released more than 5 times the radioactivity of all above-ground atomic tests put together. Substances such as strontium-90 and cesium-137 had seeped into waterways and ground water and traces were detected in the Arctic Ocean over 600 miles away.
    (SFC,12/27/97, p.A15)(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A8)

1949-1951    The Mayak nuclear plant in the Chelyabinsk region of the southern Urals dumped some 228 million cubic feet of toxic nuclear waste into the Techa River. People in the region started dying in the early 1950s and dumping stopped.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.A8)

1949-1963    Commercial whaling reduced the number of Humpback whales from some 12,500 to 400. A ban ended commercial whaling in the southern hemisphere  in 1963 and by 1998 the number of whales increased to some 2,500.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A8)

1950        The Nature Conservancy was founded by a handful of biologists and ecologists that included Richard H. Pough (d.2003 at 99), who served as the 1st president.
    (SFC, 6/26/03, p.A20)

1950        Berkeley, Ca., 1st noted smog damage to vegetation.
    (SFC, 2/18/05, p.F4)

1950        An industrial explosion exacerbated oil leakage into Newtown Creek, which separates Brooklyn from Queens. The problem was ignored until the coast Guard rediscovered it in 1978 and determined that oil was leaking from nearby refineries and storage facilities. In 1990 ExxonMobil signed a consent agreement with the state of NY to clean up the creek. In 2007 oil still floated on the water.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.32)

1951-1966    PG&E released chromium into the environment of Hinkley in San Bernadino Ct., Ca., over this period. Residents suffered from numerous illnesses and were not informed until 1987. [see Brockovich 1993]
    (SFC, 3/16/00, p.A17)

1952        May 15, California~ez_rsquo~s Central Valley Regional Water Pollution Control Board issued resolution No. 127 barring entry of perchlorate and 8 other chemicals into local groundwater and the American River. Medical researchers soon published that perchlorate blocks the uptake of essential iodide into the thyroid. Aerojet Corp., a rocket fuel manufacturer, objected and continued untreated discharges.
    (WSJ, 12/16/02, p.A9)

1952        Dec 5-1952 Dec 8, A 4-day London smog killed 4,703 people. Oxides of sulfur and other irritants from coal smoke were blamed.
    (PCh, 1992, p.937)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Smog)

1953        Jul 14, The freighter Jacob Luckenbach from SF rammed the Matson freighter Hawaiian Pilot near Point Montara, 17 miles from the Golden Gate. The Luckenbach sank while the Hawaiian Pilot limped to SF. Oil leaked from the Luckenback later killed numerous birds. In 2002 a $3.5 million plan for cleanup was begun. A $19 million cleanup ended in Sep.
    (Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)(SFC, 2/5/02, p.A15)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A22)(SFC, 10/1/02, p.A13)

1954        Apr 25, Bell labs in NYC announced the 1st solar battery.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1954        A.J. Liebling, New York reporter, returned to Pyramid Lake and wrote some stories on mustang buzzing, the practice of chasing wild mustangs with small planes into corrals to sell them for pet food.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.12)

1956        Jul 26, Andy Goldsworthy, British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist, was born. He produced site-specific sculpture and land art situated in natural and urban settings. He lives and works in Scotland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andy_Goldsworthy)

1956        In Japan the term Minamata Disease was coined to identify villagers suffering dizzy spells with troubles walking and speaking. Growing numbers fell into convulsions, wasted away and died. Chisso Corp. had polluted Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea with deadly methylmercury. By 2007 at least 2,000 people had died from eating tainted fish.
    (AP, 9/30/07)

1956-1972    In California large industrial corporations legally poured some 35 million gallons of industrial waste into the Stringfellow Acid Pits near Glen Avon. The dumping was halted when it was noticed that pollutants were leaking into the ground water. In 1978 a large rainfall forced the release of more than a million gallons of polluted water into the Pyrite Canyon, which drained into a creek bed that flowed through the community of Glen Avon. In 1982 Stringfellow was declared a Superfund site.
    (WSJ, 4/14/99, p.CA1)

1957        Oct 7, A fire in the Windscale plutonium production reactor (later called Sellafield) north of Liverpool, England, spread radioactive iodine and polonium through the countryside and into the Irish Sea.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1957        A fire at the Colorado Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant released some plutonium in the smoke. The fire was kept secret until 1969 when another fire released more plutonium.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.A3)

1957        A nuclear waste container exploded at the Mayak plant in the Chelyabinsk region of the southern Urals and 20 million curies of deadly strontium and cesium were released. This was about 40% of the amount later released at Chernobyl. Some 9,200 square miles were contaminated.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.A8)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.E1)

1958        Feb 19, Hail the size of baseballs was reported with flash lightning over parts of Minneapolis.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1958        Mar, Charles D. Keeling (1928-2005) installed a gas analyzer on the slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii. It gave a reading of 314 ppm for carbon dioxide. It was part of the International Geophysical Year project and the carbon dioxide research was under Keeling. The atmospheric chemist had begun monitoring the pure air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and the South Pole. Subsequent CO2 readings indicated climbed steadily and became known as the Keeling Curve. After one year of gathering data it was clear that the whole planet has an annual cycle for photosynthesis and respiration that is visible by measuring carbon dioxide concentration. [See 1988]. 50 years later the CO2 reading was about 387 parts per million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_David_Keeling)(WSJ, 12/14/07, p.B1)(Econ, 9/17/11, p.89)

1958        May 18, Chairman Mao Tse Tung spoke at the Second Session of the Eight Party Congress and called for schoolchildren to assist in the elimination of the four pests, which included sparrows, rats, flies and mosquitoes. A massive 3-day campaign soon began to exterminate sparrows, which were thought harmful because they ate the peasant's grain. Numerous other birds were killed in the process and the following year a plague of locusts became a problem. In 2001 Judith Shapiro, Donald Worster and Alfred W. Crosby authored ~ez_ldquo~Mao's War Against Nature: Politics & the Environment in Revolutionary China.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://tinyurl.com/8gbhg)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/7m9egc)

1958        The virus that causes hemorrhagic fever was identified. A rare mouse that is both host and vector of the disease in Argentina rapidly multiplied when rangelands were converted to maize fields.
    (NH, 2/97, p.53)

1958        The Northern California Iron Mountain mine owner built a small treatment plant to capture copper and halt the killing of salmon.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)

1959        The US Fish and Wildlife Service recommended that Iron Mountain mine owners seal mine tunnels or collect mine drainage in a reservoir to halt the killing of salmon in northern California.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)

1959        Ecuador turned 97% of the Galapagos Islands into a national park.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)

1960        Mar 21, California state officials dumped radioactive waste from civilian installations into the ocean about 50 miles off of San Francisco at a site that the Navy and other Atomic Energy contractors have been using since 1946. The waste was mixed with concrete, sealed in 55-gallon steel drums and dumped in about 7,500 feet of water.
    (SSFC, 3/21/10, DB p.46)

1960        California ordered smog control devices on cars. It was the first such law in the country.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)

c1960    In Utah the Tooele Army Depot decided to dispose of its old munitions by blowing them up every spring and summer. In an uncritical climate Magcorp magnesium refinery set up shop nearby and split magnesium chloride extracted from the Great Salt Lake. A hazardous waste zone, incinerators and landfills followed. In 1999 Chip Ward authored "Canaries on the Rim: Living Downwind in the West."
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, BR p.4)

1960s    A walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), imported from Bangkok, walked away from a fish farm west of Deerfield Beach. By 2002 it had spread to 20 counties in South Florida.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A2)

1960-1966    Later studies showed that the worldwide amphibian population declined 15% per year during this period.
    (SFC, 4/13/00, p.A4)

1960-2000    Madagascar lost half of its forests over this period.
    (Econ, 3/1/14, p.94)

1961        Sylvia McLaughlin, Kay Kerr (d.2010 at 99) and Esther Gulick (d.1995) founded the Save the Bay Association in an effort to stop plans by the city of Berkeley to create 2,000 new acres by filling in shallow bay waters. Their efforts led to the 1965 McAteer-Petris Act, which placed a moratorium on filling the San Francisco Bay.
    (SFCM, 10/5/03, p.13)(SFC, 5/10/04, p.B5)(SFC, 1/3/11, p.C4)
1961        Guy Mountfort (d.2003) and 3 other Britons: zoologist Sir Julian Huxley, broadcaster Peter Scott and wildlife advocate Max Nicholson, founded the Swiss-based World Wildlife Fund.
    (AP, 5/1/03)

1962        Jan 18, The U.S. sprayed foliage with pesticide in South Vietnam, in order to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1962        Rachel Carson (d.1964) published "Silent Spring" and exposed the pesticide industry and its effects on the environment: "They should not be called ~ez_lsquo~insecticides~ez_rsquo~, but ~ez_lsquo~biocides.~ez_rsquo~" Carson entered the Pennsylvania College originally planning to major in English. Instead, she grew more interested with the natural world, graduating in 1929 with a bachelor~ez_rsquo~s degree in biology. After graduate work at Johns Hopkins University and a teaching stint, she worked for the U.S. government until the early `50s. She combined her interests in writing and ecology and reached a wide audience with the publication of her first book, Under the Sea-Wind (1941). Her following works were also praised for their scientific accuracy and readable prose. Her book "Silent Spring," which documented the contribution of pesticides to declining songbird populations, came out when DDT and similar insecticides were used in abundance.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.70)(HNQ, 4/18/01)

1962        Boyd Stewart, a Marin, Ca., cattleman, helped create the Point Reyes National Seashore on 70,000 acres of grassland.
    (SFC, 1/1/05, p.A14)

1962-1971    US military tanker planes and helicopters sprayed 20 million gallons of Agent Orange and other defoliants in Operation Ranch Hand to deny cover to communist forces. The defoliants were contaminated with TCDD, the most dangerous form of dioxin. In 2004 Philip Jones Griffith, photojournalist, authored "Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam."
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)(Econ, 1/31/04, p.82)

1962-1973    In Utah the Deseret Test Center conducted 46 chemical warfare exercises at Fort Douglas.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

1963        Nov 25, Assassinated President John F. Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. A bronze casket that was used to transport JFK to Washington was flown off the Maryland-Delaware coast and dropped into a 9,000 feet deep military dump site.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(HN, 11/25/98)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A3)

1964        Apr 14, Rachel L. Carson (56), American biologist, author (Silent spring), died. She raised public awareness of environmental pollution and ecological issues with a number of best-selling books--notably Silent Spring (1962). In 1997 Linda Gear wrote the biography: "Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature." In 2012 William Souder authored ~ez_ldquo~On a Farther Shore: The Life and Legacy of Rachel Carson.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.3)(HNQ, 4//01)(SSFC, 9/2/12, p.F4)

1964        Sep 3, Pres. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act and designated 9 million acres as an area "where the Earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." It allowed for roadless federal lands to qualify for wilderness protection. In 1999 the act sheltered over 100 million acres. Conservationists stopped a dam in Echo Park in Dinosaur National Monument and persuaded Congress to pass the Wilderness Act to provide permanent protection to wilderness areas.
    (NG, May 1985, p.669)(SFC, 8/6/93, p.C4)(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.6)

1964-1992    Texaco dumped nearly 20 billion gallons of toxic waste into open pits, estuaries and rivers and allegedly polluted some 2.5 million acres of pristine rain forest. Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001 and a suit over the toxic waste went to trial in Ecuador in 2003.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A8)

1965        Raymond Dasmann (d.2002 at 83) authored "The Destruction of California." He later authored "Wildlife Biology" (1981) and "Environmental Conservation" (1984). In 2002 he authored "~ez_rsquo~The Autobiography of a Conservationist."
    (SFC, 11/7/02, p.A26)

1965        The US Congress established the Land and Water Conservation Fund. It was to receive $900 million a year from federal oil and gas revenues for acquisition of sensitive lands and wetlands, but the money was never dedicated for the intended purpose.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A21)

1965        Brazil~ez_rsquo~s Forest Code of this year required private landowners to leave to leave forests standing on part of their farms. In the Amazon this was set at four-fifths. This particular requirement has never been effectively implemented.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.47)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_Forest_Code)
1965        Niger's began planting trees for a green belt around its capital, Niamey, five years after the country proclaimed independence from France. Planting continued to 1993 as funding for the 4.5 million-euro (6.2 million-dollar) project came mainly from abroad. The belt began to decline as hundreds of rural people fled to the capital to escape the severe famine of 1984. By 2011 almost half of its original 2,000-hectare (nearly 5,000-acre) surface area had disappeared.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)
1965        The Norwegian whaling stations on St. Georgia Island closed. Some 175,250 whales had been processed there.
    (SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T11)

1966        Jan 17, Two US Air Force jets collided in the skies over Spanish coastal village of Palomares. The mid-air crash of the B-52 bomber and a KC-135 refueling plane killed 8 crew members. The real scare was a missing hydrogen bomb which was found 2 months later, intact, in nearby waters.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1966        Oct 15, US Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act. It was expanded in 1973 as the Endangered Species Act. The Devils Hole Pupfish of Death Valley were among the first species protected. By 1972 only 124 remained. By 2007 only 42 were left.
    (www.fws.gov/endangered/1966listing.html)

1966-1997    Later studies showed that the worldwide amphibian population declined 2% per year during this period.
    (SFC, 4/13/00, p.A4)

1967        Apr-May, The US military conducted chemical warfare tests, Red Oak, Phase 1, in the Upper Waiakea Forest Reserve of Hawaii using shells and rockets filled with sarin gas.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

1967        Nov 21, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Air Quality Act, allotting $428 million for the fight against pollution.
    (HN, 11/21/98)(AP, 11/21/07)

1967        Dennis Pulestin (d.2001 at 95) helped found the Environmental Defense Fund to fight DDT spraying and to campaign for better environmental protection.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1967        The US declared the eagle an endangered species.
    (SFC, 6/18/99, p.A3)

1967        In Livermore, Ca., a small amount of plutonium accidentally leaked out of the Lawrence Livermore Lab. and into the sewer system. The sewer sludge was sold to Tri-Valley residents as a soil conditioner for gardens and lawns. The 4.2-acre Big Trees Park later tested higher than background for plutonium but experts assured residents that there was no real danger.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.A22)

1968        Oct 2, The 2,650-mile Pacific Crest Trail, spanning Mexico to Canada, was designated a National Scenic Trail as part of the US National Trails System Act.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Crest_Trail)

1968        Open air testing of chemical weapons at the US Army Dugway Proving Grounds in the Utah desert caused the deaths of some 3,600 [6,400] sheep in an adjacent valley.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 6/1/98, p.A1)

1968        A US B-52 bomber with 4 nuclear bombs cashed 12 miles from Greenland~ez_rsquo~s Thule air base. Caner reports began to surface later and in 1955 the Danish government paid a $15.5 million settlement to some 1,700 exposed workers.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.C3)

1968        Washington state~ez_rsquo~s North Cascades National Park was dedicated.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.D7)

c1968-1969    James F. Phillips (d.2001 at 70) began engaging in environmental activism in the Fox Valley area of Illinois after he found dead ducks in the Fox River. He was later described as the 1st notorious eco-saboteur.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.A25)

1969        Jan 29, An undersea oil well off Santa Barbara, Ca., suffered a blowout and over the next 11 days released some 200,000 gallons of oil that spread over 800 square miles of ocean and soiled 35 miles of coastline.
    (www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/sb_69oilspill/69oilspill_articles2.html)

1969        Feb 5, US population reached 200 million.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1969        Nov 20, The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT as part of a total phase-out.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1969        Pres. Nixon signed a National Environmental Policy Act. It required the government to review environmental implications of its projects. In 2002 the Bush administration held that the act does not extend beyond a few miles of territorial waters.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A3)

1969        Friends of the Earth, an international network of environmental organizations, was formed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friends_of_the_Earth)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.8)
1969        Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890-1998), American journalist and environmentalist, helped found Friends of the Everglades, a Florida-based conservation organization.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marjory_Stoneman_Douglas)(SFC, 5/15/98, p.D7)
1969        Patrick Moore helped to start Greenpeace with a "Save the Whales" theme and served as a leader for the next 15 years.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)
1969        Ben Metcalfe (d.2003 at 83) coordinated the initial campaigns of the  Winnipeg-based Don't Make a Wave Committee (later Greenpeace) against planned nuclear tests in the Aleutian Islands.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)
1969        In northern California after a heavy rain some 1,600 fish, mostly adult and yearling salmon, died of copper poisoning below the Kewick Dam.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)

1970        Jan 1, Pres. Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act into law.
    (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Environmental_Policy_Act)

1970        Feb 20, Students at San Jose Univ., Ca., buried a brand new Ford Maverick as part of their Survival Faire. The Maverick was exhumed one year later.
    (SFC, 4/20/10, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/yyplgjc)

1970        Apr 22, The first Earth Day and Earth Week was celebrated and millions protested pollution on Earth and their concern for the environment. The event was organized by a 33-member committee in Philadelphia. Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson suggested Earth Day as a means to focus national attention on ecological issues. Gaylord selected Pete McCloskey as co-chairman. Organizers later identified 12 anti-environment members of the US House and Senate, 7 of whom soon lost their seats.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A23)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E3)(http://www.nelsonearthday.net/)

1970        Dec 2, The Environmental Protection Agency began operating under director William Ruckelshaus. Pres. Nixon appointed a 3-member Council on Environmental Quality that included journalist Robert Cahn (d.1997 at 80). It was the first centralized White House office to advise the president on environmental matters. Cahn served to 1972. President Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA took over certain functions previously handled by the departments of the Interior, Agriculture and Health, Education and Welfare in an effort to set and enforce national pollution-control standards. The first task it was given was the administration of the Clean Air Act, passed that same year. Currently, the EPA enforces 12 federal statutes ranging from safe drinking water to pesticide use.
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.A17)(AP, 12/2/97)(HNQ, 4/16/01)

1970        The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) was founded in the US to protect public health and the environment.       
    (www.nrdc.org/about/)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.32)
1970        The Clean Air Act was designed to control smog but not global warning. Catalytic converters designed to reduce smog were produced by the automobile companies. In 1998 it was reported that the nitrous oxide comprised 7.2% of the gases in global warming. Catalytic converters produced nearly half of this nitrous oxide.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A2)
1970        The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) was approved by Gov. Ronald Reagan. It required developers to produce an environmental impact report on any new project.
    (PacDis, Summer ~ez_rsquo~97, p.13)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.29)
1970        RCA Corp. opened its Taiwan 1st semiconductor factory. GE bought RCA in 1986 and sold it to Thomson in 1987. Its northern facilities were shut down in 1991 and the area was declared a toxic site. In 2002 it was reported that a 1000 former plant employees suffered from cancer and that 200 had died.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.B5)
1970        The Don't Make a Wave Committee of Winnipeg, Canada, was renamed Greenpeace and Ben Metcalfe became the 1st chairman.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)

1970-1985    A 2002 study said pollution from industrial nations was one of the possible causes of the African famine that stretched from Senegal to Ethiopia and left 1.2 million people dead. A group of scientists in Australia and Canada say the drought may have been triggered by tiny particles of sulfur dioxide from factories and power plants thousands of miles away in North America, Europe and Asia. Researchers said the short-lived pollution particles, known as aerosols, didn't have to travel to Africa to harm the environment there. The particles were able to alter the physics of cloud formation miles away and reduce rainfall in Africa by as much as 50 percent, say the researchers, who used a computer to simulate the atmospheric conditions. The process, known as teleconnection, continues in the atmosphere today.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

1971        Jan 8, 29 pilot whales beached themselves and died at San Clemente Island, off Calif.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1971        Jan 18, Two Standard Oil tankers collided in the fog a quarter mile west of the Golden Gate Bridge. The Arizona Standard ripped into the Oregon Standard and caused the spill of some 1.9 million gallons of heavy bunker oil. 800,000 gallons of oil was dumped into the Bay. The spill spread over 50 miles along the California coast.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, z-1 p.5)(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W39)(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A14)

1971        Feb 2, The Ramsar Convention, officially titled ~ez_ldquo~The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat,~ez_rdquo~ was developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in Ramsar, Iran. It came into force on December 21, 1975. The US ratified the Ramsar agreement in 1986.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramsar_Convention)(NH, 5/01, p.35)

1971        May 9, Friends of Earth returned 1500 non-returnable bottles to Schweppes. Friends of Earth became an international network this year with a meeting of representatives from the US, Sweden, the UK and France.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6yqzul)(http://tinyurl.com/5zmwfa)

1971        May 18, The documentary "Powers That Be" aired for one time and went under litigation from PG&E. Don Widener (d.2003 at 72) produced the work about environmental and nuclear dangers.
    (SFC, 5/2/03, p.A26)

1971        Sep 15, A group of activists set sail on the Phyllis Cormack for Alaska from Vancouver, Canada, to stop a US nuclear weapons test in the Aleutian Islands. Panels reading Green and Peace dangled from the bridge. Bob Hunter (d.2005), one of the activists, became the 1st president of Greenpeace (1973-1977).
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(GQ, summer ~ez_lsquo~96, p.18)(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.89)

1971        Harold S. Johnston was the first scientist to warn that trace amounts of nitrogen emitted to the upper atmosphere could profoundly damage the ozone layer. He earned a national Medal of Science in 1997. His discovery led Congress to initiate the CIAP.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.A20)

1971        The US government initiated a $21 million study called the Climactic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP). Its purpose was to study the impact of high-flying airplanes on the upper atmosphere, i.e. the stratosphere.    
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.138)

1971        Denmark became the first European country to create a Cabinet-level ministry dealing exclusively with the environment.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.AA6)

1972        Mar 12, ~ez_ldquo~The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome~ez_rsquo~s Project on the Predicament of Mankind." was presented publicly at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. It was translated into 30 languages and 10 million copies of the book were sold, helping the Club of Rome gain the world stage. Donella Meadows (1941-2001) Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III co-authored the report.
    (SFC, 2/21/01, p.A22)(www.clubofrome.at/peccei/limits.html)

1972        Apr 4, The 1st electric power plant fueled by garbage began operating.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1972        Apr 15, Canada~ez_rsquo~s PM Pierre Trudeau and President Richard Nixon met in Ottawa to sign the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The agreement followed measurements that showed that high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen led to the lakes being choked to death from vegetation and algae. Methods for quantifying eutrophication had been developed by Swiss scientist Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

1972        Jun 5, A United Nations Conference on the Human Environment began in Stockholm. World Environment Day (WED) from this day on was celebrated every year on 5 June to raise global awareness of the need to take positive environmental action.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qd8kqy2)

1972        Aug 9, The pesticide Compound 1080, or sodium fluoroacetate, was banned as of this day by the EPA. It had been used against coyotes but other animals were dying from its use. It was reinstated in 1985 for use in livestock protection collars. DDT was banned.
    {Chemistry, Environment, USA, Animals}
    (http://fluoridealert.org/pesticides/sodium.fluoroacetate.epa.90.htm)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A17)(SFC, 6/18/99, p.A3)

1972        Oct 12, House Resolution 16444, establishing the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), was passed by Congress and was signed by President Richard Nixon 15 days later. The island of Alcatraz was incorporated into this park. California Congressman Phillip Burton pushed through legislation preserving thousands of acres of forested hills, valleys and rugged shoreline. The park was expanded from 870 acres in 1948 to 6,300 acres by 1972.
    (www.sftravel.com/Alcatraz1950on.html)(SFEC, 6/27/99, Z1 p.1,4)(SFCM, 4/25/04, p.18)

1972        Oct 18, The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments, sponsored by Senator Ed Muskie of Maine, was passed. It was amended in 1977 and became known as the Clean Water Act. It gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry.
    (http://www.osha.gov/dep/oia/whistleblower/acts/fwpca.html)(SFC, 6/2/96, p.T-12)

1972        The US government outlawed the pesticide DDT. It followed the suit filed by Ralph Abascal (d.1997 at 63) of California Rural Legal Assistance on behalf of six farmworkers. The federal law prevented California~ez_rsquo~s Montrose Chemical Co. from dumping DDT into the ocean off the Palos Verdes peninsula.
    (SFC, 1/18/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A22)(Pac. Disc., summer, ~ez_lsquo~96, p.5)

1972        California Congressman Phillip Burton pushed through legislation preserving thousands of acres of forested hills, valleys and rugged shoreline. This led to the formation of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA). The park was expanded from 870 acres in 1948 to 6,300 acres by 1972.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, Z1 p.1,4)(SFCM, 4/25/04, p.18)

1972        Monsanto ceased producing PCBs in Anniston, Alabama. In 2001 Monsanto agreed to a $40 million settlement for toxic pollution.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A5)

1972        Owens Corning, Ohio-based maker of insulation and other building products, stopped selling asbestos products. In 1998 it offered $1.2 billion to settle its asbestos related lawsuits, which numbered about 176,000 cases.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/6glsle)

1972        A coal sludge spill killed 125 people and swallowed 500 homes in Buffalo Creek, W. Va.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A20)

1972        Chen Yifei (b.1946), Shanghai born artist, painted "Eulogy of the Yellow River," as China~ez_rsquo~s Yellow River dried up for the 1st time in history before reaching the Yellow Sea. From 1980 to 1996 he worked in the US and became known as the Norman Rockwell of China.
    (WSJ, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)

1972        Costa Rica created the 1,680-acre Manuel Antonio National Park.
    (SSFC, 6/1/03, p.C5)

1972        Jose Kahn, a Chilean-born US citizen, opened Metales & Derividos in Tijuana, Mexico. The plant smelted old US car and boat batteries. In 1987 it was told to clean up its waste. In 1994 it was closed following years of ineffective warnings.   
    (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A12)

1972        David McTaggart (d.2001), one of the founders of Greenpeace Int~ez_rsquo~l., sailed his small boat into the French nuclear-testing site at Mururoa atoll in the South Pacific.
    (SFC, 3/24/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)

1972        India enacted a Wildlife Protection Act. It banned the hunting of tigers, the capture and sale of bears (dancing bears) as well as the catching of snakes. In 2001 animal performances on the streets were banned. Snake charmers felt their livelihood threatened.
    (SFC, 7/8/02, p.A3)(SFC, 12/4/04, p.B10)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.41)

1973        Oct 15, Russell E. Train, the US Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, announced final transportation control measures to lower air pollution levels in several of the nation's largest cities. The action marked a final step in developing the transportation controls required under the Clean Air Act of 1972, although several urban plans were yet to be finalized.
    (www.epa.gov/history/topics/caa70/10.htm)

1973        Dec 28, Pres. Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act. The first list of endangered species contained Gray whales. The Gray whale was removed from the list in 1994 when the population climbed back to about 22,000.
    (PacDis, Fall/~ez_rsquo~96, p.24)(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A6)(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A1)

1973        Oregon adopted ~ez_ldquo~urban growth boundaries~ez_rdquo~ (UGBs) setting rules limiting urban sprawl and preserving farmland.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.35)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.32)

1974        Jun 28, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland of UCLA, Irvine, proposed an alarming hypothesis in Nature that the use of chlorofluorocarbons added chlorine to the environment in steadily increasing amounts. In 1985  scientists discovered a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. In 1987 governments negotiated the Montreal protocol to phase out CFCs.
    (www.ciesin.org/docs/011-464/011-464.html)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.14)

1974        Sep 25, Scientists warned that continued use of aerosol sprays will cause ozone depletion, which will lead to an increased risk of skin cancer and global weather changes.
    {Environment, USA, Cancer}
    (HN, 9/25/98)(www.todayinsci.com/9/9_25.htm)

1974        Sep 26, The NYT published a front page article on the impact of the chlorofluorocarbon, used in aerosols, on the ozone.
    (www.ciesin.org/docs/011-464/011-464.html)

1974        Dec 16, The US Safe Drinking Water Act was passed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safe_Drinking_Water_Act)

1974        Dec 24, An oil spill polluted 1,600 square miles of scenic Inland Sea in Japan.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1974        Deaths from cancer began to escalate in the village of Dragon Range in the mountains of Central China. Tests in 2000 showed high levels of lead and arsenic from 4 factories in a nearby valley.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F5)

1975        Jan 2, US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1975        The New Almaden mine south of San Jose, Ca., was closed. It had mined mercury for over 120 years. In the 1980s it was placed on the state~ez_rsquo~s list of Superfund cleanup sites.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A26)

1975        In Pennsylvania a company called McAdoo Associates began operating to extract and recycle metals from chemical wastes. The company accepted hundred of thousands of gallons of paint sludge, waste oils, used solvents, PCBs, cyanide, pesticides and many other known or suspected carcinogens. In 1979, when the EPA stepped in, McAdoo Associates had stockpiled enough chemicals to nearly fill an Olympic-size swimming pool. The EPA placed it on the Superfund list and began a cleanup. The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began looking into polycythemia vera (PCV) in August 2006 after 97 cases in Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne counties were reported to the state cancer registry between 2001 and 2005.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

1976        Jul 10, There was an explosion at a factory in Seveso, Lombardy, Italy, owned by ICMESA with a Swiss parent company. It produced a cloud of Dioxin which settled over several adjacent communities.  The people exposed became nauseated, experienced eye and throat irritations, developed burn-like sores on exposed skin, headaches, dizziness and diarrhea -- the same symptoms recorded by exposed Vietnamese and Cambodian populations.  In the next two days, small animals in the area began to die. The contamination led to a high incidence of birth defects.
    (www.theveteranscoalition.org/educational_material/agent_orange.htm)(WSJ,2/12/97, p.A8)

1976        Jul 13, The Green Peace 500-ton James Bay, a converted Canadian minesweeper, set out from the SF Bay to thwart Japanese and Russian whale hunters in Hawaiian water.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.6)

1976        Aug 22, EPA scientists reported that they had discovered plutonium in the ocean sediment off the SF coast and radioactive cesium leaking from containers 120 miles east of Ocean City, Md. Some 62,000 steel drums of nuclear waste were dumped into the oceans from 1946-1970.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.WB6)

1976        Sep 14, EPA scientists discovered a new species of sponge growing on steel cans containing low-level radioactive waste that were dumped near the Farallones Islands from 1946-1970.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, WB p.6)

1976        Oct 11, The US Toxic Substances Control Act became law with an effective date of January 1, 1977.
    (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/tsca/tscaenfstatreq.html)

1976        Dec 21, The Liberian-registered tanker Argo Merchant ran aground near Nantucket Island, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the North Atlantic.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1976        US Congress passed the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act. It extended US territorial waters to 200 miles offshore.
    (GQ, Summer ~ez_lsquo~96, p.22)(WSJ, 11/25/97, p.A1)

1976        The US Congress asked the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to find land that might qualify for wilderness protection. It found 3.2 million eligible acres in Utah.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.26)

1976        A movement against climate modification culminated in an international convention that foreswore hostile use of "environmental modification techniques. The int~ez_rsquo~l. community banned the use of environmental modification techniques such as cloud seeding and Agent Orange.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)(www.aip.org/history/climate/RainMake.htm)

1976        San Mateo County, Ca., rebuilt the military housing by the PG&E plant east of Cow Palace in Daly City with a housing complex of 150 units called Midway Village. The units stood over toxic soil from PG&E that was used by the military during WW II as land fill. Dirt and groundwater in the area contained polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), a known carcinogen. No soil tests were conducted.
    (SFC, 3/10/98, p.A14)(SFC, 1/5/00, p.A12)(SFC, 1/19/00, p.A4)

1977        May 23, Pres. Jimmy Carter presented an environmental message to Congress: "I am directing to make a one-year study of the probable changes in the world~ez_rsquo~s population, natural resources and environment through the end of the century. This study will serve as the foundation of our longer-term planning. The Global 2000 Report sold 1.5 million copies and pronounced a world that would be more crowded, more polluted, less stable ecologically and more vulnerable to disruption than the world of 1980.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, WB p.1)

1977        The US Congress passed the surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act to help solve problems with abandoned mines.
    (WSJ, 6/4/03, p.A1)

1977        The manufacture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) became prohibited in the US, because of evidence they build up in the environment and can cause harmful health effects.
    (www.epa.gov/glnpo/bnsdocs/stakeholder98/pcbinus.htm)

1977        The Endangered Species Act (1973) listed the California sea otter as threatened. Their numbers increased slowly until 1995 and then dropped again.
    (PacDis, Fall/~ez_rsquo~96, p.23)(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.C1)

1977        Protocols I and II were added to the Geneva Conventions. They prohibited environmental damage during int~ez_rsquo~l. and internal armed conflict. Protocol I prohibited "widespread, long-term and severe damage to the environment."
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)

1977        France banned frog fishing to protect the local green and red varieties. Poaching remained a problem.
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A1)

1978        Jan 24, Cosmos, a 4-month-old nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated, scattering radioactive debris over parts of northern Canada.
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179,  p.38)(AP, 1/24/98)(SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A1)

1978        Mar 16, The Amoco-Cadiz oil tanker spilled a record 1.6 million barrels of crude oil off the coast of France.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(www.cedre.fr/uk/spill/amoco/amoco.htm)

1978        Dec 1, Pres. Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments, eleven under NPS jurisdiction and two each for the Forest Service and the Fish and Wildlife Service.
    (www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/rothman/chap11a.htm)

1978        The US military buried an estimated 250 drums of Agent Orange herbicide and other chemicals at the Camp Carroll base in South Korea. In 2011 the US military acknowledged the burial.
    (AP, 6/2/11)
1978        In Northern California hundreds of fish near Iron Mountain died from mine pollutants.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)
1978        The Chinese Academy of Sciences set up the River Dolphin Research Group in Wuhan. The baiji, a white river dolphin, was declared a "rare and precious aquatic animal" the following year.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.a8)
1978        China began its The Green Wall tree planting project. By 2014 some 66 billion trees were planted as part of the Three North Shelterbelt project to hold back the expansion of the Gobi Desert.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.58)

1979        Feb 18, Snow fell in the Sahara Desert.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1979        Apr 13, A barge with 4.3 million gallons of gasoline rammed into an abutment of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge and spilled 42,000 gallons into the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 4/9/04, p.F10)

1979        Jun 3, Ixtoc 1, an exploratory oil well in the Gulf of Mexico, blew and spilled an estimated 3.3 million barrels of oil by March 1980.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.69)

1979        Jul 19, Two supertankers collided off Tobago and spilled 260,000 tons of oil. It was the worst oil spill to date with 88 million gallons spewed.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_spills)

1979        Nov 1, The tanker Burmah Agate, spilled 10.7 million gallons of oil off Galveston Bay, Texas, in US's worst oil spill disaster.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2jwxd3)

1979        The US EPA approved the use of MTBE as a 2-5% blend in gasoline to boost octane.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A17)

1979        In Germany ~ez_ldquo~The Greens~ez_rdquo~ political party formed to give the environmental movement political and parliamentary representation.
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Green_Party)

1979        The Japanese oil ship Takeo Maru sank in a storm off the coast of Sakhalin Island with its tanks full. The rusty tanks later began leaking and in 2000 a huge slick hit the port city of Shakhtyorsk.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.D8)

1979        Elephant hunting was banned in Kenya with the herd down to 1.3 million.
    (SFC, 4/11/00, p.D2)

1979        Nigeria outlawed gas flaring, to be phased out over 5 years. The law was not enforced and in 2008 some 20 billion cubic meters of year were flared, out of a global total of 150 billion.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.50)

1979        In Sverdlovsk, Russia, there was an explosion at a biological weapons lab. 96 people were stricken from the release of anthrax bacterium and 66 died. The name of the town was later changed to Yekaterinburg.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A9)

1979        Two tankers collided off the coast of Trinidad and Tobago in the worst oil spill to date and 88 million gallons were spewed.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1980        Feb 23, Oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece, caused a 37-mil-gallon spill.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1980        Apr 11, Mother Jones magazine won the 1980 national Magazine Award for Reporting Excellence for a Nov. 1979 article by Mark Dowie on the export of hazardous products banned from the US.
    (SFC, 4/8/05, p.F2)

1980        May 22, In response to a request from the Governor of NY, President Carter declared a second federal emergency at Love Canal, paving the way for federal aid to relocate the more than 700 families who still lived near the former toxic waste dump.
    (www.health.state.ny.us/environmental/investigations/love_canal/lcreport.htm)

1980        Nov 22, Georgia tanker at Pilottown La, spilled 1.3 million gallons of oil after an anchor chain caused the ship to leak.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1980        Pres. Carter signed a law that renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Range to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and more than doubled its size. The law directed the Interior Dept. to assess oil potential in 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain. A ban was put on drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In 2002 Pres. Bush pushed to overturn the ban. Estimates on oil there ranged from 3.2 to at least 5.7 billion barrels.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.A13)

1980        Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and protected 104 million acres of wilderness. The size of Denali National Park was tripled to 6.2 million acres. Motorized access to the land was given for traditional activities such as hunting, fishing and camping. Peggy Wayburn~ez_rsquo~s book: "Alaska the Great Land" was credited with helping persuade Congress.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B1)(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A24)(SSFC, 3/28/04, p.D9)
1980        Alaska's Wrangell-St. Elias National Park was established.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.38)

1980        August Cinquegrana (d.1999 at 78) directed "Toxic Time Bomb," an HBO documentary on the threats of toxic waste in America.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.B2)

1980        In Brazil the TAMAR project to protect sea turtles was begun by Maria and Guy Marcovaldi.
    (SFC, 11/2/98, p.A12)

1980        The huge British Steel plant at Corby, central England, closed and the site was redeveloped. In 2009 a British court ruled in favor of a group of young people who said pollution from the former steelworks contributed to their birth defects, which included missing fingers and deformed hands and feet.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

1981        The federal government declared Picher, Oklahoma, a hazardous waste site due to lead contamination and proceeded to buy out about 900 homeowners and businesses. In 2011 every commercial building was destroyed and only a handful of residents remained.
    (Reuters, 1/29/11)
1981        An amendment to the Endangered Species Act allowed property owners to destroy some habitat provided that they come up with an acceptable plan to preserve equivalent habitat elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 4/14/99, p.CA1)
1981        Employees informed Shell, Exxon and Texaco that the gasoline additive, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), was leaking from their gas stations and had contaminated ground water in 3 towns in New Jersey and Maryland.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A13)
1981        In San Jose, Ca., water supply wells were found to be contaminated due to leaks from Fairchild and IBM storage tanks used for toxic solvents.
    (SFC, 1/30/04, p.E6)

1982        Jan 24, A draft of Air Force history reported that the U.S. secretly sprayed herbicides on Laos during the Vietnam War.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1982        Jun 1, The Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats came into effect.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.9)(http://tinyurl.com/pyrhy5c)

1982        Jul 23, The Intl. Whaling Commission voted for a total ban on commercial whaling starting in 1985.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1982        Sep 1, Congress created a 110,000 acre Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1982        Dec 10, The UN Law of the Sea treaty opened for signature. It extended internationally recognized territorial waters to 200 miles offshore. The convention came into force on November 16, 1994, one year after the sixtieth state, Guyana, signed it. The treaty gave countries the power to restrict fishing within 231 miles of their coasts. The convention created the International Seabed authority and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2wsq9p)(WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.51)

1982        Dec 16, Anne M. Gorsuch, head of the Environmental Protection Agency, became the first Cabinet-level officer to be cited for contempt of US Congress for refusing to submit documents requested by a congressional committee.
    (AP, 12/16/02)

1982        The jellyfish-like creature, Mnemiopsis leidyi, arrived in Black Sea, probably in the ballast water of a cargo ship, and began to devastate the ecology of the almost closed ecosystem.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.A22)

1982        In Monaco an aquarium was emptied that contained the exotic seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia. It mutated and thrived in the Mediterranean Sea and by 1997 occupied 8,000 acres and eliminated everything else. Its growth has tripled annually over the last three years.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.E4)

1983        Jan 23, Russian radioactive satellite fell into the Indian Ocean.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1983        Jul 1, In Australia the High Court on circuit in Brisbane ruled by a vote of 4 to 3 in the federal government's favor and prohibited Franklin River dam-related clearing, excavation and building activities that had been authorized by Tasmanian state legislation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Dam)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.49)

1983        In Garfield, New Jersey, thousands of pounds of hexavalent chromium leaked from a tank at the EC Electroplating Co. The factory was surrounded by houses and apartments. NJ started cleanup, but stopped after two years. The site was later designated as a Superfund site.
    (SFC, 3/25/13, p.A8)
1983        In Ringwood, New Jersey, a 500-acre site once used by Ford Motor Co. as a dump site  was declared a Superfund site. Ford paid for a $2.5 million cleanup in 1994. Complaints in 2004 led to calls for a re-testing of the site.
    (USAT, 3/23/04, p.11A)

1983        Felix Smith, biologist for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, discovered the first selenium deformed birds at the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in Merced County, Ca.
    (WSJ, 11/18/98, p.CA3)

1983        The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge was flooded. In 1991 Terry Tempest Williams authored "Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place."
    (SSFC, 12/2/01, p.M3)

1984        Feb 3, The Environmental Protection Agency ordered a ban on the pesticide EDB for grain products.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1984        Mar 19, Mobil oil tanker spilled 200,000 gallons into the Columbia River.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1984        Oct 31, The Puerto Rican tanker San Francisco exploded spilling 2 million gallons of oil as the ship caught fire. The ship Puerto Rican exploded and sank 15 miles off Montara. It spilled a million gallons of oil.
    (MC, 10/31/01)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)

1984        Bills covering national forests in 20 states added 8.3 million acres to the Federal Wilderness System.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.6)
1984        US Congress established the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to distribute funds for wildlife and environmental projects.
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A8)
1984        In California cancer cases began popping up in McFarland in the Central Valley. 21 people over 20 years were struck in the town of 8,000. A state study from 1985-1991 ended inconclusively and the EPA was petitioned to study the problem. Residents suspected airborne pesticides.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A5)
1994        Rene Ngongo of Congo DRC founded the OCEAN environmental group, exposing the impact of deforestation and monitoring the plunder of minerals by warring factions during Congo's 1996-2002 civil wars.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1985        Jul 10, French security forces sank the Rainbow Warrior, a ship operated by Greenpeace near NZ. Fernando Pereira, a Dutch photographer, was killed in the sinking.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior)

1985        Sep 22, In France the premier confessed to the June 10 attack of Green Peace's Rainbow Warrior.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1985        Nov 6, An exploratory oil well at Ranger, Tx., exploded and spilled 150,000 barrels of oil.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980-1989_world_oil_market_chronology)

1985        Randy Hayes founded the Rainforest Action Network, a non-profit group in SF.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B1)

1985        Marcelo Carvalho de Andrade, Brazilian mountain climber, former model and surgeon, came up with a plan to help protect the rain forest while waiting out a storm on the north face of Aconcagua, the highest peak in South America.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)

1985        The Mexican environmental organization Group of 100 was founded.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A14)

1985-1997    In Niger some 60 million trees were planted over this period to stave off the encroaching Sahara Desert that expands by 500,000 acres each year. About half the trees have survived.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.A12)

1985-1999    Swiss glaciers lost at least 18% of their surface area during this period.
    (NH, 2/05, p.17)

1986        Apr 26, The world's worst nuclear accident occurred in Pripyat, Ukraine, north of Kiev, at 1:23 a.m. as the Chernobyl atomic power plant exploded. A 300-hundred-square-mile area was evacuated and 31 people died as unknown thousands were exposed to radioactive material that spread in the atmosphere throughout the world. An exploded at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and burned for 10 days. About 70% of the fallout fell in Belarus. Damage was estimated to be up to $130 billion. By 1998 10,000 Russian "liquidators" involved in the cleanup had died and thousands more became invalids. It was later estimated that the released radioactivity was 200 times the combined bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
    (WSJ, 11/8/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.C4)(AP, 4/26/05)

1986        Nov 1, A fire in a Sandoz factory in Basel left 30 tons of chemicals in the Rhine.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1986        Daniel B. Luten (d.2003) published "Progress Against Growth: Essays on the American Landscape."
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 1/24/03, p.A25)

1986        Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007), Swiss scientist, was awarded the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement for helping save Lake Erie. Procter & Gamble, the USA~ez_rsquo~s biggest detergent manufacturer, had nominated him for the prize. Vollenweider had developed methods for quantifying the eutrophication of freshwater. His methods also helped form the basis of the 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

1986        Nevada~ez_rsquo~s 77,000-acre Great Basin National Park was dedicated.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.D7)

1986        Residents of south San Jose settled a suit with IBM and Fairchild over toxic chemical leaks. The terms were sealed.
    (SFC, 1/30/04, p.B1)

1986        The Potamocorbula clam, or Asian clam, was introduced to the SF Bay. It was highly prolific and proceeded to devour all the plankton in the northern part of the Bay, causing the shrimp population to drop and the striped bass to decline. The clams accumulate selenium more than other shellfish causing increases in selenium levels in sturgeon, striped bass and ducks.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A24)

1986        The zebra mussel was introduced to the Great lakes by Russian freighters in 1986. [see 1988]
    (WSJ, 9/27/00, p.A1)

1986        The pine pitch canker was first noticed in California. Wilted needles and browned branch tips preceded the formation of resin-oozing cankers which then attract beetles. It was believed that beetles carried the disease.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A17)

1986        The EPA reported that 35% of all underground gas tanks were leaking an average of 2,800 gallons of gasoline annually.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A13)

1986        The Apex Houston oil spill off the California coast killed an estimated 6,500 common murre seabirds.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)

1986        In Brazil Marcelo Carvalho de Andrade formed Pro-Natura, a non-governmental organization dedicated to saving the rain forests through sustainable development. The first program was set up in Desengano State Park to prevent clandestine logging.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A8)

1987        Feb 4, Congress overrode Pres Reagan's veto of Clean Water Act. Changes in the 1972 Act phased out the construction grants program, replacing it with the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund, more commonly known as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.
    (www.epa.gov/r5water/cwa.htm)(www.agiweb.org/legis105/cwupdate.html)

1987        Mar 13, The president of Ecuador announced his country had suspended payments on its foreign debt after earthquakes killed hundreds of people and ruptured the country's main oil pipeline. The quake destroyed nearly 25 miles of oil pipeline.
    (AP, 3/13/97)(SFC, 5/1/03, A8)

1987        Apr, An internal EPA memo warned that the gasoline additive MTBE had a tendency to separate from gasoline and leak into groundwater.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A1)

1987        Sep 16, Two-dozen countries signed the Montreal Protocol, a treaty designed to save the Earth's ozone layer by calling on nations to reduce emissions of harmful chemicals by the year 2000. It was amended in 1990 and 1992. The international convention met in Montreal and negotiators from 23 of the world~ez_rsquo~s major industrial nations signed a treaty to slow down global chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) production to restore atmospheric ozone. By 1997 156 nations had signed the Montreal Protocol.
    (NOHY, W3/90, p.47)(SFC, 5/31/96, A1,17)(SFEC, 6/15/97, BR p.4)(AP, 9/16/97)

1987        Geochemist Wallace Broecker of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 1st suggested that a greenhouse induced shutdown of a current in the Atlantic Ocean (the thermohaline circulation) could trigger abrupt climate change and plunge much of Europe into a mini-ice age.
    (WSJ, 5/14/04, p.B1)

1987        The Lebanese Free Forces, a right-wing Christian militia, arranged to accept and store 15,800 barrels and 20 large containers of toxic chemicals from the Italian firm Jelly Wax in exchange for cash. Later German, Canadian and Belgium firms shipped in toxic chemicals for storage. By 1998 70% of the country~ez_rsquo~s drinking water sources was contaminated.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)

1988        Apr 23, A drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh in Martinez and 10,000 barrels of oil poured in the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough. Shell cleaned the mess and paid $20 million in penalties. The marsh was purchased with part of the funds and turned into a regional park.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A19-20)

1988        Spring, Soviet germ scientists transferred hundreds of tons of anthrax bacteria into canisters with bleach and sent them for storage to Vorrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea, shared by Kazakstan and Uzbekistan.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10,11)

1988        A memo from a Camp Lejeune, NC, lawyer, Staff Judge Advocate A.P. Tokarz, to the base's assistant facilities manager said the Marine Corps had known for years that a fuel farm, built in 1941, was leaking 1,500 gallons a month and had done nothing to stop it. "It's an indefensible waste of money and a continuing potential threat to human health and the environment.~ez_rdquo~
    (AP, 2/18/10)

1988        The zebra mussel first appeared in the US. It is capable of laying up to 5 million eggs per year. The European freshwater mussel was introduced into the Great Lakes. It proceeded to spread to 18 states and 3 Canadian provinces clogging water intake pipes at power plants and water facilities. [see 1986]
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A3)(SFC,12/11/97, p.A24)

1988        Climatologist James Hansen brought the greenhouse effect to the attention of the American public when he told Congress that worldwide temperature increases were probably a sign of human alteration of the atmosphere.
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.A13)

1988        Beal Mountain mine opened near Butte, Mont. Its owner promoted open-pit cyanide leaching for extracting gold from ore as modern and environmentally friendly. Pegasus Gold Corp., a Canadian company, extracted nearly 460,000 ounces of gold over a decade before closing the mine and declaring bankruptcy in 1998. It left behind a 70-acre, cyanide-contaminated leach pond with a leaky liner and tons of rubble that sends selenium-laced runoff into streams, threatening cutthroat trout and other fish. The 2009 economic stimulus included some funds for cleaning up this and other similar sites.
    (AP, 2/15/09)

1988        Brazil~ez_rsquo~s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) began publishing yearly accounts of deforestation. In 2004 it created the DETER system to alert the formation of new large-scale deforested areas.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.21)
1988        The world~ez_rsquo~s seafood supply peaked at 34 pounds a person per year. In 2001 the supply fell to 25 pounds per person per year.
    (SFC, 11/30/01, p.E1)

1989        Mar 2, Exxon Houston ran aground in Hawaii and spilled 117,000 gallons of oil.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1989        Mar 24, Good Friday. The nation's worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude. The Exxon Valdez struck ground in Alaska~ez_rsquo~s Prince William Sound and spilled 10.6 million gallons of oil. It was later renamed the Mediterranean and operated between Europe and the Middle East. Exxon then spent some $2.5 billion to clean up the spill and filed suit against Lloyd~ez_rsquo~s of London for reimbursement under a $210 million insurance policy. In 1996 a jury in Houston voted that Lloyd~ez_rsquo~s and some 250 other underwriters should compensate Exxon $250 million. The Exxon Valdez oil spill fouled approximately 1,000 miles of Alaska shoreline. The oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, spilling some 11 million gallons of crude oil. An estimated 250,000 seabirds were killed. The Exxon Valdez spilled 240,000 barrels of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1989)(SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T5)(HNQ, 8/14/99)

1989        Jul 1, The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone.
    (HNQ, 8/11/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)

1989        Jul 16, Leaders of the seven major industrial democracies called at their economic summit in Paris for "decisive action" against global pollution.
    (AP, 7/16/99)

1989        Sep 29, In California The Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 was signed into law. Republican Gov. George Deukmejian and Democratic lawmakers in control of the Legislature had negotiated the creation of the Integrated Waste Management Board to oversee the reduction of waste going to landfills.
    (SSFC, 6/14/09, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/l9wx7d)

1989        The UN Convention on Int~ez_rsquo~l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) imposed a total ban on the trade of ivory and elephant hide.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A1)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)

1989        The Louisiana legislature established the Louisiana Wetlands Conservation Authority.
    (NH, 2/05, p.46)

1989        The Fresno, Ca., Municipal Sanitary Landfill, opened in 1937 as the nation~ez_rsquo~s 1st true sanitary landfill, was named a Superfund toxic site by the EPA.
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.A3)
1989        The city of Berkeley Ca., passed a ban on Styrofoam.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.A1)

1989        The Russian wheat aphid arrived from Mexico and began to damage US wheat fields.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A2)

1989        The village of Copsa Mica, Romania, was exposed as one of the most polluted places in Europe. Despite cleanup efforts heavy contamination persisted in 2002.
    (WSJ, 1/9/02, p.A1)

1989        A tanker ran aground near Claymont, Del., spilling 300,000 gallons of heating oil into the Delaware River.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

1990        Feb 7, An 811-foot tanker, the American Trader, spilled hundreds of thousands of gallons of Alaskan crude oil off the coast of Huntington Beach, Calif.
    (AP, 2/7/00)

1990        Mar 12, Exxon pleaded guilty to criminal charges and agreed to pay $100 million fine in a $1.1 billion settlement of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1990        Apr 22, Millions of Americans joined in a worldwide 20th anniversary celebration of the first Earth Day. Harriett Burgess (d.2010 at 73) founded the San Francisco based American Land Conservatory to shelter land from development in all parts of the country.
    (AP, 4/22/00)(SFC, 5/8/10, p.C4)

1990        May 24, Darryl Cherney and Judi Bari (11/7/49-3/2/97), environmental activists in the Earth First! movement, were injured after a pipe bomb exploded in their car as they drove through Oakland, Ca. They were arrested while in the hospital on charges of transporting a bomb but the charges were never filed. They later filed a suit against the FBI and Oakland police for false arrest, illegal search and seizure and conspiracy to violate free-speech rights. Bari died of liver cancer in 1997. In 2002 a jury awarded $2.9 million to Bari~ez_rsquo~s estate and $1.5 million to Cherney saying the FBI had framed them as eco-terrorists. In 2004 the government settled civil suits for $2 million.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.C2)(SFC,10/21/97, p.A20)(SFC, 6/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/23/04, p.B1)

1990        Jun 11, The UN appoints Olivia Newton-John as its 1st Goodwill Ambassador to the Environment.
    (http://hometown.aol.com/author31/discov.htm)

1990        Nov 15, Pres. Bush signed the Clear Air Act of 1990.
    (www.epa.gov/history/topics/caa90/02.htm)

1990        Richard and Rhoda Goldman, SF philanthropists, founded the Goldman Prize to provide cash awards for grass-roots environmentalist activity in 7 major geographic regions.
    (SFC, 4/22/02, p.A3)
1990        Doug Tompkins founded the Foundation for Deep Ecology in SF after his wife eased him out of the fashion firm, Esprit Corp.
    (SFC, 7/15/02, p.E1)

1990        US Congress passed the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990 (CWPPRA).
    (NH, 2/05, p.46)
1990        A US law allowed a dolphin-safe label for cans of tuna not netted with dolphins. A 1997 amendment allowed the label for tuna harvested with encircling nets if observers witnessed no dolphins harmed.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C14)
1990        The US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) was passed. It required new tankers sailing through US waters to have double hulls and that old tankers be fitted with double hulls by 2015. It capped liability for economic damages at $75 million.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A11,15)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.68)

1990        A law suit began against Montrose Chemical Corp. and 2 other companies for a 100 ton DDT deposit in the ocean off Los Angeles. A settlement was reached in 2000.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A5)

1990        An int~ez_rsquo~l. agreement set limits on human harvesting of krill at 9 million tons a year. By 1997, the krill population were markedly depleted and new limits were considered,
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A3)
1990        The killing and selling of dolphins became illegal in Peru, and the market went underground.
    (PacDis, Winter/~ez_rsquo~96, p.36)

1990        A study by the US EPA found that leaf-blowers were responsible for about 5% of the nation~ez_rsquo~s harmful airborne pollutants.
    (SFC, 8/5/05, p.B1)

1990        The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its 1st report on global warming. Its 3rd report in 2001 noted that global temperatures could rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees during the 21st century.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.61)

1990s        In the early 1990s truckloads of foreign waste computer equipment began to be trucked in to Guiyu, China. Salvaging operations soon caused fish to disappear and the drinking water to go foul.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.B3)

1990-2009    In Kenya the forests shrank during this period by a at least 60%.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.22)

1991        Jan 25, During the Gulf War Iraq sabotaged Kuwait~ez_rsquo~s main supertanker loading pier, dumping an estimated 460 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 1/25/01)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)

1991        Jul 14, In California a Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled 18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40 miles downstream including 250,000 trout.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T7)(SFC, 11/13/99, p.A22)

1991        William L. Dwyer, Wash. state federal district judge, ordered the government to stop permitting logging on up to 60,000 acres of ancient forests a year on public land because it endangered the habitat of the Northern spotted owl.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.B6)

1991        In Alberta, Canada, a gas leak forced Wiebo Ludwig to evacuate his 320-acre Trickle Creek "community." Ludwig blamed the Alberta oil and gas industry for the death of 60 of his livestock and a succession of human health problems.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)

1991        Mexico shut down an oil refinery in Mexico City. It was said to have belched out 7$ of the city~ez_rsquo~s air pollution.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.27)

1991        Norway became one of the first countries to adopt a carbon tax in an attempt to slow global warming.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.28)

1992        Apr 21, Mobil Oil tug with 12,000 gallons of oil ran aground in Arthur Kill.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1992        May 5, The Basel Convention, which curbed the trade of toxic materials, came into force after being ratified by 20 nations. By 2008 170 nations had signed the convention.
    (www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-dgd/default.asp?lang=En&n=AE05D309-1)(SSFC, 7/6/08, p.A2)

1992        Jun 12, President Bush, addressing the Earth Summit in Brazil, declared America's environmental record "second to none."
    (AP, 6/12/97)

1992        Jun 14, The Earth Summit concluded in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The world~ez_rsquo~s industrial nations reached an agreement to reduce CO2 emissions, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). By 1996 it was clear that the goals were not being met.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1992)(SFC, 7/11/96, p.A10)(AP, 6/14/97)(Econ, 12/5/09, SR p.3)

1992        Sep, San Francisco bicycle riders began to ride in a group called "Commute Clot." It grew to become the last Friday of the month Critical Mass bike ride.
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.A13)(SFC, 9/26/02, p.A25)

1992        Dec 3, The Greek tanker Aegean Sea spilled 21.5 million gallons of crude oil when it ran aground at La Coruna, Spain.
    (AP, 12/3/97)

1992        Dec, Vice-Pres. elect Al Gore issued a press release to review plans of hazardous waste incinerator in East Livermore. The plant, located on the Ohio River and 1,100 feet from an elementary school, went into operation.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.A14)

1992        William Kittredge of Oregon authored "Hole in the Sky." It was a memoir on the destruction of habitat.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, BR p.12)
1992        Federal law outlawed the commercial fishing of Coho salmon off the Pacific coast.
    (SFC, 1/27/98, p.A15)
1992        The depletion of the ozone layer made headlines.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1992)
1992        Methyl bromide was added to the list chemicals in the 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)
1992        MTBE was blended into gasoline at a 10-15% level for use in winter to reduce carbon monoxide in air.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A17)
1992        Waste Reduction Partners was founded in North Carolina to tap skilled retirees to assist on environmental issues.
(SSFC, 10/31/04, Par p.16)
1992        Canada closed the Grand Banks off of Newfoundland to all cod fishing. The cod fishery had collapsed due to overfishing. By 2012 the fishery had still not recovered.
    (NH, 5/96, p.61)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.71)
1992        The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Greece, was established to protect the endangered Mediterranean monk seal.
    (SSFC, 3/14/04, p.D6)
1992        The Asahi Glass Foundation of Japan began sponsoring the Blue Planet Prize, an award for environmental work.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.A20)

1992-2000    Environmental groups say wealthy landowners and power brokers, profiting from logging Mexico~ez_rsquo~s Petatlan Sierra, destroyed 40 percent of 558,000 acres of woodland, some of the worst deforestation on the planet. In 2005 after a month-long blockade by peasants, Boise Cascade canceled contracts for massive cutting operations in the Petatlan mountains, citing supply problems, and 15 logging permits were revoked. Since then at least a dozen peasant leaders have been targeted. Some have been arrested and jailed on what are widely seen as bogus charges engineered by political and economic interests profiting from logging. Others have gone into hiding and some have been killed.
    (Reuters, 7/21/05)

1993        Jan 5, The Braer, a Liberian-registered tanker, ran aground in Scotland's Shetland Islands, spilling some 26 million gallons of light crude oil.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)

1993        Mar 22, The 1st World Water Day. On Dec 22, 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/47/193 by which 22 March of each year was declared World Day for Water, to be observed starting in 1993.
    (www.unesco.org/water/water_celebrations/index.shtml)

1993        Aug 24, The Clinton administration unveiled its proposed revisions to wetlands policy, which would expand protection but also give landowners some flexibility.
    (AP, 8/24/98)

1993        The Seacology environmental group was founded by ethnobotonist Paul Cox to help island people save native plants and animals.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.A3)
1993        Shark finning was banned in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico by the US Sec. of Commerce due to serious overfishing.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A10)
1993        Princess Cruises began its Planet Princess environmental conservation and training program.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T9)
1993        Louisiana Pacific was fined $11 million under the federal Clean Air Act.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.A5)
1993        The California Shellfish Protection Act mandated that regional water quality control boards enact policies and set up committees to protect threatened shellfish.
    (SFC, 4/28/03, A14)
1993        In Colorado a spill of cyanide and acidic water from a gold-mining operation killed almost every living thing along a 17-mile stretch of the Alamosa River in the foothills of the San Juan Mountains. Summitville Consolidated Mining Corp. declared bankruptcy. The main officers fled the country and left taxpayers with a cleanup approaching $150 million.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.A4)
1993        Shell Oil stopped pumping oil in the Ogoni Province, but continued to use pipelines that pass through it. The Ogonis are a 500,000-strong community in southwestern Nigeria. They maintain that oil production has polluted their land, destroying their livelihoods of fishing and farming. Shell canceled several community development projects. It had earlier agreed to spend $29 million per year on such projects. In 2011 a UN report said it could take 30 years and at least $1 billion to rid the poisoned mangroves of a black carpet of crude.
    {Nigeria, Netherlands, Oil, Environment}
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.46)

1993-2005    In India pollution on the Yamuna River doubled and continued to rise. The river extended 855 miles from the Himalaya Mountains to the Ganges. New Delhi with 15 million inhabitants dumped 57% of its waste into the Yamuna.
    (SFC, 7/27/07, p.A17)

1994        Mar 13, The oil tanker Nassia collided with an empty cargo ship at the entrance of the Bosporus. 27-29 people lost their lives. 9,000 tons of petroleum spilled and 20,000 tons burned for four days long affecting the marine environment.
    (www.bosphorusstrait.com/the-bosporus-strait/incidents/)(AP, 4/27/11)

1994        Aug 3, VP Al Gore broke a 50-50 tie in the US Senate by voting in favor of an ethanol tax credit. In 2009 the credit added almost $5 billion to the federal deficit. In 2010 Gore admitted that first-generation ethanol was a mistake.
    (SFC, 11/30/10, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/2c4xaup)

1994        Aug 11, A US federal jury awarded $286.8 million to some 10,000 commercial fishermen for losses as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
    (AP, 8/11/99)

1994        Pres. Clinton signed the California Desert Protection Act, which set aside 7 million acres of wilderness, mostly in the Mojave Desert.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.6)

1994        Shooters at Lake Merced~ez_rsquo~s Pacific Rod and Gun Club in SF, Ca., stopped using lead shot and switched to biodegradable targets following a 1993 environmental study. During the 1980s some 128 tons of lead were removed from the site. In 2005 lead contamination was reported to be 10 times higher than the 1993 study and efforts to raise the water level were put on hold. Clean-up costs at Lake Merced were later estimated at over $10.5 million.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.B1)(SFC, 7/17/12, p.C2)

1994        Some 5,800 square miles were cleared by fire for agriculture and ranching in this year.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T5)

1994        The "Metales y Derivados" plant, a car battery recycling facility in Tijuana, Mexico, was closed for failure to properly dispose hazardous waste. Investigations into pollution from the plant were demanded in 2000.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.D4)

1994        Chinese triads arrived in South Africa seeking abalone to supply black markets in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea. Poaching soared and "Operation Neptune" was begun to combat a feared extinction.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C1)

1994        Japan introduced subsidies for solar power technology. A typical system cost $16,000 per kilowatt, of which the government paid half. The subsidies were phased out in 2005.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.73)

1994-1998    In Arkansas 59 bald eagles were found dead at DeGray Lake and Lake Hamilton. Their deaths were associated with dead coots and followed 10-20 days after heavy rains. Runoff containing hazardous materials was suspected.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A14)

1995        Sep 8, It was reported that a lifeless zone in the Gulf of Mexico has grown to more than 7,000 sq. miles, nearly the size of New Jersey. It was caused by chemical and fertilizer runoff from US agriculture into the Mississippi River. "An analysis of data from six major farm states showed a significant correlation between (farm) subsidies and increased chemical and fertilizer use." The subsidies encouraged farmers to increase yield on less acreage.
    (WSJ, 9/8/95, p.A-10)

1995        Sep 13, The hole in the Earth's ozone layer was growing fast and was twice the size it was in 1994. It now reached about the size of Europe.
    (WSJ, 9/13/95, p.A-1)

1995        Carol Buckley and Scott Blais founded the Elephant Sanctuary on a 800-acre farm in Hohenwald, Tenn.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.14)

1995        The SF Bay Area held its 1st Bike to Work Day.
    (SFC, 5/15/03, p.A17)

1995        A World Bank study concluded that water pollution cost China some $54 billion this year.
    (SFC, 6/6/03, p.A12)

1995        A strong wind pushed a tanker away from a refinery dock in West Deptford, N.J., snapping a fuel line that spilled 40,000 gallons into the Delaware River.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

1995        An Asian beetle, fatal to North American ash trees, arrived in the US about this time. It was 1st noticed in 2002 and by 2005 had killed some 15 million ash trees in Michigan. Ohio, Indian, and southern Ontario were also affected. Infested trees died within 4 years.
    (SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A25)

1996        Jan 23, The US Army disclosed that it had 30,000 tons of chemical weapons stored in Utah, Alabama, Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, Arkansas, Colorado and Oregon.
    (WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-1)
1996        Jan 23, France acknowledged that its nuclear testing had caused leaks of radioactive materials in the South Pacific.
    (WSJ, 1/25/96, A-1)

1996        Feb 15, In the Toronto Globe and Star there was a report by Peter Whelan that "pesticides sprayed on fields in Argentina were killing tens of thousands of wintering Swainson~ez_rsquo~s hawks that nest on the Canadian prairies and the adjacent US Great Plains."
    (NH, 10/96, p.51)
1996        Feb 15, The Sea Empress grounded off of Wales and spilled 18 million gallons (72,000 tons) of oil.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/uk_news/55393.stm)

1996        Feb 26, Environmentalists estimated that there were 100 Amur leopards left in the world and only 30 in Russia. A new seaport on the border of Russia, North Korea and China would reduce the number even more,
    (SFC, 2/26/97, p.A8)

1996        Apr 22, Earth Day. The Goldman Environmental Foundation of San Francisco presented annual awards of $75,000 each to grass-roots eco-environ-mentalists on each of the inhabited continents as selected by a panel of experts from 30 countries. Winners for 1996 were Albena Simeonova, founder of Green Parliament in Bulgaria; Amooti Ndyakira, for journalism on endangered gorilla habitats in Uganda; Edwin Bustillos, defender of native lands and culture in Mexico, Mahesh Chandar Mehta, for crusading against air and water pollution in India; Bill Ballantine, for promoting marine reserves in New Zealand, Marina Silva, for fighting deforestation in Brazil.
    (USAT, 4/22/96, p.4-D)
1996        Apr 22, Pres. Clinton endorsed a plan to expand the Point Reyes National Seashore by 38,000 acres. The Dept. of the Interior was to buy easements from local farmers and to begin purchasing the 564-acre Giacomini dairy ranch.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, E1)

1996        May 16, Chevron said it spilled as much as 17,000 gallons of oil into Pearl Harbor after a pipeline sprang a leak.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-4)

1996        May 21, The US Congress listed the California red-legged frog as an endangered species. The year long moratorium blocking new listings by the Fish and Wildlife Service ended last month.
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-10)

1996        May 27, An oil spill in Galveston Bay stretched for 5 miles after a barge broke up that was carrying 700,000 gallons of heavy fuel oil. The barge was owned by Buffalo Marine Services Inc. Two months ago another Buffalo owned barge broke up and spilled nearly 200,000 gallons that drifted 50 miles into the Gulf of Mexico.
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.A2)

1996        May 31, State authorities officially advised the 900 residents of Chualar in Monterey County, Ca., not to use tap water due to the accumulation of nitrates from agricultural fertilizers and pesticides.
    (SFC, 5/12/98, p.A1,6)

1996        Jul 10, A report by TRAFFIC, a global wildlife trade monitoring group reported that 20 million sea horses are caught and traded each year. China was estimated to import 20 tons each year for use in traditional medicines. Sea horse populations in the Indo-Pacific region have fallen over 50% in the last 5 years. Sea horses mate for life and if one of a couple is caught, the other refuses to breed again.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A9)

1996        Aug 12, On the shores of Australia~ez_rsquo~s Cocos and North Keeling Islands thousands of thongs (flip-flops) have been washing up on the shore as discards from Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 8/12/96, p.B1)

1996        Aug 15, A botulism outbreak began killing birds at the Salton Sea in California. The sea is 278 feet below sea level and is now 10% more salty than the Pacific Ocean. Extensive pollution with sewage from Mexico and pesticides from farms in the Coachella valley plagued the big lake.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, p.D8)(SFC, 9/3/96, p.A18)

1996        The Sapling Foundation, a private, non-profit foundation, was founded by Chris Anderson. Its mission is to offer help where it is most needed by leveraging the power of ideas, technology, media and markets. In 2001 it acquired the TED conference.
    (SSFC, 2/07/04, p.A1)

1996        Bruce Babbitt, US Sec. of the Interior, called for another survey of land that might qualify for wilderness protection, which yielded another 2.6 million acres in Utah.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.26)

1996        The US banned leaded gasoline.
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.A20)

1996        The California  desert town of Hinkley won a $333 million settlement from PG&E for the leakage of high concentrations of chromium 6 from storage tanks into the groundwater. The film "Erin Brockovich" was based on the case."
    (SFC, 10/29/00, p.A5)

1996        California State Fish and Game officials closed fishing for white, pink and green abalone. A year later a moratorium on commercial and sport catches for all abalone species south of SF was imposed due to dwindling numbers from excess harvesting.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.C7)
1996        California almond growers advertised that they would pay $34 per colony for beekeepers to bring in honeybees. A shortage was caused by parasitic mites, Varroa jacobsoni and Acarapis woodi. The bee parasite, first found in Java about a hundred years ago, spread to America in 1987.
    (NH, 5/97, p.34)(Econ, 6/4/05, p.33)

1996        In Chile bicyclists formed ~ez_ldquo~Furiosos Cuiclistas~ez_rdquo~ (raging cyclists) patterned after a SF group, founded in 1992, to promote bicycling as a form of nonpolluting transportation.
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.A16)

1996-2000    Deforestation of the Amazon region reached 5 million acres per year.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)

1997        Jan 2, 90 miles off the coast of Japan the Russian oil tanker Nakhodka broke in two. It carried 5 million gallons of fuel oil. The bow of the ship ran aground 5 days later, 110 miles northwest of Tokyo, and much oil was spilled.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, p.C1)

1997        Feb-Mar, Over 700 dolphins and whales piled up on the Atlantic coast of France. They had been discarded by mid-water commercial fishing trawlers as bycatch.
    (NG, 12/97, p.149)

1997        Apr 14, In SF the winners of the 1997 Goldman Environmental Prize were announced: Alexander Nikitin of Russia who helped to expose the danger of radioactive fuel from Russian submarines stored in the Arctic waters; Terri Swearingen of the US for fighting against a toxic waste incinerator on the Ohio River; Samoan chieftain Fuiono Senio and ethnobotonist Paul Cox for establishing forest preserves; Juan Pablo Orrego of Chile for his battle to stop the damming of the Bio Bio River; Nick Carter of England for helping to create Africa~ez_rsquo~s inter-governmental force to fight illegal wildlife trade; and Loir Botor Dingit, Indonesian tribal chief, for struggling to protect ancestral rain forest from logging.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A11)

1997        Apr 25, The Clinton administration extended the area over which the northwest coast silvery Coho salmon is considered a "threatened" species.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A1)

1997        May 9, A pesticide plant burned after an explosion in West Helena, Ark. The chemical Azinphosmethyl was not supposed to have exploded unless it was heated and decomposed. A levee was built to keep poison-laden rainwater from entering the Mississippi River. Three firefighters were killed.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1997        May 16, Some 2,500 barrels of oil leaked near a coastal marsh in Louisiana at lake Barre in Terrebonne Parish.
    (SFC, 5/20/97, p.A3)

1997        Jun 19, In Zimbabwe delegates to the UN Convention on Int~ez_rsquo~l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) approved the applications by Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana to sell an annual quota of their collective 55 tons of ivory stockpile, but only to Japan. Trade in ivory was shut down in 1989 due to extensive poaching.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)

1997        Jul 29, Once a worldwide symbol of industrial pollution, Minamata Bay, Japan, was declared free of mercury 40 years after contaminated food fish were blamed for birth defects and deaths.
    (AP, 7/29/98)

1997        Aug 10, It was reported that the gasoline additive MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, was leaking into ground water in California and elsewhere in the US. Some 1,000 wells in California tested above the state~ez_rsquo~s action level. The additive leaks from gasoline stations and dissolves in water and seeps into aquifers. In 1995 the EPA reported that it caused cancer in laboratory animals.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.A1,14)

1997        Aug 11, Steelhead trout of the west coast was added to the federal list of imperiled species.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 11, The Environmental Working Group claimed that high levels of the weed killer atrazine were found in 245 Midwest communities. The chemical is used to spray corn and kill weeds.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A3)

1997        Sep, In Sri Lanka Tamil guerrillas sank a ship in the Trincomalee area. By 1999 leakage of the 700 tons of oil in the ship was threatening the coastline.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A6)

1997        Nov 5, The freighter Kure, while preparing to load a cargo of woodchips, rammed a concrete piling of the Louisiana Pacific Co. pier near Eureka, Ca., and spilled 5,100 gallons of oil in Humboldt Bay.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.A19)(SFC, 9/10/99, p.A19)

1997        Dec 11, In Kyoto, Japan, negotiators at the conference on global warming reached a compromise with a commitment by some 38 industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels over the next 10-15 years. Over 160 nations endorsed the treaty that binds industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gases. It was signed by 171 nations. Int~ez_rsquo~l. aviation was excluded from the protocol on condition that by 2007 countries and airlines of the Int~ez_rsquo~l. Civil Aviation Organization (ICOA) come up with a way of reducing emissions through a trading scheme.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/11/97, p.A1)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.A2)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.67)

1997        Janine Benyus authored ~ez_ldquo~Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature.~ez_rdquo~ She became one of the 1st to describe eco-friendly design ideas.
    (SSFC, 11/28/04, p.E3)

1997        Joseph Petulla (d.2001 at 68), environmental philosopher and former priest, authored "American Environmental History."
    (SFC, 6/21/01, p.C2)

1997        Ray F. Smith (d.1999 at 71), entomologist, won the annual $250,000 World Food Foundation prize for his contributions to integrated pest management and reduced insecticide use.
    (SFC, 9/6/99, p.A21)

1997        A large incidence of tuberculosis was found in the environmentally degraded area of the Aral Sea.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A20)

1997        A study discovered that the water tables beneath much of northern China were shrinking by about 5 feet every year.
    (SFC, 2/25/99, p.A12)

1997        In California the quino checkerspot butterfly was named an endangered species. It was confined to western Riverside County and the Ptay Mesa area of San Diego.
    (WSJ, 4/14/99, p.CA1)

1997        Australia~ez_rsquo~s Macquarie Island, located about halfway between Australia and Antarctica, was designated a World Heritage site as the world's only island composed entirely of oceanic crust. It is known for its wind-swept landscape, and about 3.5 million seabirds and 80,000 elephant seals migrate there each year to breed. In 2009 researchers said a 1995 decision to eradicate cats from Macquarie island allowed the rabbit population to explode and, in turn, destroy much of its fragile vegetation that birds depend on for cover.
    (AP, 1/13/09)

1997        A study by the Peruvian government found that the country~ez_rsquo~s glaciers had shrunk by 22% over the last 30 years. In the Carabaya range they had receded by 32%.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A1)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.42)

1998        Jan 11, In the UAR a large oil spill resulted when an 11,000-ton oil barge ran aground. Some 4,000 tons spilled on beaches and threatened marine and bird life.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A12)

1998        Jan 12, In Nigeria an underwater pipeline from a Mobil Oil production platform broke and released 40,000 barrels of oil into the Niger delta.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, p.A26)

1998        Jan 14, An int~ez_rsquo~l. agreement on Antarctica took effect that banned mining and oil drilling for 50 years and forbade a wide range of environmental hazards including pesticides and dogs.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.C16)

1998        Feb 11, Ben Cohen, co-founder of Ben and Jerry~ez_rsquo~s Ice Cream, was named as director of the Greenpeace environmental group. Greenpeace had an annual worldwide income of about $160 mil.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A7)

1998        Mar 21, It was reported that Chinese researchers had discovered heavy industrial pollution in the snow around the North Pole.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)

1998        Apr 20, A poll of 400 scientists indicated that 7 of 10 believed that a "mass extinction" is under way, and that one-fifth of all living species could disappear within 30 years.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A7)

1998        May 20, In Kyrgyzstan a truck spilled 20 tons of cyanide and forced 600 people to seek medical treatment. 3,876 pounds of cyanide leached out of the truck but did not seem to hurt any local residents. Some fish died in the river and the water flowed into the 113-mile-long Lake Ysyk Kol. The Cameco Corp. of Canada ran the Kumtor gold mine and contributed  some 15% of the country~ez_rsquo~s GNP.
    (WSJ, 5/28/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A18)

1998        May 21, Canada ordered major cuts in the catch of Coho salmon on the West Coast due to declining stocks. Fishing on the Skeena and Thompson River runs was banned and US officials were urged to take similar action.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A1)

1998        May 30, Pakistan set off a nuclear bomb, the 6th test in 3 days.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A15)
1998        May 30, An estimated 6.9 earthquake hit the northern Afghanistan region. Shari Basurkh was hit hardest and some estimates put the death toll up to 3,000. The estimated deaths later reached 5,000.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/1/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 2, Royal Caribbean Cruises admitted to routinely dumping oily waste into the Caribbean and agreed to pay a fine of $9 million. It was estimated that 80% of the oil pollution in the world~ez_rsquo~s seas was caused by routing dumping by ships of all sorts.
    (SFC, 6/3/98, p.A6)

1998        Jun 5, Some 70,000 white bass at the Cheney Reservoir west of Wichita had died over the past week from unexplained causes. The reservoir on the north fork of the Ninnescah River was the main drinking water source for Wichita.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A4)
1998        Jun 5, In Texas an estimated 22,000 trout died in the Guadalupe River after eating dead fire ants that fell into the river after mating.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A4)

1998        Jun 8, In California lethal algae blooms in recent weeks killed scores of birds and seal lions in Monterey Bay.
    (SFC, 6/8/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 17, Unocal announced that it would pay up to $200 million to remove an oil spill beneath the town of Avila Beach near San Luis Obispo.
    (SFC, 6/18/98, p.A1)

1998        cJul, Barrie Cook helped found the Hong Kong Business Coalition on the Environment to push for a cleaner Hong Kong. Pollution kept the skies gray regardless of the weather.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)

1998        Aug 14, Russia announced that it would proceed with plans to regulate wolves with a planned poisoning of 15,000.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A16)

1998        Aug 16, It was reported that about 80% of breeding-age swordfish had been eliminated by overfishing.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T9)

1998        Aug, In Alberta, Canada, the RC Mounted Police arrested evangelical pastor Wiebo Ludwig (56), his wife and son and a friend for bombing an oil-well site. They were later released for lack of evidence. Over the last 2 ˝ years some 160 attacks were made on natural resource companies in the area.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.C3)

1998        Sep 1, China imposed a ban on logging upstream on the Yangtze effective by this date due to the excess flooding following a half-century of clear-cutting.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A1)

1998        Sep 17, David Chain of Texas was killed by a falling redwood tree logged by Earl Ammons near the Headwaters Forest near Eureka, Ca. Chain's family filed suit in 1999 against Pacific Lumber. In 2004 Patrick Beach authored "A Good Forest for Dying: The Tragic Death of a Young Man on the Front Lines of the Environmental Wars."
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/13/99, p.A28)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M1)

1998        Sep 26, From Zimbabwe it was reported that timber companies were poisoning hundreds of baboons causing them to die a slow painful death over 7-10 days.
    (SFC, 9/26/98, p.A5)

1998        Sep 27, A pair of 3-4 mile-long oil slicks, each a mile wide, were found about 9 miles out to sea between the Golden Gate and half Moon Bay. Lab tests later matched this oil to a small spill in the Bay on Sep 24 to the Liberian tanker, M-T Command, owned by Pearl Shipping of Monrovia. In Dec. the owner, captain and chief engineer were indicted for dumping fuel. In 1999 Anax Int'l. was fined $3.8 million. The Greek firm had earlier paid $5.5 million in civil penalties.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A1)(USAT, 10/9/98, p.10A)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A25)(SFC, 12/14/99, p.A28)

1998        Sep, Radioactive red harvester ants were found underground near waste pipes in Richland, Wa.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.A7)

1998        Oct 9, The weekly Der Spiegel reported that spinach grown near the nuclear reprocessing plant in Sellafield, England, had doses of technetium-99 that was 7 times above EU food standards. Greenpeace in April had demonstrated that game pigeons in the area were irradiated.
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.A9)

1998        Oct 12, An American law protecting sea turtles was overturned by an appeals panel of the World Trade Organization  (WTO).
    (SFC, 10/13/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 16, It was reported that a growing number of lobsters in Maine were being found sick and dying from undetermined causes.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.C1)

1998        Oct 16, In Columbia red ants, called "crazy ants" by farmers in the Santander and Boyaca provinces, had destroyed some 10,000 acres of crops and threatened an additional 100,000 acres.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.C1)

1998        Oct 16, It was reported that fires in Russia were burning in the Sikhote-Alin wildlife reserve and threatened Siberian tigers of which only an estimated 450 remained.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.C1)

1998        Oct 22, The US government announced a $1 billion settlement with diesel engine manufacturers for violations of environmental laws.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 22, At Cape Canaveral Orbital Sciences launched a Brazilian satellite from a Pegasus rocket aboard a modified jumbo jet. The satellite will monitor environmental devices throughout Brazil.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 22, In Texas the Natural Resource Conservation Commission voted against issuing a license for a radioactive waste dump at Sierra Blanca, 16 miles from the Mexican border.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 22, The US National Academy of Sciences released a report that called for forcefully reducing fish catches due to dwindling fish populations.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A13)

1998        Oct 26, Nutrient pollution known as eutrophication, the overabundance of nitrogen and phosphorus, was noted on the Chesapeake Bay and estuaries around the world. A 7,000 sq. mile dead zone was reported to spread every summer across the Gulf of Mexico from the mouth of the Mississippi. In 2007 Louisiana crabbers complained of buckets of dead crabs and the condition in the Gulf of Mexico was expected to get worse due to rising demand for ethanol and increased corn production in Corn Belt states, which called for more nitrogen use.
    (SFC, 10/25/98, p.A3)(SFC, 12/20/07, p.A26)

1998        Oct, The Italian freighter Pallas caught fire in the North Sea and leaked some 10-15 tons of oil. Hundreds of birds along the northern coast of Germany were killed by the resulting oil slick.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct, In Vietnam a 5-year study by a Canadian government research group found high levels of dioxin in the soil, fish and animal tissue, and the blood of people born after the war in the Aluoi Valley in central Quang Tri province.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A20)

1998        Nov 10, From Bangladesh it was reported that an estimated 18 million people were slowly poisoning themselves by drinking from groundwater contaminated with trace amounts of arsenic.
    (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A14)

1998        Nov 11, Argentina and Kazakstan pledged to abide by the treaty to cut emissions of gases that cause global warming. This put a crack in a united front of developing nations opposed to cuts before 2012.
    (WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 12, Pres. Clinton signed a UN accord on global warming. It still needed to be ratified by Congress.
    (SFC, 11/13/98, p.A3)

1998        Nov 14, In Argentina negotiators from 150 countries agreed to set a 2 year deadline for adopting operational rules of the Kyoto Protocol for cutting emissions of industrial waste gases that were believed to cause global warming.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A21)

1998        Nov 13, Near Hong Kong 2 oil tankers collided and left a 6-mile oil slick near the Pearl River delta that threatened the local rare pink dolphins.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A6)

1998        Sep 19, The ozone hole over Antarctica reached 10.5 million sq. miles. It was feared that ultraviolet radiation would impact the marine food chain.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 3, A scientific report from the Multispecies Monitoring Committee said that the cod fishing in the Gulf of Maine has collapsed due to overfishing.
    (SFC, 12/4/98, p.A3)

1998        Dec 15, Marine scientists reported that trawling by fishing fleets was causing widespread disruption of ocean bottom habitats. They said that each year trawl nets disturb an area twice the size of the contiguous US.
    (SFC, 12/16/98, p.A10)

1998        Mike Davis authored "Ecology of Fear," a 484-page diatribe about the ecological and social disasters threatening Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 8/31/99, p.A5)
1998        Michael Mann published a chart that purported to show average surface temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,000 years. It showed a sharp and continuous increase over the last 100 years following a line of relatively minor fluctuations and came to be called the hockey stick chart. Other scientists later questioned his data analysis techniques.
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.A10)(www.ncpa.org/pub/ba/ba478/)
1998        Texaco completed a $40 million oil cleanup in Ecuador. The Ecuadoran government, PetroEcuador and 5 municipalities released the company from all liabilities and obligations related to its oil operations. A class-action suit against ChevronTexaco opened in 2003.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.42)
1998        The EU agreed to ban asbestos by 2005.
    (WSJ, 12/9/02, p.A1)
1998        In Mexico high lead levels amongst children living near the Met-Mex Penoles silver refinery at Torreon were found. Met-Mex dispatched cleaning equipment and set up a mobile clinic and agreed to put $6.6 million in a trust fund for cleanup and medical costs. The 5,000-worker plant is the world's largest producer of refined silver.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, p.A24)
1998        A UN workshop decided that the algae Caulerpa taxifolia could wreck the Mediterranean ecosystem. The plant is composed of tube-like cells, grows to 9 feet and has only male parts. Parts can break off and self-clone. The plant is toxic to fish.
    (WSJ, 8/13/01, p.A1,4)
1998        A rise in sea temperatures due to El Nino caused a mass bleaching of the world~ez_rsquo~s coral reefs. Up to 90% of the Indian Ocean~ez_rsquo~s coral reefs turned to skeletal wastes.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.87)

1998-1999    The Univ. of Hawaii was fined $1.8 million after an EPA inspection found dangerous chemicals buried for years in the basement of the Honolulu campus.
    (WSJ, 1/117/00, p.A1)

1999        Jan 21, In Russia Grigory Pasko (37), in jail for 14 months, was put on trial for selling classified information. He had reported on the disposal of radioactive waste in the Sea of Japan.
    (SFC, 1/22/99, p.A12)

1999        Jan 15, Off of Argentina a Liberian tanker collided with a German vessel and leaked over 65,000 gallons of crude oil near the Rio de la Plata, 50 miles north of Buenos Aires.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.C1)

1999        Feb 1, In Nairobi, Kenya students protested for a 3rd day against plans for construction in a virgin forest.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 3, The Clinton administration called for a mining ban on a large section of federal land along the Rocky Mountain Front.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A3)

1999        Feb 3, The first of 110 Lynx cats was released near South Fork. The program to transfer the cats from BC was to cost $1.4 million.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A3)

1999        Feb 3, It was reported that Kenyan fisherman were using toxic agricultural chemicals instead of nets to increase their catch and income from $8 to $240. The idea supposedly originated in Uganda. Some fishermen were arrested and beaches were closed.
    (SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)

1999        Feb 22, From Mexico it was reported that fisherman found 9 dead gray whales in the Magdalena Bay.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb, In Rome delegates from almost every fishing nation agreed on a plan to reduce fishing capacity starting within the next 6 years.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A6)

1999        Mar 3, The New England Forestry Foundation announced a conservation deal that banned development on over 750,000 acres of prime Maine woods owned by the Pingree family. Gov. Angus King said the $30 million agreement would allow managed logging while preserving the wilderness character of the forestland.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.A3)

1999        Mar 12, The Mexican environmental Group of 100 reported a record number of dead gray whales near the Baha California peninsula. The ESSA Saltworks, a Mitsubishi-Mexican partnership, was blamed. Government officials proposed other reasons.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 16, It was reported that the world's 300 right whales faced extinction.
    (SFC, 3/16/99, p.A2)
1999        Mar 16, The National Marine Fisheries Service announced the addition to the endangered species list of 9 salmon species from the Pacific Northwest.
    (SFC, 3/16/99, p.A2)

1999        Mar 27, On Christmas Island the crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, was reported to be decimating the local crab population. The ant was introduced by west African traders about 50 years earlier.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C1)

1999        Apr 6, In Columbia Pres. Pastrana said that drug traffickers had destroyed an area of rain forest the size of Delaware to plant illicit drug crops.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)

1999        Apr 12, The Snake River in southeastern Washington state was named as the nation's most endangered river because of 4 dams that have brought salmon runs to the brink of extinction.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A19)

1999        Apr 18, In Yugoslavia NATO bombers hit refineries, bridges and other targets in the heaviest strikes to date. 70% of fuel storage capability was now destroyed and Yugoslavia no longer had the ability to refine oil. In Pancevo a refinery, fertilizer plant and American-built petrochemical complex were destroyed and a dense toxic cloud was released with potential long term consequences.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A1,8)(SFC, 7/6/99, p.A8)

1999        Apr 19, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize went to: Ka Hsaw Wa of Burma for reporting on the plight of indigenous people and environmental abuses on a gas pipeline across Thailand and Burma; Bernard Martin, a Canadian fisherman, for his work opposing large factory trawlers; Jacqui Katona and Yvonne Margarula, Australian aboriginal women, who have led a fight against the mining of a uranium deposit by Kakadu National Park on lands owned by the Mirrar people; Samuel Nguiffo, a Cameroon lawyer, for his work in protecting rain forests and opposition to the slaughter of chimpanzees and other rare wildlife; Jorge Varela, a Honduran conservationist, for fighting the destructive shrimp farming practices in the Gulf of Fonseca; and Michal Kravcik, a Slovakian hydrologist, who successfully fought a government plan to dam the Upper Torysa River in 1996.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A2)

1999        Apr 19, In China the number of Siberian tigers living in the wilderness was reported to be less than 20. Loss of habitat due to deforestation was blamed.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A6)

1999        May 17, The EPA said the SF Bay contains unsafe levels of dioxin, furans and the pesticides DDT, dieldrin and chlordane.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.A20)

1999        Jun 4, Senators Diane Feinstein of California and Harry Reid of Nevada announced the Lake Tahoe Restoration Act. The bill would authorized $300 million over 10 years to restore clarity and health to Lake Tahoe.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 10, Scientists reported a wintertime cloud of air pollution the size of the US over the Indian Ocean. The soot and sulfur cloud covered an area of 3.8 million sq. miles.
    (SFC, 6/10/99, p.A7)

1999        Jun 12, It was reported that all 15,000 glaciers of the Himalayas were melting at an alarming rate and that torrential floods in Northern India could result over the next 40 years.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A11)
    (HN, 6/12/99)

1999        Jun 14, Prof. Paul Ehrlich of Stanford and Qu Geping, president of the China Environmental Protection Foundation, won the Blue Planet Prize, an environmental award sponsored by the Asahi Glass Foundation of Japan.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.A20)

1999        Jun 16, Austria reported that it found animal feed contaminated with Dioxin.
    (WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A18)

1999        Jun 21, The Wilderness Society in its 3rd annual listing of the country's most endangered federal parks, forests and refuges, had California leading with 3 sites listed: old growth in the Sierra Nevada; the Mojave National Preserve and the Klamath Basin.
    (SFC, 6/21/99, p.A5)

1999        Jun 23, An environmental coalition issued its "Fields of Poison" report that slammed California on pesticide regulation and enforcement.
    (SFC, 6/23/99, p.A15)

1999        Jun 26, It was reported that 500,000 acres of forest in China's Liaoning province were destroyed by at least 20 types of bugs due to lack of diversity, the high ration of young trees and drought from last year.
    (SFC, 6/26/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun, In Florida the Miccosukee Indians celebrated the opening of their $50 million, 300-room resort and convention center on their 680 acres in Everglades National Park. Meanwhile the price tag for restoring the everglades ecosystem was put at $7.8 billion.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A6)

1999        Jul 1, In Maine the 162 year-old Edwards Dam was broken open by government order to allow fish to move upstream.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A3)
1999        Jul 1, In Maryland some 20,000 fish turned up dead in the tributaries of the Magothy and Patapsco Rivers. Drought conditions and the build up of phosphorus and nitrogen was suspected.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 3, It was reported that the Mozambique government had lifted a ban on hunting elephants as a sport due to growing numbers.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A5)

1999        Jul 5, In Riverside County 2 Union Pacific freight trains collided and derailed 9 locomotives. Some 10,000 gallons of diesel fuel was spilled and 2 crewmen were injured.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.B2)

1999        Jul 1, In Maryland some 20,000 fish turned up dead in the tributaries of the Magothy and Patapsco Rivers. Drought conditions and the build up of phosphorus and nitrogen was suspected.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 22, In Maryland some 300,000 menhaden fish turned up dead at the mouth of the Pocomoke River in the Chesapeake Bay. Depleted oxygen in the water due to drought conditions was suspected.
    (SFC, 7/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Aug 14, Some 20 million dead menhaden fish were reported washed up at the banks of the Arroyo Colorado. It was the worst kill in 4 years and low  oxygen levels from algal bloom were blamed.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A6)

1999        Aug 20, The Peregrine falcon was removed from the list of endangered species. Nesting pairs in the lower 48 states grew to 1,650 from a low of 39 in 1975.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.A2)

1999        Sep 6, The dredge Stuyvesant spilled an estimated 2,000 gallons of bunker fuel in Humboldt Bay, Ca., during dredging operations.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A19)

1999        Sep 10, It was reported that Canada has 339 species in serious danger of disappearing and no federal legislation for protection of endangered animals.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.D4)

1999        Sep 30, It was reported that the Western oak beetle, P. pubipennis, and the oak ambrosia beetle, M. scutellare, were decimating black, tan and coast live oak trees across northern California. Sudden Oak Death was later attributed to a fungus of the genus Phytophthora. The pathogen was later reported to be related to a fungus that was destroying Port Orford cedars in the Pacific Northwest. In 2001 it was reported that the pathogen had been found on rhododendron plants in Europe and California.
    (SFC, 9/30/99, p.A21,26)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A17)(SFC, 8/1/00, p.A13)(SFC, 9/23/00, p.A1)(SFC, 1/11/01, p.A17)

1999        Oct 2, It was reported that the flamingoes of Lake Nakuru had migrated away to other locations. Environmental stress from industrial refuse and other wastes was blamed. Fluctuating salinity was also suspect in that flamingoes feed on the algae spirulina platensis, which blooms in saline waters. It was later reported that tens of thousands of flamingos on Lake Bogoria had died since July due to heavy metals.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/4/00, p.A8)

1999        Oct 7, The Spix macaw of Brazil (Cyanopsitta spixii), native to the area of Curaca along the Sao Francisco River, was the world's rarest wild bird, due to animal trafficking. It's market value was put at $60,000. 218 species in Brazil were endangered, including 109 birds, 68 mammals, 31 invertebrates, 9 reptiles and 1 amphibian. The last wild Spix macaw disappeared in 2000.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15,18)

1999        Oct 13, Pres. Clinton proposed to place 40 million acres of federal forest beyond the reach of loggers, miners and road-builders. He urged the forest service to engage the public in how best to manage and conserve over 50 million acres of the last roadless tracts.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/9/00, p.A21)

1999        Oct 25, It was reported that the chiru, a goat from the high Tibetan plateau, was seriously endangered and down to some 75,000. The animal's hide is used to make expensive shahtoosh shawls.
    (WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A1,15)

1999        Oct, In France thousands of fish were killed when the residue of seasonal pressing for champagne grapes was washed into the Marne River by heavy rains. Dead fish were piled 6 feet high along a 20-mile stretch and fisherman said it could take 10 years for stocks to return to normal.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.C1)

1999        Nov 18, The SF Board of Supervisors passed a resolution that urged Coca Cola to use more recycled plastic in the estimated 10 billion plastic bottles that it produced annually in the US.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.A26)

1999        Dec 3, Ice in Arctic waters was reported to be shrinking by about 14,000 square miles annually. Global warming from human activity was suspected.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.A6)

1999        Dec 3, A 129 country environmental conference in China agreed to provide poor countries an additional $440 million over 3 years to stop using chemicals that harm the ozone layer.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 12, The Erika, a Maltese registered oil tanker, broke in two during a storm off the coast of Brest, France, with 8 million gallons of diesel oil. Half the ship was towed to deeper waters and 3 million gallons were spilled. In 2008 a French court found Total SA guilty of maritime pollution and fined it the maximum penalty of $560,000. It also ordered Total and three other defendants to pay total damages of $285 million.
    (SFC, 12/13/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/08)

1999        Dec 14, It was reported that Hong Kong Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa had recently announced a $3.75 billion environmental crusade in an effort to reduce pollution. An 80% reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions by 2005 was planned. Hong Kong's yearly emissions for sulfur dioxide was 80,000 tons. Guangdong Province on the Chinese mainland put out 630,000 tons.
    (SFC, 12/14/99, p.A,12,14)

1999        Dec 29, A Russian oil tanker broke up and sank near the mouth of the Bosporus and coated the Turkish shore with some 4,800 tons of heavy fuel.
    (WSJ, 12/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Kanatjan Alibekov (Ken Alibek), the former director of Soviet anthrax production in Kazakstan, published "Biohazard."
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A11)
1999        Robert Dawson and Gray Brechin published "Farewell, Promised Land: Waking Up From the California Dream," a photo-journalist documentation of the environmental costs to the state's prosperity.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1,8)
1999        Mark Hertsgaard published "Earth Odyssey: Around the World in Search of Our Environmental Future."
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, p.D5)
1999        The Japanese book "Katte wa Ikenai" (Don't Buy This ) was an ecological manifesto questioning the safety of household goods.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.A15)
1999        Randy Shaw authored "Reclaiming America: Nike, Clean Air, and the New National Activism."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.1)
1999        John Terborgh published "Requiem for Nature," an assessment of the conventional strategies for ecological conservation.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, BR p.4)
1999        Houston, Texas, began exchanging titles with Los Angeles, Ca., as having the most polluted air in the United States defined by the number of days each city violates federal smog standards.
    (www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/archives/HP_ILP_Feature_03.html)
1999        Cambodia agreed to allow environmentalists to begin an experiment in wildlife and forest protection with enforcers paid by outside nations.
    (WSJ, 6/19/01, p.A1)
1999        An experiment over the Indian Ocean (INDOEX) found a large cloud, the Asian Brown Cloud, with high levels of soot that warmed the upper air by absorbing sunlight and cooled the lower surface causing regional droughts.
    (WSJ, 5/6/03, p.A6)

2000        Jan 25, In Texas a tanker truck with 9000 gallons of furfural overturned and spilled the toxic chemical, which is used in manufacturing, into a drainage ditch that flows into San Martin Lake. An estimated 6 million fish and dozens of ducks were soon found dead.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A9)

2000        Jan 30, In Romania a dam at the Baia Mare gold mine overflowed and caused cyanide to pout into the Lapus River and then into the Somes River. It flowed into Hungary and within weeks into the Tisa River in Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A9)

2000        Jan 31, It was reported that nitrogen-based fertilizers were likely suspects in the rapid decline of the spotted frog in the Pacific Northwest.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.A6)

2000        Jan, A broken crude oil pipeline in Rio de Janeiro spilled at least 130,000 gallons near the coast and into Guanabara Bay.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A6)

2000        Feb, An Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, was discovered in South Miami-Dade County and it was feared that it would make its way into Everglades National Park and disrupt food webs.
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, p.A20)

2000        Feb 2, In Bolivia an oil spill was reported to have leaked some 5,000 barrels into the Desaguadero River, which empties into Lake Titicaca. The spill was reported to have reached Lake Poopo and Lake Uru Uru and was spreading to the communities of the Aymara Indians.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A16)

2000        Feb 5, In Pennsylvania an oil pipeline began leaking and released some 25,000 gallons below the surface of a frozen pond in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in southwest Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A10)
    (AP, 3/11/00)

2000        Mar 9, The Snake river was declared the most endangered river in the US for the 2nd year in a row.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D2)
2000        Mar 9, In Norway Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik announced that his minority government would resign following a failed vote of confidence in an environmental dispute. He opposed new power plants to burn gas supplies.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D6)

2000        Mar 10, In Romania some 20,000 tons of metal pollutants escaped into the Vaser River from the state-owned Baia Borsa mine after a dam broke following heavy rains and melting snow.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A9)

2000        Mar 16, About a dozen whales became stranded on 2 Bahama beaches one day after a US Navy exercise propagated loud noises through the waters of the region. 5 of the whales died. In 2001 testing confirmed that Navy sonar caused the whales to beach themselves.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A9)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.A1)

2000        Mar 20, The Clinton administration moved to phase out the fuel additive MTBE to avoid further contamination of groundwater.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 15, The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Whaling Commission turned down a requests from Japan and Norway to allow expanded limited whaling. 2000 delegates were gathered in Nairobi, Kenya, for a 10 day UN Convention on Int~ez_rsquo~l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A22)

2000        Apr 16, The rest of the winners of the Goldman Environmental Prize were announced: Nat Quansah (46), an ethnobotonist in Madagascar; Oscar Rivas (45) and Elias Diaz (54) of Paraguay for their work in defeating government plans to reconfigure the Paraguay and Parana rivers for shipping at environmental expense; Vera Mischenko (47) for environmental legal work in Russia; Oral Ataniyazova (43), for founding a clinic and fighting pesticide contamination in Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan; and Alexander Peal (55), for environmental work and founding a national park in Liberia.
    (SFC, 4/17/00, p.A2)

2000        Apr 17, African nations agreed to a compromise on the trade of ivory. A ban on legal sales was restored until an effective system to combat poaching can be instituted.
    (SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)

2000        Apr 22, Earth Day 2000, the 30th annual anniversary, was celebrated in Washington DC with the theme "Clean Energy Now."
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C8)

2000        Apr 29, The year~ez_rsquo~s 17th Bay Area dead whale was found near Pier 50 in SF.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C12)

2000        Apr 30, It was reported by the Royal Swedish Academy that the Earth is currently hotter than at any time in recorded human history.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.A17)

2000        Apr, UNESCO declared the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil a World Heritage site. Only 3% of the original 4,500 square mile rain forest remained.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B10)

2000        May 9, In Kentucky a fire at the Wild Turkey Distillery caused an alcohol runoff into an 8-mile stretch of the Kentucky River and a huge fish kill followed within days.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.D8)

2000        May 16, The 3M Co. announced that it would stop making many Scotchguard stain repellent products. The company found that the compound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA), one of the ingredients, tended to persist in the environment and in the bloodstream of people worldwide. The US market was left to DuPont.
    (SFC, 5/17/00, p.A7)(SFC, 4/15/03, p.A5)

2000        May 22, Russia~ez_rsquo~s Pres. Putin abolished the chief agency for environmental protection and transferred its powers to a ministry that hands out oil and gas leases.
    (SFC, 5/23/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 1, It was reported that leatherneck sea turtles were in danger of extinction. The National Marine Fisheries estimated 85,000 mature females left in the Pacific while the Center for marine conservation estimated only 5,000.
    (SFC, 6/1/00, p.A14)
2000        Jun 1, The organophosphate pesticide called chlorpyrifos, sold under names including Dursban, was reported to pose a risk to children. The EPA announced a ban on its use for most applications on June 8.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)(SFC, 6/9/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 6, A state of emergency was declared in Marin county, Ca., due to the rapid spread of a mysterious disease that killed oak trees. Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995. The death of the oak trees was later attributed to a fungus of the genus Phytophtora, the same kind of organism that caused the Irish potato famine from 1840-1850.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A17)(SFC, 8/1/00, p.A13)

2000        Jun 14, US federal marine specialists reported that the US Navy induced underwater noise caused the stranding of a dozen beaked whales in the Bahamas in March. Hemorrhages were found around the ears of the dead animals.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.a7)

2000        June 22, In Kazakstan some 11,000 seals were reported found dead on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Infectious disease linked to weakened immune systems due to oil-related pollutants were blamed.
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D3)

2000        Jun 23, A Panamanian registered tanker sank off Cape Town, South Africa and at least 1,300 tons of seeped out. Oil began to soak the local penguins at Robben Island.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A16)

2000        Jun 24, A red tide of algal bloom over 2,700 square miles was reported over the East China Sea. China~ez_rsquo~s environmental protection agency blamed pollutants and weather conditions.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A24)

2000        Jul 16, An oil leak in Brazil~ez_rsquo~s Parana state began near the Getulio Vargas Refinery in Araucaria and dumped over 1 million gallons of crude into a tributary of the Iguacu River. Petrobras was later fined $94 million for the country~ez_rsquo~s worst spill in 25 years.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A12)(SFC, 8/3/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul 20, Willamette Industries of Portland was fined $11.2 million under the federal Clean Air Act plus $8 mil in contributions to environmental projects. It also agreed to install an estimated $74 million worth of pollution control equipment. The company estimated the new equipment at $28 mil.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.A5)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 21, It was reported that warming climate was causing Greenland to lose 11 cubic miles of ice a year, or 12.5 trillion gallons, enough to raise sea level by .005 inches annually.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B3)

2000        Jul 25, Thousands of tons of anchovies washed up on the beaches near Half Moon Bay, Ca. The die-off was said to be an annual event and some said it was the largest in 10 years.
    (SFC, 7/25/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul, In Kaohsiung, Taiwan, the water supply from the Kaoping River was shut down after tanker workers were caught pouring tons of the cancer-causing solvent dimethyl benzene into a tributary of the river.
    (SFC, 8/16/00, p.A18)

2000        Jul, Visitors to the North Pole reported that the ice had melted for the 1st time in recorded history and formed a free patch of ocean about a mile in diameter.
    (SFC, 8/26/00, p.A20)

2000        Aug 8, Some 109 nuclear waste sites in 27 states, Puerto Rico and territorial islands of the Pacific would remain dangerous for centuries according to a new report by the US National Research Council.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A24)

2000        Aug 17, It was reported that a soybean aphid from China threatened the $13.5 billion US soybean market.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A2)

2000        Aug 31, In Ukraine Pres. Kuchma declared 4 villages near Mykolaiv an ecological disaster zone due to illnesses of some 400 residents since July 4. Chemical poisoning from Soviet-era rocket fuel leaks was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/1/00, p.D5)

2000        cSep 8, Millions of dead fish washed ashore from the Gulf of Oman 50 miles northwest of Muscat. It was the 2nd kill within a week and authorities suspected oxygen depletion by phytoplankton as the cause.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A22)

2000        Sep 15, In Uganda the chimpanzee population was estimated at about 3,000 and declining due to refugees from Congo eating small apes.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.D2)

2000        Sep 18, It was reported that Kenya was losing 50,000 ebony trees annually due to the thriving wood-carving industry. An estimated 80,000 carvers used the wood.
    (SFC, 9/18/00, p.A8)

2000        Sep 19, Japan~ez_rsquo~s research whaling fleet returned home with 88 whales that included 43 Bryde whales, 5 sperm and 40 minke whales.
    (SFC, 9/20/00, p.A14)

2000        Sep 27, It was reported that the Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, was within a mile of the fragile Florida Everglades National Park.
    (WSJ, 9/27/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 6, In Peru a 5,000 barrel oil spill by an Argentine company threatened the water resources of some 10,000 inhabitants in the northern jungle.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.A24)

2000        Nov 2, It was reported that 82 species of marine and estuarine fish in the waters off of Canada, Mexico and the US were in danger of extinction due to over fishing and habitat destruction.
    (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A8)

2000        Nov 5, In Scottsbluff, Neb., 15 Burlington Northern Santa Fe train cars derailed and spilled some 80,000 gallons of benzene. 15,000 residents were ordered to evacuate the area.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A3)

2000        Nov 13, The US government declared the wild Atlantic salmon an endangered species.
    (SFC, 11/14/00, p.A7)

2000        Nov 15, The US government announced a plan to use the gnat-like phorid fly to control fire ants.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A3)

2000        Nov 19, US negotiators at the Hague agreed to limit the use of forest projects to reach targets for green house gases at global warming talks aimed writing the fine print for the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
    (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A8)

2000        Nov, In Manaus, Brazil, an oil leak at an abandoned asphalt factory spilled as much as 6,600 gallons into feeder streams of the Amazon.
    (SFC, 11/25/00, p.D8)

2000        Dec 1, The European Commission demanded reductions in fishing including 60% cuts of cod and hake catches due to overfishing.
    (SFC, 12/2/00, p.A13)

2000        Dec, It was reported that Robert Taylor, brother Pres. Charles Taylor, headed the Liberia Forestry Development Authority and allowed Oriental Timber of Hong Kong to wipe out entire forests.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.B5)

2000        Dec 19, Four companies in LA County agreed to pay $73 million to help clean an ocean dump used for DDT. Montrose Chemical, Aventis Crop-Science USA, Chris-Craft Industries and Atkemix Thirty Seven Inc. settled the suit.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A3)
2000        Dec 19, It was reported that swiftlet colonies in Thailand were threatened due to the excessive harvesting of their edible nests for Chinese restaurants.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.A16)

2000        Dec 20, It was reported that four-fifths of the salmon spawning in the last free-flowing reach of the Columbia River had reverted to female sex for unknown reasons. Water temperature and environmental pollutants were suspect.
    (SFC, 12/20/00, p.C3)
2000        Dec 20, A new EPA regulation required oil refineries to remove 97% of the sulfur from diesel fuel by 2006.
    (WSJ, 12/21/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 26, Pres. Clinton signed a ban on cutting shark fins and discarding the fish back to the sea.
    (SFC, 12/27/00, p.A6)

2000        Oct 10, Sludge from a coal mines broke through a waste lagoon of the A.T. Massey Coal Co. and some 250 million gallons hit coldwater Creek and Wolf Creek near Inez. Gov. Paul E. Patton declared a 10-county emergency.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A20)

2000        Nov, The US ended chemical weapons disposal on Johnston Island, 825 miles southwest of Honolulu, after 10 years of operations. The island was turned into a wildlife preserve.
    (SFC, 4/22/02, p.A2)

2000        Peter Huber authored "Hard Green," in which he argued that a growth oriented economy could actually do a better job of preserving nature than a society run on the principles of environmentalism.
    (WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A24)

2000        Philip Stott, Prof. at London Univ., authored "Political Ecology: Science, Myth and Power."
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A18)

2000        California Fish and Game Dept. began looking into bird deaths at Searles Lake in Searles Valley, San Bernardino County. From 2001-2007 some 348 to 706 birds died at the lake each year. Searles Valley Minerals, formerly IMC Chemicals, produced soda ash, boron minerals and sodium sulfate there and pumped spent brine to form the lake. The birds had died of salt toxicosis. The lake was also a natural repository of arsenic. Numerous area workers complained of health problems following their employment. In 2008 the company was sold by an affiliate of Sun Capital Partners Inc. to Nirma Ltd., an India-based company.
    (SSFC, 7/6/08, p.A10)(SFC, 7/7/08, p.A9)

2000        Forest Guardians filed a federal lawsuit in New Mexico over bird deaths against IMC Potash Carlsbad, a division of IMC Global. US Fish and Wildlife estimated that from 1996-2000 over 1,600 birds had died in a shallow lake where wastewater was discharged.
    (SFC, 7/7/08, p.A9)

2000        The EU in 1998 announced plans for tough anti-pollution laws to take effect to make car engines and fuels burn cleaner.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.D2)

2001        Jan 8, Mike Dombeck, US Forest Service chief, outlined a policy to end the cutting of all old-growth trees in national forests.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A3)

2001        Jan 16, The tanker Jessica with 243,000 gallons of fuel, ran aground on San Cristobal island in the Galapagos and began leaking.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A11)

2001        Jan 19, The tanker Jessica, aground on San Cristobal island, cracked its cargo hold and began leaking fuel. Some 150,000 gallons of diesel and bunker fuel were released. It was later learned that the oil caused the deaths of thousands of marine iguanas.
    (SFC, 1/22/01, p.A10)(SFC, 6/6/02, p.A2)

2001        Jan 20, It was reported that 12.5% of the original forest in the Amazon region had been destroyed.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb, In Mexico it was reported that millions of monarch butterflies had died at a hilltop reserve in Michoacan. Insecticides were suspected while officials blamed cold weather.
    (SSFC, 4/8/01, p.C6)

2001        Mar 1, The pesticide Diazinon was scheduled to be removed from retail products for use indoors.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.A5)

2001        Mar 11, The San Francisco Bay~ez_rsquo~s tidal marshes were reported to have dwindled from 190,000 acres to 40,000 over the last 150 years.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 26, The Bill Moyers PBS special "Trade Secrets" focused on the coverup by the American chemical industry of health problems caused by numerous products including vinyl chloride and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.A17)

2001        Mar 29, An oil tanker collided with a freighter in the Baltic Sea and some 550,000 gallons of oil were spilled and drifted toward Denmark.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.D4)

2001        Mar 30, It was reported that the forests of China~ez_rsquo~s Yunnan province had dropped from 50% coverage in 1949 to less than 10% today.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A17)
2001        Mar 30, It was reported that the forests of Burma had dropped from 21% coverage in 1949 to less than 7% today.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A17)

2001        Apr 13, It was reported that new evidence from ocean surveys supported the idea of global warming due to "greenhouse gases."
    (SFC, 4/13/01, p.A1)

2001        cApr 15, Australia indicated that it would not ratify the Kyoto treaty to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and said the treaty is probably defunct now that the US has repudiated it.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 22, The Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded. Jane Akre and Steve Wilson, American TV journalist, won for reports on modified bovine growth hormone. Eugene Rutagarama of Rwanda won for efforts to protect the mountain gorillas. Myrsini Malakou and Giorgos Catsadorakis, Greek biologists, won for their efforts to save the Prespa wetlands. Yosepha Alomang, spokeswoman for the Amungme tribe of Irian Jaya, won for her opposition to mining dumps by Freeport McMoran. Oscar Olivera, grassroots leader in Bolivia, won for his efforts against water privatization. Bruno Van Peteghem, an Air France crew member, won for resisting mining activities on New Caledonia.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.A3)

2001        May 4, It was reported that the hydroxyl radical, a critical air-cleaning molecule, was decreasing.
    (SFC, 5/4/01, p.D4)

2001        May 19, In Utah it was reported that Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) had reproduced into the worst infestation since the early 1970s.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.A3)

2001        May, In Cameroon a plague of caterpillars was devastating crops in the eastern and southern provinces.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.C9)

2001        May 22, In Sweden delegates from 127 countries formally adopted a global treaty banning 12 toxic chemicals called persistent organic pollutants (POPS).
    (SFC, 5/23/01, p.C4)

2001        May 23, The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) opened for signature in Stockholm, Sweden. The convention entered into force on May 17th, 2004 with ratification by an initial 128 parties and 151 signatories.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5exstm)(SSFC, 7/6/08, p.A2)

2001        May 29, The US National Marine Fisheries Service declared the California coast white abalone an endangered species.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A3)

2001        Jun 4, Pres. Bush spoke in the Florida Everglades and underlined his request for $58 million in the 2002 budget for Everglades restoration.
    (SFC, 6/5/01, p.A3)

2001        Jun 5, In Rwanda soldiers fanned out across Virunga National Park to protect endangered mountain gorillas. 2 were recently killed and eaten by Hutu militiamen. Only 355 members of the group live in the wild.
    (SFC, 6/6/01, p.C14)

2001        Jun 6, It was reported that the Caspian sturgeon catch had plummeted to 1,100 tons in the late 1990s from 22,000 tons in the 1970s. The UN Cites organization stopped shipments in 2001 and threatened to ban exports from the Caspian states until a feasible protection plan was presented.
    (WSJ, 6/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 6, A report by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that industrial greenhouse gases would likely raise temperatures 2.5-10.4 degrees Fahrenheit before the end of the century.
    (SFC, 6/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 11, In Germany Chancellor Schroeder and leading energy companies signed an agreement to shit down the country~ez_rsquo~s 19 nuclear power plants. Average operation was limited to 32 years and the last would close around 2021.
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)

2001        Jun 14, Pres. Bush clashed with EU leaders in Sweden over his global warming policy. The EU leaders said they would move to implement the Kyoto treaty without the US.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.A1)
2001        Jun 14, A tanker capsized in a sea lane between Malaysia and Singapore. The MT Endah Lestari with 660 tons of phenol rolled as it was towed. Unknown amounts of phenol and a large amount of diesel oil was spilled.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)

2001        Jul 2, In Irkutsk authorities declared a state of emergency following a huge invasion of locusts.
    (SFC, 7/7/01, p.A4)

2001        Jul 23, In Bonn, Germany, negotiators from 178 nations, without the US, rescued the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and accepted rules to cut emissions of waste gases linked to global warming after marathon talks.
    (DFP, 7/24/01, p.3A)(SFC, 7/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/02)

2001        Jul 27, It was reported that the Earth Liberation Front had begun selling a promotional videotape for $10 called "An Introduction to the Earth Liberation Front."
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A10)

2001        Aug 1, The US House passed energy legislation that included opening the Arctic national Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas drilling.
    (SFC, 8/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 18, It was reported that Chelyabinsk Gov. Pyotr Sumin had written Russia~ez_rsquo~s Pres. Putin a letter of concern over the radioactive waste from the Mayak nuclear processing plant. Some 14 billion cubic feet of waste in artificial lakes threatened to leak into the region~ez_rsquo~s rivers.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.E1)

2001        Aug 26, It was reported that MTBE was leaking from 251 underground gasoline tanks in the Bay Area and reached 48 wells in public water systems.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 1, Scientists gathered in the French Alps to discuss a medicine called ivermectine given to livestock to protect them from parasites. Dung from the animals was toxic and virtually indestructible and threatened the survival of insects, birds and bats.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A20)

2001        Oct 31, The Bush administration said it would adopt stricter arsenic standard for drinking water as proposed in the final days of the Clinton administration.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A13)

2001        Nov 9, In Morocco negotiators of over 160 countries reached agreement on a climate control treaty and set mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    (SFC, 11/10/01, p.A12)

2001        Nov 23, In Brazil an oil pipeline leak near Rio was stopped after some 26,000 gallons spilled into Guanabara Bay.
    (SSFC, 11/25/01, p.A18)

2001        cDec 25, Grigory Pasko (39), Russian military journalist, was sentenced to 4 years in prison plus credit for time served for passing state secrets to Japan. He had reported on the Russian navy practice of ocean-dumping old weapons and nuclear waste.
    (SFC, 12/26/01, p.A5)

2001        Tim Flannery authored "The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America and Its Peoples."
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.70)

2001        Bjorn Lomborg authored "The Skeptical Environmentalist" in which he presents data that shows the environment to be improving.
    (WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A17)

2001        The US EPA recommended that strict regulations on perchlorate. The chemical, a key component in munitions, had seeped into drinking water supplies. A strict limit meant that defense contractors would have to clean up scores of water sources in 35 states.
    (WSJ, 12/29/05, p.A1)

2001        The New Orleans Regional Transit Authority installed plastic railroad ties for the 1st time on its St. Charles line. Plastic tie manufacturers included Polywood Inc. and the TieTek unit of North American Technologies Group. Each mile of track laid with plastic ties was said to save 800 oak trees.
    (WSJ, 10/19/04, p.B8)

2001        Tom Szaky and Jon Beyer co-founded TerraCycle, an environmentally friendly consumer products firm, at the end of their freshman year at Princeton, NJ. In 2009 Tom Szaky (27) authored ~ez_ldquo~Revolution in a Bottle: How TerraCycle Is Redefining Green Business.~ez_rdquo~
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TerraCycle)(WSJ, 3/11/09, p.A13)

2001        In Nigeria over 100 flare stacks burned some 2 billion standard cubic feet of natural gas per day. It was estimated that 35 million tons of carbon dioxide was released annually along with 12 million tons of methane.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A14)

2002        Jan 30, The Nature Conservancy announced a $31 million purchase of the 151-sq. mile Baca Ranch. It was a step towards the creation of a new 58th US national park with the adjacent Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve in 2005.
    (SFC, 1/31/02, p.A2)

2002        Jan 12-13, In Mexico a rain storm was followed by a freeze and as many as 270 million monarch butterflies were killed at the Rosario and Sierra Chincua colonies in Michoacan state.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A4)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.A3)

2002        Feb 14, Pres. Bush proposed an environmental plan that would encourage businesses to cut pollution and develop more energy-efficient technology.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A5)
2002        Feb 14, The 168th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science opened in Boston with a bleak assessment of planet health and a call for conservation of resources.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A3)

2002        Feb 16, It was reported that 80% of the 235 rivers of Bangladesh were drying up due to silting, dumping and construction of unplanned embankments.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)
2002        Feb 16, Mark Meier, glacier expert, predicted that oceans would rise 7-11 inches by the end of this century due to polar warming.
    (SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A4)

2002        Feb 22, An Alabama jury found Monsanto and its corporate successors (Solutia Inc.) guilty of releasing tons of PCBs in Anniston between 1935-1979. In 2004 some 18,447 plaintiffs were scheduled to an average of $7,725, while 27 lawyers were scheduled to receive over $4 million each.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A7)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.A5)

2002        Feb 27, Eric V. Schaeffer ended his 12-year EPA career with a missive accusing the Bush administration of dragging its feet on lawsuits against 9 power companies blamed for a quarter of the nation~ez_rsquo~s annual sulfur dioxide pollution.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A9)

2002        Feb 28, Japan reportedly planned to double its whale catch to 260 whales and include the endangered sei whale.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A19)

2002        Feb, Florida Bay experienced a mass of "black water" spread over some 700 sq. miles north of the Keys. It was thought to be caused by an algal bloom.
    (SFC, 4/6/02, p.C10)

2002        Mar 3, Denmark generated 13% of its electricity from wind and planned to raise the figure to 50% by 2030.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.A3)

2002        Mar 4, European Union~ez_rsquo~s 15 members ratified the Kyoto Protocol on global warming, but failed to set pollutant-emission levels to meet the accord~ez_rsquo~s targets.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2002        Mar 6, The Bush administration announced an additional $450 million to speed the cleanup of the Washington state Hanford nuclear reservation by 35-45 years.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A4)

2002        Mar 25, It was reported that poachers were destroying the palms in Brazil~ez_rsquo~s Itatiaia National Park in order to harvest the palm hearts. A 100-year-old tree has enough heart to fill 2 14-oz cans sold retail at $3.99.
    (WSJ, 3/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 28, It was reported that the US government planned to distribute safety hoods and training to some 35,000 Alabama state residents in an eastern county prior to the incineration of nerve-gas weapons in the fall.
    (WSJ, 3/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 1, The American Rivers environmental group listed the most endangered US rivers and included the Missouri, Big Sunflower (Mississippi), and Klamath (California) in the top 11.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 6, Some 90,000 gallons of oil from a ruptured pipeline spilled into the coastal area of Little Lake, La.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A15)

2002        Apr 10, It was reported that the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) was becoming exhausted from over fishing.
    (SFC, 4/10/02, p.A16)

2002        Apr 12, Beth O~ez_rsquo~Brien (22) fell from a tree platform in the Eagle Creek area of Mount Hood, Oregon, while protesting a timber sale.
    (SSFC, 4/14/02, p.A14)

2002        Apr 21, The annual environmentalist Goldman Prize winners included: Gwich~ez_rsquo~in natives Jonathan Solomon, Sarah James and Norman Kassi for their work to prevent oil drilling in the Arctic Nat~ez_rsquo~l. Wildlife Refuge; Fatima Jibrell of Somalia for her resistance to the charcoal trade threatening the local rain forests; Psit Charnsnoh of Thailand for helping to restore coastal ecosystems; Jean La Rose of Guyana for organizing resistance to mining and logging on native Arawak lands; Alexis Massol-Gonzalez of Puerto Rico for converting a mining zone to a forest reserve; and Jadwiga Lopata of Poland for promoting eco-farming.
    (SFC, 4/22/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 24, The EPA reported that ethanol factories were producing carbon monoxide, methanol and some carcinogens at levels higher than promised.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr, Carnival Corp. pleaded guilty to dumping oily waste from bilge tanks between 1998-2001 and agreed to a $18 mil fine. Royal Caribbean pleaded guilty to similar charges in 1999.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, p.C12)

2002        May 11, It was reported that a dead orca whale found off the Washington state coast contained toxic PCBs so high that test equipment needed to be recalibrated. Levels were measured at 1,000 parts-per-million.
    (SFC, 5/11/02, p.A5)

2002        May 18, It was reported that the US-funded Plan Colombia had caused widespread crop damage in Ecuador. The coca leaf fumigation affected some 10,000 Ecuadorians along the Colombia border where the RoundupUltra herbicide was spread by Colombian airplanes.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A11)

2002        May 22, A UN environmental report said population growth was slowing but that severe water shortages should be expected in the Middle East over the next generation and biodiversity will continue to be damaged in many world regions. Ocean degradation was also noted.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A6)

2002        May 24, Japan led a successful move to deny Alaska and Siberian native peoples a renewal of permission to hunt whales after a failed bid to end a 20-year moratorium on commercial whaling.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A17)
2002        May 24, In Mexico Pres. Fox announced that all of Mexico~ez_rsquo~s waters are a preserve for whales and off-limits to whale hunting.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A13)

2002        May 30, It was reported that dynamite fishing in the Philippines has put the native coral reefs on the verge of collapse.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.A1)

2002        May 31, European Union countries formally signed on to the Kyoto Protocol, a pact aimed at stemming pollution and global warming that has been opposed by the United States.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A9)(AP, 5/31/03)

2002        Jun 2, It was reported that atrazine, a commonly used herbicide made by Sygenta AG of Switzerland, had been linked to cancer in humans and deformities in frogs. US farmers sprayed over 60 million pounds of it each year.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.A3)(NH, 10/02, p.56)

2002        Jun 4, Pres. Bush said that he read the new EPA report on global warming, but still opposed the Kyoto treaty.
    (SFC, 6/5/02, p.A3)
2002        Jun 4, Japan ratified the Kyoto Protocol, aimed at cutting emissions of heat-trapping gases and urged the US and other countries to do so.
    (AP, 6/4/03)(SFC, 6/5/02, p.A3)

2002        Jun 18, In London it was reported that sparrows numbers had declined steeply for no known reason.
    (AP, 6/18/02)

2002        Jul 1, It was reported that the Bush administration had designated 33 toxic waste sites for funding cuts.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.A5)

2002        Jul 3, The federal government agreed to nullify the 2001 designation of most of 4.1 million acres as protected habitat for the red-legged frog in an agreement with the Home Builders Association of Northern Calif.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 9, WWF Int~ez_rsquo~l. released its 4th Living Planet Report and said humans are using 20% more natural resources each year than can be regenerated.
    (SFC, 7/10/02, p.A12)
2002        Jul 9, The US Senate approved a nuclear waste burial site at Yucca Mountain Nevada. Gov. Kenny Guinn vowed to continue fighting the plan.
    (SFC, 7/10/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 13, It was reported that some 100 northern snakehead fish, a meat-eater native to China, had been found in a Maryland pond.
    (SFC, 7/13/02, p.A4)

2002        Jul 15, A federal agency approved Navy plans for a sonar system to search out enemy submarines despite potential injury to whales and dolphins.
    (SFC, 7/16/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 19, West Coast Homebuilders under Albert Seeno agreed to pay $1 million for draining frog-breeding ponds for 3,200 homes in Pittsburg, Ca. Seeno also agreed to turn hundreds of acres over to a frog refuge.
    (SFC, 7/20/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 22, Gov. Davis signed a bill for California air regulators to enact measures by 2009 to cut vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases believed to contribute to global warming.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 27, Nearly 60 false killer whales stranded on an Australian beach died or were euthanized after failed attempts to return them to the water.
    (AP, 7/27/02)

2002        Jul 30, In Mass. 46 pilot whales beached themselves a 2nd time one day after rescuers managed to return most of a pod back to sea. All the animals died.
    (SFC, 7/31/02, p.A3)

2002        Aug 5, Shell Oil agreed to pay $28 million to the Tahoe Public Utility District to help cleanup contamination from the gasoline additive MTBE.
    (SFC, 8/6/02, p.A17)

2002        Aug 9, The Bush administration said the 1969 National Environmental Policy Act does not extend beyond the few miles of territorial waters.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A3)

2002        Aug 12 It was reported that a 2-mile thick cloud of pollution covered South Asia and that it was suspected for causing drought, flooding and the premature deaths of a half-million people in India each year.
    (SFC, 8/12/02, p.A7)

2002        Aug 21, Weldon Spring, Missouri, was reported open to the public as tourist attraction. The radioactive site opened after a $1 billion, 16-year cleanup.
    (SFC, 8/21/02, p.A2)

2002        Aug 22, In Brazil President Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed a decree creating the Tumucumaque (too-moo-koo-MAH-kee) Mountains National Park bigger than Maryland covering a region of virgin rainforest in Amapa state, along Brazil's northern borders with Surinam and Guyana.
    (AP, 8/22/02)

2002        Aug 26, The 4th UN World Summit on Sustainable Development opened in Johannesburg, SA. Pres. Bush sent Colin Powell as his stand-in. The 3rd gathering was in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
    (SSFC, 8/25/02, p.A3)

2002        Aug 27, In South Africa delegates to the World Summit on Sustainable Development called for increased global efforts to bring new agricultural technologies to poor farmers to help feed the developing world.
    (AP, 8/27/02)

2002        Aug 28, Delegates at the World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways to bring fresh water and sanitation to hundreds of millions of people who lack access to either. Negotiators hailed their first breakthrough: a deal to protect the world's oceans and marine life.
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Aug 29, The World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways business and governments could work together to spread prosperity in the developing world while protecting the environment.
    (AP, 8/29/02)

2002        Aug 29, The federal government approved a plan to store Colorado River water under the Mohave Desert and tap it for use by Southern California during times of drought.
    (SFC, 8/30/02, p.A10)

2002        Sep 12, Gov. Davis signed legislation to dramatically increase California~ez_rsquo~s use of renewable energy.
    (SFC, 9/13/02, p.A23)

2002        Sep 13, In South Africa the Italian ship, the Jolly Rubino, that ran aground  within the boundaries of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, began leaking oil and was in danger of breaking up, according to conservation officials and a salvage company.
    (AP, 9/13/02)

2002        Sep 15, In Knoxville, Tennessee, a Norfolk Southern train derailed near and one car with 93,000 pounds of sulfuric acid ruptured. The liquid acid vaporized creating a toxic cloud.
    (SFC, 9/16/02, p.A7)

2002        Sep 24, The annual $500,00 "genius award" MacArthur grants were given to 24 men and women including David B. Goldstein, energy specialist at the Natural Resources Defense Council in SF for his work on energy-efficient refrigerators.
    (SFC, 9/25/02, p.A3)

2002        Sep 24-25, In the Canary Islands over a dozen beaked whales beached themselves following NATO exercises that involved a cluster of warships and submarines. 9 of the whales washed ashore dead and showed lesions in the brain and hearing system, consistent with acoustic impact.
    (SFC, 9/26/02, p.A20)(SFC, 10/7/02, p.A6)

2002        Sep 27, The federal government increased the flow of water into the Klamath River from Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon following the die-off of some 20-30,000 salmon in northern California.
    (SFC, 9/28/02, p.A2)(SFC, 10/3/02, p.A3)

2002        Nov 1, Scientists reported that 22-47% of Earth~ez_rsquo~s plant species are in danger of becoming extinct due to human activity.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A4)

2002        Nov 13, The Bahamian-registered Prestige, with 85,000 tons of oil, sprang a leak during a storm off the coast of Spain. Some 3,300 tons leaked and began reaching the coast of Spain after a few days.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 19, The Prestige oil tanker, carrying 20 million gallons of fuel oil, broke in two and sank in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Spain. It leaked up to 1.02 million gallons of oil and threatened a spill nearly twice as big as the Exxon Valdez in 1989. Leakage continued at some 33,000 gallons per day and could drain until 2006. Spain later put the estimated cost of the Prestige oil tanker spill at least $1.05 billion. In 2013 a judge acquitted crew members and a top maritime official of causing the massive oil spill. The Greek captain (78) of the Prestige was sentenced to nine months in prison for resisting attempts to tow the wreck away from shore before it spilled its load.
    (AP, 11/19/02)(WSJ, 12/11/02, p.A1)(AP, 1/15/03)(AP, 11/13/13)

2002        Nov 22, An epidemic of tree-killing pine beetles was reported to be spreading rapidly through the forests of British Columbia, Canada's largest lumber exporting province, with the deadly insects now found in a area nearly three-quarters the size of Sweden.
    (Reuters, 11/22/02)

2002        Nov 24, A tanker carrying 20,000 tons of liquefied petroleum gas was on fire in Chinese waters about 38 kilometers east of Hong Kong, risking a huge explosion.
    (Reuters, 11/24/02)

2002        Nov 22, The US EPA eased rules requiring installation of anti-pollution gear. The Bush administration eased clean air rules to allow utilities, refineries and manufacturers to avoid having to install new anti-pollution equipment when they modernized their plants.
    (WSJ, 11/25/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/22/07)

2002        Dec 6, The EU agreed to ban single-hull tankers, likely to be effective in 2010.
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.A15)

2002        Dec 14, The Norwegian Tricolor, a cargo ship carrying nearly 2,900 luxury cars capsized and sank after colliding with the Bahamas-registered Kariba cargo ship in the English Channel. Tricolor carried 2,862 cars, high-end BMWs, Volvos and Saabs, and 77 other items, mainly tractors and large crane parts.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

2002        Dec 16, The EPA issued a water-pollution rule to cover animal waste from "factory farms."
    (WSJ, 12/17/02, p.A1)
2002        Dec 16, It was reported that a severe drought ravaging most of Australia's rural sector will slash farm exports by 13 percent this fiscal year. Triggered by abnormal sea temperatures, El Nino was blamed for severe drought in Australia, which slashed crops and caused a liquidation of the nation's livestock. The drought continued thru 2005.
    (AP, 12/16/02)(AP, 5/24/05)

2002        Dec, China signed a preliminary agreement with Indonesia aimed at halting the trade in illegal logs.
    (WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A12)

2002        Devra Davis authored "When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution."
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M5)
2002        Richard Porter authored ~ez_ldquo~The Economics of Waste.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.6)
2002        Michael Williams, British geographer, authored ~ez_ldquo~Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis, An Abridgment.~ez_rdquo~
    (www.amazon.com/Deforesting-Earth-Prehistory-Global-Crisis/dp/0226899268)

2002        A UN analysis of timber statistics for 2002 showed China's reported import of logs from Indonesia to be 200 times higher that the figures reported by Indonesian customs.
    (WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A12)

2002        Pres. Omar Bongo decided to preserve a tenth of Gabon's 103,000 square miles in 13 nature preserves based on stories and photographs by Mike Fay and Nick Nichols.
    (SSFC, 10/5/03, p.D10)

2003        Jan 1, A US Army incineration at the Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, scheduled to begin destroying stockpiled chemical weapons in Oct 2002, was postponed to at least Jan 1, 2003. A global treaty called for complete destruction by 2004.
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.A5)

2003        Jun 30, The pesticide Diazinon was scheduled to be removed from retail products for use on lawns and gardens.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.A5)

2002        Michael D~ez_rsquo~Orso authored "Plundering Paradise: The Hand of Man on the Galapagos Islands."
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)

2003        Jan 29, Belgium said oil leaking from the sunken cargo ship Tricolor (Dec 14) is washing up on the Belgian coastline, damaging wildlife and beaches.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003        Feb 15, It was reported that SF Bay Area refineries were belching 30% more pollutants than previously known due to the frequent flaring of gases.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 7, Jose Marcio Ayres (49), Brazilian biologist and senior Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) biologist, died in NYC. In 1996 he set up the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve to protect a 4,300 square-mile area of the Amazon rain forest.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.77)

2003        Mar 19, Pacific Lumber began removing tree sitters near Eureka, Ca. Some of the 18 sitters had been in the trees for almost a year.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A23)

2003        Apr 14, The US EPA launched an investigation into perfluorooctanoic acid, an ingredient in teflon, for possible health risks to humans.
    (SFC, 4/15/03, p.A5)

2003        Apr 24, Canada banned cod fishing off the Atlantic provinces and Quebec due to the collapse of cod stocks.
    (SFC, 4/25/03, A8)

2003        Apr 28, An environmental group reported that chemical perchlorate, the explosive ingredient in rocket fuel, was found in samples of lettuce traced to growers in southern California or Arizona. The Bush administration had already imposed a gag order on the EPA from publicly discussing perchlorate pollution.
    (SFC, 4/28/03, A1)(WSJ, 4/28/03, A3)

2003        Apr 29, California biologists reported that some 92 southern sea otters had died since the beginning of the year between Point Conception and Half Moon Bay.
    (SFC, 4/30/03, A1)

2003        May 3, It was reported that half of Germany's bee colonies failed to survive the winter due to a mite that began spreading from Southeast Asia about 90 years ago.
    (SFC, 5/3/03, p.B8)

2003        May 15, The SF Bay Area celebrated its 9th Bike to Work Day.
    (SFC, 5/15/03, p.A17)

2003        May 21, Christie Whitman (56), former New Jersey governor, announced her resignation as chief of the Environmental Protective Agency.
    (SFC, 5/22/03, p.A1)

2003        May 31, A Chinese freighter sank in the Baltic Sea. It carried 66,000 tons of fertilizer and leaked over 55,270 gallons of diesel oil. Some 38,000 gallons were recovered.
    (SFC, 6/3/03, p.A3)

2003        May, Freecycle, a global recycling phenomenon started operating in Arizona. By 2008 it had grown to more than 4 million members in more than 4,100 cities. It boasted of keeping more than 300 million tons of trash out of landfills every day and inspired imitators.
    (AP, 12/29/07)

2003        Jun 4, The Pews Ocean Commission said US waters are so stressed by pollution and overfishing that drastic federal intervention is required.
    (SFC, 6/5/03, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/5/03, p.A1)

2003        Jun 13, Scientists reported that the new hydrogen fuel cell technology could lead to greater destruction of the ozone layer that protects Earth from cancer-causing ultraviolet rays.
    (AP, 6/13/03)

2003        Jun 15, Scientists reported that nearly 1,000 whales, dolphins and porpoises drown every day after becoming tangled in fishing nets and other equipment.
    (AP, 6/15/03)

2003        Jun 18, The Mercury Policy Project reported that 1/3 of albacor tuna contained levels of toxic mercury exceeding a federally recommended dose for women of child-bearing age.
    (SFC, 6/19/03, p.A10)

2003        Jul 7, It was reported that the night crawler, Lumbricus terristris, was not native to northern American forests and that its introduction was causing problems on the forest floor.
    (WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A1)

2003        Jul 9, Research was released that said PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), commonly used in flame retardants, posed a health hazard.
    (SFC, 7/9/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 1, In San Diego, Ca., a 206-unit complex under construction was leveled by a fire. Members of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 9/20/03, p.A5)

2003        Aug 9, The US Army began burning chemical weapons at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility in Anniston, Ala.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.A4)
2003        Aug 9, California Gov. Davis signed legislation banning 2 forms of flame-retardant chemicals (PBDEs) effective Jan 1, 2008.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.A32)

2003        Aug 11, Pres. Bush named Mike Leavitt, Republican governor of Utah, to head the EPA.
    (SFC, 8/11/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 14, A Greek oil tanker that ran aground Jul 27 off the port city of Karachi broke apart, but officials said the worst was over and rich fishing grounds nearby were not threatened. The ship carried 378,000 to 450,000 gallons. It leaked an estimated 12,000 metric tons.
    (AP, 8/14/03)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A3)
2003        Aug 14, The California Dept. of Fish and Game proposed an indefinite ban on herring fishing in SF Bay due to a marked decline in the number of fish.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 22, In southern California members of the Earth Liberation Front struck 4 car dealerships. Damage at a Chevrolet dealership in West Covina was over $1 million.
    (SFC, 8/23/03, p.A2)

2003        Aug 27, The Bush administration relaxed clean air rules to allow industrial plants to make upgrades without installing pollution controls.
    (SFC, 8/28/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 28, The WWF reported that the hippos of Congo's Virunga national Park have been nearly wiped out by poachers and civil war.
    (WSJ, 8/29/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 3, It was reported that Lake Chapala in Jalisco state had lost some 80% of its water over the last 10 years due to heavy development in central Mexico and agricultural diversion of water from the Rio Lerma.
    (WSJ, 9/3/03, p.B1)

2003        Oct 9, Scientists in Nature reported that certain types of Navy sonar use was responsible for whale deaths due to beaching.
    (SFC, 10/9/03, p.A4)

2003        Oct 21, A report from the Environmental Working Group ranked pesticide contamination for 46 fruits and vegetables based on lab tests done between 1992 and 2001.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)

2003        Oct 28, The US Senate approved Utah's Gov. Mike Leavitt as head of the EPA.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.A3)

2003        Oct 31, The EPA rejected new restrictions on weed-killer atrazine. It was suspected of causing mutations in frogs.
    (WSJ, 11/3/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 4, It was reported that world sulfur stocks were at record highs and that the energy industry produces some 64 million tons a year, far more than needed.
    (WSJ, 11/4/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 28, It was reported that the New Zealand mud snail had invaded trout streams in Northern California. They were capable of stripping entire river systems of algae and had already infested trout streams in Montana.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A21)

2003        Dec 1, In Canada a coalition of energy and forest companies and Indian tribes and environmental groups announced a framework for forest and wetland conservation to conserve at least 50% of Canada's sub-Arctic boreal forests.
    (SFC, 12/1/03, p.A7)

2003        Dec 2, A senior adviser to President Vladimir Putin said that Russia cannot ratify the Kyoto Protocol limiting greenhouse gas emissions, dealing a mortal blow to the pact that required Russia's ratification to take effect.
    (AP, 12/2/03)

2003        Dec 4, It was reported that scientists saw 2003 set to become the 3rd hottest year since modern temperature records began. The warmest since 1880 was 1998 followed by 2002.
    (WSJ, 12/4/03, p.A10)

2003        Dec 8, US District Judge James Ware ruled that US toxic cleanup law doesn't apply abroad. A suit by Filipinos sought that the US government be required to assess pollution near 2 former military bases.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A6)

2003        Dec 12, A UN conference on climate control closed in Milan, Italy. Many countries planned to go ahead with their Kyoto Protocol commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 12/13/03)

2003        Dec 15, The Bush administration proposed a market-based system of pollution controls that required power companies to cut mercury pollution by nearly 70% over the next 15 years, but let them decide for themselves how to meet the overall limits.
    (SFC, 12/16/03, p.A5)

2003        Dec 18, The Cayman Islands banned fishing in grouper spawning areas for eight years, citing a sharp decline in the species' population. The ban took effect of Dec 29.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        Dec 19, Fisheries ministers of the 15 European Union nations reached a compromise deal to protect dwindling stocks of cod, hake and other species.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        Dec 24, A US federal appeals court blocked the Bush administration from implementing a major environmental rule change that would have allowed power plants to upgrade their facilities without installing anti-pollution equipment.
    (SFC, 12/25/03, p.A3)

2003        In New South Wales, Australia, the lower reaches of the Great Anabranch of the Darling River ran dry following a 10-year drought.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.15)

2003        Brazilian ranchers, soybean farmers and loggers destroyed a chunk of the Amazon rainforest about the size of Massachusetts.
    (AP, 4/8/04)

2003        A high court in Kerala, India, ordered Coca Cola to shut down a $25 million plant due to local complaints of excess water use. Villagers also complained that waste from the plant had contaminated drinking water. Activists left alone a nearby Indian brewery.
    (SSFC, 3/6/05, p.A3)

2004        Jan 1, Restrictions on wood-burning stoves in the San Joaquin Valley went into effect. Fresno County was noted for the highest childhood asthma rate in California and the SJ valley was considered the 2nd dirtiest air basin in the US outside of Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 1/1/04, p.A20)

2004        Mar 4, Michigan authorities asked 6 southeastern counties to evaluate damage done by the emerald ash borer. The pests had already killed some 6 million ash trees.
    (USAT, 3/5/04, p.9A)

2004        Mar 9, Groundbreaking ceremonies were set for a research center on the Israeli-Jordan border. The Bridging the Rift foundation, launched in 1999, planned a $30 million environmental research center created with the assistance of California's Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 2/28/04, p.A8)

2004        Mar 10, The Monrovia Growers in Azusa, LA County, reported that its camellias were infested with oak disease, Phytophthora ramorum. Plants from the nursery were distributed around the country.
    (SFC, 3/11/04, p.B1)

2004        Mar 11, The California Office of Environmental Health Hazzard Assessment raised the action level for reporting perchlorate pollution in drinking water from 4 to 6 ppb.
    (WSJ, 3/12/04, p.A8)

2004        Mar 19, Scientists reported that Earth may be in the middle its 6th big extinction event, which began some 50,000 years ago. A recent survey indicated population extinctions in all the main ecosystems of Britain.
    (SFC, 3/19/04, p.A5)

2004        Mar 24, The Bush administration, under pressure from farmers, petitioned to postpone the global phase-out of methyl bromide, a pesticide that has been shown to destroy ozone.
    (SFC, 3/23/04, p.A5)
2004        Mar 24, Australia's parliament passed a law making the Great Barrier Reef the most protected reef system on earth. A fishing ban on a third of the World Heritage site would begin in July.
    (AP, 3/24/04)

2004        Mar 26, The US Department of Agriculture ordered a 60-day ban on the interstate sale of host plants from California due to infestation by the sudden oak death disease.
    (SFC, 3/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar, A biology professor said the monarch butterfly population wintering in Morelia, Mexico, was down 75%. Logging had severely impacted the area.
    (SFC, 2/24/05, p.A10)

2004        Apr 19, The annual environmental Goldman Prizes were awarded in SF. Winners included Rashida Bee and Champa Devi Shukla of India for their work following the Bhopal catastrophe; Margie Richard of the US for her work following chemical leaks in Norco, Louisiana; Rudolf N. Amenga-Etego of Ghana for his work in suspending a water privatization project; Libia R. Grueso Castelblanco of Colombia for her work in securing territorial rights for rural communities; Manana Kochladze of Georgia for winning concessions to protect villagers and a pristine gorge from an oil pipeline; Demetrio De Carvalho of East Timor for his environmental efforts.
    (SFC, 4/19/04, p.B5)

2004        Apr 20, A US federal commission said oceans of the US are in dire shape due to pollution and overfishing.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 23, On Earth Day Pres. Bush toured a Maine nature preserve and said the US should try to expand its wetlands.
    (WSJ, 4/23/04, p.A1)

2004        May 12, A wildlife group warned that world cod stocks were falling and could be wiped out in 15 years if the current rate of overfishing continues.
    (WSJ, 5/13/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 12, The Bush administration announced a new rule to allow the nation~ez_rsquo~s governors to help decide whether roadless areas in their states should be opened for logging or other commercial activity.
    (SFC, 7/13/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 15, Scientists reported that excess carbon dioxide spilled into the air by humans over the past 2 centuries has been taken up by the oceans. They warned that a continuation of this process could damage the ability of ocean creatures to make their shells.
    (SFC, 7/16/04, p.A4)

2004        Jul 17, Office Depot and Hewlett-Packard launched the country's first free, nationwide, in-store electronics recycling program. The program ran to Sep 6.
    (TechWeb, 7/19/04)

2004        Jul 19, Some 4,000 acres of salt ponds in the south bay began receiving SF Bay water in a project to return the area to natural wetlands.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.B1)

2004        Aug, The World Bank estimated that pollution is causing China and annual 8-12% of its $1.4 trillion GDP in direct damage.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.56)

2004        Sep 5, Australian Prime Minister John Howard defended his country's controversial refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases as he launched the 19th World Energy Congress in Sydney.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 23, Gov. Schwarzenegger signed bills allowing some hybrid vehicles to use freeway carpool lanes and requiring older autos to pass smog checks. He also authorized the Sierra Nevada Conservancy, a new California agency dedicated to preserving 25 million Sierra acres.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 23, Antarctic researchers reported that the ice cap~ez_rsquo~s glaciers are now melting twice as fast as in the 1990s and raising sea level.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 30, Love Canal, NY, was formally removed from the Superfund list. The land was deemed safe only for industry. In the center a 16-acre canal dump site remained fenced.
    (SFC, 10/1/04, p.A8)
2004        Sep 30, Russia's Cabinet approved the Kyoto Protocol on global warming.
    (AP, 9/30/04)

2004        Oct 15, The journal Science published a report that said 1,856 of 5,743 species of amphibians are ~ez_ldquo~globally threatened.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 10/15/04, p.A4)
2004        Oct 15, Authorities said the Northern Snakehead has invaded the Great Lakes. The voracious predator dubbed the "Frankenfish" can breathe out of water and wriggle across land.
    (Reuters, 10/15/04)

2004        Oct 21, WWF Int~ez_rsquo~l. said humanity is consuming 20% more natural resources each year than the Earth produces.
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 22, It was reported that engineers in Arizona, in an effort to stave off global warming, were building a prototype machine that would remove carbon dioxide from the air and store it in rocks or under the Earth.
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 22, Russia's lower house of parliament ratified the Kyoto Protocol on combating global warming.
    (AP, 10/22/04)

2004        Oct 27, It was reported that Stefan Jaronski, a Montana researcher, had found that canola oil combined with a fungus can be used to get rid of grasshoppers.
    (USAT, 10/27/04, p.6D)
2004        Oct 27, In Russia the Kyoto Protocol overcame its final legislative hurdle when the upper house of parliament ratified the global climate pact and sent it on to Pres. Vladimir Putin to sign.
    (AP, 10/27/04)

2004        Oct, Michael Shellenberger of El Cerrito, Ca., and Ted Norhaus of Berkeley delivered a 36-page treatisse titled ~ez_ldquo~The Death of Environmentalism~ez_rdquo~ at a national gathering of environmentalists.
    (SFC, 4/23/05, p.B1)

2004        Nov 3, British scientists reported an 89% decline since the 1970s in stocks of Antarctic krill, vital food for marine animals.
    (WSJ, 11/4/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 11, It was reported that large swathes of southern and eastern China are in the grip of their worst drought in more than 50 years, prompting calls from the countries top leaders for better management of water conservation.
    (AP, 11/12/04)

2004        Nov 12, Mexico and a US environmental group agreed on a plan to protect 370,000 acres of tropical forest on the Yucatan Peninsula. Officials said it was the largest conservation project in the country's history.
    (AP, 11/12/04)

2004        Nov 22, Stavros Dimas (b.1941), Greek politician, succeeded Margot Walstron of Sweden as the EU~ez_rsquo~s environment commissioner.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stavros_Dimas)

2004        Nov 23, In Brazil government data indicated that 47% of its rainforest was now occupied by man or logged.
    (WSJ, 11/24/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 25, The 3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress closed in Bangkok. Its final resolutions included a resolution urging governments to limit the use of loud noise sources in the world~ez_rsquo~s oceans.
    (SFC, 12/13/04, p.C1)

2004        Nov 26, A Cyprus-registered tanker spilled 30,000 gallons of crude oil into the Delaware River between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, creating a 20-mile-long slick that killed dozens of birds and threatened other wildlife.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

2004        Nov 28, On a southern Australian island about 100 whales and dolphins died after beaching, and about 50 more were still at risk.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

2004        Dec 7, The German-registered MSC Ilona was punctured during a collision night with the Panama-registered Hyundai Advance near the mouth of the Pearl River, northwest of Hong Kong. The collision of the container ships caused a huge oil spill and cleanup effort.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 8, The 738-foot freighter, Selendang Ayu, ran aground off Unalaska Island and began leaking oil. 6 crew members were missing following an attempted rescue in which a Coast Guard helicopter crashed. The ship carried some 500,000 gallons of bunker oil and diesel fuel.
    (SFC, 12/11/04, p.A3)

2004        Dec 9, Scientists tracked an algae bloom covering 400 square miles in the Gulf Coast that has caused a mass fish kill and dolphin deaths near Florida.
    (WSJ, 12/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 17, It was reported that China~ez_rsquo~s growing power industry was causing global concern over mercury accumulation in the world~ez_rsquo~s water and food supply.
    (WSJ, 12/17/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 18, UN talks on climate change ended with few steps forward as the US, oil producers and developing giants slammed the brakes on the European Union's drive for deeper emissions cuts to stop global warming.
    (AP, 12/18/04)

2004        Dec 19, It was reported that the wind farm at Altamont, Ca., killed some 4,700 birds every year.
    (SSFC, 12/19/04, p.A1)

2004        In Mongolia scientists and American sport fishermen teamed with local Buddhist monks to help stamp out habitat destruction and poaching of the Siberian salmon called taimen.
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.A1)

2004        Charles Clover authored ~ez_ldquo~The End of the Line: How Over-Fishing is Changing the World and What We Eat.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 10/2/04, p.83)
2004        Mark Elvin authored ~ez_ldquo~The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.74)
2004        Paul and Anne Erlich authored ~ez_ldquo~One With Nineveh,~ez_rdquo~ a plan for reorganizing the world~ez_rsquo~s economy and systems of government in order to ward off a prospective collision with nature.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.D10)
2004        James Gustave Speth authored ~ez_ldquo~Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crises of the Global Environment~ez_mdash~A Citizen~ez_rsquo~s Agenda for Action.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 3/20/04, p.91)

2004        Turkmenistan~ez_rsquo~s Pres. Niyazov moved forward with the building of the Golden Era Lake. The massive 75 by 37 mile lake in the middle of the Krakum Desert was considered by many to be an environmental catastrophe.
    (WSJ, 7/16/04, p.A8)

2005        Jan 1, A new California law took effect levying a surcharge on computer sales to defray recycling costs.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.60)

2005        Jan 22, It was reported that a mutant of the sudden oak pathogen was found in a nursery in Washington state. Phytopthora ramorum was believed to be the result of a union between California and European strains.
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.B1)

2005        Jan 25, Georgina Mace told a meeting of zoologists in London that 0.5% of the area of natural habitats on land is lost each year, largely due to conversion to farmland.
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.74)

2005        Jan, The European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), a market for carbon emission permits, was created to help EU countries meet their commitment to cut emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. It covered 5 industries, and 13,000 factories and plants, rated as particularly dirty. A 2nd phase of ETS would run from 2008-2012.
    (Econ, 5/6/06, p.75)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.69)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.56)

2005        Feb 16, The Kyoto global warming pact went into force, 7 years after it was negotiated, imposing limits on emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases scientists blame for increasing world temperatures, melting glaciers and rising oceans. Canada~ez_rsquo~s pledge to cut emissions 6% below its 1990 level by 2012 faced the problem of an average annual increase of 1.5%.
    (AP, 2/16/05)(WSJ, 2/15/05, p.A16)

2005        Feb 22, Researchers at Texas Tech Univ. reported that the rocket fuel perchlorate has been found in women~ez_rsquo~s breast milk at 5 times the average level found in dairy milk.
    (SFC, 2/23/05, p.A6)

2005        Feb 23, Pres. Bush and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder pledged to help developing nations cut back on their output of greenhouse gases.
    (SFC, 2/26/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 25, Gapminder was founded in Stockholm by Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund and Hans Rosling. It is a non-profit venture promoting sustainable global development and achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by increased use and understanding of statistics and other information about social, economic and environmental development at local, national and global levels.
    (www.gapminder.org/about-gapminder/)(Econ, 12/11/10, TQ p.26)

2005        Feb, A group called the Environmental Investigation Agency alleged that $600 million worth of timber was being smuggled from Indonesia to China every month. Pres. Yudhojono pledged a crackdown in March with Operation Sustainable Forest. The EIA described a timber-smuggling chain bringing 300,000 cubic meters of merbau, a valuable hardwood, from Indonesia~ez_rsquo~s Papua province to China. EIA claimed Indonesia was losing an area of forest the size of Switzerland every year.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.42)(Econ, 5/7/05, p.39)

2005        Mar 4, Pres. Bush picked Stephen Johnson (53) to head the EPA.
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 10, The US EPA approved new limits on power plant emissions in the Eastern US. The EPA issued its Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to reduce air pollution. Courts left its provisions intact but ordered  the EPA to come up with a better rule. The new Cross-State Air Pollution rule (CSAPR) was due to go into effect Jan 1, 2012, but faced heavy state and industrial opposition.
    (WSJ, 3/11/05, p.A1)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.38)(http://www.epa.gov/cair/)

2005        Mar 23, Chinese state media reported that already severe water shortages are worsening due to heavy pollution of lakes and aquifers and urban development projects with a big thirst for water, such as lawns and fountains.
    (AP, 3/23/05)

2005        Mar 30, The UN-backed Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report was released. It identified 24 main ecosystem services, most of which are found in forests.
    (www.maweb.org/en/article.aspx?id=58)(Econ, 9/25/10, SR p.6)

2005        Apr 4, Evergreen Int~ez_rsquo~l., a Panamanian shipping line, pleaded guilty to over 2 dozen counts of illegal dumping around the US. It was ordered to pay a fine of $25 million, one of the largest ever imposed for polluting the ocean.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.B8)

2005        Apr 12, Wal-Mart said it will spend $35 million over 10 years to conserve land equal to the total US footprint of its stores and other facilities.
    (WSJ, 4/13/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 14, Ethiopia police said authorities have seized more than 1,100 pounds of illegal ivory, stuffed animals and ostrich eggs that were destined for collectors abroad.
    (AP, 4/14/05)

2005        Apr 18, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. Recipients included Isidro Baldenegro of Mexico (forest protection), Rev. Jose Andres Tamayo Cortes of Honduras (unregulated logging), Kaisha Atakhanova of Kazakhstan (fighting the import of nuclear waste), Corneille E.N. Ewango of Congo (animal and plant protection), Stephanie Daniel Roth of Romania (for fighting an open-cast gold mine), and Chavannes Jean-Baptiste of Haiti (for teaching sustainable agriculture).
    (SFC, 4/18/05, p.B2)

2005        Apr 25, It was reported that Didemnum, a species of sea squirt, were spreading unabated off New England and the Pacific Northwest to the detriment of valuable shellfish beds and habitat for bottom feeding fish.
    (SFC, 4/25/05, p.A6)

2005        Apr 28, Scientists reported that deep ocean readings promised a steadily warming world and attributed global warming to human activity.
    (SFC, 4/29/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr, It was reported that the US Fish & Wildlife Service listed 317 species, including 273 plants, as threatened or endangered in Hawaii. Local environmentalists blamed pollution from cruise ships and tourists.
    (Econ, 4/9/05, p.24)

2005        May 2, Bob Hunter (63), inspirer of Greenpeace, died.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.89)

2005        May 5, The Bush administration set aside a rule protecting 33% of national forests from roads. This opened some 58.5 million acres for possible commercial use. New rules by the Bush administration in 2008 repealed a 1982 regulation requiring that fish and wildlife habitats be managed to maintain viable populations. On June 30, 2009, these changes were reversed by a federal judge in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.A4)(WSJ, 5/6/05, p.A1)(SFC, 7/1/09, p.A6)

2005        May 17, The captain of the Greenpeace boat, "The Rainbow Warrior," was sentenced to six months in prison for disobedience during a protest against the war in Iraq in 2003. The case stemmed from the detention of five men on March 14, 2003, for staging a protest aboard the boat captained by Daniel Rizzotti, an Argentine citizen, near the U.S.-Spanish Rota naval base in southern Spain.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        Jun 1, A 5-day UN World Environment Day conference opened in SF.
    (SFC, 6/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 5, In San Francisco big city mayors from around the world signed a set of 21 urban environmental accords, capping a 5-day UN World Environment conference.
    (AP, 6/6/05)(SFC, 6/6/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 8, The WWF conservation group reported that fishing nets claim the lives of some 1,000 whales, dolphins and porpoises around the world each day.
    (WSJ, 6/9/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 15, Blairo Maggi, Brazilian soyabean magnate, governor of Mato Grosso, and winner of this year~ez_rsquo~s Greenpeace ~ez_ldquo~golden chainsaw~ez_rdquo~ award for deforestation, refused to accept the award and slunk out through the back door of the school he was visiting, to the taunting shouts of hundreds of children.
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.70)(www.treehugger.com/files/2005/06/brazilian_soy_k.php)

2005        Jun 17, SF enacted its Environmentally Preferable Purchasing for Commodities Ordnance. It became the 1st US city take public health and environmental stewardship into consideration when purchasing products.
    (SFC, 6/18/05, p.B2)

2005        Jun 20, California state and federal officials set aside $2 million to determine why smelt and other species in the San Joaquin and Sacramento River Delta has dropped sharply. Numerous causes were suspect including nonnative predators and increasing herbicide and pesticide runoff as well as water draw down to supply Southern California and the Central Valley.
    (SFC, 6/21/05, p.B3)

2005        Jun 28, Austria launched an energy exchange to trade carbon allowances in accord with the Kyoto treaty to deal with greenhouse gases.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.64)

2005        Jul 1, An EU directive took effect banning lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and 2 types of brominated flame retardants. Some exceptions were allowed.
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.E1)

2005        Jul 14, The White Holly, a retrofitted WW II Navy freighter, embarked from SF Bay on a 7,000 mile roundtrip cruise to study coral reef decay.
    (SFC, 7/14/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 20, SF Bay Area air quality officials impost the toughest regulations in the nation to reduce flaring in the East Bay~ez_rsquo~s 5 oil refineries.
    (SFC, 7/21/05, p.B1)

2005        Jul 21, The US Centers for Disease Control reported that the bodies of American children and adults contained over 100 toxic substance including pyrethroids, a pesticide ingredient, and phthalates, found in beauty products and soft plastics.
    (SFC, 7/22/05, p.A12)

2005        Jul 22, Researchers estimated that deaths of North Atlantic right whales may be underreported by as much as 83 percent annually. At least eight whales have died in the last 16 months, and only 350 of the animals are believed to exist.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 27, Environment Minister Ian Campbell said Australia and the US have been secretly negotiating a new international pact on greenhouse gas emissions to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which they refused to sign.
    (AP, 7/27/05)

2005        Aug 16, The Bush administration reduced the estimated value of recreation in national forests from $111 billion to $11 billion. Environmentalists warned the new Forest Service assessment could be used to justify increased logging.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A4)

2005        Aug 17, Researchers from Greenpeace Int~ez_rsquo~l reported that toxic waste from electronic devices discarded in the US and dismantled in China and India was posing a sever problem around Guiyu, China, and New Delhi, India.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.C3)

2005        Aug 24, The New York Times reported that officials in nine northeastern US states have reached a preliminary agreement to freeze power plant emissions at their current levels and then reduce them by 10 percent by 2020.
    (AP, 8/24/05)

2005        Dec 10, In Canada more than 150 nations agreed to launch formal talks on mandatory post-2012 reductions in greenhouse gases, talks that will exclude an unwilling US.
    (AP, 12/10/05)(Econ, 12/17/05, p.77)

2005        Marla Cone authored ~ez_ldquo~Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.F2)

2005        Americans generated over 245 million tons of municipal solid waste, roughly 4˝ pounds for per person per day.
    (SFC, 7/13/07, p.C1)

2005        The EU in 1998 announced plans for tougher anti-pollution laws to take effect to make car engines and fuels burn cleaner. Implementation of new laws began in 2000.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.D2)

2006        Mar 2, An oil spill in Alaska curtailed Prudhoe Bay production. At least 265,000 gallons spilled onto the tundra from a British Petroleum (BP) line handling 100,000 barrels per day. The spill of 5,000 barrels was the largest in the field~ez_rsquo~s 29-year history. In 2011 a $25 million settlement was reached with a BP subsidiary for the spill.
    (WSJ, 3/3/06, p.A1)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.A4)(SSFC, 8/13/06, p.A18)(SFC, 5/4/11, p.A6)

2006        Jun 15, Pres. Bush announced plans to designate a new marine sanctuary in the area of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompassing nearly 140,000 square miles. The plan for Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the nation~ez_rsquo~s 14th marine sanctuary, would end fishing in the area within 5 years. Formal designation was about a year away.
    (SFC, 6/15/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 6/16/06, p.A1)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.70)

2006        Jun 19, The US Supreme Court rolled back coverage of the Clean Water Act, but did not agree on how to define the waters protected by the act.
    (WSJ, 6/20/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug, In China a project was begun in Shanghai to treat industrial waste with iron filings, a process which had been found to be a cheap and efficient way to clean up polluted water.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, TQ p.11)

2006        Sep 20, The 3-day second annual Clinton Global Initiative, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly, kicked off in Manhattan and collected over $2 billion in pledges in funds and programs on its 1st day to combat global ills. A day later British mogul Richard Branson pledged to spend three billion dollars in the next decade on projects to combat global warming and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
    (SFC, 9/21/06, p.A3)(AFP, 9/21/06)

2006        Oct 19, The UN Environment Program said the number of "dead zones" in the world's oceans had reached 200, an increase of 34% in 2 years, threatening fish stocks and the people who depend on them.
    (AP, 10/19/06)(WSJ, 10/20/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 3, US and Canadian researchers reported that the world's fish and seafood could disappear by 2048 as overfishing and pollution destroy ocean ecosystems at an accelerating pace.
    (AFP, 11/3/06)
2006        Nov 3, Ben Bradshaw, Britain~ez_rsquo~s Fisheries Minister, responded to a major report warning that stocks could be wiped out by 2048 by ruling out a complete ban on cod fishing. Bradshaw said that the UK had already taken action by clamping down on illegal fishing and setting fishing quotas.
    (AFP, 11/3/06)
2006        Nov 3, The UN weather agency said heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a record high in 2005 and are still increasing.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 6, In Kenya thousands of delegates from around the world opened a UN conference on next steps to ward off the worst effects of climate change.
    (AP, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 16, The Vermont based Conservation Fund partnered with the state of California to purchase 16,000 acres in northern California from the Hawthorne Timber Co. for $48.5 million.
    (WSJ, 11/17/06, p.A4)

2006        Nov 21, The Environmental Protection Agency announced that pesticides can be applied over and near bodies of water without a permit under the federal Clean Water Act.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

2005        Nov-2005 Dec, In San Francisco between 39,488 and 53,988 gallons of diesel fuel leaked over 4 weeks from an underground storage tank at the John Muir Motor Coach yard at 1095 Indiana St. Muni workers had disabled an alarm system that would have warned of the leak. In 2009 the US EPA sought a $250,000 settlement for the leak which allowed fuel to enter a storm drain leading the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 11/3/09, p.C1)

2006        Dec 8, Scientists said that the forests of the American West are under siege from bark beetles, miniscule but mighty foes that are ravaging the region's leading trees in record numbers. Experts said the region has failed in recent years to register the sustained periods of sub-zero temperatures that once dealt a fatal blow to beetle populations.
    (AFP, 12/8/06)

2005        Dec 10, In Canada more than 150 nations agreed to launch formal talks on mandatory post-2012 reductions in greenhouse gases, talks that will exclude an unwilling US. The agenda item on ~ez_ldquo~Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries and approaches to stimulate action~ez_rdquo~  was first introduced into the Conference of the Parties  (COP) agenda at its eleventh session in Montreal. The Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plan became known as REDD.
    (AP, 12/10/05)(Econ, 12/17/05, p.77)(http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_15/items/5257.php)(Econ, 9/25/10, SR p.6)

2005        Indonesia~ez_rsquo~s government gave a 30-year permit to Putri Naga Komodo, a nonprofit joint venture company partially funded by The Nature Conservancy and the World Bank, to operate Komodo National Park tourist facilities in hopes of eventually making the park financially self-sustaining. The deal collapsed in 2010, when Putri Naga Komodo's permit was yanked.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2006        Dec 12, A new environmental report said fertilizer and sediment runoff from sugarcane, banana and pineapple plantations are threatening tourism by damaging a coral reef stretching along the Caribbean coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras.
    (AP, 12/13/06)
2006        Dec 12, Eritrea said it aims to become the 1st country in the world to turn its entire coast into an environmentally protected zone to ensure balanced and sustainable development.
    (AFP, 12/12/06)

2006        Mike Strizki of New Jersey began to live off the grid without emitting an ounce of carbon or paying a penny to the local utility. The civil engineer turned green energy evangelist used fuel cells to convert the power generated by about 150 solar panels so that it can be stored in 11 hydrogen tanks about 100 yards from his house.
    (http://energy.aol.com/bloggers/jon-hurdle)(Jon Hurdle, 8/13/2011)

2007        Jan 20, Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007), Swiss scientist, died. He developed methods for quantifying the eutrophication of freshwater. His methods were used to save Lake Erie and helped from the basis of the 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

2007        Jan 22, Scientists warned that glaciers will all but disappear from the Alps by 2050, and that most would be gone by 2037.
    (SFC, 1/23/07, p.A4)

2007        Feb 2, Scientists from 113 countries issued a report saying they have little doubt global warming is caused by man, and predicting that hotter temperatures and rises in sea level will "continue for centuries" no matter how much humans control their pollution. The 4th report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was published in Paris.
    (AP, 2/2/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.86)

2007        Feb 15, Scientists gathered in Atlanta, Ga., to find a way to stop a fungus killing the world~ez_rsquo~s frogs. Up to 170 species have gone extinct in the past decade.
    (WSJ, 2/16/07, p.A1)

2007        Feb 20, EU ministers agreed to cut greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below their 1990 level by 2020.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.C5)

2007        Mar 6, Researchers reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that pollution from Asia is helping generate stronger storms over the North Pacific, according to new research. Satellite measurements have shown an increase in tiny particles generated from coal burning in China and India in recent decades.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 9, EU leaders agreed on a bold set of measures to fight global warming, pledging that a fifth of the bloc's energy will come from green power sources such as wind turbines and solar panels by 2020 and that 10% of European cars will run on biofuels.
    (AP, 3/9/07)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.59)

2007        Mar 13, Environmental group Greenpeace launched a fresh attack on genetically modified maize developed by US biotech giant Monsanto, saying that rats fed on one version developed liver and kidney problems.
    (Reuters, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 20, The WWF conservation group said climate change, pollution, over extraction of water and development are killing some of the world's most famous rivers including China's Yangtze, India's Ganges and Africa's Nile.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 30, It was reported that shark overfishing has led scallops to decline because their predators, mainly rays, aren~ez_rsquo~t being eaten.
    (WSJ, 3/30/07, p.A1)
2007        Mar 30, Leaked extracts of a UN report said Australia will suffer more droughts, fires, floods and storms due to global warming and its famous Great Barrier Reef will be devastated by 2030.
    (AFP, 3/30/07)

2007        Apr 2, The US Supreme Court ruled that a US government agency, the EPA, has the power under the clean air law to regulate greenhouse gas emissions that spur global warming. In its first case on climate change, the Supreme Court declared in a 5-4 ruling that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were air pollutants under the Clean Air Act.
    (Reuters, 4/2/07)(AP, 4/2/08)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.36)

2007        Apr 10, In China~ez_rsquo~s southeast Guangxi Zhuangzu region thousands of fish were reported killed this month in a lake near Nanning due to ~ez_ldquo~sharp drops in temperature.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 4/12/07, p.A3)

2007        Apr 13, Prominent Chinese environmental activist Wu Lihong (39) was arrested for alleged blackmail. Lihong has campaigned for years against the pollution of Tai Lake which lies in the center of Yangtze Delta plain, a region known for its natural beauty but littered with polluting light industry and chemical factories. In August Lihong was sentenced to 3 years in prison for fraud and blackmail.
    (AFP, 4/23/07)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.49)

2007        Apr 16, Scientists reported that Britain once had around 25 native species of bumblebee, but three of those have been wiped out in the past 50 years and 10 more are now severely threatened.
    (Reuters, 4/16/07)
2007        Apr 16, A state-run newspaper said China's massive Yangtze river, a lifeline for tens of millions of people, is seriously polluted and the damage is almost irreversible.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2007        May 1, Julie A. MacDonald, a deputy assistant secretary for fish and wildlife and parks, resigned after an internal review found that she had violated federal rules by giving government documents to lobbyists for industry. In November the US Fish and Wildlife Service reversed 7 rulings that had denied endangered species increased protection.
    (www.mindfully.org/Heritage/2007/Interior-Wildlife-Decisions21jul07.htm)(SFC, 11/28/07, p.A3)

2007        May 4, Delegates meeting in Thailand from 120 countries approved the first roadmap for stemming greenhouse gas emissions, laying out what they said was an affordable arsenal of anti-warming measures that must be rushed into place to avert a disastrous spike in global temperatures.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 7, More than 1,000 government delegates gathered in Bonn, Germany, to find ways to break gridlock in international negotiations on widening action to slow global warming. The UN urged far tougher action to fight climate change at the 166-nation climate conference.
    (Reuters, 5/7/07)

2007        May 29, President Bush's environmental adviser said the US rejects the EU's all-encompassing target on reduction of carbon emissions. The US and Australia ruled out a regional carbon trading scheme before the meeting officially opened in the northern city of Darwin, saying it was too early to impose uniform targets on APEC nations. APEC members already account for 60% of global energy demand and their needs are expected to almost double by 2030. Fidel Castro lambasted President Bush for opposing the EU's goal for an agreement on carbon emissions at next week's Group of Eight summit.
    (AFP, 5/29/07)(AP, 5/30/07)
2007        May 29, China said it will not be tied to targets on cutting carbon emissions as Europe and Asia failed to agree at a 40-nation meeting on how to fight global warming.
    (AFP, 5/29/07)
2007        May 29, European and Asian foreign ministers meeting in Germany agreed to set a 2009 deadline to complete negotiations on a new international climate change pact to limit greenhouse gases.
    (AP, 5/29/07)
2007        May 29, Sweden said it plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020, bettering the EU's proposal to cut emissions by at least 20%.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 4, China promised to better control emissions of greenhouse gases, unveiling a national program to combat global warming, but rejected mandatory caps on emissions as unfair to countries still trying to catch up with the developed West. The government also said it will license no new Internet cafes this year while regulators carry out an industry-wide inspection, amid official concern that online material is harming young people.
    (AP, 6/4/07)
2007        Jun 4, Experts warned at a conference in Nepal's capital that Himalayan glaciers are retreating fast and could disappear within the next 50 years.
    (AFP, 6/4/07)
2007        Jun 4, The UN warned in a report that up to 12% of Arctic ice has turned to water in the past 30 years, an alarming fact that only accelerates global warming further.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 20, A Dutch government-funded agency said China has overtaken the United States as the top emitter of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, because of surging energy use amid an economic boom. However consumption and emission levels per head remained a mere fraction of America~ez_rsquo~s.
    (AP, 6/20/07)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.45)

2007        Jun, The World Monuments Fund added the Jordan River Valley to its list of 100 most endangered sites. Israel, Jordan and Syria diverted over 90% of the Jordan River water annually for drinking and irrigation, reducing flow to the Dead Sea.
    (SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A15)

2007        Aug 31, In Vienna, Austria, negotiators from 158 countries reached basic agreement, at a UN conference on climate, on rough targets aimed at getting some of the world's biggest polluters to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases blamed for global warming.
    (AP, 8/31/07)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.A1)

2007        Sep 21, In Canada, delegates from almost 200 countries agreed to eliminate ozone-depleting substances faster than originally planned. The agreement was reached at a conference in Montreal to mark the 20th anniversary of the Montreal protocol, which was designed to cut chemicals found to harm the ozone layer.
    (Reuters, 9/22/07)

2007        Sep 17, Volunteers worldwide collected debris from beaches and waterways in a 22nd annual effort. A report by Ocean Conservancy in 2008 said 7.2 million items were gathered weighing 6 million pounds.
    (AP, 4/15/08)

2007        Oct 22, Two new studies said the world's oceans may be losing their ability to soak up extra carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, with the risk that this will help stoke global warming.
    (AFP, 10/22/07)
2007        Oct 22,     About 40 tons of oil spilled from a land pipeline carrying crude from the port of Ashkelon in southern Israel to refineries in the northern city of Haifa.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 23, At least 21 oil workers were killed when a drilling rig hit an oil platform in stormy weather, spilling gas and oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Pemex said the workers who died included four Pemex employees, seven employees of the subcontractor company that operated the rig, at least one rescue boat crew member, and six others who worked for other companies. On Dec 16 Pemex announced that the well was finally capped. Roughly 420 barrels of oil per day had spilled from the damaged platform since the accident.
    (AP, 10/25/07)(AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Oct 26,     China announced a multibillion-dollar plan to clean up severely polluted Lake Tai, where an algae bloom forced the suspension of water supplies to millions of people this summer. The $14.5 billion plan to clean up the lake, in a densely populated area northwest of Shanghai, should take five years.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Oct-2008 Nov, In Senegal lead poisoning killed 18 children in Thiaroye Sur Mer. For years, the town's blacksmiths had extracted lead from car batteries and remolded it into weights for fishing nets. The work left the dirt of Thiaroye dense with small lead particles. As the price of lead climbed local people had begun to sift the dirt to extract the lead.
    (AP, 1/3/09)

2007        Nov 1, A project called ~ez_ldquo~The Deep Carbon Observatory,~ez_rdquo~ a multidisciplinary, international initiative dedicated to achieving a transformational understanding of Earth's deep carbon cycle, received funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.86)(https://dco.gl.ciw.edu/about/history)

2007        Nov 7, The Cosco Busan, a 65,131 ton Greek-owned container ship leased by Hanjin Shipping of South Korea, hit a protective shield at the base of a tower of the Bay Bridge. The Bridge was not damaged, but the ship suffered a gash and spilled 58,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into the SF Bay. By the end of the month estimated bird deaths due to the oil topped 20,000. The cleanup cost was later estimated at some $61 million. A year later federal authorities still held 6 Chinese crew members for their testimony. In July, 2009, Cosco Busan Capt. John Cota (61) was sentenced to 10 months in prison, becoming the first ship~ez_rsquo~s pilot in US history to be sent to prison for an accident. On August 13, 2009, Fleet Management Ltd. of Hong Kong pleaded guilty to charges of water pollution and falsifying documents and agreed to pay $10 million in fines. On Dec 4, 2011, a settlement was reached to pay 120 SF Bay Area commercial fishermen $3.6 million.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/07, p.A1)(SFC, 12/19/07, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/5/08, p.A2)(SFC, 7/18/09, p.C1)(SFC, 8/14/09, p.D1)(SFC, 1/5/11, p.C3)
2007        Nov 7, A Chinese government publication reported that industrial discharge and household wastewater have polluted the northern Futuo River so badly that the water is dark red in some sections and has caused chronic illnesses among villagers.
    (AP, 11/7/07)

2007        Nov 8, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, joined by 14 other states, sued the Bush administration over its refusal to let them enforce bigger auto emissions cuts than those required by the federal government.
    (Bloomberg.com, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 11, A severe storm broke the Volganeft-139, a small Russian oil tanker, in two in the Strait of Kerch, spilling at least 560,000 gallons of fuel into the strait between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. A Russian official said it was an "environmental disaster." 8 seamen were left missing. Two freighters nearby also sank under 18-foot waves in storm. As many as 10 ships sank or ran aground in the area.
    (AP, 11/11/07)(Reuters, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/12/07, p.A15)

2007        Nov 12, Alexander Tkachyov, governor of Russia~ez_rsquo~s Krasnodar region, said more than 30,000 birds and countless fish have been killed in an "ecological catastrophe" wrought by thousands of tons of oil from a tanker that broke apart in a heavy storm near the Black Sea. 3 bodies washed ashore and 20 sailors remained missing after the sinking of at least 11 ships.
    (AP, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/13/07, p.A10)

2007        Nov 16, In Spain negotiators concluded a policy guide for governments on global warming that declares climate change is here and is getting worse.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 17, A Nobel-winning UN scientific panel said in a landmark report that the Earth was hurtling toward a warmer climate at a quickening pace.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2007        Nov 18, Greenpeace said an international commission designed to protect bluefin tuna stocks has effectively increased the fishing quota for 2008 from what was already an "unsustainable" level. Greenpeace said the annual meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), held in Turkey had approved a nearly 1,000-ton increase in the 2008 catch.
    (AFP, 11/18/07)

2007        Nov 20, In SF large grocery stores stopped using plastic bags as a new city ordnance banning the bags took effect.
    (SFC, 11/19/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 3, Labor Party leader Kevin Rudd became Australia's 26th prime minister and immediately began dismantling the former government's policies by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol on climate change.
    (AP, 12/3/07)
2007        Dec 3, In Bali, Indonesia, climate experts at a massive UN conference urged quick action toward a new international pact to stem global warming. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) hoped for an agreement to mitigate climate change after the Kyoto protocol runs out in 2012.
    (AP, 12/3/07)(Econ, 12/1/07, p.73)

2007        Dec 7, China said it will not consider mandatory cuts on greenhouse gases, saying the United States and other industrialized countries should take the lead in fighting climate change by embracing a less-extravagant lifestyle.
    (AP, 12/7/07)
2007        Dec 7, A crane-carrying vessel collided with the Hebei Spirit, an oil tanker off of South Korea's west coast, spilling nearly 80,000 barrels of crude oil in what was believed to be South Korea's largest offshore oil leak.
    (AP, 12/7/07)(AP, 12/20/07)

2007        Dec 8, The chief US negotiator at the climate conference in Bali, Indonesia, said the US will come up with its own plan to cut global-warming gases by mid-2008 and won~ez_rsquo~t commit to mandatory caps.
    (SSFC, 12/9/07, p.A17)
2007        Dec 8, Worldwide demonstrations began to draw attention to climate change and push their governments to take stronger action to fight global warming.
    (AP, 12/8/07)
2007        Dec 8, South Korea's worst-ever oil spill reached the country's southwest coastline, polluting beaches with pungent sludge and threatening valuable sea farms.
    (AP, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 11, Environmentalists warned that a scenic coastal region could take years to recover from South Korea's worst oil spill, as over 19,000 people worked to contain or clean up the slick.
    (AP, 12/11/07)

2007        Dec 13, Nobel laureate Al Gore accused the United States of blocking progress at the UN climate conference, and European nations threatened to boycott US-led climate talks next month unless Washington compromises on emissions reductions.
    (AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 30, Bert Bolin (82), a Swedish climate scientist and co-founder of the Nobel Peace-winning UN panel on climate change, died in Stockholm. His last book, "A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" was published in November 2007.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

2007        Carbon dioxide output jumped 3% this year putting the world on track for a worst-case global warming scenario.
    (WSJ, 9/26/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 2, California led 15 other states and 5 environmental groups into federal court to challenge the Bush administration~ez_rsquo~s refusal to let the state limit vehicle emissions of gases that contribute to global warming.
    (SFC, 1/3/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 17, The US EPA said Massey Energy, the country~ez_rsquo~s 4th largest coal producer, had agreed to pay a $20 million fine as part of a settlement over allegations that it routinely polluted hundreds of streams and waterways in West Virginia and Kentucky.
    (SFC, 1/18/08, p.A7)

2008        Jan 31, The Sewerage Agency of Southern Marin, Ca., let nearly 3 million gallons of treated and raw sewage spill into the SF Bay. A week later it was reported that a spill on Jan 25 had released 2.5 million gallons.
    (SFC, 2/6/08, p.B7)

2008        Feb 19, Canada~ez_rsquo~s province of British Columbia announced its intention to implement a carbon tax of $10 per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions (2.41 cents per liter on gasoline) beginning July 1, 2008, making BC the first North American jurisdiction to implement such a tax.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_tax)

2008        Feb 28, In western Antarctica a 160-square mile chunk of ice on the edge of the Wilkins ice shelf began collapsing. It had been there for some 1,500 years.
    (SFC, 3/26/08, p.A4)

2008        Mar 4, In southern Sudan activists warned that the 2006 arrival of White Nile Petroleum Company (WNPOC), a consortium led by Malaysia's Petronas, in Unity State threatens the Sudd wetlands, the world's largest maze of swamps, lagoons and tributaries. Villagers said thousands were forcefully evicted to make way for the low-sulphur crude oil venture. They lost ancestral homes, died from contamination and saw livelihoods jeopardized.
    (AFP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 11, China unveiled plans to revamp bureaucratic government ministries and create new agencies to help it tackle pressing issues such as nuclear energy, food and drug safety, environmental protection and the Internet.
    (AP, 3/11/08)

2008        Mar 15, In Japan Tony Blair, during a meeting of senior officials from the world's top 20 greenhouse gas emitters, urged the world's heaviest polluters including the United States, China and India to agree to binding emissions cuts, saying failure to act on global warming would be "unforgivably irresponsible."
    (AP, 3/15/08)

2008        Mar 16, In France a pipe ruptured while a tanker was being loaded at a Total refinery. Some 3,000 barrels of fuel oil leaked in and along the Loire River.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 17, The first carbon-linked derivatives contracts began trading on the Green Exchange, a joint venture between the NY Mercantile Exchange, Evolution Markets and Morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch and others. This followed the emissions trading market already established in the Chicago Climate Exchange.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.91)

2008        Mar 18, NASA reported that the thickest Arctic ice is melting according to satellite data.
    (WSJ, 3/19/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 1, The US EPA took over cleanup of an oil spill in Santa Barbara, Ca., after failed efforts by Greka Oil & Gas to clean up a spill. 2 spills since last summer had left some 29,000 gallons of crude oil and toxin-laden water in a creek in Los Olivos.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.B6)

2008        Apr 4, In Thailand climate negotiators ended 5 days of talks. More than 160 nations agreed to consider how to reduce rapidly growing emissions from air and sea travel as they worked toward drafting an ambitious new treaty on global warming.
    (AFP, 4/4/08)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 10, The UN Environment Program said dumping of waste by ships in the Mediterranean Sea will become illegal as of May 1, 2009.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)

2008        Apr 13, The winners of this year~ez_rsquo~s Goldman Awards were reported to be: Feliciano dos Santos (43) of Mozambique, the director of Estamos, an environmental group promoting sanitation, sustainable development and reforestation; Marina Rikhvanova (46), founder of Baikal Environmental Wave, which forced the rerouting of an oil pipeline in the Baikal basin; Pablo Fajardo (35) and Luis Yanza (48) of Ecuador, co-founders of the Amazon Defense Front, which accused Texaco (now Chevron) of dumping oil and wastewater into local streams; Rosa Hilda Ramos (63) of Puerto Rico, head of a movement to protect the Las Cicharillas Marsh; Ignace Schops (43) of Belgium, head of a movement to establish Belgium~ez_rsquo~s 1st and only national park; Jesus Leon (42) of Mexico, co-founder of the Center for Integral Samll Farmer Development of the Mixtec (CEDICAM).
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 30, Syncrude Canada's operations were under investigation by environmental regulators after as many as 500 birds landed in the waste water in the oil sands region of northern Alberta.
    (Reuters, 5/1/08)

2008        May 13, In Brazil renowned rain forest defender Marina Silva resigned as the environment minister, saying she lacked the necessary political support to protect the Amazon. A government study said Blacks will outnumber whites in Brazil this year for the first time since slavery was abolished, but the income gap between the two groups may take another 50 years to bridge.
    (AP, 5/13/08)

2008        May 17, In Louisiana 6 train cars derailed spilling 8-10 thousand gallons of hydrochloric acid and forming a toxic cloud over Lafayette, 125 miles west of New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 5/19/08, p.A2)

2008        May 26, In Japan the Group of Eight (G8) environment chiefs pledged "strong political will" toward cutting greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2050, declaring that developed nations should take the lead in battling global warming, but failed to agree on much more contentious near-term targets.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        May 27, President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva swore in Carlos Minc, former environment secretary for Rio de Janeiro state, as Brazil's new environment minister. Silva used the swearing-in speech to lash developed nations for alleged hypocrisy on environmental policy.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2008        Jun 1, China became the latest country to declare war on plastic bags in a drive to save energy and protect the environment.
    (Reuters, 6/1/08)

2008        Jun 2, Carlos Minc, Brazil~ez_rsquo~s new environment minister, said the government will impound cattle caught grazing on illegally cleared pastures with an operation, dubbed "Rogue Bull," to attack deforestation in the rain forest. Government researchers said that preliminary data indicate the Amazon lost at least 2,258 square miles (5,850 square kilometers) of forest cover from August to April 2008.
    (AP, 6/3/08)
2008        Jun 2, In Germany Some 2,000 delegates from 162 countries and dozens of specialist agencies opened a two-week conference to start tackling the details of a new global warming agreement slated to take effect after 2012.
    (AP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 4, An undetermined amount of fuel oil was released after the Greece-registered Syros slammed against the Malta-registered Sea Bird near Montevideo, Uruguay.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 20, A rocket carrying a US-French satellite for monitoring ocean surface height was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The data will be used to monitor climate change effects on sea level.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 24, In Florida Gov. Charlie Crist and officials of US Sugar announced a plan for the state to buy US Sugar for $1.7 billion. The company, founded by Charles Stewart Mott, would be allowed to operate for 6 more years before returning 187,000 acres of the Everglades to its natural state. In November the plan was revised to pay $1.34 billion for 181,000 acres. In 2009 the plan was again scaled back to cover 72,500 acres fro $533 million with a 10-year option to buy the remaining land.
    (SFC, 6/25/08, p.A2)(WSJ, 6/25/08, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/12/08, p.A2)(WSJ, 4/2/09, p.A4)

2008        Jun 26, A UN rights official said many poor countries accept toxic waste from abroad, such as old computers, rusted ships and pesticides, in a shortsighted bid to lift themselves out of poverty, despite the dangers to human health and the environment.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        Jun 27, In Piedras Negras, Mexico, Chad Foster, the mayor of Eagle Pass, Texas, attended a tree planting ceremony for the first of 400,000 trees which will form a "green wall" in protest of the fence the US is building along the border with Mexico.
    (AP, 6/28/08)

2008        Jul 23, Two environmental groups estimated that cement kilns in the US annually released mercury compounds totaling some 23,000 pounds. Two of the worst emitters were located in northern California in Cupertino and Davenport.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.B1)
2008        Jul 23, In Louisiana an oil tanker and an oil barge collided near New Orleans creating a 12-mile oil slick and closing about 29 miles of the Mississippi River.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.A3)

2008        Aug 14, Scientists reported that the number of oxygen-starved "dead zones" in coastal waters around the world has roughly doubled every decade since the 1960s, killing fish, crabs and massive amounts of marine life at the base of the food chain.
    (SFC, 8/15/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 27, In Honolulu Marcus Eriksen and fellow eco-mariner Joel Paschal celebrated the end of their 2,600-mile voyage on what they call the JUNK raft. They had spent three months crossing the Pacific on a raft made of plastic bottles to raise awareness of ocean debris. Research suggested that every square kilometer of the ocean has an average of 13,000 pieces of plastic floating in it. The floating portion was thought to make up only 15% of marine litter.
    (AP, 8/28/08)(Econ, 2/28/09, SR p.9)

2008        Aug 30, Brazilian officials said Amazon deforestation jumped 69 percent in the past 12 months, the first such increase in three years, as rising demand for soy and cattle pushes farmers and ranchers to raze trees.
    (AP, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 14, France's ecology minister said the government is considering a "picnic tax" on disposable dishes to encourage people to use reusable plates and cups instead.
    (AP, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 19, PM Kevin Rudd announced that Australia will launch a multi-million dollar international carbon capture and storage institute to fight global warming.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 24, In California a mercury spill at Searles Valley Minerals in San Bernardino County released some 90 pounds during a demolition project. Another 90 pounds was released in a 2nd spill at the site on Oct 10.
    (SSFC, 2/8/09, p.A21)

2008        Sep 28, Ecuadoreans voted on a new constitution that would significantly broaden leftist President Rafael Correa's powers and let him run for two more consecutive terms. Correa's avowed quest for an "equitable, just" Ecuador won a major boost as voters approved a new constitution that will help the leftist president consolidate power and enable him to run for two more consecutive terms. The new constitution conferred on ecosystems ~ez_ldquo~the inalienable right to exist, flourish and evolve.~ez_rdquo~
    (AP, 9/28/08)(AP, 9/29/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.68)

2008        Sep 29, Brazilian officials said the Amazon is being deforested more than three times as fast as last year, acknowledging a sharp reversal after three years of declines in the deforestation rate.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 6, A panel of scientists met in Monaco for the 2nd international UNESCO symposium on The Ocean in a High-CO2 World. On Jan 30, 2009, they issued the Monaco Declaration, which summed up their deliberations, and reported that acidity of ocean surface waters has increased 30% since the 17th century.
    (SFC, 1/31/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/bdtj3p)

2008        Oct 14, The World Conservation Congress ended in Barcelona, Spain. The meeting was awash in gloomy forecasts.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.68)

2008        Oct 15, EU leaders agreed to stick to ambitious plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions 20% by 2020, but divisions over how to share out the cuts were widened by fears over the impact of the financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 27, It was reported that a new study, released last week, has found dangerous levels of toxic metals in produce grown on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, formerly used as a Navy bombing range, despite US government claims that the soil there is safe.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 31, Petrofac evacuated 56 non-essential workers from the North Sea Heather Alpha oil rig after a reports of 10-20 ton oil spill.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 7, An environmentalist group and four Nigerians filed suit against Royal Dutch Shell PLC in the Netherlands, claiming the company was negligent in cleaning up oil spills in Nigeria.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 10, In Japan a California-based computer scientist, a Canadian philosophy professor and a Canadian molecular biologist each received US$500,000 at an awards ceremony for this year's Kyoto Prizes for achievement in the arts and sciences.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 22, The Yellow River Conservancy Committee reported that one-third of the Yellow River, which supplies water to millions of people in northern China, is heavily polluted by industrial waste and unsafe for any use.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

2008        Dec 1, A 12-day UN climate conference opened in Poznan, Poland. During the conference Chief Bill Erasmus of the Dene nation in northern Canada brought a stark warning about the climate crisis: The once abundant herds of caribou are dwindling, rivers are running lower and the ice is too thin to hunt on.
    (www.environmentalleader.com/2008/12/01/un-climate-talks-kicks-off-in-poznan/)

2008        Dec 11, US Interior Sec. Dirk Kemphorne announced major changes to the Endangered Species Act causing environmental groups to charge that the ~ez_lsquo~midnight rules~ez_rdquo~ set to go into effect before Pres. Obama takes offices were intended to eviscerate the wildlife protection law.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 12, The Bush administration issued a regulation exempting farms from reporting releases of hazardous air pollution from animal waste to federal, state and local authorities.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A9)
2008        Dec 12, In Poland negotiators at a UN climate conference broke through red tape and freed up millions of dollars to help poor countries adapt to increasingly severe droughts, floods and other effects of global warming.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 15, Australia pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least five percent by 2020 to fight climate change, but critics said the plan was a "global embarrassment" and called for deeper reductions.
    (AFP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 16, NASA said satellite data indicated that more than 2 trillion tons of land ice in Alaska, Antarctica and Greenland since 2003 among the latest signs of global warming.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A20)

2008        Dec 22, In Tennessee a dam broke at the Kingston Fossil Plant spilling some 5.4 million cubic yards of toxic coal ash sludge near the Emory River. TVA officials later said the spill does not threaten water in the Tennessee River, which is fed in part by the Emory River. On Jan 2 federal data showed arsenic levels over 100 times the acceptable amount in the Emory River. In February the TVA estimated cleanup costs of up to $825 million. In May the estimate for cleanup was raised to $975 million. In 2010 state regulators hit the TVA with penalties totaling $11.5 million for the coal ash spill. The sludge was shipped to a landfill outside Uniontown, Alabama.
    (SFC, 12/25/08, p.A6)(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A2)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A2)(SFC, 1/3/09, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/13/09, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A4)(SFC, 6/15/10, p.A4)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.44)

2008        Dec 27, It was reported that the mountain pine beetle was expected to kill virtually every mature lodgepole pine in Colorado. The beetle had already destroyed pine forests from Mexico to Canada.
    (WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A2)

2008        Dec 31, It was reported that China has delayed plans to start the central section of its massive South-to-North water diversion project by 4 years due to environmental concerns.
    (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A4)

2008        Wallace S. Broecker and Robert Kunzig authored ~ez_ldquo~Fixing climate: What Past Climate Changes Reveal About the current Threat ~ez_ndash~ And How to Counter It.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.101)
2008        In Peru city officials of Cerro de Pasco gave mine owner, Peru-based Volcan Compania Minera S.A., permission to take another 28 acres (11.33 hectares) of the town, including the center square and its colonial church, rebuilt in 1748 after an earthquake. If not, the company threatened to close the pit-mine, putting 4,000 jobs at risk. About the same time, Peru's congress passed a bill to condemn and relocate Cerro de Pasco, based on US Centers for Disease Control studies that found soil, homes and water saturated with toxic levels of lead.
    (AP, 4/19/10)
2008        The World Bank launched its "Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change" to help stimulate and coordinate public and private sector activity to combat climate change. It began using green bonds with proceeds tied to environmental activities. The idea was invented by Christopher Flensborg, with SEB, a Swedish bank.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9dznbz)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.73)

2009        Jan 5, In Hong Kong a new survey said one in five residents is considering leaving the city because of its dire air quality, raising fears over the financial hub's competitiveness.
    (AFP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 6, South Korea said it will invest 50 trillion won ($38.1 billion) over the next four years on environmental projects in a "Green New Deal" to spur slumping economic growth and create nearly a million jobs. Opposition lawmakers ended their violent, 12-day siege of the parliament after successfully delaying a key vote on a US free trade deal and other legislation.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 23, Japan~ez_rsquo~s space agency (JAXA) launched Ibuki (breath), the first satellite dedicated to monitoring carbon dioxide emissions. Officials hoped to gather information on climate change and help the country compete in the lucrative satellite-launching business.
    (AP, 1/23/09)(Econ, 2/14/09, p.90)

2009        Jan 26, It was reported that recent analysis of vials of treated wastewater taken from a plant in Patancheru, where about 90 Indian drug factories dump their residues, enough of a single, powerful antibiotic was being spewed into one stream each day to treat every person in a city of 90,000.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Feb 5, Turkey's parliament approved the Kyoto Protocol on cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The parliament voted 243-3 after the Cabinet signed the protocol.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 8, In Illinois a broken holding tank at a Caterpillar plant near Joliet spilled some 65,000 gallons of oil sludge and contaminated a 30-mile section of the Des Plaines River.
    (SFC, 2/9/09, p.A6)

2009        Feb 10, A tanker burst into flames after colliding with a container ship in a shipping channel off the coast of Dubai. The Maltese-flagged tanker, Kashmir, was carrying about 30,000 tons of oil condensate.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 14, Irish authorities learned about an oil spill through surveillance carried out by the European Maritime Safety Agency in Lisbon, Portugal. Irish military aircraft flew over the area and saw the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, a Russian oil tanker, and a Russian oceangoing tug near the slick. this was the biggest oil spill in the waters around Ireland in the last ten years.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 17, In the SF Bay Area a sewage spill began at the Fort Baker treatment plant of the Sausalito-Marin County Sanitaru District. By the next day some 300,000 gallons of bacteria-laden sewage had entered the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 2/18/09, p.B4)

2009        Feb 19, In Spain the mobile phone industry's biggest trade show wrapped up after four days that delivered exciting news for technophiles, average phone users and even environmentalists. During the show leading manufacturers announced an initiative to produce a standard charger that would fit all phones by 2012 in a step set to reduce waste and increase convenience.
    (AFP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 20, Chinese authorities closed a chemical plant being investigated for contaminating water supplies to 1.5 million people in the country's east. Water supplies were restored after a five-hour shutdown. Biaoxin Chemical Company caused "massive" tap water pollution in Yancheng, a city in east Jiangsu province. Investigators identified the pollutant as a phenol compound used to make products including air fresheners, medical ointments, cosmetics and sunscreens.
    (AP, 2/21/09)

2009        Feb 26, The Australian government announced a multi-million dollar investment in research on reducing gas emissions from farm animals as part of the fight against global warming.
    (AFP, 2/26/09)

2009        Feb, Chinese authorities started using fish to try to clean up Lake Taihu when they released 10 million mostly green and silver carp into the water, after the algae tainted the drinking supply of millions of residents. In 2010 authorities planned to release 20 million more algae-eating fish into the scenic lake ravaged by pollution.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)

2009        Mar 11, A California state study said global warming is expected to cause a rise of nearly 5 feet along the coastline and severely threatening SF Bay by 2100. The rising waters could cost the state $14 billion of more to safeguard the coast.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/12/09, p.A1)
2009        Mar 11, More than 30 shipping containers of ammonium nitrate fell off a ship in stormy seas off Australia, damaging the ship's hull and leaking up to 30 tons of oil [see Mar 13]. Swire Shipping's cargo liner Pacific Adventurer released about 200,000 liters (53,000 US gallons) of heavy fuel oil off the coast of Queensland state as it travelled through cyclonic weather. Australia later sought more than 18 million US dollars in compensation from a Hong Kong-based shipping company. In August the Hong Kong-based Swire Shipping company said it will pay Australia 25 million dollars (21 million US) in compensation for the oil spill.
    (AP, 3/11/09)(AFP, 5/6/09)(AFP, 8/8/09)

2009        Mar 13, Dozens of popular tourist beaches on Australia's northeast coast were declared a disaster zone, with their once-pristine sands fouled by a massive oil and chemical slick. Queensland state's marine safety authority said up to 100 tons of fuel were now believed to have spilled from the Hong Kong-flagged ship Pacific Adventurer amid cyclonic conditions on March 11.
    (AP, 3/13/09)
2009        Mar 13, Russia~ez_rsquo~s Kontinental Management said it has closed for good its Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill, located on the southern edge of Lake Baikal. It halted production in October. The plant has polluted the world's largest freshwater lake with chemical effluent for decades.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 19, A report issued by the US Interior Department said one-third of the nation's endangered birds are in Hawaii. 31 Hawaiian bird species were listed as endangered, more than anywhere else in the country. The native birds were threatened by the destruction of their habitats by invasive plant species and feral animals like pigs, goats and sheep, habitat loss and insect born diseases. The report also said energy production of all types ~ez_mdash~ wind, ethanol and mountaintop coal mining ~ez_mdash~ was contributing to steep drops in bird populations.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 25, The US House voted to set aside over 2 million acres in 9 states as protected wilderness. Legislators also approved a $400 million project to restore a 3-mile stretch of the San Joaquin River in central California.
    (SFC, 3/26/09, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/26/09, p.A5)

2009        Mar 28, Sydney became the world's first major city to plunge itself into darkness for the second worldwide Earth Hour, a global campaign to highlight the threat of climate change.
    (AP, 3/28/09)

2009        Mar 30, Pres. Obama signed legislation setting aside over 2 million acres as protected wilderness.
    (SFC, 3/31/09, p.A6)

2009        Mar, Mexico City passed legislation to ban free non-biodegradable plastic bags. It was signed in August gave retailers a year to comply.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Apr 2, The US Environmental Working Group issued a press release drawing attention to a study by scientists at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which looked for the chemical, perchlorate, in different brands of powdered baby formula. The study was published last month.
    (AP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 10, In Britain 11 environmental activists from a group called Eastside Climate Action were arrested after they entered the power station and climbed onto equipment at the coal-fired Ratcliffe-on-Soar plant outside Nottingham. In 2011 a trail against 6 of the accused activists broke down after police a infiltrator prepared to give evidence on their behalf.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratcliffe-on-Soar_Power_Station)(AFP, 1/10/11)

2009        Apr 17, The US EPA declared that greenhouse gases endanger public health paving the way for new federal regulations on pollutants. The Obama administration declared that carbon dioxide and 5 other industrial emissions threaten the planet.
    (SFC, 4/18/09, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.A1)

2009        Apr 19, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to 7 activists from 6 nations. Rizwana Hasan (40) of Bangladesh was awarded for exposing environmental damage and exploitative practices used in the country~ez_rsquo~s ship dismantling industry; Marc Ona Essangui (45) of Gabon, the founder of Brainforest, was awarded for exposing secret agreements for a Chinese mine project that threatened Gabon~ez_rsquo~s rain forests; Yuyun Ismawati of Indonesia was awarded for designing environmentally safe waste management systems for poor Indonesia n communities; Olga Speranskaya (46) of Eco-Accord in Russia was awarded for her efforts to control and store chemicals in Russia and former Soviet republics; Wanze Eduards (52) and Hugo Jabini (44) of Suriname, leaders of the maroon community, were awarded for their efforts that led to a landmark ruling ending tribal exploitation by the government. Maria Gunnoe (40) of West Virginia was awarded for her fight against the practice of removing of the tops of mountains and filing valleys below with tailings.
    (SSFC, 4/19/09, p.A18)

2009        May 4, California~ez_rsquo~s State Water Resources Control board released a study that said only 21 of 152 lakes studied were free of mercury and other contaminants. 131 lakes showed one or more pollutants above state health guidelines.
    (SFC, 5/5/09, p.A1)

2009        May 8, In Ireland Dr. Yuri Melini (47), a leading Guatemalan environmentalist who recently survived an assassination attempt, won a human rights award for his efforts to stop the rapid growth of mines in his mineral-rich nation. Melini received the annual Front Line Award for Human Rights Defenders at Risk in a Dublin City Hall ceremony.
    (AP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 8, A federal jury acquitted W.R. Grace and 3 of its executives on all criminal charges that they knowingly contaminated Libby, Montana, with asbestos and conspired to cover up the deed.
    (SFC, 5/9/09, p.A6)

2009        May 15, In Hong Kong 63 governments approved the Int~ez_rsquo~l. Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships. It aimed to make the business of scrapping ships safer and greener by requiring higher standards at recycling yards mostly located in South Asia. 107 environmental rights groups complained that the UN accord, doesn~ez_rsquo~t go far enough.
    (SFC, 5/16/09, p.A2)
2009        May 15, In Indonesia 6 Asia-Pacific countries, meeting at the World Oceans Conference, agreed on a management plan to protect one of the world's largest networks of coral reefs, promising to reduce pollution, eliminate overfishing and improve the livelihoods of impoverished coastal communities. The Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security covered an area defined as the Coral Triangle, which spans Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and East Timor.
    (AP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 19, Environmental groups in Indonesia said Singapore-based Asia Pulp & Paper,  one of the world's largest paper companies, plans to clear a large swath of unprotected forest in Indonesia being used as a sanctuary for critically endangered orangutans.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 26, In Denmark business leaders attending the World Business Summit on Climate Change urged governments to order steep and mandatory cuts in greenhouse gases, favoring a cap-and-trade system instead of a tax to set a market price for carbon waste.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, US Agriculture Sec. Tom Vilsack issued a directive reinstating for one year a Clinton-era ban on new road construction and development in national forests.
    (SFC, 5/29/09, p.A7)

2009        Jun 18, A study by an environmental group said pollution in the Mekong River is putting the rare Irrawaddy dolphin in danger of disappearing from Cambodia and Laos.
    (AP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 22, The US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 to allow a mining company to dump waste from an Alaskan gold mine into a nearby 23-acre lake, although the material will kill all of the lake's fish. Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin called the decision "great news for Alaska" and said it "is a green light for responsible resource development." The Kensington gold mine 45 miles north of Juneau will produce as many as 370 jobs when it begins operation.
    (AP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 25, The EU said it will give China up to euro50 million ($70 million) to build a carbon capture and storage plant that will test a technology aimed at limiting climate change.
    (AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Jun 30, Indonesia committed to the conservation of its dwindling tropical forests in a multimillion dollar debt-swap deal signed with the American government. Jakarta's payments to Washington will be reduced by $30 million over the next eight years under the US Tropical Forest Conservation Act.
    (AP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jun, Sludge containing PCBs, released into the Hudson River between 1946-1977 by 2 General Electric plants, began to be shipped for disposal to West Texas. The sludge along 197 miles had been declared a Superfund site. Cleanup of the Hudson River began in 2009 at an estimated cost of $750 million, to be paid by GE.
    (SFC, 11/29/00, p.A10)(SFC, 5/16/09, p.A5)(SFC, 6/22/09, p.A9)

2009        Jul 15, In Turkmenistan President Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov led a ceremony for channeling water across hundreds of miles to create Golden Age Lake in the heart of the barren Karakum Desert, in a Soviet-style engineering feat that some experts fear could unleash an environmental catastrophe.
    (AP, 7/16/09)

2009        Jul 17, The UN said an international accord requiring governments to publicly identify sites of environmental pollution will come into force on Oct. 8.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Jul 29, China~ez_rsquo~s state media reported that contaminated drinking water has sickened more than 2,600 people in northern China, including 59 who were hospitalized with fevers, diarrhea, stomach aches and vomiting.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 30, In China nearly a thousand villagers gathered at government and police offices in Zhentou township in Hunan province to highlight what they say is deadly pollution being discharged from the Xianghe Chemical Factory in nearby Liuyang city.
    (AP, 8/2/09)

2009        Jul, California~ez_rsquo~s Air Resources Board adopted a 24-mile threshold for ships bound for state ports to begin using low sulfur fuel.
    (SFC, 3/29/11, p.C5)

2009        Aug 1, Chinese police detained the head of the Xianghe Chemical Factory and the government suspended the chief and deputy chief of the city's environment protection bureau.
    (AP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 3, China~ez_rsquo~s state media reported that more than 500 villagers in central China have been found to have high concentrations of a dangerous metal in their bodies after a series of leaks from the Changsha Xianghe Chemical Plant in Hunan province's Zhentou township. 509 people were found to have high concentrations of cadmium and 33 were hospitalized over the weekend.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 7, The US Environmental Protection Agency said the US Department of Agriculture  has agreed to pay $30,000 in penalties for alleged improper maintenance of underground storage tanks in Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 8, In China hundreds of villagers rioted after news broke about the lead poisoning at the Wugang Manganese Smelting Plant in Wenping township, central Hunan province. A crowd of 600 to 700 people overturned four police cars and smashed a local government sign. China later detained two factory officials after 1,354 children were reported poisoned by lead pollution from the manganese processing plant.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 10, New Zealand announced that it will cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 10 to 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020.
    (AP, 8/10/09)

2009        Aug 12, China~ez_rsquo~s state media reported that authorities in northern China have shut down the Dongling Lead and Zinc Smelting Co. in Shaanxi province after it was found to have caused lead poisoning that sickened more than 300 children. Media later reported that 851 children in Changqing township had tested positive for lead poisoning.
    (AP, 8/12/09)(AP, 8/14/09)(AFP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 17, In Russia powerful explosion took place during repair work at the Sayano-Shushinskaya hydroelectric plant in southern Siberia. The death toll soon reached 69 with 6 still missing and feared dead after an engine room was suddenly flooded. The accident produced an oil spill and the slick that floated down the Yenisei River.
    (AP, 8/17/09)(AP, 8/18/09)(AP, 8/21/09)(AP, 8/23/09)

2009        Aug 20, Australia passed a clean energy law requiring the country to produce 20 percent of its power from renewable sources by 2020 in move that could draw billions of dollars of green investment.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, A French government-sponsored report was released saying that decomposing algae covering some beaches in Brittany represent a serious health risk and gases that can kill within minutes were detected on a beach where a horse died last month.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 21, A massive oil and gas leak forced the evacuation of an oil rig off Australia's northwest coast. PTTEP Australasia, a Bangkok based company, said about 40 barrels of oil had been discharged in the initial incident, and it was still attempting to bring the leak under control at the rig, which is owned by Norway's Seadrill.
    (AFP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 22, The EU published a list of nearly 4,000 airlines that it says should reduce their impact on the environment from 2012 or face being banned from European airports.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 31, The European Commission said an EU-wide transition of power-draining light bulbs to more energy efficient ones will start Aug 1. The new rules follow an agreement reached by the 27 EU governments last year to phase out the traditional incandescent light bulb over three years starting this year to help European countries lower greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 8/31/09)
2009        Aug 31, Nepal's PM Madhav Kumar Nepal opened the first climate change conference of Himalayan nations with a warning about the dangers of melting glaciers, floods and violent storms for the region.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)

2009        Sep 3, The Ford Motor Co. settled a lawsuit filed by residents of a northern New Jersey town over toxic waste dumped there in the 1960s and '70s. Thousands of tons of paint sludge and other toxic material from Ford's old Mahwah factory were dumped in Ringwood, and residents sued in 2006 claiming that the waste led to illnesses ranging from skin rashes to cancer, and threatened the Wanaque Reservoir. The Record of Bergen County reported that residents of Ringwood will receive about $10 million.
    (AP, 9/4/09)

2009        Sep 7, Yukio Hatoyama, Japan's next prime minister, vowed to slash greenhouse gas emissions by 25% from 1990 levels by 2020.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 11, A risk consultancy said Australians have overtaken Americans as the world's biggest individual producers of carbon dioxide, which is blamed for global warming. British firm Maplecroft placed Australia's per capita output at 20.58 tons a year, some four percent higher than the United States and top of a list of 185 countries.
    (AFP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, In Vietnam the Canadian environmental firm Hatfield Consultants said new environmental tests confirm extremely high levels of dioxin, the toxic ingredient of Agent Orange, in people, fish and soil near Danang airport, a former US air base where American troops stored the herbicide during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 15, California~ez_rsquo~s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed an executive order mandating that the state Air Resources Board create a regulation requiring that 1/3 of energy sold by utility companies in the state over the next decade come from renewable sources.
    (SFC, 9/16/09, p.A16)

2009        Sep 20, Trafigura, a Netherlands-based oil trading company, said it has agreed to a settlement with people who claim they fell ill after a tanker dumped hundreds of tons of waste around the Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan in 2006. Trafigura paid Ivory Coast's government euro152 million (US$197 million) in 2007 to assist in cleaning up the waste without admitting responsibility.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 23, US President Barack Obama delivered a stern message to global leaders to work together to solve the world's most pressing problems in his maiden speech to UN General Assembly. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon challenged world leaders to cleanse the globe of nuclear weapons, tackle the threat of catastrophic climate change and combat growing poverty from the global financial crisis.
    (AFP, 9/23/09)(AP, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 24, Ireland, the first nation to tax plastic bags as a way to stop them littering the countryside, announced plans to double its levy to a 44 euro cents (59 US cents) per bag.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Sep 26, The Australian town of Bundanoon pulled all bottled water from its shelves and replaced it with refillable bottles in what is believed to be a world-first ban.
    (AFP, 9/26/09)
2009        Sep 26, China reported that medical tests have shown at least 121 children living near a battery plant in eastern Fujian province are suffering from lead poisoning, the latest in a recent string of such cases that have affected hundreds. The government has ordered the Huaqiang Battery Plant to shut about 10 days ago after local villagers approached the authorities with test results showing lead poisoning in some children.
    (AP, 9/27/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Thailand climate talks kicked off in Bangkok with the UN urging nations to break the deadlock over a global warming deal that is supposed to be finalized in just 70 days time, and warning that failure to act would leave future generations fighting for survival.
    (AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 29, In California 28 parties, after a decade of negotiations, reached a tentative agreement to remove 4 dams on the Klamath River, which have blocked salmon migrations.
    (SFC, 9/30/09, p.A1)

2009        Sep, George Zimmermann, a Pennsylvania landowner, filed suit against Atlas Energy Inc. for polluting his soil and water in an attempt to link a natural gas drilling technique with environmental contamination. Atlas was exploiting the Marcellus Shale, a vast gas reserve that underlies about two-thirds of Pennsylvania and parts of West Virginia, Ohio and New York State. Experts estimated that it contains enough natural gas to meet total US demand for at least a decade. Baseline tests on Zimmermann's water a year before drilling began were "perfect," he said. In June, water tests found arsenic at 2,600 times acceptable levels, benzene at 44 times above limits and naphthalene five times the federal standard.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Oct 5, President Barack Obama ordered the federal government, the nation's largest energy user, to cut its greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce its impact on the environment.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/3326813)

2009        Oct 9, Burkina Faso's environment minister, at the opening of a special forum on climate change, said Africa needs 65 billion dollars (44 billion euros) to deal with the effects of global warming.
    (AFP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 13, China~ez_rsquo~s Xinhua state news agency said 968 children in central China have tested positive for lead poisoning in the latest environmental scandal to erupt in the nation's smelting industry. Residents in Jiyuan city, Henan province, had protested over pollution from three local smelters last month.
    (AFP, 10/13/09)
2009        Oct 13, Activists from Congo, Rene Ngongo (48), and New Zealand, Alyn Ware (47), and an Ethiopia-based doctor from Australia, Catherine Hamlin (85), won the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the "alternative Nobel," for work to protect rain forests, improve women's health and rid the world of nuclear weapons. The honorary part of the award, without prize money, went to Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki (73) for raising awareness of climate change. Each will receive euro50,000 (US$74,000).
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 14, It was reported that Swiss researchers have found that Alpine glaciers melting under the impact of climate change are releasing highly toxic pollutants that had been absorbed by the ice for decades.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 17, Members of the Maldives' Cabinet donned scuba gear and used hand signals at an underwater meeting staged to highlight the threat of global warming to the lowest-lying nation on earth.
    (AP, 10/17/09)

2009        Oct 18, Representatives of the world's biggest carbon polluters began two days of informal talks in London to map out common ground 50 days before a key UN climate conference in Copenhagen.
    (AFP, 10/18/09)
2009        Oct 18, Amazon Chief Almir Surui (35), unveiled a project in partnership with Google, to make public the encroachment of illegal mining and logging on his people~ez_rsquo~s 600,000 acre reserve in Brazil. Almir was evacuated for his safety to the US in 2006. Eleven chief of the Surui and neighboring tribes have been shot and killed this decade.
    (SSFC, 10/18/09, p.A1)

2009        Oct 20, Representatives of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay announced a joint plan in Buenos Aires to establish protected zones to halt deforestation in their countries by 2020.
    (SFC, 10/21/09, p.A2)
2009        Oct 20, An Indian official said 8 South Asian countries have agreed they can't be part of any climate change deal that sets legally binding limits on their emissions.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2009        Oct 21, China and India put aside a diplomatic spat to sign a five-year agreement in New Delhi to cooperate on climate change leading up to crucial talks in Copenhagen.
    (AFP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 22, The EU said it has launched an investigation into a prized Spanish wetland that has turned bone dry through mismanagement of water resources and is now on fire underground, white smoke now rising from areas where fish once swam. The EU wants the Spanish government to explain how it plans to save Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park in the central Castilla-La Mancha region. It is classified as a UNESCO biosphere site and an EU-protected area because of its birdlife.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 29, The US rubber company Firestone said in a statement that it has conducted its own extensive testing of discharge water in Liberia and found it was not harmful to human health. The Liberian government has said a three-month investigation found high levels of orthophosphate being released into the water.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct 30, In the San Francisco Bay the tanker Dubai Star began leaking fuel oil after a tank overflowed during refueling. Coast Guard officials later estimated that some 400-800 gallons of toxic oil leaked into the SF Bay killing at least 37 birds along the Alameda coastline.
    (SFC, 10/31/09, p.A1)(SFC, 11/3/09, p.C3)(SFC, 11/17/09, p.C2)
2009        Oct 30, In Puerto Rico new Gov. Luis Fortuno's issued an order allowing large-scale development inside a 3,200-acre parcel of land immediately north of El Yunque, the only tropical rain forest in the US National Forest system. Previous Gov. Anibal Acevedo Vila had declared the Northeast Ecological Corridor off-limits to all but small, eco-friendly projects after a preservation campaign backed by actor Benicio del Toro and attorney Robert F. Kennedy Jr.
    (AP, 11/16/09)
2009        Oct 30, European Union leaders agreed to contribute to a euro50 billion ($74 billion) annual aid fund that would help developing nations adapt to climate change, but failed to set a firm figure for exactly how much the EU would pay.
    (AP, 10/30/09)
2009        Oct 30, Indonesian officials and fishermen said thousands of dead fish and clumps of oil have been found drifting near the coastline more than two months after an Australian underwater well began leaking in the Timor Sea on Aug 21.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Nov 1, PTTEP Australasia attempted to plug a leaking well of the West Atlas drilling rig when a fire then broke out on the rig. The operation to stem the leak has involved the Thai-based operator towing the West Triton rig from Singapore, which took five weeks, to drill down some 2.6km under the seabed to the source of the emissions. The leak has dumped thousands of barrels of oil into the Timor Sea since it began on August 21. The blaze was brought under control on Nov 3 when experts managed to plug the leak that has spewed tons of crude over the past 10 weeks.
    (AP, 11/1/09)(AFP, 11/2/09)(AP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 1, In China a ship carrying 100 tons of hydrochloric acid sank in the Yangtze river after colliding with another vessel.
    (AFP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 3, African countries boycotted meetings at UN climate talks in Barcelona, saying that industrial countries had set carbon-cutting targets too low for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 12, In Bolivia authorities said that evaporation blamed on global warming has reduced Lake Titicaca, one of the world's highest navigable lakes, to its lowest level since 1949.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 13, The Dutch government announced to bring the polluter-pays principle into the home garage. As of 2012 rather than an annual road tax for their cars, drivers will pay a few cents for every kilometer on the road, in a plan aimed at breaking chronic traffic jams and cutting carbon emissions.
    (AP, 11/14/09)

2009        Nov 17, In Beijing President Barack Obama and Chinese President Hu Jintao promised a determined, joint effort to tackle climate change, nuclear disarmament and other global troubles yet emerged from their first full-blown summit with scant progress beyond goodwill.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 21, The University of East Anglia, in eastern England, said computer hackers have broken into a server at a well-respected climate change research center and posted hundreds of private e-mails and documents online, stoking debate over whether some scientists have overstated the case for man-made climate change. More than a decade of correspondence between leading British and US scientists was included in about 1,000 e-mails and 3,000 documents posted on Web sites following the security breach last week.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 26, China announced plans to cut its carbon emissions by up to 45 percent as measured against its economic output, a commitment from the world's largest polluter that builds momentum ahead of a widely anticipated climate conference in Copenhagen next month.
    (AP, 11/26/09)
2009        Nov 26, In Indonesia police broke up a protest by the environmental group Greenpeace against deforestation on the island of Sumatra, arresting 12 foreign and six Indonesian demonstrators.
    (AP, 11/26/09)

2009        Nov, The Planetary Skin Institute (PSI), set up by Cisco Systems and NASA to study the extent and health of forests and other ecosystems, was registered as an independent non-profit organization.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.153)(www.planetaryskin.org/institute/background)

2009        Dec 2, Australia's plans for an emissions trading system to combat global warming were scuttled in Parliament, handing a defeat to a government that had hoped to set an example at international climate change talks next week.
    (AP, 12/2/09)
2009        Dec 2, The World Bank said it will give India at least one billion dollars to help clean up the heavily polluted holy river Ganges as part of moves to sharply hike lending to the country.
    (AFP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 4, Nepal's top politicians strapped on oxygen tanks and held a Cabinet meeting amid Mount Everest's frigid, thin air to highlight the danger global warming poses to glaciers.
    (AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 7, In Denmark the largest and most important UN climate change conference in history opened in Copenhagen, with organizers warning diplomats from 192 nations that this could be the last best chance for a deal to protect the world from calamitous global warming. This was the 15th conference of the parties to the 1992 UNFCCC in Rio de Janeiro.
    (AP, 12/7/09)(Econ, 12/5/09, SR p.3)
2009        Dec 7, South Africa offered to slash the growth of its greenhouse gas emissions by 42 percent by 2025, but in exchange wants rich nations to expand aid for poor countries to cope with climate change.
    (AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 8, The UN weather agency reported that this decade is on track to become the warmest since records began in 1850, and 2009 could rank among the top-five warmest years, on the second day of a pivotal 192-nation climate conference.
    (AP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 11, In Brazil a new presidential decree suspended up to an estimated $5.7 billion in fines and gave landowners two more years to comply with environmental regulations meant to stop the razing of the Brazilian rain forest.
    (AP, 12/11/09)
2009        Dec 11, EU leaders agreed to commit euro2.4 billion ($3.6 billion) a year until 2012 to help poorer countries combat global warming, as they sought to rescue their image as climate change innovators and bolster the talks in Copenhagen. A new draft agreement at the climate talks pulled together the main elements of a global pact but left gaping holes on financing and cutting greenhouse gas emissions for world leaders to fill in next week.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 12, In Denmark violence broke out in Copenhagen as tens of thousands took to the streets to demand tough measures on climate change, with demonstrators around the world rallying for action instead of words.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 14, In Denmark China, India and other developing nations boycotted UN climate talks, bringing negotiations to a halt with their demand that rich countries discuss much deeper cuts in their greenhouse gas emissions. Representatives from 135 developing countries said they refused to participate in any formal working groups at the 192-nation summit until the issue was resolved. African nations agreed to resume UN climate talks in Copenhagen after a half-day suspension, accusing rich countries of trying to kill the existing Kyoto Protocol.
    (AP, 12/14/09)(Reuters, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 16, In Denmark police fired pepper spray and beat protesters with batons outside the UN climate conference, as disputes inside left major issues unresolved just two days before world leaders hope to sign a historic agreement to fight global warming.
    (AP, 12/16/09)
2009        Dec 16, Nigerian authorities announced the creation of five committees that will address oil, environmental and disarmament issues, following an amnesty in the southern Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 17, In Copenhagen US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton sought to put new life into flagging UN climate talks by announcing the US would join others in raising $100 billion a year by 2020 to help poorer nations cope with global warming.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 18, In China an environmental group backed by the government said it had won two lawsuits on behalf of residents threatened by pollution, marking the first time such an organization has been allowed to file a public interest case.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 19, In Denmark the 13-day UN climate conference ended. It narrowly escaped collapse by agreeing to recognize a political accord brokered by President Barack Obama with China and other emerging powers. The US supported the idea that, by 2020, $100 billion should be flowing from the north to the south every year to pay for emissions reduction and climate adaptation. A small group of nations blocked the Copenhagen Accord, because it lacked specific targets for reducing carbon emissions. After a break, the conference president gaveled the decision to "take note" of the agreement instead of formally approving it. Experts said that clears the way for the accord to become operational in practice even though it has not been formally approved by the conference. Several developing countries, including Bolivia, Cuba, Sudan and Venezuela, bitterly protested the deal and said it is unacceptable because it lacks specific targets for reducing carbon emissions.
    (AP, 12/19/09)(SSFC, 12/20/09, p.A1)(Econ, 10/30/10, p.79)

2009        Dec 23, Rajendra Pachauri, chairman of the Nobel-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), said India had to curb its high-polluting coal consumption in the near future or risk burning through its reserves.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)
2009        Dec 23, In Alaska a 123-foot tug boat hit Bligh Reef, the same reef that damaged the Exxon Valdez in 1989. Over the next few days 49,000 gallons of diesel fuel were salvaged from the tug. It was unknown ho much fuel was spilled.
    (SSFC, 12/27/09, p.A10)

2009        Dec 30, An unknown amount of oil poured from a China National Petroleum Corp. pipeline into the Wei River in Shaanxi province following a construction accident. The pipeline links the capitals of northwest Gansu province and central Henan province. Shaanxi TV later said 20 miles (33 km) along the Wei were polluted by the leak, estimated at 40,000 gallons.
    (AP, 1/2/10)

2009        David Own authored ~ez_ldquo~Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability.~ez_rdquo~
    (SFC, 11/4/09, p.E2)
2009        The US National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), estimated in the mid 1990s to cost some $6.5 billion, ballooned to some $15 billion. At this point it was under review with the launch date postponed to 2011.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NPOESS)
2009        Australian Jeff Lawton created his ~ez_ldquo~Re-greening the Desert~ez_rdquo~ video. In 1996 Lawton was accredited with the Permaculture Community Services Award by the permaculture movement for services in Australia and around the world.
    (www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gPvsl9ni-4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoff_Lawton)

2010        Jan 5, Bolivian President Evo Morales said he's inviting activists, scientists and government officials from around the world to an alternative climate conference following the failure of a summit in Copenhagen to produce binding agreements.
    (AP, 1/5/10)

2010        Jan 7, US scientists released a paper saying that mountaintop coal mining is so destructive that the government should stop issuing permits to do it. Earlier in the week the EPA issued a new permit for the Hobet 45 mine in West Virginia.
    (SFC, 1/8/10, p.A11)

2010        Jan 8, The EU said it will pursue a new deal on global warming through the Group of 20, since last month's UN climate conference of nearly 200 nations led to unwieldy negotiations that didn't accomplish much.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 9, California-based eSolar Inc. said it will help build a series of solar thermal power plants in China, as the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases tries to decrease its heavy reliance on coal, imported gas and oil.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 11, Indian PM Manmohan Singh laid out ambitious plans to make his country a global leader in solar power as he launched a government initiative to boost use of the technology. Andy Pag (35) was detained in the western state of Rajasthan for having an unlicensed satellite phone. He (Andrea Pagnacco) was ordered held for 14 days while police investigate whether he is a threat to national security. The London-based environmental campaigner was traveling around the world in a biofuel-driven bus. In March ordered to pay a fine for illegally using a satellite phone and became free to leave India 69 days after his arrest.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)(AP, 1/17/10)(AP, 3/21/10)

2010        Jan 12, In California a state commission voted unanimously to approve the most stringent, environmentally friendly building code standards of any state in the nation. The new code, dubbed Calgreen, will take effect next January.
    (SFC, 1/13/10, p.A1)

2010        Jan 23, In Texas an 800-foot oil tanker and towing vessel collided spilling oil in the southeast port of Port Arthur. The spill, estimated at 42,000 gallons, was contained to a 2-mile area.
    (AP, 1/24/10)(SSFC, 1/24/10, p.A10)

2010        Jan 24, In India environment ministers from Brazil, South Africa, India and China said that talks in New Delhi had further cemented their alliance following the Copenhagen climate change summit. The group, known by the acronym BASIC, pledged to strengthen its unified stance but would seek consensus with developed countries.
    (AP, 1/24/10)

2010        Jan 28, The US formally pledged to the UN that it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 17% (from what they were in 2005) by 2020. Meeting the target depended on getting a climate bill through Congress.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.38)

2010        Feb 1, Brazil~ez_rsquo~s government approved the 11 billion dollar Belo Monte project on the Xingu river that will flood 500 square km (193 square miles) and supply 11% of Brazil's electricity. Detractors said the dam in northern Para state will trigger droughts along a 100 km (60 mile) stretch of the Xingu, displace thousands of indigenous people, attract an army of job-seekers, and accelerate the deforestation and destruction of the rain forest.
    (AFP, 2/2/10)

2010        Feb 9, China said its first national pollution census has mapped nearly 6 million sources of industrial, residential and agricultural waste. The 2-year survey results gave the government one year to shape the next 5-year environmental protection plan.
    (SFC, 2/10/10, p.A4)

2010        Feb 15, British Airways said it would use low-carbon fuel to power part of its fleet from 2014 once Europe's first sustainable jet-fuel plant was built by US biofuels specialist Solena Group. A plant to be built in London will convert 500,000 tons of waste into 16 million gallons of green jet fuel annually.
    (AFP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 16, In Austria 14 countries and the European Commission adopted the Danube River Basin Management Plan, a cleanup plan for the Danube River and its tributaries. Participating countries included Austria, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Feb 22, A UN report said sales of household electrical gadgets will boom across the developing world in the next decade, wreaking environmental havoc if there are no new strategies to deal with the discarded TVs, cell phones and computers.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 23, In Italy an oil spill began and spread south down the Lambro to Piacenza and Cremona overnight, despite efforts to contain it. By the next day if reached the Po River, with officials warning of an ecological disaster as they scrambled to contain the sludge before it contaminated Italy's longest and most important river. Milan regional officials said the cause was certainly sabotage at a former refinery turned oil depot, since the cisterns were opened and the oil allowed to flow unimpeded into the Lambro River near Monza.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 26, Sierra Leone and five other west African countries (Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia and Guinea) signed onto an action plan in Freetown for sustainable mangrove management.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Mar 5, It was reported that the advocacy group Big Brother Watch found, through a series of Freedom of Information requests, that many local governments, called councils in Britain, are installing  microchips in trash cans distributed to households, but in most cases have not yet activated them ~ez_mdash~ in part because officials know the move would be unpopular. Proponents called it a bid to push recycling. Microchips were first fitted into some British trash bins eight years ago, and the debate over whether the state has the right to weigh or otherwise analyze residents' refuse has surfaced periodically since.
    (AP, 3/6/10)

2010        Mar 9, China and India gave a qualified approval to the nonbinding Copenhagen climate accord brokered by Pres. Obama in the final hours of the December, 2009, climate summit.
    (SFC, 3/10/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 15, China~ez_rsquo~s state media said at least 94 people living near a lead factory, most of them children, have tested positive for lead poisoning, prompting authorities to order the closure of the Zhongyi Alloy Co. in Longchang county of Sichuan province's Neijiang city. Hundreds more people waited for test results.
    (AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 17, US federal authorities won a court order requiring officials in the US Virgin Islands to repair sewage plants that have dumped raw waste at beaches renowned for snorkeling and surfing.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 27, In Australia Sydney's iconic Opera House and Harbor Bridge went dark along with millions of homes at the start of Earth Hour, a global switch-off aimed at revitalizing efforts against climate change.
    (AFP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 1, Britain said it will create the world's largest marine reserve by banning fishing around the Chagos Islands, a U.K.-owned archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The cluster of 55 islands is spread across about a quarter of a million square miles of ocean.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Mar 25, Maine Gov. John Baldacci signed into law America~ez_rsquo~s first blanket ~ez_ldquo~extended producer responsibility~ez_rdquo~ (EPR) framework law. It ordered manufacturers to assume the cost of disposing their products following consumer use. Maine~ez_rsquo~s EPR law for electronic waste went into effect in 2004.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.67)(http://tinyurl.com/y5ew8vk)

2010        Mar 27, In China a recycling pool at a sewage treatment plant collapsed in northern Shaanxi province and some 1,000 tons of oil sludge contaminated farmland and the Luohe River, a tributary of the Yellow River.
    (AFP, 4/3/10)

2010        Apr 3, The 230-meter (754-ft) Shen Neng I, a bulk coal carrier, was on its way to China when it ran aground on a shoal off offshore from the Australian city of Rockhampton. Australian government officials said the stranded ship was leaking oil into the sea and is in danger of breaking up and damaging the Great Barrier Reef. The ship was refloated on April 12.
    (Reuters, 4/4/10)(AP, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 4, In Uzbekistan UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called the drying up of the Aral Sea one of the planet's most shocking disasters and urged Central Asian leaders to step up efforts to solve the problem.
    (AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 6, Louisiana authorities said a pipeline has spilled some 18,000 gallons of crude oil into a canal in the Delta National Wildlife Refuge about 60 miles southeast of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 4/7/10, p.A8)
2010        Apr 6, An African Union conference on maritime security opened in Ethiopia. Somali Deputy PM Abdulrahman Adan Ibrahim Ibbi called for outside help to clear toxic waste dumped illegally on his country's vast coastline, arguing that the fight against dumping goes hand in hand with the fight against piracy.
    (AFP, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 9, In Germany delegates from 175 countries began a 3-day meeting in Bonn on a new global warming agreement.
    (AP, 4/9/10)

2010        Apr 15, It was reported that researchers were warning of a new blight on the ocean: a swirl of confetti-like plastic debris stretching over thousands of square miles (kilometers) in a remote expanse of the Atlantic Ocean.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Mar 22, Scientists, policy experts and journalists gathered at Asilomar on the Monterey peninsula of California for a 5-day discussion on geoengineering, a term to describe deliberate large-scale actions to combat the climate changing effects of greenhouse gas emissions, without actually curbing those emissions.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.81)

2010        Apr 19, Winners were announced for the 2010 Goldman Environmental Prizes, known as the "green Nobels." Cuba~ez_rsquo~s Humberto Rios Labrada (47) won for his campaign to let farmers choose the crops and seed varieties best for their lands helped him the prize. Thuli Makama of Swaziland won for her efforts in investigating allegations of private park rangers killing suspected poachers in sub-Saharan Africa's last absolute monarchy.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2010        Apr 20, An explosion and fire damaged an oil rig and critically injured 7 people off the coast of Louisiana leaving 11 workers missing in the Gulf of Mexico. The Deepwater Horizon rig sank 2 days later. Officials feared as much as 336,000 gallons of crude oil a day could be rising from the sea floor nearly 5,000 feet below. On April 23 no oil appeared to be leaking from the well head at the ocean floor, nor was any leaking at the water's surface. On April 25 it was reported that some 1000 barrels per day were leaking from 2 conduit sources related to the sunken oil rig. An internal investigation later said the deadly blowout was triggered by a bubble of methane gas that escaped from the well and shot up the drill column, expanding quickly as it burst through several seals and barriers before exploding. In June it was reported that BP had been trying to seal cracks in the Macondo well more than 2 months before the explosion.
    (AFP, 4/21/10)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/25/10)(AP, 5/8/10)(SFC, 6/18/10, p.A13)

2010        Apr 22, The US National Research Council released a study that found the level of acid in oceans increasing by 30% since the start of the Industrial Revolution, some 200 years ago. This came on the 40th observance of Earth Day.
    (SFC, 4/23/10, p.A16)

2010        Apr 23, Bolivia~ez_rsquo~s President Evo Morales said he is creating a "Mother Earth Ministry" to promote the planet's rights and says that he would like to establish an international court with the power to punish nations that fail to obey emissions-reduction agreements. Morales revealed the plans as he launched a campaign to plant 10 million trees, equal to Bolivia's population, by April 22, 2011.
    (AP, 4/24/10)

2010        Apr 26, The oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, due to April 20 sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, extended over some 1,800 square miles. Robot submarines were in use to close valves atop the well. Officials said engineers have begun constructing a giant dome to place over the leaking oil well.
    (SFC, 4/27/10, p.A6)(AFP, 4/27/10)

2010        Apr 28, Coast Guard Rear Adm. Mary Landry was emphatic at a hastily called news conference that a new leak was discharging 5,000 barrels a day of sweet crude, not the 1,000 barrels officials had estimated for days since the Deepwater Horizons drilling rig exploded and sank 50 miles off the Louisiana Coast. Shrimpers in Louisiana filed a class-action lawsuit against oil giant BP Plc and owners of the drilling platform that exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, as claims for economic losses anticipated from the disaster began to mount.
    (AP, 4/29/10)(Reuters, 4/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, Oil from a leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico began washing ashore in the southern US state of Louisiana, threatening an ecological disaster.
    (AP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 1, The worst US oil spill in decades reached into precious shoreline habitat along the Gulf Coast as documents emerged showing British Petroleum downplayed the possibility of a catastrophic accident at the offshore rig that exploded.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 3, Energy giant BP vowed to pay "all necessary and appropriate clean-up costs" from the US oil pollution disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil has been spewing into the Gulf of Mexico since a deepwater oil rig operated by BP exploded and sank on April 20 killing 11 men.
    (AP, 5/3/10)
2010        May 3, A team of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian environmental scientists said large stretches of the biblical Jordan River could dry up by 2011. In 1847, a US Naval officer visiting the area reported on the "deafening roar of the tumultuous waters."
    (AP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 4, British Petroleum said efforts to contain a giant oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico are costing nearly four million pounds a day. Winds pushed a giant slick towards fragile wetlands on the US coast as efforts intensified to bottle up a ruptured oil well causing the growing environmental disaster.
    (AFP, 5/4/10)
2010        May 4, Royal Dutch Shell said it spilled nearly 14,000 tons of oil into the creeks of the Niger Delta in 2009 and blamed thieves and militants for the environmental damage.
    (SFC, 5/5/10, p.A2)

2010        May 5, The US Coast Guard said BP PLC has managed to cap one of three leaks at a deepwater oil well, but the work is not expected to reduce the overall flow of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The well has been spewing at least 210,000 gallons per day since an April 20 explosion at a rig 50 miles off Louisiana.
    (AP, 5/5/10)
2010        May 5, China said it would punish officials who failed to fulfill emissions reduction targets, warning the nation's current environmental situation was extremely serious.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 8, BP~ez_rsquo~s first attempt to divert a major crude spill was foiled and it could be at least a day before another attempt at putting a lid on the well could be made. Meanwhile, thick blobs of tar washed up on Alabama's white sand beaches, yet another sign the spill was worsening.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 15, Oil leaking from the ruptured well pipe in the Gulf of Mexico washed ashore in two new locations, as BP~ez_rsquo~s latest attempt to contain the spill faltered. Experts warned that the spill may be growing more than ten times faster than previous Coast Guard estimates of 5,000 barrels (210,000 gallons) a day.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 16, Oil from a blown-out well is forming huge underwater plumes as much as 10 miles long below the visible slick in the Gulf of Mexico, scientists said as BP wrestled for a third day with its latest contraption for slowing the nearly month-old gusher.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 17, BP said it was siphoning more than one-fifth of the oil that has been spewing into the Gulf for almost a month, as worries escalated that the ooze may reach a major ocean current that could carry it through the Florida Keys and up the East Coast. The US Coast Guard said 20 tar balls have been found off Key West, Fla., but the agency stopped short of saying whether they came from a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 5/17/10)(AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 18, A discovery of tar balls on Florida's Key West fanned fears that a massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill was spreading through ocean currents, as energy giant BP Plc worked to capture more of the crude leaking from its gushing deep-water well.
    (Reuters, 5/18/10)
2010        May 18, Most of Canada's largest forestry companies announced a groundbreaking deal with environmental groups that will restrict logging in the country's vast northern forests.
    (Reuters, 5/18/10)

2010        May 20, BP conceded that more oil than it estimated is gushing into the Gulf of Mexico as heavy crude washed into Louisiana's wetlands for the first time, feeding worries and uncertainty about the massive monthlong spill.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 23, The US government threatened to remove BP from efforts to seal a blown-out oil well in the Gulf of Mexico if it doesn't do enough to stop the leak, though it acknowledged only the company and the oil industry have the needed know-how. Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal said the state is not waiting for federal approval to begin building sand barriers to protect the coastline from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 24, It was reported that Malagasy timer barons were robbing Madagascar of its sylvan heritage, illegally cutting down scarce species of rosewood trees in poorly protected national parks, and exporting most of the valuable logs to China.
    (SFC, 5/25/10, p.A2)

2010        May 25, The US EPA barred Texas from issuing an operating permit to a refinery on Corpus Christi and said it would do the same to dozens in other cases in which it believes the state is violating the Clean Air Act.
    (SFC, 5/26/10, p.A4)
2010        May 25, In the Singapore Strait emergency teams scrambled to contain thousands of tons of crude oil that spilled into waters near one of the world's busiest ports after two ships collided. Singapore's Maritime and Port Authority (MPA) said in its latest update that 5,000 tons of crude had leaked from the Malaysian-registered tanker MT Bunga Kelana 3.
    (AFP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 27, BP Plc wrestled to plug its gushing deepwater Gulf of Mexico well in the latest attempt to control the source of a catastrophic five-week-old oil spill. Pres. Obama extended a moratorium on new deepwater oil drilling and ordered floating rigs to stop work on 33 exploratory wells. The government gave the go-ahead for an ambitious plan to construct several barrier islands to reduce the amount of oil from the giant Gulf of Mexico spill from coming ashore. Officials raised estimates of the spill from 210,000 to at least half a million gallons a day.
    (Reuters, 5/27/10)(AFP, 5/28/10)(SFC, 5/28/10, p.A8)

2010        May 28, BP made progress toward plugging its Gulf of Mexico oil spill with mud but said it won't know for two more days if the fix will really work.
    (AP, 5/28/10)
2010        May 28, Indonesia said it will impose a 2-year moratorium on large-scale clearance of rainforests, effective as off January 2011, in return for $1 billion grant from Norway to fund projects as part of the REDD plan (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation).
    (http://news.mongabay.com/2010/0527-hance_moratorium.html)(Econ, 10/30/10, p.44)

2010        May 29, The worst oil spill in US history hit its 40th day with Gulf residents clinging to the tenuous hope that BP's complicated "top kill" operation will plug the gushing well.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)

2010        May 30, With BP declaring failure in its latest attempt to plug the uncontrolled gusher feeding the worst oil spill in US history, the company is turning to yet another mix of risky undersea robot maneuvers and long shot odds to keep crude from flowing into the Gulf. White House energy czar Carol Browner said oil might keep leaking into the Gulf of Mexico for months until relief wells are completed.
    (AP, 5/30/10)

2010        Jun 2, BP Plc forged ahead with its latest effort to curb the flow of oil spewing into the Gulf of Mexico as the British energy giant's shares fell anew as the US government launched criminal and civil probes into the disaster.
    (Reuters, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 3, BP sliced off a pipe with giant shears in the latest bid to curtail the worst spill in US history, but the cut was jagged and placing a cap over the gusher will now be more challenging. BP's top executive acknowledged the global oil giant was unprepared to fight a catastrophic deepwater oil spill as engineers were forced yet again to reconfigure plans for executing their latest gambit to control the Gulf of Mexico gusher. Robots a mile beneath the Gulf positioned a cap over the main pipe on the leaking well Thursday night and an inverted funnel-like system, wrapped in hoses and more sophisticated than previous devices, started pumping oil and gas to a tanker on the surface. A very rough estimate of current collection was estimated at about 42,000 gallons a day. An estimated 500,000 to 1 million gallons of crude was believed to be leaking daily. The federal government slapped BP with a $69 million bill to cover initial costs of responding to the oil spill.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/4/10)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 4, A senior Nigerian official said lead poisoning caused by illegal gold mining has killed 163 Nigerians, including 111 children, since March in several northern remote villages.
    (Reuters, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 5, President Barack Obama on his 3rd visit to Louisiana said that he will stand with Gulf Coast residents "until they are made whole" from the oil spill catastrophe.
    (AP, 6/5/10)
2010        Jun 5, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev called for a global fund to fight ecological catastrophes like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, as he sought to burnish his credentials as a green leader.
    (AP, 6/5/10)
2010        Jun 5, Rwanda hosted UN World Environment Day with a ceremony to name 11 endangered baby mountain gorillas in which Internet users worldwide were for the first time able to take part.
    (AFP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 7, The Corporate Eco Forum (CEF) awarded Walmart Brazil  and its CEO Hector Nunez the inaugural C.K. Prahalad  Award for Global Sustainability Leadership for their historic work to preserve the Amazon.
    (PRNewswire, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 11, In Salt Lake City an underground pipeline broke sending oil into a creek that ultimately flows into the Great Salt Lake. The pipeline was shut off the next day as the 21,000 gallon spill coated some 300 birds at area creeks. Chevron said it would pay for cleanup.
    (SFC, 6/14/10, p.A6)
2010        Jun 11, A Credit Suisse analyst, briefed by BP~ez_rsquo~s Chief of Staff, said in a research note that BP expects the total bill for the clean up of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to be $3-6 billion.
    (Reuters, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 14, US authorities gave BP permission to start burning oil and gas piped up from its broken seafloor well as part of a pledge to more than triple how much crude it stops from spewing into the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 21,  The US White House slapped BP with a new 51-million-dollar bill, the third sent to the British energy giant and its partners for government expenses incurred in efforts to halt the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. BP revealed it has so far spent two billion dollars on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, after an internal BP document suggested the gusher might be spewing far faster than initially feared.
    (AFP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 21, Egypt's government confirmed that oil has leaked from one of several rigs operating off the coast of the Red Sea resort Hurghada and has polluted about 100 miles (160 km) of coastline including tourist beach resorts. The government has kept quiet about the leak for days.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 25, Chinese official said a huge bright green algae bloom is blanketing the sea off China's east coast and wind is driving it closer to land. The current outbreak has nearly doubled in size since it was first spotted June 14 near eastern Shandong province and now measures about 110 square miles (300 square km).
    (AP, 6/25/10)

2010        Jul 3, In the Gulf of Mexico a Taiwanese converted tanker, dubbed "A Whale" and billed as the world's largest oil skimmer, arrived from Portugal in the Gulf of Mexico for testing. Officials hoped it would scrub 21 million gallons of oil-tainted seawater per day. The US Coast Guard later said it was too big to maneuver around the smaller patches and ribbons of oil.
    (AP, 7/03/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A8)(AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Jul 5,  BP's costs for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill climbed nearly half a billion dollars in the past week, raising the oil giant's tab to just over $3 billion for work on cleaning and capping the gusher and payouts to individuals, businesses and governments. Tar balls from the Gulf oil spill found on a Texas beach were the first evidence that gushing crude from the Deepwater Horizon well has reached all the Gulf states.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 6, In New Orleans, Louisiana, oil from the ruptured well was reported to be seeping into Lake Pontchartrain, threatening another environmental disaster for the huge body of water that was rescued from pollution in 1990s.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 7, A Peruvian judge halted the expulsion of Paul McAuley (62), a British religious activist. He was accused by the government of inciting unrest among indigenous groups protesting environmental damage to the Amazon rain forest.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 10, In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil were allowed to spew into the fouled waters while BP engineers prepared to install a new containment system they hope will catch it all in the coming days.
    (AP, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 12, A Canada Steamship Lines vessel ran aground near the Cote Sainte-Catherine canal lock south of Montreal. The Montreal Gazette newspaper said the accident punctured the ship's fuel tank, leaking between 50 and 200 tons of oil into the surrounding waters.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 15, BP finally stopped oil from spewing into the sea, for the first time since an April 20 explosion on the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon oil rig killed 11 workers and unleashed the spill 5,000 feet beneath the water's surface.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 19, One of China's biggest ports, Dalian, shut down after an pipeline explosion triggered a major offshore oil spill, forcing a refinery to cut processing and importers to divert cargoes elsewhere. The government later said 1,500 tons of oil were spilled. Others later estimated as much as 60-90 thousand tons.
    (Reuters, 7/19/10)(SFC, 7/31/10, p.A4)

2010        Jul 21, China's largest reported oil spill had more than doubled, closing beaches on the Yellow Sea and prompting an environmental official to warn the sticky black crude posed a "severe threat" to sea life and water quality. The oil was spread over 165 square miles (430 square km) of water five days since a pipeline at a busy northeastern port exploded.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 28, Argentina and Uruguay held a signing ceremony in Buenos Aires on an agreement to a joint environmental monitoring program along the shared Uruguay River, ending a seven-year pollution controversy over a Finnish paper mill on the Uruguayan side.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, The Galapagos Islands, 620 miles (1,000 kms) off Ecuador's coast, were removed from the UNESCO list of sites endangered by environmental threats or overuse.
    (AP, 7/28/10)

2010        Jul 29, The X Prize foundation offered up a new $1.4 million prize for anyone who can come up with a faster way to clean oil spills from the ocean.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.79)

2010        Jul 30, UNESCO added a region of mountainous forests in Sri Lanka and the Papahanaumokuakea archipelago off Hawaii to the World Heritage list. Florida's Everglades and Madagascar's tropical forest were added to the roll of endangered sites, which is meant to ring alarm bells and encourage protective measures.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)

2010        Aug 2, The US government said BP's ruptured well in the Gulf of Mexico gushed an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil, making it the largest accidental oil spill of all time.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 4, BP PLC reached what it called a significant milestone overnight when mud that was forced down the well held back the flow of crude. A government report said much of the spilled oil is gone, though what's left is still at least quadruple the amount that poured from the Exxon Valdez.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 7, The Panamanian-registered MSC Chitra smashed into the St. Kitts-registered MV-Khalijia-II near Mumbai's Jawahar Lal Nehru port. The environment minister of Maharashtra state told reporters the next day that about 2 tons of oil was pouring into the water every hour. Indian authorities plugged the fuel leak on Aug 9 after some 500 tons of oil had spewed into the Arabian Sea.
    (AP, 8/9/10)(AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 10, Indonesia and the US launched a biodiversity research centre on the holiday island of Bali to further studies of the archipelago's rich and diverse species.
    (AFP, 8/10/10)

2010        Sep 1, In western India wave after wave of tar balls floated ashore on the renowned Goa beaches after a ship dumped tons of waste oil, about three days after officials believe a ship dumped burnt oil at sea.
    (AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Sep 11, In southern Egypt a barge leaked some 100 tons of gasoline into the Nile River. Captain Yasser Hussein told police that low water levels caused the boat to tilt and partially submerge  allowing the fuel to leak.
    (AP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 15, Greenpeace said China's coal-fired plants produce enough toxic ash to fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool every two-and-a-half minutes, creating contaminants that travel far and wide.
    (AFP, 9/15/10)
2010        Sep 15, Brazil's government unveiled plans to slow the deforestation and help halt the wildfires that destroy its tropical savanna. The government plans to spend $200 million in the next two years to combat illegal deforestation and prevent fires.
    (AP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 26, It was reported that the Hilmar Cheese company in Merced County is the likely culprit in ruining at least 18 wells in and around Hilmar. Partially treated effluent from the 27-acre plant has been discharged onto land around the plant for years.
    (SSFC, 9/26/10, p.A1)

2010        Sep 28, President Barack Obama endorsed a plan to rehabilitate the Gulf of Mexico with some of the billions of dollars in water pollution fines expected from the companies responsible for the worst offshore oil spill in US history.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

2010        Oct 4, In Hungary a torrent of toxic red sludge from an alumina plant tore through Kolontar and two other villages, killing four people and injuring 120. The next day Hungary declared a state of emergency in three counties. 6 people remained missing.
    (Reuters, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 6, The US and EU said that UN climate talks in Ttianjin, China, were making less progress than hoped due to rifts over rising economies' emission goals, while China pushed back and put the onus on rich nations.
    (AP, 10/6/10)
2010        Oct 6, Documents were released in which the national oil spill commission's staff described "not an incidental public relations problem" by the White House in the wake of the April 20 accident. The report said, the administration made erroneous early estimates of the spill's size, and President Barack Obama's senior energy adviser went on national TV and mischaracterized a government analysis by saying it showed most of the oil was "gone." The analysis actually said it could still be there. The explosion in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, spewed 206 million gallons of oil from the damaged oil well, and sank the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig.
    (AP, 10/7/10)
2010        Oct 6, San Francisco unveiled new equipment allowing luxury liners to plug into the city~ez_rsquo~s power grid, part of an effort to cut diesel suit along the waterfront.
    (SFC, 10/7/10, p.C2)
2010        Oct 6, Hungary scrambled to contain a toxic mud spill that left four people dead and more than 100 injured in what is being described as an ecological catastrophe. The spill raised fears that pollution leeching from it could reach the Danube River, which courses through Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine before flowing into the Black Sea.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, In Canada mercury was discharged during a reconfiguration of pipes at the Teck Resources Ltd. lead smelter waste-treatment plant in Trail, British Columbia. The work has since been completed and the leak stopped.
    (Reuters, 10/8/10)
2010        Oct 7, Hungary's most prestigious organization of scientists and researchers said tests of the red sludge flowing into the Danube show no dangerous heavy metal levels. Disaster relief officials said more than 150 people, most of them suffering chemical burns, were treated in hospitals after part of a metals factory reservoir collapsed and a toxic torrent swept through three villages killing at least four people.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 8, China said on rich nations must lock in fresh vows to slash greenhouse gas output to unblock talks for a new climate change deal, while some negotiators said Beijing was holding progress hostage.
    (Reuters, 10/8/10)
2010        Oct 8, In Mozambique a settling pond breached its wall at the Irish mining firm Kenmare Resources~ez_rsquo~ Moma titanium and zircon mine in the northern province of Nampula, flooding the area with a mixture of water, sand and clay. A four-year-old girl was missing after the dam burst, flooding an area housing 3,000 families.
    (AFP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 9, China and the United States clashed on the final day of climate change talks in Tianjin, accusing each other of blocking progress ahead of a major summit next month on global warming.
    (AP, 10/9/10)
2010        Oct 9, Hungarian police and soldiers evacuated 800 from the village of Kolontar as authorities said a second flood of toxic sludge from a chemicals plant was likely after new cracks appeared in a dyke.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)

2010        Oct 10, The 10/10/10 event known as the "Global Work Party" kicked off in Australia and New Zealand before spinning its way across the globe with events in 188 countries. Environmental campaigners planted trees, collected rubbish and rallied against pollution for what organizers aimed to make the world's biggest day of climate-change activism.
    (AFP, 10/10/10)
2010        Oct 10, A Hungarian official said the wall of a reservoir filled with caustic red sludge will inevitably collapse and unleash a new deluge of red sludge that could flow about a half-mile (1 km) to the north.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 12, A Greek tanker, the Mindoro, collided with a container ship, the Cypriot-flagged Jork Ranger, 20 miles (30 km) off the Dutch coast and briefly leaked jet fuel into the North Sea.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

2010        Oct 13, Hungarian authorities said the threat of another chemical spill had been averted and villagers could return home, as the plant responsible prepared to resume production. The municipal court in Veszprem released MAL's managing director Zoltan Bakonyi, who had been brought in for questioning.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)(AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 15, The Costa Rican government said it is receiving nearly $56 million in donations and debt write-offs to expand its forest and marine conservation programs and has become the first developing country to meet UN goals on protected areas. Under the plan, the US agreed to buy back $27 million of Costa Rica's foreign debt, money that will be used instead to invest conservation programs. The US already trimmed $26 million of Costa Rican debt in 2007 as part of the US Tropical Forest Conservation Act. The debt now stands at $77 million.
    (AP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 19, India announced the creation of a tribunal to punish those who sully the forests or rivers or otherwise break its environmental laws, in the hopes of clearing a backlog of some 5,000 such cases languishing in a sluggish court system.
    (AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 27, BrightSource Energy of Oakland, Ca., broke ground on its Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in the Mohave Desert. Plant operator NRG Energy Inc. agreed to invest $300 million into the $2 billion project. On April 11, 2011, BrightSource finalized $1.6 billion in loans for the project.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.D1)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.69)

2010        Oct 28, A White House panel said that Halliburton Co. used flawed cement in BP Plc's doomed Gulf of Mexico well, which could have contributed to the blowout that sparked the worst offshore oil spill in US history. Halliburton had run a series of tests that showed the material was unstable in the weeks before the April 20 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig. An interim report BP issued in September said Halliburton used an "unstable" cement mixture that allowed hydrocarbons to flow up the drill pipe and onto the floor of the rig, where they ignited.
    (Reuters, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, The Washington-based nonprofit, the National Association of Clean Air Act Agencies, surveyed the states on whether they would be ready to comply with the new EPA rules by the Jan 2, 2011, deadline. In a new report the association said 49 states have either changed their laws to allow regulation of greenhouse gases or will allow the EPA to issue permits. Texas is doing neither.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101029/ap_on_bi_ge/us_epa_vs_texas)
2010        Oct 28, Liang Congjie (78), historian and modern China~ez_rsquo~s first environmentalist, died. In 1994 he and 3 colleagues founded Friends of Nature, China~ez_rsquo~s first legal NGO and the first committed to protecting the country~ez_rsquo~s environment..
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.100)

2010        Oct 30, In Japan representatives to a UN conference on biodiversity agreed to expand protected areas on land and at sea in the hopes of slowing the rate of extinction of the world~ez_rsquo~s animals and plant. Scientists have estimated that the Earth is losing species at 100 to 1,000 times the historical average.
    (SFC, 10/30/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 2, BP lifted its estimate of the likely cost of its Gulf of Mexico oil spill to $40 billion, denting profits, but its underlying performance beat all expectations on higher refining margins and a lower tax rate.
    (Reuters, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 11, China said it has toughened rare earth export rules to allow only producers that meet environmental protection laws and international standards to ship the precious elements out of the country.
    (AFP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 23, China acknowledged that it is the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitter, as it called on the United States to ensure climate change talks opening next week make progress.
    (AFP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 24, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said it had closed 4,200 square miles/10,880 square kms of federal waters in the Gulf of Mexico to royal red shrimping after a commercial shrimper discovered tar balls in his net.
    (Reuters, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 25, China~ez_rsquo~s state media said Shanghai is suffering from its worst November air quality in five years after the local government lifted pollution controls that were in place for the six-month World Expo. China started publishing hourly air-quality information for major cities across the country as the world's top source of greenhouse gas emissions tries to rein in its notorious pollution.
    (AFP, 11/25/10)(AFP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 28, African foreign ministers, at a meeting on the eve of a summit on climate change in Libya, rejected the idea of a joint declaration, which was to have been signed at the conclusion of a two-day Africa-EU summit. The EU had hoped to deliver a joint statement at the gathering of 80 nations from the two continents to deliver "a strong symbol" as the Cancun conference on climate change opens in Mexico.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov 29, In Mexico a 2-week UN conference opened on global warming. Some 15,000 negotiators, environmental activists, businessmen and journalists convened at Cancun to overcome the disconnect between rich and poor nations on fighting global warming.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, In Iran for the second time in a month, heavy air pollution in the smog-filled capital of Tehran, home to over 12 million people, has forced authorities to close government offices and schools and declare a two-day public holiday because of the health dangers of being outdoors.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 10, Mexico scrambled to break an impasse between rich and poor nations over future cuts in greenhouse gas emissions as 190-nation climate talks went down to the wire.
    (Reuters, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 11, In Cancun, Mexico, almost 200 countries agreed to modest steps to combat climate change, including a Green Climate Fund to help poor nations, but they put off tough decisions on cutting greenhouse gas emissions until next year.
    (Reuters, 12/11/10)

2010        Dec 14, San Jose, Ca., adopted the strictest ban on plastic bags in the state.
    (SFC, 12/15/10, p.C3)
2010        Dec 14, A report, "High and Dry," by the Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization and the Shan Women's Action Network, said local trade and transport on the river in northern Myanmar near a border trade crossing with China has been severely affected by unpredictable daily changes in the water level since the completion in mid-2010 of the 360-foot (110-m) tall Longjiang Dam about 19 miles (30 km) upstream.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 16, The California Air Resources Board approved the creation of the nation~ez_rsquo~s first broad-based program to put a cap on green house gas emissions.
    (SFC, 12/17/10, p.A1)

2010        Dec 28, Japan postponed the creation of a greenhouse gas emission trading system by a year until after April 2014 in the face of strong resistance from the business lobby.
    (AFP, 12/30/10)

2010        Roger Pielke Jr. authored ~ez_ldquo~The Climate Fix: What Scientists and Politicians Won~ez_rsquo~t Tell You About Global Warming.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.91)
2010        Suriname numbered about 500,000 people. Satellite analysis of scarred earth and diverted waterways showed that miners have deforested at least 30,000 hectares (74,000 acres) and damaged more than 2,200 km (1,370 miles) of river over the past decade.
    (AP, 8/30/10)

2011        Jan 1, Italy, one of the top users of plastic shopping bags in Europe, began banning them. Retailers warned of chaos as many stores braced for the switch.
    (Reuters, 12/29/10)

2011        Jan 18, Rwanda said police will begin cracking down on those degrading the environment as part of their widened jurisdiction to shore up ecological protection.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 26, Environmental groups accused Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell of destroying lives and the environment in the Niger Delta, and urged Dutch MPs to intervene as the company defended its record.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, The Brazilian government issued a "partial" installation license allowing the Belo Monte Dam to break ground on the Amazon's Xingu River despite egregious disregard for human rights and environmental legislation, the unwavering protests of civil society and condemnations by its Federal Public Prosecutor's Office (MPF).
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/usnw/20110127/pl_usnw/DC37400)

2011        Feb 1, New satellite imagery showed Malaysia is destroying forests more than three times faster than all of Asia combined, and its carbon-rich peat soils of the Sarawak coast are being stripped even faster.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 2, US federal regulators took the first step in setting a drinking water limit for perchlorate, a noxious component of rocket fuel, flares and fire works known to hamper thyroid function and hinder brain development in young children. Most of the contaminations stemmed from military and munitions operations.
    (SFC, 2/3/11, p.A6)

2011        Feb 3, In the Philippines President Benigno Aquino III ordered a logging moratorium in the country, blaming devastating floods on unmitigated logging and deforestation. A weeklong downpour culminated in raging flash floods that surged through the streets of Jolo's coastal provincial capital, sweeping away stilt houses and damaging hundreds of homes killing at least 5 people. Disaster officials said at least 9 other people have died in floods elsewhere in the Philippines this week, adding to more than 70 lives lost in heavy rainfall between late December and the end of January.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 8, In Brazil over half a million people, most of them Brazilians, called via petition on newly elected President Dilma to halt plans to construct the Belo Monte Dam. Outside the Presidential Palace, several hundred people gathered in protest including indigenous chiefs in full tribal regalia and community leaders from the Xingu River Basin, and delivered the petition signatures to the Dilma Government.
    (PRNewswire, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 9, Indonesia's biggest palm oil producer pledged to follow new standards to protect carbon-rich forests and peatlands, in a move cautiously welcomed by environmentalists including Greenpeace. A suspect was arrested in his Jakarta art shop during a raid carried out by police and forestry officials for allegedly using the Internet to sell hundreds of illegal wildlife parts, from ivory and tiger skins to the teeth of the world's smallest bears.
    (AFP, 2/9/11)(AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 10, Russian environmental activist Alla Chernysheva (35) was detained with her 2 daughters (3&6), the latest victim in a campaign to silence opponents of a new Moscow-St. Petersburg highway that is tearing up the ancient Khimki forest. Authorities announced a March start date for the highway. According to police Chernysheva was arrested on suspicion of taking a fake bomb to a Feb. 1 protest rally.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 14, An Ecuadorean judge ruled that Chevron Corp. was responsible for oil contamination in a wide swath of Ecuador's northern jungle. The plaintiffs' attorney says the company was fined $8 billion. The company said that it would appeal, and called the judge's decision "illegitimate and unenforceable."
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 24, The southern Indian state of Kerala passed a bill allowing compensation claims against soft drink giant Coca-Cola over alleged environmental damage caused by a bottling plant. The Palakkad bottling factory in Kerala was closed in 2005 after protests from activists and residents. A high-level state panel concluded last year that the plant had caused environmental and soil degradation as well as water contamination, and recommended a fine of 47 million dollars.
    (AFP, 2/25/11)

2011        Mar 7, A US federal judge extended his temporary order banning collection of an $18 billion judgment by the courts in Ecuador against Chevron, saying the oil company could face irreparable harm because it appeared that lawyers for Ecuadoreans who sued over rainforest contamination were going to try to quickly collect the award.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 16, The Malta-registered MS Olivia was grounded on Nightingale Island in the Tristan da Cunha chain. All 22 crew were rescued by 17th March. The ship broke in two and some 20,000 penguins became coated in oil. There was a risk rats from the ship could come ashore and eat the chicks and eggs of native seabirds.
    (AP, 3/22/11)(www.tristandc.com/newsmsoliva.php)

2011        Mar 22, World Water Day. The int~ez_rsquo~l observance of World Water Day is an initiative that grew out of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. The web site www.worldwaterday.org started in 2001 as a community space and repository where people can upload their WWD event activities and reports.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.52)(www.worldwaterday.org/)

2011        Mar 25, In China Ying Jianguo, general manager of Taizhou Suqi Storage Battery Co. Ltd., was taken into custody in the city of Taizhou in Zhejiang province. The official Xinhua News Agency reported 139 cases of lead poisoning near the plant. More testing soon found at least 168 villagers, including 53 children, had high lead levels.
    (AP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 26, In a World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) initiative landmarks in thousands of cities, from Sydney Harbor Bridge to the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, turned off the power for Earth Hour, the fifth such event promoting a sustainable future for the planet. The first lights dimmed across Fiji and New Zealand at 8.30 p.m. (3:30 a.m. EDT), to lights being turned on again in Samoa 24 hours later.
    (Reuters, 3/27/11)

2011        Apr 5, The UN weather agency said a protective ozone layer in the Arctic that keeps out the sun's most damaging rays, ultraviolet radiation, has thinned about 40 percent this winter, a record drop.
    (AP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 8, Cambodia~ez_rsquo~s government said PM Hun Sen has cancelled a controversial titanium mine project in the country's southwest because of environmental concerns.
    (AFP, 4/8/11)
2011        Apr 8, In Thailand rich and poor nations agreed on a roadmap for UN climate talks this year, but only after long-running feuds flared over a wide range of actions they must take to combat global warming. The talks in Bangkok will be followed by other rounds in Germany, before the annual summit in Durban, South Africa.
    (AFP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 11, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental prize was awarded 6 people from around the world. The winners included Hilton Kelly for his efforts to cut pollution in Port Arthur, Texas; Francisco Pineda for resisting mining in El Salvador; Ursula Sladek of Germany for creating for reducing her community~ez_rsquo~s reliance on nuclear power; Prigi Arisandi for her efforts to protect Indonesia~ez_rsquo~s Surabaya River; Dmitry Lisitsyn for his efforts to protect the Russia~ez_rsquo~s Sakhalin island; and Raoul du Toit for defending wildlife in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A12)

2011        Apr 16, A report by three US House Democrats said millions of gallons of potentially hazardous chemicals and known carcinogens were injected into wells by leading oil and gas service companies from 2005-2009.
    (AP, 4/16/11)
2011        Apr 16, TEPCO, the Japanese operator of a stricken nuclear plant, said it has started dumping a mineral into the sea that absorbs radioactive substances, aiming to slow down contamination of the ocean.
    (AFP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 18, Greece's public order minister said residents of Keratea, a town near Athens, have pledged to suspend nearly four months of often violent protests over a planned rubbish dump, pending talks with officials.
    (AP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 22, In Brazil gunmen killed Jorge Grando, an environmental activist, his brother and three friends.
    (AP, 4/24/11)

2011        May 3, The Arctic Monitory and Assessment Program (AMAP) reported that the ice of Greenland and the Arctic is melting faster than expected and could raise global sea levels by as much as five feet this century.
    (SFC, 5/4/11, p.A3)

2011        May 4, A Gervais beaked whale washed up on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico. A necropsy of the whale found more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of twisted plastic inside its stomach.
    (AP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 10, Vermont officials said swamped farm fields and gorged rivers could worsen pollution worries for the flooded Lake Champlain because of the high amount of phosphorus that has washed into it.
    (AP, 5/10/11)

2011        May 14, US Army engineers prepared to slowly open the gates of an emergency spillway along the rising Mississippi River, diverting floodwaters from Baton Rouge and New Orleans, yet inundating homes and farms in parts of Louisiana's populated Cajun country.
    (AP, 5/14/11)
2011        May 14, Canada~ez_rsquo~s Manitoba province opened its dike on the swollen Assiniboine River, starting a slow creep of water across rich farmland to avert a potentially catastrophic, unplanned breach.
    (Reuters, 5/14/11)

2011        May 17, The British government pledged to cut the country~ez_rsquo~s carbon emissions in half by 2025 from benchmark levels of 1990.
    (SFC, 5/18/11, p.A2)

2011        May 18, Brazil said it has set up a crisis center to combat increased deforestation in the Amazon rain forest. Satellite data showed a significant increase in deforestation over the past two months.
    (SFC, 5/19/11, p.A2)
2011        May 18, China~ez_rsquo~s Cabinet acknowledged that its $23 billion    Three Gorges Dam required action to curb pollution, counter risks of possible natural disasters and improve life for the 1.4 million people who were forced to relocate.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 22, In Brazil about 1,000 people gathered in Sao Paulo to protest against proposed laws in favor of Brazilian farmers who are seeking more space to raise cattle. They said that the  environmental law changes would increase deforestation in the Amazon.
    (AP, 5/22/11)
2011        May 22, South Korea said the United States has agreed on a joint investigation after American veterans claimed they buried large amounts of Agent Orange at the Camp Carroll US military base in South Korea in 1978. Environmental tests already confirmed extremely high levels of dioxin in people, fish and soil near the Camp Carroll air base.
    (AP, 5/22/11)(AP, 6/2/11)

2011        May 25, It was reported that Iran~ez_rsquo~s popular Lake Oroumieh, home to migrating flamingos, pelicans and gulls, has shrunken by 60 percent and could disappear entirely in just a few years, drained by drought, misguided irrigation policies, development and the damming of rivers that feed it.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 29, Chinese state media said China will expand a ban on free shopping bags as it tries to further curb its addiction to plastic in a bid to rid the country of "white pollution" that clogs waterways, farms and fields.
    (AFP, 5/29/11)
2011        May 29, In the Philippines workers cleaned up more than 750 tons of fish that have died and rotted on fish farms in Taal Lake near Taal volcano south of Manila. Scientists said the onset of the rainy season led to a sharp drop in water temperatures depleting oxygen levels.
    (AP, 5/29/11)(AFP, 5/29/11)

2011        May 31, Analysts said Germany's plan to shut all its nuclear power plants by 2022 will add up to 40 million tons of CO2 dioxide emissions annually as the country turns to fossil fuels.
    (Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 1, Pennsylvania and the city of Philadelphia embarked on a 25-year, $2 billion effort to reduce storm water pollution through eco-friendly measures.
    (SFC, 6/2/11, p.A6)

2011        Jun 2, In Brazil another rural activist, identified only by his first name, Marcos, was found shot to death in the Amazon, just three days after Brazil's leaders discussed how to stop the region's deadly disputes over logging and protect those whose lives are threatened.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 13, The US Dept. of Justice said Hecla Mining Co. will pay $263 million to settle one of the nation~ez_rsquo~s largest Superfund lawsuits for releasing mining waste into the environment in Idaho.
    (SFC, 6/14/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 14, In Brazil a landless peasant activist was reported killed by a gunshot to his head outside his home in Brazil, the fifth murder in a month likely tied to the conflict over land and logging in the Amazon. The body of Obede Loyla Souza was found over the weekend in the dense forest surrounding his home in the landless settlement of Esperanca.
    (AP, 6/16/11)(AP, 6/16/11)
2011        Jun 14, Indian officials signed an agreement with the World Bank to use a $1 billion loan to finance a new effort to cleanup of the Ganges.
    (SFC, 6/15/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 17, Vietnam started the first phase of a joint plan with the US to clean up environmental damage left over from the chemical defoliant Agent Orange.
    (SFC, 6/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 21, It was reported that tritium, a radioactive form of hydrogen, has leaked from at least 48 of 65 sites, according to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission records reviewed as part of the AP's yearlong examination of safety issues at aging nuclear power plants.
    (AP, 6/21/11)
2011        Jun 21, A study led by the International Program on the State of the Ocean (IPSO) showed that life in the oceans is at imminent risk of the worst spate of extinctions in millions of years due to threats such as climate change and over-fishing.
    (Reuters, 6/21/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Indonesia indigenous peoples of Borneo demanded a halt to internationally backed forest conservation schemes, saying they are trampling their rights and robbing their lands.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Jul 1, Hundreds of barrels of crude oil spilled into Montana's Yellowstone River after an ExxonMobil pipeline beneath the riverbed ruptured, sending a plume 25 miles downstream and forcing temporary evacuations. About 63,000 gallons of oil leaked into the river near the city of Laurel.
    (AP, 7/3/11)(SFC, 7/23/11, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/13, p.A6)

2011        Jul 1, China confirmed that an oil spill had occurred in waters around Nanhuangcheng Island in Shandong province. US oil company ConocoPhillips operated the Penglai 19-3 oil field where the leak originated. Leaking oil was first detected on June 4, and then again on June 17. The state maritime bureau said that an area in the mouth of the Bohai Sea, measuring 840 square km (336 square miles), had been badly polluted due to the spill.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A4)

2011        Jul 10, Australia~ez_rsquo~s PM Julia Gillard announced plans to tax carbon pollution at Aus$23 (US$24.74) per ton to help battle climate change, as it moved towards creating the region's biggest emissions trading scheme.
    (AFP, 7/10/11)(Econ, 7/16/11, p.41)

2011        Jul 18, US Fish and Wildlife Service said the whitebark pine, found atop mountains in the American West, is facing extinction due to white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles due in part to climate change.
    (SFC, 7/20/11, p.A8)

2011        Jul 25, In Jerusalem Christian, Jewish and Muslim leaders joined forces to launch a multi-faith environmental campaign, the Interfaith Centre for Sustainable Development, citing religious injunctions to protect the Earth across their three faiths.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 28, Peter Berg, co-founder of the Diggers and founder of the Planet Drum Foundation, died in San Francisco. The Diggers were a radical community-action group of activists and Improv actors (1966-68), based in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood.
    (SSFC, 8/14/11, p.C9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diggers_%28theater%29)

2011        Aug 4, In India a 740-foot (225-meter) vessel, which had been transporting coal from Indonesia to the western Indian state of Gujarat, sank off Mumbai. The navy rescued 30 crew members. The ship was estimated to be carrying 325 tons of fuel oil and 56 tons of diesel. By Aug 7 oil had spread over an area of 7 nautical miles and cleanup efforts were underway.
    (AP, 8/7/11)
2011        Aug 4, A UN report was released that described oil destroying crops and seeping into drinking water supplies in Ogoniland, Nigeria, a region of the Niger Delta. In one case, the UN found one village where drinking water was polluted with benzene 900 times more than the international limit.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 9, Pres. Obama announced fuel efficiency standards for heavy trucks. The regulations called for cutting 9-23% of fuel consumption and greenhouse gases by 2018.
    (SFC, 8/10/11, p.A6)

2011        Aug 12, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is trying to stop oil leaking from a flow line at one of its drilling platforms in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. On Aug 15 Shell estimated that 54,600 gallons had leaked from the Gannet Alpha oil rig. On Aug 16 Shell said a 2nd smaller leak had been found at the rig.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/16/11, p.A4)(SFC, 8/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Aug 14, Chinese state media said authorities in the northeastern port city of Dalian ordered a petrochemical plant be shut down after more than 12,000 people demonstrated over pollution concerns. Calls to relocate the plant grew after waves from Tropical Storm Muifa broke a dike guarding it last week and raised fears that flood waters could release toxic chemicals.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

2011        Aug 16, California Gov. Jerry Brown and Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval signed a pact with the federal government to increase the clarity of Lake Tahoe by half a foot per year for the next 65 years.
    (SFC, 8/17/11, p.C1)

2011        Aug 17, Texas Gov. and GOP presidential candidate Rick Perry told New Hampshire voters that he does not believe in manmade global warming, calling it a scientific theory that has not been proven.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 25, In Brazil a leader of landless workers was shot to death while riding his bike in Barbosa, Para state. Valdemar Oliveira Barbosa was the fourth person murdered in Para since May who was involved in environmental or land rights movements. Catholic Land Pastoral said more than 1,150 rural activists have been killed in Brazil over the past 20 years.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 27, In Iran residents of Orumiyeh residents demonstrated against parliament~ez_rsquo~s refused in mid-August to fast-track a rescue plan to save Lake Orumiyeh, Iran~ez_rsquo~s largest lake. The drying lake, situated between East and West Azarbaijan provinces in the northwest, has lost more than half of its surface over the last two decades due to drought and the damming of rivers feeding it. The protest was repressed by force.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Aug, In Malaysia the first turbine from French giant Alstom began producing electricity at the Bakun dam in the Malaysian portion of Borneo island. The reservoir has swelled to the size of Singapore since impoundment began a year ago. The project was first approved in 1986. A 2005 report, anti-graft watchdog Transparency International termed the dam one of the world's "Monuments of Corruption," citing years of delays, ownership changes, and overall costs that more than doubled. Tribal residents said warnings about the dam's ecological and human impact are coming true.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Sep 2, President Barack Obama scrapped his administration's controversial plans to tighten smog rules, bowing to the demands of congressional Republicans and some business leaders.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 8, In Algeria experts from some 40 African countries gathered at a conference on desertification. The 10th session of the decision-making body of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification opens in South Korea next month.
    (AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 9, Malaysia~ez_rsquo~s Environment Minister Douglas Uggah Embas sent a letter to his Indonesian counterpart about hundreds of suspected fires on Sumatra island.
    (AFP, 9/10/11)

2011        Sep 13, An online 200-page paper by Project CLAMER, a collaboration of 17 European marine institutes, said the rising temperature of ocean water is causing a proliferation of the Vibrio genus of bacteria, which can cause food poisoning, serious gastroenteritis, septicemia and cholera.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 17, In Washington state America~ez_rsquo~s largest ever dam renewal project began on the Elwha River. It was dammed in 1914.
    (Econ, 10/1/11, p.35)

2011        Sep 19, California and federal officials said shipping companies responsible for the Nov 7, 2007, Cosco Busan oil spill in the SF Bay have agreed to pay $44.4 million to restore bay habitat and reimburse agencies that responded to the disaster.
    (SFC, 9/20/11, p.A1)
2011        Sep 19, China shut down a solar panel factory after hundreds of angry residents staged days of violent protests over pollution, the second such incident in as many months.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 24, Moving Planet day marchers held an estimated 2000 events around the world urging local leaders to work toward lowering carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, p.D1)

2011        Sep 25, Wangari Maathai (71), Kenyan environmental activist and Nobel Prize winner (2004), died. She founded the Green Belt Movement in 1977.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 29, China ordered manufacturers of potentially toxic products to conduct safety and environmental checks after a recent spate of major anti-pollution protests triggered fears of more unrest.
    (AFP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 5, In New Zealand the 47,000 ton Liberian-flagged container vessel "Rena" ran aground on the Astrolabe reef about 12 nautical miles (22 km) off the North Island. Maritime New Zealand soon declared the vessel a hazardous ship as an oil slick more than doubled in size in just a few hours on the Bay of Plenty. The ship had 1,368 containers on board. On Feb 29, 2012, the captain and the navigating officer, both Filipino, pleaded guilty to mishandling the vessel and altering ship documents. On May 25, 2012, they were each sentenced to seven months in jail.
    (AP, 10/6/11)(AP, 10/12/11)(SFC, 11/14/11, p.A2)(AP, 2/29/12)(AP, 5/25/12)

2011        Oct 11, New Zealand declared its worst maritime pollution disaster, as oil gushed into a pristine bay from the Rena, a stranded container ship being pounded in heavy seas.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 25, The UAR said a ship carrying 450 tons of diesel fuel sank off the coast of Umm al-Quwain emirate.
    (SFC, 10/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 3, The US Dept. of Energy reported that the world pumped some 564 million tons more of carbon into the air in 2010 than it did in 2009, a 6% increase.
    (SFC, 11/4/11, p.A3)

2011        Nov 7, The Republic of Congo launched a vast tree-planting program to guard against the twin scourges of deforestation and soil degradation that plague many African states.
    (AFP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 8, Australia passed its controversial pollution tax in a sweeping and historic reform aimed at lowering carbon emissions blamed for climate change, after years of fierce debate.
    (AFP, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 13, Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell reported a fresh spill from a key delivery pipeline in southern Nigeria, but said it has contained the leak.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 17, Brazilian authorities began investigating an offshore oil spill. Chevron says that between 400 and 650 barrels of oil have leaked from a well it was drilling off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 18, Brazil's environmental protection agency said nearly 110,000 gallons of oil may have spilled into the Atlantic Ocean because of a leak at an offshore Chevron drilling site. Chevron had said that only 16,800 to 27,300 gallons in total leaked into the ocean.
    (AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 19, In Bhutan a Climate Summit for a Living Himalayas was held in Bhutan's capital Thimphu. India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan agreed to cooperate on energy, water, food and biodiversity issues.
    (AP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 25, Australia said it will create the world's largest marine reserve in the Coral Sea. The proposal includes seas beyond the already protected Great Barrier Reef Marine Park off northeast Australia.
    (AP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 28, The United Nations completed the first-ever global assessment of the state of the planet's land resources, finding in ~ez_ldquo~"State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture,~ez_rdquo~ that a quarter of all land is highly degraded and warning the trend must be reversed if the world's growing population is to be fed.
    (AP, 11/28/11)
2011        Nov 28, UN climate negotiations opened in Durban, South Africa, with pressure building to salvage the only treaty limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 29, The UN weather office said world temperatures keep rising, and are heading for a threshold that could lead to irreversible changes of the Earth.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Nov 30, Britain~ez_rsquo~s biggest carbon capture (CC) pilot plant began siphoning emissions from SSE's 490 megawatt coal-fired station at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire, in the latest effort to prove the technology on an industrial scale.
    (Reuters, 11/30/11)
2011        Nov 30, In South Africa Rajendra Pachauri, the UN's top climate scientist, cautioned climate negotiators that global warming is leading to human dangers and soaring financial costs, but containing carbon emissions will have a host of benefits.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 2, The Environmental Rights Action (ERA)/Friends of the Earth Nigeria (FoEN) visited Kalaba community, Bayelsa state, and observed five spill points on the pipeline which was spewing oil into the environment. The pipeline was operated by Agip, the local subsidiary of Italian oil group Eni.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, The Kathmandu-based Int~ez_rsquo~l. Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) published reports showing that Nepal's glaciers have shrunk by 21 percent and Bhutan's by 22 percent over the last 30 years.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 8, The US Environmental Protection Agency announced for the first time that fracking, a controversial method of improving the productivity of oil and gas wells, may be to blame for causing groundwater pollution. The EPA found that compounds likely associated with fracking chemicals had been detected in the groundwater beneath Pavillion, a small community in central Wyoming where residents say their well water reeks of chemicals.
    (AP, 12/8/11)
2011        Dec 8, The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry accepted local claims that there is a higher incidence of cancer and other health ills on Vieques island compared with neighboring Puerto Rico, but said there is no proof the problem is linked to US military activity. The bombing range closed in 2003 following years of protests about environmental risks and the 1999 killing of a Puerto Rican civilian guard by an errant bomb.
    (AP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 10, In South Africa a day after their scheduled close, UN climate talks fought against despondency as 194 countries grappled for a deal to tame greenhouse gases. Research presented at Durban said the world is on track for a 3.5 C (6.3 F) rise, a likely recipe for droughts, floods, storms and rising sea levels that will threaten tens of millions.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 11, In South Africa a UN climate conference reached a hard-fought agreement on a far-reaching program meant to set a new course for the global fight against climate change. The 194-party conference agreed to start negotiations on a new accord that would ensure that countries will be legally bound to carry out any pledges they make. It would take effect by 2020 at the latest. The conference also agreed on a Green Climate Fund, which would funnel some of the $110 billion, promised by rich countries to poor ones, to help them cut emissions and adopt to climate change.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.140)

2011        Dec 12, Canada became the first country to declare it was formally exiting the Kyoto protocol, a reversal that will save it billions of dollars in fines. Canada had agreed under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 emissions to 6.0 percent below 1990 levels by 2012, but its emissions of the gasses blamed for damaging Earth's fragile climate system have instead increased sharply.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 14, Colombia's government and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime released a new study that said more than 3,000 square miles (800,000 hectares) of Colombia's woodlands have been cleared since 1981 in the planting and destruction of drug crops. According to the UN, Colombia had 240 square miles (62,000 hectares) of coca under cultivation last year.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 21, The Obama administration issued the first US standards to cut mercury and other toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants.
    (SFC, 12/22/11, p.A9)

2011        Susan Freinkel authored ~ez_ldquo~Plastic: A Toxic Love Story.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 5/1/11, p.G1)
2011        Mark Lynas authored ~ez_ldquo~The God Species: How the Planet Can Survive the Age of Humans.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.86)
2011        Satellite data showed that deforestation in the non-Brazilian Amazon rose from an annual average of 1,930 square miles in the 1990s to 2,779 square miles this year.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.F6)

2012        Jan 1, As of today the EU began billing all the world~ez_rsquo~s airlines for the carbon emissions into and out of the EU.
    (Econ, 1/7/12, p.58)

2012        Jan 5, China~ez_rsquo~s state media said Poyang Lake, the country~ez_rsquo~s largest freshwater lake, has shrunk to its smallest size in years due to drought, endangering the ecology in the area and fishermen's livelihoods.
    (AFP, 1/5/12)

2012        Jan 6, China~ez_rsquo~s government bowed to a vocal online campaign for a change in the way air quality is measured in Beijing, one of the world's most polluted cities. The Beijing Environmental Bureau said it would provide hourly updates of PM2.5 measure ahead of the Lunar New Year, which starts on January 23, in response to the flood of public anger.
    (AFP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 8, In New Zealand the cargo ship Rena, which caused New Zealand's worst maritime pollution disaster when it ran aground three months ago, broke in two in a storm, raising fears of a fresh environmental crisis.
    (AFP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 13, In Estonia volunteers from 83 countries converged on Tallinn to launch World Cleanup 2012, a voluntary 6-monthy rubbish collection effort to begin on March 24.
    (Econ, 1/7/12, p.52)
2012        Jan 13, It was reported that mounds of debris were piling up at illegal dumping sites around Mexico City in recent weeks as the metropolis grappled with an avalanche of refuse after closing one of the world's largest landfills.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 18, The Obama Administration rejected the Keystone oil pipeline because there was not enough time to review an alternate route that would avoid a sensitive aquifer in Nebraska within a 60-day window set by Congress. Republicans decried the move for sacrificing jobs and energy security in order to shore up the president's environmental base before elections. TransCanada quickly said it would re-apply for the permit, which it first sought in 2008.
    (Reuters, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 19, Indonesia's forestry ministry said it would conserve nearly half its share of Borneo island, which is covered with dense rainforest, so as to meet a presidential pledge to reduce gas emissions.
    (AFP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 21, In China Beijing environmental authorities started releasing more detailed air quality data that may better reflect how bad the Chinese capital's air pollution is.
    (AP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 25, The UN said that the worldwide fishing industry could benefit from a $50 billion boost annually if stocks were allowed time to recover. A UN Environment Program report released in the Philippine said 32 percent of the world's fish stocks have already been depleted by years of overfishing and poor coastal management.
    (AFP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, The California Air Resources Board approved strict vehicle emissions regulations in a package known as the Advanced Clean Car program. It would cut in half current greenhouse gas emission by 2025.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.C1)

2012        Jan 31, China said that it has detained seven company executives after tons of industrial waste including cadmium, a toxic metal, polluted some 200 miles of the Longjiang river, threatening water supplies for millions of people. Unnamed experts were quoted saying that the amount of illegally released waste in the waterway was unprecedented at an estimated 20 tons.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)(SSFC, 2/5/12, p.A6)

2012        Feb 4, In Venezuela a pipe transporting crude oil to a processing plant ruptured and blackened Guarapiche River in Monagas state. The spill forced officials to halt normal water distribution to parts of the city of Maturin.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 9, The US EPA approved a federal rule banning ships from flushing their sewage into the sea within 3 miles of the California coast.
    (SFC, 2/10/12, p.A1)

2012        Feb 17, In Louisiana two barges collided near Laplace spilling oil and leading officials to close a 5-mile stretch of the Mississippi River.
    (SFC, 2/18/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 28, A coalition of environment groups called for the world's largest marine reserve to be declared in Antarctica's Ross Sea to prevent "industrial scale" fishing ruining the pristine ecosystem.
    (AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Feb 29, China's cabinet ordered new air-quality standards to measure the most dangerous form of particulate matter, following a public outcry over worsening air pollution.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 5, The Scottish government said Scotland plans to fit all its existing coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology by 2025 and require new coal stations to be fully equipped with CCS from the turn of the decade.
    (Reuters, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 8, It was reported that the ecosystem of Xochimilco, the floating gardens of Mexico city, is crashing. The UN World Heritage Site~ez_rsquo~s last water source was now only wastewater from treatment plants.
    (SFC, 3/9/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 16, Britain~ez_rsquo~s Environment Agency said Indonesia has asked Britain to take back 1,800 tons of waste after inspectors found liquid and illegal mixed waste in containers marked as "scrap metal."
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 19, In India G.D. Agrawal (80), a former professor of environmental engineering who is also known as Swami Gyan Swaroopanand, was hospitalized in Varanasi during a hunger strike to protest against pollution and dams in the holy Ganges river. He has refused food and water since March 8.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 22, India said it has barred its airlines from complying with the EU~ez_rsquo~s carbon taxation scheme, with the government saying no Indian carrier would share emissions data with the EU. The EU has directed Indian carriers to submit emission details of their aircraft by March 31, 2012. China decided last month to ban its airlines from complying with the EU directive. Over two dozen countries, including Russia and the United States, have opposed the EU move, calling it a violation of international law.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 27, The Obama administration set the first-ever limits on heat-trapping pollution from new power plants.
    (SFC, 3/28/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 31, Millions of people switched off their lights for Earth Hour in a global effort to raise awareness about climate change that will even be monitored from space. Newcomers to the Sydney-led initiative, now in its sixth year, included Libya, Iraq and the International Space Station, which will watch over the event as it rolls across the globe.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 11, The Nebraska Legislature approved a bill that would provide support for an expected new route for TransCanada Corp's Canada-to-Texas Keystone XL crude oil pipeline that would bypass an environmentally sensitive region in the state. Governor Dave Heineman has said he will sign.
    (Reuters, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Shell Oil reported a 10-square-mile oil slick between two major production sites in the Gulf of Mexico, 130 miles southeast of New Orleans. A response vessel was sent.
    (SFC, 4/12/12, p.A6)

2012        Apr 13, Canada unveiled long-delayed regulations for cutting emissions that aim to make big trucks and buses up to 23 percent less polluting by 2018.
    (Reuters, 4/13/12)

2012        Apr 16, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were presented 6 individuals. They included Sofia Gatica of Argentina work on diseases related to agrochemicals; Caroline Canon of Alaska for her village efforts against oil drilling in the Arctic Ocean; Ma Jun of China for his efforts on air and water violations by major manufacturers; Ikal Angelei of Kenya for her efforts to protect Lake Turkana; Evgenia Chirikova of Russia for her efforts to protect the Khimki Forest; and Father Edwin Gariguez of the Philippines for advocating against mining developments on indigenous lands.
    (SFC, 4/16/12, p.A10)
2012        Apr 16, Half of England was officially in drought after the Environment Agency declared another 17 counties short of water, and warned the situation may continue until the end of the year.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 17, Hundreds of Kuwaiti firemen fought to contain a massive fire in a dump for used tires, with some members of parliament calling the blaze an environmental catastrophe.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 20, Dive operators and conservationists said Indonesia's government is not doing enough to keep illegal fishermen out of the boundaries of the Komodo National Park, a UN World Heritage site. They said enforcement declined greatly following the exit two years ago of a US-based environmental group that helped fight destructive fishing practices.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 26, In Cambodia Chhut Vuthy, the director of Natural Resource Protection Group, was killed after military police apprehended him at Veal Bei in Mondul Seima district on behalf of a company that asked them to stop him from shooting photos of their development. Investigators later believed that the officer who killed Vuthy was shot with his own gun during a scuffle with security guard Ran Boroth (26), who tried to disarm him.
    (AP, 4/27/12)(http://tinyurl.com/7hjmxkh)(AFP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 2, South Korea's parliament approved a long-delayed bill to start trading carbon dioxide emissions in 2015, joining the vanguard of countries battling climate change.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)

2012        May 14, The United States consulate in Shanghai began issuing its own pollution statistics, giving a much more pessimistic assessment of the city's air quality than official Chinese data.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 30, Brazilian prosecutors said that they asked a court to force oil company Shell and the world's largest chemical company, BASF, to immediately pay $500 million into a compensation fund for hundreds of workers who may have been contaminated at an agricultural chemicals plant. The chemical plant at Paulinia operated from 1977 until it was closed in 2002. Shell originally owned it, but sold the operation to American Cyanamid in 1995. Germany-based BASF bought American Cyanamid in 2000 and took over the chemicals plant. At least 61 former workers at the plant have died in recent years.
    (AP, 5/30/12)

2012        Jun 5, China told foreign embassies to stop publishing their own reports on air quality in the country, escalating its objections to a popular US Embassy Twitter feed that tracks pollution in smoggy Beijing.
    (AP, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 11, In China young and old residents of the metropolis of Wuhan were advised to stay indoors after a thick haze blanketed the city of nine million people. Xinhua described the haze as grey-yellow in color and said it was seen in 7 cities in Hubei province, including Wuhan.
    (AFP, 6/11/12)

2012        Jun 13, In Brazil dialogue began on Green Agriculture: Towards Sustainable Agricultural Economies as part of the Rio+20 conference on sustainable development. The final 3-days, set to run from June 20  to June 22, will include 130 top leaders from around the globe.
    (SFC, 6/14/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 14, Australia announced a 2.3 million-square-km marine preserve expansion creating the world's largest network of marine reserves which will restrict fishing as well as oil and gas exploration in a major step to safeguard the environment and access to food.
    (AP, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 19, In Brazil ~ez_ldquo~Rio+20,~ez_rdquo~ the biggest UN summit on sustainable development in a decade, approved a draft agreement filled with weasel words and compromises. A decision on managing global oceans was postponed for 3 years.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.64)

2012        Jun 22, In Brazil ~ez_ldquo~Rio+20,~ez_rdquo~ the biggest UN summit on sustainable development in a decade, approved a strategy to haul more than a billion people out poverty and cure the sickness of the biosphere. The gathering of 191 UN members crowned a 10-day forum marking 20 years since the Rio Earth Summit, where leaders vowed the world would live within its environmental means. "Sustainable Development Goals" will replace the UN's Millennium Development Goals from 2015.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jun 25, Puerto Rico's Gov. Luis Fortuno signed a law protecting 1,950 acres (790 hectares) of north coast state-owned land from large-scale development. The new reserve makes up 66 percent of what is known as the Northeast Ecological Corridor.
    (AP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jul 1, Australia introduced a controversial carbon tax in a bid to tackle climate change, with PM Julia Gillard hailing the move amid opposition warnings it will stifle industry.
    (AFP, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul, In North Dakota Halek Operating ND LLC was fined for putting drinking water at risk by illegally dumping over 800,000 gallons of oil-field wastewater into a former oil well and then attempting to cover up the crime.
    (SFC, 8/13/14, p.E5)
2012        Jul, A team led by entrepreneur Russ Georg scattered some 100 tons of iron dust in the Pacific several hundred miles west of the islands of Haida Gwai in northern British Columbia in a $2.5 million project to aid in the recovery of the salmon fishery for the native Haida people. Canadian environmental officials launched an investigation as marine scientists called the project shoddy science and probably in violation of int~ez_rsquo~l. agreements intended to prevent tampering with ocean ecosystems.
    (SFC, 10/19/12, p.A6)

2012        Aug 1, In Colombia unions and greens held marches across the country demanding stricter environmental safeguards regarding mining.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.34)
2012        Aug 1, In the Philippines a waste spillage at the Philippines' largest gold threatened to contaminate one of the country's largest rivers. On Aug 3 the government said the spillage at the Padcal mine has been contained.
    (AFP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 2, Hong Kong choked under the worst smog ever recorded in the city, with residents warned to stay indoors, away from the blanket of toxic haze.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 9, The US for the first time began a $43 million cleanup up dioxin from Agent Orange that was stored at its former Danang military base, now part of Danang's airport.
    (AP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 12, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced an initiative to protect oceans from pollution and over-fishing and to combat rising sea levels which threaten hundreds of millions of the world's people, marking the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
    (AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 23, In Sri Lanka the rusting 15,000-ton Thmothrmopolyseara, a Cyprus-flagged carrier, went down after remaining anchored outside a Colombo harbor since 2009 following a dispute over its cargo of steel. An oil slick from the vessel reached the coast of Colombo on Aug 25 and threatened a beach resort popular with foreign tourists.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Switzerland the Green Climate Fund, which aims to channel $100 billion a year in aid to poor countries, selected as leaders Zaheer Fakir, head of international relations for South Africa's environment agency, and Ewen McDonald, deputy head of Australia's international development agency.
    (AP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 24, Greenpeace activists were first offered hot soup, then sprayed with blasts of cold water after they stormed a floating Russia oil platform and erected climbing tents on the side of the rig to protest drilling in the Arctic.
    (AP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 27, Curacao conservationists and residents said an extensive fuel spill has fouled a stretch of shoreline and oiled pink flamingos and other wildlife in a nature preserve on the tiny Dutch Caribbean island.
    (AP, 8/28/12)

2012        Aug 29, The world's largest marine park, a vast swathe of ocean almost twice the size of France, was unveiled by the Cook Islands at the opening of the Pacific Islands Forum.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Sep 4, Global Witness said international logging companies are skirting the rules and have used a loophole in Liberian law which has granted them access to as much as one-quarter of Liberia's landmass. Private use permits, now covering 40 percent of the country's forests, were being used by major companies to cut trees on their own property.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 5, Moscow police arrested 10 environmental activists, including four dressed in polar bear costumes, who were protesting outside the main office of Gazprom. The protest by members of Greenpeace called upon Gazprom to halt its offshore drilling in the Arctic.
    (AFP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 6, In China the Yangtze River, the longest and largest river in China and the third longest river in the world, began turning red near the city of Chongquing, where it connects to the Jialin River. The color change was also reported at several other points and officials began investigations.
    (abcNEWS, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 7, The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Union for the Conservation of nature said the Caribbean~ez_rsquo~s reefs are in sharp decline with live coral coverage down to an average of 8%, down from 50% in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 9/8/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 30, Barry Commoner (b.1917), a founder of the modern ecology movement, died in Manhattan. His work contributed materially to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A6)

2012        Oct 18, The European Court of Justice ruled that Britain faces large fines for breaching EU law on water treatment after plants in northern England and London dumped raw sewage into waterways.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Nov 9, New Zealand's government said that it would not sign on for a second stage of the Kyoto Protocol climate treaty, a stance that angered environmentalists and political opponents. Climate change minister Tim Groser said the country would be better served in the future by joining the US, China and others in a nonbinding climate pledge under the United Nations Framework Convention. The Kyoto 2 treaty will run from 2013 to 2020.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 15, In West Virginia Patriot Coal agreed to stop large-scale mountain-top removal mining in central Appalachia under an agreement with 3 environmental groups.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A6)

2012        Nov 14, California held its first carbon auction under the new state cap-and-trade system. The median bid was $12.96 and all 23.1 million permits for use in the coming year were sold.
    (SFC, 11/20/12, p.A1,13)
2012        Nov 14, In Cameroon security officers detained four environmental activists opposed to the establishment of an oil palm plantation by Herakles Farms, a US-based company.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 26, UN talks on a new climate pact resumed in Qatar, where negotiators from nearly 200 countries will discuss fighting global warming and helping poor nations adapt to it.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Nov 27, Brazil~ez_rsquo~s government said deforestation in the Amazon rainforest has dropped to its lowest level in 24 years.
    (SFC, 11/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 28, In Mexico Juventina Villa Mojica, an environmental activist, was killed along with her son (10) when some 30 gunment intercepted her police convoy in souther Guerrero state.
    (SFC, 11/30/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 29, US Interior Secretary Ken Salazar ordered the shut down of a popular oyster farm at Drakes Bay, an estuary at Point Reyes National Seashore. The Drakes Bay Oyster Co. had accounted for almost 40% of the state~ez_rsquo~s oyster production. The National Park Service intends to turn the 2,700-acre area into the first federally designated marine wilderness on the West Coast.
    (SFC, 11/30/12, p.A1)
2012        Nov 29, A British environmental group released a report saying China is helping to propel a $4 billion trade in illegally harvested timber and spurring the destruction of fragile ecosystems across the globe.
    (SFC, 11/30/12, p.A2)
2012        Nov 29, Myanmar security forces used water cannons, tear gas and smoke bombs to clear protesters from a copper mine in the northwest, wounding villagers and Buddhist monks in by far the biggest use of force against demonstrators since the reformist government of President Thein Sein took power last year. Protesters who opposed the mine's environmental and social impact had occupied the area for 11 days.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2012        Dec 7, In Qatar nearly 200 countries failed to reach a deal on a global climate pact following a 2-week UN conference in Doha.
    (SFC, 12/8/12, p.A3)

2012        Dec 13, In California the Illinois-based Walgeen Co. was ordered to pay $16.57 million to local government and environmental agencies to settle claims of dumping hazardous wastes.
    (SFC, 12/14/12, p.A12)

2012        Dec 14, The Obama administration announced a new air pollution standard. This marked the first time that the EPA has tightened the soot standard since it was established in 1997.
    (SFC, 12/15/12, p.A8)

2012        Dieter Helm authored ~ez_ldquo~The Carbon Crunch: How We~ez_rsquo~re Getting Climate Change Wrong ~ez_ndash~ And How to Fix It.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.77)
2012        In Tasmania loggers and environmentalists signed the Tasmanian Forests Agreement, following a 30-year war, that secured timber supplies and protected native forests.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.43)

2013        Jan 1, California began its cap-and-trade scheme for emitters of greenhouse gases. In 2006 former Gov. Schwarzenegger signed AB32, which called for a cut in greenhouse-gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.29)

2013        Jan 13, In China people refused to venture outdoors and buildings disappeared into Beijing's murky skyline as the air quality in the notoriously polluted capital went off the index.
    (AP, 1/13/13)
2013        Jan 13, In Geneva delegates from more than 130 nations began a final round of negotiations on the creation of the first legally binding treaty to reduce mercury emissions.
    (SFC, 1/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 17, All 79 officers and crew of the USS Guardian were taken off the ship for safety reasons after it struck the Tubataha Reef, a UNESCO World Heritage site, with its bow at 2 a.m. in the Philippines. The Navy said inaccurate data and may have been a factor in the Guardian's grounding. The last major part of the ship was removed on March 30. The US faced paying environmental damages of more than $2 million.
    (AP, 1/19/13)(SFC, 1/26/13, p.A4)(SFC, 4/1/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 19, In Geneva more than 140 nations adopted the first legally-binding international treaty aimed at reducing mercury emissions, capping four years of negotiations on how to set limits on the use of a highly toxic metal. 50 nations must ratify it before it comes into force, which officials said they would expect to happen within about three to four years.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 27, A barge laden with 80,000 gallons of oil struck a railroad bridge in Vicksburg, Miss., spilling light crude into the Mississippi River and closing the waterway for miles each way. A second barge was damaged.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 29, Thick, off-the-scale smog shrouded eastern China for the second time in about two weeks, forcing airlines to cancel flights because of poor visibility and prompting Beijing to temporarily shut factories and curtail fleets of government cars.
    (AP, 1/29/13)

2013        Jan 30, China~ez_rsquo~s Beijing government put into place emergency measures to try to combat thick smog which has encased the city.
    (SFC, 1/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan, It was reported that that air pollution in Delhi, India, kills an estimated 10,500 people each year.
    (SFC, 1/23/13, p.34)

2013        Feb 17, Thousands of protesters gathered on Washington's National Mall calling on Pres. Obama to reject the controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline proposal and honor his inaugural pledge to act on climate change.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 22, US federal and Washington state officials said six underground tanks at Hanford, that hold a brew of radioactive and toxic waste at the nation's most contaminated nuclear site, are leaking.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 28, International Rivers, a Berkeley-based nonprofit, won a MacArthur Foundation prize worth $750,000 for its work opposing dams and helping countries and corporations around the world find alternative energy sources.
    (SFC, 2/2/13, p.C1)

2013        Feb, China launched a crackdown aimed at cleaning up tits thriving, but dirty, recycling industry.
    (SFC, 10/4/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 5, China's government pledged to repair the country's ravaged environment and boost public services under its new leadership, an acknowledgment that quality of life was sidelined during the outgoing administration's decade of breakneck economic growth.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 11, In China Shanghai officials said the number of dumped adult and piglet carcasses retrieved had reached 2,813. The city government, citing monitoring authorities, said the drinking water quality has not been affected. Authorities have been pulling out swollen and rotting pigs since March 8. By March 21 the dead pig count reached over 16,000.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(SFC, 3/23/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 13, Ken Salazar, US Interior Sec., announced plans for two large federal solar projects in the California desert.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.30)

2013        Mar 17, It was reported that Lake Erie is sick and that a dead zone covers a large portion of the lake bottom due to a poisonous blue-green algae called Microcystis enhanced by high levels of phosphorous from fertilizer runoff. The problem was compounded by the zebra mussel, a foreign invader discovered in 1988, which excretes phosphorous providing Microcystis a ready-made meal.
    (SSFC, 3/17/13, p.A15)

2013        Mar 18, In Utah Willard Bay State Park officials closed down the facility on the northeastern edge of the Great Salt Lake and evacuated two campers and the park manager~ez_rsquo~s family after around 4,200 to 6,300 gallons of diesel fuel leaked from the pipeline just north of the park.
    (www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/56030315-78/bay-lake-spill-salt.html.csp)

2013        Mar 25, In Canada waste water from Suncor's oil sands operation north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, escaped when a pipe broke after freezing. An estimated 350 cubic meters of contaminated water was released into the river over a 10-hour period, the company said, adding that it did not contain tar-like bitumen.
    (Reuters, 3/27/13)
2013        Mar 25, Peru's government declared an environmental state of emergency in a remote Amazon jungle region it says has been affected by years of contamination at the country's most productive oil fields, which are currently operated by Argentina-based Pluspetrol.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 26, The US Environmental Protection Agency issued a survey that said 55% of the nation~ez_rsquo~s rivers and streams are in poor biological health.
    (SFC, 3/27/13, p.A6)

2013        Mar 27, The California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control said a toxic waste dump site near Kettleman city has agreed to pay $311,000 in fines for failing to report 72 hazardous materials spills over the last 4 years.
    (SFC, 3/29/13, p.D7)

2013        Mar 28, Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd reopened a rail line in western Minnesota, a day after a mile-long train hauling crude oil from Alberta, Canada, derailed in the area, spilling up to 30,000 gallons of oil.
    (Reuters, 3/28/13)

2013        Mar 29, In Mayflower, Arkansas, an ExxonMobil pipeline sprang a leak. Crews soon recovered some 12,000 barrels of oil and water. The Pegasus pipeline, capable of carrying more than 90,000 barrels per day (bpd) of crude from Patoka, Illinois to Nederland, Texas, was carrying Canadian Wabasca Heavy crude at the time of the leak.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.A8)(Reuters, 4/1/13)

2013        Apr 3, Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd suffered its second oil spill in a week, but said just four barrels of light crude leaked from tanker cars in a morning derailment in a remote area of northern Ontario. BP~ez_rsquo~s estimate of the spill was raised the next day to 400 barrels.
    (Reuters, 4/3/13)(Reuters, 4/4/13)

2013        Apr 6, Tokyo Electric Power said almost 32,000 gallons of radioactive water has leaked from a large underground storage pool at the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Tepco said emptying the pool could take 5 days and another 12,000 gallons could leak.
    (SSFC, 4/7/13, p.A9)

2013        Apr 9, Albania pledged to hold a historic referendum on whether to scrap waste imports, a money-making program strongly opposed by environmentalists who say the poor Balkan country is already buried under its own trash.
    (AP, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 10, In Chile Barrick Gold Corp. suspended construction on its Pascua Lama mine after a Chilean court ruled in favor of indigenous communities that say the world's highest-altitude gold mine threatens their water supply and pollutes glaciers.
    {Chile, Environment}
    (AP, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 15, Australian and British researchers reported that the summer ice melt in parts of Antarctica is at its highest level in 1,000 years, adding new evidence of the impact of global warming on sensitive Antarctic glaciers and ice shelves.
    (Reuters, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 26, In southern California a fuel tanker overturned on Route 38 spilling some 4,000 gallons of gas and 1,200 gallons of diesel into a creek that leads to the Santa Ana River.
    (SSFC, 4/28/13, p.A7)
2013        Apr 26, In Canada Royal Dutch Shell Plc's Shell issued an alert for a hazardous materials leak at its 75,000 barrel-per-day Corunna refinery in Sarnia, Ontario. 3 workers at the refinery were sent to hospital following a hydrogen sulfide leak.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        May 1, British judges ruled that the government has breached European Union air quality law and asked the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for guidance on what action needs to be taken, delaying immediate improvements to air pollution.
    (Reuters, 5/1/13)

2013        May 13, Indonesia approved a two-year extension to a landmark ban on clearing primary rainforests and peatlands. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono signed the decree to continue the 2011 moratorium, which barred new logging and palm oil plantation permits under a $1 billion deal with Norway.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 24, Chile's newly empowered environmental regulator confirmed nearly two dozen violations of Barrick's environmental impact agreement, blocking construction on the $8.5 billion Pascua-Lama gold mining project until the Canadian company keeps its promises to prevent water contamination. Some 500 local Diaguita Indians have joined a civil lawsuit against Barrick, persuading an appellate court last month to block construction despite the company's denials that it caused any pollution or health problems.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 28, Walmart agreed to pay $82 million after pleading guilty to criminal charges that the company improperly dumped hazardous waste at stores across California.
    (SFC, 5/29/13, p.E1)

2013        Jun 4, Ecuador's state oil company resumed pumping through the country's main pipeline, four days after it was damaged by a landslide. But crude spilled by the accident reached tributaries of the Amazon River and polluted drinking water for a regional capital far downstream.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 10, BP PLC said the Coast Guard has concluded cleanup operations in Mississippi, Alabama and Florida from the April  2010 oil well blowout. Work continued along 84 miles of Louisiana~ez_rsquo~s shoreline.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 10, The Int~ez_rsquo~l. Energy Agency in Paris said the world~ez_rsquo~s energy-related carbon dioxide emissions rose 1.4% in 2012 to a record high of 31.6 billion tons.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 16, Smoke from fires in Indonesia, an annual result of land clearing for palm oil production, again began to smother Singapore and large parts of Malaysia.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.39)

2013        Jun 18, Russian PM Dmitry Medvedev said that authorities will shut down a paper mill on the shores of Lake Baikal, which environmentalists say is a major pollutant threatening one of the world's largest fresh water lakes.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 20, In Singapore the Pollutant Standards Index, surged to a record reading of 371. People were urged to remain indoors as a smoky haze wrought by forest fires in neighboring Indonesia worsened dramatically. Nearby Malaysia closed 200 schools and banned open burning in some areas.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun, China unveiled a series of reforms to restrict air pollution. Companies as well as government planned to spend $275 billion over the next five years cleaning up the air.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.18)

2013        Jul 19, Wu Dengming (73), Chinese environmental activist, died. He was the founder of the Chongqing Green Volunteer League (1995).
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.78)

2013        Jul 26, In Canada a truck carrying 9,250 gallons of jet fuel crashed into a creek in the Kootenay region of British Columbia. The truck was enroute to supply helicopters battling wildfires in the Perry Ridge area.
    (SSFC, 7/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 27, In Thailand about 50,000 liters (13,200 gallons) of oil, about the amount contained in one and a half tanker trucks, spilled into Prao Bay on the west coast of Samet Island from a leak in a pipeline operated by PTT Global Chemical Plc., a subsidiary of state-owned oil and gas company PTT Plc.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 1, Chinese authorities declared a ~ez_ldquo~level 2~ez_rdquo~ weather emergency as temperatures climbed to at least 140 degrees in some parts of the country. Shanghai counted at least 10 people dead from heatstroke over the last month and measured a 28th day above 95 degrees.
    {China, Environment}
    (SFC, 8/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 15, It was reported that an area of wetland on Lake Victoria's Lutembe Bay has been filled in so that a rose farm owned by Uganda business tycoon Sudhir Rupareliacould be expanded.
    (AP, 8/15/13)

2013        Sep 2, In China people began noticing dead fish along a 19-mile stretch of the Fuhe River in Hubei province. High levels of ammonia pollution from a plant owned by the Hubei Shuanghuan Science and Technology Co. was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/5/13, p.A7)

2013        Sep 27, In Sweden top climate scientists of a UN-backed climate change panel formally endorsed an upper limit on greenhouse gases for the first time.
    (SFC, 9/28/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 29, In North Dakota a leak was discovered in a Tesoro Logistics LP pipeline. It leaked an estimated 20,600 barrels of crude oil into a wheat field, the biggest leak in the state since it became a major US producer.
    (Reuters, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 14, China said it would give rewards amounting to 5 billion yuan ($816.91 million) for curbing air pollution in six regions where the problem is serious, underscoring government concern about a source of public anger.
    (Reuters, 10/14/13)
2013        Oct 14, Germany blocked the introduction of tougher EU emissions rules for cars. A week earlier Chancellor Angela Merkel's party received a large donation from three major BMW shareholders.
    (AP, 10/15/13)

2013        Oct 21,  In China  visibility shrank to less than half a football field and small-particle pollution soared to a record 40 times higher than an international safety standard in the northern city of Harbin as the region entered its high-smog season.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 22, Greenpeace said consumer products such as Oreo cookies and Gilette shaving cream were among an array of products driving the destruction of Indonesia~ez_rsquo~s forests. Greenpeace accused Singapore-based Wilmar Int~ez_rsquo~l. for destroying forests in Indonesia to produce palm oil.
    (SSFC, 10/27/13, p.A3)

2013        Oct 28, The governors of California, Oregon and Washington states along with the premier of British Columbia agreed to coordinate greenhouse gas reduction goals.
    (SFC, 10/29/13, p.A1)

2013        Nov 6, The UN weather agency said world carbon dioxide pollution levels in the atmosphere are accelerating and reached a record high in 2012.
    (AP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 11, In Poland thousands of delegates from nations and environment organizations from around the world opened two weeks of United Nations climate talks meant to lay the groundwork for a new pact to fight global warming.
    (AP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 13, Fugitive eco-activist Paul Watson (62) said in France that green warriors were being classed as "terrorists" and accused Japan of coercing other countries into making demands for his arrest. The Canadian-born founder of Sea Shepherd, a marine conservation organisation, arrived in California on October 28, more than a year after fleeing arrest in Germany. Watson said he was in talks to seek refuge in France, the only country apart from the United States where he said he expects a fair trial.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 14, Brazilian government figures showed that deforestation in the Amazon increased by nearly a third over the past year.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 15, Japan said it was dramatically scaling back its greenhouse gas reduction target after the Fukushima nuclear accident forced the country to turn to fossil-fuel burning energy sources, a move denounced by climate campaigners.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 20, At UN talks in Poland the governments of Norway, Britain and the United States said they will allocate $280 million of their multi-billion dollar climate change finances to a new initiative aimed at halting deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In Poland around 800 people from environmental groups, including Greenpeace and WWF, walked out of UN climate talks in Warsaw in protest at what they see as a lack of progress towards a global deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions.
    (Reuters, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 22, In Poland UN negotiators agreed rules on financing forest projects in developing nations, paving the way for multi-billion dollar investments from governments, funding agencies and private firms in schemes to halt deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Poland UN negotiators reached consensus on some of the foundations for an ambitious, global climate pact, modifying wording in a document that had threatened to derail talks in Warsaw. The Conference of the parties (COP) agreed that countries would make contributions to climate change reduction.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.59)

2013        Nov, In Italy Francesco Bidognetti, a top Camorra boss, was convicted of poisoning the water table in the town of Gugliano with toxic waste and received a 20-year sentence. Camorra mobsters since 1991 have systematically dumped, burned or buried nearly 10 million tons of waste, almost all of it coming from factories that either don't seek to know where the waste ends up or are complicit in the crimes.
    {Italy, Environment, Mafia}
    (AP, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 3, Italian PM Enrico Letta announced measures to try to combat a fresh rubbish emergency in the area around the southern city of Naples where organized crime and widespread abuse have created a chronic environmental crisis.
    (Reuters, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 4, It was reported that Argentina~ez_rsquo~s Riachuelo river flowing through the La Boca district of Buenos Aires has been named one of the planet's 10 dirtiest places.
    (AP, 12/4/13)
2013        Dec 4, In eastern China hazardous air pollution forced schools to shut or suspend outdoor activities in at least two cities, where residents complained of the yellow skies and foul smells that are symptomatic of the country's crippling smog crisis.
    (Reuters, 12/5/13)
2013        Dec 4, The Green Climate Fund, designed as the UN~ez_rsquo~s most important funding body in the battle on climate change in developing nations, launched its headquarters in South Korea.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 6, In China authorities in Shanghai ordered schoolchildren indoors and a halt to construction as the city, shrouded in yellow haze, suffered its worst bouts of air pollution.
    (SFC, 12/7/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 9, Representatives of Israel, Jordan and the Palestinians signed a "historic" agreement to link the Red Sea with the shrinking Dead Sea.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 20, Italian authorities said that the Camorra syndicate's mobsters have expanded their multibillion-euro toxic-waste disposal racket to Tuscany and beyond Italian borders to eastern Europe.
    (AP, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 27, China~ez_rsquo~s environment ministry said it will raise standards for the production of cement, batteries, leather and heavy metals as part of its efforts to cut air, water and soil pollution.
    (Reuters, 12/27/13)

2013        Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian authored ~ez_ldquo~Greenprint: A New Approach to Cooperation on Climate Change.~ez_rdquo~
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.72)

2014        Feb 7, In China villagers of Baha in Yunnan province smashed the offices and equipment of a local metalwork factory and clashed with police after the boss refused to meet with them over smoke and pollution concerns. Xinhua News later said police were arresting people involved and had identified 16 suspects.
    (SFC, 2/13/14, p.A6)
2014        Jan 7, South African authorities revealed that a phosphate mine spillage, into a tributary of the Olifants River in late December, has killed thousands of fish and caused "extensive pollution" to the river in the country's famed Kruger National Park.
    (AFP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 9, In West Virginia a spill of 4-Methylcyclohexane Methanol, a chemical used in the coal industry, occurred on the Elk River in Charleston, West Virginia's capital and largest city.
    (Reuters, 1/10/14)
2014        Jan 9, Chile's supreme court ruled in favor of local fishermen who say Endesa Chile's Bocamina coal-fired facility kills marine life and pollutes ocean water, but it said halting its operations was a decision for environmental authorities.
    (Reuters, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 10, President Barack Obama issued an emergency declaration for the state of West Virginia, ordering federal aid in the aftermath of a chemical spill that has left up to 300,000 people without tap water, closed schools and businesses. Governor Earl Ray Tomblin declared a state of emergency for nine counties.
    (Reuters, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 15, West Virginia officials said they have lifted a ban on drinking tap water for two-thirds of the customers affected by a chemical spill, but warned pregnant women to avoid it until the chemical is completely flushed from the pipes.
    (Reuters, 1/16/14)
2014        Jan 15, China's commercial capital, Shanghai, introduced emergency measures to tackle air pollution, allowing it to shut schools and order cars off the road in the case of severe smog.
    (Reuters, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 25, In Utah some 4,000 protesters gathered in Salt lake City to protests against poor air quality.
    (Econ, 2/1/14, p.24)

2014        Jan 31, In Australia a government agency approved a plan to dump sediment within the area of the Great Barrier Marine Park in an expansion project of the Abbot Point coal port in northern Queensland.
    (SFC, 2/1/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 12, China's Cabinet announced that 10 billion yuan ($1.6 billion) has been set aside this year to reward cities and regions that make significant progress in controlling air pollution, highlighting how the issue has become a priority for the leadership.
    (AP, 2/13/14)
2014        Feb 12, Russian geologist Yevgeny Vitishko, a leading activist who campaigned against environmental damage caused by preparations for the Winter Olympics, was sentenced to three years in a penal colony. A court in Krasnodar converted a 2012 suspended sentence to a prison term.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)(SFC, 2/13/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 20, China's capital Beijing issued an emergency pollution alert for the first time, warning residents to reduce outdoor activities and construction sites to control dust given a forecast of heavy smog over the next three days.
    (Reuters, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 22, A barge ran into a towboat on the Mississippi River near Vancherie, La. A 65-mile stretch of the river was closed to traffic for a day as crews cleaned up some 31,500 gallons of spilled oil.
    (SFC, 2/24/14, p.A5)(SFC, 2/25/14, p.A5)

2014        Feb 25, A Chinese state-run newspaper, the Yanzhao Metropolis Daily, reported that man in a smog-ridden northern city has become the first person in China to sue the government for failing to curb air pollution.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)
2014        Feb 25, Members of the European Parliament voted through the world's toughest carbon dioxide standards for new cars, prompting a cautious welcome from environmental campaigners.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 28, In Malaysia Abdul Taib Mahmud, the chief minister of Sarawak, retired after ruling the state for 33 years. Environmentalists said Sarawak under his rule has lost 90% of its virgin rainforest, mostly due to conversions to lucrative palm oil concessions.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.35)

2014        Mar 3, The UN Environmental Program marked its first ever World Wildlife Day to raise awareness about an illicit global trade in illegal timber, elephant ivory and rhino horns worth an estimated $19 billion.
    (AP, 3/3/14)

2014        Mar 5, Alpha Natural Resources Inc. filed a proposed settlement in a West Virginia court to pay a $27.5 million fine and spend $200 million to reduce illegal toxic discharges across five Appalachian states.
    (SFC, 3/6/14, p.A7)
2014        Mar 5, China~ez_rsquo~s PM Li Keqiang vowed to act against corruption and to declare war on pollution.
    (Econ, 3/8/14, p.70)(Econ, 3/15/14, p.13)

2014        Mar 6, The US Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issued its first El Nino watch in almost 18 months, warning the phenomenon that can wreak havoc on weather and roil global crops could strike as early as the Northern Hemisphere summer.
    (Reuters, 3/6/14)

 2014        Mar 13, President Obama signed the first congressionally passed public lands bill in five years, and called on Congress to do more to protect the wilderness. The law officially expanded the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Glen Arbor, Mich., a move that will protect an additional 32,500 acres of Lake Michigan coastline.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pkuv6nl)(SFC, 3/21/14, p.A7)

2014        Mar 14, Indonesia reported that Pres. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has ordered relevant ministers and local authorities in peat-rich Riau province to handle forest fires that have been sending out heavy smoke threatening health and disrupting flight operations. Officers in the armed forces were said to be involved in illegal logging and burning.
    (AP, 3/14/14)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.42)

2014        Mar 17, Paris, France, imposed drastic measures to combat its worst air pollution in years.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 19, In NY state Tonawanda Coke Corp. was fined $12.5 million for illegally releasing carcinogen benzene into the air and improperly handling hazardous sludge.
    (SFC, 3/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 22, In Texas a barge began leaking oil into the Houston Ship Channel after colliding with a bulk carrier near Texas City at the mouth of Galveston Bay.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 23, In Myanmar dozens of protesters began a 2,400-km (1,500-mile) march to northern Myanmar, calling for the cancellation of a Chinese-backed hydroelectric dam project over environmental concerns.
    (AP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 25, The US Coast Guard partially reopened the Houston Ship Channel following the March 22 collision between an oil barge and a bulk carrier near Texas City. 170,000 gallons of tar-like coal were spilled.
    (SFC, 3/26/14, p.A6)
2014        Mar 25, China's eastern city of Hangzhou said will start restricting car sales on March 26, joining major cities, including Shanghai and Beijing, in the fight against snarling traffic and heavy smog in the world's largest automobile market.
    (Reuters, 3/25/14)
2014        Mar 25, Myanmar said it will ban the export of logs starting April 1 to reduce deforestation and boost its wood-based industry by exporting only value-added products. Myanmar's forest cover shrank from 57.9 percent of its total land area in 1990 to 47.6 percent in 2005.
    (AP, 3/25/14)
2014        Mar 25, The World Health Organization published a report saying air pollution kills about 7 million people worldwide every year, with more than half of the fatalities due to fumes from indoor stoves.
    (AP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 30, In southern China hundreds of protesters marched against a chemical plant and environmental degradation. The Maoming city government called the demonstration a "grave violation" by criminals causing chaos. Residents were protesting the production of paraxylene, a chemical used to make fabrics and plastic bottles at a plant run by the local government and state-owned Sinopec Corp, China's biggest refiner.
    (Reuters, 3/31/14)   

2014        Mar, Lagos, Nigeria, (population 21 million) disgorged about 10,000 metric tons of waste per day. Municipal government were reckoned to collect 40% of this. Only 13% of recyclable material was being salvaged.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.42)

2014        Apr 2, British authorities warned people with heart or lung conditions to avoid exertion as a combination of European emissions and Sahara dust created a "perfect storm" of pollution that blanketed the country in smog.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 3, The European Space Agency launched its Sentinel 1A satellite on a Russian Soyuz rocket from French Guiana. It was the first of six satellites for a new system designed to better monitor climate change, environmental disasters and catastrophes like floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
    (AP, 4/3/14)(SFC, 4/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 11, In China residents of the western city of Lanzhou rushed to buy bottled water after authorities said the city's drinking water contained levels of benzene, a cancer-inducing chemical, standing at 20 times above national safety levels.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 17, China~ez_rsquo~s environment ministry said a nationwide investigation has shown that as much as 16 percent of China's soil contains higher-than-permitted levels of pollution.
    (Reuters, 4/17/14)

2014        Apr 24, China passed amendments to the country's environmental protection law that will impose tougher penalties on polluters in the most sweeping revisions to the law in 25 years.
    (Reuters, 4/24/14)

2014        Apr 28, Six environmental advocates won this year's Goldman Prize. India's Ramesh Agrawal received the prize for helping villagers fight a large coal mine in Chhattisgarh state. American lawyer Helen Slottje received the award for helping communities fight fracking in New York State. Peru's Ruth Buendia was recognized for helping to prevent construction of two large dams that would have displaced nearly 10,000 indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Russian zoologist Suren Gazaryan won for defending protected areas around Sochi from illegal land seizures for Olympic construction projects. South Africa's Desmond D'Sa won for helping to close down one of the country's largest toxic waste dumps. Indonesian biologist Rudi Putra won for helping to shutter 26 illegal palm oil plantations that were causing deforestation in northern Sumatra.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        May 6, The Obama administration released an updated report on how climate change requires urgent action to counter impacts that touch every corner of the country.
    (AP, 5/6/14)

2014        May 8, India rejected the findings of a World Health Organization (WHO) study that ranks New Delhi as the world's worst city for air pollution.
    (Reuters, 5/8/14)

2014        May 10, Protesters in eastern China clashed with police at a rally against plans to build a huge waste incinerator in Yuhang that residents fear will be harmful to their health and add to pollution. The Yuhang government said that all work on the incinerator has stopped, and that it would invite the public to participate in a decision whether to press ahead with the scheme.
    (Reuters, 5/10/14)

2014        May 12, A NASA study said the West Antarctic ice sheet is starting a slow collapse in an unstopable way.
    (SFC, 5/13/14, p.A4)

2014        May 15, In California an estimated 50,000 gallons of crude oil spilled over a half-mile area due to a break in an above-ground pipeline in Atwater Village, Los Angeles. The spill was soon downgraded to 10,000 gallons.
    (Reuters, 5/15/14)(SFC, 5/16/14, p.A6)

2014        May 19, Chinese media said the government of the industrial city of Tianjin will limit the number of vehicles allowed on roads during heavy smog. Last month Tianjin banned new steel and cement plants as part of a program to reverse damage done to its environment.
    (Reuters, 5/19/14)

2014        May 26, China's government said it plans to take 6 million older, polluting vehicles off the road this year in an effort to revive stalled progress toward cleaning up smog-choked cities.
    (AP, 5/27/14)

2014        Jun 5, In Brussels, Belgium, G7 nations gave their backing to a new global deal on climate change in 2015 after promises from the United States at the start of the week galvanized flagging momentum.
    (Reuters, 6/5/14)

2014        Jun 6, It was reported that a glossy beetle, a shot hole borer smaller than a sesame seed, is destroying elder, sycamore and live oak trees in southern California.
    (SFC, 6/6/14, p.D6)

2014        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court trimmed the Obama administration~ez_rsquo~s power to curb greenhouse gases under a long-running air pollution program in a decision that means most major facilities, including power plants and refineries, will continue to be regulated.
    (AP, 6/23/14)
2014        Jun 23, The first-ever United Nations Environmental Assembly opened in Kenya, as more than 150 high-level delegations began a weeklong examination of the intersection between global economic progress and the environment.
    (AP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jun 24, The UN and Interpol released a report saying global environmental crime is worth up to $213 billion a year and helps finance criminal and terrorist groups threatening security and sustainable development worldwide.
    (AFP, 6/24/14)

2014        Jul 11, Peru enacted legislation after limited debate in Congress that stripped the 6-year-old environment ministry of jurisdiction over air, soil and water quality standards and eliminates the ministry~ez_rsquo~s power to establish nature reserves exempt from mining and oil drilling. It also re-established tax breaks for big mining multinationals.
    {Peru, Environment}
    (SFC, 7/21/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 16, In Poland a malfunction at a power plant near Kozienice caused a leakage of fuel, prompting emergency officials to work to make sure it doesn't contaminate the nearby Vistula River.
    (AP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, Australia's government repealed a much-maligned carbon tax on the nation's worst greenhouse gas polluters, ending years of contention over a measure that became political poison for the lawmakers who imposed it.
    (AP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 20, Jamaica~ez_rsquo~s environment minister, Robert Pickersgill, said a severe drought is worsening and that water supplies are already well below normal. Temporary shutoffs in Kingston were taking place daily.
    (SFC, 7/22/14, p.A20)

2014        Jul 25, Campaigners on the Greek island of Crete launched a seaborne protest against the destruction of Syrian chemical agents in the Mediterranean. A US naval ship fitted with hydrolysis equipment, which helps break down lethal chemicals into a sludge, started the job of neutralizing the arsenal in international waters last week.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)

2014        Aug 4, China's smog-plagued capital announced plans to ban the use of coal by the end of 2020 as the country fights deadly levels of pollution, especially in major cities.
    (AP, 8/5/14)

2014        Aug 18, In Ohio an estimated 5-8 thousand gallons of fuel oil spilled into the Ohio River from the Duke Energy power plant in New Richmond. A 15-mile section of the river was closed for cleanup.
    (SFC, 8/20/14, p.A8)

2014        Aug 23, Several thousand people formed a human chain across the German-Polish border to protest the expansion of mining for brown coal, aka lignite, in the region.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 28, Brazilian prosecutors in Para state said they have dismantled the country~ez_rsquo~s largest deforestation gang and that eight suspected members have been taken into custody for environmental damages estimated at $222 million.
    (SFC, 8/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 1, In Peru Edwin Chota, an outspoken opponent of illegal logging, and three other native Ashaninka community leaders were shot and killed in the remote region bordering Brazil where they live.
    {Peru, Environment, Murder, Trees}
    (AP, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 14, In southern China residents of Huizhou protested against a proposed garbage incinerator for a 2nd straight day. 24 people were detained a day earlier in the Guangdong province protests.
    (AP, 9/14/14)(Reuters, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 20, Kiribati President Anote Tong ended a Greenpeace-organized tour of glaciers in Norway's Svalbard Archipelago, a trip he said left a deep impression that he would share with world leaders at a UN climate summit next week in New York.
    (AP, 9/20/14)

2014        Sep 21, Australians rallied for climate action, from protesters chanting "Green energy" outside G20 talks to forming a human chain message in Sydney as part of an international day of action.
    (AFP, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 22, Hundreds of protesters assembled in New York City's financial district, with some planning to risk arrest during an unsanctioned blockade on Wall Street to call attention to what organizers say is capitalism's contribution to climate change.
    (Reuters, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 23, At a UN metting on climate control more than 30 countires set the first-ever deadline top end deforestation by 2030, but Brazil said it would not join because it was not included in the planning process.
    (SFC, 9/24/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 10, In China days of heavy smog shrouding northern swathes of the country pushed pollution to more than 20 times recommended limits, despite government promises to tackle environmental blight.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 17, India~ez_rsquo~s environment minister said a new air quality index has been launched to help citizens understand complex pollution data and its implications for their health.
    (Reuters, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 23, EU leaders overcame deep divisions to agree on cutting greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent compared to 1990 levels. They also agreed on 27-percent targets for renewable energy supply and efficiency gains.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 24, Philippines~ez_rsquo~ Foreign Secretary Albert del Rosario said the US will pay the Philippines 87 million pesos ($1.9 million) for damage caused by the USS Guardian minesweeper that ran aground on a protected coral reef in January, 2013.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Naomi Klein authored ~ez_ldquo~Planet in Peril: Capitalism vs. the Climate.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.N1)
2014        David Sedlak authored ~ez_ldquo~Water 4.0: The Past, Present and Future of the World~ez_rsquo~s Most Vital Resource.~ez_rdquo~
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.F1)

2020        Deforestation of the Amazon region was expected to reach 28-42%.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A10)

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Subject = Environment
End of file.