Timeline Games-Toys

Return to home

3000BC    The earliest 6-sided dice date to about this time from a site in northern Iraq.
    (WSJ, 10/27/06, p.W5)

c1500BCE    A court to play ulama was built about this time in Chiapas, Mexico. Olmecs used latex balls for the game.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

c500BCE    The game of Go was devised in China about this time.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)

43CE        The Romans brought with them the board game latrunculi (little soldiers), when they conquered Britain.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.39)

56CE        Huan Tan, Go strategist, died. In his book “Xin Lun" (New Treatise) he advised that the best approach to the game is to spread your pieces widely so as to encircle the opponent.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)

990        A set of instructions on chess, the Versus de Scachis (Poem About Chess), emerged in Switzerland about this time. The game had begun in India before the 6th century.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.40)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.97)

1530        Florence, Italy, held the first lottery, La Lotto de Firenze. It was followed by similar drawings in Genoa and Venice to raise funds for various public projects.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://www.logiuocodellotto.com/)
1530        The game of bingo can be traced back to a lottery game called "Il Giuoco del Lotto d'Italia" played in Italy about this time. By the eighteenth century, the game had matured, and in France, playing cards, tokens, the reading out of numbers had been added to the game. In the nineteenth century, Bingo was widely used in Germany for educational purposes to teach children spelling, animal names, and multiplication tables.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bingo_%28U.S.%29)

1616        A set of silver playing cards was created in Germany about this time engraved by a man named Michael Frömmer. It used a suit seen in Italy, with swords, coins, batons and cups in values from ace to 10. Each of these suits has three face cards — king, knight and knave.
    (LiveScience, 11/30/12)

1620        May 17, The 1st merry-go-round was seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1702        Meijin Dosaku, go-master to the shogun of Japan, died. He was the 4th head of the Honimbo go school and is held by many Japanese to have been the game’s greatest player.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.129)

1722        Apr 30, Game of Billiards was mentioned in New England Courant.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1742        Aug 29, Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769) published his "Short Treatise" on the card game whist.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1769        Aug 29,  Edmond Hoyle (b.1672), English games expert, died.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1788        Rules were set for the game of cricket.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1791        A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1834        Nov 1, The 1st published reference to poker was as Mississippi riverboat game.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1836        May 18, Wilhelm Steinitz was born. The Czech-born world chess champion (1866-94) later became a naturalized American.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1842        Jun 12, Dr Thomas Arnold (b.1795), British educator and historian, died. Arnold was an early supporter of the Broad Church Anglican movement. He was headmaster of Rugby School from 1828 to 1841, where he introduced a number of reforms. In 2012 Mihir Bose authored “The Spirit of the Game: How Sport Made the Modern World."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Arnold)(Econ, 3/3/12, p.95)

1844        Sep 25-1844 Sep 27, The first int’l. cricket match was played between the USA and Canada at the St George's Cricket Club, Bloomingdale Park, NY. Canada won by 23 runs.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v_Canada_%281844%29)

1860        Jul 25, The 1st US intercollegiate billiard match was between Harvard and Yale.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1860        Milton Bradley started a lithograph company in Springfield, Mass. In 1866 Bradley launched the board-game industry in North America with “The Checkered Game of Life," which innovated on earlier representations of life as a board game. By 1880 he expanded into manufacturing jigsaw puzzles. Hasbro, short for Hassenfeld Brothers, bought Milton Bradley in 1992.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Game_of_Life)(SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)

1861        Henry Morton founded the Paris Manufacturing Co. in South Paris, Maine. The company made various toys and then desks from the late 1800s. In 1978 it became Paricon Inc.
    (SFC, 1/23/08, p.G5)

1862        Frederick August Otto Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) opened up a toy shop in Baltimore 6 years after arriving in America from Germany. In 1870 he moved to New York. In 1880 he moved to larger quarters on Union Square.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F3)(WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1865        Oct 10, John Wesley Hyatt patented a new method for manufacturing billiard balls. He used melted glue and cloth as an alternative to the ivory balls in use, but his 1st products did not work well. [see Apr 6, 1869]
    (MC, 10/10/01)(ON, 11/03, p.3)

1867        The US Playing Card Co. began business. In 2003 its brands included Bee, Hoyle, Aviator and Bicycle (b.1885).
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, B12)

1869        Apr 6, John and Isaiah Hyatt applied for a new patent using collodion to manufacture billiard balls. They later named their product celluloid. It was similar to that made by English inventor Alexander Parkes, who patented the process in England in 1855. The new plastic could be molded and mass produced, but was very flammable and exploded when struck with excessive force. [see Jun 15]
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC, 4/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.467)(ON, 11/03, p.3)

1870        Frederick August Otto Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) opened up his 1st NYC store on Broadway called Schwartz Toy Bazaar.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1871        Jul 25, A carrousel was patented by Wilhelm Schneider in Davenport, Iowa.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1873        Modern lawn tennis made its debut. It was a variation of a game played for centuries by royals. Major Walter Clopton Wingfield, a British army officer, devised the game for the entertainment of guests at his country estate.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.81)

1875        Apr 17, The game of "snooker" was invented by Sir Neville Chamberlain.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1876        The medieval game of court tennis arrived in the US. It was the fore-runner of lawn tennis, which was already being played in the US.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D7)

1886        A board game called "The Game of Baseball" was made with a lithographed game board by the McLoughlin Brothers. In 1999 the boxed game was worth $3,000.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, Z1 p.7)

1877        In Germany the Steiff Toy Co. was founded. They made their first teddy bears in 1903 with black, shoe-button eyes.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, Z1 p.3)
1877        In Germany the S. Gunthermann manufacturer of metal vehicles and other toys was founded in Nuremberg about this time.
    (SFC, 9/19/06, p.G3)

1889        The dexterity game “Pigs in Clover" was built by Charles Crandall. It dared a player to move little balls into a center pen.
    (SFC, 9/10/02, p.A15)

1890        In Chicago Henry C. Niemann organized the H.C. Niemann & Co. to make tables. In 1909 the company moved to the 1800 block of Rockwell Street. It closed in 1929.
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1890        Parker Brothers introduced its board game Across the Continent. The game was re-released a number of times until 1952.
    (SFC, 6/25/08, p.G3)

1891        Dec 1, The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC, 12/1/01)

1895        The Montgomery Ward catalog offered the game of Tiddledy Winks for 20 cents.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.B1)
1895        The J&E Stevens Co. began making Rival toy stoves. The mass-produced cast-iron toys were sold with a coal bucket, a tea kettle, frying pan and cooking pot. The company was in business until the 1930s.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, z1 p.3)
1895        The US Bowling Congress began keeping league records.
    (WSJ, 5/24/08, p.A7)

1898        Aug 16, Edwin Prescott patented a roller coaster.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1899        Apr 13, Alfred Moser Butts, inventor of the board game Scrabble, was born.
    (HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)

1900        Joshua Lionel Cowen (1877-1965), inventor, along with some partners founded Lionel Corp in NYC. Operation were later based outside Detroit and Lionel grew to become the world’s largest toy maker in the 1950s. [see 1901]
    (WSJ, 11/17/04, p.B1)(www.fact-index.com/j/jo/joshua_lionel_cowen.html)

1901        Feb 5, Loop-the-loop centrifugal RR (roller coaster) was patented by Ed Prescot.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1901        Joshua Lionel Cowen (22) set up a battery-powered toy train to draw customer attention to goods in a store display window. This marked the beginning of Lionel Trains.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, Z1 p.8)

1902        S.W. Erdnase published “The Expert at the Card Table." The book revealed secrets behind card tricks and cheating techniques. The real identity of the author was a mystery.
    (WSJ, 8/16/00, p.A1)

1903        Feb 15, The 1st Teddy Bear was introduced in America by Morris & Rose Michtom.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1904         Elizabeth J. Magie (1866-1948), American game designer, patented the Landlord’s Game. In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, where she refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to George Darrow who began selling it commercially as Monopoly in 1933. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Magie)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)

1907        In France the bowling game of petanque or boule assumed its current form after possible origins in ancient Greece or Egypt. Similar to bocce ball it is played on a dirt court with baseball sized steel balls. In 1998 it was seeking Olympic recognition. The French version was born near Marseille as a sport for the masses. In 1959 France held the 1st annual petanque world championship.
    (WSJ, 1/5/98, p.20)(WSJ, 8/30/07, p.A7)

1909        Rose Cecil O’Neill (1874-1944), illustrator, drew the 1st Kewpie doll for an issue of Ladies Home Journal. By 1911 they were being produced as dolls and figurines.
    (www.lambiek.net/oneill_rose.htm)(SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1912        Prizes were added to boxes of Cracker Jacks. [see Feb 19, 1913]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.67)(SFC, 7/29/98, Z1 p.23)(AH, 10/01, p.34)
1912        The Durable Toy & Novelty Co. began making toy registering banks about this time. Its office was in NYC and its factory in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (SFC, 4/2/08, p.G2)
1912        Heinrich Muller and Heinrich Schreyer started the Schreyer & Co. toy company in Nuremberg, Germany. The name was shortened to Schuco in the 1920. They began making “Yes/No" toys in 1921 and after WWII these were called “Tricky" toys.  In 1999 Schuco became part of the Simba Dickie Group.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.G6)

1913        Feb 19, The 1st prize was inserted into a Cracker Jack box. [see 1912]
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1913        Dec 21, The first crossword puzzle, created by Arthur Wynne, the English-born New York journalist, was published in the New York World.
    (AP, 12/21/97)(www.fun-with-words.com/first_crossword.html)

1913        Strombeck-Becker Manufacturing Co. of Moline Illinois was incorporated by J.F. Strombeck and R.D. Becker. They made wooden handles and tent poles and expanded into toys in 1919 and dollhouse furniture in 1931. In 1962 the company dropped out of the toy business.
    (SFC, 8/20/08, p.G4)

1913        Mary McAboy of Missoula, Montana, began hand-making Skookum Indian dolls and acquired a patent for it in 1914. Skookum was a Siwash Indian word that roughly means bully good.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1914        The Toy Tinkers Company of Evanston, Ill., made the Tinkertoy Wonder Builder construction set out of wood as its first product. It sold for 50 cents. Toy Tinkers was sold in 1952 to A.G. Spalding. It was later acquired by Hasbro who made its parts out of plastic. Hasbro was named after the Hassenfeld Brothers.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)(SFC, 4/8/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)

1915        May 28, John B. Gruelle patented the Raggedy Ann doll.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1917        Jun 28, The Raggedy Ann doll invented.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1918        The game “Consult El Caro" was 1st built. A metal ball fell into a recessed hole containing answers to questions.
    (SFC, 9/10/02, p.A15)

1920        The Olympics dropped the tug-of-war event this year.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.59)

1921        Wyandotte Toys of Wyandotte, Mich., was founded and initially concentrated on toy pistols.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.E7)

1928        Norman Angell (1872-1967), English journalist, made one venture into economics, when he invented a card game, described in “the Money Game" (1928). This was an attempt to explain matters such as deflation and inflation in visual terms which the ordinary person could understand.
    (www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text160_p.html)

1928        John von Neumann, mathematician, conceived the strategies of game theory. In 2000 Robert Wright authored "Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny." In the 40’s and 50’s Neumann and John Nash developed game theory as a branch of mathematics.
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.75)

1929               Apr 1,  Louie Marx introduced the Yo-Yo in the US.
    (OTD)(HN, 4/1/01)

1929        Aug 26, The 1st US roller coaster was built.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1929        The game of beano involved dried beans and was first played in the US at an Atlanta carnival. It was based on an Italian game that dated back to 1530. In New York the name mutated to “Bingo" when Edwin Lowe, a toy salesman, took it there.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A25)(SFC, 7/25/98, p.B5)

1930        Herman G. Fisher (1898-1975) and Irving L. Price co-founded the Fisher-Price toy company in East Aurora, NY. Quaker Oats Company acquired the firm in 1969. Mattel Inc. acquired Fisher-Price in 1993.
    (www.hbs.edu/leadership/database/leaders/274/)(WSJ, 12/21/05, p.A8)
1930        A competition began in India, known as the Empire Games. It gathered the British empire's athletes as a way to bind together the Britain’s vast dominions. The games later became known as the Commonwealth Games.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

1931        Frederick August Otto Schwartz (FAO Schwartz) moved to uptown NYC to its flagship Fifth Avenue store. In 1986 it moved across the street.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1932        Kenton Hardware Manufacturing Co., founded in Ohio in 1890 as a lock maker, began making toy concrete mixers under the Jaeger brand name. The company closed in 1952.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1932        Denmark’s LEGO Group was founded by Ole Kirk Kristiansen, a carpenter. The name came from the Danish words leg godt (play well). He began to supplement his income by selling wooden toys. Christiansen and his grandson perfected toy bricks made of wood and later shifted to plastic.
    (www.lego.com/eng/info/default.asp?page=group)(Econ, 4/28/12, p.76)(Econ, 3/8/14, p.71)

1933        Mar 7, George Darrow added some copyrighted art work to the board game Monopoly and began selling it commercially in Philadelphia. He sold it to Parker Brothers in 1934. The game had originally been patented in 1904 as the Landlord’s Game by Elizabeth J. Magie. In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to George Darrow.  
    (http://richard_wilding.tripod.com/history.htm)(HN, 3/7/98)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)
   

1934        Dec, Parker Brothers purchased the game of Monopoly from George Darrow and rewrote the rules. George Parker had rejected the 1st version of Monopoly submitted by Darrow and cited 52 fundamental errors. In 2003 Philip E. Orbanes authored "The Game Makers: The Story of the Parker Brothers, from Tiddley winks to Trivial Pursuit."
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.81)(www.adena.com/adena/mo/mo11.htm)

1934        Daisy Manufacturing introduced a Buck Rogers toy pistol.
    (SFC, 4/13/05, p.G4)

1935        Jan, Parker Brothers launched the Monopoly game acquired from George Darrow and by mid February were selling 20,000 sets per week.
    (www.monopolycollector.com/)

1935        Mar 16, Aron Nimzowitsch (b.1886), a Latvian-born Danish chess player, died. In 1925 he authored “My System," which he described as a chess manual based on entirely new principles.
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aron_Nimzowitsch)

1939        William Gruber and Harold Graves produced the 1st View-Master in Portland. 2 cameras were used to create stereo images. They were introduced at the New York World’s Fair and became an overnight sensation. In 2009 Fisher-Price eliminated almost all of its View Master titles, except for a handful of children’s titles.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.C8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.34)

1941        Jan 11, Emanuel Lasker (b.1868), German mathematician and chess player, died. In 1927 he authored “Lasker’s Manual of Chess."
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Lasker)

1943        Mar 9, Bobby Fischer (d.2008), first American world chess champion (1972-1975), was born. He later authored “Bobby Fischer’s Games of Chess."
    (HN, 3/9/99)(SFC, 9/7/01, p.D5)(SFC, 1/19/08, p.A2)

1943        Apr 7, The NFL adopted its free substitution rule.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1943        Richard James (d.1974) observed a torsion spring balance bounce off a ship’s deck while working at a Philadelphia shipyard and conceived the idea of a "slinky" toy for children, named by his wife Betty James (d.2008). In 1945 they founded James Industries. In 1998 the company was sold to POOF Products of Michigan.
    (IBCC, 10/97, #9)(SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1944        Jul 13, Erno Rubik, inventor (Rubik's cube), was born in Budapest.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1946        Aug 21, Lev Alburt, USSR International Chess Master (1976), was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1946        Lincoln Toys began operating in Walkerville, Ont., and continued to 1958.
    (SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)

1946        The Mattel toy company was co-founded by Ruth Handler, her husband Elliot, and Harold “Matt" Mattson. The name came from a combination of Matt and Elliot. In 2009 Jerry Oppenheimer authored “Toy Monster: The Big, Bad world of Mattel."
    (WSJ, 2/18/09, p.A15)

1947        Parker Brothers launched the board game Clue.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.81)

1947        Tonka toys were introduced by Mound Metalcraft, located in Mound, Minnesota, near Lake Minnetonka.
    (SFC, 8/23/06, p.G7)

1948        Spud Melin (d.2002) and Richard Knerr (1925-2008) started a mail-order toy company in southern California named Wham-O to market sling-shots. In 1982 they sold the company to Kransco Manufacturing for $12 million.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1948        The London-based Mondo company began producing rubber balls for a local fistball game. It grew to become a major maker of prefabricated running track.
    (SFC, 3/17/11, p.72)

1950        Mar 2, Silly Putty was introduced to the public. Silly Putty was accidentally invented in 1943 by James Wright of General Electric.
    (www.sillyputty.com/silly_science/silly_science.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/zwree)

1951        Mar 8, The Int’l. Table Tennis Federation banned Egypt for refusing to play Israel.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1951        May 23, Anatoli Karpov, world chess champion (1975-85), was born in the USSR.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1951        The video game NIM was created for the Festival of Britain. It was played on Nimrod, a computer developed by the Ferranti electronics firm.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.12)

1952        Apr 25, American Bowling Congress approved use of an automatic pinsetter.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1952        May 1, Mr. Potato Head was introduced.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1954        May 1, Legos, founded by Danish carpenter Ole Kirk Christiansen, became a registered trademark in Denmark.
    (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bllego.htm)

1955        Jan 19, "Scrabble" debuted in the board game market.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1955        Wham-O purchased a plastic disc from building inspector Fred Morrison, who had developed it after watching Yale students toss Frisbee Co. pie tins [see Jan 13, 1957].
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)

1957        Jan 13, The Wham-O Company produced the 1st Frisbee. It was initially called the Pluto Platter.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(MC, 1/13/02)

1957        Jun 7, Mrs. Elizabeth S. Kingsley, double-Crostic puzzle creator, died.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1957        Jul 22, Walter "Fred" Morrison applied for a patent for a "flying toy" which became known as the Frisbee.
    (AP, 7/22/07)

1958        Jun 19, Entrepreneurs Richard Knerr and Arthur Melin sought a trademark for a plastic cylinder based on a similar toy in Australia. Wham-O began selling the Hula Hoop following a demonstration of a rattan hoop imported from Australia. After one year teenagers in the US purchased some 100 million hoops at a suggested retail price of $1.98.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(SFC, 6/19/08, p.C3)

1958        Legos, the toy Lego building block kit with simple red bricks, was introduced with 8-stud bricks that could be combined 24 ways. The company was founded by Danish carpenter Ole Kirk Christiansen in 1932. Legos became a registered trademark in 1954. The name was derived from “les godt," Danish for play well.
    (SFC, 1/9/99, p.B8)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.76)

1958        In central Moscow Detsky Mir (Children's World), a new huge toy store, opened. In 2008 the hulking block-long building across from the KGB's notorious Lubyanka headquarters closed for a 3-year, $200 million renovation project.
    (AP, 7/2/08)

1959        Mar 9, The Barbie doll was unveiled at the American Toy Fair in New York City. The Barbie Doll No. 1 was introduced by Mattel Toy Company for $3. Ruth Handler (d.2002), co-founder of Mattel, had spotted the German Bild-Lilli doll in 1956 and asked toy designer Jack Ryan (d.1991) to create a version for American girls. The first dolls were produced by Mattel Toy Co. in Hawthorne, Ca. In 1994 one sold for $4000 as a collector’s item.
    (WSJ, 12/9/94, p.R-8)(SSFC, 4/28/02, p.A2)(SFC, 5/31/05, p.E1)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.A15)

1959        Parker Brothers launched the board game Risk.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.81)

c1960        The Visible Man toy was created by Marcel Jovine (d.2003 at 81) and was soon followed by Visible Woman.
    (SFC, 1/28/03, p.A15)

1960s        The DoodelMaster Magic Screen toy, made in England, was acquired by Ohio Art Toy and renamed  Etch A Sketch.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C6)

1961        Mattel toys introduced the Ken doll, and marketed it as Barbie’s boyfriend.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)

1962        Denys Fisher, an English inventor, made a tool to help draw waves for scientific use, but it was not adopted. His family thought it would a good toy for children and in 1965 it was made into a kit and showed at an int’l. toy show. Kenner bought the toy and sold it as the Spirograph.
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1963        Apr 13, Gary Kimovich Kasparov, world chess champion (1985-2000), was born in the USSR.
    (MC, 4/13/02)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.D19)

1964        Feb - 1964 Mar, Hasbro launched the G.I. Joe action figure debuted as a popular American toy at the annual toy fair in NYC.
    (SFC, 7/10/04, p.F11)(SFC, 2/7/14, p.A12)

1965        Nov 1, Edward Headrick (d.2002) of Wham-O patented the Flying Saucer, an improved Frisbee with concentric ridges that improved flight.
    (SFC, 8/13/02, p.A20)

1967        Aug 28, Charles Darrow, US inventor of Monopoly, died.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1969        The US National Commission on Product Safety recommended that 8 toys be banned including the Zulu toy gun, which shot plastic darts, the Empire Little Lady Stove, which had racks that could heat to 600 degrees, and the Bird of Paradise slingshot, with razor-sharp missiles. The commission urged Congress to pass new legislation banning toys based on their electrical, mechanical or thermal qualities.
    (WSJ, 12/3/07, p.B1)

1970        Aug, The first all-computer championship was held in New York and won by CHESS 3.0 (CDC 6400), a program written by Slate, Atkin and Gorlen at Northwestern University. Six programs had entered the first Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) North American Computer Championships. The event was organized by Monty Newborn. The other programs were DALY CP, J Brit, COKO III, SCHACH, and the Marsland CP.
    (http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lab/7378/comphis.htm)

1971        Keith Wylie (1945-1999), British croquet star, in the Open Championship completed "the sextuple peel," which involved knocking a ball through 6 hoops using another ball. He authored "Expert Croquet Tactics" in 1985.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B4)(www.mauicroquetclub.org/people/KeithWylie.htm)

1972        Sep 1, American Bobby Fischer won the international chess crown in Reykjavik, Iceland, defeating Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union. In 2004 David Edmonds and John Eidinow authored "Bobby Fischer Goes to War: How the Soviets Lost the Most Extraordinary Chess Match of All Time."
    (AP, 9/1/97)(SSFC, 2/07/04, p.M1)

1973        Jul 4, Leonid Stein (b.1934), Soviet Grandmaster chess player from the Ukraine, died of a heart attack.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonid_Stein)

1974        Hungarian professor Erno Rubik designed the Rubik's Cube. Sales peaked at 100 million in 1980. Some 250 million units were sold worldwide.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 8/8/03, p.D1)

1974        Gary Gygax (1938-2008) and David Arneson (d.2009 at 61), having founded Tactical Studies Rules (TSR), published Dungeons & Dragons, a role-playing game. Gygax and Don Kaye had founded Tactical Studies Rules (TSR), a publishing firm in 1973. In 1997 TSR was sold to Wizards of the Coast. 
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Gygax)(SFC, 4/11/09, p.B3)

1974        Japan-based Nintendo secured the Japanese distribution rights to the Magnavox Odyssey, the world’s first games console.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.73)

1975        Apr 3, Bobby Fischer (1943-2008) was stripped of world chess title for refusing to defend it.
    (www.bobby-fischer.net/)

1975        Sep 26, Herman G. Fisher (b.1898), co-founder of the Fisher-Price toy company (1930), died. In 1930 he got together with Irving Price and Helen Schelle to establish a toy company under the name of Fisher-Price.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Fisher)

1975        Edward Headrick (d.2002) invented the golf, for Frisbee players.
    (SFC, 9/26/03, p.A1)

1975        Mattel introduced its "Growing up Skipper" doll. When her arms were twisted she would grow taller and her breasts would get larger.
    (SFC,1/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1977        Apr 23, Dr. Allen Bussey completed 20,302 yo-yo loops in Waco, Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waco,_Texas)

1978        Jul 11, Christa Tybus of London set a 24 hrs hula-hoop record.
    (www.recordholders.org/en/list/hulahoop.html)

1979        Feb 25, James Williams and Gene Stewart of Redwood City won the 18th world championship domino tournament in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 2/20/04, p.E4)

1979        Dec 14, The Seminole Tribe opened a high-stakes bingo hall on their reservation at Hollywood, Florida, and the state tried immediately to shut it down. This was followed by a series of court battles leading to a final decision by the United States Supreme Court in 1981 “Seminole Tribe vs. Butterworth."  The court ruled in favor of the Seminoles affirming their right to operate their bingo hall.
    (http://500nations.com/news/Indian_Casinos/history.asp)

1979        David Sudnow authored “Pilgrim in the Microworld." It described his obsession with a game called Breakout on the Atari 2600. It came out in paperback in 1983.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.10)(www.alibris.com/search/books/isbn/9780446375214)
1979        Canadian Scott Abbott, a sports editor for The Canadian Press, and Chris Haney (1950-2010), a photo editor for Montreal's The Gazette, created the Trivial Pursuit game. With the help of John Haney and Ed Werner, they completed the development of the game, which was released in 1982. Hasbro bought the rights to game for $80 million in 2008.
    (AP, 6/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trivial_Pursuit)
1979        Carol Shaw became the first female video game designer with the release of her Atari game, 3D Tic-Tac-Toe.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)

1980        May 22, The computer game Pac-Man was first released in Japan. Pac-Man, with its characters: Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde, epitomized the arcade games of the 1980s.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-Man)

1982        John Maynard (1920-2004), English biologist, authored "Evolution and the Theory of Games."
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.B7)

1983        Atari dumped 728,000 cartridges of its video game “E.T." into a landfill in New Mexico following disappointing sales of what many called the worst video game ever. In 2014 a documentary film company recovered a number of the cartridges that were still playable.
    (SSFC, 4/27/14, p.A2)

1984        May 26, A frisbee was kept aloft for 1,672 seconds in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1984        In Russia Alexander Pajitnov, a computer programmer at the Moscow Academy of Science, invented the game "Tetris" on an old Electronica 60 computer. He gave up the rights to the game to the State for ten years. In 1985 it was introduced on the IBM and Commodore 64 and ported to handheld devices in 1989. In 1996 rights for the game reverted back to Pajitnov. He and Henk Rogers soon founded Blue Planet Software to manage the Tetris rights.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, C5)(SFC, 6/3/09, p.C5)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.E3)

1986        The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation opened its first bingo hall in Connecticut. Since the invention of the internet, however, bingo online has become the preferred method of play.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_bingo)

1987        The “Winnie the Pooh" stuffed animals, the original toys of author A.A. Milne, given to publisher E.P. Dutton in 1947, were turned over to the New York Public Library. In 1998 the British requested that they be returned to England.
    (SFC, 2/5/98, p.A12)

1988        The first John Madden Football computer game was produced by Electronic Arts. EA founder Trip Hawkins had earlier gained permission to produce the game from John Madden, coach of the Oakland Raiders. EA programmer Robin Antonick wrote the initial code for the game which went on to generate over $4 billion for EA.
    (SFC, 7/22/13, p.A6)
1988        In New Zealand the first commercial bungee jumping operation began at Queenstown’s 154-foot-high Kawarau Bridge.
    (SSFC, 11/10/13, p.M3)

1989        The Brooklyn Salvation Army began to allow the Elite Pool Checker Club to play regularly in their library.
    (WSJ, 10/22/02, p.A17)

1990        Dec 26, Garry Kasparov beat Anatoly Karpov to retain chess championship.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hmp9d)

1991        Mar, The video game “Street Fighter II" was released in Japan by Capcom. It introduced female characters. It was a sequel to Capcom's 1987 fighting game Street Fighter.
    (SFC, 2/15/11, p.E5)

1990        Toy company FAO Schwartz sold out to Dutch Company Koninklijke Bijenkorf Beheer.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1991        The war strategy game Civilization, created by Sid Meier (b.1954), was published and became a sensation among PC gamers.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sid_Meier)

1992        Sep 1, Defying a U.S. government warning, Bobby Fischer announced he would play his one-time rival, Boris Spassky, in a $5 million chess match in Yugoslavia despite United Nations-imposed sanctions.
    (AP, 9/1/97)

1992        The video game “Mortal Combat II" was released. It became know for its bloody graphics.
    (SFC, 2/15/11, p.E5)

1993        Apr 4, Alfred Mosher Butts (b.1899), US architect and inventor of the Scrabble game, died.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.B1)(MC, 4/4/02)

1993        Aug 19, Mattel and Fisher Price toys announced a merger.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bxdjz)

1993        Mattel introduced its “Earing Magic Ken" doll, which gave him a pierced left ear.
    (ST, 7/29/04, p.C8)

1993        The fantasy card game Magic: The Gathering was created.
    (SFC, 9/1/04, p.B1)

1993        The computer game "Mortal Combat" sparked a controversy in Congress over video game violence.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1993        The computer game "Myst" swept the US with its eerie puzzle plot.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.E1)

1994        Aug 31, In the London Intel Speed Chess Grand Prix a Pentium computer beat world chess champ Gari Kasparov.
    (www.correspondencechess.com/campbell/apctcol/c9411.htm)

1994        Dec 3, Japan’s Sony Corp. launched its PlayStation game console.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)(Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.4)

1994        John Bowes (1928-2005), SF businessman, and John Rosekrans sold the assets of their Kransco Group Cos. to Mattel and netted over $350 million. Kransco had acquired Wham-O and popularized such toys as Frisbee, Slip’N-Slide, and hula hoop.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.B7)

1995        The colonization board game “Settlers of Catan" began a new boom in board games.
    (Econ, 8/30/08, p.52)

1995        The first Internet gambling casino opened, but games could only be played for fun. The first real money Internet casino opened in 1996.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.C1)

1996        Dec 15, The Tyco Toys Tickle Me Elmo stuffed animal that giggles and says "that tickles" when squeezed retailed for $30 and was flying out of stores. It was based on a character from the children’s TV show Sesame Street.
    (WSJ, 12/16/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.B1)

1997        May 1, Virtual Pets began to be marketed by Tiger Electronics and Bandai Ltd. of Japan. The egg-sized gadgets played out the lives of various animals on a liquid crystal display.
    (WSJ, 5/2/97, p.B1)

1997        May 3, World chess champion Garry Kasparov won the first game of his rematch with IBM's Deep Blue computer. However, he lost the six-game match.
    (AP, 5/3/98)

1997        May 4, IBM's Deep Blue computer defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov, evening their six-game series at one game apiece.
    (AP, 5/4/98)

1997        May 6, World chess champion Garry Kasparov and IBM's Deep Blue computer played to a draw in game three of their six-game match.
    (AP, 5/6/98)

1997        May 11, The "Deep Blue" IBM computer demolished an overwhelmed Garry Kasparov and won the six-game chess match between man and machine in New York.
    (AP, 5/11/98)

1997        Jul 10, Walter Korn (b.1908), Czech-born chess authority, died. His books included "The Art of Chess Competition."
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A18)

1998        Mar 31, Starcraft, a military science fiction real-time strategy video game, was released in South Korea. It was developed by Blizzard Entertainment, a California-based company.
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/StarCraft)

1998        Oct 22, The US government announced one of the biggest toys recalls ever, advising parents to remove batteries from Fisher-Price Power Wheels cars and trucks because of faulty wiring.
    (AP, 10/22/99)

1998        Nov 27, Shoppers on Black Friday crowded shopping centers and the new Furby toys, a furry talking toy, was creating a mania. Black Friday was used to describe the big shopping day following Thanksgiving that put stores into the black.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A1)

1999        Mar 20, The 128-acre Legoland California, a children’s theme park, was scheduled to be completed in Carlsbad by the Danish toy company.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.1D)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.B8)(SFEC, 2/7/99, p.T3)

1999        David Gonzales began selling 2-inch figurines of fictional barrio residents in vending machines across the country. The "Homies" sales grew and in 2004 a Mijos line, short for "Mis Hijos," (My Kids), was introduced through K-Mart.
    (WSJ, 3/24/04, p.B1)

2000        May 6, The 1st geocaching cache was found hidden outside Portland, Oregon, by Mike Teague. [see May 3] 
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A20)

2000        China banned the sale of video game consoles citing their adverse effect on the mental health of its youth. The ban was lifted in 2014 on a temporary basis.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)
2000        Gary Kimovich Kasparov (37), world chess champion (1985-2000), lost to Vladimir Kramnik (25).
    (MC, 4/13/02)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.D19)

2001        The first commercial alternate reality game (ARG), called “The Beast," was produced as part of a promotional campaign for Steven Spielberg’s film “A.I.: Artificial Intelligence."
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.16)
2001        MGA Entertainment introduced the Bratz line of dolls based on a design by Carter Bryant, a designer from Mattel. The doll became very popular and threatened the Barbie franchise of Mattel. In 2008 the 2 companies faced each other in court. A jury ruled that the Bratz dolls were conceived while Bryant was employed by Mattel. On August 26 a federal jury in Riverside, Ca., awarded Mattel $100 million in damages. On Dec 3 a federal judge banned MGA Entertainment Inc. from making and selling Bratz dolls after the holiday season. In January, 2009, a federal judge said the company can continue to sell the toy line through 2009.
    (WSJ, 5/23/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.B1)(SFC, 8/27/08, p.C3)(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A9)(SFC, 1/8/09, p.C2)

2002        Jun 28, Spud Melin (77), co-founder of Wham-O (1948), died in Costa Mesa, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)

2002        Aug 12, Edward Headrick (78), the man who made the Frisbee soar, died in California. He created the sport of disc golf in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 8/13/02, p.A19)

2003        Feb 7, Garry Kasparov (39), chess master, played to a 3-3 tie against the Deep Junior computer program.
    (SFC, 2/8/03, p.A2)

2003        Aug 18, A 24-year-old woman from China tipped over 303,621 dominos, breaking a long-standing record for the world's longest solo domino topple.
    (AP, 8/18/03)

2003        Aug 24, Dan Knights of San Francisco set a world record at the World Rubik's Game Championships in Toronto. His record time was an average of 20 sec.
    (SFC, 8/26/03, p.A15)

2003        Oct 23, A 3-day dominos tournament began at the Ocho Rios resort in Jamaica.
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.D3)

2003        Dec 4, Toy seller FAO Schwartz filed for bankruptcy.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.B2)

2003        James Zug authored "Squash: A History of the Game."
    (WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W16)

2004        Feb 11, It was reported that Mattel planned to introduce a line of toys capable of receiving digital signals from a new Batman TV cartoon show scheduled for the Fall.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 12, Mattel released news that Barbie would have a new boyfriend named Blaine, an Australian boogie boarder. Barbie’s new “Cali Girl" lined was set to debut in the summer.
    (ST, 7/29/04, p.C8)

2004        Billy Gaines and Duncan Carrroll, graduates of Carnegie Mellon Univ., developed a Web site called bpong.com along with a multiplayer online beer-pong game. Beer pong had gained popularity on college campuses in the 1990s.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A10)
2004        Japan’s video game makers introduced the Nintendo DS (dual screen) and Sony PSP (PlayStation Portable).
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.70)

2005        Mar 17, Toys R Us agreed to become a privately owned company in a $6.6 billion buyout deal that included 2 equity firms and a real estate developer.
    (SFC, 3/18/05, p.C1)

2005        Disney launched a free online game called Virtual Magic Kingdom in conjunction with its 50th anniversary. It became very popular and in 2008 fans protested plans to shut the site down.
    (WSJ, 5/20/08, p.B1)

2006        Nov 11, Sony Corp. launched its new PlayStation 3 (PS3) in Japan.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.63)

2006        Nov 17, Japan’s Sony Corp. launched its new PlayStation 3 (PS3) in the USA.
    (AP, 11/17/06)

2006        Dec 5, In Germany world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik lost the sixth and decisive game against computer program Deep Fritz, ceding a hard-fought Man vs. Machine match 4-2.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 12, Online political groups, the Campaign to Defend the Constitution and the Christian Alliance for Progress, demanded that Wal-Mart dump Left Behind: Eternal Forces, a new computer game in which players must either kill or convert non-Christians.
    (SFC, 12/12/06, p.A1)

2006        Julian Dibbell authored “Play Money: Or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot."
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.7)
2006        The word game Bananagrams, created by Rhode Island native Abraham Nathanson (1929-2010), made its debut at the London Toy Fair. In 2009 it was named game of the year by the Toy Industry Association.
    (SFC, 6/11/10, p.C7)

2007        Apr 24, The video game “Lord of the Rings Online," developed by Turbine Inc., was released for the Microsoft Windows platform. It initially cost players $40 plus a subscription for each month played.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.7)

2007        Jul 7, Jack Odell (b.1920), British creator of the Matchbox miniature toys (1953), died. The toys were made by Lesney Products, founded by Leslie and Rodney Smith in 1947. The company went public in 1960 and bankrupt in 1982, when it was sold to Hong Kong’s Universal International Ltd. In 1997 Mattel acquired Matchbox.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.A4)

2007        Aug 2, Beijing and Washington agreed to cooperate more closely on product and food safety as the US recalled almost 1 million toys due to lead concerns. Mattel apologized to customers as it recalled nearly a million Chinese-made toys from its Fisher-Price division that were found to have excessive amounts of lead.
    (AP, 8/3/07)(SFC, 8/3/07, p.D1)(AP, 8/2/08)

2007        Sep 21, Mattel Inc, apologized for damaging China's reputation after recent massive recalls of its Chinese-made toys, admitting it targeted some goods that were actually up to scratch.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

2007        Oct 14, In California Gov. Schwarzenegger signed legislation banning toys that contain toxic plastic softeners, i.e. phthalates, becoming the first state in the US to do so.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 12, Thailand smashed through the 100-gold barrier at the SEA Games as they continued their relentless pursuit of top spot on the medals table.
    (AFP, 12/12/07)

2007        Edward McPherson authored “The Backwash Squeeze & Other Improbable Feats: A Newcomer's Journey into the World of Bridge."
    (WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P8)
2007        Lumos Labs launched Lumosity, a website of online games designed to improve users’ cognitive performance.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.56)
2007        Mark Pincus founded Zynga Game Network. The company had a smash hit with the social online game FarmVille in 2009. By the end of 2010 the San Francisco-based company was valued at $5.4 billion.
    (SFC, 11/19/10, p.D8)

2008        Jan 14, Richard Knerr (82), co-founder of the toy company that popularized the Hula Hoop, Frisbee and other fads that became classics, died. Knerr started Wham-O in 1948 with his childhood friend Arthur "Spud" Melin.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Mar 4, Gary Gygax (b.1938), co-creator of the role-playing Dungeons & Dragons game, died in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Gygax and Don Kaye had founded Tactical Studies Rules (TSR) in 1973. In 1974 Gygax and David Arneson published D&D. In 1997 TSR was sold to Wizards of the Coast.
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.A7)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.102)

2008        Apr 29, The videogame “Grand Theft Auto IV," produced by Take-Two Interactive Software, hit the stores with expectations of record sales. First week sales topped $50 million.
    (WSJ, 4/29/08, p.B7)(WSJ, 5/8/08, p.B8)

2008        Jun 10, In NYC a million pieces of stainless steel toy parts assembled into a nearly seven-story model skyscraper glimmered under the hot sun. It was created by American artist Chris Burden (b.1946). The 16,000-pound (7,250-kg) "poetic interpretation" of the 30 Rock Building at Rockefeller Center was made of replicated Erector set pieces from the toy created by A.C. Gilbert in 1912.
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)

2008        Oct 29, In Germany Viswanathan Anand of India retained his world chess title by drawing with the white pieces against Russian challenger Vladimir Kramnik.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Nov 13,The 38th Chess Olympiad started in Dresden, Germany. It included 146 teams in the open division, often referred to as the men's division although it includes a few women. The separate women's division included 111 teams.
    (AP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 25 Armenia won its second straight gold medal at the Chess Olympiad in Germany by defeating China 2.5-1.5 in the 11th and final round.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Toy maker Chris Nee pitched her Doc McStuffins doll idea to Disney executives. The company changed the doll’s race from white to black and by 2013 it was a top seller.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.D7)

2009        Jan 30, Hans Beck (79), creator of the colorful plastic Playmobil toy figures that sold by the millions around the world, died in Germany. Beck had created and developed the 3-inch (7.5-centimeter) tall line of figures for the company in 1971. they were dubbed Playmobil and brought to market in 1974.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Apr 9, Dave Arneson (61), co-creator of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy game (1974) and a pioneer of role-playing entertainment, died after a two-year battle with cancer.
    (AP, 4/10/09)(SFC, 4/11/09, p.B3)

2009        May 27, Toys R Us Inc. said it acquired toy retailer FAO Schwarz, which has struggled for years through bankruptcies amid tough competition from discount stores.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2008        Jul 9, US electronic games publisher Activision under Bobby Kotick closed its merger with the gaming arm of Vivendi, a French media conglomerate, in a deal valued at $18.8 billion.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activision_Blizzard)

2009        Oct 1, Mattel planned to release its Mindflex toy, which allowed users to lift a ball and send it through an obstacle course using brain control interface technology.
    (SSFC, 9/6/09, p.A8)

2009        Sep 9, In South Korea performers from around the world have gathered on the South Korean island of Jeju for this week's international Delphic Games, popularly known as the "Culture Olympics." The first Delphic Games of the modern era were held in Russia in 2000 and the second in Malaysia in 2005.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Sep 24, Japan’s Tokyo Game Show, billed as the world's largest computer entertainment fest, kicked off with hopes that depressed sales of game consoles will enjoy a holiday resurrection.
    (AP, 9/24/09)
2009        Sep 24, In Spain Garry Kasparov soundly defeated Anatoly Karpov in an exhibition chess match marking the 25th anniversary of their first title bout.
    (AP, 9/25/09)

2009        Oct 1, Mattel planned to release its Mindflex toy, which allowed users to lift a ball and send it through an obstacle course using brain control interface technology.
    (SSFC, 9/6/09, p.A8)

2009        Nov 10, The hotly-anticipated video game "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" was launched in Britain amid a political row over its levels of violence.
    (AFP, 11/10/09)

2009        Dec 5, The Defense Advance Research projects Agency (DARPA) conducted an experiment challenging teams around the country to locate the submit the correct geographic coordinates of 10 weather balloons in return for a $40,000 cash prize. Over 4,000 teams participated and the winning answer came after 8 hours and 56 minutes. Social networking sites played a major role in the game theory simulation. Riley Crane, a post doc research fellow at MIT’s media lab, led the winning team using an elaborate information gathering pyramid.
    (SFC, 12/7/09, p.A9)

2009        Nov 10, Activision released its new video game “Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2." Sales over the next 5 days brought in $550 million breaking records in several countries.
    (Econ, 12/5/09, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_Warfare_2)

2009        Dec, Finnish computer game developer Rovio Mobile released “Angry Birds," a puzzle video game. It was inspired primarily by a sketch of stylized wingless birds and was first released for Apple's iOS.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds)

2009        James McManus authored “Cowboys Full: The Story of Poker."
    (SSFC, 12/20/09, Books p.E6)

2009        Silly Bandz, rubber band bracelets of various shapes, became a fad among kids in Alabama and then across the nation. Robert Croak of Ohio began manufacturing and marketing the product after seeing a similar item from Japan in 2007. A pack of 24 was priced at around $5.
    (SSFC, 7/11/10, Par p.12)(http://tinyurl.com/3ac3cm6)

2010        Jan 4, The Norwegian Chess Federation said Magnus Carlsen (19) is the youngest person to hold the title since ratings were introduced in 1971.
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2010        Feb 9, Walter Fredrick Morrison (90), the man credited with inventing the Frisbee, died at his home in Monroe, Utah. Morrison began manufacturing his flying discs in 1948. He sold the production and manufacturing rights to his "Pluto Platter" in 1957. The plastic flying disc was later renamed the "Frisbee," with sales surpassing 200 million discs.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Mar 27, In Russia former Soviet world chess champion Vasily Smyslov (89) died of heart failure. Smyslov beat Mikhail Botvinnik in 1957 to become the seventh world champion, before losing in a re-match the following year. His career in the top flight of world chess spanned some four decades. He was beaten by Garry Kasparov  in 1984 in the Candidates Final match for the right to challenge Anatoly Karpov for the world title, which Kasparov went on to capture.
    (Reuters, 3/27/10)

2010        May 8, In Hungary Andor Lilienthal (99), the last surviving member of 27 original grandmaster chess players, died in Budapest.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 31, Chris Haney (b.1950), co-creator of the Trivial Pursuit (1979) game, died in Toronto.
    (SFC, 6/2/10, p.C4)

2010        Oct 3, In India the troubled Commonwealth Games got underway with a glittering opening ceremony in a fortress-like New Delhi after a shambolic run-up that threatened to derail the event.
    (AFP, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 14, In India the Commonwealth Games ended after 11 days of fiery competition that went some way to mending the damage done to Indian pride and prestige tarnished by the chaotic buildup to the event.
    (AFP, 10/14/10)

2010        Nov 2, San Francisco’s Board of Supervisors passed a law that cracks down on the popular practice of giving away free toys with unhealthy restaurant meals for children. The law, which would take effect on December 1, would allow toys to be given away with kids' meals that have less than 600 calories, contain fruits and vegetables, and include beverages without excessive fat or sugar. Mayor Newsom vetoed the measure on Nov 13. On Nov 23 the board overrode the veto.
    (Reuters, 11/3/10)(http://tinyurl.com/25458to)(SFC, 11/24/10, p.C1)

2010        Nov 4, Microsoft released Kinect, a motion-tracking peripheral for the Xbox console. Scientists soon found uses multiple other uses for the device.
    (SFC, 1/10/11, p.D1)

2010        Nov 9, The $60 Activision Blizzard video game “Call of Duty: Black Ops" was released. It raked in a record $360 million in the first 24 hours of sales and $650 million in the first 5 days.
    (SFC, 11/12/10, p.D3)(Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.3)

2010        Nov 27, In China an "extraordinary" Asian Games closed after 15 days of thrills and spills that saw China reinforce its sporting credentials as 45 countries and territories took part. China’s final gold tally reached 199 and its total medals to 416, both Asian Games records.
    (AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Bruce Lourie and Rick Smith authored “Slow Death by Rubber Duck: The Secret Danger of Everyday Things."
    (SFC, 3/12/10, p.F8)

2011        Jan 25, It was reported that Poland's state-run National Remembrance Institute has created a new game called "Kolejka," or "Queue," to help young Poles understand the hardships of life under communism. It goes on sale Feb. 5.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 26, In Japan Nintendo's latest game machine, offering glasses-free 3-D images, went on sale ahead of a global rollout. Analysts said it promises to be the world's first 3-D mass-market product.
    (AP, 2/26/11)

2011        Mar, IBM began teaching a computer chip, called Synapse, to play Pong. The chip was designed to learn through experience and after a few weeks it was nearly unbeatable.
    (SFC, 11/7/11, p.D1)

2011        Apr 15, Indictments were unsealed in Manhattan against 11 people including the founders of three of the largest online poker sites open to US players. PokerStars, Full Tilt Poker and Absolute Poker were charged with bank fraud, money laundering and violating gambling laws.
    (SFC, 4/16/11, p.A6)(Econ, 4/23/11, p.68)

2011        Apr 19, Sony Corp. in the US noticed unauthorized activity on its network, and discovered that data had been transferred off the network the next day. The company's general counsel gave the FBI information about the breach on April 22.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        Apr 20, South Korean telecoms operator KT rolled out Kibot, a robot playmate for children, in a move aimed at cashing in on the potentially lucrative industry.
    (AFP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, Mattel Inc, after waging a seven-year legal war against a tiny California company, suffered a surprise defeat after a US jury decided that MGA Entertainment Inc is the rightful owner of the once-billion dollar line of pouty-lipped Bratz dolls.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        May 23, Bradley Franzen (41) pleaded guilty in a Manhattan court to bank fraud, money laundering and illegal gambling offenses. The US president of a Costa Rica-based company faced up to 30 years in prison for illegally processing payments for Internet poker firms.
    (AFP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 25, Austrian authorities filed incitement charges against a right-wing politician for commissioning a video game that required players to target and stop mosques, minarets and muezzins as they pop up on a screen.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        Jun 19, Japanese game maker Sega said hackers have stolen the personal data of some 1.29 million customers of the, in a theft via a website of its European unit.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 27, The US Supreme Court refused to let California regulate the sale or rental of violent video games to children, saying governments do not have the power to "restrict the ideas to which children may be exposed" despite complaints about graphic violence.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Oct 14, An Austrian court found right-wing politician Gerhard Kurzmann not guilty of charges of incitement for posting a video game called "Moschee Baba," that required players to target and stop mosques, minarets and muezzins as they appear on a screen.
    (AP, 10/14/11)

2011        Nov 8, Activision released the video game “Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3," developed Infinity Ward and Sledgehammer Games. It sold a record $750 million in its first five days.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Call_of_Duty:_Modern_Warfare_3)

2011        Nov 11, Indonesia opened the 26th Southeast Asian Games with more than 6,000 athletes from 11 countries participating in the biennial games.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 22, In Indonesia the Southeast Asian Games were formally closed by Indonesia Vice President Budiono. Indonesia earned a table-topping 182 golds among 476 medals, followed by Thailand with 109 among 329.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Dec 16, Zynga, a SF-based internet game company, went public for $10 a share, valuing the company at $1 billion. Shares closed down 5% at $9.50.
    (SFC, 12/16/11, p.A1)(SFC, 12/17/11, p.A1)

2011        Jane McGonigal authored “Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can change the World."
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.94)

2012        Jan 17, It was reported that a new online game in India called "Angry Brides," available as a free application on Facebook, has attracted more than 270,000 fans. It seeks to highlight the problem of illegal dowry demands for women.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Feb 5, New York Giants quarterback Eli Manning led his team to a 21-17 victory over the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XLVI at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis.
    (SFC, 2/6/12, p.B1)

2012        Mar 26, British video games retailer GAME collapsed into administration, placing more than 5,500 jobs at risk, becoming the latest victim of tough economic conditions. GAME's international divisions were operating as normal.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Apr 29, Thomas Preston (83), Texas gambler also known as Amarillo Slim, died in Amarillo. His 1972 win in the fledgling World Series of Poker in Las Vegas helped make him an ambassador for the game.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.98)(http://tinyurl.com/8xlfd8l)

2012        May 30, In Moscow world chess champion Viswanathan Anand of India retained his title, beating Israeli challenger Boris Gelfand 2.5-1.5 in a rapid tiebreaker round of four games.
    (AP, 5/30/12)

2012        Nov 8, The US Navy said 7 members of SEAL Team 6 have been punished for disclosing classified information to the maker of a video game.
    (SFC, 11/9/12, p.A10)

2012        Nov 18, The Wii U, Nintendo’s newest games console, was released in the US. Release in Europe was set for Nov 30 and in Japan for Dec 8.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.73)

2012        Major League Ultimate, the first centrally managed professional league for Frisbee-flinging, began its first season.The Boston Whitecaps won this year’s championship.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.68)

2013        Jan 16, Andre Cassagnes, inventor and renowned kite maker, died in France. He was the inventor of the Etch-a-Sketch toy (1959), which he sold to Ohio Art  for $25,000.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.90)

2013        Jan 24, Toymaker Mattel Inc. scored a partial victory when a federal appeals court overturned a 2011 jury verdict and $170 million in damages for allegedly stealing trade secrets from the maker of Bratz dolls. The court upheld a judge’s award of $137.2 million to Bratz’s manufacturer, MGA Entertainment, for its defense against Mattel’s trade secrets claim.
    (SFC, 1/25/13, p.D5)

2013        Mar 5, Stealth action game "Dishonored," featuring a masked bodyguard-turned-assassin, was named best video game of the year at an award ceremony in London.
    (Reuters, 3/5/13)

2013        Apr 30, A Las Vegas casino subsidiary launched Ultimate Gaming, the first fully legal poker website in the US.
    (SFC, 5/1/13, p.A8)

2013        May 14, Malaysia-based Genting Group, a major casino operator, accused Phil Ivey (37) of amassing millions of dollars in winnings by cheating at baccarat. Ivey, an American, is one of the world's top professional poker players. The game in question took place on Aug 20-21, 2012, at Crockfords, one of London's oldest and most respected casinos.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 18, Russia's Sergey Karjakin won the €100,000 ($130,000) Norway chess championship after drawing against Veselin Topalov of Bulgaria.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        Sep 17, The video game “Grand Theft Auto V," made in Edinburgh, Scotland, by Rockstar North, was released. Take-Two Interactive, the American owner of Rockstar North, expected to take as much as £1 billion in revenues.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.60)
2013        Sep 17, A man (23) was attacked in London in the early hours as he made his way home from a midnight launch event for the notoriously violent videogame "Grand Theft Auto V." Three British teenagers, ages 14-17, were later charged over the stabbing and robbery. The victim remained in hospital in a stable condition. On Sep 20 game's publisher Take-Two Interactive Software said that it had raked in more than a billion dollars during the first three days of sales, smashing previous records.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)

2013        Nov 7, The US National Toy Hall of Fame in Rochester, NY, inducted the rubber duck and the game of chess.
    (SFC, 11/8/13, p.A7)

2013        Nov 15, Sony released its PlayStation 4 video game player, one week ahead of Microsoft’s new Xbox One.
    (SFC, 11/15/13, p.C1)

2013        Nov 22, Microsoft crowed that more than a million Xbox One consoles were snapped up within 24 hours in 13 countries after hitting shelves for the first time in the morning.
    (AP, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 22, In India Magnus Carlsen (22) of Norway defeated Viswanathan Anand of India in the chess world championship, becoming the first Western player since Bobby Fischer to hold the title. The match in Chennai, which began Nov. 9, has been shown live on TV in both Norway and India, with millions more watching online.
    (AP, 11/22/13)

2014        Jan 6, China temporarily lifted a 14-year-old ban on selling video game consoles, paving the way for Sony Corp, Microsoft Corp and Nintendo Co Ltd to enter the world's third largest video game market in terms of revenue.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 14, A Chicago federal court sentenced H. Ty Warner (69), the billionaire businessman behind Beanie Babies, to two years probation for not paying taxes on $25 million he had hidden.
    (SFC, 1/15/14, p.A4)

2014        Mar 18, The Mega Millions jackpot of $414 million, the third largest in the game’s history, went to two winners of tickets sold in Florida and Maryland.
    (SFC, 3/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 25, King Digital, ticker KING, raised $500 million from the sale of 22.2 million shares. Established in 2002, King's business has soared in the last two years thanks to the spectacular popularity of Candy Crush Saga, which boasts some 97 million players worldwide.
    (AFP, 3/26/14)

2014        Apr 15, South Korean police charged a man for the murder of his 2-year-old son after he confessed to suffocating the child so he could leave the house to go back to playing games at an Internet cafe.
    (Reuters, 4/15/14)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Games, Toys
End of file