Timeline Labor

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1504        Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1648        Oct 18, The "shoemakers of Boston"--the first labor organization in what would become the United States--was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company).
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1787        Feb 18, Austrian emperor Josef II banned children under 8 from labor.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1811        Mar 11, Ned Ludd led a group of workers in a wild protest against mechanization. Members of the organized bands of craftsmen who rioted against automation in 19th century England were known as Luddites and also "Ludds." The movement, reputedly named after Ned Ludd, began near Nottingham as craftsman destroyed textile machinery that was eliminating their jobs. By the following year, Luddites were active in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Leicestershire. Although the Luddites opposed violence towards people (a position which allowed for a modicum of public support), government crackdowns included mass shootings, hangings and deportation to the colonies. It took 14,000 British soldiers to quell the rebellion. The movement effectively died in 1813 apart from a brief resurgence of Luddite sentiment in 1816 following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
    (HN, 3/11/01)(HNQ, 5/14/01)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1819        Aug 16, English police charged unemployed demonstrators at St. Peter's Field in the Manchester Massacre.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1821        English economist David Ricardo noted that the influence of machinery is frequently detrimental to the interest of the working class.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, SR p.3)

1830        May 1, Mother (Mary Harris) Jones, reformer and labor organizer, was born. [see 1837]
    (HN, 5/1/01)

1834        Jan 29, President Jackson ordered the 1st use of US troops to suppress a labor dispute. Jackson ordered the War Department to put down a "riotous assembly" near Willamsport, Maryland, among Irish laborers constructing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
    (HNQ, 1/23/99)(MC, 1/29/02)

1834        Britain’s Parliament passed the Poor Law Amendment Act. It ensured that the poor were housed in workhouses, clothed and fed. The law was inspired by the thinking of Thomas Malthus blamed the plight of the poor on their own flaws.
    (www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lesson08.htm)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.54)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.63)
1834        William Bentinck, India's governor-general, wrote to his superiors in London that Indian cloth-makers were suffering severe hardship due to the efficiency of the English textile industry.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1835        Jun 18, William Cobbett (b.1763), English journalist, pamphleteer, and farmer, died in Surrey, England. “A full belly to the laborer is, in my opinion, the foundation of public morals and the only source of real public peace.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cobbett)(http://tinyurl.com/k3qx4o9)

1838        A migration from India began as recruiters based in Calcutta began trawling impoverished villages for workers willing to sign up for at least five years of labor on plantations growing sugar and other crops in Trinidad, British Guiana, Suriname and elsewhere. The traffic was shut down on March 12, 1917, after more than half a million people had come to the Caribbean.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.34)

1839        Mar 9, Prussian government limited the work week for children to 51 hours.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1842        Mar 3, 1st US child labor law regulating working hours was passed  in Massachusetts.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1844        The British co-operative movement started with the Rochdale Pioneers' shop in the northern English town of Rochdale. It was nominally owned by its customers rather than its employees.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_co-operative_movement)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.72)

1845        Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), German social scientist, authored in German “The Condition of the Working Class in England.” It was not published in English until 1892.
    (www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/condition-working-class/)

1850        Jan 27, Samuel Gompers, first President of American Federation of Labor, was born.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1852        Mar 29, Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1860        Feb 22, Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Mass, struck successfully for higher wages. The strike in Lynn and Natick, Massachusetts, spread throughout New England and involved 20,000 workers. The strike was for higher wages and included women. The workers won their major demands.
    (HNQ, 8/3/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1860        Mar 6, While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln made a speech defending the right to strike.
    (HN, 3/6/99)

1861        Dec 3, In his first annual message Pres. Lincoln argued that "labor is prior to, and independent of capital. Capital is the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed..."
    (WSJ, 2/10/95, p.A8)(http://caps.fool.com/blogs/quotes-by-lincoln/548670)

1865        Mar 20, Michigan authorized workers' cooperatives.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1867        The book “Progress of the Working Class: 1832-1867” by J.M. Ludlow and Lloyd Jones was published in London.
    (https://archive.org/details/progressworking00jonegoog)
1867        Karl Marx (1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, authored “Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie” (Capital: Critique of Political Economy). It is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Kapital)

1872        Mar 22, Illinois became 1st state to require sexual equality in employment.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1873        Mar 3, William Green, President of the American Federation of Labor (1924-52), was born.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(SC, 3/3/02)

1874        Jan 13, Battle between jobless and police in NYC left 100s injured.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1874        Jul 4, Social Democratic Workmen's Party of North America was formed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1876        The Workingmen’s Party of the United States (WPUS) was founded in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1878 it reformed as the Socialist Labor Party.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workingmen%27s_Party_of_the_United_States)

1877        Feb 12, US railroad builders struck against a wage reduction.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1877        Jul 14, The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Railroad_Strike_of_1877)

1877        Jul 17, Riots and violence erupted in several major American cities stemming from strikes against railroads in protest of wage cuts. Strikes started against the Baltimore & Ohio, and quickly spread west, with riots erupting in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis. Nine were killed when Federal troops were sent into Martinsburg, West Virginia. On July 21, 26 were killed and the Union Depot and machine shops were burned down.
    (HNQ, 12/11/98)

1877        Jul 21, In West Virginia 26 railroad strikers were killed and the Union Depot and machine shops were burned down.
    (HNQ, 12/11/98)
1877        Jul 21-1877 Jul 22, Pres. Rutherford Hayes sent federal troops and Marines to Baltimore to restore order against striking railroad workers. President Hayes then sent federal troops from city to city. They suppressed strike after strike until the strike ended in September, approximately 45 days after it had started.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Railroad_Strike_of_1877)

1880        Feb 12, John L. Lewis, American labor leader, was born.
    (HN, 2/12/01)

1880        Apr 10, Frances Perkins, Labor secretary, first woman cabinet member in an American Administration, was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1880-1890    Germany set up a vocational training system.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)

1881        Nov 15, The American Federation of Labor was founded. [see Nov 17]
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1881        Nov 17, Under Samuel Gompers (d.1924), the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Union of the United States was formed--a precursor to the American Federation of Labor. Gompers emigrated from England to New York with his family as a boy. He grew up working in a sweatshop and amid discussion about labor reform. Gompers led the AFL for 40 years, sometimes using strikes and boycotts to demand workers' rights. He successfully changed the unionism of the 19th century in the United States, uniting different labor groups and keeping away from political influence to guide American laborers. [see Nov 15]
    (HNPD, 11/17/98)

1882        Aug 3, US Congress passed the 1st Immigration Act. It banned Chinese immigration for ten years. The Chinese Exclusion Act barred laborers from China and halted a massive immigration of Cantonese peasants.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(SC, 8/3/02)

1882        Sep 1, The first Labor Day was observed in New York City by the Carpenters and Joiners Union. [see Sep 5]
    (HN, 9/1/00)

1882        Sep 5, The first Labor Day observance—a picnic and parade—was held in New York City. Matthew Maguire, a machinist and secretary of the New York City Central Labor Union, probably first suggested the celebration in 1882 to recognize the contributions of workers to America. Parades like the one in Buffalo, New York, around 1900, soon became an important part of Labor Day festivities. Matthew Maguire, a machinist and secretary of the New York City Central Labor Union, probably first suggested the celebration in 1882 to recognize the contributions of workers to America. Local and regional Labor Day observances spread across the nation until, on June 28, 1894, the U.S. Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September a legal holiday. [see Sep 1]
    (AP, 9/5/97)(HNPD, 9/5/98)(HNQ, 9/7/98)

1885        Sep 2, In Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, 28 Chinese laborers were killed and hundreds more chased out of town by striking coal miners.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1886        May 4,    At Haymarket Square in Chicago, a labor demonstration for an 8-hour workday turned into a riot when a bomb exploded. Seven policemen were killed and some 60 others injured. Only one policeman was killed in the strike. 3 labor leaders were executed Nov 10, 1887, for the bombing. The Haymarket affair is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(WSJ, 2/6/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haymarket_Riot)

1886        May 5, A bomb exploded on the fourth day of a workers' strike in Chicago, Ill.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1886        Dec 8, The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was founded at a convention of union leaders in Columbus, Ohio, by some 25 labor groups representing about 150,000 members. The first president of the American Federation of Labor was Samuel Gompers, who had reorganized the Cigarmakers Union and participated in the founding of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1881.
    (AP, 12/8/97)(HNPD, 9/7/99)

1888        Apr 16, Drentse and Friese peat cutters went on strike.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1889        Apr 15, Asa Philip Randolph, American labor leader and Civil Rights advocate, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1890        Jan 25, The United Mine Workers of America was founded.
    (AP, 1/25/98)

1891        Apr 7, Nebraska introduced an 8 hour work day.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1891        Sep 3, Cotton pickers organized a union & strike in Texas.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1891        Nov 28, The National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (now IBEW) was founded in St. Louis, home of Local 1.
    (DT net, 11/28/97)

1892        Jan 8, Coal mine explosion killed 100 in McAlister, Okla.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1892        Henry Clay Frick, partner of Andrew Carnegie, engineered a bloody clash with the labor union at the Pittsburgh Homestead Mill. 9-10 workers and 3 Pinkerton guards were killed and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union was crushed. The strike had arisen over Carnegie's efforts to automate steel production.
    (SFEC,1/20/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1893        In the United States 1,567 railway workers were killed and another 18,877 injured this year.
    (Econ, 8/26/17, p.67)

1893-1894    During the economic crisis of 1893-94, groups of jobless men organized into so-called "armies" with their leaders referred to as "generals."
    (HNQ, 8/24/99)

1894        Mar 17, US and China signed a treaty preventing Chinese laborers from entering US.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1894        Mar 25 Jacob S. Coxey began leading an "army" of unemployed from Massillon, Ohio, to Washington, D.C., to demand help from the federal government.  Coxey advocated, as a way to provide jobs and increase the amount of money in circulation, a public works program of road construction and local improvements to be financed by the issuance of $500 million in legal tender notes. Coxey's Army of unemployed disbanded when Coxey and two other leaders were arrested for trespassing on the White House lawn in 1894.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(HNQ, 8/24/99)

1894        Apr 5, 11 strikers were killed in riot at Connellsville, Penn.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1894        Apr 29, The Commonweal of Christ, called Coxey's Army, arrived in Wash, DC, 500 strong to protest unemployment; Coxey was arrested for trespassing at Capitol.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1894        May 11, Workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company in Illinois went on strike. The American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, subsequently began a boycott of Pullman that blocked freight traffic in and out of Chicago. Pullman had cut wages due to the recession but left high rents in his company town. Mail cars were coupled to Pullman cars and Pres. Cleveland ordered federal troops onto the trains to insure the delivery of mail. Illinois Gov. John Peter Altgeld opposed Cleveland’s plans. 34 union workers were killed when federal troops intervened.
    (AP, 5/11/97)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1894        Jun 26, The American Railway Union with 125,000 workers, led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers that blocked freight traffic in and out of Chicago. [see May 11]
    (AP, 6/26/97)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1894        Jun 28, Labor Day was established as a holiday for federal employees on the first Monday of September. The U.S. Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September a legal holiday.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(HNPD, 9/5/98)

1894        Jul 2, The US Government obtained an injunction against striking Pullman Workers.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1894        Jul 20, 2000 federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1894        Aug 16, George Meany, the first president of the AFL-CIO, was born in New York City.
    (AP, 8/16/97)

1894        Sep 1, By an act of Congress, Labor Day was declared a national holiday.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-1)(HN, 9/1/99)

1894        Sep 4, Some 12,000 tailors in New York City went on strike to protest the existence of sweatshops.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1894        New Zealand passed the world's first minimum wage law.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1897        Sep 11, A strike by some 75,000  coal miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia ended after 10 weeks. Concessions included an eight-hour work day, semi-monthly pay, and the abolition of company stores (which were famous for over charging workers). The day before, about 20 miners were killed when sheriff's deputies opened fire on them in Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(MC, 9/11/01)

1897        The American Federation of Labor backed literacy requirements for immigrants.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1898        Sep 13, 20,000 Paris construction workers went on strike.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1899        Acting UMWA Pres. John Mitchell (1870-1919) was elected as head of the United Mine Workers of America.
    (AH, 2/03, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mitchell_%28United_Mine_Workers%29)

1899        The Western Federation of mine workers demanded that only union workers be hired, but mine owners refused. In Wardner, Idaho, the Bunker Hill Co. mine was dynamited. Pres. McKinley sent in troops who gathered up thousands of miners and confined them in “bullpens.”
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1900        Feb, In London, England, 129 socialists and union members gathered to secure parliamentary representation for the labor movement. Automatic donations to Labour by union members dates back to this founding event.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.50)

1900        In Britain employees of the Taff Vale Railway Co. in South Wales greased the tracks and cut telegraph wires during a bitter strike. In 1901 the House of Lords ruled that their union could be sued for damaging the company. The shock to the union movement inspired the Labour Party and a 1906 Trade Disputes Act.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)

1901        Jul 15, Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1901        Jul 28, Alfred Renton Bryant Bridges (d.1990), aka Harry Bridges, American labor leader who headed the West Coast Longshoremen’s Union, was born in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A21)(HN, 7/28/98)

1901        Jan, In San Francisco 163 men convened at Pioneer Hall and launched what would become the California Labor Federation.
    {SF, USA, Labor}
    (SFC, 1/26/01, p.A7)

1901        Nov, Eugene Schmitz, a handsome bandleader, was elected mayor. Schmitz and Abe Ruef, a lawyer, had formed the Union Labor Party and after a while began running a political machine that took payoffs for everything connected with the city.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)(SFC, 7/4/15, p.C2)

1902        May 12, Over 125,000 miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the mines closed all summer. An additional 18,000 bituminous workers struck in sympathy. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt intervened. [see Oct 3]
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03, p.44)

1902        Oct 3,    President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take unprecedented action. The meeting failed to resolve differences. A presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and a shorter work week. [see May 12] The miners returned to work on Oct 23.
    (LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(AH, 2/03, p.48)

1902        President Theodore Roosevelt said he would intervene in a coal strike: “I knew that this action would form an evil precedent, and that it was one which I should take most reluctantly.” The strike settled without intervention.
    (HNQ, 12/23/02)

1904        Jan 25, Two-hundred (179) coal miners were entombed in an explosion in Cheswick, Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 1/25/99)(MC, 1/25/02)

1905        Jan 24, In Vilnius a mass worker strike began and lasted to Jan 29.
    (LHC, 1/24/03)

1905        Jul 7, The International Workers of the World founded their labor organization in Chicago. The IWW was formed by William Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party and Eugene V.  Debs of the Socialist Party. Members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were also known as Wobblies. The Wobblies were formed partly in response to the American Federation of Labor’s opposition to the unionization of unskilled labor. As an organization that advocated sabotage, they were suppressed and prosecuted by the federal government from 1917-18 and were driven underground by the “Red Scare” that started in the United States in 1919.  Ideological disputes with the newly formed U.S. Communist Party dissipated their remaining energies so that they ceased to be a force of any significance past the mid-1920s. In 1969 Melvyn Dublfsky authored its definitive history “We Shall Overcome.”
    (HNQ, 10/16/00)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.A24)(HN, 7/7/01)

1905        Dec 30, Governor Frank Steunenberg of Idaho was killed by an assassin's bomb. The former gov. of Idaho, was blown up by a booby-trapped gate in front of his home in Caldwell, Idaho. Three Western Federation of Miners leaders in Colorado, Charles Moyer, George Pettibone and William Haywood, were “legally kidnapped” to Idaho and put on trial for the murder. The event and surrounding circumstances were described by J. Anthony Lukas in his 1997 book: “Big Trouble.”
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, BR p.1,6)(HN, 12/30/98)

1906        Feb 15, British Labour Party organized.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1906        Mar 10, A coal dust explosion killed 1,060 at Courrieres, France.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1906        Dec 3, The U.S. Supreme Court ordered Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) leaders extradited to Idaho for trial in the Steunenberg murder case.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1906        In Britain a Trade Disputes Act was passed. It aimed to protect striking workers from retaliation through the courts [see 1900].
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)

1907        May 6, San Francisco streetcar workers of the Carmen’s Union went on strike after owner Patrick Calhoun refused to accept a $3 per 8-hour day wage. Calhoun hired James Farley to break the union.
    (SFC, 9/13/02, p.D9)

1907        May 7, In San Francisco a gunfight erupted during the electrical workers strike in what came to be known as “Bloody Tuesday.” City union street car workers fought with scabs and 4 people were killed and 20 seriously injured.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.B3)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W3)

1907        Sep 1, Walter Reuther, labor leader, was born. He merged the American Federation of Labor with the Congress of International Organizations
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1907        Dec 6, Worst mining disaster in American history took place in West Virginia's Marion County. An explosion at a mine owned by the Fairmont Coal Company in Monongah killed 361 coal miners.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1907        Dec 19, A gas explosion killed 239 workers in a coal mine in Jacobs Creek, Pa.
    (AP, 12/19/97)(MC, 12/19/01)

1908        Feb 3, The US Supreme Court, in Loewe v. Lawlor, ruled the United Hatters Union had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by organizing a nationwide boycott of Danbury Hatters of Connecticut.
    (AP, 2/3/08)

1908        Mar, In SF streetcar riders returned after Patrick Calhoun replaced the car-men with non-union drivers. The strike failed and the Carmen’s Union was disbanded.
    (SFC, 9/13/02, p.D9)

1908        May 30, 1st US federal workmen's compensation law was approved.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1908        Nov 28, 154 men died in a coal mine explosion at Marianna, Pa.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1909        Feb 28, The earliest Women’s Day observance, organized by the Socialist Party of America, was held in NYC. Some 15,000 women marched demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qc3544w)

1909        Apr, The Texas Sugar Land prison facility began operations. It was basically a plantation owned by Imperial Sugar which leased inmate workers from the state. The prison shut down in 2011 saving the state about $12.4 million in annual costs.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.A11)(http://offthekuff.com/wp/?p=39004)

1909        May 17, White firemen on Georgia RR struck to protest the hiring of blacks.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1910        Jan 3, British miners struck for an 8 hour working day.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1910        Oct 1, Trade unionists, aggrieved by the anti-union stance of the Los Angeles Times, bombed the Times building at 1st and Broadway killing 21 nonunion pressman and linotype operators. A new Los Angeles Times building was completed in 1935. In 2008 Howard Blum authored “American Lightning: Terror, Mystery, The Birth of Hollywood, and the Crime of the Century.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_Times_bombing)(WSJ, 9/16/08, p.A23)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.35)

1909        Nov 24, Some 15,000 shirtwaist workers walked out of the factories in NYC, with more joining the strike the following day. The strike lasted until February 1910 and ended in a "Protocal of peace" which allowed the strikers to go back to work and met the demands of the workers, which included better pay, shorter hours, and equal treatment of workers who were in the union and workers who were not.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_shirtwaist_strike_of_1909)

1910        Dec 21, Explosion in coal mine in Hulton, England killed 344 mine workers.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1910        In Chicago a spontaneous strike by a handful of women workers led to a citywide strike of 45,000 garment workers. That strike was a bitter one and pitted the strikers against not only their employers and the local authorities, but also their own union.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalgamated_Clothing_Workers_of_America)

1911        Mar 8, International Women's Day was established when American working women demonstrated for their rights as workers and women.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(SFC, 3/8/02, p.A32)

1911        Mar 25, The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire killed 146-147 immigrant workers. 13 girls survived the fire that broke out on the top three floors of the 10-story New York’s Asch Building as the workday was ending. No one knows what caused the fire, but it spread quickly, fueled by the fabric scraps and sewing machine oil used in the manufacture women’s blouses. The three avenues of escape were almost immediately clogged with panicked workers, mostly young immigrant women. Then, to the horror of spectators seven stories below, the desperate women began to jump to their deaths. Appalled by the tragedy, the New York State legislature formed a commission whose findings led to the creation of new fire and building codes that were soon adopted in cities throughout America.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/23/97)(HNPD, 3/25/00)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A8)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.C4)(MC, 3/25/02)

1912        Feb 26, Coal miners struck in England. They settled on 03/01.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1913        Feb 12, A New York commission reported that there was widespread violation of child labor laws.
    (HN, 2/12/97)

1912        Jun 4, Massachusetts passed the 1st US minimum wage law.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1912        Aug 24, US passed an anti-gag law giving federal employees the right to petition government.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1913        Feb 14, Jimmy Hoffa (d.1975), Teamsters leader who disappeared, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1913        May 8, California lawmakers passed Assembly bill 2039, an anti-tipping measure with penalties for both giving and receiving tips.
    (SSFC, 5/5/13, p.46)

1913        Jun 2, The 1st strike settlement mediated by US Dep't of Labor for the RR clerks.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1913        Jul 14, Jimmy Hoffa, missing labor leader, was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1913        Sep 11, James Farley (39), known across the US as the most successful leader of strikebreakers, died in Plattsburg, NY.
    (SSFC, 8/4/13, DB p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/mscghsd)

1914        Jan 10, In Utah John Morrison, a Salt Lake City grocer and father of six, was shot dead along with his son (17) after two men entered his shop. Labor leader Joe Hill (1879-1915) was soon treated for a fresh gunshot wound and was later tried and convicted for murder.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.73)

1914        Apr 20, Soldiers killed 33 during mine strike in Ludlow, Colo. In the Ludlow Massacre 2 women and 11 children perished in a mining camp torched by Colorado militiamen called in by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to settle a strike.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.3)(MC, 4/20/02)

1914        Apr 28,  At Eccles, WV, 181 died in coal mine collapse.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1915        Nov 19, Joe Hill (b.1879), labor leader and songwriter, was executed for murder. Joe Hill (Joseph Hillstrom) was executed after being convicted of killing two men in a holdup in Salt Lake City in 1914. He claimed the charges against him were trumped up and won worldwide support, including that of President Woodrow Wilson. Nevertheless, Hill was tried, convicted and executed by firing squad. Hill, born Joel Haggelund in Sweden in 1879, went to the United States in 1902 and soon joined the revolutionary Industrial Workers of the World (the Wobblies). In 2011 William Adler authored “The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times, and Legacy of Joe Hill.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Hill)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.A21)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.73)

1916        Jul 22, In San Francisco some 50,000 people marched in a Preparedness Day parade sponsored by business leaders and opposed by labor. A bomb went off on Market St. at Steuart during the parade. 10 people were killed including Arthur Nelson. The bomb was set by a professed anarchist. Labor leader Tom Mooney was convicted, but it turned out that the evidence was fabricated. In 1918 Mooney’s death sentence was commuted to life in prison by Gov. William Stephens. In 1930 Gov. Clement Young denied a pardon for Mooney. Lasbor activist Warren K. Billings was also convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Mooney was pardoned in 1939 by Democratic Governor Culbert Olson. Billings served 22 years in prison before being pardoned by Gov. Olson.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mooney)(AP, 7/22/97)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)(SFC, 9/22/01, p.A3)(OAH, 2/05, p.A10)(SFC, 7/8/05, p.F6)(SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)(SSFC, 12/18/11, DB p.42)(SFC, 5/17/14, p.C3)

1916        Sep 1, The Keating-Owen Act banned child labor from interstate commerce.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1916        Sep 7, The U.S. Congress passed the Workman’s Compensation Act.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1917        Mar 12, The British government shut down migration from India, after more than half a million people had come as laborers to the Caribbean.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.34)

1917        Apr 10, A munitions factory explosion at Eddystone, PA., killed 133 workers.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1917        Jun 15, The US Espionage Act was passed. It was used to ban Marxist magazines from the mails and was soon followed by the Sedition Act. Eugene Debs was sent to prison for opposing the war under the Espionage Act.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Espionage_Act_of_1917)(WSJ, 10/29/98, p.A20)

1917        Aug 1, Frank Little, IWW organizer, was lynched in Butte, MT.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1917        Aug 11, In San Francisco some 1,300 United Railroads employees went on strike and crippled the city’s transit system.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)

1917        Aug 16, In San Francisco six United Railroads substitute platform men were arrested after they drove in an out of a parade of striking carmen. The men were recruited from Los Angeles. Two other machines carrying seven men each escaped. Loaded revolvers were found in the side pockets and under the chauffeur’s coat along with black jacks and clubs.
    (SSFC, 8/13/17, DB p.50)

1917        Aug 22, San Francisco Mayor James Rolph tole Jesse W. Lilienthal, president of the street car company, that that service must be resumed as street fighting between strikers and United Railroads substitutes  left 18 people injured.
    (SSFC, 3/20/17, DB p.54)

1917        Aug 31, San Francisco police went on duty with nightsticks after more than a score of Unite Railroad cars had been stoned and five people injured on Mission and Valencia Streets by strike sympathizers returning home from work.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, DB p.65)

1917        Sep 17, Some 20,000 iron workers went on strike in SF, Oakland and Alameda in the biggest strike ever on the Pacific Coast. Marines were sent to guard the Union Iron Works and 32 men were arrested as workers demonstrated against the United Railroads by stoning cars and beating substitute carmen.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W5)(SSFC, 9/17/17 DB p.54)

1918        Jun 3, The US Supreme Court ruled child labor laws unconstitutional.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1919        Feb 6, The 1st day of 5-day Seattle general strike, the first general strike in America, took effect. During this period Washington was a center for the Industrial Workers of the World, also known as the "Wobblies." Their agitation led to the Centralia massacre and the Everett massacre.
    (WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A14)(MC, 2/6/02)

1919        Mar 11, A general strike in Germany was crushed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1919        Jun 18, In California some 8,000 telephone girls went on strike demanding $4 a day for operators with two years experience.
    (SSFC, 6/16/19,  DB p.38)

1919        California state work legislation restricted women and minors under 18 from working over 48 hours a week. Work with dangerous machinery was prohibited to those under 16.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)
1919        In San Francisco the Bullard family business began making hardhats modeled on the metal helmets used by soldiers during World War I.
    (SSFC, 10/6/19, p.D1)
1919        The French Confederation of Christian Workers (Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens, CFTC) was founded. In 1964 it split to form the CFDT and CFTC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycqnkfpe)

1920        May 19, In Matewan, West Virginia, a gunbattle between coal company-hired detectives and local townspeople leaving 10 men dead, including mayor Cabell Testerman, 2 miners and 7 detectives.
    (AH, 4/07, p.62)(www.matewan.com/History/battle.htm)

1919        Aug 31, John Reed formed the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"
    (HN, 8/31/98)(YN, 8/31/99)(MC, 8/31/01)

1919        Nov 22, A Labor conference committee in the U.S. urged an eight hour work day and a 48-hour week.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1920        Nov, In West Virginia Democratic Gov. John Cornwell invoked martial law and called for help from Washington to quell violence between mine owners and striking coal miners.
    (AH, 4/07, p.63)

1921        Mar 31, Great Britain declared a state of emergency because of the thousands of coal miners on strike.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1921        Apr 15, The Black Friday Labour Party strike of mine workers failed.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1921        Aug 1, Sid Hatfield, police chief of Matewan, WV,  and Ed Chambers were murdered on the steps of the McDowell County Courthouse by Baldwin-Felts detectives. Hatfield and 22 miners had been recently been acquitted of the May 19, 1920 shootings in Matewan, WV, but he was indicted for conspiracy for continuing mine violence. Hatfield had been a long-time supporter of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA). This soon led to the Battle of Blair Mountain, a labor uprising also know as the Red Neck War.
    (http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj66/newsinger.htm)(AH, 4/07, p.63)

1921        Sep 2, At the Battle of Blair Mountain in West Virginia an army of 10 to 15 thousand miners and their families faced a private army of some 2,000 men and 2,100 state and federal troops. The fledgling US Air Force dropped a few bombs as a demonstration meant to overawe the labor organizers and in the event. The death toll for the battle was estimated from fewer than 20 to more than 50. This was the largest confrontation between workers and the state in US history.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Blair_Mountain)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.32)(AH, 4/07, p.67)(Econ 7/1/17, SR p.6)

1921        Dec 21, Supreme Court ruled labor injunctions and picketing unconstitutional.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1922        May 18, Dutch 2nd Chamber agreed to a 48 hour work week over the previous 45 hours.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1922        Aug 8, An Italian general strike was broken by fascist terror.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1923        Apr 7, The Workers Party of America in NYC became an official communist party.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1923        May 28, US unemployment was nearly ended.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1923        Aug 13, US Steel Corp. initiated an 8-hour work day.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1924        Mar 8, Coal mine explosion killed 171 at Castle Gate, Utah.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1924        Apr 26, House Joint Resolution No. 184, The child labor amendment to prohibit the labor of persons under 18 years of age, was adopted by the US House of Representatives, with a vote of 297 yeas, 69 nays, 2 "present" and 64 not voting. It was then adopted by the Senate on June 2, 1924, with a vote of 61 yeas, 23 nays and 12 not voting. With that, the proposed constitutional amendment was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification pursuant to Article V of the Constitution. It was never ratified and in 2007 was still technically pending.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_labor_amendment)

1925        Jul 31, An Unemployment Insurance Act was passed in England.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1925        Aug 25, Asa Philip Randolph (36) began to organize the Pullman Sleeping Car Porters’ Union.
    (PCh, 1992, p.768)(HN, 8/25/98)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)

1925        The All-China Federation of Trade Unions was founded. In 1927 it was crushed by the nationalist government and then rose with the ascension of the Communist Party in 1949. It was crushed again in the Cultural Revolution and then revived following Mao’s death.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.66)

1926        Jan 12, U.S. coal talks broke down, leaving both sides bitter as the strike dragged on into its fifth month.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1926        Apr 3, Italy established corps of force in order to break powerful unions.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1926        May 3, There was a British general strike and 3 million workers supported the miners.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1927        Mar 31, Cesar Chavez (d.1993), California union leader of agricultural workers (United Farm Workers), was born in Yuma, Az.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.C3)(SFC, 3/29/00, p.A3)(MC, 3/31/02)

1927        Nov 21, Police turned machine guns on striking Colorado mine workers, killing five and wounding 20.
    (HN, 11/21/98)

1928        Apr, In California Mexican workers formed "The Imperial Valley Workers Union" to try to challenge the wage abuses they had been experiences. In May the union sent out letters to all the growers respectfully asking for 15 cents a crate for picking cantaloupes or 75 cents an hour for the labor. In October of 1933 and June 1934 there were many strikes that resulted in violent reactions by the police and growers.
    (http://aztlan.sdsu.edu/chicanohistory/chapter07/c07s01.html)

1928        May 19, "Firedamp" exploded in a Mather, Pennsylvania, coal mine killing 195 of 273 miners.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1928        John Spedan Lewis, son of the John Lewis, formed a partnership with the employees of the department store founded by his father. The business was founded in 1864 when John Lewis set up a draper's shop in Oxford Street, London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lewis_Partnership)

1932        Jan, Wisconsin became the first state to provide unemployment benefits.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.31)(http://dwd.wisconsin.gov/dwd/publications/ui/ucb3006.pdf)

1932        Feb 27, Explosion in coal mine in Boissevain, Virginia, left 38 dead.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1932        Mar 7, Riots at Ford factory in Dearborn, Michigan, killed 4.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1932        Apr 5, A Dutch textile strike was broken by trade unions.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1932        Aug 27-28, In England 200,000 textile workers went on strike.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1933        May 2, In Germany, Adolf Hitler banned trade unions.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1933        Jun 6, The US Employment Service was created.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1933        Jun 16, The US Congress passed the National Recovery Act. A $.25-per-hour standard wage was set as part of the Act. However, in 1935 the US Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Act unconstitutional, and the minimum wage was abolished. In July a code of the NRA instituted a 35 hour week for blue-collar workers and a 40-hour week for office employees. Minimum wages were also instituted, ranging from 12 ½ cents an hour for needlework employees in Puerto Rico to 70 cents an hour for wrecking and salvage workers in NYC. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt had employers sign a “President’s Reemployment Agreement” covering 16.3 million employees. The employers who signed on agreed to limit work weeks to 40 hours, to pay a minimum wage of $12-$15 per week (at least 30 cents/hour) and to not hire children under 16.
    (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1663.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_wage)
    (http://tinyurl.com/8mxty)(http://tinyurl.com/9t4rn)

1933        Aug 5, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Labor Board to enforce the right of collective bargaining. It was later replaced with the National Labor Relations Board.
    (AP, 8/5/08)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1933        Nov 13, The 1st modern sit-down strike began with Hormel meat packers in Austin, Minn.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1933        Pres. Roosevelt signed a law that granted workers the right to choose which labor union they wanted to join.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.D11)

1934        Mar 15, Henry Ford restored the $5 a day wage.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1934        May 9, The San Francisco waterfront strike began. The Int’l. Longshoremen’s Association (ILA), headed by Australian immigrant Harry Bridges, shut down seaports in Washington, Oregon and California for 3 months. Union workers went on strike for a 6 hour day and a hiring hall to replace the company operated Blue Book Union on the waterfront. Strike breakers were housed in ships to avoid getting beat up by the dock workers. In 1996 David F. Selvin published "A Terrible Anger: The 1934 Waterfront and General Strikes in San Francisco." [see Jul 5]
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.5)(SFEM, 3/2/97, p.21)(SFC, 8/4/97, p.E5)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1934        Jul 5, During the West Coast maritime strike Mayor Angelo J. Rossi, a former florist, unleashed the city’s violently anti-union police department on the workers. 33 people were shot with 2 men killed in what came to be called "Bloody Thursday." Police fired into a crowd of strikers at Steuart and Mission streets and killed Howard S. Sperry and Nickolas Bordoise. Another 109 strikers were wounded. Police had tried to escort scabs to the docks. Civil liberties attorneys Ernest Besig (d.1998 at 94), and Chester Williams were called in from New York. They founded a local American Civil Liberties Union and sued SF and Oakland for failure to protect striker’s First Amendment rights.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W31)(SFC, 11/21/98, p.C2)(SFC, 9/27/02, p.D11)(SSFC, 7/3/11, DB p.38)

1934        Jul 9, In SF a parade of 15,000 was held on Market Street for the 2 men killed on Jul 5. The funeral was followed by a general strike. SF Mayor Angelo J. Rossi and Gov. Frank Merriman blamed the strike on Communists.
    (SFEM, 1/18/98, p.6)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W31)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.4)

1934        Jul 16, The nation’s 1st general strike was called in San Francisco in response to violence and disregard of worker’s rights in the waterfront strike. Some 140,000 workers walked off their jobs. It collapsed after 4 days. Seven men were killed and thousands were injured. The general strike ended after 4 days and went into arbitration. In the fall arbitrators gave the union a hiring hall, a 6-hour day and a small wage increase. [see May 9, Jul 5]
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.5)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 9/27/02, p.D11)(PCh, 1992, p.826)

1934        Jul 18, Cotton-mill workers in the US south went on strike. The UTW locals in the northern part of Alabama launched a strike in Huntsville, Alabama, then spread to Florence, Anniston, Gadsden, and Birmingham. While the strike was popular, it was also ineffective: many employers welcomed it as a means of cutting their expenses, since they had warehouses full of unsold goods. A documentary called the "Uprising of ‘34" was made in 1995 and scheduled for PBS on 6/27/95.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_workers_strike_%281934%29)

1935        Mar 3, Dutch Revolutionary Socialist Worker's party (RSAP) was formed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1935        Apr 8, The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was approved by Congress. President Franklin Roosevelt proposed the Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the Great Depression of the 1930s when almost 25 percent of Americans were unemployed. The WPA created low-paying federal jobs to provide immediate relief. The WPA put 8.5 million jobless to work on projects as diverse as constructing highways, bridges and public buildings to arts programs like the Federal Writers' Project.
    (AP, 4/8/97)(HN, 4/8/98)(HNPD, 4/8/99)

1935        May 7, US Commissioner Ernest E. Williams listened as witnesses charged Walter Lord, head of Drive-Away Travel Service of Detroit, with violating the National Recovery Administration automobile code. At least 10 young men were left stranded in San Francisco after driving in cars from Detroit with no pay. Drivers figured they had worked 138 hours, which at the NRA rate of 37.5 cents and hour, would have meant $51.75 in wages for each driver.
    (SSFC, 5/2/10, DB p.46)

1935        Jul 5, President Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), which provided for a National Labor Relations Board and authorized labor to organize for the purpose of collective bargaining. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) was created by a statute as an independent federal agency that conducts secret-ballot elections to determine whether employees desire union representation.  This inaugurated the "pink decade" of Soviet espionage and penetration of America's labor movement by Communists.
    (WSJ, 5/12/97, p.A15)(AP, 7/5/97)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C4)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6)

1936        Feb 12, In France more than 4.5 million workers came out on strike; 1 million took to the streets, shutting the country down.
    (www.greenleft.org.au/node/33582)

1936        Jun 30, A 40 hour work week law was approved for US federal workers.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1936        Leon Blum introduced the 2-week paid holiday for all French workers. In the early 1980s this was extended to 5 weeks.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.59)

1937        Jan 22, In San Francisco riots between longshoremen factions surged through the financial district. 33 men were sent to jail and 4 to the hospital. This was the first major disturbance in the 85-day-old maritime strike.
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, DB p.42)

1937        Feb 11, In Flint, Mich., a sit-down strike against General Motors ended after 44 days, with the company agreeing to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union. The UAW was victorious in a strike against GM. GM recognized the union and agreed to a contract.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 2/11/97)

1937        Mar 1, US Steel raises workers' wages to $5 a day.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1937          May 30, The Memorial Day Massacre took place. Ten union demonstrators were killed and 84 wounded when police opened fire in front of the South Chicago Republic Steel plant. Earlier in 1937 the Steel Workers' Organizing Committee had secured recognition by U.S. Steel as the workers' bargaining agency and had won a number of concessions. "Little Steel," under the leader ship of Republic's Tom Girdler firmly opposed the union demands, leading to the deadly demonstration. A newsreel film of the Republic Steel strike riots was made.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)(HNQ, 5/25/98)

1937        Apr 12, The US Supreme Court ruled that the 1935 National Labor Relations Act is unconstitutional.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1937        Jun 5, Henry Ford initiated a 32 hour work week.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1937        Jul 8, In San Francisco a 3-month hotel strike continued as union members demonstrated in front of the Hotel Manx on Powell St. Owner Harvey M. Toy protested with a telegram to Mayor Rossi.
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.42)

1938        Jun 25, The US Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 was enacted.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

1938        Sep 5, In San Francisco some 85,000 unionists, led by ILWU head Harry Bridges, marched to celebrate Labor Day.
    (SSFC, 9/1/13, DB p.42)

1938        Oct 24, The Fair Labor Standards Act became law, establishing the 40-hour work week and overtime rules. The Act forbade child labor in factories. [see Oct 24, 1940]
    (HN, 10/24/00)(MC, 10/24/01)

1938        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.25 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1938        In Sweden the Saltsjobaden Accord was signed between unions and employers ushering in a consensus system of labor relations.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.20)

1939        Jan 7, US worker's union leader Tom Mooney,  jailed since 1916, was freed.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1939        Feb 27, The US Supreme Court outlawed sit-down strikes.
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/98)

1939        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.30 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1940        Oct 24, The 40-hour work week went into effect under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
    (AP, 10/24/97)

1940        Lead-based paint for the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge was priced at about $30,000 this year. Fifteen workers were paid $10.50 for a seven-hour day to scrape and paint the 1937 bridge.
    (SSFC, 1/25/15, DB p.42)

1941        Feb 3, The US Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, ruling that Congress can fix minimum wages and maximum hours for US workers.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1942        Jul 31, At midnight the record studios fell silent in a struggle with James Caesar Petrillo (d.1984), head of the American Federation of Musicians. Petrillo insisted that the record industry pay a ¼ to ¾ cent royalty to the musicians union. Decca signed an agreement in Aug, 1943, and Columbia and Victor surrendered Nov 11, 1944.
    (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)

1942        Aug 4, The "Bracero Program," began running under the auspices of the US Dept. of Labor. It sent Mexican workers to the US to help the labor shortage created by World War II. From 1942-1949 10% of their wages was deposited with the National Bank of Rural Credit, Banrural (Banco Nacional de Credito Agricola, a predecessor of Banrural). The program ended in 1964. Workers in 1999 demanded to know the status of the fund. Mexican banking officials in 1999 reported no evidence of the funds. In 2001 a suit for $500 million was filed for deposits and interest from 1942-1949.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)(SFC, 10/6/99, p.A16)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.A19)

1943        Dec 2, A US federal judge ordered officials at the Boilermakers' Union to issue temporary work permits for 160 Negro employees at Marin ship. The SF Bay Area employees had been discharged when they refused to join a "Jim Crow" auxiliary, which gave them no voice in the union.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, DB p.46)

1943        Brazil adopted a rigid labor law transplanted from Benito Mussolini’s Italy.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.52)

1944        Pres. Roosevelt ordered the Army to seize the executive offices of Montgomery Ward and Co. after Sewell Avery, chairman of Montgomery Ward, refused to comply with a National War labor Board directive to extend a 1942 labor contract. Avery was bodily removed along with other senior managers. The US government took control of operations until the end of the war.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1945        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.40 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1946        Jan 25, The United Mine Workers rejoined the American Federation of Labor.
    (AP, 1/25/98)

1946        Feb 20, The US Employment Act of 1946 was signed into law. It laid the responsibility of economic stability of inflation and unemployment onto the federal government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment_Act_of_1946)

1946        Apr 1,  A U.S. mine worker strike idled 400,000 miners.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1946        Dec 7, The president of the United Mine Workers, John L. Lewis, ordered all striking miners back to work.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1947        Mar 25, A coal mine explosion in Centralia, Ill., claimed 111 lives.
    (AP, 3/25/97)

1947        May 13, The US Senate approved the Taft-Hartley Act limiting the power of unions. [see Jun 4]
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1947        Jun 4, The House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved the Labor Management Relations Act also known as the Taft-Hartley Act. It provided for an 80-day injunction against strikes that endangered public health and safety. Pres. [see Jun 20]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1447)(AP, 6/4/97)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C4)

1947        Jun 20, President Truman vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act, but had his veto overridden by Congress. The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only following a majority employee vote. [see Jun 4]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.C2)(AP, 6/20/97)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1947        Dec 12, The United Mine Workers union withdrew from the American Federation of Labor.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1948        Apr 14, Walter P. Reuther, Pres (United Auto Workers), was shot at his home. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1948        Apr 20, United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit. [see Apr 14]
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1948        General Motors agreed to annual cost-of-living pay increases.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)

1948        Two Milwaukee lawyers founded Manpower after they failed to find extra administrative help for an urgent legal brief. By 2009 the company had over 4,000 offices in 82 countries.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.57)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.74)

1949        Dec 7, The A.F.L. and the C.I.O. organized a non-Communist international trade union.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1950        Aug 25, President Truman ordered the Army to seize control of the nation’s railroads to avert a strike. The railroads were returned to their owners 2 years later.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1950        Jan, The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.75 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1950        General Motors agreed to free health-care coverage for life along with generous pensions. Chrysler and Ford were forced to offer similar benefits.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)

1951        Mar 23, Wages in France increased 11%.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1951        German corporations began operating under a principle of co-determination between workers and management. It applied to companies with more than 2000 workers.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.63)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.16)

1952        Mar 1, In SF Municipal Railway workers received a wage increase of 9.4 cents effective July 1. This raised their hourly rate to $1.73.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.G8)

1952        Apr 8, President Truman, to avert a strike, ordered the Army to seize the nation’s steel mills after companies rejected Wage Stabilization Board recommendations. Truman’s attempt to take over the US steel industry was later denied by the Supreme Court and the mills were shut down by strikers for 8 weeks [see Jun 2].
    (TMC, 1994, p.1952)(AP, 4/8/97)(HN, 4/8/98)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.B10)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1952        Apr 12, A telephone strike was settled in Michigan but continued in Northern California for a 5th day.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.G6)

1952        Jul 24, President Truman announced a settlement in a 53-day steel strike.
    (AP, 7/24/02)

1952        Jun 2, The US Supreme Court ruled in favor of steelworkers, who then began a 53-day walkout demanding wage and benefit increases.
    (SFC, 4/9/09, p.B2)

1952        Sep 6, The 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a conviction against Harry Bridges as a Communist who lied to obtain US citizenship.
    (SFC, 9/6/02, p.E3)

1952        Nov 25, George Meany was appointed chairman of AFL.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1953        Feb 6, US controls on wages and some consumer goods were lifted.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1953        Apr 8, A Federal Grand Jury in SF indicted Hugh Bryson, pres. of the National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards, on charges that he falsely claimed that he was not a communist in a Taft-Hartley affidavit.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.E6)

1953        Aug 13, 4-5 million French went on strike against economizations.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1953        The California Legislature rewrote a 1919 wage law to require overtime pay for women and minors who work extra days or hours.
    (SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)

1954        Jan 9, Former Hawaii Gov. Ingram Steinbeck said this is no time to admit the territory of Hawaii to the Union, because left wing labor unions had an economic stranglehold on the islands.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.E2)

1954        Jan 16, Mexico closed its borders to all farm laborers heading for the US following a breakdown in negotiations with the US over renewal of an annual agreement on labor flow.
    (SFC, 1/16/04, p.E5)

1954        US labor union membership reached an all time high of 35% of the work force.
    (WSJ, 1/7/04, p.B1)

1955        Feb 3, AFL grocery clerks struck against the 400-members of the Retail Grocers Association and began picketing 2 stores in SF. Negotiations had broken down over union demands for $3 per week wage increase. An employer’s lockout soon closed at least 100 stores.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.F9)

1955        Feb 9, US federations of trade unions agreed to merge into the AFL-CIO: The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)(SFC, 2/4/05, p.F9)

1955        Apr 30, West German unions protested for 40-hour work week and more wages.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1955        Jul 1, Singapore’s government started the Central Provident Fund, a compulsory comprehensive social security savings plan. It required contributions from both employees and employers.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, SR p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Provident_Fund)

1955        Aug 12, Pres Eisenhower raised the minimum wage from $0.75 to $1 an hour.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1955        Dec 5, The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merged to form the AFL-CIO under its first president, George Meany. [see Feb 9]
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1956        Mar 20, Union workers ended a 156-day strike at Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    (AP, 3/20/97)

1956        Mar, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.00 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1956        Jul 10, 650,000 US steel workers went on strike.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1957        Dec 6, AFL-CIO members voted to expel the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. The union had been expelled because of racketeering by its executives, including union president Dave Beck and vice president James R. Hoffa. The criminal activity was disclosed during a special Senate committee investigation of racketeering and organized crime in labor-management relations. The Teamsters were readmitted in Oct, 1987, but disaffiliated themselves from the AFL-CIO in 2005.
    (HNQ, 1/8/99)(AP, 12/6/07)

1957        The International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and ratified Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107), an international instrument dedicated to improving the living conditions of Indigenous peoples worldwide. In 1989 it was revised and renamed Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169). Convention 169 recognizes Indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination within a nation-state.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gsrhxrq)(Econ, 2/6/15, p.32)

1959        May 1, West Germany introduced a 5 day work week.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1959        A 116-day strike opened the doors to foreign imports as 519,000 US workers demanded better benefits.
    (WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)

1959        Wisconsin became the 1st US state to enact a comprehensive collective bargaining law.
    (SFC, 2/17/11, p.A8)

1960        Jan 22, The John burg coal mine caved in and 417 die.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1960        May 19, Belgian parliament required a rest day for self employed.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1961        Mar 9, A mine cave-in in Japan killed 72.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1961        Jul 7, James R. Hoffa was elected president of Teamsters.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1961        Sep, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.15 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1961        Oct 30, West Germany signed a guest-worker treaty with Turkey.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yakh2moo)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.43)

1962        Mar 31, Cesar Chavez (d.1993) founded the United Farm Workers Union on his birthday.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A14)

1962        May 25, US unions AFL-CIO started campaign for a 35-hour work week.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1962        Dec 8, A 114-day newspaper strike began in NYC.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1962        Pres. Kennedy signed an Executive Order maintaining the right of federal employees to join unions and negotiate on many issues.
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1963        Mar 1, 200,000 French mine workers went on strike.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1963                 Apr 1,  Workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after began on December 8, 1962.
    (OTD)

1963        Jun 9, A US Equal Pay Act was enacted.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1963        Jun 10, JFK signed an equal pay for equal work law for men & women.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1963        Sep, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.25 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1963        Studebaker halted production of its cars. Some 4,000 employees lost their company pensions as the firm permanently closed its plant in South Bend, Ind. This led to the passage of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) in 1974.
    {Indiana, USA, Cars, Labor}
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.B1)(Econ, 7/11/15, p.28)

1964        Mar 1, In San Francisco demonstrations began at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel over racial hiring practices.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.A1)

1964        Mar 3, In San Francisco two days after protests at the Palace Hotel, demonstrators gathered to protest the hiring practices of the Cadillac salesroom on Van Ness. Student activist, Terence Hallinan, was arrested in a 2-day of protest against racial discrimination in hiring at the Sheraton Palace Hotel.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.6)(SFEM, 11/17/96, p.27)

1964        Mar 4, Jimmy Hoffa was convicted of jury tampering.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1964        Jul 26, Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.
    (AP, 7/26/97)

1964        The French Democratic Confederation of Labor (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail, CFDT) was founded when a majority of the members of the Christian trade union Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC) decided they preferred to be part of a secular union. The minority kept the name CFTC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y94wu78d)
1964        In Guyana a pre-election conflict broke out between the largely Afro-Guyanese People’s National Congress and the largely Indo-Guyanese people’s Progressive Party.  Riots erupted after mostly black laborers were brought in to replace striking Indian plantation workers. 176 people were killed.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A8)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.52)

1965        Sep 8, An AFL-CIO affiliated Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a union of mostly Filipino workers, voted to go on strike in Delano, Ca. Larry Itliong (1913-1977) led the strike. They were joined after eleven days by Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers Assoc. In 1967 John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) authored "Delano," an account of the California grape strike.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larry_Itliong)(SFEC, 10/19/97, p.C3)(SFC, 1/1/04, p.A23)

1965        US Steel workers negotiated the right to retire on a full pension after 30 years of service, regardless of age.
    (WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)

1966        Jan 1, A 12 day transit worker strike shut down NYC subway and buses. The strike became a major rallying point behind the Taylor Law, which severely curtailed the ability of public employees in the state to strike and took effect on Sep 1, 1967.
    (SSFC, 10/20/13, p.E2)

1966        Jan 12, A 12 day NYC transit strike ended.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1966        Jul 8, A US airline strike began and lasted until Aug 19th.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1966        The Brooklyn Navy Yard closed down. 12,000 jobs were lost overnight.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.26)

1967        Jan 19, In New Zealand 19 people were killed in an explosion at the Strongman mine.
    (www.teara.govt.nz/en/coal-and-coal-mining/7)

1967        Feb 1, The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.40 an hour.
    (www.dol.gov/ESA/minwage/chart.htm)

1967        Mar 6, Jimmy Hoffa entered Lewisburg Federal Prison. [see Mar 7]
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1967        Mar 7, Convicted Teamster boss Jimmy Hoffa began an eight-year prison term in Pennsylvania for defrauding the union and jury tampering. The sentence was commuted by President Nixon Dec 23, 1971.
    (HN, 3/7/98)(MC, 3/7/02)

1967        Sep 1, New York state’s Taylor Law went into effect. It severely curtailed the ability of public employees in the state to strike.
    (SSFC, 10/20/13, p.E2)

1967        Dec 15, The US Age Discrimination Employment Act became public law.
    (www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/documents/ycr/adea67.htm)

1968        Feb, The US federal hourly minimum wage was set at $1.60 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1968        Apr 18, Some 178,000 employees of US Bell Telephone System went on strike.
    (www.project1968.com/in-the-news-april-14-apri.html)

1968        Aug 9, The 267-day Detroit newspaper strike ended.
    (www.loc.gov/rr/news/chronological/exception_report.html)

1968        Walter Galenson (1914-1999), American labor economist, published "The C.I.O. Challenge to the A.F.L." with Harvard Univ. Press.
    (SFC, 1/8/00, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Galenson)

1969        Jun 11, John L. Lewis (b.1880), American labor organizer, died. He was the driving force behind the 1935 formation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._Lewis)

1969        Philadelphia initiated a program of “career academies,” which combined academic and technical curriculums and gave students work experience.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.34)

1969        The first case of karoshi, a Japanese term for death from overwork, was reported with the death from a stroke of a male worker (29) in the shipping department of Japan's largest newspaper company. In 1987, as public concern increased, the Japanese Ministry of Labour began to publish statistics on karoshi.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kar%C5%8Dshi)

1970        Jan 5, Joseph A. Yablonski, an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of the United Mine Workers, was found murdered with his wife and daughter at their Clarksville, Pa., home. Nine people were later charged in the killing including UMW Pres. W.A. Boyle.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1970        Mar 18, The U.S. Postal Service was paralyzed by the first postal strike. A walkout of letter carriers in Brooklyn and Manhattan set off a strike that involved 210,000 of the nation’s 750,000 postal employees. Pres. Nixon declared a state of national emergency and assigned military units to NYC post offices.
    (HN, 3/18/98)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1970        May 9, Walter P. Reuther (b.1907), US worker's union leader, president (CIO), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Reuther)

1970        Aug 3, A 4-day NFL strike ended.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1970        Oct 3, Baseball umpires called their 1st strike.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1970        Mexico overhauled its labor code.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.37)

1971        Apr 28, The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was established within the Dept. of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which was passed on Dec 29, 1970. It was formed to protect workers from on-the-job injuries and illnesses.
    (www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/100.html#100.1)

1971        An Arizona law under Gov. Jack Williams (1909-1998) outlawed secondary boycotts and harvest-time strikes, tools used by the growing UFW.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.12)(http://rulers.org/indexw2.html)

1972        Jan 9, British coal miners begin a national strike, the first for half a century. The strike ended on 28 February 1972, when the miners returned to work.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_miners%27_strike_(1972))

1972        In Zimbabwe 418 people were killed in an underground explosion at a mine.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

1973        Crystal Lee Sutton (1940-2009) was fired for her pro-union activities at a J.P. Stevens textile plant in North Carolina. The 1979 film “Norma Rae” was based on her story. In 1974 the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile workers Union won the right to represent 3,000 employees at seven Roanoke Rapids plants in North Carolina.   
    (SFC, 9/15/09, p.C4)

1974        Jan 1 In Britain a 3-day work week went into effect following a power shortage caused by striking miners.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.59)(http://tinyurl.com/y76xjwe)

1974        Apr 11, United Mine Workers president W. A. “Tony” Boyle was found guilty of first-degree murder, for ordering the assassination of union reformer Joseph A. “Jock” Yablonski in 1969. Yablonski, his wife and daughter were murdered on December 30, 1969. Boyle had defeated Yablonski in the UMW election earlier in the year-an election marred by intimidation and vote fraud. In 1972 the election was set aside by a federal court after Boyle had been convicted of illegal use of UMW funds in the federal elections of 1968. In a new election held in December, 1972, Boyle was defeated by rank and file reformist Arnold Miller. Soon after the election Boyle was put on trial for murdering the Yablonskis and was sentenced to three consecutive life terms in prison.   
    (HNQ, 11/8/99)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1974        May 1, The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $2.00 an hour.
    (www.dol.gov/ESA/minwage/chart.htm)

1975        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $2.10 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1975        May 3,    Gov. Jerry Brown of California began a round of private meetings to resolve the issues between the UFW, agribusiness, and the Teamsters Union.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.22)

1975        Jun 5, Gov. Jerry Brown of California announced the new Agricultural Labor Relations Act. It was a temporary truce in the struggle between the state’s  farm workers (UFW) led by Cesar Chavez and farmers. Chavez officially ended the table grape, lettuce and wine boycott on Jan 31, 1978.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.22)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.E4)

1975        Jul 30, Former Teamsters union president Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red fox Restaurant in suburban Detroit. Although presumed dead, his remains have never been found. He was scheduled to meet with Mafia captain Tony Jack Giacalone (d.2001 at 82) and New Jersey Teamster boss Anthony Provenzano. In 2004 Charles Brandt authored “I Heard You Paint Houses,” in which he says Teamster official Frank Sheeran (d.2003) claimed to have shot Hoffa. Hoffa was declared legally dead in 1982.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/26/01, p.A24)(SFC, 5/29/04, p.A2)

1975        India banned debt bondage with a stipulated fine of 2000 rupees ($37), but the law was rarely prosecuted.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.42)

1976        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $2.30 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1976        May 8, San Francisco city craft workers agreed to end their 38-day strike. City supervisors agreed to take Propositions E and K off the June ballot.
    (SFC, 5/4/01, WBb p.3)

1976        The California Legislature extended a 1953 wage law requiring overtime pay for women and minors who work extra days or hours to all workers.
    (SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)
1976        A typical American CEO earned 36 times as much as the average worker. By 2008 average CEO pay increased to 369 times that of the average worker.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.E2)
1976        In Poland Jacek Kuron (1934-2004) led a mobilization of the Committee to Assist Workers (KOR) to support striking workers. In 1977 it was reorganized into the Committee for Social Self-defense (KOR).
    (http://tinyurl.com/z9u3yhd)(SFC, 6/19/04, p.B6)

1977        The US Congress gave the Federal Reserve a dual mandate of stable prices and full employment.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.113)

1978        Jan 31, Cesar Chavez officially ended the United Farm Workers’ boycott of table grapes, lettuce and wine.
    (SFC, 1/31/03, p.E4)

1978        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $2.65 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1978        Mar 6, Pres. Carter invoked the Taft-Hartley Act for an 80-day cooling off period in a coal strike. Miners had struck 3 months earlier after coal companies demanded wage and benefit cuts and refused to be forced back to work. They ended the strike after 110 days when most company demands were dropped.
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bituminous_Coal_Strike_of_1977-1978)

1978        Jul 4, Memphis fire fighters halted 3-day strike under a court order.
    (Maggio)

1978        Aug 9, A California statewide Teamsters warehouse workers strike began.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.E9)

1978        Sep 26, British unions, fed up with wage restraints, launched their “winter of discontent,” to the humiliation of James Callaghan’s government.
    (http://web.onetel.net.uk/~davewalton/archive/local/winterofdiscontent.html)(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.A21)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.69)

1978        Pres. Carter invoked the Taft-Hartley Act for an 80-day cooling off period in a coal strike. Miners had struck 3 months earlier after coal companies demanded wage and benefit cuts and refused to be forced back to work. They ended the strike after 110 days when most company demands were dropped.
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)
1978        Robert Oakeshott (1933-2011), British social reformer, authored “The Case for Worker’s Co-ops.”
    (www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/8630990/Robert-Oakeshott.html)

1979        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $2.90 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1979        Feb, Farm workers in California began a mass walkout in the UFW supported great lettuce strike.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.34)

1979        Mar 8, Cesar Chavez led some 5,000 striking farmworkers on a march through the streets of Salinas, Ca.
    (SFC, 2/05/04, p.E8)

1979        May 16, Asa Philip Randolph (b.1889), black labor leader and civil rights pioneer, died in NYC. Randolph brought the word of trade unionism to millions of African American households.
    (www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/randolph.cfm)

1979        Jul 31, Cesar Chavez began a 12-day march from SF to Salinas to dramatize the 6-month strike of the United Farm Workers.
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.F2)

1979        Aug 27, California’s West Coast Farms agreed to a 3-year pattern contract with the United Farm Workers raising the minimum hourly wage.
    (SFC, 8/27/04, p.F2)

1979-1995    Lane Kirkland served as president of the AFL-CIO. In 2005 Arch Puddington authored “Lane Kirkland: Champion of American Labor.”
    (WSJ, 3/8/05, p.D7)

1980        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.10 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1980        Feb 4, In Alameda, Ca., 3 former waitresses testified in Superior Court that they were blackballed by a union hiring hall after refusing to have sex with labor leader Ray Lane.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.F9)

1980        Jul 17, Over 6,000 union hotel employees went on strike and were locked out of SF hotels in a contract dispute, the 1st in 40 years.
    (SFC, 7/15/05, p.F3)

1980        Apr 11, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1980        Aug 14, Some 17,000 Polish workers, led by Lech Walesa, began a 17-day strike at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk. This resulted in the creation of the Solidarity labor movement.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/14/00)(MC, 8/14/02)

1980        Aug 31, Poland's Solidarity labor movement was born with an agreement signed in Gdansk that ended a 17-day strike. Solidarity, founded by Lech Walesa during anticommunist strikes at the Gdansk shipyards, won recognition as the first free trade union of the Soviet bloc.   
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFC, 7/11/97, p.A10)(AP, 8/31/97)

1980        The average CEO of a company on the FTSE All Share index earned 25 times more than the average employee. In 2016 this rose to 130 times more than the average employee.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.22)

1980-1988    Labor union independence in Iran was destroyed during its war with Iraq.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.53)

1981        Jan, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.35 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1981        Apr 22, Almost 1 million West German metal workers went on strike.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1981        Jun 12, Major league baseball players began a 49-day strike over the issue of free-agent compensation. The season did not resume until August tenth.
    (AP, 6/12/01)

1981        Jul 31, A seven-week-old Major League Baseball strike ended.
    (AP, 7/31/99)

1981        Aug 3, U.S. air traffic controllers (PATCO) went on strike, despite a warning from President Reagan they would be fired. Most of the 13,000 controllers defied Reagan’s order to return to work within 48 hours and were fired.
    (AP, 8/3/02)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1981        Aug 5, Pres. Reagan began firing 11,500 air traffic controllers who had gone out on strike 2 days earlier.
    (AP, 8/5/97)(WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A1)(MC, 8/5/02)

1981        Oct 22, The US Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization was decertified by the federal government for its strike the previous August.
    (AP, 10/22/99)

1982        Nov 16, The US National Football League ended a 57-day strike, the longest in the history of professional sports.
    (AP, 11/1697)(HN, 11/16/98)

1983        Aug 7, Some 675,000 employees struck ATT Corp.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1983        French Pres. Francois Mitterand lowered the retirement age from 65 to 60.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.31)

1984-1985    Britain’s PM Thatcher’s clashes with miner’s union leader Arthur Scargill, during the miner’s strike over this period, established a turning point in British industrial relations.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.49)

1985        Mar 3, Britain’s National Union of Mine Workers (NUM), led by Arthur Scargill, voted to end a 51 week strike that proved to be the longest and most violent walkout in British history.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(AP, 3/3/05)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.27)

1985        Jun 27, The 1st hotel strike in NYC took place.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1986        Jan 6, Impala Platinum fired 20,000 black mine workers in Johannesburg.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1986        Alexander Kisser authored "Out of Work," an overview of unemployment.
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.B1)
1986        Japan passed equal-employment-opportunity legislation removing most legal barriers to women in the workplace. Discrimination remained rampant.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, SR p.8)

1987        Feb 2, Largest steel strike in American history, in progress since August, ended.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1987        Mar 25, The US Supreme Court ruled employers may sometimes favor women and members of minority groups over men and whites in hiring and promoting in order to achieve better balance in the work force.
    (AP, 3/25/97)

1987        Jul 21, Defying a threatened veto by President Reagan, the Senate approved a trade bill containing a provision requiring companies to give 60 days' notice to employees of impending plant closings and large-scale layoffs. Reagan vetoed the bill, but ended up allowing a separate plant-closing notice measure to become law.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1987        Aug 10, Iorwith Wilbur Abel (b.1908), CEO of the United Steel Workers of America (1965-77), died. I.W. Abel had also served as vice-president of the AFL-CIO.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iorwith_Wilbur_Abel)

1987        Oct 24, The Teamsters union was welcomed back into the AFL-CIO by a vote of the labor federation's executive council in Miami Beach, Fla. The union had been expelled from the AFL-CIO in December, 1957, because of racketeering by its executives, including union president Dave Beck and vice president James R. Hoffa. However, the Teamsters disaffiliated themselves from the AFL-CIO in 2005.
    (AP, 10/24/97)(HNQ, 1/8/99)(AP, 10/24/07)
1987        Oct 24, NBC technicians accepted a pact and ended a 118 day strike.
    (http://tinyurl.com/eq22r)

1988        Mar 4, The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the nation's civilian unemployment rate had dropped the previous month to 5.7 percent.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1988        May 10, In Poland an eight-day strike by workers at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk ended without an agreement.
    (AP, 5/10/98)

1988        Jun 28, The US federal government sued the International Brotherhood of Teamsters to force reforms on the nation's largest labor union. The two sides reached a settlement in March, 1989.
    (AP, 6/28/98)

1988        Jul 9, Teamsters President Jackie Presser died in Lakewood, Ohio, at age 61.
    (AP, 7/9/98)

1988        Jul 15, The leadership of the Teamsters Union chose William J. McCarthy to fill out the remaining term of the late Jackie Presser as president, narrowly rejecting Secretary-Treasurer Weldon Mathis, Presser's hand-picked successor.
    (AP, 7/15/98)

1988        Aug 7, The Writers Guild of America ended their 6 months strike.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zlxht)

1989        Mar 3, Machinists struck Eastern Airlines and pilots honored the picket lines.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1989        Mar 4, Eastern Airlines machinists went on strike and were joined by pilots and flight attendants.
    (AP, 3/4/99)

1989        Mar 5, Machinists striking Eastern Airlines withdrew an immediate threat to picket the nation's railroads, after a federal judge issued an order temporarily prohibiting rail workers from honoring the Eastern picket lines.
    (AP, 3/5/99)

1989        Jul 27, Workers at the Nissan Motor Corp. assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., voted against representation by the United Auto Workers.
    (AP, 7/27/99)

1989        Aug 18, The US Labor Department reported that the Consumer Price Index rose only 0.2 percent in July 1989, easing fears of a recession.
    (AP, 8/18/99)

1989        Nov 23, Pilots Union gave up on a sympathy strike against Eastern Airlines.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1990        Mar 2, More than 6,000 drivers went on strike against Greyhound Lines Inc. The company, later declaring an impasse in negotiations, fired the strikers.
    (AP, 3/2/00)

1990        Mar 30, Harry Bridges (b.1901), Australian-born SF labor activist, died.
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A19)

1990        Apr 12, Greyhound Bus hired new drivers to replace strikers.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1990        Apr, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.80 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1991        Apr 17, Congress voted to put a quick end to a day-old nationwide strike by 235,000 rail workers. President Bush signed the legislation early the next day.
    (AP, 4/17/01)

1991        Apr, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $4.25 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1991        Nov 13, The U.S. House of Representatives approved a Senate-passed bill guaranteeing many workers up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family emergencies.
    (AP, 11/13/01)

1992        Feb 1, Ron Carey was sworn in as the first Teamsters president elected by the union's rank-and-file.
    (AP, 2/1/02)

1992        Feb 3, Maximum NY State unemployment benefits were raised to $300 per week.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1992        Jul 2, The Labor Department reported that the nation's unemployment rate the previous month had risen to an eight-year high of 7.8 percent, compared to 7.5 percent in May.
    (AP, 7/2/97)

1992        Jul 31, In Italy the scala mobile wage index, which maintained a rigid link between Italian wages and prices, was scrapped after a long struggle.
    (www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/ITALY/SLIDINGSCALEMECHANISM-IT.htm)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.9)

1992        Aug 3, Millions of South African blacks joined a nationwide strike against white-led rule.
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1992        Aug 12, The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was announced in Washington, D.C. after 14 months of negotiations between the United States, Mexico and Canada. It created the world's wealthiest trading bloc. [see Jan 1, 1994]
    (AP, 8/12/97)(HN, 8/12/02)

1992        Aug 31, A dynamite explosion in Philippines mine killed 500 people.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1992        Sep 4, The US government reported the nation's unemployment rate had edged down to 7.6 percent in August 1992, but also said adult joblessness had worsened slightly and the economy had lost thousands of crucial manufacturing jobs.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1992        Sep 5, A strike that had idled nearly 43,000 General Motors Corp. workers ended as members of a United Auto Workers local in Lords town, Ohio, approved a new agreement.
    (AP, 9/5/97)

1992        Australia’s Keating government passed a law requiring workers to set aside big chunks of their income into a superannuation account for retirement. This began to create a huge national retirement pool.
    (WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)(Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.6)

1993        Apr 23, Labor leader Cesar Chavez died in San Luis, Ariz., at age 66. He founded the United Farm Workers Union on his birthday Mar 31, 1962.
    (AP, 4/23/98)(SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A14)

1993        Sep 3, The US Labor Department reported the nation's unemployment rate edged down to a two-year low of 6.7 percent the previous month.
    (AP, 9/3/98)

1994        Jan 1, The North American Free Trade Agreement went into effect. Under the system a complaint is referred to a panel of experts who debate it and render a decision. The losing nation must then change its practices or offer compensation to the injured nations. Members who refuse to comply can be subjected to trade retaliation, such as tariffs to their exports. It was run out of Geneva by Renato "Rocky" Ruggiero. GATT gave poorer countries 10 years to strengthen their drug-patent laws and a similar period for the US to lift its textile quotas. The World Trade Organization (WTO), founded as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a relatively weak regulator of int’l. trade, was a product of the Uruguay Round of negotiations (1986-1994). In 2000 John R. MacArthur authored "The Selling of "Free Trade:" NAFTA, Washington, and the Subversion of American Democracy." In 2004 David Bacon authored "The Children NAFTA: Labor Wars on the US/Mexico Border.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A9)(WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/13/96, p.A1)(AP, 1/1/98) (SFC, 11/24/99, p.A1)(SFEC, 7/2/00, BR p.3)(SSFC, 4/4/04, p.M2)

1994        Sep 2, The government reported the nation's unemployment rate for August was unchanged from July, at 6.1 percent.
    (AP, 9/2/99)

1994        Jeff Taylor founded Monster.com, an online job-search site.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.66)

1995        Mar 26, The National Labor Relations Board, in an extraordinary Sunday session, voted 3-2 to seek an injunction against baseball owners as a seven-and-a-half-month-old strike by players continued.
    (AP, 3/26/00)

1995        May 10, One-hundred-four miners were killed in an elevator accident in Orkney, South Africa.
    (AP, 5/10/00)

1995        Oct 25, John J. Sweeney was elected AFL-CIO president. He soon pledged to his 13 million members “We will not be a rubber stamp of the Democrats.”
    (AP, 10/25/00)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.32)

1995        Stephen P. Yokich succeeded Owen Bibber as UAW president.
    (SFC, 8/19/02, p.B6)

1995        Germany introduced a 35-hour work week.
    (WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A14)

1996        Feb 14, In Michigan the newspapers unions in Detroit offered to return to work (on strike since July 1995). The newspapers accepted the offer 5 days later but vowed to retain some 1200 replacement workers. A 1997 ruling ordered as many as 1,100 former strikers reinstated.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A4)

1996         Mar 21, General Motors and the United Auto Workers reached a settlement in a 17-day brake-factory strike that idled more than 177,000 employees and brought the world's top automaker to a near standstill.
    (AP, 3/21/97)

1996        May 16, French unions scheduled a series of strikes to protest Prime Minister Jape’s plans to eliminate thousands of civil service jobs.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 23, The House approved, by a vote of 281-144, election-year legislation to raise the minimum wage by 90 cents an hour.
    (AP, 5/23/97)

1996        May 29, The United Farm Workers signed a contract with a major lettuce producer. A minimum of 6.62/hr will be paid rising to 7.23/hr in 5 years.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.C1)
1996        May 29, A 15-year-old Honduran girl spoke of sweatshop conditions under South Korean owners in the production of clothing for the Kathie Lee Gifford line for Wal-Mart. The National Labor Committee accused marketers such as Eddie Bauer, J. Crew, and K-Mart of selling clothes made by underage Honduran workers.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A5)

1996        Jun 9, The latest US unemployment rate was 5.6%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.9)

1996        Jun, Finland’s latest unemployment rate was 16.7%.
    {Finland, Labor}
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.9)

1996        Jul 5, The government reported the nation's unemployment rate fell to a six-year low to 5.3% in June 1996; nervous investors, fearing higher interest rates, gave the stock market its worst beating in four months, sending the Dow industrials down 114 points.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A1)(AP, 7/5/97)

1996        Aug 29-30, Dancers from the North Beach Lusty Lady Club voted on union representation with the Service Employees International Union, Local 790. The vote passed 57 to 15. The contract was ratified Apr 10, 1997.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, p.A15)(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A17)(SFC, 4/11/97, p.A19)

1996        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $4.75 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1996        Dec 5, Isidro Gil, a union leader at a Crepe, Colombia, Coca-Cola bottling plant, was killed at work. It was later alleged that the plant manager hired right-wing paramilitary to help wipe out union activity. In 2002 the labor union filed suit against Coca-Cola in Miami.
    (SFC, 6/6/02, p.A11)

1997        Feb 19, Detroit's daily newspapers accepted a back-to-work offer from employees who'd been on strike for 19 months, but the strikers charged the conditions for return amounted to a lockout.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

1997        Apr 21, Some 12,500 workers for Goodyear Tire went on strike.
    (WSJ, 4/21/97, p.A1)

1997        May 7, Chrysler Corp. and United Auto Workers agreed to a new contract, ending a damaging 28-day engine-plant strike.
    (AP, 5/7/98)

1997        Jul 22, In Michigan some 2,800 UAW workers went on strike at a GM plant in Warren.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A3)

1997        Jul 27, United Auto Workers approved a deal to end a six-day strike at a General Motors parts plant that forced four assembly plant shutdowns and threatened GM's entire North American production.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)(AP, 7/27/98)

1997        Aug 3, UPS went out on strike.
    (SFC, 8/4/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 4, US Teamsters under Ron Carey (1935-2008) went on a 15-day strike against United Parcel Service after talks broke down with nation's largest package delivery service.
    (AP, 8/4/98)(SFC, 12/13/08, p.B5)

1997        Aug 8, The Teamsters and United Parcel Service completed a second day of federally mediated talks, with neither side reporting progress toward ending a strike.
    (AP, 8/8/98)

1997        Aug 12, Steel workers in West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania ended a 10-month strike at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. with a new contract. It was the longest strike by a major steel company.
    (SFC, 8/13/97, p.A3)(AP, 8/12/98)

1997        Aug 20, United Parcel Service drivers put away picket signs, put on brown shirts and shorts, and called on customers again as the delivery giant began to sluggishly recover from its costly strike.
    (AP, 8/20/07)

1997        Aug 22, A federal official threw out the contentious Teamsters election because of alleged campaign fund-raising abuses, forcing union President Ron Carey into another race against James P. Hoffa.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A1)(AP, 8/22/98)

1997        Sep 1, The 2nd phase of the minimum wage raise to $5.15 per hour went into effect
    (SFC, 9/1/97, p.A3)(http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1997        Dec 4, In Canada postal workers ended their strike under threat of heavy fines with a 5.15% wage increase over 3 years.
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.B5)
1997        Dec 4, In Indonesia some 2,000 Dole farmworkers on Mindanao went on strike protesting low wages.
    (SFC, 2/16/98, p.A10)

1998        Jan 1, Mongolia switched from a 46 hour to 40 hour work week.
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1998        Feb 13, The United Auto Workers reached a tentative contract agreement with Caterpillar Inc.; union members rejected the agreement, which was revised and later ratified, ending a bitter dispute that lasted more than six years.
    (AP, 2/13/99)

1998        Mar 22, A deeply divided United Auto Workers union approved a new contract with Caterpillar Inc., ending a 6 1/2-year contract battle.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1998        Apr 4, In the Ukraine a gas explosion at the Skochinsky coal mine outside Donetsk killed 63 men.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/4/08)

1998        May 13, Thousands of yellow cab drivers went on a one day strike in NYC.
    (SFC, 5/14/98, p.A3)

1998        Jul 19, Workers for Saturn Corp., a division of GM in Tennessee, authorized union leaders to call their first-ever strike.
    (SFEC, 7/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 28, General Motors and the UAW agreed tentatively to settle an almost two-month strike at two parts plants in Flint.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/99)

1998        Jul 29, GM workers began returning to their jobs after ratifying a strike settlement.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A3)

1998        Aug 7, Pres. Clinton signed the US federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA). It reformed federal employment, training, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs by creating an integrated "one-stop" system of workforce investment and education services for adults, dislocated workers, and youth. It superseded the Job Training Partnership Act.
    (www.twc.state.tx.us/boards/wia/txwia.html)

1998        Aug 9, A strike by 73,000 telephone workers of NYC-based Bell Atlantic began.
    (SFC, 8/10/98, p.A2)

1998        Aug 14, It was reported that the average compensation for the 100 top Prudential Insurance executives doubled from 1994 to 1997 to about $820,000.
    (WSJ, 8/14/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 15, Some 34,000 union workers went on strike against US West.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 28, Over 6,000 pilots of Northwest Airlines went on strike.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.A3)

1998        Aug 29, Northwest Airlines pilots went on strike after their union rejected a last-minute company offer.
    (AP, 8/29/99)

1998        Aug 30, In Denver the largest union of US West, the regional telephone service, ended a 15-day strike with a tentative agreement on a three-year contract.
    (SFC, 8/31/98, p.A4)(AP, 8/30/99)

1998        Sep 1, Pilots for Air Canada went on strike for the first time in the association’s 61 year history.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A10)

1998        Sep 2, Pilots for Air Canada began a strike, the first in the carrier's history. [see Sep 1]
    (AP, 9/2/99)

1998        Sep 12, Leaders of striking pilots at Northwest Airlines ratified a new contract, ending a walkout that began August 28.
    (AP, 9/12/03)

1998        Nov 21, Rail workers in southern France extended their strike for the 12th day. A Europe-wide rail strike was planned for Nov 27.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.A26)

1998        Dec 5, James P. Hoffa claimed the Teamsters presidency after challenger Tom Dedham conceded defeat in the union's presidential election.
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, p.A9)(AP, 12/5/99)

1998        In Australia’s waterfront war Chris Corrigan, head of the cargo-handling Patrick Corp., took on the “wharfies” and smashed their union’s control of the docks.
    (Econ, 10/30/04, p.70)

1998-2002    China’s closure of state-owned enterprises and “collectives” resulted in job losses for some 24 million workers, representing about 10% of the work force.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.37)

1999        Feb 13, A federal judge held American Airlines' pilots' union and two top board members in contempt and promised sizable fines against them, saying the union did not do enough to encourage pilots to return to work after a court order. A federal judge fined the American Airlines pilot's union at least $10 million for ignoring his back-to-work order.
    (AP, 2/13/00)(SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A2)

1999        Apr 1, Britain’s pay rate for workers aged 22 or over was set at  ₤3.60 per hour. Workers 18-21 had a lower rate set at ₤3.00. In 2006 the minimum wage rose to ₤5.35 an hour.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.65)

1999        Apr 2, The US Labor Department reported that the nation's unemployment rate fell to a 29-year low of 4.2 percent in March 1999.
    (AP, 4/2/00)

1999        Apr 5, At Newport News, Va., members of local 8888 of the United Steelworkers went on strike. The shipyard offered a $2.49 per hour raise over 3 years as opposed to the union demand for $3.95.
    (SFC, 4/6/99, p.D1)

1999        Apr 19, In Canada a Toronto transit strike forced 800,000 commuters to seek alternate transportation.
    (WSJ, 4/20/99, A1)

1999        Aug 31, Detroit’s teachers went on strike, wiping out the first day of class for 172-thousand students in one of the largest teachers’ strikes in years. The walkout lasted nine days.
    (AP, 8/31/00)

1999        Sep 6, Detroit's teachers reached a tentative agreement and won smaller classes and raises of up to 4%. The union represented 9,200 teachers and  some 172,000 students were affected. The teachers ratified the contract two days later.
    (AP, 9/6/00)(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A5)

1999        Nov 21, In South Korea thousands of workers gathered in Seoul and demanded a reduction of the workweek from 44 to 40 hours. They also protested government plans to privatize state-run power, gas and financial firms.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 5, AFL-CIO chief John Sweeney welcomed the collapse of World Trade Organization talks in Seattle and the failure to agree on a new round of negotiations, telling CBS’ “Face the Nation,” “No deal is better than a bad deal.”
    (AP, 12/5/00)

1999-2011    In the US almost 6 million manufacturing jobs were lost during this period mainly due to Chinese competition.
    (Econ, 4/2/15, p.10)

2000        Feb 1, In France the new 35-hour work week took legal effect. Workers that included truckers struck across the country for a number of demands that included higher pay. The truckers were exempted from the reduced work week.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.B2)

2000        Feb 9, In Renton, Wa., some 17,000 Boeing engineers and technical workers began a 40-day strike, one of the biggest white-collar strikes in US history.
    (SFC, 2/10/00, p.A9)(AP, 2/9/01)

2000        Feb, Female workers at Boeing filed a class-action suit for discrimination in pay and promotions.
    (ST, 5/14/04, p.A5)

2000        Mar 17, Boeing Co. agreed to settle a 38-day strike by its engineers. It was the largest white-collar walkout in US history.
    (SFC, 3/18/00, p.A2)

2000        May 1, May Day marches and protests took place around the world. In Berlin violence erupted as some 10,000 anarchists marched against “capitalism and imperialism” after some 1200 neo-Nazis rallied. In London some 2,000 demonstrators caused havoc in London. Tens of thousands gathered in Madrid and some 15,000 demonstrated in both Russia and Istanbul. Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Sao Paulo, Brazil and some 20,000 marched in Quito, Ecuador.
    (SFC, 5/2/00, p.A10)

2000        May 16, In China some 5,000 retired or laid-off workers in Liaoyang clashed with police following protests over non-payment of pensions and wages.
    (SFC, 5/17/00, p.A18)

2000        May 23, In France the 15-day strike by armored truck security guards ended after they agreed to a risk premium of $138 per month.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.C4)

2000        Aug 6,    Workers at Verizon, the nation’s largest local telephone company, went on an 18-day strike over working conditions and union representation.
    (AP, 8/6/01)

2000        Aug 26, United Airlines signed a tentative accord with its 10,000 pilots following 20 months of negotiations.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.A1)

2000        In China coal mine fatalities were estimated to be between 5,000 and 10,000 per year with an average of 13 miners killed per day. Miners earned about $50 per month.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B6)(NW, 10/28/02, p.44R)

2001        May 1, May Day protests rallies took place around the world as people demonstrated against global trade and for workers’ rights.
    (WSJ, 5/2/01, p.A1)

2001        May 20, In China 20 miners were feared dead in a gypsum mine in the Guangxi region and another 38-39 were trapped in a coal mine in Sichuan. The miners in Sichuan were working a prison-run mine.
    (SFC, 5/21/01, p.A10)(SFC, 5/22/01, p.A11)

2001        Jul 19, In Argentina workers staged a nationwide strike due to government spending cuts.
    (SFC, 7/20/01, p.A17)

2001        Sep 7, The US jobless rate for August was reported with a rise of .4%. The DJIA fell 235 to 9,605. The Nasdaq ended at 1,687.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 7, In New Jersey nearly 230 teachers were ordered freed from jail after their union agreed to end the 9-day strike and go into mediation.
    (SFC, 12/8/01, p.A4)

2002        Feb 2, New Orleans voters approved a $1 per hour increase in the minimum wage above the $5.15 federal standard in a referendum that went to court for resolution.
    (SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A9)

2002        Mar 8, The US Labor Dept. reported an addition of 66,000 jobs in February, the 1st increase in 8 months.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 8, K-Mart announced the closure of 284 stores and layoffs of 22,000.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.B1)

2002        Apr 8, In Mexico Pres. Fox and the Manuela and Export Industry Council signed an agreement to improve working conditions for female factory workers.
    (SFC, 4/9/02, p.A9)

2002        May 3, The US Labor Dept. reported the April jobless rate at 6%, up .3%.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A1)

2002        May 10, It was reported that IBM would lay off as many as 8,000 workers over the next quarter, 2.5% of its world-wide work force.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.A3)

2002        May 15, German Metalworkers in Baden-Wuerttemberg won a higher than expected wage increase that included 4% in June and 3.1% in 2003. A 10-day strike was expected to end.
    (WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A1)

2002        May 30, In Greece civil servants staged a 1-day national strike to protest government welfare and tax reforms.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C11)

2002        Jun 10, The US Supreme Court ruled that employers can reject applicants for jobs that would endanger their health.
    (SFC, 6/11/02, p.A4)

2002        Aug 16, Stephen P. Yokich (66), former United Auto Workers president died in Detroit.
    (SFC, 8/19/02, p.B6)(AP, 8/16/03)

2002        Sep 26, Gap Inc, 6 other US firms and 23 local manufacturers settled a class-action lawsuit over alleged sweatshop abuses on Saipan. The deal created a $20 million fund for back wages and a monitoring system.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 1, West Coast dockworkers and shipping lines reached a tentative agreement on key issues.
    (SFC, 11/2/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 23, West Coast dock workers and shipping lines reached a tentative 6-year contract.
    (SSFC, 11/24/02, p.A23)

2002        Dec 28, US federal unemployment benefits ended for nearly 800,000.
    (SFC, 12/28/02, p.A5)

2003        Jan 6, California Gov. Davis promised to create 500,000 new jobs over the next 4 years.
    (AP, 1/7/03)

2003        Jan 9, The Bush administration said federal airport security screeners will not be allowed to unionize so as not to complicate the war on terrorism.
    (WSJ, 1/10/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 10, The US Labor Dept. reported that 101,000 jobs were lost in December with 8.6 million (6%) officially unemployed.
    (SFC, 1/11/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 3, Venezuela’s government fired 828 more employees from Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the state oil monopoly, for participating in a two-month strike to oust Pres. Chavez. PDVSA lost many of its most experienced and best-qualified employees. Altogether Chavez fired some 18,000 employees of PDVSA this year and many of them soon found work Colombia.
    (AP, 4/4/03)(Econ, 8/12/06, p.56)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.31)

2003        May 2, The US jobless rate was reported at 6%, an 8-year high.
    (SFC, 5/3/03, p.B1)

2003        Jul 3, The US jobless rate was reported to have surged to a nine-year high in June as employers cut 30,000 workers from their payrolls.
    (AP, 7/3/03)

2003        Aug 18, In Venezuela 9 workers died as 8 tried to rescue a comrade who was felled by toxic industrial gases at an animal feed plant outside Caracas.
    (WSJ, 8/19/03, p.A1)

2003        Oct 9, Chicago sanitation workers accepted a 28% wage increase over 5 years and ended a 9-day strike.
    (SFC, 10/10/03, p.A6)

2003        Oct 12, Some 70,000 employees of Ralphs, Vons and Albertsons grocery stores began a strike in southern California, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio. Health care costs were a main issue. Workers approved an agreement for southern California on Feb 29, 2004.
    (SFC, 10/14/03, p.B2)(SFC, 11/5/03, p.B1)(SFC, 3/1/04, p.A5)

2003        Oct 14, In LA, Ca., some 2,000 train and bus mechanics went on strike and halted the mass-transit system.
    (SFC, 10/15/03, p.A9)

2003        Oct 28, Japan's Sony Corp. said it would cut 20,000 workers and reduce costs by $3 billion over the next 4 years.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.B3)

2003        Nov 7, The US Labor Dept. Reported an increase of 126,000 jobs outside the farm sector for October.
    (SFC, 11/8/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 11, Striking Kroger workers in West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio ratified a new contract. The strike began Oct 13.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.B4)

2003        Dec 15, California's longest strike by nurses ended after workers at Doctors Medical Center in San Pablo and Pinole approved a new contract with Tenet Healthcare Corp. ending a 13-month walkout.
    (SFC, 12/17/03, p.A23)

2003        In 2005 estimates of Chinese labor unrest for 2003 noted some 60,000 protests with a 17% annual increase over the past decade.
    (WSJ, 4/18/05, p.A16)

2004        Feb 23, The wage minimum in SF rose to $8.50 from $6.75, based on voter approval in 2003.
    (SFC, 2/21/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 24, A group of large employers proposed "scorecards" for doctors in an effort help employees choose doctors based on quality care.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 26, The WSJ quoted Bill Dreher, retailing analyst for Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. as follows: "From the perspective of investors, Costco's benefits are overly generous. Public companies need to care for shareholders first. Costco runs its business like it is a private company."
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.B1)

2004        Apr 10, A coal mine explosion trapped five miners underground in a northeastern Chinese city where more than 150 miners have been killed in the past year.
    (AP, 4/10/04)
2004        Apr 10, In Siberia an apparent methane blast ripped through a coal mine, killing 22 miners and trapping at least 25.
    (AP, 4/10/04)

2004        Apr 20, The US Labor Dept. established new rules on overtime pay. It expanded the range for lower income workers and put a ceiling on overtime for higher income workers.
    (WSJ, 4/21/04, p.D1)

2004        May 10, Gov. Baldacci of Maine signed legislation increasing the minimum wage. The current $6.25 and hour rate would be increased 25 cents in each of two phases.
    (USAT, 5/11/04, p.10A)

2004        Apr 30, In the SF Bay Area the National Labor Relations Board ruled that cab drivers for an East Bay syndicate to taxi companies are employees, not independent contractors, and therefore entitled to unionize. The companies refused to negotiate.
    (SFC, 7/28/04, p.B5)

2004        Jul, In Germany Hartz IV was voted into law. It became effective in January 2005. It limited unemployment pay to the 1st year out of work, after which a much lower social security benefit kicked in. The Hartz laws originated in 2002 when Chancellor Schroder asked Peter Hartz, personnel chief at Volkswagen, to propose reforms in Germany’s labor market. The package became known as Schroder’s Agenda 2010.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.62)(Econ, 2/11/06, Survey p.9)(Econ 7/8/17, p.19)

2004        Aug 23, New US rules on overtime pay went into effect. Under the new FairPay rules, workers earning less than $23,660 per year, or $455 per week, were guaranteed overtime protection.
    (SFC, 8/24/04, p.C1)(www.dol.gov/esa/WHD/regs/compliance/fairpay/)

2004        Sep 8, In Turkey rescue workers started to evacuate dozens of workers trapped inside a copper mine engulfed in fire. Eight miners were rescued so far. Between 25 and 30 miners were trapped inside the mine in the town of Kure in Catamount province, some 185 miles north of the capital, Ankara.
    (AP, 9/8/04)

2004        Sep 23, California’s Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board approved restrictions on hand-weeding in most commercial crops.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.B7)

2004        Oct 5, Supermarket janitors in California won a $22.4 million settlement against 3 grocery chains and a cleaning contractor in a class-action suit over failure to pay for overtime.
    (SFC, 10/6/04, p.B3)

2004        Oct 26, Mayor Newsom joined the picket line to support the 4,000 locked-out workers in the SF hotel strike.
    (SFC, 10/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 1, Casino workers in Atlantic City tentatively accepted a new 5-year contract.
    (SFC, 11/3/04, p.C1)

2004        Nov 11, Delta Air Line pilots accepted over $1 billion in annual pay cuts and agreed to forgo raises through 2009.
    (SFC, 11/12/04, p.C2)

2004        Mike Rose of UCLA authored “The Mind at Work: Valuing the Intelligence of the American Worker.”
    (SSFC, 8/22/04, p.M1)

2005        Mar 18, Wal-Mart agreed to pay a record $11 million to settle a civil immigration case for using illegal immigrants to clean floors at stores in 21 states.
    (SFC, 3/19/05, p.C1)

2005        Mar 23, In South Africa some 21,000 Harmony Gold Mining Co. Ltd. mineworkers went on strike after mediation efforts with the union over pay and working conditions failed.
    (AP, 3/24/05)

2005        Apr 22, The US Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. agreed to take over the underfunded pension plans of United Airlines and assume some $6.6 billion in liabilities.
    (SFC, 4/23/05, p.C1)

2005        May 10, A federal bankruptcy judge freed United Airlines from responsibility for pensions covering 120,000 employees.
    (SFC, 5/11/05, p.A1)

2005        May 11, Teachers across California honored the 23rd annual Day of the Teacher by protesting deep cuts to education and changes to their retirement system.
    (SFC, 5/12/05, p.B1)

2005        Jun 9, In the Netherlands thousands of civil servants went on strike to protest declining social benefits and low wages.
    (WSJ, 6/10/05, p.A6)

2005        Jul 19, Computer and printer maker Hewlett-Packard Co. said it will cut 14,500 jobs and overhaul its retirement program in a restructuring plan designed to save $1.9 billion annually.
    (AP, 7/19/05)

2005        Jul 22, In Irving, Texas, Kimberly-Clark Corp., maker of Kleenex tissues and Huggies diapers, said it plans to cut about 6,000 jobs and sell or close up to 20 manufacturing plants.
    (AP, 7/22/05)

2005        Jul 25, The Brotherhood of Teamsters and the Service Employees Int’l. Union broke from the AFL-CIO as 1,000 delegates gathered in Chicago for the federation’s 50th annual convention. They formed a coalition called Change to Win with 5 other unions with a mission to emphasize organizing rather than supporting like-minded politicians.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 7, In India the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was notified. It guaranteed all rural households 100 days of employment a year.
    (Econ, 3/20/10, p.50)(www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/node/255264)

2005        Dec 20, In NYC subways and buses ground to a halt morning as transit workers walked off the job at the height of the holiday shopping and tourist season, forcing millions of riders to find new ways to get around.
    (AP, 12/20/05)

2006        Jan, A Toyota engineer died of ischemic heart disease one day before leaving for an auto show in the US. In 2008 a Japanese labor bureau ruled that the man died from working too many hours (karoshi), a phenomena recognized by the Health Ministry since 1987. 
    (SFC, 7/10/08, p.C3)

2007        May 1, Britain's largest ever trade union, representing about two million public and private sector workers, was launched following the merger of two workers' bodies. The Unite union officially formed following a recent vote for merger by members of Amicus and the Transport and General Workers Union, founded in 1922.
    (AP, 5/1/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_and_General_Workers%27_Union)

2007        Jul 30, The Mexican Miners and Metalworkers Union (SNTMMRM) struck Grupo Mexico to demand wage increases and improved safety conditions. Striking workers occupied the Cananea copper mine in the northern state of Sonora and continued into 2010.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.59)(www.reuters.com/article/idUSN1819816120100218)

2007        Aug 29, A new report said CEOs of American companies made an average of $10.8 million last year, more than 364 times the average pay of American workers. The 14th annual study was a joint report from the Institute for Policy Studies and United for a Fair Economy.
    (SFC, 8/30/07, p.C3)

2007        Oct 27, Despite significant dissent among some of its workers, United Auto Workers members narrowly passed a four-year contract agreement with Chrysler LLC.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2007        Nov 3, United Auto Workers agreed to a tentative contract with Ford Motor Co.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2007        Dec, The European Council adopted a set of Council Conclusions on flexicurity, by which the common principles of Danish flexicurity will guide EU member states when implementing reforms in order to meet the aims of the Lisbon Strategy of Growth and Jobs.
    (http://denmark.dk/en/society/welfare/flexicurity/)

2007        Philip Dine authored “State of the Unions.”
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.66)

2008        Jan 1, China’s new Labor Contract Law (LCL) went into effect. The legislation aimed at strengthening the contractual rights of workers.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.48)(www.pacificbridge.com/publication.asp?id=110)

2008        Jan, Belgium began sending out inspectors to daily check on 150 randomly selected sick and not so sick civil servants. Some government departments were averaging 35 days of sick leave per year.
    (WSJ, 1/9/08, p.A1)

2008        Feb 13, In Colombia a delegation of visiting US union leaders expressed alarm at what its members called a steady erosion of labor rights in the world's deadliest country for organized labor.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Apr 26, In Canada transit workers in Toronto went on strike after rejecting a tentative contract deal, shutting down bus, streetcar and subway service in Canada's most populous city.
    (Reuters, 4/26/08)

2008        May 22, Tens of thousands of French workers took to the streets as unions mounted a one-day show of force against President Nicolas Sarkozy's government over pension reforms.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        May 31, In Vietnam some 1000 workers walked off the assembly line of a Panasonic plant as inflation reached a 13-year high of 25.2%. Some 300 strikes took place in the first quarter as compared to 103 in the frist quarter of 2007.
    (WSJ, 6/3/08, p.A12)

2008        Jun 4, In Canada angry autoworkers blockaded the entrance to General Motors of Canada headquarters in Oshawa, Ontario, one day after GM said it would shut its Oshawa truck plant as well as 2 plants in the US and one in Mexico.
    (Reuters, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 11, In Thailand thousands of truckers went on a half-day strike demanding government help against rising fuel prices, the latest in a series of protests that have swept across Asia and Europe.
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 16, The Canadian Auto Workers union ended its blockade of General Motors of Canada's headquarters in Oshawa, Ontario, allowing about 900 employees to return to work after nearly 13 days of protest, but it vowed to fight on.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Aug 6, Thousands protested in South Africa as workers disrupted gold mining and other major industries in a national strike over price hikes rattling the continent's economic powerhouse.
    (AP, 8/6/08)

2008        Aug 11, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger sued state Controller John Chiang for refusing to follow the governor’s order to slash pay for thousands of state workers during the budget impasse.
    (SFC, 8/12/08, p.B1)

2008        Aug 15, In Canada employees at a Wal-Mart Stores Inc. outlet won an arbitrator-imposed contract, becoming the giant retailer's only location in North America with a collective agreement in place.
    (AP, 8/17/08)

2008        Aug, Utah began a trial 4-day work week for about 17,000 of the state's 24,000 executive-branch employees. Closing state offices on Fridays was supposed to cut energy costs and reduce carbon emissions. The program led to an increase in volunteer activities. In Sep, 2011, the 4-day week program ended after less money was saved than hoped. Residents has also complained about not having access to services on Fridays.
    (AP, 7/11/09)(http://tinyurl.com/3ks2a9b)

2008        Oct 20, The UN said the financial crises will add at least 20 million people to the world’s jobless, raising the total to 210 million.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Oct 29, In northern China a gas explosion in a mine shaft at a coal mine trapped 29 miners at the Yaotou mine in central Shaanxi province. 23 bodies were recovered over the next 2 days and 6 remained missing.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 1, Members of the Machinists Union, representing some 27,000 workers in Washington, Oregon, and Kansas, ratified a new contract with the Boeing Co. ending an 8-week strike.
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, p.A4)

2008        Nov 7, The US Labor Department said the nation's employers cut 240,000 jobs in October, hurtling the US unemployment rate to a 14-year high of 6.5 percent.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 11, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will lay off nearly 1,000 staff at its powertrain unit in Sweden and the United States as the global financial crisis continues to weigh on the demand for heavy vehicles.
    (AP, 11/11/08)

2008        Nov 12, Germany's biggest industrial union secured a 4.2 percent pay rise over 18 months for the nation's manufacturing workers in a deal that averted an all-out strike.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 13, The US government said the number of newly laid-off individuals seeking unemployment benefits has jumped to a seven-year high.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 17, Citigroup Inc. said it is cutting approximately 53,000 more jobs in the coming quarters as the banking giant struggles to steady itself after suffering massive losses from deteriorating debt.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 19, Germany chemical company BASF SE said it is temporarily closing 80 plants worldwide due to slumping demand and cutting production at 100 more, including facilities in Texas and Louisiana. Some 20,000 workers are affected.
    (AP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 29, In southern China about 300 taxi drivers went on strike in Chaozhou, smashing cars and demanding a crackdown on unlicensed taxis in the latest protest against illegal taxi competition in China.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 4, AT&T Inc. joined the recession's parade of layoffs by announcing plans to cut 12,000 jobs, about 4 percent of its work force.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 5, The US labor Dept. said employers slashed 533,000 jobs in November, the most in 34 years, catapulting the unemployment rate to 6.7 percent, dramatic proof the country is careening deeper into recession.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 8, Dow Chemical Co. said it will slash 5,000 full-time jobs, about 11 percent of its total work force, close 20 plants and sell several businesses to rein in costs amid the economic recession.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 9, Sony said it is slashing 8,000 jobs, or 4 percent of its global work force, aiming to cut costs by $1.1 billion a year as an economic downturn and a stronger yen batter profits at the Japanese electronics maker.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 24, US government data showed that the number of domestic workers filing new claims for jobless benefits jumped by 30,000 to a 26-year peak last week, as the country's year-long recession continued to chill the labor market.
    (AP, 12/24/08)

2009        Jan 9,  The US Labor Dept. reported that unemployment rate rose to 7.2 percent in December, the highest level in 16 years, as nervous employers slashed 524,000 jobs. The labor market is expected to remain weak as mass layoffs continue.
    (AP, 1/9/09)

2009        Jan 16, Circuit City, a bankrupt electronics retailer based in Richmond, Va., said it failed to find a buyer and will liquidate its 567 US stores resulting in the loss of some 30,000 jobs.
    (SFC, 1/17/09, p.C1)

2009        Jan 21, Intel said it will close several older factories displacing some 5-6 thousand workers in reaction to a sharp drop in demand for its computer chips.
    (WSJ, 1/22/08, p.B1)

2009        Jan 26, Caterpillar Inc announced it would cut nearly 20,000 jobs and warned of a tough year ahead as a downturn that began in the United States metastasized into a full-blown global recession, gutting orders for earth-moving equipment. At least 1,500 of the lost jobs were in greater Peoria, Ill.
    (Reuters, 1/26/09)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.37)
2009        Jan 26, Home Depot Inc. announced plans to eliminate 7,000 jobs while closing four dozen stores under its smaller home improvement brands as the recession continues to batter the nation's housing market. Its shares climbed more than 5 percent in morning trading.
    (AP, 1/26/09)
2009        Jan 26, Pfizer Inc. said it is buying rival drug maker Wyeth in a $68 billion deal that will increase its revenue by 50%. At the same time Pfizer announced cost cuts that include slashing more than 8,000 jobs as it prepares for an expected revenue crash when its cholesterol drug Lipitor loses patent protection in November 2011.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 29, President Barack Obama signed an equal pay bill into law, declaring that it's a family issue, not just a women's issue.
    (AP, 1/29/09)
2009        Jan 29, In France hundreds of thousands of workers staged a nationwide strike to try to force President Nicolas Sarkozy and business leaders to do more to protect jobs and wages during the economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 1/29/09)

2009        Jan 30, President Barack Obama signed a series of executive orders that he said should "level the playing field" for labor unions in struggles with management.
    (AP, 1/30/09)
2009        Jan 30, US Senator Claire McCaskill (D., Mo.) introduced legislation that would limit the salary, bonuses and stock options of executives of financial companies getting federal bailout aid to no more than what the US president earns: $400,000 a year, excluding benefits.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.B1)
2009        Jan 30, In Britain wildcat strikes against foreign workers spread through oil refineries and other energy facilities, fuelled by fears of rising job cuts due to the global slowdown.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 2, Hundreds more British power plant workers went on strike in a widening labor campaign over the use of overseas workers to build an oil refinery in Immingham. Workers were upset over the decision by Italian construction company IREM SpA to use Italian and Portuguese workers for a 200 million-pound ($280 million) project at a Total refinery.
    (AP, 2/2/09)
2009        Feb 2, A Chinese official said an estimated 26 million desperately poor rural Chinese are jobless after pinning their hopes on factory jobs that dried up due to the global economic slowdown, noting that widespread unemployment could threaten the country's social stability.
    (AP, 2/2/09)

2009        Feb 4, President Barack Obama imposed $500,000 caps on senior executive pay for the most distressed financial institutions receiving federal bailout money, saying Americans are upset with "executives being rewarded for failure."
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 5, British workers voted to end a week-long unofficial strike over the use of foreign labor at a French-owned oil refinery that sparked sympathy protests across Britain.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 9, Nissan said it is slashing 20,000 jobs, or 8.5 percent of its global work force, to cope with what Japan's third-largest automaker expects will be its first annual loss in nine years.
    (AP, 2/9/09)

2009        Feb 10, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 10,000 salaried jobs, citing the need to restructure itself with a government deadline looming and amid some of the worst sales in the auto industry's history.
    (AP, 2/10/09)
2009        Feb 10, Nigerian union officials said a 2-day-old strike by freight and forwarding agents to protest high charges was worsening cargo congestion in Lagos, the country's main seaport.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 19, France bowed to demands for wage increases in Guadeloupe in the hope of ending a month-long strike that has plunged the French Caribbean island into rioting.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 22, In northern China a gas explosion ripped through a coal mine outside Taiyuan, capital of the main coal-producing province of Shanxi, killing at least 77 miners and trapping dozens in the deadliest Chinese coal mine accident in more than a year.
    (AFP, 2/22/09)(AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 25, A 24-hour strike by Greek civil servants disrupted services across the country, forcing public hospitals to accept only emergency cases and airlines to cancel at least 68 flights.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 27, San Francisco handed out pink slips to 262 city employees, with most cuts coming from the Recreation and park Dept., the Human Services Agency, and the Dept. of Public Works.
    (SFC, 2/28/09, p.B1)
2009        Feb 27, Unions in Guadeloupe scored a victory in getting a deal to raise some workers' salaries, but said they will not end a general strike now concluding its sixth week.
    (AP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 6, The US Labor Department reported that the nation's unemployment rate bolted to 8.1 percent in February, the highest since late 1983, as cost-cutting employers slashed 651,000 jobs amid a deepening recession.
    (AP, 3/6/09)

2009        Mar 12, China announced plans to assist millions of unemployed migrant workers with increases in grain subsidies and rural infrastructure projects.
    (AP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 24, Striking French workers for US manufacturer 3M held their boss hostage amid labor talks at a plant south of Paris, as anger over layoffs and cutbacks mounted around the country. Manager Luc Rousselet was released after being held for 2 days.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 31, Angry French workers facing layoffs at a Caterpillar factory briefly detained four of their bosses at the US manufacturer's plant in the Alps to protest job cuts.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 2, Greek public services closed down and transport was disrupted across the country as thousands of workers went on strike to protest government spending cuts.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 8, In France workers at a British-owned adhesives factory held three British executives and a local manager captive over plans to close the site down. Scapa, which announced in February it would close its plant in Bellegarde, said it was forced to cut back after the market for car industry adhesives collapsed by 50 percent in 2008. The managers were released after being held overnight.
    (AP, 4/8/09)(SFC, 4/9/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 14, In southern China hundreds of workers at a textile factory blocked roads, in a second day of protests over unpaid wages.
    (AP, 4/14/09)

2009        Apr 15, A blockade by French fishermen angry at EU quotas cut ferry links with Britain for a second day as a union official threatened to block the Channel Tunnel in support of the movement.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 16, French fishermen allowed traffic to resume to three English Channel ports after receiving a government promise of euro4 million ($5.27 million) in aid, but they vowed to keep up their fight against European fishing quotas.
    (AP, 4/16/09)
2009        Apr 16, Hotel service in Monaco was limited and casino roulette wheels were expected to stop spinning as employees in the wealthy Mediterranean principality went on strike to protest job cuts.
    (AP, 4/16/09)

2009        Apr 20, In southeast France workers at a French subsidiary of the American company Molex detained two bosses to protest plans to close the plant.
    (AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 24, The Canadian Auto Workers union and Chrysler Canada reached a tentative concession deal that would cut about C$19 ($15.70) an hour from labor costs in a bid to keep the struggling automaker from bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 26, A deal between Chrysler and the UAW was revealed that would give the union a 55% stake in the company in return for concessions. Under the plan Fiat SpA would eventually own 35% and the US government together with secured lenders would own up to 10%.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A8B)

2009        Apr 27, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 21,000 US factory jobs by next year, phase out its storied Pontiac brand and ask the government to take more than half its stock in exchange for half of GM's government debt as part of a major restructuring that would leave current shareholders holding just 1 percent of the company.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        May 1, May Day protesters clashed with riot police in Germany, Turkey and Greece, while thousands angry at the government's responses to the global financial crisis took to the streets in France. Riot police battled 700 stone-throwing left-wing militants in Berlin for more than five hours in May Day clashes that stretched into early pre-dawn hours.
    (Reuters, 5/1/09)(AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 20, In Britain hundreds of protesters blocked roads near an oil refinery, as other sites were hit by a second day of wildcat strikes in a dispute over hiring foreign workers.
    (AP, 5/20/09)

2009        May 25, Dairy farmers created traffic chaos in Berlin, blocked milk processing plants in France and protested at EU headquarters in Brussels, seeking more aid to cope with a sharp drop in milk prices.
    (AP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 29, Puerto Rico fired nearly 8,000 government workers, the start of a wave of layoffs aimed at closing a budget deficit as the island struggles through its third year of recession.
    (AP, 5/29/09)

2009        May 30, In southwest China 25 miners were killed and 20 trapped by a gas explosion at the Tonghua Coal Mine in Anwen town, Chongqing municipality.
    (AFP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 1, General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as part of the Obama administration's plan to shrink the automaker to a sustainable size and give a majority ownership stake to the federal government. GM assets were valued at $82.2 billion with liabilities at $172 billion. The US government planned to receive 60.8% of GM stock, Canada’s government 11.7%, the UAW’s trust 17.5% and bondholders 10%. GM said it will permanently close nine more plants and idle three others to trim production and labor costs under bankruptcy protection. GM was expected to lose 14 factories, 29,000 workers and 2,400 dealers.
    (AP, 6/1/09)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.9,60, 62)

2009        Jun 2, In South Africa police said at least 61 prospectors have been found dead in an abandoned gold mine belonging to Harmony Gold mining company, which had ceased working its Eland shaft. Illegal miners, often called "gold pirates," are hired through organized crime rackets that produce about $250 million in gold a year.
    (AP, 6/2/09)

2009        Jun 10, Millions of Londoners faced a grim commute, taking boats, buses and bicycles or walking in the rain as a strike by subway workers crippled the city's subway system.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 11, The London subway workers’ strike continued for the second day in a row shutting down much of the city's Underground network. The strike ended as Transport for London agreed with workers to restart talks.
    (AP, 6/11/09)(SFC, 6/12/09, p.A2)
2009        Jun 11, North Korea demanded a 3,000 percent hike in rent from South Korea for the site of a joint industrial park at the center of a dispute roiling their relations. It also sought a more than fourfold increase in wages for North Korean workers employed by South Korean companies at the park. More than 100 South Korean companies have factories in the park, employing some 40,000 North Koreans. They are paid about $70 a month on average.
    (AP, 6/11/09)

2009        Jun 16, In Indonesia 16 miners were rescued after a massive explosion of methane gas collapsed a coal mine owned by local residents in West Sumatra province. 5 of the rescued miners died in hospital and the death toll rose to 31 the next day after rescuers unearthed more bodies. One more miner was believed to be buried.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)(AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Toronto, Canada, garbage collectors, daycare workers and other municipal employees went on strike in a contract dispute that could lead to a prolonged shutdown of important services.
    (AP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 23, In Britain wildcat strikes spread to oil refineries and power plants across the country. Thousands of workers demonstrated outside the Lindsey terminal in Lincolnshire, where almost 650 contract workers were sacked by French oil giant Total last week.
    (AFP, 6/23/09)

2009        Jun 29, In Bangladesh textile workers set fire to a factory in a third day of demonstrations for payment of wages, as the global economic crisis hits the South Asian country's main export industry.
    (AP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 2, The US Labor dept. reported that employers cut a larger-than-expected 467,000 jobs in June, driving the unemployment rate up to a 26-year high of 9.5 percent, suggesting that the economy's road to recovery will be bumpy.
    (AP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 21, French factory workers angry over layoffs and cost cuts locked up their bosses at a Michelin tire plant and a US-owned cigarette-paper mill. The managers were released the next morning after regional officials offered to mediate.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 24, A US federal minimum wage increase took effect. Some economists said it could prolong the recession by forcing small businesses to lay off the same workers that the pay hike passed in better times was meant to help. The increase to $7.25 meant 70 cents more an hour for the lowest-paid workers in the 30 states that have lower minimums or no minimum wage.
    (AP, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 24, Via Rail, Canada's national passenger rail service, said it was shutting down service after mediated talks with the Teamsters union failed to resolve a contract dispute, and locomotive engineers walked off the job.
    (Reuters, 7/24/09)
2009        Jul 24, In China some 30,000 steelworkers in Tonghua clashed with police in a protest over plans to merge their mill with another company. Angry employees of Tonghua Iron and Steel Group attacked Jianlong Steel general manager Chen Guojun during the protest and beat him to death.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 27, In Canada union officials in Toronto said they had reached a tentative deal to settle a civic workers strike that had halted garbage collection and many other city services for more than a month.
    (Reuters, 7/27/09)
2009        Jul 27, Thousands of South African council workers went on strike to press for wage hikes, crippling public services in Africa's biggest economy and piling political pressure on new President Jacob Zuma.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Aug 3, In South Korea thousands of riot police strengthened their siege of a troubled South Korean auto firm, spraying liquid tear gas from a helicopter, after talks to end a prolonged occupation by strikers collapsed.
    (AFP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 4, Haiti’s lawmakers voted to more than double the minimum wage after long hours of debate and clashes between police and protesters, who complained they can't feed and shelter their families on the current pay of about $1.75 a day.
    (AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Aug 5, In South Korea helicopter-borne police commandos fought militant strikers at the Ssangyong Motor Co.’s Pyeongtaek factory, seizing all but one key building.
    (SFC, 8/6/09, p.A2)

2009        Aug 6, In South Korea unionists who occupied a car plant in protest at mass layoffs agreed to end a 77-day sit-in which halted production and sparked violent clashes with police.
    (AFP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 10, In central Slovakia 19 workers were trapped underground after a fire and explosion hit the Hanlova coal mine.
    (AP, 8/10/09)

2009        Aug 16, In San Francisco BART management and union leaders reached a tentative contract agreement less that 6 hours before a planned strike to shut down the regional rail system.
    (SFC, 8/17/09, p.A1)
2009        Aug 16, Chinese authorities in central Henan province called off the takeover of Linzhou Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., a state-owned steel plant, after workers protested and trapped an official in the factory office for four days, the second time in a month that the country's steelworkers have rallied to successfully avoid privatization.
    (AP, 8/16/09)

2009        Aug 26, In South Africa soldiers, demanding higher wages, tried to scale the fence at the Union Buildings where President Jacob Zuma has his office. Police used teargas, rubber bullets and water cannons to disperse the soldiers, who marched despite a court order barring their protest.
    (AP, 9/1/09)

2009        Sep 8, In central China's Henan province an explosion at an illegal coal mine killed 35 miners and left another 44 men trapped.
    (AP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 14, In Germany Siegfried Wolf, the co-chief executive of Magna International Inc., said as many as 10,500 Opel jobs in Europe could be cut, including nearly half of them in Germany. Opel employs some 49,000 workers in Europe and has plants in Germany, Spain, Britain, Poland and Germany.
    (AP, 9/14/09)
2009        Sep 14, Finance Minister Diana Dragutinovic said Serbia will have to lay off about one-fifth of its government employees, 14,000 people, to meet conditions set by the International Monetary Fund to receive more financial aid. A trade union representing state employees has already announced strikes if the layoffs are carried out.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Oct 8, Britain's postal workers agreed to launch a nationwide strike after months of rolling regional strikes over pay and job security. The Communication Workers Union said that 76% of more than 80,000 union members voted in favor of the action. The union was required to give seven days notice before any strike.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

2009        Oct 14, In Puerto Rico labor unions called for an island-wide strike and a march near the capital to protest government layoffs in Puerto Rico, where more than 20,000 public employees have been dismissed as the island struggles to pull out of a three-year recession.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 22, British Royal Mail workers began a two-day strike in a bitter row over pay, conditions and modernization, causing widespread disruption to mail services.
    (AFP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 30, In Canada a section of the mine about 500 meters (1,600 feet) below the surface flooded at the Bachelor Lake gold mine of Metanor Resources Inc. in northwestern Quebec. The bodies of all three missing miners were recovered after 3 days.
    (Reuters, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 3, In Philadelphia, Pa., transit workers went on strike after rejecting a proposed contract that included an 11.5% wage increase over 5 years.
    (SFC, 11/4/09, p.A6)
2009        Nov 3, New Jersey-based Johnson & Johnson, the world’s largest health products company, said it will cut over 7,000 jobs due to lagging demand amid the global recession.
    (SFC, 11/4/09, p.D2)
2009        Nov 3, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Finland's Nokia Corp. and Siemens AG of Germany, said it will lay off up to 5,700 workers globally as part of a move to cut annual costs by euro500 million ($740 million).
    (AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 5, In Germany thousands of Opel workers, fearing widespread layoffs, walked off the job to protest General Motors Co.'s decision to abandon the unit's sale to new owners.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 6, The US Labor Dept. said the unemployment rate has surpassed 10% for the first time since 1983, and that it was expected to go higher. President Barack Obama was set to sign a $24 billion economic stimulus bill providing tax incentives to prospective homebuyers and extending unemployment benefits to the longtime jobless.
    (AP, 11/6/09)
2009        Nov 6, British Airways revealed a quadrupling of net losses in its first half, and axed an extra 1,200 jobs in an "essential" cost-reduction program.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 9, Pennsylvania Gov. Ed Rendell said the Philadelphia transit strike has ended and that system would be up and running for the morning commute.
    (SFC, 11/9/09, p.A8)

2009        Nov 21, In northern China a gas explosion tore through the state-run Xinxing coal mine in Heilongjiang province, killing at least 92 people and 16 missing as rescuers worked hastily to save them.
    (AP, 11/21/09)(AP, 11/22/09)

2009        Nov 25, A new report said Wal-Mart Stores Inc's demand for rock-bottom prices from suppliers in China means some of these companies are forcing their employees to work in sweatshop-like conditions.
    (Reuters, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 28, In Canada locomotive engineers of the country’s largest railroad walked off the job after talks broke down. Canadian National Railway said it was using management and non-union staff to provide "the best possible service under the circumstances."
    (Reuters, 11/28/09)

2009        Dec 2, Court documents filed in Boston said Wal-Mart Stores Inc. has agreed to pay $40 million to 87,500 Massachusetts employees who claimed the retailer denied them rest and meals breaks, manipulated time cards and refused to pay overtime.
    (AP, 12/2/09)
2009        Dec 2, Canadian National Railway said it had reached an agreement with striking locomotive engineers to end their walkout, as the government prepared to step in with back-to-work legislation.
    (AP, 12/3/09)
2009        Dec 2, In France the Pompidou Center modern art museum and the Musee d'Orsay, with its famed paintings by the Impressionists, closed after workers angry about a government cost-cutting measure voted to strike. Workers at the Louvre also voted to strike, but by mid-morning parts of the sprawling complex had been opened to visitors. The Rodin Museum, the Arc de Triomphe and the Palais de Versailles were also affected.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 3, Mexico City police freed 107 people who were forced to work under slave-like conditions in a clandestine factory making shopping bags and clothing clasps.
    (AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 8, President Barack Obama outlined new multibillion-dollar stimulus and jobs proposals, saying the nation must continue to "spend our way out of this recession" until more Americans are back at work.
    (AP, 12/8/09)
2009        Dec 8, Swedish telecom giant Ericsson said it would cut 946 jobs in Sweden in an effort to downsize its production staff as it strives to improve efficiency.
    (AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 10, In Turkey an explosion caused the collapse of an underground chamber of a coal mine, killing 19 workers in western Bursa province.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 28, Chinese state media reported that a coal mine explosion has killed 12 people in northern China, while five other miners were killed and six trapped in an accident in the southwest of the country.
    (AP, 12/28/09)

2009        Fiverr was founded by Shai Wininger and Micha Kaufman as a global online marketplace offering tasks and services beginning at a cost of $5 per job performed. The Fiverr website was launched in February, 2010.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiverr)

2010        Jan 5, A fire in a coal mine in central China killed at least 25 workers. Search efforts continued for at least three others trapped underground at the Lisheng coal mine in Xiangtan city in Hunan province.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2010        Jan 7, In Algeria a stand-off with police began in the industrial town of Rouiba after the 5,000 employees of the state-owned National Company of Industrial Vehicles (SNVI) started an indefinite strike action to demand higher wages and better terms.
    (AP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 4, In northern China 21 workers were killed by a gas leak at the Hebei Puyang Iron and Steel Co. Company officials initially said 16 workers were poisoned and seven died while nine were sent to a hospital. On Jan 7 senior executives "confessed" that they had covered up the death toll.
    (AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 8, In southeastern China a fire in coal mine trapped and killed 12 workers in Xinyu city, Jiangxi province.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 13, Zimbabwe civil servants, who earn only 150 US dollars a month, rejected the government's "paltry" offer to raise salaries by a maximum of 14%.
    (AP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 15, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez announced a 25% increase in the minimum wage to try to blunt the effects of soaring inflation, and playing down criticism of his government's handling of an energy crisis and other domestic problems.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 20, In Belgium the world's largest brewer, Anheuser-Busch InBev SA, shut down production in its home country, in an escalation of a standoff over job cuts with its Belgian workers which is causing beer shortages in shops.
    (AP, 1/20/10)
2010        Jan 20, In Greece dozens of prostitutes, most using headscarves or hoods to hide their faces, demonstrated in central Athens, demanding working licenses for brothels across Greece.
    (AP, 1/20/10)

2010        Feb 10, In Greece a strike by civil servants shut schools and grounded flights across the country, as unions challenged cutbacks aimed at ending a government debt crisis that has shaken the entire European Union.
    (AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 22, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with Total Chairman Thierry Desmarest for talks about a labor strike that has shuttered over half of France's oil refining capacity. Workers at all six of Total SA's French refineries and at six of its 31 fuel depots have been on strike for five days over the uncertain future of a plant in Dunkirk, in northern France. Workers at France's fourth-largest refinery, British-owned chemicals company INEOS, met to vote on whether they too would join the widening strike.
    (AP, 2/22/10)
2010        Feb 22, German airline Lufthansa went to court in a bid to halt a strike by some 4,000 pilots that disrupted more than one third of its flights. Later in the day Lufthansa pilots agreed to suspend for two weeks a strike that grounded about 900 flights, just as rival British Airways' cabin crew voted to join the fray to protest harsh cost cuts.
    (AP, 2/22/10)(Reuters, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 23, In Turkey 13 workers were killed after a methane gas explosion caused a coal mine collapse near Dursunbey, in  northwest Balikesir province.
    (AP, 2/24/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 26, In France a strike by air traffic controllers disrupted flight for a 4th day and some Air France pilots walked off the job to protest cost cutting measures.
    (SFC, 2/27/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 1, The US Department of Transportation furloughed nearly 2,000 employees without pay as the government began to feel the impact of Republican Sen. Jim Bunning's one-man blockage of legislation that would keep a host of federal programs operating. Bunning's home state of Kentucky has no projects affected by his action.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/mcclatchy/3439731)
2010        Mar 1, Chinese rescuers worked to save 31 coal miners trapped underground by a flood at the Luotoushan, or Camel Head Mountain, coal mine in Wuhai city in northern Inner Mongolia. One miner was reported killed. On May 2 state news agency Xinhua reported that emergency workers have recovered 28 bodies from the mine in China's Inner Mongolia region that flooded in early-March. 3 people were still missing.
    (AP, 3/1/10)(AP, 3/2/10)(AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        Mar 2, In Rhode Island the Central Falls Teachers’ Union pledged to support reforms. The school board had voted last week to fire 93 teachers and staff from the high school after the end of the school year. On May 16 the school district announced that it had reached an agreement with the union to return all staffers.
    (SFC, 3/4/10, p.A8)(SFC, 5/17/10, p.A4)

2010        Mar 10, In Algeria almost 200 striking doctors, dentists and pharmacists demonstrated near the presidential palace to press their pay demands. The health professionals have been on strike since the end of December.
    (AFP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 18, Pres. Obama signed a $17.6 billion job-creation measure a day after it was passed by Congress.
    (SFC, 3/18/10, p.A6)

2010        Mar 20, British Airways canceled more than 1,000 flights after its cabin crew launched a three-day strike, wreaking havoc on the plans of tens of thousands of passengers just before the busy spring holiday season. .
    (AP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 22, British Airways cabin crew held a 3rd day of strike action, prolonging travel misery for thousands. A business group warned the action threatens Britain's global reputation.
    (AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 27, British Airways cabin crew launched a four-day strike, the second wave of action in a week as part of a bitter, long-running dispute over pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 3/27/10)

2010        Mar 28, British Airways cabin crew entered the second day of a four-day strike, bringing further travel disruption with no end in sight for a dispute that has become increasingly political.
    (AFP, 3/28/10)
2010        Mar 28, In northern China at least 153 miners were trapped underground after water gushed into the state-owned the Wangjialing coal mine. 115 Chinese miners were pulled out alive on April 5 after being trapped for over a week in the flooded mine. Some had eaten sawdust and strapped themselves to the shafts' walls with their belts to avoid drowning while they slept. As of April 11 the death toll stood at 33 with 5 miners still missing.
    (AP, 3/28/10)(AP, 3/29/10)(AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/11/10)

2010        Mar 31, In central China a gas explosion at a mine killed 12 workers and trapped 32 underground at the privately owned Guomin Mining Co. coal pit in Yichuan County, Luoyang City.
    (AP, 4/1/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Spain flight attendant Adriana Ricardo said attendants owed up to nine months' wages by a grounded Spanish airline have posed nude for a calendar to draw attention to their plight. Air Comet, run by the embattled chairman of Spain's main employers' association CEOE, Gerardo Ferran, filed for administration in December after a British court impounded nine of its aircraft at the request of German bank HSH Nordbank.
    (Reuters, 3/31/10)

2010        Apr 2, The US economy posted its largest job gain in three years in March, while the unemployment rate remained at 9.7 percent for the third straight month.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 5, In West Virginia a huge underground explosion blamed on methane gas killed 25 coal miners at Massey Energy Co.'s sprawling Upper Big Branch mine, about 30 miles south of Charleston. It was the worst US mining disaster since 1984. Four missing miners were found dead on April 10. In 2009 the US Mine Safety and health Administration (MHSA) had cited the mine 515 times, often for problems with its ventilation and escape route plans. On Feb 22, 2012, mine superintendent Gary May (43) was charged with conspiracy to defraud the federal government. May became the 2nd employee of Massey to face prosecution in the case.
    (AP, 4/6/10)(AP, 4/10/10)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.32)(SFC, 2/23/12, p.A9)

2010        Apr 28, Bangladesh Labor and Manpower Minister Mosharraf Hossain said Bangladesh will raise the minimum wage for millions of garment workers, as workers staged another mass protest that blocked the country's main highway.
    (AFP, 4/28/10)

2010        May 1, Tens of thousands of workers marched in cities from Hong Kong to Istanbul to mark international worker's day, demanding more jobs, better work conditions and higher wages.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 8, In western Siberia 2 explosions tore through the Raspadskaya mine just before midnight, killing at least 66 workers and injuring 41 others. A further 24 people remained trapped in the mine, Russia's largest underground coal mine, including rescue workers.
    (AP, 5/9/10)(AP, 5/10/10)(AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 5/12/10)(AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 13, In Zimbabwe thousands of mine workers went on strike for better pay after negotiations with employers collapsed.
    (AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 17, In South Africa a strike by rail workers left two million commuters stranded just 24 days from the kick-off of the World Cup.
    (AP, 5/17/10)
2010        May 17, In northern Turkey rescue teams strived to reach workers trapped hundreds of meters underground after a powerful methane gas explosion in the Karadon state-run coal mine near the northern Black Sea port of Zonguldak. On May 20 rescuers found the bodies of 28 miners. 2 miners remained missing.
    (AFP, 5/17/10)

2010        May 21, In China some 1900 workers at a Honda auto parts factory in Guangdong province went on strike demanding higher pay. Monthly pay at the facility in Foshan city was about $117 per month. Similar companies paid between $292 and $365 a month. Honda announced a settlement on June 4.
    (www.china.org.cn/business/2010-05/28/content_20133668.htm)(SSFC, 5/30/10, p.A4)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        May 22, Spanish railway workers called for a one-day stoppage on May 28 in protest at proposed changes in working conditions.
    (Reuters, 5/22/10)

2010        May 27, South Africa's state-owned logistics group Transnet said it had signed a wage deal with a transport union, ending a three-week rail and ports strike.
    (Reuters, 5/27/10)

2010        May 27, In France thousands of workers staged strikes across the country to protest government plans to raise the retirement age past 60, one of the lowest in Europe.
    (SFC, 5/28/10, p.A2)

2010        May 29, In China 17 miners were killed by a dynamite explosion at the Shuguang Coal Mine in Chenzhou city, Hunan province.
    (AP, 5/30/10)

2010        May 30, British Airways cabin crew started a fresh five-day strike with little sign of a breakthrough in the long-running dispute between their union and the airline.
    (AFP, 5/30/10)

2010        May 31, The US Congress allowed emergency health care assistance for unemployed workers to expire, and seemed unwilling to renew it despite pleas from Pres. Barack Obama.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 2, Foxconn, a subsidiary of Taiwan’s Hon Hai Precision Industry Company, announced a 30% pay increase for its workers in China.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.48)

2010        Jun 4, Workers for Bank of America Corp, one of the nation's largest employers, sued the company for allegedly failing to pay overtime and other wages.
    (Reuters, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 7, US Sec. of Labor Hilda Solis visited Fremont, Ca., and announced a $19 million federal grant to help thousands of workers who lost their jobs when the NUMMI car plant closed in April.
    (SFC, 6/8/10, p.D1)

2010        Jun 16, In Colombia a gas explosion at the San Fernando coal mine in Antioquia province,  left at least 34 people dead, with dozens of miners still trapped.
    (AP, 6/17/10)(AP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 16, The French government unveiled plans to raise the retirement age to 62 in a sweeping overhaul of the pensions system that labor unions have vowed to fight to the end.
    (AFP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 21, In central China at least 47 miners were killed when an explosion ripped through a coal mine in Pingdingshan city, Henan province.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 24, In France workers around the country went on strike to protest Pres. Sarkozy’s plans to raise the retirement age by 2 years to 62. Unions stage nearly 200 marches in several cities over a broad reform of the money-losing pension system.
    (SFC, 6/25/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 8, In western Panama striking banana plantation workers and police clashed, leaving one man dead and 100 people hurt. A 2nd man was killed by police on July 10.
    (AP, 7/8/10)(Reuters, 7/10/10)

2010        Jul 17, In China 28 miners were killed when an electrical cable caught fire inside a coal shaft in northern Shaanxi province. There were no survivors. 8 coal miners died when a blaze engulfed a mine in central Henan province.
    (AP, 7/18/10)

2010        Jul 18, In China 16 workers were inside the shaft when water gushed into the mine in Jinta, a county in Gansu province, and 3 men were safely lifted out. 13 men remained trapped.
    (AP, 7/18/10)

2010        Jul 22, Pres. Obama signed into law a restoration of benefits for people who have been out of work for 6 months or more.
    (SFC, 7/23/10, p.A7)

2010        Jul 27, Bangladesh raised the minimum wage for its millions of garment workers by 80 percent, following months of violent protests over pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 31, In northern China an explosion ripped through a workers' dormitory area in Linfen city, Shanxi province, and killed at least 15 people at the Liugou mine, a coal mine notorious for mining disasters.
    (AP, 7/31/10)

2010        Aug 1, In Greece an 8-day truck drivers' strike was called off as protesters agreed to enter talks with the government. The strike wreaked havoc, stranding thousands of tourists, destroying lucrative fruit exports and drying up fuel supplies nationwide.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.53)(http://tinyurl.com/2wrybtk)

2010        Aug 2, In China  lethal gas leaked into a coal mine at the Sanyuandong Coal Mine in Dengfeng city, Henan province. No survivors were found among the 16 miners trapped by the lethal gas leak. 
    (AP, 8/3/10)(AP, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 3, In China gas exploded at a coal mine in the southern province of Guizhou, killing 10 people and trapping 7.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 5, In northern Chile the collapse of a small mine left 33 miners trapped, though they could have taken refuge in an underground shelter with oxygen and food. On Aug 9 Pres. Pinera pleaded for int’l. help to rescue the miners. Rescue efforts reached the miners on Aug 22, it could take months to carve a tunnel big enough for them to get out. On Feb 2, 2011, a congressional commission found gold and copper mine owners Alejandro Bohn and Marcelo Kemeny responsible for the accident that left the miners trapped for 69 days.
    (Reuters, 8/6/10)(SFC, 8/9/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/3/11, p.A2)

2010        Aug 6, US Companies showed a lack of confidence about hiring for a third straight month in July, making it likely the economy will grow more slowly the rest of the year. The unemployment rate was unchanged at 9.5 percent.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 7, A gas leak in a China coal mine killed at least one worker and trapped five more, just hours after a fire in a gold mine killed 16.
    (AP, 8/7/10)

2010        Aug 10, President Barack Obama signed a $26 billion bill would protect some 300,000 teachers, police and others from election-year layoffs.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 17, Lebanon's Parliament passed a law that for the first time grants the country's Palestinian refugees the right to work in any profession.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, In South Africa teachers left their classrooms and trials were postponed after court workers walked out when hundreds of thousands of civil servants went on strike for higher wages across the country.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 20, South African unions representing more than 1 million striking civil servants began talks with the government to end a stoppage that could damage Africa's largest economy if it drags on into next month.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 22, In Chile an intense rescue effort finally reached 33 miners trapped since Aug 5. After weeks of missteps, new cave-ins and other false starts, it could take months to carve a tunnel big enough for them to get out.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 26, In South Africa thousands of civil servants took to the streets across the country in a peaceful demonstration for higher wages. Police management tried to bar officers from joining the nationwide strike entering its second week.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Aug 31, South Africa’s public service ministry said it was increasing its salary hike offer from 7 to 7.5 percent and housing allowance from 700 rand ($96) to 800 rand ($110). Workers were demanding an 8.6 percent raise and 1,000 rand ($137) for housing.
    (AP, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 6, A South African labor leader said civil servants are suspending a 20-day nationwide strike for higher wages to give union members time to consider the government's offer.
    (AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 7, Strikes hobbled public transit in London and across France, forcing tourists and commuters to alter their plans as they bore the brunt of a wave of discontent over government cost-cutting measures, a wave expected to soon prompt walkouts elsewhere on the continent. Some 1.2-2.7 million people in France took to the streets for the one-day strike.
    (AP, 9/7/10)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.31)

2010        Sep 9, Spain gave final approval to labor market reforms designed to shake up a listless economy and help slash a bloated deficit that has prompted European-wide worries of another Greek-style debt crisis.
    (AP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 10, In Spain 50 coal miners 1,640 feet (500 meters) underground entered the ninth day of a strike over unpaid wages and government aid.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 13, British trade unions voted overwhelmingly to back rare coordinated strikes as they were urged to "stand up and fight" government austerity cuts at their congress.
    (AFP, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, The Cuban Workers Federation said Cuba will lay off more than 500,000 state employees by March and expand private employment to give them work in the biggest shift to the private sector since the 1960s.
    (Reuters, 9/13/10)
2010        Sep 13, Staff at Israel's Ben Gurion International Airport near Tel Aviv went on strike, grounding all flights and leaving arriving passengers without their luggage.
    (AP, 9/13/10)

2010        Sep 17, In Zimbabwe about 300 civil servants marched through Harare demanding higher pay and benefits from money the state earned through recent diamond auctions.
    (AFP, 9/17/10)

2010        Sep 20, In New Jersey a woman from Togo was been sentenced to 27 years in prison after being convicted of running a human smuggling operation and forcing women to work at New Jersey hair braiding salons. Akouavi Afolabi ran a scheme to bring at least 20 girls and women ages 10 to 19 from West Africa to the US on fraudulent visas. Victims were made to work at the salons for no pay. Afolabi was also ordered to pay restitution totaling $3.9 million. Her ex-husband and son had already pleaded guilty. Her son received a 55-month prison term. Her ex-husband was sentenced to 24 years.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 23, French trade unions staged their second 24-hour strike in a month against President Nicolas Sarkozy's unpopular pension reform, seeking to force him to scrap plans to raise the retirement age to 62 from 60.
    (Reuters, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 27, In Jamaica hundreds of medical technicians, nurse's aides and other support staff at major public hospitals went on strike to demand pay raises and allowances they say haven't been paid by the government.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 29, Anti-austerity protests erupted across Europe. Greek doctors and railway employees walked out, Spanish workers shut down trains and buses, and one man even blocked the Irish parliament with a cement truck to decry the country's enormous bank bailouts.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 1, In Britain most provisions of the 2010 Equality Act took effect, including a measure to stop pay secrecy clauses being used to hide unfair differences between men and women's pay. But 10 percent of the legislation,- which was passed by Parliament in April, will be left out, while the government reviews certain sections of it.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 4, Millions of commuters in London endured a grim journey to work after staff on the Underground network walked out for the second time in a month, sparking calls for tougher strike laws.
    (AFP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 8, The US Labor Dept. said a wave of government layoffs in September outpaced weak hiring in the private sector, pushing down the nation's payrolls by a net total of 95,000 jobs. The unemployment rate held at 9.6 percent last month.
    (AP, 10/8/10)

2010        Oct 13, Bangladesh said it would deploy the army at the country's main seaport to keep cargo moving after days of strikes by dock workers hit crucial garment shipments.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 15, In Ecuador a tunnel collapsed in a gold mine in the south, trapping four miners 490 feet (150 meters) underground. Authorities said rescue efforts were under way. The bodies of 2 miners were found the next day as rescue efforts continued for 2 others.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/17/10)
2010        Oct 15, French President Nicolas Sarkozy sent in riot police to reopen fuel depots blocked by strikes, as the pipeline to Paris airports was cut in an escalating battle over pension reform.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 16, In central China rescuers battled dangerous levels of gas, tons of coal dust and the risk of falling rocks as they worked to free 11 miners trapped by an explosion at a mine. 26 miners were confirmed killed at the state-run Pingyu Coal & Electric Co. Ltd mine.
    (AP, 10/16/10)(AP, 10/17/10)
2010        Oct 16, In France diesel and jet fuel supplies were running low in parts of the country as workers took to the streets for another nationwide protest against President Nicolas Sarkozy's plan to raise the retirement age to 62.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 17, Zambian police said managers at a Chinese-run coal mine who shot at workers protesting poor working conditions will be charged with attempted murder. 12 workers at Collum Coal Mine in the southern town of Sinazongwe were injured a day earlier when mainly Chinese managers fired randomly at the protesting workers.
    (AFP, 10/17/10)

2010        Oct 18, French truck drivers staged go-slow operations on highways, rail strikes intensified and petrol stations ran out of fuel as protests gathered pace ahead of a Senate vote on an unpopular pension overhaul.
    (Reuters, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 19, In France masked youths clashed with police and set fires in cities across the country as protests against a proposed hike in the retirement age took an increasingly radical turn. Hundreds of flights were canceled, long lines formed at gas stations and train service in many regions was cut in half.
    (AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, In France workers opposed to a higher retirement age blocked roads to airports around the country, leaving passengers in Paris dragging suitcases on foot along an emergency breakdown lane. Pres. Sarkozy sent in police to clear access to barricaded fuel depots and restore supply as trade unions kept up their resistance to an unpopular pension reform due for a final vote this week.
    (Reuters, 10/20/10)(AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, In France protesters blockaded Marseille's airport, Lady Gaga canceled concerts in Paris and rioting youths attacked police in Lyon ahead of a tense Senate vote on raising the retirement age to 62.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 22, French riot police forced a strategic refinery to reopen, aiming to halt growing fuel shortages. The French Senate voted 177-153 to back the contested retirement reform.
    (AP, 10/22/10)(SFC, 10/23/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 23, French unions took their battle against extending retirement from 60 to 62 to the courts, challenging orders to return to work the day after the Senate backed the fiercely-contested reform.
    (AFP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 24, A quarter of French petrol stations were short on fuel as refinery strikes over pension reform continued to drain supply, and one official said several holiday spots were likely to be particularly hard-hit.
    (Reuters, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 25, President Nicolas Sarkozy's government warned that strikes against pension reform have cost up to three billion euros and threaten to derail France's still fragile economy recovery. Finance Minister Christine Lagarde said the strikes are costing the economy up to euro400 million ($562 million) each day.
    (AFP, 10/25/10)(AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 27, The French Parliament passed Pres. Sarkozy’s pension bill raising the minimum retirement age to 62 from 60, and the full-pension age to 67 from 65. Most French oil refineries were set to start outbound deliveries of fuel as work stoppages ended at two plants, further easing a strike movement that has led to pump shortages across France.
    (Reuters, 10/27/10)(SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 28, In France further strikes disrupted rail and air transport, but the broader protest over plans to raise the retirement age appeared to be waning a day after parliament adopted pension reform legislation.
    (AP, 10/28/10)

2010        Oct 29, French unions said they have decided to end strikes at all oil refineries and several major ports.
    (SFC, 10/30/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 30, In eastern Rwanda 11 miners died in an accident at a tin mine in the Rwamagana district.
    (AFP, 10/31/10)

2010        Nov 6, BBC reporters planned further strikes after a two-day walkout over pension changes successfully disrupted the broadcaster's TV and radio programs.
    (AP, 11/6/10)
2010        Nov 6, Tens of thousands of French protesters took to the streets once more for what might prove to be the last in their recent series of marches against President Nicolas Sarkozy's pension reform.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 8, In Chile two mine workers, 24 and 40 years old, were killed at the Los Reyes mine on their first day on the job. The National Geology and Mining Service said the mine was illegal and unregistered.
    (AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 9, France's constitutional watchdog ruled that the bill raising the minimum retirement age to 62 is perfectly legal, marking a political victory for Pres. Sarkozy.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 10, Nigerian trade unions called off a strike protesting the minimum wage across the oil-rich nation, one day into the planned 3-day action. They said Pres. Goodluck Jonathan made promises to raise the wage. The current minimum monthly wage was 7,500 naira, or $50.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 19, In New Zealand an explosion ripped through the country’s largest coal mine with about 30 people underground. Five workers, dazed and slightly injured, stumbled to the surface, while 29 were missing. Fears over poisonous and combustible gases were preventing rescuers from entering the mine.
    (AP, 11/19/10)(AP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 21, In China water flooded a small coal mine, trapping 28 people as they did safety work to expand the mine's capacity. 13 workers escaped and rescue work was continuing for the 28 missing at the Batian mine in the southwestern province of Sichuan. 29 miners were rescued on Nov 22.
    (AP, 11/21/10)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.51)

2010        Nov 24, In New Zealand a second explosion occurred in the Pike River mine, almost exactly five days after the first blast there. All 29 workers missing underground were believed to have died after a second explosion.
    (SFC, 11/24/10, p.A2)
2010        Nov 24, Portuguese labor unions mounted a general strike, pressing the government to scrap austerity measures intended to ward off a debt crisis spreading through the euro zone.
    (Reuters, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 28, In New Zealand a 4th explosion in 9 days ripped through the mine where 29 miners perished. Officials said the coal was on fire, a development that could significantly delay recovery of the bodies. Efforts to retrieve the miners were abandoned on Jan 13.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(AP, 1/13/11)

2010        Nov 29, President Barack Obama announced a two-year pay freeze for federal employees, a move White House officials say is the first of many difficult decisions that must be made to reduce the nation's mounting deficit.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, Extended unemployment benefits for nearly 2 million Americans began to run out, cutting off a steady stream of income and guaranteeing a dismal holiday season for people already struggling with bills they cannot pay.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 4, Spain placed striking air traffic controllers under military authority and threatened them with jail terms in an unprecedented emergency order to get planes back in the skies and clear chaotic airports clogged with irate travelers.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 7, Pres. Obama reached a deal with GOP leaders to extend all tax cuts in return for an extension of unemployment benefits.
    (SFC, 12/8/10, p.A1)
2010        Dec 7, In California 52 Filipino hospital workers sued their employer, Delano Regional Medical Center, alleging they were the sole ethnic group targeted by a rule requiring them to speak only English.
    (AP, 12/8/10)
2010        Dec 7, In central China an explosion at a coal mine killed 26 miners who were working despite an order to halt production, while a mine tunnel collapse elsewhere left four dead in the latest accidents to strike the country's mining industry.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 10, Bolivia enacted a law lowering the country’s retirement age to 58. The current retirement age was 65 for men and 60 for women.
    (SFC, 12/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 15, In southwest China local authorities told state press that Zeng Lingquan, the operator of an unlicensed shelter for disabled people, sold at least 70 mentally ill workers into slavery in recent years. Lingquan was arrested on Dec 13.
    (AFP, 12/15/10)

2010        Dec 17, A Nigerian court sentenced 15 Muslim herdsmen to 10 years each over sectarian violence in the country's central region that left hundreds dead this year. Nigerian tanker drivers suspended petrol deliveries to Lagos and other areas to protest the firing of 2,500 members, sparking long queues at filling stations.
    (AFP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 18, In Spain tens of thousands of workers staged strikes in 40 cities to protest state plans to up the retirement age to slash public deficit.
    (AFP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 26, London’s Underground drivers went on a 24-hour strike in a dispute over holiday pay. Members of the Aslef trade union voted to walk out after transport chiefs refused their demand for triple pay and a day off for working on December 26, the day after Christmas being a national holiday in Britain.
    (AP, 12/26/10)

2010        David Riddle (1942-2012) co-authored authored, “The Color of Law: Ernie Goodman, Detroit, and the Struggle for Labor and Civil Rights,” a meticulously researched biography of the legendary Detroit labor lawyer. Mr. Riddle wrote the book with friends, Steve Babson and David Elsila.
    (http://tinyurl.com/9v465zw)

2011        Jan 19, Italy’s the national statistics office said one in five young Italians, or more than 2 million people, are not studying nor working, the highest percentage of "idle" youths in the European Union.
    (Reuters, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 26, In northern Colombia an explosion at coal mine killed at least five workers and trapped 16 more.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, In the Philippines a temporary elevator at a building construction site in Manila plunged 25 floors, killing 10 workers.
    (AP, 1/27/11)

2011        Jan 28, Spain's Cabinet approved a plan to raise the retirement age by two years to 67 for most workers, a key structural reform aimed at reassuring markets that are uneasy over the country's finances.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Feb 1, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo proposed laying off nearly 10,000 state workers and cutting billions from education and Medicaid as he laid out his first budget designed to close a $10 billion deficit.
    (Reuters, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 2, Spain’s PM Zapatero signed a solemn “social pact” with unions and employers, covering pensions, collective bargaining and more.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.62)

2011        Feb 5, In Romania five miners died in an explosion at a coal mine in the Jiu Valley mining region.
    (AP, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 8, In Pakistan strike action forced ailing state carrier Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) to cancel flights to Britain and Turkey, affecting some 1,500 passengers.
    (AFP, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 16, Egypt’s ruling military council issued its 2nd statement in 3 days calling for an immediate halt to all labor unrest. Airport employees protested for better pay, but did not disrupt flights. Textile workers struck to demand a corruption investigation and residents of a Suez Canal city pressed for closing a chemical factory they say is dumping toxic waste into a lake.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 17, In Wisconsin 14 Democratic lawmakers disappeared as the state Senate was about to begin debating a measure by Gov. Scott Walker that would eliminate collective bargaining for most state public employees. Protesters filled the Capitol for a 3rd day.
    (SFC, 2/18/11, p.A6)
2011        Feb 17, At least 1,500 Egyptian workers from the Suez Canal Authority protested for better pay in three cities straddling the strategic waterway.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 22, Democratic members of the Indiana House of Representatives left Indianapolis to deny Republicans a quorum hoping to kill legislation that included a bill allowing workers in private-sector unions the right to opt out of their dues or fees.
    (SFC, 2/24/11, p.A7)

2011        Feb 24, Wisconsin state troopers were dispatched to try to find at least one of the 14 Senate Democrats who have been on the run for eight days to delay a vote on Republican Gov. Scott Walker's proposal to strip collective bargaining rights from nearly all public employees.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 26, In Wisconsin a crowd estimated at more than 70,000 people waved American flags, sang the national anthem and called for the defeat of a state plan to curb public sector unions that has galvanized opposition from the American labor movement.
    (Reuters, 2/27/11)

2011        Feb 28, In Venezuela union leader Ruben Gonzalez was sentenced to 7½ years in prison on charges related to a 2009 strike he led that temporarily paralyzed the state-run iron mining company, CVG Ferrominera Orinoco CA, better known as Ferrominera. On March 3 Gonzalez was granted parole but would be required to appear before authorities every 15 days.
    (AP, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 2, Leading human rights activists condemned Venezuelan authorities for sentencing union leader Ruben Gonzalez to prison for launching a strike, saying more than 100 other unionists also face charges after participating in protests.
    (AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 3, South Africa's highest court ordered a top Johannesburg-based mining company to compensate the family of a dead mineworker, overturning a law which prohibited mineworkers with lung diseases from claiming compensation.
    (AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 4, In Belgium unions disrupted public transport in parts of the country and blocked industrial sites to demand better pay rises.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 10, The Wisconsin Assembly stripped a bill of its spending language and passed legislation with only Republicans present taking away the collective bargaining rights of the state’s government workers.
    (SFC, 3/11/11, p.A6)
2011        Mar 10, British public sector workers were informed that their pensions would become less generous.
    (Econ, 3/12/11, p.66)

2011        Mar 11, In China a gas explosion from a coal mine in the southwest killed 19 miners in Guizhou province's Liupanshui city.
    (AP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 11, Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker signed a bill taking away the collective bargaining rights of the state’s government workers.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A9)

2011        Mar 20, In Pakistan at least 6 miners were killed and 43 others trapped underground when explosions triggered a collapse in a coal mine in Baluchistan province.
    (AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 21, In Kentucky 2 workers were killed in an explosion at the Carbide Industries chemical plant in Louisville.
    (SFC, 3/23/11, p.A4)

2011        Mar 28, Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder signed legislation that will lead the state to pay fewer weeks of unemployment benefits next year than any other state.
    (SFC, 3/29/11, p.A6)

2011        Mar 29, Wisconsin Circuit Judge Maryann Sumi ruled that there should be no further implementation of a law taking away nearly all collective bargaining rights for public workers.
    (SFC, 3/30/11, p.A5)

2011        Mar 30, The Ohio Legislature pass a bill severely limiting union rights for 350,000 public workers. Gov. John Kasich was expected to sign it this week.
    (SFC, 3/31/11, p.A8)

2011        Mar, Maine’s Gov. Paul LePage, called for the removal an 11-panel mural, depicting the history of the state’s labor movement, from the headquarters of the State Dept. of Labor. In April a group of artists filed a lawsuit challenging his decision as a violation of the first amendment. LePage narrowly won a 3-way race last November.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.34)

2011        Apr 14, Spanish telecoms giant Telefonica said it plans to cut its workforce in Spain by about 20 percent, or some 6,000 people, over the next three years as a cost-cutting measure.
    (AFP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 16, Spain’s labor minister warned in a published interview that the number of unemployed could reach a record of more than five million. Spain already had the highest jobless rate among developed countries.
    (AFP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 18, In Botswana nearly 90,000 public sector workers went on strike demanding a 16% pay raise after a 3-year wage freeze. The government proceeded to fire 1,400 striking health care workers including some 50 doctors. After 8 weeks public workers settled for three percent after the government insisted it could not afford a larger increase.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.55)(AFP, 7/7/11)(AFP, 6/27/12)

2011        Apr 22, In China truck drivers protested for a third day over rising fuel costs and fees, disrupting the flow of goods in Shanghai, China's busiest port city.
    (AP, 4/22/11)

2011        May 1, Hundreds of thousands of Cubans marched through Havana and other cities to mark May Day.
    (AP, 5/1/11)
2011        May 1, In Turkey activists flooded Istanbul‘s Taksim Square and marked international workers' day around the world with marches demanding more jobs, better working conditions and higher wages.
    (AP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 6, Nearly 800 Air India pilots demanding more pay ended their 10-day-old strike, which cost the state-run airline around 12 million rupees ($2.7 million) a day.
    (AP, 5/6/11)
2011        May 6, Commuters in Italy scrambled to find the few buses and subway trains running during a one-day general strike that also affected air and rail travel, banks, public offices and schools.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 20, In China 2 workers were initially killed and 16 injured in the explosion at the plant of a Foxconn subsidiary in Chengdu. A seriously injured worker died two days later. The iPad 2 was being made in the building hit by the blast.
    (AFP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 30, In Sri Lanka police attacked workers protesting over proposed pension reforms in Katunayake, near the capital Colombo. The government had proposed taking over the provident fund savings of workers in the private sector and then paying them a smaller state pension in retirement. A man (22) was critically wounded at the protest and died on June 1.
    (AFP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 3, In Canada picket lines went at Canada Post mail processing plant in Winnipeg as part of a limited rotating strike around the country.
    (Reuters, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 13, In San Francisco an independent arbitrator ruled that municipal transport operators must work under a contract they overwhelmingly rejected last week.
    (SFC, 6/14/11, p.A1)

2011        Jun 14, Canada Post locked out all its employees, saying more than a week of rotating strikes by unionized letter carriers and other postal workers had cost it too much money.
    (Reuters, 6/15/11)(Econ, 7/2/11, p.30)

2011        Jun 16, The Int’l. Labor Organization (ILO) adopted a new treaty, the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers. It remained for individual government to ratify.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.73)

2011        Jun 18, In Greece several thousand pro-Communist union members marched through Athens to protests the government’s austerity measures.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 20, The US Supreme Court denied a sex discrimination suit on behalf of over 1 million Wal-Mart employees saying they failed to pinpoint any company policy that denied them equal pay of promotions.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A1)

2011        Jun 24, Connecticut Gov. Dannel Malloy began issuing layoff notices to as many as 7,500 state employees after a state union voted down a labor concessions package.
    (SFC, 6/25/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 27, In South Korea unionized workers at Standard Chartered bank went on strike over the issue of performance related pay. Korean bank staff were typically paid and promoted according to age and time.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.68)

2011        Jun 30, British teachers and public service workers swapped classrooms and offices for picket lines as hundreds of thousands walked off the job to protest pension cuts.
    (AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jun, A petition campaign against a Jordanian garment maker was begun by US labor activists after a Bangladeshi worker told police that her Sri Lankan manager, Anil Santha, had raped her three times since March. This that prompted several US retailers to stop placing orders with the Classic Fashion factory.
    (AP, 9/9/11)

2011        Jul 1, Connecticut Governor Dannel Malloy signed a bill mandating paid sick leave for workers beginning in 2012.
    (Reuters, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 4, In South Africa more than 110,000 engineers and metalworkers launched a strike to demand a 13 percent wage increase.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 11, In South Africa some 70,000 workers at oil refineries and related industries joined a week-old strike, raising fears of potential fuel shortages.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Guinea-Bissau health workers began a five-day strike to press demands pay bonuses and better working conditions in the west African country.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 14, In France thousands of angry travelers were still stranded in airports and in Algiers as a strike by Air Algerie cabin crew, who want a 106% pay rise, went into its 4th day. Air Algerie staff ended their four-day strike after mediation by the office of PM Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, BBC journalists began a 24-hour strike in a row over job losses, disrupting some of the British broadcaster's flagship programs.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 22, In Chile mine workers at Escondida, the world's most productive copper mine,  went on strike. The main issue was a monthly production bonus. BHP owned a 57% share. Other major investors include Rio Tinto, Mitsubishi Corp. and International Finance Corp.
    (AP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 29, In eastern Ukraine a pre-dawn methane explosion at the notoriously dangerous Suhodilska-Eastern mine in the Luhansk region killed 18 workers. Hours later an elevator used to transport miners and equipment into and out of the Bazhanova mine in the eastern Donetsk region collapsed, killing 7 workers. 12 miners all told remained missing.
    (AP, 7/29/11)(AP, 7/30/11)

2011        Aug 1, BBC journalists began a second 24-hour strike in a row over job losses, threatening disruption to some of the broadcaster's flagship programs.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)
2011        Aug 1, South African coal miners ended their weeklong strike after signing a pay rise agreement ranging from 7.5 to 10.5 percent.
    (AFP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 2, China's eastern city of Hangzhou offered its taxi drivers a subsidy of one yuan ($0.16) per trip in a bid to end a two-day strike in the tourism hub.
    (AFP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 7, Some 45,000 Verizon Communications Inc. workers from Massachusetts to Washington, D.C., went on strike after negotiations fizzled over a new labor contract for more than a fifth of the company's work force. The company's revenue rose 2.8% to $27.5 billion in the second quarter. Workers returned to work on Aug 22, despite not reaching an overall settlement.
    (AP, 8/7/11)(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.A10)

2011        Aug 8, In South Africa drivers operating feeder buses to high-speed train service went on strike, only six days after a new link between Johannesburg and the capital Pretoria opened. Drivers were demanding a wage increase from 4,600 rand ($660, 467 euros) to 5,000 rand a month. Train drivers earned about 21,000 rand per month.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 22, Bosses at Australia's BlueScope steel were attacked for pocketing "obscene" bonuses worth Aus$3.0 million (US$3.1 million), after they sacked 1,000 workers and abandoned their export business.
    (AFP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 26, In Mexico 4 miners were killed in an explosion that caved in part of a coal mine in the northern Mexico border state of Coahuila.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 29, South African municipal workers called off a 16-day nationwide strike without reaching an agreement with employers.
    (AFP, 8/29/11)

2011        Sep 5, President Barack Obama used a boisterous Labor Day rally in Detroit to put congressional Republicans on the spot, challenging them to place the country's interests above all else and vote to create jobs and put the economy back on a path toward growth.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, The UN's labor agency said more than two dozen global clothing brands pledged to investigate a spate of mass faintings among Cambodian garment workers.
    (AFP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 8, President Barack Obama unveiled a larger-than-expected $450 billion plan to boost jobs and put cash in the pockets of dispirited Americans, urging Republican skeptics to embrace an approach heavy on the tax cuts they traditionally love.
    (AP, 9/8/11)
2011        Sep 8, In Washington state hundreds of longshoremen stormed the Port of Longview, overpowered and held security guards, damaged railroad cars, and dumped grain that is the center of a labor dispute. The blockade appeared to defy a federal restraining order issued last week against the union after it was accused of assaults and death threats.
    (AP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 13, The Census Bureau released its annual report. It said that the ranks of America's poor swelled to almost 1 in 6 people last year, reaching a new high as long-term unemployment left millions of Americans struggling and out of work. The number of uninsured edged up to 49.9 million, the biggest in more than two decades.
    (AP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 20, GM and the UAW unveiled a modest 4-year pay agreement. The deal included a $5,000 lump sum payment to production line workers and $4,000 more over the next 4 years plus a slightly higher share of profits. It also allowed the hiring of new “tier-two” employees.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.75)

2011        Sep 22, In northern and central California some 23,000 nurses associated with Sutter Health and Kaiser Permanente went on a one-day strike.
    (SFC, 9/23/11, p.C4)

2011        Sep 23, A Botswana official said labor unions have asked a court to force the government to reinstate nearly 2,600 public services workers fired during the country's first national strike in April.
    (AFP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 26, A new British law, the Prisoners' Earnings Act, went into effect. Inmates earning more than £20 ($31, €23) a week after deductions will see 40% deducted from what remains.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, In Australia thousands of international air travelers faced delays as Customs and Border Protection officers walked off the job at airports across the country after workers rejected a 9 percent pay rise over three years.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, In Greece a 24-hour public transport strike left Athens without buses, metros, taxis and trams. Customs and tax office workers were also on strike, while about 350 pensioners demonstrated outside the Finance Ministry against pension cuts and tax increases.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Oct 4, In China a coal mine explosion killed at least 13 workers in Guizhou province.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 7, India's largest car maker Maruti Suzuki said a fresh strike by workers halted production at a north India plant, just days after the end of a bitter month-long dispute.
    (AFP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 9, Algerian police arrested roughly 25 unemployed people as they prepared to rally against joblessness near the presidential compound.
    (AFP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 10, India's largest car maker Maruti Suzuki called for authorities to evict 1,500 striking workers who have seized control of one of its plants, amid allegations of sabotage and violence. The workers began staging a sit-in strike at its Manesar factory in northern Haryana state on Oct 7.
    (AFP, 10/10/11)
2011        Oct 10, Indonesian police shot and killed one protester and wounded another as they clashed with striking workers at a mine run by US company Freeport McMoran. The clash erupted when police tried to stop more than 1,000 workers, who began their strike on September 15, from entering a facility at the Grasberg mining complex.
    (AFP, 10/10/11)
2011        Oct 10, Kuwaiti exports and imports were disrupted as over 3,000 customs officers went on strike demanding better pay and threatening to halt oil exports.
    (AFP, 10/10/11)
2011        Oct 10, In Israel nearly 300 residents at hospitals failed to turn up to work and hundreds more were poised to resign later the same day in a dispute over pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 11, Myanmar’s government signed legislation allowing the establishment of trade unions.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.51)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15303968)

2011        Oct 21, Hertz said it is firing 25 Somali Muslim drivers at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport who have refused to agree to clock out for daily breaks during which they normally pray. 9 of 34 drivers have signed the agreement and returned to their jobs.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 21, In India the latest in a series of strikes at top car maker Maruti Suzuki came to an end, at a cost of $400 million in lost production and major damage to the group's reputation.
    (AFP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 21, In Indonesia gunmen shot dead three people at a strike-hit gold and copper mine in the eastern Papua region, raising the number of killings this month to eight at the troubled Grasberg mine, operated by Freeport McMoRan. The strikers, mostly indigenous Melanesians, say they are the lowest paid Freeport workers in the world, earning between $1.50 and $3.50 an hour.
    (AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 29, Australian flag carrier Qantas grounded its entire fleet indefinitely in a bitter industrial dispute. Months of strikes by baggage handlers, engineers and pilots have been costing Qantas Aus$15 million (£9.9 million) per week, with the total financial impact so far hitting Aus$68 million.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 31, An Australian court ended the strikes and employee lockout that had abruptly grounded Qantas Airways and stranded tens of thousands of passengers worldwide. The government referred the dispute to Fair Work Australia, which ordered both sides into 21 days of talks.
    (AP, 10/31/11)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.75)

2011        Nov 2, The Philippines, one of the world's largest labor exporters, announced a ban on the deployment of workers to 41 countries, including war-torn Afghanistan and booming India, where Filipino officials say there are inadequate protections against labor abuse. Nearly 10 percent of the Philippine population of 94 million work abroad.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, Human Rights Watch said Chinese mining companies in Zambia ignore labor protections, demanding up to 18 hours of labor a day and flouting health and safety rules.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 7, Israel was hit by a brief general strike that affected hospitals, banks, ports and the country's main international airport, but which ended after just four hours. Its scope was limited to four hours following an all-night session by the National Labour Court which met after the collapse of talks between the powerful Histadrut trades union and the finance ministry. The Histadrut has accused the government of massively increasing its use of contract workers and is demanding it offer hundreds of thousands of them coverage under the civil service's collective bargaining agreement.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 25, Britain’s Deputy PM Nick Clegg unveiled a £1 billion youth contract to create hundreds of thousands of work and training placements for jobless youngsters.
    (AFP, 11/25/11)

2011        Dec 4, Pilots at Lebanese national carrier Middle East Airlines (MEA) ended a five-day strike in protest at the dismissal of a cancer-stricken colleague which grounded dozens of flights at Beirut airport.
    (AFP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 13, In Guinea-Bissau a transport strike paralyzed much of the country, forcing residents to trek into work by foot, as taxi drivers stayed off the roads to protest police extortion.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 15, Australia’s independent Remuneration Tribunal recommended pay hikes for most politicians and public servants. PM Julia Gillard was recommended for a bumper 31 percent rise to take her salary past that of US President Barack Obama.
    (AFP, 12/15/11)

2011        Dec 26, In London thousands of shoppers seeking post-Christmas bargains were delayed, but not deterred, by a subway strike that shut down parts of the network.
    (AP, 12/26/11)

2011        Dec 28, In Yemen labor strikes spread through the country as workers demanded reforms and dismissal of managers over alleged corruption linked to the outgoing president. A civilian was shot dead in a shootout between the Republican Guard and gunmen loyal to dissident tribal chief Sadiq al-Ahmar.
    (AP, 12/28/11)(AFP, 12/28/11)

2011        Dec 30, In Britain administrator Deloitte said around 1,600 jobs are to go at shoe retailer Barratts Priceless after attempts to find a buyer for the concessions business failed. The Bradford-based Barratts collapsed into administration earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 12/30/11)

2012        Jan 1, The minimum wage in San Francisco rose 32 cents to $10.24 an hour.
    (SSFC, 1/1/12, p.A1)

2012        Jan 2, In Senegal thousands of Dakar residents found themselves stranded as bus and taxi drivers took part in a two-day strike over high fuel prices, leaving some to turn to horse-drawn carts to get around. A paramilitary officer was killed, five injured and another left missing in the Casamance region village of Affiniam.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)(AP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 3, Brazil’s labor ministry said some 294 employers submit workers to slave-like conditions.
    (SFC, 1/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 4, In the Central African Republic taxi and bus drivers in Bangui held a one-day strike. The government promised to look into grievances about its decision to raise fuel prices.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)
2012        Jan 4, Senegalese bus and taxi drivers ended a two-day strike that had left people stranded and resorting to horse-drawn carts to get to work. Drivers in Senegal were protesting against the high price of fuel, the cost of insurance, police harassment and a lack of social protection from their employers.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 9, Malawi's courts ground to a halt as some 2,000 judicial workers began an indefinite strike over work conditions and higher pay.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)
2012        Jan 9, Nigerian police and protesters clashed and three people were shot dead as tens of thousands demonstrated nationwide over fuel price hikes and a general strike shut down the country.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 12, In Nigeria a national strike entered its fourth day with oil workers threatening to halt production.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 14, Nigeria's government and union leaders ended talks without a deal to end a week-old strike that has shut down the country.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 16, Nigerian unions ended a week-old nationwide strike after President Goodluck Jonathan agreed to lower petrol prices, while security forces shot into the air and fired tear gas to disperse protesters. An unidentified gunmen shot dead three Chadian builders and stole their mobile phones in the northeastern city of Damaturu. 2 people were killed when gunmen invaded their homes in Borno state.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)(AFP, 1/17/12)(AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 24, Senegal's public transport workers launched a fresh strike to protest high fuel prices and police harassment, leaving many stranded on their way to work.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 31, NUPENG, a Nigerian oil workers' union, launched a strike over a dispute with Shell, sparking fears of petrol shortages. The National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers, the smaller of Nigeria's two oil industry unions, represents blue-collar workers, including tanker drivers.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels signed legislation making Indiana the 23rd right-to-work state.
    (SFC, 2/2/12, p.A7)

2012        Feb 2, In South Africa Impala Platinum, the world's number two producer, fired 13,000 miners who went on an illegal strike. Over the past month, the Johannesburg-based company has sacked a total of about 17,200 workers at its mine in the northwestern town of Rustenburg, more than half of the 30,000 people employed in the town.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 3, The US Labor Dept. said the United States created jobs at the fastest pace in nine months in January and the unemployment rate unexpectedly dropped to a near three-year low, giving a boost to President Barack Obama.
    (Reuters, 2/3/12)
2012        Feb 3, In southwestern China an explosion at a coal mine killed 11 miners and injured six at the Diaoyutai mine outside Yibin city in Sichuan province.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 8, Half a million Israeli public and private sector workers went on general strike, shutting down government offices, banks and airport traffic over the rights of contract workers.
    (AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, In Israel half a million public and private sector workers were on general strike for a 2nd day. Media reported signs of an emerging agreement between unions and government.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Brazil police and firefighters in Rio went on strike, a week before glittering Carnival celebrations that typically draw 800,000 tourists were due to start. Union officials expected anywhere from 50% to 70% of 58,000 officers to join the strike. Union members were not content with legislative approval of a 39% raise to be staggered over this year and the next, along with a promise of more in 2014.
    (AP, 2/10/12)
2012        Feb 10, In Israel a general strike in Israel entered its third day after negotiations between unions and government broke down.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 12, Israeli unions announced they were ending a general strike on its fifth day, after reaching an agreement with treasury officials that will boost salaries and benefits for contract workers.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)
2012        Feb 12, In South Africa the Impala Platinum worker’s union said the world's number two producer has agreed to take back 17,200 workers who were fired for going on strike.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 13, General Electric Co. said it plans to hire 5,000 US military veterans over the next five years and to invest $580 million to expand its aviation footprint in the US this year.
    (Reuters, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 15, In Australia some 3,500 workers from mining giant BHP Billiton's Queensland coal mines began a seven-day strike in what unions said was one of the nation's largest industrial stoppages in a decade.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)
2012        Feb 15, Official data showed that Britain's unemployment rate hit a 16-month peak in the three months to December, while the number of people claiming jobless benefits struck the highest total in two years.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 19, In Spain hundreds of thousands of protesters marched in 57 cities in a show of anger over new labor reforms that make it easier for companies to fire workers and pull out of collective bargaining agreements.
    (SFC, 2/20/12, p.A2)
2012        Feb 19, South African police said at least 350 people have been arrested after deadly violence during an illegal strike at the world's largest platinum mine run by Impala Platinum. At least 2 miners were killed since violence began on Feb 16. A 3rd death was reported on Feb 24.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(AFP, 2/20/12)(AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 20, In northeastern China an explosion at a steel plant killed 13 people and injured another 17, in Liaoning province's Anshan city.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Mar 6, In Sao Paulo, Brazil, truck drivers hauling fuel continued to strike for a 2nd day. They were protesting new regulations restricting hours they can use on some city roadways.
    (SFC, 3/7/12, p.A2)
2012        Mar 6, South Africa's powerful Cosatu labor federation vowed to rally more than 100,000 protesters against new toll roads around Johannesburg that have angered workers and businesses.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 7, In South Africa tens of thousands of protesters marched through 32 towns and cities in a protest by the powerful Cosatu labor body, the latest sign of tensions within the ANC-led government.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 8, Kenya sacked 25,000 nurses taking part in a strike, creating a potentially devastating shortage. The nurses went on strike on March 1 to protest the government's failure to implement a salary increase agreed last year.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 9, In Kenya hundreds of nurses marched through the capital in a demand for better pay, even after the government sacked all 25,000 taking part in the strike.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 10, Myanmar state media reported that a new law has gone into effect giving workers the right to form unions and stage strikes.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.A4)

2012        Mar 11, In Spain hundreds of thousands of people across the country took part in demonstrations called by trade unions to protest the government’s tough new labor reforms.
    (SFC, 3/12/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 12, India's cash-strapped Kingfisher Airlines cancelled nearly a fifth of its flights, including at least one international route, after its staff staged a strike over unpaid wages.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 14, Britain’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) said in a statement that the number of unemployed people climbed by 28,000 over the period, the smallest increase for almost one year as the unemployment rate hit the highest level for almost 17 years.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)
2012        Mar 14, In Kenya tens of thousands of nurses agreed to end a two-week strike after talks with PM Raila Odinga, who revoked their mass dismissal during the standoff. It was agreed that all the issues raised by the health workers would be addressed exhaustively.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 16, Myanmar signed an agreement with the International Labor Organization to end forced labor by 2015. The main problem involved adults and youngsters pressed into working for the army.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 22, In China 17 miners were trapped in a northeast colliery following a gas blast that left five dead in Liaoning province. Last week, 13 people died after a capsule plunged into a pit at an iron ore mine in eastern China after a steel rope holding it broke.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 28, Hong Kong's court of appeal overturned a Sep 30, 2011, landmark ruling that opened the door for thousands of foreign maids to claim residency saying the High Court could not override the government's authority to decide who can live in the city and who cannot.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Apr 2, The Eurozone reported that unemployment now totaled 17.1 million, its highest level since the Euro was introduced in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 4, Yahoo announced that it will layoff 2,000 people, 14% of its work force, as part of a restructuring plan.
    (SFC, 4/5/12, p.A1)
2012        Apr 4, In Guinea workers at the Friguia plant, owned by world's biggest aluminium producer, went on strike after a lengthy pay dispute. Rusal has managed the bauxite mine, aluminium refinery and railway network since 2002 and privatized it in 2006. On Aug 24 Guinean unions asked the government to cancel Rusal's contract, a demand the company said had "no legal grounds", vowing to use all legal means to protect its ownership rights.
    (AFP, 8/26/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Peru 9 miners were trapped after a horizontal mining shaft collapsed not very deep under the surface. The miners were behind debris about six meters (20 feet) wide that collapsed when they set off an explosion to dislodge copper ore. On April 11 the miners walked free through a newly built tunnel.
    (AP, 4/7/12)(AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 9, Japan’s Nikkei business daily reported that Sony will cut 10,000 jobs worldwide this year as it attempts to carry out sweeping reforms aimed at reviving the iconic but loss-making Japanese electronics giant.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 30, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez signed a labor law, known as LOTTT, that included a virtual ban on dismissals, a shorter working week and improved holiday and maternity benefits.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.28)(http://tinyurl.com/pp7suqv)

2012        May 1, May Day moved beyond its roots as an international workers' holiday to a day of international protest, with rallies throughout Asia demanding wage increases and marches planned across Europe over government-imposed austerity measures. Thousands of Indonesian workers held Asia's biggest May Day rally, demanding better pay and protection of job security, watched warily by a heavy police and army presence.
    (AP, 5/1/12)(AFP, 5/1/12)
2012        May 1, Malaysia said it will introduce a minimum wage for the first time in a move to bolster incomes amid rising living costs and speculation of a snap general election. Private sector workers in peninsular Malaysia will receive a minimum salary of 900 ringgit ($297) a month while workers in the states of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo island will get 800 ringgit.
    (AFP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 10, Thousands of off-duty police officers took to the streets in London in a rare display of collective anger against government austerity measures, joining a mass protest by public sector workers including immigration officials, healthcare workers and prison officers.
    (Reuters, 5/10/12)

2012        May 17, Members of France's new Socialist-led government promised to take a pay cut, a gesture of shared sacrifice by leaders who must now both reduce the country's massive debts and tackle spiraling unemployment.
    (AP, 5/17/12)

2012        May 23, In Brazil subway workers went on strike in Sao Paulo, but ended it five hours later after halting a system used daily by more than 4 million people.
    (AP, 5/2/12)
2012        May 23, In Canada locomotive engineers and conductors at Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd went on strike after failing to reach a contract agreement, shutting down freight operations on Canada's second-biggest railroad.
    (Reuters, 5/23/12)

2012        May 27, In Jordan Vivian Salameh (45) a Christian woman, said she is suing her Gulf Arab employer for arbitrary dismissal after she refused a new dress code forcing her to cover her head. She had worked at Jordan's Industrial Development Bank for 25 years when it was acquired in 2010 by the Jordan Dubai Islamic Bank, an offshoot of the Dubai Islamic Bank.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 11, British workers from Coryton oil refinery marched on a fuel terminal in the southeast of the country and disrupted the supply of fuel heading to petrol stations to protest against the plant's closure. Coryton is currently being wound down as crude supplies run out, and 900 jobs were threatened.
    (Reuters, 6/11/12)(Reuters, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 12, In India police raided factories in New Delhi and rounded 26 up children working in 3 textile factories and a metal processing plant. An estimated 50,000 children were believed working in New Delhi factories despite laws against child labor.
    (SFC, 6/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 16, In Italy tens of thousands of workers demonstrated in Rome to protest pension cuts, tax hikes and labor reforms imposed by the government.
    (SSFC, 6/17/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 22, Swaziland teachers went on strike demanding a 4.5 percent salary increase.
    (AFP, 7/29/12)

2012        Jun 24, In Norway a pension dispute led to an industry-wide strike by the nation’s energy workers. The government intervened on July 10 after the oil industry threatened to halt all output. Energy professionals in Norway averaged $180,300 per year.
    (SFC, 7/11/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 4, In China a coal mine in Hunan province flooded trapping 16 miners. Rescue workers pulled 8 miners out of the coal mine in Leiyang city on July 8, but another 8 remained unaccounted for.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 8, In China a gas blast at a coal mine in the central province of Hunan killed seven people, the latest in a string of accidents in the country's dangerous mining industry.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 9, Canadian nuclear engineers at the Candu Energy subsidiary of the SNC-Lavalin Group Inc went on strike in a contract dispute and no talks to end the walkout are scheduled. About 700 engineers joined 144 others who have been on strike for five weeks.
    (Reuters, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul 9, Some 40,000 Algerian police auxiliaries, who once helped in the fight against armed Islamist groups, tried to march on the capital to demand pay rises and other benefits but were blocked by police.
    (AFP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 10, Spanish coal miners angered by huge cuts in subsidies converged on Madrid for protest rallies after walking nearly three weeks under a blazing sun from the pits where they eke out a living.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Spanish riot police fired rubber bullets at coal miners protesting in the streets of Madrid over subsidy cuts they fear will jeopardize their meager livelihood.
    (AP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 12, Struggling French carmaker PSA Peugeot-Citroen, facing diving sales in crisis-hit southern Europe, announced a drastic cost-cutting plan to slash 8,000 jobs in France and close a major factory north of Paris.
    (AP, 7/12/12)

2012        Jul 14, In northern Egypt some 23,000 textile workers went on strike in Mahalla al-Kobra, demanding higher wages.
    (AP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 19, India's top carmaker Maruti Suzuki suspended production at a plant near New Delhi after a manager was burnt to death and scores of others injured in a riot by angry workers. At least 88 workers were arrested and faced possible charges from murder to rioting and arson. In 2017 thirteen factory workers were sentenced to life imprisonment for taking part in the violence. Four other workers were sentenced to five years in prison.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)(AP, 3/19/17)

2012        Jul 30, A Canadian government-appointed arbitrator chose to enforce Air Canada's final offer over one proposed by the union representing its 3,000 pilots, ending a long and bitter contract dispute but angering the pilots.
    (Reuters, 7/30/12)

2012        Aug 4, In southern Zambia coal miners killed a Chinese mine manager and injured his colleague in a riot over wages at the Collum Coal mine in Sinazongwe known for tensions with the Chinese investor.
    (AFP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 12, In South Africa violent clashes broke out at the mine run by Lonmin, the world's third largest platinum producer, in a battle for dominance between the leading National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and the smaller Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU). 8 people were killed in the clashes. The next day two police officers, responding to the clashes, were hacked to death. In 2015 South African prosecutors charged 17 miners with murder over the killing of 10 people during a violent wildcat strike at Lonmin's Marikana mine.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)(Reuters, 10/21/15)

2012        Aug 13, Google said it will cut some 4,000 jobs at its Motorola Mobility Holdings unit, which it bought just months ago for some $12.5 billion.
    (SFC, 8/14/12, p.D1)

2012        Aug 16, India's top carmaker Maruti Suzuki said that more than 500 workers had been sacked after riots on July 18 at a plant near New Delhi left one manager dead. Production was set to partially re-start on August 21 with 200 anti-riot police on rolling shifts inside the factory.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 16, South African police fired on strikers at the Lonmin platinum mine leaving 34 dead. This was the deadliest police action since the end of white-minority rule in 1994.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)

2012        Aug 19, In South Africa Platinum producer Lonmin ordered employees at its mine where police killed 34 people to return to work or risk dismissal but workers vowed to stay on strike.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 20, In South Africa only 27% of workers answered an ultimatum to return for morning shifts at the platinum mine where police shot and killed 34-44 striking workers last week. Lonmin PLC said they were enough for it to resume operations.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 21, In South Africa Platinum giant Lonmin eased off its threat to fire miners who failed to return to work, as the government pleaded for time to mourn the 44 people killed during a wildcat strike. The company said about one-third of Lonmin's 28,000 employees at the Marikana platinum mine reported for work today.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 22, In India up to one million public sector bank employees started a two-day nationwide strike, protesting against reforms they fear could lead to mergers and job losses.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)

2012        Aug 25, South Africa’s platinum giant Lonmin said nearly 60 percent of workers reported for duty at one of its two sets of shafts as it sought an accord to end a labor dispute that has claimed 44 lives.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Aug 27, In South Africa strikers threatened retaliation against non-strikers at the London-listed Lonmin mine where most of the 28,000-workforce did not show up for shift 11 days after the country's worst police violence since apartheid.
    (AFP, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 30, In South Africa about 270 miners were charged with the murders of 34 striking colleagues who were shot by South African police officers. The decision to charge the miners came under an arcane Roman-Dutch common purpose law used under the apartheid regime. It suggested Pres. Jacob Zuma's government wants to shift blame for the killings from police to the striking miners.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 31, In Germany Lufthansa flight attendants walked off the job for eight hours at Frankfurt airport, causing the cancellation of more than 220 flights. Their union warned of more stoppages unless the airline gives in to its demands.
    (AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 3, South African police and security guards fired rubber bullets and tear gas at sacked gold miners who were attacking colleagues to block them from working. Police said four people were wounded at the Gold Fields mine that used to be partially owned by the president's nephew. Lonmin warned that a nearly four week strike at its mine was threatening 40,000 jobs, as the government moved to calm jitters in the sector.
    (AFP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 6, In South Africa managers of the Lonmin platinum mine, where police killed 34 striking workers, signed a peace deal with main labor unions but a breakaway union and the strikers themselves rejected it.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 7, Egypt's national air carrier said it will resume international flights after the airline's flight attendants suspended a 12-hour strike pending negotiations to meet their grievances.
    (AP, 9/8/12)
2012        Sep 7, Lufthansa canceled hundreds of flights after flight attendants walked off the job at airports around the country in an escalating battle with Germany's largest airline. Signs emerged that the two sides may be prepared to return to the negotiating table.
    (AP, 9/7/12)
2012        Sep 7, In Nigeria more than 60 workers from Air Nigeria protested at Lagos' Murtala Muhammed International Airport's domestic wings, demanding four-months-worth of unpaid salaries from the company. The airline's owner, business tycoon Jimoh Ibrahim, fired nearly all of the company's 800 employees for "disloyalty" earlier this month.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 10, In South Africa labor unrest spread in with a wildcat strike by 15,000 workers stopping operations at a gold mine while few workers reported for duty in the fourth week of a stoppage at the Lonmin PLC platinum mine.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 11, Netherlands-based Royal Philips Electronics NV, the largest maker of lights, said it plans to cut another 2,200 jobs by 2014 to save €300 million ($383 million) a year.
    (AP, 9/11/12)
2012        Sep 11, In South Africa firebrand politician Julius Malema called for a national strike in all of the nation's mines, encouraging a step-up of a strike that has already halted production at several platinum and gold mines.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, South Africa’s labor unrest grew. Police said 1,000 strikers were blocking access to the main shaft at Anglo American Platinum, stopping some operations at the world's largest platinum mine.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 14, A Wisconsin judge struck down nearly all of the 2011 state law championed by Gov. Scott Walker that effectively ended collective bargaining rights for most public workers.
    (AP, 9/15/12)
2012        Sep 14, South African police fired stun grenades to disperse striking miners, acting hours after President Jacob Zuma's government vowed to halt illegal protests and disarm strikers it fears are threatening the country's biggest industry.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 15, South African police fired rubber bullets and tear gas sending men, women and children scattering as they herded them into their shacks in a crackdown on striking miners at the at Lonmin PLC platinum mine.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep 25, South Africa's labor unrest spread from its mines to the transport sector. The country's transport union said more than 20,000 road freight employees were on strike demanding a pay increase.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 26, Mexicans took to the streets to protest a new law aimed at modernizing rules in the workplace and making the country’s powerful, corrupt unions more accountable.
    (SFC, 9/27/12, p.A2)
2012        Sep 26, South Africa’s AngloGold Ashanti said that it has halted all its operations in the country in response to persistent strikes. It provided 32 percent of the multinational's gold production.
    (AP, 9/26/12)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.53)

2012        Oct 2, In South Africa thousands of striking truck drivers protested amid heavy police presence in central Johannesburg as labor unrest continued across the country, leading to fears of renewed violence.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 3, A 24-hour strike by Belgian rail workers paralyzed train traffic throughout Belgium and the international high-speed service to London and Paris.
    (AP, 10/3/12)
2012        Oct 3, In Indonesia more than 2 million factory workers went on a one-day strike across the country demanding better benefits and protesting the hiring of contract workers.
    (AP, 10/3/12)

2012        Oct 4, Transport strikes in Portugal brought misery for thousands of commuters. Trade unions vowed to step up their fight against the government's latest batch of austerity measures.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 4, In South Africa a mineworker killed as police fired rubber bullets trying to disperse striking miners near an Anglo American Platinum mine in Rustenburg.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 5, Better than expected US jobs figures that included a surprise fall in the unemployment rate to its lowest level since January 2009.
    (AP, 10/5/12)
2012        Oct 5, In South Africa Anglo American Platinum fired 12,000 striking miners for staging an unlawful strike that is one of several that are slowly paralyzing South Africa's crucial mining sector.
    (AP, 10/5/12)
2012        Oct 5, In China some 3-4 thousand workers at the Foxconn plant in Zhengzhou reportedly went on strike over increased quality control standards. Foxconn, maker of Apple’s iPhones, said the next day that production continued without interruption.
    (SSFC, 10/7/12, p.A5)

2012        Oct 11, In South Africa striking miners killed one man by setting him on fire while another was shot and seriously wounded in rekindled labor unrest that saw police firing tear gas and rubber bullets near an Anglo American Platinum (Amplats) mine.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, Shares of Workday, a human resources software company in Pleasanton, Ca., rose $20.69 to close at $48.69 in its first day of trading on the NYSE.
    (SSFC, 10/14/12, p.D1)
2012        Oct 12, In South Africa a strike by some 20,000 truckers ended in a three-year wage deal that gives them a 10 percent pay raise in the first year.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 27, South African police fired rubber bullets at striking miners at the Anglo American Platinum mine in Rustenburg as the company announced it had agreed to reinstate 12,000 South African workers dismissed earlier this month for staging illegal strikes. Some of the miners had vowed not to return to work until their wage demands were met.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Nov 2, In South Africa AngloGold Ashanti said it has suspended operations at two mines after hundreds of workers staged a sit-in over pay.
    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 6, In South Africa Gold Fields said that thousands of employees returned to work at the company's KDC East mine ending a 23-day strike. The National Union of Mineworkers that the 12,000 miners fired from platinum mining company Anglo American Platinum in Rustenburg for staging illegal strikes since September had still not returned to work, and negotiations were underway.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 14, Workers across the European Union sought to present a united front against rampant unemployment and government spending cuts with a string of strikes and demonstrations across the region. In Belgium a 24-hour rail stoppage and scattered strikes through the south of the nation disrupted daily life. A Spanish strike shut down most schools and while hospitals operated with a skeleton staff. In Portugal the second general strike in eight months left commuters stranded as trains ground to a virtual halt.
    (AP, 11/14/12)
2012        Nov 14, In South Africa television images showed protesters overturn a police truck and set fires in the streets in a town in the Western Cape. Workers have been protesting their wages, saying they want a minimum wage of $17 a day. Currently, workers make about half that amount a day.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 20, Argentine President Cristina Fernandez faced a nationwide strike, led by union bosses who once were her most steadfast supporters.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 26, An Italian court ordered the seizure of the Ilva steel plant in Taranto, claiming pollutants from the plant, the largest in Europe, have driven up cancer in the area. Workers the next day stormed the locked gates. 20,000 jobs were at stake.
    (SFC, 11/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 27, A labor strike by 500 clerical workers began at the twin California ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Their industrial action and clout was significantly strengthened because some 10,000 members of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union supported them, refusing to cross the clerical workers' picket lines. Operations at 10 or 14 terminals were idled.
    (Reuters, 12/2/12)(SFC, 12/4/12, p.A11)

2012        Dec 11, Michigan enacted a ban on mandatory union membership, dealing a stunning blow to organized labor in the state that is home to US automakers and the symbol of industrial labor in the United States. Gov. Rick Santorum signed the “right to work” legislation immediately after it passsed the legislature.
    (AP, 12/11/12)(Econ, 12/15/12, p.32)

2012        Dec 14, Guinean authorities and trade unions agreed to give civil servants a pay raise of 50 percent over the next year. The raises would be applied in three phases of 10, 15 and 25 percent before the end of 2013.
    (AP, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 21, In Sierra Leone the OCTEA diamond mining company said that the company is increasing the year-end salary bonus for workers from 20% to 30%. Officials said a deadly strike at the Koidu diamond mine is now over. Two people were killed in violence there, where workers went on strike over bonuses and work conditions.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2013        Jan 1, Ten states kicked off the new year with a minimum wage rise of between 10 and 35 cents. The rises went into effect in Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.
    (Reuters, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 24, In Greece strikers protesting pay cuts refused to return to work, leaving Athens' subway system closed for an eighth day, despite a court decision declaring their protest illegal.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Jan 25, Greek riot police stormed the Athens subway train depot before dawn to enforce a government emergency order forcing striking staff back to work in an escalating standoff over new austerity measures.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 31, Greek doctors, port workers and public transport staff in the country's capital walked off the job in strikes against deeply unpopular austerity measures that have seen incomes slashed as the country struggles to emerge from a deep financial crisis. Farmers in central Greece parked their tractors along the country's main highway for a second day, under the watchful eye of riot police, threatening to shut the road to protest spending cuts and high fuel taxes.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 4, South Africa’s Minister Mildred Oliphant said in a prepared speech that a new daily wage for manual laborers on the nation's farms would be 105 rand (about $12) up from 69 rand ($7.80).
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, In Ireland an official report, that ran to almost 1,000 pages, said that more than a quarter of the women and girls subjected to harsh discipline and unpaid work at 10 laundries, run by Catholic nuns, were sent there by the Irish state.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 7, In Colombia over 5,000 workers at the Cerrejon coal mine went on strike. Negotiations began on Feb 26.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.38)

2013        Feb 12, French workers fired flares and paint bombs and riot police answered with tear gas in a standoff over layoffs at a plant for US tire maker Goodyear, amid tensions over a slump in Europe's car industry. Another demonstration targeted the headquarters of carmaker PSA Peugeot Citroen, which is laying off thousands of people.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 18, In South Africa 9 miners and 4 guards were injured when a machete-wielding mob attacked union stewards and security guards opened fire with rubber bullets amid ongoing labor rivalry at an Anglo American Platinum mine. Some miners accuse the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), which is allied with the governing ANC, of becoming elitist, cozying up to business and putting those interests before that of mine workers.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 19, In Egypt hundreds of protesters in Port Said pressured government employees to leave work early as they enforced the third day of a general strike.
    (AP, 2/19/13)
2013        Feb 19, In Malawi public workers on strike demanding a 67 percent pay hike threatened to close the country's airports. The government said it doesn't have the money to meet the demands.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 20, In Greece a 24-hour protest by unions representing private and public sector workers disrupted flights, halted ferries and crippled public services, in a renewed confrontation between labor groups and the conservative-led government over policies aimed at curbing Greece's overspending.
    (AP, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 21, The Malawi government agreed to raise public workers' salaries by 60%, ending a two-week old strike.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 22, BP tanker drivers have begun a 3-day strike at Petroineos's Grangemouth refinery in Scotland over a plan to transfer some of them to another employer, which would affect their pensions and pay.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 24, In Egypt thousands of brick workers blocked railroad tracks from a southern city to Cairo for a second day to protest rising industrial oil prices, causing the cancellation of some services. Residents of Port Said pressed their general strike which entered its second week.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Feb 25, In Colombia thousands of coffee workers began blocking roads in 10 provinces over falling incomes from leaf rust and falling coffee prices.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.38)

2013        Mar 6, British travel firm Thomas Cook said it would cut 2,500 UK jobs and close 195 stores in Britain as the euro crisis, high fuel costs and unrest in key destinations like Egypt and Greece take their toll on the holiday business.
    (Reuters, 3/6/13)

2013        Mar 7, Coalfield Resources said Daw Mill Colliery in Warwickshire, Britain's largest coal mine, will close permanently with the loss of at least 550 jobs due to a fire that has burned ferociously for two weeks.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 14, In Algeria some 10,000 people — an enormous number for the lightly populated region —demonstrated for jobs in the southern oil city of Ouargla. Thousands more protested later in the southern oil town, Laghouat. PM Abdelmalek Sellal acknowledged on March 16 that the demonstrators' demands are legitimate and the government hurriedly announced a string of measures to address the perceived geographical bias in oil jobs.
    (AP, 3/30/13)

2013        Mar, The average wage in America was reported to be $22 per hour.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.76)

2013        Apr 4, In Chile a series of fast-spreading port strikes in Chile blocked exports of copper, fruit and wood pulp and kept thousands of workers idle. The stoppage began in the northern port of Angamos more than two weeks ago, when workers began demanding a 30-minute lunch break and a place to set up a cafeteria.
    (AP, 4/4/13)

2013        Apr 5, In Chile the Ultraport company managing the Angamos port agreed to compensate workers with a bonus following negotiations mediated by Chile's work minister.
    (AP, 4/6/13)
2013        Apr 5, Mexico’s President Enrique Pena Nieto visited Hong Kong, and said "I am convinced that Mexican products should take advantage of the dynamism of China's markets." A report by a chief economist for Bank of America Merrill Lynch this week estimated that Mexico's labor costs are now 19.6 percent lower than China's.
    (AP, 4/6/13)

2013        Apr 7, Egyptian train drivers and conductors announced they were on strike to press demands for better pay. A 10% raise was rejected by the train drivers and conductors as too little.
    (AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 10, Togolese trade unions started a three-day protest. The unions are under the umbrella of the "Togolese Workers Synergy" or " Synergie des Travailleurs Togolais.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        Apr 11, The Dutch Cabinet brokered a deal with unions that scraps planned salary freezes for government and healthcare workers.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 15, The British government approved a 1.9% rise in the minimum wage, giving the country's lowest-paid employees a bigger increase than most other workers but one that is still less than inflation.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, A majority of Irish public sector workers rejected a new pay deal and warned the government against unilaterally cutting wages, giving it a headache as it seeks to exit an EU-IMF bailout later this year.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 17, In Greece 3 strawberry plantation foremen allegedly shot and injured 29 Bangladeshi laborers protesting late pay. Greek officials the next day promised "swift and exemplary" punishment for the suspects.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr, North Korea relaxed state control of salaries. The change in policy was reportedly intended to boost production by giving companies latitude to provide workers with financial incentives.
    (AP, 5/27/13)

2013        May 3, An unexpectedly strong US jobs report pushed stock markets higher as investors welcomed signs that the world's largest economy is not slowing down as quickly as some had feared.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 10, Hundreds of fast-food employees in Detroit walked off the job, temporarily shuttering a handful of outlets as part of a growing US worker movement that is demanding higher wages for flipping burgers and operating fryers.
    (Reuters, 5/10/13)
2013        May 10, In Nigeria workers barricaded the front of ThisDay newspapers in Lagos, hoping to force publisher Nduka Obaigbena into paying them as much as four months' worth of back salaries due to them. The crisis hit a man politically connected to the nation's ruling elite.
    (AP, 5/10/13)

2013        May 13, Bangladesh's government agreed to allow the country's garment workers to form trade unions without prior permission from factory owners. The search for the dead ended at the site of the worst disaster in the history of the global garment industry with the death toll at 1,127.
    (AP, 5/13/13)
2013        May 13, Greek civil servants' unions called a 24-hour strike for May 14 in reaction to the government's decision to use emergency powers to prevent protesting teachers from disrupting the May 17-31 exams for school leavers and university candidates.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 14, Croatia Airlines pilots and flight attendants went on strike over planned salary cuts and layoffs that are part of efforts to restructure the loss-making state carrier ahead of the country's EU entry.
    (AP, 5/14/13)
2013        May 14, In Germany a union representing workers at Amazon said members are striking in a push for higher wages from the online retailer.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 15, Two million Argentines will get wage hikes of 24% under a deal President Cristina Fernandez brokered with six allied labor unions. Economists say inflation has been running about 25% a year, more than twice the official inflation rate of 10%.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 17, In France PSA Peugeot Citroen said that it has signed an agreement with the CGT union to end a strike at a factory north of Paris, which started January 16. Workers said they will still fight a plan to close the plant.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 18, In Egypt baggage handlers in Cairo went on strike after a baggage handler who works for EgyptAir died when a conveyer belt used to unload luggage fell on his head. The strike did not disrupt flights.
    (AP, 5/18/13)
2013        May 18, A union of Italian metal workers led thousands of people in a march through the heart of Rome to press the new government for measures to spur job creation.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 20, United Arab Emirates-based construction company Arabtec said it's working to resolve a rare strike by laborers seeking higher wages. Arabtec said an undisclosed number of workers in Dubai and Abu Dhabi have stayed in camps for a second day.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 28, Volkswagen said it has agreed with the IG Metall union on increases of 3.4% from Sept. 1 and 2.2% from July 1 of next year through February 2015. The agreement covers 102,000 workers in six west German auto plants.
    (AP, 5/28/13)
2013        May 28, The Greek government says small protests are blocking streets in central Athens at a rate of twice a day, and called on unions to help draw up new guidelines to keep traffic running.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 30, In Portugal a 24-hour strike by Lisbon subway staff snarled rush-hour traffic, heralding a new spate of planned strikes against the bailed-out country's austerity policies.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 31, Eurostat, the EU's statistics office, said that the unemployment rate rose to 12.2% in April from the previous record of 12.1% the month before. Unemployment across the 17 EU countries appeared to be on course to hit 20 million this year.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 7, A US jobs report suggested the Federal Reserve is likely to keep its stimulus program going for now. The Labor Department said the world's largest economy added 175,000 jobs, slightly better than the expected 165,000 increase. However, the previous months' jobs gains were revised down.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

2013        Jun 12, A strike by French air traffic controllers forced cancellations of more than 60% of flights and disrupted travel elsewhere in Europe.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 13, Egyptian pilots working for the national carrier staged a 10-hour sit-in protest, delaying 22 flights in an effort to press their demands for management changes and bonus payments.
    (AP, 6/13/13)
2013        Jun 13, French rail workers walked off the job to protest a reorganization of the national rail and train companies. Up to 70% of train journeys in France were canceled. The action began the previous evening and was set to end the morning of June 14.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jun 16, In Bangladesh several hundred garment workers were sickened at their factory outside Dhaka apparently after drinking contaminated water. Earlier this month contaminated water sickened 450 workers at another factory in the same area.
    (SFC, 6/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 20, The corporate office of 7-Eleven told its 5,600 franchise owners of the chain's convenience stores that it was requiring an internal review of personnel files after federal authorities seized 14 stores in New York and Virginia this week that employed undocumented workers in a "modern-day plantation system."
    (abcNEWS, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 25, In France the Eiffel Tower Paris was shut down due to a labor dispute over salaries, profit sharing and other issues. It reopened after workers returned on June 27.
    (SFC, 6/26/13, p.A2)(AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jul 1, SF Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) workers went on strike leaving many commuters stranded.
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A1)

2013        Jul 3, Brazilian truckers demanding cheaper fuel, better highways and lower tolls torched toll booths and crippled traffic in several regions, continuing their protests into a third day.
    (AP, 7/3/13)

2013        Jul 4, In San Francisco representatives from BART and two unions agreed to a 30-day extention of the current contract and said transit workers will go back to work on July 5.
    (SFC, 7/5/13, p.A1)

2013        Jul 8, Greece's international debt inspectors reached a tentative agreement with the cash-strapped country on reforms needed to keep releasing vital bailout loans, although they warned it still faced an "uncertain" economic outlook and needed to sack thousands of state sector workers. Municipal workers went on strike to protest government plans to reduce the number of civil servants.
    (AP, 7/8/13)

2013        Jul 10, Washington DC passed a bill requiring large retailers to pay their workers a minimum of $12.50 per hour.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.29)
2013        Jul 10, A group of major North American retailers announced the signing of the Bangladesh Worker Safety Initiative. GAP, Walmart and 15 others signed the accord to improve conditions for workers in the Bangladesh garment industry.
    (SFC, 7/11/13, p.C1)
2013        Jul 10, A South Korean court ordered Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp. of Japan to pay $89,800 to each of four South Korean plaintiffs  for forced labor during the colonial from 1910 to 1945.
    (SFC, 7/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 11, In Brazil tens of thousands of union demonstrators blocked roads and snarled traffic in dozens of cities in a one-day strike aimed at seizing the momentum of huge protests that swept the country last month.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)

2013        Jul 15, Bangladesh approved a labor law to boost worker rights, including the freedom to form trade unions, after a factory building collapse in April killed 1,132 garment workers and sparked debate over labor safety and rights.
    (Reuters, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 16, Tens of thousands of Greek workers walked off the job and rallied in front of parliament in a noisy protest against government plans to fire public sector employees to satisfy foreign lenders.
    (Reuters, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 28, In South Africa a 49-year-old worker was shot dead near Lonmin's Marikana mine, stirring worries of new labor tension in the troubled platinum mining belt that has been racked by a violent union dispute over the last year.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Jul 30, A South Korean court ruled that Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan should pay compensation to five South Koreans for forced labor during the colonial period that ended with World War II.
    (SFC, 7/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 11, A San Francisco Superior Court judge, at the request of Gov. Jerry Brown, ordered a 60-day cooling-off period to avert a BART strike.
    (SFC, 8/12/13, p.A1)

2013        Aug 14, In Chile workers began a surprise strike at Escondida, the world's largest copper mine, over pay and working conditions.
    (AP, 8/14/13)

2013        Aug 26, In South Africa tens of thousands of construction workers downed tools, adding to strike chaos that has crippled output and disrupted air traffic while fanning fears of new violence.
    (AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 27, South Africa's petrol station and car dealership workers announced a strike for higher wages next week, signaling further labor disruption to a struggling economy that also faces looming stoppages in its gold mines.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 29, US fast-food workers walked off their jobs in over 50 cities demanding a minimum wage of $15 and hour.
    (SSFC, 9/1/13, p.D6)

2013        Sep 2, In South Africa industrial action paralysed construction and automotive sectors, but tens of thousands of petrol attendants delayed a strike.
    (AFP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 3, In northern Bosnia some 140 miners barricaded themselves 250 meters below ground at a mine and threatened to go on hunger strike in a row over recruitment and pay.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)

2013        Sep 4, In South Africa two of the seven gold mine producers touched by a pay strike said they have struck a wage settlement with unions as the work stoppage entered day two.
    (AFP, 9/4/13)
2013        Sep 4, In Thailand tens of thousands of rubber farmers, protesting against a sharp drop in prices, escalated protests across southern Thailand, cutting off access to large swathes of the region by blocking roads leading to tourist and commercial hubs.
    (Reuters, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 5, In southern Thailand rubber farmers clashed with police and threatened to shut down city halls in 14 southern provinces after the government rejected their demands for price rises.
    (Reuters, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 6, Some South African gold miners ended their strike for higher wages and were heading back to work after just three days, bolstering confidence the strike could be formally called off today.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)
2013        Sep 6, Thailand's government said it had reached a deal with most rubber farmers in the country's south demanding greater state support for rubber prices, signaling a breakthrough in a two-week long protest.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 9, In South Africa a strike by petrol station attendants got off to a slow start despite their union calling for them to join a wave of stoppages over wages sweeping the country.
    (AFP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 10, French trade union strikes against pension reforms won only limited support, with most trains running in a sign President Francois Hollande's modest proposals were unlikely to stir broad opposition.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 13, South African construction workers ended a three week strike after reaching a 12 percent wage hike deal with employers.
    (AFP, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 14, In  Poland some 100,000 union members marched through Warsaw to protest the government’s labor and wage policies.
    {Poland, Labor}
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A4)

2013        Sep 15, Romanian gold miners, who staged a five-day protest underground against plans to halt development of the site, ended their sit-in after PM Victor Ponta went into the pit to meet them. Ponta promised them a parliamentary commission to assess the proposed mine (before a vote in parliament.
    (Reuters, 9/15/13)

2013        Sep 18, Greek workers shut schools and forced hospitals to operate with only emergency staff at the start of a 48-hour strike against the latest plans to fire thousands of public sector employees.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 23, In Bangladesh more than 100 garment factories were forced to shut as thousands of workers protested to demand a $100 a month minimum wage. About 50 people were injured in clashes.
    (Reuters, 9/23/13)

2013        Sep 24, Greek public sector workers went on strike for the second time in a week, shutting schools and leaving hospitals with skeleton staff, as inspectors from Greece's foreign lenders checked whether the country was meeting its bailout targets.
    (Reuters, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 26, Nepal recalled its ambassador to Qatar after she compared the Middle Eastern emirate to an "open jail" for thousands of Nepali migrants who face abuse from employers there.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 27, The Swiss government urged voters to reject a Nov 24 proposal to limit monthly executive pay to no more than what the company's lowest-paid staff earn in a year, saying it could hurt the attractiveness of Switzerland as a business destination.
    (Reuters, 9/27/13)

2013        Sep 27, Cuba announced 18 new categories of independent employment under Pres. Raul Castro’s economic reforms. These included real estate agents and raised the total to 199.
    (SSFC, 9/29/13, p.A19)

2013        Sep 30, Britain staff in hundreds of post offices started industrial action in a bitter row with the government over jobs, pay and closures.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)
2013        Sep 30, In South Africa some 2,000 striking miners from Anglo American Platinum rallied to protest planned job cuts at the world's top producer of the precious metal.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 21, San Francisco Bay Area BART workers ended their strike with a tentative agreement between the transit agency and its two largest unions. Trains began running Oct 22. Workers scored a 15.4% pay raises over four years as well as other benefits.
    (SFC, 10/22/12, p.A1)(SFC, 10/22/12, p.A9)

2013        Oct 25, Ethiopia banned domestic workers from moving overseas for employment, following an "exodus" of workers leaving the country through illegal placement agencies.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 31, In Indonesia tens of thousands of workers went on strike across the country as its citizens seek a greater share of the spoils from stellar growth.
    (AFP, 10/31/13)
2013        Oct 31, In Portugal Lisbon subway workers walked off the job for the fifth time this year to protest government austerity measures being enacted in return for Portugal's 2011 bailout.
    (AP, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 1, In Indonesia tens of thousands of workers went on strike across the country for a second straight day, calling for huge salary hikes as Southeast Asia's top economy enjoys a prolonged boom.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 4, Saudi authorities began a clampdown on illegal immigrants after the end of an amnesty that gave overstayers and workers a grace period to leave or legalize their status.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)
2013        Nov 4, In Spain a rubbish strike began in Madrid and continued for 12 days. It ended after private maintenance companies cancelled plans to lay off a fifth of the Spanish capital's street cleaners.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mkyut77)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.58)

2013        Nov 5, Saudi media said authorities have rounded up over four thousand of illegal foreign workers at the start of a nationwide crackdown ultimately aimed at creating more jobs for locals.
    (Reuters, 11/5/13)(SFC, 11/6/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 6, Britain’s BAE Systems said it will axe 1,775 shipbuilding jobs and close a historic yard as a government austerity drive hits demand.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)
2013        Nov 6, A Saudi-owned newspaper reported that authorities have detained more than 16,000 migrant workers in the first 48 hours of a security sweep targeting foreigners working illegally in the kingdom.
    (AP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 8, In Portugal a 24-hour strike by government workers disrupted public services as labor groups continue their battle against pay and pension cuts and the loss of entitlements.
    (AP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 9, About 2,000 South African mineworkers staged an underground sit-in at Northam Platinum's Dechaba mine, saying they will not leave until a fired union leader is reinstated. The strikers were safely brought to the surface on Sunday night, Nov 10.
    (Reuters, 11/10/13)(AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 11, Struggling low-cost British airline Flybe said it plans to axe another 500 jobs as it pursues a round of cost-cutting measures.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)
2013        Nov 11, In Spain cartons, plastic bottles and other litter piled up in the streets of Madrid as an open-ended strike by street-sweepers against layoffs and pay cuts entered the seventh day.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 12, In Bangladesh riot police fired tear gas to battle thousands of stone-throwing garment workers who rampaged through two industrial towns during a protest over wages that closed at least 200 factories and left dozens of people injured.
    (AP, 11/12/13)
2013        Nov 12, In Cambodia a woman was shot dead and several people injured as riot police used live rounds, rubber bullets and teargas in clashes with protesting garment workers.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Bangladesh violent protests shuttered some 250 garment factories near the capital Dhaka, as thousands of workers demanded higher wages.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)
2013        Nov 13, In Saudi Arabia Ethiopia’s ambassador in Riyadh said some 23,000 Ethiopians have handed themselves in since Saudi authorities clamped down on illegal foreign workers 10 days ago.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 14, Bangladeshi garment factory owners said they had agreed to a proposed 77 percent rise in the minimum wage, but police used teargas and rubber bullets to break up new protests by stone-throwing workers calling for a bigger increase.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 20, About 4,000 Bulgarian workers rallied against low wages and a lack of jobs, in a possible sign that opposition to the Socialist-led cabinet may be spreading beyond daily protests staged mostly by students.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 28, British energy provider Npower, a subsidiary of German giant RWE, announced plans to cut about 1,460 jobs in Britain and outsource customer service operations to India.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 30, In South Africa dozens of Indonesian fishermen, who spent months stranded in Cape Town's harbor, sleeping in cramped and suffocating quarters, were taken ashore to a repatriation center after being stuck at sea on Taiwanese vessels for years without pay.
    (AFP, 12/1/13)
2013        Nov 30, Sudanese media said more than 11,000 Sudanese workers have returned voluntarily from Saudi Arabia after an amnesty for foreign employees to legalise their status.
    (AFP, 11/31/13)

2013        Nov, The US Postal Service unveiled plans to open 84 post offices in Staples stores around the country, but they would not be staffed by USPS union members.
    (SFC, 12/3/13, p.D5)

2013        Dec 1, In Mexico Some 40,000 teachers, union members and anarchist activists took to Mexico City's streets in a demonstration on the first anniversary of President Enrique Pena Nieto's inauguration.
    (AFP, 12/1/13)

2013        Dec 4, Tunisia's southern Tozeur region ground to a halt, as the latest in a growing number of strikes around the country was called to protest a lack of development.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 5, Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn sign landmark legislation to reform the state’s underfunded pension system. The reforms cut benefits for most employees and retirees. Unions immediately threatened a lawsuit.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A10)

2013        Dec 22, In South Korea hundreds of riot police stormed into a labor umbrella group's head office in a bid to arrest union leaders. They detained about 130 strikers and confederation members. Workers with the state-run Korea Railroad had walked off the job in protest against a decision to set up a unit to run a high-speed bullet train, which they say will lead to privatization and layoffs.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 28, In the US the most recent extension of unemployment insurance expired leaving some 1.3 million Americans suddenly cut off from federally funded benefits.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.19)

2013        Robin Nagle authored “Picking Up: On the Streets and Behind the Trucks With the Sanitation Workers of New York City.”
    (SSFC, 4/7/13, p.F5)
2013        The US Labor Dept., celebrating its 100 year anniversary, embarked on its “Books that Shaped Work in America” project. The reading list began with 92 books, but additions continued.
    (SFC, 12/14/13, p.D1)(http://www.dol.gov/)

2014        Jan 2, Cambodian soldiers forcefully quelled a demonstration by garment workers striking for better pay. Workers at more than 500 garment factories were on strike demanding an increase in the minimum wage to $160 per month, double the current rate.
    (SFC, 1/3/14, p.A2)

2014        Jan 6, In France two Goodyear managers were trapped in a conference room with angry workers demanding more money in exchange for the inevitable loss of their jobs in Amiens. The managers were released after police intervened on Jan 7.
    (AP, 1/6/14)(AP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 7, In Cambodia tens of thousands of garment workers returned to work, ending a two-week pay dispute after authorities used deadly force to quell a strike and thwart a protest by their political allies seeking a re-run of a July election. An estimated 65-70% returned to work.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 17, Austria's government agreed to raise the wages of its 200,000 civil servants by 1.9 percent this year after big protests against the new government.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 23, In South Africa tens of thousands of platinum miners went on strike, demanding higher wages. Striking workers at the top three platinum producers agreed to take part in government-brokered talks aimed at ending the dispute and limiting economic damage.
    (AP, 1/23/14)(AFP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 25, Chilean port workers negotiated a settlement with management and ended a more than three-week-old strike that had slowed copper, fruit and other shipments from the world's top copper producer.
    (Reuters, 1/25/14)

2014        Jan 28, In China an Indian oil tanker being repaired at a shipyard at Haizhou Shipyard in the port city of Zhousha exploded and caught fire, killing 7 Chinese workers.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 2, In Spain several thousand people marched from a Coca-Cola bottling plant in a southwestern suburb to downtown Madrid to protest the company's plan to close four plants in Spain and lay off 1,253 workers.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 4, In South Africa a fire broke out about 1.7 km beneath the surface at the Doornkop mine, triggered by 2.4 earthquake. Emergency workers raced to rescue nine miners missing deep underground in the burning gold mine west of Johannesburg. Eight of the miners were found dead the next day.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)(AFP, 2/6/14)(SFC, 2/7/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 5, Millions of commuters in London faced delays and disruption after Tube staff went on strike over plans to close London Underground ticket offices.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, Human Rights Watch said Bangladeshi garment factory owners use beatings, the threat of murder and sexual intimidation to stop workers from forming trade unions.
    (AP, 2/6/14)
2014        Feb 6, Millions of commuters faced a second day of travel chaos due to a 48-hour strike by London Underground workers angry over ticket office closures and job cuts.
    (Reuters, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 7, In South Africa striking miners clashed with police after using rocks and burning tires to block a road leading to Anglo American Platinum's Union mine near Northam town. One protester was killed.
    (AP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 11, Barclays PLC faced widespread criticism after the scandal-plagued bank announced plans to slash up to 12,000 jobs this year while also setting aside more money to pay bonuses.
    (AP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 12, Pres. Obama signed an executive order raising the minimum wage to $10.10 for federal contractors.
    (SFC, 2/13/14, p.A9)

2014        Feb 19, Egypt’s interim Pres. Adly Mansour ordered a pay raise for police after some of them joined factory workers, doctors and pharmacists increasingly on strike over the last month.
    (SFC, 2/20/14, p.A2)
2014        Feb 19, South Africa's top three platinum companies issued a take-it-or-leave-it wage ultimatum to striking miners, hoping to break a month-long stoppage that has crippled production. Anglo American Platinum, Impala Platinum and Lonmin said they would not raise an already rejected wage offer and warned of impending job losses.
    (AFP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 20, Rights groups criticized an agreement between Indonesia and Saudi Arabia aimed at giving Indonesian maids more protection in the kingdom, with one saying "justice is still far away" for them.
    (AFP, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 21, In Germany a strike by security staff at Frankfurt airport caused nearly 50 flight cancellations and delayed thousands of passengers, bringing chaos to Europe's third largest hub.
    (Reuters, 2/21/14)

2014        Feb 25, Croatia's trade unions, representing both public and private sector employees, staged a nationwide two-hour strike, firing a warning shot against the government's plan to make labor rules more flexible.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Greek dock workers across the country walked off the job in a 24-hour strike to protest plans to sell a stake in the Piraeus Port Authority, the country's largest port.
    (AP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 2, South Africa's biggest trade union, the 340,000-strong National Union of Metalworkers (NUMSA), said it was laying the ground for a new "working class" political party. The United Front Movement for Socialism would group together left-leaning organizations to fight for better education, healthcare and municipal services for South Africa's poor.
    (AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 12, In Greece thousands of striking public sector workers marched through Athens to protest against planned job cuts demanded by foreign lenders as unemployment in the country holds near record highs.
    (Reuters, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 17, Toyota said it has shut down production at its two auto-assembly plants in India, locking out 6,400 workers amid testy wage negotiations and allegations of threats against management.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 19, Greek civil servants, including hospital and teaching staff, started a two-day strike against austerity measures imposed under the debt-mired country's international bailout commitments.
    (AP, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 21, Cuba state media hundreds of thousands of medical workers will be getting a raise. At the high end, doctors with two specialties will see their salary go from the equivalent of $26 a month to $67. An entry-level nurse will make $25, up from $13.
    (AP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 23, Israeli diplomats launched an unprecedented strike, forcing the complete closure of embassies around the world as they escalated a dispute over pay.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 24, South Africa's platinum producers said a two-month strike was causing "irreparable" damage to the sector, which has to date lost nearly a billion dollars in revenue.
    (AFP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 27, Germany's main airports were hit by a strike as public sector workers raised pressure on the government in pay talks.
    (Reuters, 3/27/14)

2014        Mar 31, Germany's Lufthansa said it will cancel some 3,800 flights because of a three-day strike by the pilots' union later this week (April 2-4), hitting more than 425,000 passengers.
    (AP, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, In Germany workers at Amazon’s logistics center in Leipzig staged the short-term warning strike to try to get management to return to the negotiating table over wages.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Apr 2, Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel's Cabinet approved a national minimum wage, guaranteeing workers at least 8.50 euros per hour ($11.75) starting next year.
    (AP, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, Lufthansa canceled almost 900 domestic and intercontinental flights after the pilots' union started a three-day strike in a wage dispute with Germany's largest airline.
    (AP, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, In Libya employees at state-owned Jumhuriya, one of Libya's biggest banks, began a two-day strike demanding greater protection after a colleague was shot dead at work a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 3, In Cambodia 118 employees passed out at work at the Shen Zhou and Daqian Textile factories in Phnom Penh.
    (Reuters, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, In Belgium protesters, called by trade unions from across Europe, clashed with police in Brussels at a demonstration against high unemployment, throwing stones and smashing windows as they marched from the city center to the European Union district.
    (Reuters, 4/4/14)

2014        Apr 5, In China workers in Guangdong province walked out of factories owned by Yue Yuen, a Taiwanese maker of branded shoes. The walkout grew to involve tens of thousands of workers.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.41)

2014        Apr 8, Intel announced plan s to close its operations in Costa Rica. Hours later Bank of America said it would layoff 1,400 workers in Costa Rica part of a global restructuring program.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.33)

2014        Apr 10, In Argentina a nationwide strike shut down air, train and bus traffic, losing businesses, ports and emptying classrooms.
    (SFC, 4/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 15, In southern China thousands of workers at a giant Yue Yuen Industrial shoe factory shrugged off an offer for improved social benefits, prolonging one of the largest strikes in China in recent years amid signs of increased labor activism as the economy slows.
    (Reuters, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 17, A strike at the Chinese factories Yu Yuen Industrial, the world's biggest athletic shoe maker, snowballed to about 30,000 workers in Dongguan, making it one of the largest-ever work stoppages at a private business in China.
    (AP, 4/17/14)

2014        Apr 24, A US court filing indicated that four major Silicon Valley companies (Adobe, Apple, Google and Intel) have settled a suit over charges that they conspired not to hire one another’s workers.
    (SFC, 4/25/14, p.C5)

2014        Apr 26, In China labor activists said most of the thousands of striking workers in Dongguan have returned to work enabling Adidas to resume production. Some 10,000 remained on strike at the Taiwanese owned Yue Yuen Industrial Holdings Ltd.
    (SSFC, 4/27/14, p.A7)

2014        Apr 28, Detroit reached a 5-year collective bargaining deal with some 3,500 of 10,000 city workers as it grappled with an $18 billion debt.
    (SFC, 4/29/14, p.A5)

2014        May 1, In Cambodia May Day demonstrators denounced low wages and called for better treatment of workers during rallies that turned violent.
    (AP, 5/1/14)

2014        May 7, The UN continued to urge Qatar to abolish the sponsorship system tying migrant workers to employers raising concerns about exploitation of workers in construction and domestic households. Several of 84 states speaking in the session linked Qatar hosting the 2022 World Cup with the need to reform its laws.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 12, In South Africa 2 Lonmin workers were killed as they reported for work at their strike-hit platinum mine, threatening the firm's plans to end the walkout this week.
    (Reuters, 5/12/14)

2014        May 13, In Brazil bus drivers demanding higher pay began a 48-hour strike in Rio de Janeiro, forcing hundreds of thousands of passengers to seek alternative ways to get to work.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 14, In Lebanon thousands of teachers, civil servants and children rallied outside parliament in the biggest of a year of pay protests as the assembly debated a much-delayed bill on public sector salaries.
    (Reuters, 5/14/14)

2014        May 19, Germany lowered the pension age for some workers from 65 to 63.
    (www.thelocal.de/20140520/coalition-agrees-to-lower-retirement-age)

2014        May 21, In Brazil civil police in 14 states went on a 24-hour strike demanding higher pay. A strike by Sao Paulo bus drivers demanding higher pay began losing steam as it entered a second day.
    (AP, 5/21/14)

2014        May 28, In Puerto Rico dozens of employees with the Port Authority went on strike to protest fiscal measures aimed at reducing government spending. The protests come as Gov. Alejandro Garcia Padilla pushed to reduce spending as the island entered its eighth year in recession and battled a $73 billion public debt.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

2014        May 30, Jamaica's government said it is launching a $5 million welfare-to-work program that is expected to benefit some 2,000 people. The program will be implemented in the next two years. The island of 2.9 million people suffered a 16 percent unemployment rate with nearly 17 percent of the population below the poverty line.
    (AP, 5/31/14)

2014        Jun 2, In San Francisco some 700 of the city’s transit workers staged a sickout over a proposed labor agreement. Only 200 of 600 scheduled buses and rail cars were on duty.
    (SFC, 6/3/14, p.A1)(SFC, 6/5/14, p.A1)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.D7)
2014        Jun 2, In Washington state the Seattle City Council voted to raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour, the highest municipal minimum in the country.
    (SFC, 6/3/14, p.A12)

2014        Jun 3, In San Francisco half of the city’s 538 Muni transit workers called in sick on the 2nd day of public transit disruptions due to an impasse in contract negotiations. Scheduled buses and rail cars on duty climbed to 300 out of 600.
    (SFC, 6/4/14, p.A1)(SFC, 6/5/14, p.A1)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.D7)

2014        Jun 4, San Francisco’s transit system limped through a 3rd day of an operator sickout as 290 drivers called in sick. City officials moved to snuff out the protest by filing legal charges against the operator’s union, which denied responsibility. Scheduled buses and rail cars on duty climbed to 440 out of 600.
    (SFC, 6/5/14, p.A1)(SFC, 6/6/14, p.D7)

2014        Jun 5, In San Francisco 163 transit drivers called in sick reducing the 4th day sickout of daily runs to 266 out of 1200. The average absentee rate ranged from 94-112.
    (SFC, 6/6/14, p.D7)
2014        Jun 5, In Brazil some overland commuter train operators went on strike calling for better wages in Sao Paulo, a week before the city hosts the World Cup opener.
    (AP, 6/5/14)

2014        Jun 6, Brazil's biggest city confronted a second straight day of commuting chaos, as striking subway workers and a protest over housing conditions tangled the streets of Sao Paulo less than a week before it hosts the opening match of the World Cup.
    (Reuters, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 7, In Brazil the 3rd day of a strike by subway workers snarling Sao Paulo threatened to disrupt the World Cup with the kickoff in the city just five days away.
    (AFP, 6/7/14)

2014        Jun 9, Brazilian police and striking subway workers clashed early today in a central Sao Paulo commuter station, with union officials threatening to maintain the work stoppage through the World Cup opening match here this week. Union members voted to temporarily suspend the strike they began last week, but also decided they would take a new vote on Jun 11 to determine whether to resume the work stoppage June 12.
    (AP, 6/9/14)(AP, 6/10/14)

2014        Jun 11, Taxi drivers staged protests in London, Berlin, Barcelona, Madrid and Paris. Cabbies and train workers walked off the job, leaving traffic snarled, as they protested changes to the travel industry that they say could endanger passengers and give untested upstarts an unfair advantage.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, In Brazil bus drivers in northeastern city of Natal went on strike for higher wages a day before the city’s first World Cup match between Mexico and Cameroon.
    (AP, 6/13/14)
2014        Jun 12, French trade unions said they will extend for another day a strike that has caused the worst disruption to the country's rail network in years, following an inconclusive meeting with the transport minister.
    (Reuters, 6/12/14)
2014        Jun 12, In South Africa the world's biggest platinum producers said they had reached "in principle undertakings" with union leaders which could end a crippling strike.
    (AFP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 14, Pres. Obama intervened in a commuter rail strike in Philadelphia, granting Gov. Tom corbett’s request to create an emergency board to mediate a contract dispute.
    (SSFC, 6/15/14, p.A10)
2014        Jun 14, A Cambodian official said Cambodian workers were leaving Thailand in growing numbers, with the total who have returned to their homeland this month topping 160,000. Rights groups say Thai authorities are coercing the Cambodians to go home and abusing them.
    (SSFC, 6/15/14, p.A6)(AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 15, In India an angry mob of workers wielding iron rods and stones beat the CEO of a West Bengal jute factory to death in a dispute over increasing their working hours.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, French riot police clashed with striking train workers, who hurled bottles and blocked traffic in anger over a bill to reform the state-run railway system.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 19, Growing numbers of French railway employees returned to work after lawmakers voted to approve the broad outline of a railway reform that has triggered a nine-day strike.
    (Reuters, 6/19/14)

2014        Jun 23, South Africa's AMCU union declared a five-month platinum strike "officially over" as thousands of miners roared their approval when leader Joseph Mathunjwa asked if they wanted to end the longest work stoppage in the country's history. A South African labor court declared unlawful a planned gold mining strike by the country's radical union AMCU, which has staged a crippling work stoppage at platinum mines.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)(AFP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jun 24, In South Africa the world's three biggest platinum firms signed a wage deal with the AMCU union, but said that fallout from a five-month strike made job cuts and restructuring inevitable, setting the scene for more labor turmoil in the sector.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 25, In South Africa tens of thousands of platinum miners returned to work after wage deals ended the longest and most damaging strike in the country's history.
    (Reuters, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 26, Ikea’s US division said it is raising the minimum wage for thousands of its retail workers, pegging it to the cost of living in each location effective on Jan 1 to an average $10.76 per hour, up from $9.17.
    (SFC, 6/27/14, p.C2)
2014        Jun 26, Some 40,000 public servants hired by Hamas went on strike in Gaza in a pay dispute that could test the resilience of the new Palestinian government.
    (Reuters, 6/26/14)

2014        Jun 30, In Belgium a 24-hour strike disrupted train service and caused the cancellation of high-speed Thalys services between Brussels and Paris, Amsterdam and other European cities.
    (AP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jul 1, In South Africa nearly a quarter of a million members of the National Union of Metalworkers downed tools, beginning an indefinite strike that threatens to bring the engineering sector to a halt.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 2, Bolivia's Congress passed legislation to allow children as young age 10 to work as long as it does not interfere with their education and is done independently to help the child's family make ends meet. VP Alvaro Garcia signed it into law on July 17, as Pres. Morales was traveling.
    (AP, 7/4/14)(SFC, 7/18/14, p.A5)
2014        Jul 2, In Puerto Rico thousands of government workers launched a 24-hour strike across the US territory to protest a fiscal emergency law that targets bonuses and benefits, among other things.
    (AP, 7/2/14)

2014        Jul 3, Greeks were warned to expect brief power cuts as workers at the Public Power Corporation go on strike to protest government plans to sell part of the company.
    (AP, 7/3/14)
2014        Jul 3, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse workers who blocked the entrance to the construction site of state power utility Eskom's Medupi power station on the third day of a wage strike.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 7, In southern California drivers in a long-running labor dispute with three trucking companies at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach began what they said would be an indefinite strike.
    (AP, 7/7/14)

2014        Jul 9, Greece's public sector workers began a 24-hour strike, shutting down public services and leaving state-run hospitals accepting only emergency cases to protest austerity policies imposed in return for the country's bailout. Public transport was not affected.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 14, The British government faced a call to impose legal caps on executive salaries after a study found top pay in Britain has reached 180 times average wages.
    (AFP, 7/14/14)

2014        Jul 15, Croatia published a "name and shame" list of more than 5,000 organizations which have withheld more than one monthly salary from their employees this year, in an effort to stamp out widespread cheating of staff.
    (Reuters, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 16, Master Builders South Africa said a major strike by engineering and metal workers, which has already hit the vital auto manufacturing sector, is now disrupting building construction.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, In Myanmar more than 700 workers protested in front of the South Korean Embassy to demand officials help them after a Korean-owned factory closed without paying their wages.
    (AP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 21, In Michigan pension cuts were approved by Detroit workers and retirees after 60 days of voting. Support for the pension changes triggered a $816 million bailout from the state, foundations and the Detroit Institute of Arts, but a judge was still required to agree.
    (SFC, 7/23/14, p.A8)

2014        Jul 25, Subsidies for sporting stadiums across the US were reported to be increasingly financed by savingss from worker pension cuts.
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.A14)

2014        Jul 26, US fast food workers from across the country voted to escalate their efforts for $15-an-hour pay and union membership by using nonviolent civil disobedience.
    (AP, 7/26/14)

2014        Jul 28, Britain’s Passport Office staff launched a 24-hour strike over staffing shortages and pay just weeks after extra workers were drafted in to tackle a backlog of tens of thousands of applications.
    (AFP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 31, Pres. Obama signed an executive order to require federal contractors to give their workers more rights in labor disputes.
    (SFC, 8/1/14, p.A8)
2014        Jul 31, The Wisconsin Supreme Court upheld Act 10, the 2011 law that effectively ended collective bargaining for most public workers.
    (AP, 7/31/14)

2014        Aug 26, Malaysian police arrested 42 men after a riot by up to 1,000 mostly Nepalese workers sparked fires and destroyed parts of an electronics export factory.
    (Reuters, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 29, Malaysia Airlines said it will cut 6,000 workers as part of a $1.9 billion overhaul to revive its damaged brand after being hit by double passenger jet disasters.
    (AP, 8/29/14)

2014        Sep 4, US police handcuffed dozens of protesters around the country as they blocked traffic in their efforts to get fast food companies to pay employees at least $15 and hour.
    (SFC, 9/5/14, p.A6)
2014        Sep 4, Bangladesh said it has resumed sending workers to Iraq after a 3-month ban, despite reports of hundreds of Bangladeshi construction laborers being dragged into the country's bloody sectarian conflict.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 6, In Germany the GdL union for train drivers began a three-hour national strike to put pressure on German railway company Deutsche Bahn in their ongoing wage negotiations.
    (AP, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 16, In France a pilots strike at Air France entered its second day, with the two sides appearing no closer to resolving a dispute over cost cuts that has forced the airline to cancel 60 percent of flights.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Sep 18, In Switzerland some 200 companies pledged to create new work and training opportunities for Europe's young jobseekers, of which one out of four is unemployed.
    (AP, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 20, French air pilots voted to extend their walkout  until at least Sep 26 to protest Air-France-KLM’s new strategy to shift much of its European operation to Transavia, a low-cost subsidiary.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A3)

2014        Sep 24, In Poland some 200 coal miners blocked railway tracks on the border with Russia to protest imports of cheap Russian coal, saying it threatens their jobs.
    (AP, 9/24/14)
2014        Sep 24, Nurses in Portugal began a 48-hour strike over pay, working hours and what they say is an acute shortage of staff in the public health service.
    (AP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 28, Air France's leading pilots union announced an end to a 14-day strike that grounded roughly half of the airline's flights, stranded passengers worldwide and led to stern shows of frustration by the French prime minister. The union was ending the walkout so that service could resume and negotiations continue peaceably.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Oct 7, In Germany train drivers' union GDL called for a nine-hour nationwide strike starting this evening. Pilots' union Vereinigung Cockpit announced a two-day strike at Lufthansa's freight arm starting at 2100 ET on Oct 8.
    (Reuters, 10/7/14)
2014        Oct 7, In Romania thousands of workers and health workers protested against low salaries and endemic underfunding of the health system which have led to thousands of doctors and nurses seeking work abroad.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 9, Italy’s Senate voted to approve PM Matteo Renzi’s “Jobs Act.” It was meant to increase permanent workers with temporary tax breaks while also making it easier to fire full-time workers.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matteo_Renzi)(Econ, 4/22/17, p.45)

2014        Oct 16, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a series of labor reforms aimed at transforming Asia's third-largest economy into an international manufacturing hub.
    (AP, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 18, In Germany millions of passengers were left stranded after train drivers began a 50-hour strike that halted two thirds of long-distance trains in a dispute over pay and negotiation rights.
    (Reuters, 10/18/14)

2014        Oct 20, Lufthansa pilots launched a strike, deepening Germany's travel chaos after train drivers stopped work at the weekend just as school holidays began in much of the country.
    (AFP, 10/20/14)

2014        Oct 21, The Portuguese government's plan to privatize debt-heavy public transport companies met tough opposition from trade unions as Lisbon subway workers walked off the job for the 12th time this year.
    (AP, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 24, In Italy striking workers took to the streets in cities across the country to protest against cuts to public services and labor reforms proposed by PM Matteo Renzi.
    (Reuters, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 24, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse workers at a mine operated by London-listed DiamondCorp and said members of the hardline AMCU union were involved in the protest.
    (Reuters, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 25, In Italy demonstrators from across the country filled the streets of Rome to protest against labor market reforms which the government of PM Matteo Renzi has made a cornerstone of its policy.
    (Reuters, 10/25/14)

2014        Oct 27, In Germany workers at Amazon.com were on strike again as a union pushed its demands in a long-running wage dispute with the American online retailer.
    (AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Nov 4, Arkansas approved an increse in the minimum wage from $6.25 and hour to $8.50 an hour.
    (SFC, 11/5/14, p.A10)
2014        Nov 4, Nebraska approved an increse in the minimum wage from $7.25 and hour to $9.00 an hour.
    (SFC, 11/5/14, p.A10)
2014        Nov 4, Britain’s Rolls-Royce, the maker of aircraft engines, said that it plans to shed 2,600 jobs, mainly at its aerospace division, over the next 18 months to cut costs.
    (AFP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 6, In Belgium some 100,000 workers demonstrated in Brussels to protest government free-market reforms and austerity measures. Police fired tear gas and the water cannon to break up incidents.
    (AP, 11/6/14)

2014        Nov 12, Cambodia agreed to raise the minimum wage in its important clothing industry by 28 percent to $128 a month, falling short of labor unions' $140 proposal.
    (AP, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 24, Belgium’s trade unions opened a month of intermittent strike action by paralyzing the port of Antwerp and slowing train traffic through much of the country.
    (AP, 11/24/14)
2014        Nov 24, Thousands of British nurses, midwives and hospital cleaners went on a four-hour strike calling for a pay rise, weeks after walking out for the first time in 32 years.
    (AFP, 11/24/14)

2014        Dec 8, Belgian workers striking against government austerity plans badly snarled rail and air service to and from the capital city of Brussels.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 12, Striking Italian union workers marched through more than 50 Italian cities to protest government economic reforms that they say erode their rights.
    (AP, 12/12/14)

2014        Dec 15, Belgium ground to a halt in its biggest strike in years as trade unions grounded flights, cut international rail links and shut sea ports to protest the new government's austerity plans.
    (AFP, 12/15/14)

2014        Dec 25, In Sierra Leone nurses at a public hospital went on strike to demand hazard pay for treating Ebola patients.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2014        Dec 26, Spain's PM Mariano Rajoy announced minimal increases to the minimum wage and for government-funded pensions and predicted the nation's economy will "take off" in 2015.
    (AP, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 29, Lebanon’s Labor Ministry said they received a proposal from the National Federation of Labor Unions to form a syndicate of migrant workers, mostly from Ethiopia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, who have fallen victim to unpaid wages, forced labor, physical and sexual abuse.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2014        Dec 31, Hamas civil servants went on strike after the Palestinian government said it would rehire thousands of Gaza staff who were laid off when the Islamist movement seized power in 2007.
    (AFP, 12/31/14)

2014        Nikil Saval authored “Cubed: A Secret History of the Workplace.”
    (Econ, 5/3/14, p.75)

2015        Jan 7, In India around half a million coal workers vowed to continue their strike after inconclusive talks with the government, possibly jeopardizing power supplies.
    (AP, 1/7/15)

2015        Jan 21, In Kosovo over 400 employees went on strike inside the Trepca mine demanding the government takes over the administration of the Yugoslav-era giant complex to stop it from liquidation. A day earlier Kosovo's assembly amended a law on public enterprises which enabled it to delayed resolving the issue for another 18 months.
    (AP, 1/21/15)

2015        Jan 29, In Germany dozens of flights were canceled at Duesseldorf and Cologne-Bonn airports after private security workers walked off the job in a dispute over wages.
    (AP, 1/29/15)

2015        Jan, Germany introduce a new minimum wage set at 62% of the average wage in east German states.
    (Econ, 7/25/15, p.61)

2015        Feb 1, Some 3,800 steelworkers began a strike at oil refineries from California to Kentucky after negotiations with Shell Oil Co. broke down. Shell was negotiating a national contract for other oil companies.
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.A9)

2015        Feb 5, An India official said  police over the last ten days have rescued hundreds of children working in hazardous industries in in Hyderabad despite laws that ban child labor.
    (AP, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 6, Munich-based industrial machinery maker Siemens AG said it will cut 7,800 administrative jobs worldwide as part of an effort to streamline the sprawling company and its many businesses.
    (AP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 7, Workers at refineries in Indiana and Ohio went on strike against two BP plants in an extension of strikes that began Feb 1.
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.A9)

2015        Feb 15, In Canada over 3,000 Teamster members went on strike at Canadian Pacific Railway after contract talks failed to reach an agreement. The strike ended on Feb 16 as both sides agreed to resume discussions.
    (SFC, 2/14/15, p.A2)(SFC, 2/17/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 17, Seaports in the US West Coast, all but shut over the weekend because of a contract dispute, were reopening as the nation's top labor official tried to solve a stalemate between dockworkers and their employers that already has disrupted billions of dollars in international trade.
    (AP, 2/17/15)

2015        Feb 19, In the SF Bay Area dockworkers shut down the Port of Oakland as they took a day off for a monthly union meeting, historicall held at night. This intensified the bitter contract dispute at 29 West Coast ports.
    (SFC, 2/20/15, p.A1)
2015        Feb 19, In Myanmar about 4,000 workers were striking at clothing factories outside Yangon, demanding that their overtime pay of 17 cents an hour be doubled. Workers vowed to camp outside their factories unless employers meet their demand, claiming they cannot live on pay amounting to 80,000 kyats ($80) a month as the cost of living rises.
    (AP, 2/19/15)
2015        Feb 19, In Slovakia thousands of court officials went on a one-day warning strike, complaining of low pay and underfunding of the legal system.
    (AP, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 20, In Brazil some 5,200 workers at an assembly line at one of three General Motors plants ground to a halt as workers went on strike to protest the planned layoffs of nearly 800 employees.
    (AP, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 20, Dockworkers and shipping companies reached a tentative agreement that would set cargo ships sailing again up and down the West Coast out of 29 ports from San Diego to Seattle.
    (SFC, 1/21/15, p.A1)

2015        Feb 25, The US-based TJX Cos., owners of T.J. Maxx, Marshalls and other chains said it would hike worker hourly pay to at least $9 beginning in June.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.C3)

2015        Feb 27, In the SF Bay Area Compass Transportation shuttle bus drivers, who carry employees for Apple, Yahoo, e-Bay, Zynga and Genentech, voted 104-38 to join the Teamsters Union. 16 of the drivers did not cast ballots.
    (SFC, 2/28/15, p.D1)

2015        Feb, A US jury awarded Sony Sulekha and four others $14 million in damages against Signal Int’l. Shipyard in Mississippi. He and some 500 other Indians had paid at least $10,000 in 2005 to work for Signal expecting jobs and a green card. Instead they labored in inhumane conditions with highly restricted work permits. This was the largest human trafficking ever brought in America.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.61)

2015        Mar 10, In Egypt a suicide bomber and roadside explosives targeting police and military in the northeastern Sinai Peninsula killed 2 and wounded 46. In a city south of Cairo, 2 suspected militants died when a bomb they were carrying on a motorbike exploded.
    (AP, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 17, Britain announced a three percent rise in the minimum wage, the largest real terms increase since 2008.
    (AFP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 19, In France employees at Radio France went on strike to protest a cut in public subsidy and an attempt to control Radio /France’s deficit.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.50)
2015        Mar 19, Lufthansa, Germany's largest airline, had to cancel 84 of 153 of its long-haul flights, affecting 18,000 passengers as a strike by pilots was extended to long-haul flights.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 27, South Africa's state power company Eskom said more than 1,000 workers building a much-needed new power plant had been sacked for staging an illegal strike two days earlier, as the country grapples with rolling electricity cuts.
    (AFP, 3/27/15)

2015        Apr 1, In Vietnam thousands of workers at a major footwear factory were on strike for a sixth day over a social insurance law in a rare challenge to government policy. The strike at the Taiwanese-owned Pou Yuen factory in southern Ho Chi Minh City began March 26.
    (AP, 4/1/15)

2015        Apr 2, In Portugal a rail strike began. The Federation of Transport and Communications Unions says rail company Comboios de Portugal is not paying the full amount due to workers for vacation pay and for working on public holidays.
    (AP, 4/2/15)
2015        Apr 2, In Vietnam workers at a major footwear factory for Nike and Adidas ended a weeklong strike after the government agreed to their demands on retirement payouts.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 13, Human Rights Watch slammed the alleged abuse of Palestinian children working on Israeli settlement farms in the occupied West Bank in a 74-page report.
    (AFP, 4/13/15)

2015        Apr 27, In southern California truck drivers walked off the job in a dispute over their wages and employee status, months after another West Coast labor conflict cost major delays in billions of dollars of trade.
    (AP, 4/27/15)

2015        May 1, San Francisco raised wages for thousands of workers from $11.05 per hour to $12.25 per hour.
    (SFC, 5/1/15, p.A1)
2015        May 1, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro raised the minimum wage 30% for the second time this year to help workers being battered by the world's highest inflation. Two-thirds of the increase will come this month and the rest on July 1. Pensions for retirees were also included in the raise.
    (AP, 5/2/15)

2015        May 5, It was reported that Indonesia will stop sending new domestic workers to 21 Middle Eastern countries, after the recent execution of two Indonesian women in Saudi Arabia angered Jakarta.
    (AFP, 5/5/15)

2015        May 7, The leader of Germany's GDL train drivers' union said its seven-day strike would continue and rejected the latest offer by rail operator Deutsche Bahn for mediation in a dispute over pay and negotiating rights.
    (Reuters, 5/7/15)
2015        May 7, Germany's Siemens says it will cut another 4,500 jobs to streamline its business and improve profitability.
    (AP, 5/7/15)

2015        May 13, In southern China more than 10,000 workers at a state-owned machinery manufacturer protested low wages and company plans to lay off thousands of staff after posting losses for three years. Workers started taking to the streets of Deyang on May 11 with banners protesting against corrupt and incompetent managers.
    (AP, 5/13/15)

2015        May 15, It was reported that an annual study by the AFL-CIO showed CEOs making 373 times what the average American worker earned. The disparity was down from 525 in 2010.
    (SFC, 5/15/15, p.C2)

2015        May 19, In Portugal the Metropolitano de Lisboa shut down for 24 hours as staff kept up their fight to stop the government granting private companies concessions to operate services.
    (AP, 5/19/15)

2015        May 21, German railways operator Deutsche Bahn announced an end to a drivers strike that had paralyzed train travel in Europe's biggest economy, after the feuding sides agreed to mediation.
    (AFP, 5/21/15)
2015        May 21, Qatar insisted it was "committed" to improving conditions for its huge number of migrant laborers following an Amnesty report accusing Doha of failing to deliver on promised reforms.
    (AFP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 28, In France thousands of doctors, nurses and other hospital personnel demonstrated in central Paris to protest planned working-hours changes they say will result in more burnout and worse patient care.
    (AP, 5/28/15)

2015        Jun 9, Afghan officials said a teachers strike demanding higher pay has shut down at least 27 schools in Kabul.
    (AP, 6/9/15)
2015        Jun 9, In Argentina transportation unions began a national strike to demand the government lower their income tax rates to offset inflation they say is eroding their earnings. Private economists have estimated inflation at around 35 percent.
    (AP, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 13, Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti signed into law an ordinance to gradually raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2020.
    (SSFC, 6/14/15, p.A8)

2015        Jun 23, Ikea's US division said it is raising the minimum wage for the second year in a row as the Swedish ready-to-assemble furniture chain looks to improve its relations with workers and reduce worker turnover. Starting January 1 Ikea's average minimum hourly wage will increase to $11.87, which is $4.62 above the current federal wage.
    (AP, 6/24/15)
2015        Jun 23, Eurostar said it has canceled all passenger trains for the rest of the day through the tunnel that links France and England, after striking ferry workers swarmed the train line setting tires alight.
    (AP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 29, In France employees of a ferry service recently sold by Eurotunnel renewed a blockade of the northern port of Calais after a court rejected their bid to extend the service's charter contract with Eurotunnel.
    (Reuters, 6/29/15)

2015        Jun 30, Striking ferry workers invaded the railroad tracks leading to the Eurotunnel linking France and England, and train service across the Channel was suspended until further notice.
    (AP, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 7, Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari approved a bailout of more than $2 billion for states to resolve a crisis that has left hundreds of thousands of workers unpaid for months. Eighteen of Nigeria’s 35 states had unpaid workers.
    (AP, 7/7/15)

2015        Jul 9, In England a 24-hour strike by staff and drivers brought London’s underground rail network to a halt and left millions struggling to get to work.
    (Reuters, 7/9/15)

2015        Jul 12, In Myanmar several hundred workers rallied for a higher minimum wage despite a warning by factory owners that the demand might put them out of business. The daily minimum wage stood at 3,000 kyat ($2.65).
    (AP, 7/12/15)

2015        Jul 15, In Italy a Milan court convicted 11 former Pirelli managers, including two former CEOs, on charges of manslaughter and gave them prison sentences for the deaths of about 20 workers who developed tumors or lung disease after being exposed to asbestos.
    (AP, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 16, Britain’s Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority confirmed that it has given lawmakers a 10 percent pay increase, a headache for PM David Cameron who has pledged that public sector workers should only get a 1 percent raise.
    (AP, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 22, In Japan an outside director of Mitsubishi Materials said that the company hopes to apologize to former British, Dutch and Australian World War II POWs, and also reach an amicable agreement with Chinese forced laborers, following a landmark apology to American POWs earlier this week.
    (AP, 7/22/15)
2015        Jul 22, Philippine authorities said that 155 foreigners, mostly Chinese, face deportation after being arrested for working in the country illegally.
    (AP, 7/22/15)

2015        Jul 23, Brazil's government said the jobless rate in Latin America's largest country rose for the sixth straight month in June.
    (AP, 7/23/15)
2015        Jul 23, In Poland hundreds of police, firefighters and other uniformed workers picketed the main government building to demand higher pay and modernization of their sectors. The Interior Ministry said pay rises are planned for January.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 24, Mining groups Anglo American and Lonmin announced plans to cut their headcounts by a combined 12,000 staff owing to falling metals prices in a weak global economy. Lonmin, the world's third largest platinum producer, said it would cut 6,000 jobs in South Africa.
    (AFP, 7/24/15)
2015        Jul 24, In Chile mining contractor Nelson Quichillao was shot dead after clashing with police during protests by workers employed by service contractors at the state-run copper giant Codelco.
    (AP, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 29, Japan’s PM Shinzo Abe outlined the largest increase in the country’s minimum wage since 2002 from ¥780 (about $6.30 an hour) to ¥798,( 6.45/hr).
    (Econ, 8/15/15, p.66)

2015        Jul 30, The Bosnian-Croat regional parliament adopted a new labor law that aims to create a more business-friendly environment with the intention of creating jobs, amid the protests of thousands of workers. The former labor law was inherited from the communist regime and offered wide protection to workers but was not business-friendly. It was partly the reason for the 40 percent unemployment rate.
    {Bosnia, Labor}
    (AP, 7/30/15)
2015        Jul 30, Royal Dutch Shell announced deep cuts to jobs and investment on as the global energy giant prepares for a prolonged period of low oil prices.
    (AP, 7/30/15)

2015        Aug 5, London Underground staff walked out this evening and will not return until August 7 morning, causing a shutdown of the subway network that has severely disrupted transport in the capital.
    (AP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 8, Zimbabwe police blocked the country's main workers union from protesting against a recent wave of job losses and briefly held union leaders.
    (AFP, 8/8/15)

2015        Aug 12, Kraft Heinz said it is cutting 2,500 jobs in the US and Canada, including about 700 in Northfield, Ill., where the company is headquartered.
    (SFC, 8/13/15, p.C2)

2015        Aug 15, Brazil's labor ministry said its inspectors have found 11 men hired by the construction firm building the athletes' village for the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics living in slave-like conditions.
    (AP, 8/15/15)

2015        Aug 28, Zimbabwe media reported that President Robert Mugabe has signed a new law banning mass lay-offs following a spate of redundancies that unions say put 30,000 people out of work.
    (AFP, 8/28/15)

2015        Sep 7, Pres. Obama in a Labor Day speech in Boston announced a new executive order that will require federal contractors to offer employees up to 7 paid sick days a year.
    (SFC, 9/8/15, p.A5)

2015        Sep 15, In Chile a 24-hour strike by civil aviation workers grounded departing flights.
    (AP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 18, In Finland a one-day strike halted public transportation and shut down ports nationwide as workers protested against government cutbacks aimed at trying to drag the Nordic country out of a three-year economic downturn.
    (AP, 9/18/15)
2015        Sep 18, Kenya's education ministry ordered all schools to shut because of a three-week teachers' strike over pay.
    (AFP, 9/18/15)

2015        Sep 21, France's labor court ordered the national railway to pay 150 million euros ($169 million) in compensation after finding that Moroccans had faced discrimination in benefits compared with their French colleagues.
    (AP, 9/21/15)

2015        Sep 29, The United Arab Emirates announced labor reforms to be enforced from Jan. 1 aimed at curbing abuse and protecting the rights of millions of foreign workers.
    (AFP, 9/29/15)

2015        Oct 6, California Gov. Jerry Brown singed SB358, a bill known as the Fair Pay Act. It closed loopholes in existing antidiscrimination statutes and barred employers from paying women less than men when they do substantially similar work.
    (SFC, 10/7/15, p.A1)

2015        Oct 7, Belgian trade unions mobilized about 100,000 workers for the second time in a year to protest the free-market regulations and austerity measures that the center-right government has been pushing through during its first year in office.
    (AP, 10/7/15)   

2015        Oct 13, South African coal mineworkers ended a 10-day strike after reaching a pay agreement with employers.
    (AFP, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 15, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said he is raising the country's minimum wage by 30%, effective Nov 1, to help workers being clobbered by inflation economists say is likely the highest in the world.
    (AP, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 20, Manufacturer Tata Steel announced 1,200 job cuts in the UK, underscoring the damage caused by cheap Chinese imports.
    (AP, 10/20/15)

2015        Oct 21, Swiss-based Credit Suisse said it plans to cut at least 3,400 jobs over three years in Britain and Switzerland and raise billions in a new share offering after its net profit fell 24 percent in the third quarter.
    (AP, 10/21/15)

2015        Oct 27, Qatar's emir, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani, approved a new law overseeing the sponsorship system, which currently only allows workers to leave the country with the approval of their employer, as well as rules that allow workers to switch jobs. Rights groups the next day dismissed as a "sham" the long-awaited reforms.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)

2015        Oct 30, Chevron Corp. said it will layoff 6,000 to 7,000 employees worldwide because of the sustained slump in world oil prices.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.D1)

2015        Nov 1, Qatar officially opened the country's biggest workers' accommodation camp, with enough space to house almost 70,000 laborers.
    (AFP, 11/1/15)

2015        Nov 2, Greece's islands were left without ferry links after the country's umbrella seamen's union launched a strike.
    (AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 3, Banking group Standard Chartered said it is slashing 15,000 jobs worldwide and plans to raise $5.1 billion from shareholders through a rights issue as part of a major restructuring to shore up its financial position.
    (AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 5, Greek ferries started operating again after the seamen's union called off rolling 48-hour strikes.
    (AP, 11/5/15)

2015        Nov 6, Germany's flagship airline, Lufthansa, canceled 290 flights as cabin crew workers went on strike at Frankfurt and Duesseldorf airports.
    (AP, 11/6/15)

2015        Nov 7, Cabin crew at Lufthansa staged a second day of strikes, forcing the German airline to cancel some 520 short- and medium-haul flights.
    (AP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 9, Chilean civil registry workers resumed work after a 39-day nationwide strike.
    (AP, 11/9/15)
2015        Nov 9, In Germany some 113,000 Lufthansa passengers were facing domestic and international cancellations due to all-day walkouts at three airports staged by a cabin crew union protesting cost cuts.
    (AP, 11/9/15)

2015        Nov 11, Danish brewer Carlsberg says it will slash 2,000 jobs, or about 15 percent of its white-collar work force, after posting a 4.5 billion kronor ($650 million) loss in the third quarter.
    (AP, 11/11/15)

2015        Dec 3, In Greece public and private sector workers walked off the job in the second 24-hour general strike in a month against new austerity measures.
    (AP, 12/3/15)
2015        Dec 3, Qatar signed the first contracts on a mega-accommodation project which will eventually see almost 180,000 migrant workers housed in seven specially built "cities". All seven sites could be in operation within two years.
    (AFP, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 4, In Tennessee skilled-trades workers at the Volkswagen's lone US plant voted to be represented by the United Auto Workers, marking the union's first victory at a foreign-owned automaker in the South.
    (AP, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 8, London-based Anglo American said it will shed 85,000 employees, 63 percent of its workforce, in a radical restructuring meant to cope with tumbling commodity prices.
    (AP, 12/8/15)

2015        Dec 11, DuPont and Dow Chemical said they have agreed to merge. On Dec 29 DuPont CEO Ed Breen sent a letter to employees saying that some 1,700 Delaware jobs would be eliminated at the beginning of the new year.
    (SFC, 12/12/15, p.D1)(SFC, 12/30/15, p.C1)
2015        Dec 11, Indian officials investigating the death of a 30-year-old pregnant woman working at a brick kiln in Telangana state said they had uncovered an organized racket where hundreds of people were being trafficked and forced to work in inhumane conditions.
    (Reuters, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 12, China’s state media reported that the government will loosen some restrictions on the free movement of workers within the country, long stymied by registration papers that limit access to critical social services.
    (AFP, 12/12/15)

2015        Dec 16, In Cambodia garment workers in eastern Svay Rieng province went on strike to boost their monthly wages to $148.
    (SFC, 12/18/15, p.A2)

2015        Dec 18, French livery drivers protested a drop in their rates, again striking out against what they say an unfair decision by Uber and other companies to drive down their earnings.
    (AP, 12/18/15)

2015        Dec 19, Ten of Chile's airports remained closed as striking workers tied to the civil aviation authority and officials failed to reach an agreement.
    (Reuters, 12/19/15)

2015        Dec 21, Cambodian police made dozens of arrests and used water cannon to break up a strike by garment workers protesting over low pay.
    (Reuters, 12/21/15)
2015        Dec 21, Japan’s scandal-plagued manufacturer Toshiba Corp. said it is cutting 6,800 jobs after projecting a net loss of 550 billion yen ($4.5 billion) for the fiscal year through March 2016.
    (AP, 12/21/15)

2015        Britain’s National Health Insurance (NHS) employed one in 18 workers.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.54)
2015        Germany’s car makers employed one in seven workers nationwide.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.59)
2015        South Korea’s Supreme Court conferred official status to a migrant workers’ union.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.34)

2016        Jan 6, In Belgium the start of a two-day rail strike has largely paralyzed train traffic in and around Brussels and disrupted service to Paris and London.
    (AP, 1/6/16)

2016        Jan 12, Tens of thousands of junior doctors went on strike in England, causing major disruption to hospitals in the first walkout of its kind for 40 years.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)
2016        Jan 12, British energy major BP said that it will axe more than 4,000 jobs worldwide over the next two years in response to collapsing oil prices.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 15, Walmart announced that it would close 154 stores in America with the possible loss of 10,000 jobs.
    (Econ, 1/30/16, p.22)

2016        Jan 16, Pres. Obama unveiled a proposal to provide workers with wage insurance.
    (Econ, 1/23/16, p.23)

2016        Jan 21, British education publisher Pearson unveiled plans to axe 4,000 jobs, or 10 percent of its global workforce, in an effort to combat weak demand.
    (AFP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 27, In Greece ferries were docked at ports as sailors kicked off their second 48-hour strike this week, adding to a groundswell of public discontent over plans to reform the country's struggling pension system.
    (Reuters, 1/27/16)

2016        Jan 29, Caterpillar said it plans to close five plants, causing a net reduction of about 670 jobs in Illinois and several other states, as part of a broader cost-cutting campaign announced last year.
    (AP, 1/17/16)

2016        Feb 2, Yahoo said it is laying off about 1,700 employees and shedding some of its excess baggage in a shake-up likely to determine whether CEO Marissa Mayer can save her own job. She will also close offices in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Mexico City; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Madrid and Milan.
    (AP, 2/3/16)
2016        Feb 2, British energy giant BP posted the company's biggest loss in at least 20 years, ravaged by tumbling oil prices, and axed another 3,000 jobs.
    (AFP, 2/2/16)

2016        Feb 3, Greek journalists walked off the job ahead of a general strike set to disrupt services across the country to protest pension reforms that are part of the country's third international bailout.
    (AP, 2/3/16)

2016        Feb 4, Switzerland’s Credit Suisse said it is cutting roughly 4,000 jobs to reduce costs after announcing a massive pre-tax loss in the fourth quarter that includes "substantial charges which are not reflective of our underlying business performance."
    (AP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 10, Thousands of junior doctors throughout England wet on strike after the failure of contract negotiations.
    (AP, 2/10/16)

2016        Feb 11, Thousands of junior doctors at English hospitals continued a second strike against proposed new conditions and pay rates for working unsociable hours.
    (AFP, 2/11/16)

2016        Feb 22, In Spain transport workers in Barcelona staged the first of four days of strikes, increasing road traffic problems in the northeastern city as the four-day Mobile World Congress gets underway.
    (AP, 2/22/16)

2016        Feb 24, Romanian officials said about 40 coal miners are continuing an underground protest in western Romania over fears of job losses and mine closures.
    (AP, 2/24/16)

2016        Feb 29, Israeli drinks firm SodaStream laid off its last Palestinian workers and lashed out at the government for refusing to grant them work permits after it relocated from the West Bank to southern Israel.
    (AFP, 2/29/16)
2016        Feb 29, Italian police raided an abandoned slaughterhouse near Rosarno in Calabria that African migrant farmworkers use as a dormitory, part of a recently launched crackdown on labor exploitation.
    (AP, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 1, Georgian coal miners ended their two-week strike after the coal company agreed to a raise.
    (AP, 3/1/16)

2016        Mar 5, In South Africa a lawyer representing 4,365 claimants affected by silicosis said that Anglo American South Africa and AngloGold Ashanti have agreed to pay the equivalent of $32,595,800.
    (AP, 3/5/16)

2016        Mar 8, British gas and electricity supplier Npower said it is cutting 2,400 jobs, a fifth of its workforce, after losing hundreds of thousands of customers and reporting poor financial results.
    (AP, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 9, Thousands of British doctors began a 48-hour strike in an acrimonious dispute over a new contract.
    (AP, 3/9/16)
2016        Mar 9, French students and trade unions staged protest marches across the country against far-reaching labor reforms.
    (Reuters, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 9, The Indian arm of global consumer giant Unilever said it has reached a settlement with hundreds of former employees 15 years after its thermometer plant in southern India was shut following accusations of mercury contamination.
    (AP, 3/10/16)
2016        Mar 10, In Spain a strike by refuse collectors in the city of Malaga entered its 10th day.
    (Reuters, 3/10/16)

2016        Mar 12, In northeastern China thousands of miners, who say they have not been paid for months, staged a rare protest in Shuangyashan city, days after the provincial governor made the apparently false claim that no miner working for the province's largest publicly owned mining company was owed any back wages.
    (AP, 3/13/16)

2016        Mar 14, French PM Manuel Valls unveiled a revised labor reform bill that makes concessions to trade unions following mass protests against the measures.
    (Reuters, 3/14/16)

2016        Mar 17, French unions said the government will lift a six-year-old freeze on civil servants' pay, but that the resulting wage increase was too little.
    (Reuters, 3/17/16)
2016        Mar 17, In France thousands of youths held street protests to reject the government's new labor changes.
    (AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 22, Indonesian cabbies clashed with motorbike drivers working for online apps, pulling them off their bikes and assaulting them as thousands of drivers took to the streets of Jakarta calling for a ban on ride-hailing apps like Grab and Uber.
    (Reuters, 3/22/16)

2016        Mar 28, California Gov. Jerry Brown announced a deal with state lawmakers and public unions that would make the minimum wage $15 an hour by 2022, up from $10.
    (SFC, 3/29/16, p.A1)

2016        Mar 30, Indian giant Tata Steel put its British business up for sale, sparking calls for the government to intervene and safeguard thousands of jobs in the crisis-hit industry.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)

2016        Mar 31, In France demonstrators clashed with police in the streets during fresh protests over labor reforms. Official figures said at least 200,000 people had joined demonstrations in around 50 towns around the country despite rainy weather.
    (AFP, 3/31/16)

2016        Mar, A Nepalese construction worker in Qatar was "sacked" the day after speaking to a UN delegation visiting the 2022 World Cup host country to examine labor conditions. This was only reported in Sept. 2017 because of sensitivities surrounding the case.
    (AP, 9/26/17)

2016        Apr 1, Britain's Conservative government raised the minimum wage by 7.5 percent in a move denounced by critics as largely symbolic in an era of state austerity. Workers aged 25 and over will now earn a minimum hourly gross wage of £7.20 ($10.36, 9.10 euros) compared with £6.70 previously.
    (AFP, 4/1/16)

2016        Apr 5, Paris riot police fired tear gas and charged youths throwing stones, bottles and eggs during fresh protests against France's proposed labor reforms, making over 100 arrests.
    (AFP, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 6, Junior doctors in English hospitals went on strike again, withdrawing all but emergency care in their fourth walk-out in a bitter dispute with the government over working conditions.
    (AFP, 4/6/16)

2016        Apr 8, Wisconsin’s right to work law, championed by Gov. Scott Walker, was struck down as violating the state constitution.
    (SFC, 4/9/16, p.A5)

2016        Apr 9, In western France clashes broke out between police and demonstrators in Rennes as thousands took to the streets for a sixth day of nationwide protests against a draft law that seeks to loosen some labor protections.
    (Reuters, 4/9/16)

2016        Apr 13, Some 39,000 Verizon landline and cable workers on the East Coast walked off the job after making little progress in negotiations since their contract expired nearly eight months ago.
    (SFC, 4/14/16, p.C2)

2016        Apr 15, It was reported that San Francisco will begin requiring some 37,000 Lyft and Uber drivers who work in the city seven or more days a year to obtain a $91 annual business license.
    (SFC, 4/15/16, p.A1)

2016        Apr 16, French police arrested twenty-two people in Paris during overnight clashes at a demonstration over labor reforms seen as threatening workers' rights.
    (AFP, 4/16/16)

2016        Apr 17, Thousands of Kuwait's oil workers began an open-ended strike in protest at plans to cut their wages, action which saw the emirate's crude production plunge.
    (AFP, 4/17/16)

2016        Apr 19, Intel said it would cut 12,000 jobs, about 11% of its workforce, as demand for personal computers continued to fall.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.C6)

2016        Apr 20, In Hungary nearly 25,000 of about 150,000 teachers in some 1,200 of 5,000 schools walked out on a one-day strike to demand more freedom, more financing and lighter workloads for themselves and their students. Teachers have been protesting for months against moves by the right-wing government of PM Viktor Orban to strip schools of much of their autonomy and increase central planning and management.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)

2016        Apr 24, Greek press unions expanded a strike to protest bailout creditor-demanded reforms of their taxpayer-funded pension fund, leaving the country without newspapers and news broadcasts for several days.
    (AP, 4/25/16)

2016        Apr 26, Junior doctors in England staged their first ever all-out strike in a bitter, deadlocked row with PM David Cameron's government over pay and conditions. The National Health Service employs more than 50,000 junior doctors.
    (AFP, 4/26/16)
2016        Apr 26, French train services were severely disrupted as tens of thousands of state rail workers protested over plans to reduce rest periods and other protective work practices in preparation for Europe-wide deregulation.
    (Reuters, 4/26/16)
2016        Apr 26, German government workers called short-term strikes in the run-up to wage discussions later this week. Lufthansa said it has cancelled 895 flights scheduled for April 27 from six German airports as public-sector workers doing ground handling and security checks were expected to walk off the job.
    (AP, 4/26/16)

2016        Apr 28, French protesters were back on the streets over proposed reforms to the country's labor rules and strikers have forced cancellations and delays at two airports serving Paris.
    (AP, 4/28/16)

2016        Apr 29, Germany's federal and local governments reached agreement with public sector workers on a pay rise, settling a dispute that grounded hundreds of flights during a warning strike two days earlier.
    (AFP, 4/29/16)

2016        Apr 30, In Saudi Arabia employees at the Saudi Binladin Group, a construction giant, set fire to more than seven company buses in the latest protest by disgruntled staff over not being paid salaries for months and a large round of reported layoffs.
    (AP, 5/1/16)
2016        Apr 30, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro ordered a 30 percent increase in the minimum wage, the latest move by the socialist government to grapple with high inflation and economic stagnation. The boost comes after a 25 percent increase on March 1.
    (AP, 5/1/16)

2016        May 1, In Egypt some 650 workers from several provinces, who came to hold a meeting in Cairo for International Workers' Day, were prevented from assembling by police.
    (AP, 5/1/16)
2016        May 1, Turkish police clamped down on unauthorized protests during a tense May Day in Istanbul, using tear gas and water cannon against demonstrators and imposing a heavy security blanket on the city.
    (AFP, 5/1/16)

2016        May 4, French riot police clashed with demonstrators outside a school building in Paris, prompting government and police calls for an end to weeks of violent protests mainly linked to plans for a loosening of France's highly protective labor laws.
    (Reuters, 5/4/16)

2016        May 5, Greek labor unions declared a 48-hour national walkout as lawmakers debated unpopular tax and pension reforms Greece hopes will help persuade creditors to approve release of badly-needed bailout cash.
    (Reuters, 5/5/16)

2016        May 6, Services in Greece, from garbage collection to public transport, shut down as workers kicked off three days of strikes to protest new bailout austerity measures that they say will further reduce incomes.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 10, In Brazil the mayor of Sao Paulo signed a decree authorizing the use of smartphone-based ride-sharing applications like Uber. Cab drivers protested that Uber is unfair competition because its drivers don’t have to pay city fees or undergo official inspections.
    {Brazil, Labor}
    (SFC, 5/10/16, p.C2)
2016        May 10, France's government decided to bypass parliament and impose a relaxation of the country's protective labor laws by decree, sidestepping a rebellion against one of socialist President Francois Hollande's flagship reforms.
    (Reuters, 5/10/16)

2016        May 13, In South Africa a judge ruled that gold miners who got lung diseases while working underground, as well as families of miners who died of such diseases, can launch a class action suit against mining companies.
    (AP, 5/13/16)

2016        May 17, Dozens of Belgian trade unionists and prison workers who have been on a three-week strike to demand an end to austerity and better working conditions broke into the justice ministry in Brussels and damaged part of the building. Police pushed them back with tear gas.
    (AP, 5/17/16)

2016        May 18, Strikes by French railway and port workers halved train services and prompted cancellation of ferry links to Britain. French police staged demonstrations in about 60 cities against a surge of "anti-cop hatred" which they say they have suffered at a series of anti-government protests in recent months.
    (Reuters, 5/18/16)(AFP, 5/18/16)(SFC, 5/19/16, p.A2)

2016        May 25, The French oil industry federation said France has started using its strategic oil reserves for the first time since 2010 to counter union blockades of its refineries. The industry said it has been using the strategic reserves for two days. Workers at the hardline CGT union voted for a 24-hour strike at Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear plant.
    (Reuters, 5/25/16)

2016        May 26, In France 11 of 58 nuclear power plants were hit with unplanned outages after unionized workers at utility EDF joined a rolling nationwide strike against planned government reforms.
    (Reuters, 5/26/16)

2016        May 30, Verizon and its unions said they have reached a tentative agreement and that almost 40,000 workers will return to their jobs on June 1.
    (SFC, 5/31/16, p.A5)

2016        May 31, In Belgium strikes by public-sector employees across the country intensified, with train and bus services disrupted along with schools, prisons and mail delivery as workers protested against the government's social and economic policies.
    (AP, 5/31/16)

2016        Jun 1, Transport chaos hit France, just nine days before the Euro 2016 football tournament, as railway workers went on strike in the latest salvo of a months-long battle between the government and unions.
    (AFP, 6/1/16)
2016        Jun 1, Thousands of Romanian teachers demonstrated to demand higher salaries, rallying outside the government's main offices in Bucharest then marching through the capital.
    (AP, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 5, Qatar figures from an April 2015 census showed almost 60 percent of the country’s 2.4 million population live in what the government calls labor camps.
    (AFP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 7, Washington DC lawmakers approved a $15-an-hour minimum wage. Mayor Muriel Bowser pledged to sign it.
    (SFC, 6/8/16, p.A4)
2016        Jun 7, The European Union warned Thailand to take "swift and determined action" by next month to improve its fisheries and labor practices or face a serious economic threat of an EU ban on Thai seafood.
    (AP, 6/7/16)

2016        Jun 11, About a quarter of Air France pilots went on strike to demand better working conditions. Up to a fifth of flights were canceled, both domestic and international. Among those affected were flights carrying spectators to cities holding matches for the European Championship soccer tournament. Train drivers and garbage collectors continued their strikes.
    (AP, 6/11/16)

2016        Jun 14, In France tens of thousands of people rallied in Paris under heavy police presence for a protest against a planned change of labor laws that would make hiring and firing easier.
    (Reuters, 6/14/16)

2016        Jun 15, French leaders told the hardline CGT labor union it would be denied permission for further street rallies unless it rooted out troublemakers, a day after violent battles between masked youths and police during protest marches in Paris.
    (Reuters, 6/15/16)

2016        Jun 23, In France tens of thousands of people marched in Paris to protest planned labor reforms, gathering for a demonstration that authorities had initially considered banning due to the violence that has accompanied similar recent events. Police arrested around 100 protesters.
    (AP, 6/23/16)(AFP, 6/23/16)

2016        Jul 1, In New Jersey Local 54 of the Unite-Here union walked off the job at the Carl Icahn-owned Taj Mahal casino in Atlantic city.
    (SFC, 7/5/16, p.A5)

2016        Jul 5, France's government forced approval of a contested labor bill in the lower house of Parliament without a vote — for a second time — because of resistance from the left and right.
    (AP, 7/5/16)

2016        Jul 6, In Greece most workers on the the Athens public transport system walked off the job in a 24-hour strike to protest privatizations that are part of the country's international bailout conditions.
    (AP, 7/6/16)

2016        Jul 13, Human Rights Watch said foreigners employed as maids in Oman can face physicdal and verbal abuse while entrapped in conditions that near slavery. Its report alleged that the United Arab Emirates acts as a gateway for maids trafficked into the sultanate.
    (SFC, 7/14/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 14, In Abu Dhabi a new decree allowed people as young as 12 to apply for a temporary work permit. Current law prohibited work until the age of 15.
    (SSFC, 7/17/16, p.A9)
2016        Jul 14, In Kuwait a decree issued by Interior Minister Sheikh Mohammad Khaled Al-Sabah set the minimum wage for domestic workers at 60 dinars ($200) a month and also granted domestic staff a raft of other rights. The decree also requires employers to pay overtime for any extra hours worked.
    (AP, 7/14/16)

2016        Jul 20, The French government forced a divisive labor bill through Parliament without a vote for third and final time.
    (AP, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 26, Iran's government said it would cap salaries for public officials as it seeks to dampen a scandal over exorbitant pay that has threatened to derail President Hassan Rouhani's re-election hopes. The payslips of executives at several public companies were leaked in May, showing that many earned over 100 times more than the average worker.
    (AFP, 7/26/16)

2016        Jul 28, Portuguese public health workers began a 48-hour strike to pressure the government into extending a new 35-hour week to more staff.
    (AP, 7/28/16)

2016        Jul 31, India's foreign minister said the government is providing food aid to thousands of Indian workers in Saudi Arabia who are not able to buy food after losing their jobs in the kingdom.
    (AP, 7/31/16)

2016        Aug 1, India's government said it plans to evacuate thousands of Indian workers who have lost their jobs in Saudi Arabia and cannot afford to pay for a flight home. The workers were mostly employed by Saudi construction companies and were laid off amid a slowdown in the industry caused by low global oil prices.
    (AP, 8/1/16)

2016        Aug 6, The Philippines said it would within days send government missions to Saudi Arabia to help thousands of jobless Filipinos left stranded across the kingdom after the plunge in oil prices.
    (AFP, 8/6/16)

2016        Aug 12, Staff on the Eurostar rail service between Britain and mainland Europe started four days of strike action although the company insisted there would be minimal disruption to services.
    (AFP, 8/12/16)

2016        Aug 24, In Bolivia at least one person was killed and dozens injured after miners and riot police exchanged sticks of dynamite and tear gas during a protest to demand better work conditions.
    (Reuters, 8/25/16)

2016        Aug 26, Belgium-based AB Inbev said it expects to cut about 3 percent of its total workforce — equivalent to thousands of jobs — once it completes its huge takeover of its closest rival, SABMiller.
    (AP, 8/26/16)

2016        Aug 30, Montenegrin police used pepper spray to stop laid-off employees of an aluminum smelter from storming the parliament building.   
    (AP, 8/30/16)

2016        Sep 2, In India millions of public sector workers across the country went on strike to protest economic reforms, saying the government's plan for raising the country's minimum wage for unskilled workers did not go far enough.
    (AP, 9/2/16)

2016        Sep, Saudi Arabia slashed salaries and benefits for public-sector employees, a sector that made up two-thirds of Saudi workers.
    {Saudi Arabia, Labor}
    (Econ, 11/5/16, p.40)

2016        Nov 8, Irish teachers went on strike in a dispute that could close most secondary schools indefinitely, the latest industrial unrest testing the minority government and pressuring the country's still fragile finances.
    (Reuters, 11/8/16)

2016        Nov 16, Poland's lawmakers voted to lower the retirement age in a reversal of a 2012 reform, despite questions about financing of the new system. The lower house voted 262-149 with 19 abstentions to allow women to retire at the age of 60 and men at 65, as of October 2017. The lower chamber also voted 269-170 for a bill establishing the Territorial Defense Forces that are starting to recruit men and women.
    (AP, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 17, Delaware-based DuPont said it will soon stop contributing to active employees' pension plans, a move that will affect the retirement of 13,000 US workers, including 2,800 in Delaware. DuPont closed the pension plan to new employees in 2007.
    (AP, 11/18/16)

2016        Nov 18, Germany-based Volkswagen announced plans to cut 30,000 jobs in a wide-ranging restructuring of its namesake brand as it tries to recover from a scandal over cars rigged to cheat on diesel emissions tests.
    (AP, 11/18/16)

2016        Nov 22, In Germany cabin crew at Lufthansa's budget unit Eurowings launched a 15-hour strike, causing dozens of flight cancelations, as the German carrier warned customers to prepare for a larger walk-out by pilots the next day.
    (AP, 11/22/16)

2016        Nov 23, A federal jury in San Francisco awarded $54 million in damages against Walmart for failing to pay hundreds of truck drivers for time they spend waiting to load and unload cargo, washing and fueling their trucks and other tasks.
    (SFC, 11/24/16, p.A6)

2016        Nov 24, In Belgium close to 20,000 protesters from the non-profit sector took to the streets. Their anger centered on plans to limit days off for veteran workers in the future.
    (AP, 11/24/16)
2016        Nov 24, German flagship carrier Lufthansa said it is scrapping 830 flights for tomorrow, grounding more than 100,000 passengers, as a strike by pilots over wages extends to a third day.
    (AFP, 11/24/16)
2016        Nov 24, Greek public-sector workers went on strike to protest labor and pension reforms and state asset sales which the leftist-led government agreed with the country's official creditors in exchange for bailout loans.
    (Reuters, 11/24/16)

2016        Nov 26, In Germany pilots at Lufthansa staged a fourth consecutive day of strikes, with chances of an immediate resolution to the pay dispute looking slim after their union rejected a new offer from the company. The Cockpit union targeted Lufthansa's long-haul services, prompting 137 flight cancellations and affecting some 30,000 passengers.
    (AP, 11/26/16)

2016        Nov 28, Germany-based Lufthansa said it is canceling more than 1,700 flights scheduled for the next two days as a union representing the airline's pilots resumes a campaign of strikes.
    (AP, 11/28/16)

2016        Nov 29, Airbus said it wants to cut more than 1,100 jobs across Europe after presenting a reorganization plan to the works council in Toulouse.
    (AP, 11/29/16)

2016        Nov 30, Air-conditioning maker Carrier Corp. said it has reached a deal with Pres.-elect Donald Trump to keep nearly 1,000 jobs in Indiana.
    (SFC, 12/1/16, p.C2)

2016        Dec 7, London-based think-tank Overseas Development Institute said one third of children living in the slums of Bangladesh's capital spend more than 60 hours a week making clothes for the garment sector, well beyond the legal working limit.
    (Reuters, 12/7/16)

2016        Dec 10, Greek ferry workers ended a nine-day strike, saying they did not wish to disrupt the holiday season, but promised to resume action if the government did not back off tax hikes for ferry workers.
    (AP, 12/10/16)
2016        Dec 10, Sri Lankan naval troops fired warning shots to break up a protest by striking dock workers who have held up a Japanese vessel for four days at the island's southern international port.
    (AP, 12/11/16)

2016        Dec 13, In France the Eiffel Tower, normally open every single day of the year, closed because of a strike over salaries and working conditions.
    (AP, 12/13/16)
2016        Dec 13, Mexico’s National Statistics Institute released a study saying about 58 percent of jobs in Mexico are in the informal sector including categories such as unregistered vendors, artisans and domestic workers.
    (AP, 12/13/16)

2016        Dec 18, In Spain several thousand workers took to the streets of Madrid to protest the government's labor policies of recent years as the country emerges from a long economic downturn.
    (AP, 12/18/16)

2016        Dec 19, British postal workers began what could become the longest strike in the Post Office's 300-year history as part of a wave of industrial action that is also threatening Christmas travel chaos.
    (AFP, 12/19/16)

2016        Dec 28, In Japan government authorities filed papers demanding prosecutorial charges against an unidentified Dentsu employee suspected of driving Matsuri Takahashi (24) to suicide from overwork. Takahashi was clocking 100 hours of overtime a month before she jumped from her company dorm balcony in December 2015.
    (AP, 12/28/16)

2016        Dec 31, In southern England the RMT union launched a three-day strike on Southern Rail, which runs commuter services from the south coast into London, as part of a long-running dispute over plans to downgrade the role of the train guard.
    (AFP, 12/31/16)

2017        Jan 4, Macy’s said it will move forward with 68 store closures and eliminate more than 10,000 jobs following a disappointing holiday shopping season.
    (SFC, 1/5/17, p.C4)
2017        Jan 4, Indian officials said police have rescued nearly 200 children, most of them under the age of 14, who had been found working in a brick kiln in the southern state of Telangana in one of the biggest operations in the region.
    (Reuters, 1/4/17)
2017        Jan 4, In India a 24-year-old housemaid died in hospital, two weeks after she was admitted with multiple fractures and injuries. She had said she was abused by her New Delhi employers after being lured to the city with the promise of a job.
    (Reuters, 1/6/17)
2017        Jan 4, The Israeli government said China has agreed for thousands of migrant construction laborers to work in Israel in a bid to alleviate a housing crisis.
    (AFP, 1/4/17)

2017        Jan 5, A Swiss insurance agency ruled that an Uber driver is an employee for whom the company must pay social security contributions, dealing a blow to the US ride-hailing platform that says drivers are independent contractors.
    (Reuters, 1/5/17)

2017        Jan 10, British Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn told the BBC that "I would like to see some kind of high-earnings cap" to reduce inequality. He said that it should kick in at a level "somewhat higher" than his own 138,000 pound ($167,000) annual salary.
    (AP, 1/10/17)

2017        Jan 19, University lecturers in Kenya began a strike over pay, joining doctors who walked out in early December, crippling the country's healthcare.
    (AFP, 1/19/17)

2017        Jan 26, Puerto Rico's new governor signed a labor reform bill that targets the private sector and aims to stimulate the island's economy amid concerns that it infringes on workers' rights.
    (AP, 1/26/17)   

2017        Jan 31, Brazil said unemployment hit a record 12 percent between October and December, even as the economy is forecast to slowly exit deep recession.
    (AFP, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 6, Missouri Rep. Gov. Eric Greitens signed a bill making his state the 28th right-to-work state banning union fees and dues.
    (SFC, 2/7/17, p.A5)

2017        Feb 8, The Czech government said it has decided to double its quota for Ukrainian workers, due to an acute labor shortage as the economy continues to grow strongly.
    (Reuters, 2/8/17)
2017        Feb 8, In Greece hundreds of firefighters in uniform took to the streets of Athens, saying roughly one third of their jobs are at risk due to hiring restrictions placed on the public sector by Greece's international bailout conditions.
    (AP, 2/8/17)

2017        Feb 9, In Myanmar production at Hangzhou Hundred-Tex Garment Company in Yangon was halted. Workers had demanded a better performance review system and healthcare coverage. Later in the month hundreds of workers stormed the Chinese-owned factory making clothes for Swedish fashion retailer Hennes & Mauritz. They damaged facilities including textile machinery, computers and surveillance cameras.
    (Reuters, 3/7/17)

2017        Feb 16, In Germany a union representing ground staff has called on its members to go on strike at Berlin's two airports, leading to the cancelation of some 210 flights.
    (AP, 2/16/17)
2017        Feb 16, In Italy taxi drivers in Rome, Milan and Turin staged wildcat strikes to protest proposed legislation they say will favor Uber and other car-sharing services.
    (AP, 2/16/17)

2017        Feb 21, Thousands of Italian taxi drivers protesting legislation they say will favor Uber clashed with riot police, intensifying a weeklong cab strike that has crippled transportation in Rome, Milan and Turin.
    (AP, 2/21/17)

2017        Feb 26, In Belarus  about 3,000 people demonstrated across the country against an unpopular new labor law that targets the unemployed. Many people were unhappy with a so-called "anti-sponging" law that forces citizens to pay the equivalent of $250 if they work less than half the year and do not register with nation's labor exchanges.
    (AP, 2/26/17)

2017        Feb, Unemployment in Japan fell to 2.8%, the lowest rate since 1994.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.63)

2017        Mar 1, In South Africa thousands of coal truck drivers descended on Pretoria to protest against the country's renewable energy program, after President Jacob Zuma expressed support for the sector last month.
    (Reuters, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 7, The Kenyan government ordered striking medical staff to go back to work and said it had withdrawn an offer of a 50 percent pay hike after the workers' union became inflexible in their negotiations.
    (Reuters, 3/7/17)

2017        Mar 8, Britain’s Chancellor Philip Hammond in his budget announced an increase in tax for the self-employed, who self-employed make up around 15% of the UK’s workers.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.56)

2017        Mar 9, The Ile de France region passed a new rule obliging laborers on public building sites to use French, copying action taken elsewhere in France to squeeze out foreign workers.
    (AP, 3/10/17)

2017        Mar 14, Berlin's airports remained paralyzed after ground staff extended a strike, stepping up pressure in a dispute over pay that has already caused the cancellation of more than 1,000 flights since March 10.
    (Reuters, 3/14/17)

2017        Mar 16, In Spain taxi drivers in Barcelona and Madrid went on strike to urge authorities to protect their regulated service against companies like Uber and Cabify, which offer cheaper services.
    (AP, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 22, An estimated 17,000 AT&T workers in California and Nevada went on strike to protest the handling of work assignments. Technicians and call center workers returned to work the next day following an agreement on work assignments.
    (SFC, 3/23/17, p.C1)(SFC, 3/24/17, p.C1)
2017        Mar 22, Romanian rail workers staged a walk-out after unions and management failed to agree about wage hikes. More than 150 trains were affected by the strike.
    (AP, 3/22/17)

2017        Mar 28, Iceland became the first country to introduce legislation requiring employers to prove they are paying men and women equally.
    (SFC, 3/31/17, p.C2)

2017        Mar 30, In Argentina port workers in Greater Rosario suspended plans for a 24-hour strike after a truck driver ran over and killed a protester.
    (Reuters, 3/30/17)

2017        Mar, In Japan a man (23) died of suicide while working at Tokyo’s new Olympic stadium. In October Japan’s labor standard office ruled that his death stemmed from overwork (karoshi) and that his family was eligible for government compensation. The man had recorded 190 hours of overtime in the month before killing himself.
    (SFC, 10/11/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 1, An executive order by the former Obama administration came into effect banning the box declaration of criminal history for all federal jobs.
    (SFC, 9/25/17 p.25)

2017        Apr 18, President Donald Trump visited Wisconsin and signed an order, dubbed "Buy American, Hire American," aimed at curbing abuses in the H-1B visa program used by technology companies that rely on high-skilled foreign workers. The EU later argued that more stringent "Buy American" policies were likely to increase costs and delays, with no net benefit in job creation.
    (AP, 4/18/17)(SFC, 4/19/17, p.A1)(AP, 10/18/17)
2017        Apr 18, Australia’s PM Malcolm Turnbull announced plans to replace the 457 visa for temporary foreign workers in particular occupations with two new temporary visas requiring better English-language and work skills.
    (SFC, 4/19/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia’s labor ministry said foreigners will no longer be allowed to work in the country’s numerous shopping malls, in the latest measure to boost employment of Saudis.
    (AFP, 4/20/17)

2017        Apr 23, Israel said it has signed a deal with China to bring Chinese construction workers to Israel, but the workers will reportedly be barred from building in West Bank settlements at China's insistence.
    (AP, 4/23/17)

2017        Apr 24, In Sri Lanka long lines formed at gasoline stations across the country as workers at a state-run petroleum company went on strike to protest a government plan to lease out oil tanks to neighboring India.
    (AP, 4/24/17)

2017        Apr 26, In Romania hundreds of taxi and bus drivers protested outside government offices in Bucharest to demand that Uber and other online ride services be outlawed.
    (AP, 4/26/17)
2017        Apr 26, South African Airways cancelled nearly three dozen flights, most of them domestic, because of a strike by some cabin crew. A labor court ruled that the strike was not allowed under terms of the crewmembers' contracts.
    (AP, 4/26/17)(AP, 4/27/17)

2017        May 1, Greek trade unions marked May Day with a 24-hour nationwide strike and protests against looming new cuts demanded by the country's creditors in return for bailout cash.
    (AFP, 5/1/17)
2017        May 1, South African President Jacob Zuma was jeered by labor unionists and his speech was cancelled after scuffles broke out between his supporters and workers chanting for him to step down at a May Day rally.
    (AP, 5/1/17)

2017        May 4,  A US circuit court judge lifted an injunction that had blocked a 2015 ordnance from becoming law in St. Louis, Mo. The city’s minimum wage will rise to $10 and hour as of May 5 and to $11 an hour in January.
    (SFC, 5/5/17, p.A6)

2017        May 8, The California Supreme Court ruled that state workers can be required to work more than six consecutive days without overtime as long as they don’t work more than six days in a single week.
    (SFC, 5/10/17, p.D3)

2017        May 10, Switzerland's government said it will temporarily limit the number of workers from European Union member states Bulgaria and Romania who can access Swiss jobs, after an influx from the countries in recent months.
    (AP, 5/10/17)

2017        May 11, German industrial conglomerate Siemens AG said it is cutting or outsourcing 2,700 jobs as part of efforts to modernize its IT operations and increase efficiency elsewhere.
    (AP, 5/11/17)

2017        May 15, In Romania some 20,000 finance workers from the public sector went on strike to protest a move to cut their salaries.
    (AP, 5/15/17)

2017        May 17, Ford said it is cutting 1,400 non-factory jobs in North America and Asia Pacific this year in an effort to boost profits and rescue its sagging stock price. The company faced heavy costs for new technology and slowing US car sales.
    (AP, 5/17/17)

2017        May 18, In Greece protesters took to the streets of central Athens for the second day running, hours before lawmakers voted in parliament on measures that will impose additional income losses for many Greeks for another three years. Parliament approved a new package of reforms demanded by the EU and the IMF. Unemployment in the country was around 23%.
    (AP, 5/18/17)(Econ 5/27/17, p.47)

2017        May 19, As many as 37,000 AT&T workers in 36 states began a 3-day strike over wages and job security.
    (SFC, 5/20/17, p.D1)

2017        May 24, Angry UN staff in Geneva protested against a proposed 7.5 percent cut to their salaries, the equivalent of almost a month's pay, and called for strike action if it is implemented.
    (Reuters, 5/24/17)

2017        May 27, In Spain tens of thousands of people rallied in Madrid for a "march of dignity" to demand better wages and job security as Spain's economy improves.
    (AFP, 5/27/17)

2017        May 31, China Labor Watch executive director Li Qiang said he lost contact with three investigators over the weekend. They were investigating a Chinese company that produces Ivanka Trump-branded shoes in China and were working with a US nonprofit to publish a report next month alleging low pay, excessive overtime and possible misuse of student labor.
    (AP, 5/31/17)   

2017        May, Missouri’s Republican legislature passed a measure barring local government from enacting minimum wages different from the state, which is $7.70 per hour. On August 8 Kansas City voters decided on whether or not to set the minimum wage to $10 per hour and increase it annually to $15 per hour in 2022.
    (SFC, 8/8/17, p.A6)

2017        Jun 5, Hundreds of taxi drivers in Poland's four largest cities drove at a crawl blocking rush-hour traffic in a protest to draw the government's attention to the rising number of unlicensed drivers who offer transport services.
    (AP, 6/5/17)
2017        Jun 5, Activity in Spain's ports was intermittent as dockworkers began a three-day strike to protest layoffs stemming from an effort to liberalize the industry in line with European Union rules.
    (AP, 6/5/17)

2017        Jun 15, Oregon-based Nike announced several changes to its business structure including a  cut of about 1,400 jobs and reduction of the number of sneaker styles it offers by a quarter.
    (AP, 6/15/17)   

2017        Jun 16, Italians and tourists alike struggled to get around as a nationwide transport strike forced the cancellation of Alitalia flights, the closure of subway stations and the suspension of bus service.
    (AP, 6/16/17)

2017        Jun 21, Hundreds of Croatian taxi drivers blocked one of the capital's main boulevards with their cars to protest against Uber services in the country. PM Andrej Plenkovic said "we have concluded that transportation via Uber is against the current regulations in the Republic of Croatia." He urged the taxi protesters to stop their action until a solution is worked out.
    (AP, 6/21/17)

2017        Jun 22, In Greece mounds of rubbish festered in soaring temperatures in Athens as thousands demonstrated in support of refuse collectors demanding the renewal of their contracts.
    (AFP, 6/22/17)

2017        Jun 28, In Spain Madrid metro drivers began a five-day strike, threatening to create travel chaos during WorldPride, one of the biggest celebrations of lesbian, gay and transsexual rights.
    (AFP, 6/28/17)

2017        Jun 29, Leading global fashion brands and trade unions agreed to continue a safety program involving thousands of garment factories in Bangladesh for another three years. Swiss-based global trade unions — IndustriALL Global Union and UNIGlobal Union — and brand representatives announced the agreement in Paris.
    (AP, 6/29/17)
2017        Jun 29, Hundreds of striking Greek sanitation workers ended a 10-day strike in Athens over jobs as steaming mountains of garbage piled up across the country and temperatures soared.
    (Reuters, 6/29/17)

2017        Jun 30, Brazilian labor unions staged peaceful nationwide demonstrations against scandal-hit President Michel Temer, seeking to stop his unpopular administration from pushing through Congress changes to labor and pension laws.
    (Reuters, 6/30/17)

2017        Jul 3, In Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel's conservatives promised more police, more homes and full employment within eight years when they presented their program for an election in which she will seek a fourth term in office.
    (Reuters, 7/3/17)
2017        Jul 3, Thailand immigration officials said tens of thousands of migrant workers, most of them from Myanmar, have fled from Thailand in fear after new labor regulations adopted by the military government. About 60,000 workers left between June 23 and June 28, and the number has risen since.
    (Reuters, 7/3/17)

2017        Jul 4, Thailand's junta delayed parts of a new labor law aimed at regulating the foreign workforce after the decree sparked panic and prompted more than 60,000 foreign workers to flee from the country.
    (Reuters, 7/4/17)

2017        Jul 12, It was reported that the Russian city of Vladivostok has embraced cheap North Korean painters. Human rights groups said most of the laborer’s earnings are confiscated by the state.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A3)

2017        Jul 13, Brazil’s Pres. Michael Temer signed into law an overhaul of the country’s 1943 labor law, to become effective in four months time.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.52)

2017        Jul 18, In Serbia several hundred striking workers from Fiat's factory in Kragujevac marched to demand higher wages.
    (AP, 7/18/17)

2017        Jul 21, Peru’s Labor Ministry said striking mining workers in have agreed to return to work by July 24 after the government of President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski promised to name a task force to discuss labor laws with them.
    (Reuters, 7/22/17)

2017        Jul 27, Haiti announced a slight minimum wage increase for garment workers that fell well short of their demands, prompting union calls for a strike.
    (AP, 7/28/17)

2017        Jul 28, Hundreds of Croatian taxi drivers protested against Uber services, disrupting traffic at the height of the tourist season in the Adriatic country.
    (AP, 7/28/17)

2017        Aug 1, Bank of England employees began a three-day strike, the central bank's first in over 50 years, as they stood outside the institution demanding better pay. The central bank noted that the number of strikers is small and said it will continue to operate as normal during this period.
    (AP, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 4, In Spain holidaymakers faced delays and long queues at Barcelona's El Prat airport, the first day of strikes by security staff that may be stepped up in coming weeks.
    (Reuters, 8/4/17)

2017        Aug 6, In Spain workers handling carry-on luggage checks at Barcelona's airport staged a second day of partial strikes, causing long lines for passengers at one of Europe's most popular airports.
    (AP, 8/6/17)

2017        Aug 7, Google fired James Damore, a software engineer, who had written a memo saying the company’s efforts to hire more women are biased.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.10)

2017        Aug 9, Cambodia said it is recruiting hundreds of maids to work in Hong Kong. The minimum monthly wage for maids in Hong Kong was $550.
    (AFP, 8/9/17)

2017        Aug 10, Kuwait said it will continue to grant visas to North Korean laborers whose wages allegedly aid Pyongyang in evading international sanctions.
    (AP, 8/10/17)

2017        Aug 22, In Romania about 200 disabled people, some in wheelchairs, others with crutches, protested outside the labor ministry against a measure they say could leave them jobless. A government emergency decree, effective September 1, means companies with more than 50 employees no longer have to hire a certain number of disabled people or use a department that hires special-needs personnel.
    (AP, 8/22/17)

2017        Aug 30, South Korea's Supreme Court said a former worker in a Samsung LCD factory who was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis should be recognized as having an occupationally caused disease, overturning lower court verdicts that held a lack of evidence against the worker.
    (AP, 8/30/17)

2017        Sep 6, Greek asylum service employees on short-term contracts launched a two-day strike to protest months-long delays in their salary payments.
    (AP, 9/6/17)

2017        Sep 12, In France tens of thousands of protesters marched against President Emmanuel Macron's flagship economic reforms in the first major demonstrations against his pro-business agenda. Riot police clashed with hooded youths on the fringe of a protest in central Paris against Macron's reforms to loosen labor regulations.
    (AFP, 9/12/17)(Reuters, 9/12/17)

2017        Sep 13, French PM Edouard Philippe shrugged off nationwide protests against planned reforms to France's strict labor regulations, saying he was "listening" but would nonetheless press ahead with the bill.
    (Reuters, 9/13/17)

2017        Sep 18, Much of Haiti came to a halt because of a transportation strike over new taxes proposed by the government.
    (AP, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 21, Hewlett Packard Enterprises said it is planning to cut about 10 percent of its staff, or at least 5,000 workers, as part of an effort to pare expenses under mounting competition.
    (SFC, 9/22/17 p.C4)
2017        Sep 21, French labor unions staged fresh protests against Pres. Emmanuel Macron's contested labor law reforms, a day before he adopts them by executive order.
    (AP, 9/21/17)

2017        Sep 22, French President Emmanuel Macron formally signed five decrees overhauling labor rules, the first major economic reforms since he took power in May.
    (Reuters, 9/22/17)

2017        Sep 23, In France several thousand demonstrators rallied to a call by firebrand leftist politician Jean-Luc Melenchon to join a protest in Paris against President Emmanuel Macron's sweeping reforms of the labor code.
    (AFP, 9/23/17)
2017        Sep 23, PM Abdulla Aripov said Uzbekistan will no longer have thousands of students, teachers and healthcare workers pick the cotton harvest, confirming a halt to a practice condemned abroad as forced labor.
    (Reuters, 9/23/17)

2017        Sep 25, French truck drivers staged road blockages near fuel depots across the country to protest against President Emmanuel Macron's changes to labor laws.
    (AP, 9/25/17)

2017        Sep 25, Target Corp. announced that its minimum hourly wage will rise to $11 starting next month and move to $15 by the end of 2020.
    (SFC, 9/26/17, p.D1)

2017        Oct 4, More than 50 Jordanian and international companies advertised hundreds of jobs in textiles, construction and agriculture at a job fair for Syrian refugees, part of an EU-sponsored effort to help the displaced become more self-reliant during what could be years of exile.
    (AP, 10/4/17)

2017        Oct 5, Cambodia's government agreed to raise the minimum wage for workers in the garment and footwear industry, a move likely aimed at winning their support ahead of a general election next year. The minimum wage will be raised by 11.11 percent to $170 a month, with $165 to be paid by the employers and $5 to be paid by the government, effective next year.
    (AP, 10/5/17)
2017        Oct 5, In the Netherlands thousands of primary school teachers went on a one-day strike to back demands for better pay and conditions.
    (AP, 10/5/17)

2017        Oct 10, British defense company BAE Systems said it is cutting almost 2,000 jobs in its military, maritime and intelligence services amid a slowdown in orders for its Typhoon fighter jets.
    (AP, 10/10/17)
2017        Oct 10, In France more than 100,000 public sector workers angered by Pres. Emmanuel Macron's plans to freeze their pay and eliminate jobs went on strike, amplifying opposition to the president's cost-cutting, pro-business agenda.
    (AFP, 10/10/17)

2017        Oct 12, French President Emmanuel Macron launched round two of his ambitious domestic reform program. This included major changes to the generous unemployment benefits system, as well as large increases in state-funded training aimed at helping the unemployed back into the workplace.
    (AFP, 10/12/17)

2017        Oct 23, An agreement reached by EU member states limited the amount of time workers can be "posted" from one EU country to another, but the agreement did not cover the road transport sector.
    (Reuters, 11/21/17)

2017        Oct 26, Nordea Bank AB, the Nordic region's largest bank, said it plans to cut at least 6,000 jobs over the next four years to stay competitive as its retail banking operations increasingly become digital and automation hits the financial industry. The cuts will spread across its home markets of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
    (AP, 10/26/17)

2017        Oct 27, In China Vlada Dzyuba (14), a Russian model, died after working on a photo shoot in Yiwu, about 300 km (186 miles) south of Shanghai. A Chinese modeling agency that hired the girl denied media reports that a "slave contract" contributed to the teen's sudden death.
    (AP, 10/30/17)

2017        Oct 31, In Argentina a strike by workers of its two largest airlines caused the cancellation of dozens of flights and the grounding of tens of thousands of passengers. Unions representing state-run carrier Aerolineas Argentinas and sister company Austral Lineas Aereas demanded a 26 percent salary hike in line with the inflation rate.
    (AP, 10/31/17)

2017        Nov 1, The Bank of England predicted that some 10,000 UK financial services jobs could move abroad on the first day of Brexit, after warnings of up to 75,000 relocations in total.
    (AFP, 11/1/17)

2017        Nov 7, In Romania some 5,000 employees at a Dacia automobile factory in Mioveni protested an unpopular government plan to make employees pay social welfare taxes currently paid by employers, saying it will lead to salary cuts.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 10, In Brazil hundreds of people marched through Sao Paulo to protest the implementation of new labor rules and express their opposition to proposed changes to the social security system. The labor law goes into effect Nov. 11.
    (AP, 11/10/17)

2017        Nov 18, Thousands of Spanish police officers packed a central square in Madrid to demand higher salaries and better working conditions. The National Police and Civil Guard members asked for the same pay received by the regional police forces that are exclusive to the regions of Catalonia and the Basque country.
    (AP, 11/18/17)

2017        Nov 21, French truck drivers blocked traffic at border crossings with Spain, Italy and Belgium in protest over cut-price competition in the road-freight industry. French truckers faced being priced out by drivers from other EU member states, who are willing to do fixed-term work for lower pay than French drivers might normally receive.
    (Reuters, 11/21/17)

2017        Nov 26, Israel's health minister Yaakov Litzman, who heads a powerful ultra-Orthodox political party in Benjamin Netanyahu's coalition, resigned saying he opposed continued maintenance work on the country's railways on the Sabbath, when all labor is strictly prohibited by Jewish law.
    (AP, 11/26/17)

2017        Nov 27, Teachers at many of France's international schools, a symbol of French soft power around the world, went on strike over planned cuts to budgets and staffing. Paris has 492 schools in 137 foreign countries, catering to some 350,000 students including the children of elite business leaders and diplomats.
    (AFP, 11/27/17)

2017        Dec 5, In the SF Bay Area unionized city workers of Oakland went on strike to push for better pay, less use of part-time workers and other demands.
    (SFC, 12/6/17, p.A1)

2017        Dec 14, The US National Labor Relations Board overturned a key Obama-era precedent that had given workers significant leverage in challenging companies like fast-food and hotel chains over labor practices. The 3-2 vote along party lines restored a pre-2015 standard.
    (SFC, 12/16/17, p.D4)
2017        Dec 14, Israel-based Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., the world's largest generic drugmaker, said it would lay off over a quarter of its workforce as part of a global restructuring meant to salvage its ailing business. The company said 14,000 workers would be let go over the next two years.
    (AP, 12/14/17)

2017        Dec 15, In Puerto Rico union leaders representing power company workers slammed local and federal officials for lack of equipment as the territory missed a deadline to restore 95 percent of power as promised by the island’s governor. Current power generation was at 64%, nearly three months after Hurricane Maria.
    (SFC, 12/16/17, p.A6)

2017        Dec 17, Israel's national trade union held a half-day nationwide strike to protest generic drugmaker Teva's decision to lay off a quarter of its workforce, snarling traffic and shuttering key services across the country.
    (AP, 12/17/17)

2017        Dec 18, In Argentina demonstrators gathered in Buenos Aires and the country's main union called a 24-hour general strike to protest a hotly debated pension reform measure.
    (Reuters, 12/18/17)
2017        Dec 18, A major Nigerian oil union said it would suspend a nationwide strike after securing worker demands through dispute resolution with the government and an oil firm.
    (Reuters, 12/18/17)

2017        Dec 19, Argentina's Congress passed a reform to the pension system early today, after days of demonstrations by the bill's opponents and violent clashes between protesters and police gripped the South American country.
    (Reuters, 12/19/17)

2017        Dec 29, Brazil's official government gazette said the government has issued a decree backtracking on plans to weaken the definition of slave labor in response to criticism and a court suspension of the original edict. The original mid-October decree, backed by Brazil's powerful farm lobby, narrowed the definition of slave labor to limiting the ability of workers to move freely while disregarding other abuses.
    (Reuters, 12/29/17)

2017        In Nevada the 82-year-old Culinary Workers Union Local 216 included some 57,000 members and represented employees at most of the casinos on the Vegas Strip and downtown.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.21)
2017        The World Bank said over 5 million people already offer to work on online marketplaces such as Freelancer.com and UpWork. Mico work sites such as Mechanical Turk, a service operated by Amazon, counted some 500,000 workers.
    (Econ, 8/26/17, p.55)

2018        Jan 1, In Iceland a new law took effect requiring all companies to prove that their wage practices don't discriminate against women, in what is thought to be a global first in the effort to reduce gender pay gaps.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 8, Germany's powerful metalworkers' union launched mass strikes over pay and working hours that could impact a key industry and the shape of labor nationwide. IG Metall demanded that all workers have the option to temporarily switch to a 28-hour week in the pursuit of better work-life balance.
    (AFP, 1/8/18)

2018        Jan 12, In Greece police fired tear gas in brief clashes with protesters and strikes halted ferries and disrupted public transport, as unions stepped up protests against a new austerity bill that will limit the right to strike and speed up property foreclosures.
    (AP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 15, Greek labor unions went on strike to protest further creditor-demanded austerity measures due to be voted on in Parliament. Strikes shut down all public transport in Athens.
    (AP, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 19, In France five of six unions at Peugeot maker PSA Group agreed to 1,300 job cuts made possible by new French labor rules imposed by Pres. Emmanuel Macron.
    (AP, 1/19/18)
2018        Jan 19, The Philippines suspended sending workers to Kuwait, a day after President Rodrigo Duterte said abuse by employers there had driven several domestic helpers to suicide.
    (Reuters, 1/19/18)

2018        Jan 23, US-based Kimberly-Clark announced plans to cut more than 5,000 jobs in an attempt to lower costs as consumer demand for some of its core products declined with falling birth rates.
    (SFC, 1/24/18, p.C5)

2018        Jan 24, In France two-thirds of the country’s 188 prisons were being disrupted by work stoppages and pickets. The protests began on Jan. 12 after an al Qaeda convict jailed over killings in Tunisia stabbed and injured two wardens with a pair of scissors in northern France.
    (AP, 1/24/18)
2018        Jan 24, In Slovenia thousands of public sector workers in Ljubljana staged a one-day strike and protest demanding higher wages.
    (AP, 1/24/18)

2018        Jan 29, Australia’s government announced a strategy to create high-tech jobs and become one of the top 10 defense-industry-exporting countries within a decade through arms sales to liked-minded nations while also keeping those weapons from rogue regimes.
    (AP, 1/29/18)

2018        Jan 30, In France workers and some residents at nursing homes protested around the country in anger over staff shortages and cost cuts, pressing President Emmanuel Macron's government to rethink care for the elderly.
    (AP, 1/30/18)

2018        Feb 1, Industrial workers in Germany began a second day of 24-hour strikes over pay and working hours, affecting companies including carmakers VW and Ford .
    (Reuters, 2/1/18)

2018        Feb 2, Car factories across Germany were at a standstill as industrial workers staged a third day of 24-hour strikes, focusing on plants owned by Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Audi and BMW.
    (Reuters, 2/2/18)

2018        Feb 6, Germany's biggest industrial union and employers reached a wage deal that gives workers the equivalent of 3.5 percent annual raises over 27 months and the chance to work a 28-hour week for up to two years.
    (AP, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 7, British supermarket chain Tesco faced legal claims that it is paying women less than men for work of equal value, in a case that lawyers estimate could ultimately cost it as much as 4 billion pounds ($5.6 billion) in compensation payments.
    (AP, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 8, In Poland protesting doctors and health authorities signed a deal that will significantly increase spending on health care, including doctors' pay.
    (AP, 2/8/18)
2018        Feb 8, A spokeswoman for the Russian Foreign Ministry said North Korean workers can stay in Russia until Dec. 2019, in line with a United Nations' resolution.
    (Reuters, 2/8/18)

2018        Feb 11, The Philippine labor minister said more than 2,200 Filipinos are ready to take up Pres. Rodrigo Duterte's offer to repatriate workers from Kuwait due to reports of abuse.
    (Reuters, 2/11/18)

2018        Feb 12, Malaysian police said three members of a Malaysian family have been detained in the death of their Indonesian maid, who suffered injuries and was forced to sleep outside on a porch with the family's dog. Adelina Lisao (26) had died a day earlier. The alleged maid abuse prompted calls by activists and lawmakers for better laws to safeguard migrant workers.
    (AP, 2/12/18)   
2018        Feb 12, Slovenian police officers began a strike and nurses staged a two-hour walkout a day later. Last month about 30,000 public sector employees took to the streets calling for higher wages. Slovenia imposed restrictions on public sector wage hikes during a financial crisis in 2012. Not all of these have been lifted.
    (Reuters, 2/14/18)

2018        Feb 13, Kuwait's foreign minister condemned what he called an "escalation" by Manila after the Philippines expanded a ban on its nationals working in Kuwait.
    (AFP, 2/13/18)

2018        Feb 14, Most schools in Slovenia closed as some 40,000 teachers held a one-day strike, the latest in a week of protests by public sector workers demanding more pay amid stronger economic growth.
    (Reuters, 2/14/18)

2018        Feb 27, West Virginia teachers reached a deal with Gov. Jim Justice to end a four-day strike. Under the agreement teachers will receive 5% raises over a year. The state Senate soon cut the raise to 4% and the strike continued.
    (SFC, 2/28/18, p.A5)(SFC, 3/6/18, p.A6)

2018        Mar 6, West Virginia’s lawmakers ceded teachers a 5% pay raise ending a 9-day classroom walkout. The pay hikes were extended to all state workers.
    (SFC, 3/7/18, p.A4)
2018        Mar 6, Greek train routes were suspended for the day as railway workers staged a 24-hour strike to protest the privatization of the rolling stock maintenance company and a lack of staff.
    (AP, 3/6/18)

2018        Mar 12, In India tens of thousands of protesting farmers from Maharashtra state marched into the state capital of Mumbai to demand government support to address hardship in a sector that employs the majority of the country's workforce.
    (Reuters, 3/12/18)

2018        Mar 15, French pensioners and retirement home workers staged protests across the country, kicking off a series of strikes against Pres. Emmanuel Macron's reforms.
    (AFP, 3/15/18)

2018        Mar 16, The Philippine labor secretary said a ban on sending Filipinos to work in Kuwait will continue indefinitely after the nations failed to conclude a migrant labor protection pact. Later today a deal was signed in Manila after a meeting between a visiting Kuwaiti delegation and Filipino authorities.
    (AP, 3/16/18)(Reuters, 3/17/18)

2018        Mar 17, Tens of thousands of Spaniards rallied across the country to demand better pensions as unions accused the government of seeking to privatise retirement benefits.
    (AFP, 3/17/18)

2018        Mar 20, The European Union said that the right of citizens from poorer member states to work in richer ones on a low salary would be limited to 18 months under a reform of the bloc's labor laws sought by France.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 21, Spanish workers in the largest logistics center in Spain, owned by global e-commerce giant Amazon, began a 2-day strike over wages and overtime benefits.
    (AP, 3/21/18)
2018        Mar 21, The UN's International Labour Organization (ILO) launched a commission of inquiry into complaints that Venezuela is violating standards including freedom of association and workers' rights to organize.
    (Reuters, 3/21/18)

2018        Mar 22, In France tens of thousands of nurses, teachers and other public sector workers joined forces to march against President Emmanuel Macron's reforms, causing widespread travel disruption and bringing brief clashes with police in some cities.
    (Reuters, 3/22/18)

2018        Mar 27, Algerian doctors expanded a pay strike and teachers resumed one, putting pressure on President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and his prime minister at a time when resources are limited.
    (Reuters, 3/27/18)

2018        Mar 30, Air France staff went on strike for the third time in a month, forcing the airline to cancel a quarter of flights. Lawyers were also set to strike nationwide against reforms that they say will over-centralize France's court system.
    (AFP, 3/30/18)

2018        Mar 31, Workers at France's Carrefour supermarkets began striking to protest planned job cuts. The strike caused disruptions at about 300 Carrefour markets across the country.
    (AP, 3/31/18)

2018        Mar, US officials announced settlements with four Chinese construction firms to pay $14 million in back wages and damages to 2,400 affected workers in Saipan. The companies, contracted by Hong Kong's Imperial Pacific International, brought workers on tourist visas, paid them less than required by law and failed to secure proper work authorization by exploiting a visa waiver program that allows Chinese citizens to travel to the Northern Mariana Islands.
    (AP, 3/14/18)

2018        Apr 1, Qatar World Cup organizers said migrant workers building stadiums will receive more than $5 million in compensation after recruitment fees were demanded to secure employment in the Gulf nation.
    (AP, 4/1/18)

2018        Apr 2, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that car dealerships' service advisers, like car salesmen and mechanics, are exempt under federal law from overtime pay requirements.
    (SFC, 4/3/18, p.D3)

2018        Apr 3, French rail workers launched the first in a series of nationwide strikes, threatening disruption over several months in the sternest challenge yet to President Emmanuel Macron's resolve to modernize Europe's second biggest economy.
    (Reuters, 4/3/18)

2018        Apr 4, In France millions of commuters suffered a second consecutive day of travel chaos as striking rail workers locked horns with President Emmanuel Macron's government in a dispute over reforming the state-owned SNCF railways.
    (Reuters, 4/4/18)

2018        Apr 5, In France PM Edouard Philippe said the government would not back down in a shake-up of the state-owned SNCF railways, prompting accusations of arrogance from unions who said further strikes would go ahead as planned.
    (Reuters, 4/5/18)

2018        Apr 7, Air France cancelled hundreds of its flights as pilots, cabin crew and ground staff pursued a fifth day of strikes aimed at securing higher pay.
    (AFP, 4/7/18)

2018        Apr 8, In France travelers grappled with another crippling wave of transport strikes, as train workers protested President Emmanuel Macron's economic reforms and a stand-off between the government and rail unions hardened.
    (Reuters, 4/8/18)

2018        Apr 9, The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals court ruled that employers can't set different pay levels for women and men doing the same job by relying, even in part, on their salary at a previous job.
    (SFC, 4/10/18, p.C1)
2018        Apr 9, France's rail operator said that the rolling strikes against plans to overhaul the debt-laden company had already cost it around 100 million euros ($123 million) as the standoff between unions and the government dragged on.
    (AFP, 4/9/18)

2018        Apr 10, In France air traffic was severely disrupted as the country's biggest airline Air France was forced to cancel one in four flights, in the sixth round of strikes launched by its employees since February.
    (AFP, 4/10/18)
2018        Apr 10, In Germany tens of thousands of air passengers were stranded as workers at airlines Lufthansa staged strikes that crippled traffic.
    (AFP, 4/10/18)

2018        Apr 11, Striking Air France pilots and cabin staff insisted they weren't backing down, as their latest walkout forced the cancellation of some 30 percent of the airline's flights worldwide.
    (AP, 4/11/18)
2018        Apr 11, In Germany trade unions piled more pressure on public sector employers with a second day of nationwide wage strikes, as more than 25,000 workers staged walkouts at hospitals, childcare centers and waste depots.
    (Reuters, 4/11/18)

2018        Apr 12, French President Emmanuel Macron vowed that he would not back down on his plans to overhaul the state rail operator, urging workers to call off three months of strikes and pursue the reforms "together".
    (AP, 4/12/18)

2018        Apr 16, In Romania health workers protested pay cuts following government promises to hike salaries in the health care sector amid a general tax and wage overhaul.
    (AP, 4/16/18)

2018        Apr 17, Zimbabwe's government sacked the majority of 15,000 nurses who started industrial action this week shortly after doctors ended their month-long strike.
    (AFP, 4/19/18)

2018        Apr 18, Striking French rail staff halted train services for the seventh day this month in protest over a major shake-up of the state-owned railway company, but President Emmanuel Macron said he would not be cowed into retreat.
    (Reuters, 4/18/18)
2018        Apr 18, Greek ferries remained docked at the country's ports as seamen, marine engineers and ship cooks walked off the job for 24 hours to protest against planned government reforms which they say will further hurt their labor rights. The Panhellenic Seamen's Federation, announced in the afternoon it would extend the strike for a further 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 4/18/18)(AP, 4/18/18)

2018        Apr 19, In France thousands of people marched across the country to protest President Emmanuel Macron's labor law changes, as rail strikes and student protests continued to shake the country.
    (AP, 4/19/18)

2018        Apr 22, Zimbabwean nurses called off a strike against poor working conditions. a nurses union said they will return to work on April 23.
    (Reuters, 4/22/18)

2018        Apr 25, In South Africa several thousand South African union members marched in Johannesburg to protest a proposed national minimum wage of $1.60 per hour they called inadequate, accusing the government of being hostile to labor.
    (Reuters, 4/25/18)(AP, 4/25/18)

2018        Apr 26, In Romania thousands of health care workers protested wage cuts outside the government offices in Bucharest.
    (AP, 4/26/18)

2018        Apr 29, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte said that a ban on Filipino workers from heading to Kuwait that's been in effect since February would now be permanent.
    (AP, 4/29/18)
2018        Apr 29, Kuwait said it stands ready to cooperate with the Philippines to address labor issues facing Filipino workers, but would also "act decisively" against attempts to breach its sovereignty.
    (AP, 4/30/18)

2018        May 1, In France hundreds of demonstrators marched across Paris as part of May Day protests taking place in French cities to oppose economic policies pursued by President Emmanuel Macron. Some 109 people were taken into custody in Paris suspected of offenses including carrying prohibited weapons and firing projectiles after May Day protests.
    (AP, 5/1/18)(AP, 5/2/18)
2018        May 1, Tens of thousands of workers marched across Germany and Austria rallying for their rights in the face of globalization.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, Thousands of Greeks are marching through central Athens in at least three separate May Day demonstrations.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, In Indonesia about 10,000 workers from various labor groups rallied near the presidential palace in Jakarta to voice their demands.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, Hundreds of Iranians defied a ban on protests to mark International Labor Day, with police detaining at least six people.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, In Russia more than 100,000 people came out on the streets on Moscow to march in the traditional May Day parade.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, In South Korea thousands of labor union members rallied in downtown Seoul for a higher minimum wage and other demands.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, More than 70 cities across Spain held May Day marches calling for gender equality, higher salaries and pensions now that the country's economy is back on track.
    (AP, 5/1/18)
2018        May 1, In Turkey police detained dozens of demonstrators during May Day events around Istanbul, most of them protesters who tried to march toward the city's symbolic main square in defiance of a ban.
    (AP, 5/1/18)

2018        May 2, The Chinese state-backed documentary "Amazing China" portrayed the Huajian Group, which manufactured Ivanka Trump shoes, as a beneficent force spreading prosperity — in this case, by hiring thousands of Ethiopians at wages a fraction of what they'd have to pay in China. Huajian workers said they work without safety equipment for pay so low they can barely make ends meet.
    (AP, 5/2/18)

2018        May 3, Arizona-Gov. Doug Ducey signed a plan giving striking teachers a 19 percent pay raise over the next two years ending a five-day walkout.
    (SFC, 5/4/18, p.A6)
2018        May 3, The Palestinian Authority cut salaries for its staff in Gaza by 20 percent and failed to make up for skipping the previous month's pay, leaving civil servants in the impoverished territory fuming they were pawns in a factional power struggle. PA salaries in the other Palestinian territory, the Israeli-occupied West Bank, were paid in full.
    (Reuters, 5/3/18)
2018        May 3, In South Africa the Legal Resources Center said lawyers for gold miners who got lung diseases while working underground over many decades have reached a compensation agreement in their class action lawsuit against mining companies.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

2018        May 4, Online donations to help French rail workers topped one million euros, a month after they began rolling strikes over President Emmanuel Macron's drive to transform the heavily indebted state rail monopoly into a profit-making company.
    (Reuters, 5/4/18)

2018        May 7, Romanian health workers staged a two-hour strike to protest a government measure that has led to wage cuts for some employees while some medics saw their salaries doubled.
    (AP, 5/7/18)

2018        May 11, Kuwait and the Philippines signed a new agreement regarding Filipino laborer rights after the Philippines earlier banned its citizens from working there amid a diplomatic dispute.
    (AFP, 5/11/18)

2018        May 16, In North Carolina thousands of teachers filled the streets of Raleigh demanding better pay and more funding for public schools.
    (SFC, 5/17/18, p.A14)
2018        May 16, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte ordered the "total" lifting of a ban on Filipinos working in Kuwait after the two countries agreed on measures to regulate employment following a diplomatic row over alleged abuse of workers.
    (Reuters, 5/16/18)

2018        May 21, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 to allow employers to limit the ability of workers to band together in court to pursue redress for labor violations.
    (SFC, 5/22/18, p.A1)

2018        May 22, French public-sector employees joined rail workers in striking to protest reforms planned by President Emmanuel Macron, calling them an "attack" against civil services and their economic security.
    (AFP, 5/22/18)

2018        May 25, Thousands of Brazilian truckers angry over fuel price hikes blocked roads, the fifth day of a strike that led thousands of schools to shutter. The airport in Brasilia canceled flights as it ran out of fuel due to the strike.
    (AP, 5/25/18)(AFP, 5/25/18)
2018        May 25, French union officials said the government has agreed to absorb 35 billion euros in debt from the state railway SNCF, raising the chances of an end to nearly two months of strikes.
    (AFP, 5/25/18)

2018        May 26, France's main far left party, the hardline CGT trade union and some 80 other organizations, led several thousand people in street protests across the county against President Emmanuel Macron's reforms of the public sector.
    (Reuters, 5/26/18)

2018        May 28, A Brazil truckers' strike, paralyzing fuel and food deliveries across the country, entered an eighth day but with hopes of relief after unpopular President Michel Temer caved in to the strikers' key demand.
    (AFP, 5/28/18)

2018        May 29, Brazilian truckers frustrated by rising fuel prices struck for a ninth day in several states, though sporadic deliveries of gasoline and goods were starting to ease a shutdown that has led to widespread shortages and disturbances.
    (AP, 5/29/18)

2018        May 30, Brazilian oil workers began a 72-hour strike in a new blow to President Michel Temer following a nationwide trucker protest that has strangled Latin America's largest economy for over a week.
    (Reuters, 5/30/18)

2018        May 31, Brazil's economy showed signs of returning to normal, as the nation's largest oil workers association ended a strike well ahead of schedule and an 11-day truckers protest appeared to dissolve, except in the nation's far south.
    (Reuters, 5/31/18)
2018        May 31, In South Africa more than 100 support staff stopped work over the failure of Johannesburg's Charlotte Maxeke hospital, also known as Joburg General, to pay performance bonuses and overtime.
    (AFP, 5/31/18)

2018        Jun 6, In Jordan shops and pharmacies closed in Amman as some unions pressed ahead with a strike protesting against tax hikes, after King Abdullah replaced the prime minister to defuse public anger.
    (Reuters, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 13, France's biggest agriculture union told its farmers to suspend a blockade of refineries and fuel depots that had entered its third day over palm oil imports and unfair competition.
    (Reuters, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 14, British plane engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce said that it plans to cut 4,600 jobs over the next 2 years as part of a major restructuring effort.
    (AP, 6/14/18)
2018        Jun 14, Russia's PM Dmitry Medvedev said that the government wanted to raise the retirement age for men by five years, to 65 from 60, and for women by eight years, to 63 from 55 in an effort to ease intense pressure on state coffers.
    (Reuters, 6/25/18)
2018        Jun 14, In South Africa about 1,000 union members picketed Eskom's headquarters in Johannesburg in a wage dispute that threatens the cash-strapped utility's ability to deliver power.
    (Reuters, 6/14/18)

2018        Jun 15, A New York City taxi driver who spent 30 years behind the wheel hanged himself after running out of money to lease a vehicle. Abdul Saleh (59) was found dead in his rented Brooklyn room. The Yemeni immigrant was the sixth driver to kill himself in the past six months amid financial struggles while often working 12-hour shifts.
    (AP, 6/16/18)
2018        Jun 15, Japan's Cabinet adopted an economic plan that would allow more foreign workers as the rapidly aging country seeks to make up for its declining workforce.
    (AP, 6/15/18)

2018        Jun 19, The French Palace of Versailles, a top tourist attractions, and the Orsay museum in Paris were closed to visitors due to a strike of employees.
    (AP, 6/19/18)

2018        Jun 21, Health officials in Azerbaijan said that about 200 farm workers have been poisoned with chemicals while working in cotton fields.
    (AP, 6/21/18)

2018        Jun 25, Argentina's unions paralyzed the country with a 24-hour strike in protest at the government's latest deal with the International Monetary Fund.
    (AFP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jun 27, The US Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision barred public employee unions from collecting representation fees from nonmember workers.
    (SFC, 6/28/18, p.A1)

2018        Jun 28, Benin's Constitutional Court banned the right to strike by workers in the country's defence, security, justice and health sectors, sparking concern among union officials and legal observers.
    (AFP, 6/29/18)

2018        Jun 29, The BBC struck a deal with senior journalist Carrie Gracie and apologized for underpaying her. Gracie had quit her post to protest the British media company's gender pay gap.
    (AP, 6/29/18)

2018        Jul 5, A Brazilian Supreme Court justice ordered the suspension of labor minister Helton Yomura as part of a corruption investigation.
    (AP, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 12, Iraqi police fired into the air to disperse protesters demanding jobs and better public services at one of three demonstrations outside major oilfields in the southern oil hub of Basra.
    (Reuters, 7/12/18)

2018        Jul 13, In Iraq about 100 protesters demanding jobs and better services from leaders closed access to Umm Qasr commodities port near the southern city of Basra.
    (Reuters, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 15, Iraqis demanding better public services and jobs took to the streets for the sixth day in the southern oil-rich province of Basra, as authorities put security forces on high alert and blocked the internet in the country's Shiite heartland. Dozens of demonstrators were wounded. The internet was off service across the country for a second consecutive day and foreign airlines announced the suspension of flights.
    (AP, 7/15/18)(AFP, 7/15/18)

2018        Jul 17, Amazon workers in Germany and Spain called for strikes over salary and working conditions to coincide with the online retailer's global sales event, Prime Day.
    (AP, 7/17/18)

2018        Jul 19, Russian lawmakers tentatively approved a hugely unpopular government plan to raise the pension age to 65 for men and 63 for women. The plan has led to protests and a record slump in Vladimir Putin's approval ratings.
    (AFP, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 20, Russian President Vladimir Putin said a plan to raise the retirement age would be reviewed, signaling a retreat from a reform that is needed to balance state finances but which has hurt his popularity.
    (Reuters, 7/20/18)

2018        Jul 26, In Spain tourists arriving in Barcelona faced long lines and jam-packed buses and subways as the city's taxis went on strike for a second day.
    (AP, 7/26/18)

2018        Jul 28, In Spain taxi drivers in Madrid went on strike in solidarity with Barcelona cabbies protesting against "unfair competition" from Uber and Cabify.
    (AP, 7/28/18)

2018        Jul 29, In Russia thousands protested in central Moscow against a proposed increase to the retirement age and the crowd chanted slogans critical of President Vladimir Putin whose approval ratings have been dented by the bill.
    (Reuters, 7/29/18)

2018        Jul 30, Workers at South Africa's high-speed Gautrain went on strike over pay affecting services to the country's main airport, the capital Pretoria and commercial hub Johannesburg that caters for business commuters.
    (Reuters, 7/30/18)
2018        Jul 30, Spanish taxi drivers blocked major city streets including Barcelona's Gran Via and Madrid's Castellana in a protest to pressure the government to curb licenses to online ride-hailing services such as Uber.
    (Reuters, 7/30/18)

2018        Aug 2, Guinea-Bissau PM Aristide Gomes said public-sector workers have secured a pay increase. The strike, launched on July 24, ended after the government agreed to increase minimum monthly pay from 19,200 CFA francs ($33.91, 29.28 euros) to 50,000 francs from September.
    (AFP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 3, Russia denied a report by the Wall Street Journal that said Moscow was allowing thousands of fresh North Korean laborers into the country and granting them new work permits in potential violation of UN sanctions. Russia said fresh documents had been issued to laborers already based in Russia who were working on old contracts.
    (Reuters, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 7, Italy's Senate approved a decree curbing temporary job contracts and penalizing firms that move production abroad, passing the first major legislation by the new government.
    (Reuters, 8/7/18)

2018        Aug 8, In southern Italy hundreds of crop pickers and labor union activists marched from a shanty town to protest what they say is the exploitation of migrant farmworkers. 16 farmworkers were killed on Aug 4 and Aug 6 while riding in vans that collided with trucks.
    (AP, 8/8/18)
2018        Aug 8, Workers seized partial control of the headquarters of the UN agency for Palestinian refugees in Hamas-run Gaza, accusing their union of "mutiny" over job cuts.
    (AFP, 8/8/18)

2018        Aug 10, Ryanair pilots in several European countries staged a strike over work conditions that prompted the budget carrier to cancel 400 flights. Walkouts called by German and Belgian unions accounted for many of the cancelations, with strikes also called in Sweden and Ireland.
    (AP, 8/10/18)

2018        Aug 13, Workers at South Africa's high-speed train service that mainly caters for business commuters ended a two-week strike over pay after reaching a 12-month agreement with their employer.
    (Reuters, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 17, Chilean miners at the world's biggest copper mine, Escondida, signed an agreement with Anglo-Australian owners BHP to avoid a strike announced two weeks ago when unions rejected as insufficient a proposed salary hike.
    (AFP, 8/17/18)

2018        Aug 22, In Croatia some 4,500 workers at the country's largest shipbuilding group Uljanik went on strike and called for management to step down in protest over late payment.
    (Reuters, 8/22/18)

2018        Aug 27, In Croatia hundreds of workers from two major shipyards protested in Zagreb over unpaid wages and working conditions.
    (AP, 8/27/18)

2018        Aug 28, US federal immigration agents raided Load Trail Trailers in Sumner, Texas, and arrested 160 workers following a tip that the company was hiring illegal workers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9t5wpmh)(SFC, 8/30/18, p.A5)

2018        Aug 30, Pres. Donald Trump informed Congress that he is cancelling pay raises due in January for most civilian federal employees, citing budget constraints.
    (SFC, 8/31/18, p.A6)

2018        Aug 27, Ethiopian air traffic controllers began a strike after disputes over pay and calls for more employment benefits. Their average monthly salary was around $540.
    (AP, 9/1/18)

2018        Sep 3, Greek ships remained docked at the country's ports as seamen started a strike to demand the restoration of wages and labor rights, following the expiry of Greece's third bailout program last month. The strike has left tens of thousands of travelers stranded on the country's popular island destinations.
    (Reuters, 9/3/18)(AP, 9/3/18)
2018        Sep 3, In South Africa workers from the mainly-white Solidarity union staged a go-slow protest at the petrochemicals firm Sasol over a share scheme offered exclusively to black staff, and said they would begin a full strike on September 6.
    (AP, 9/3/18)

2018        Sep 4, Greek ferry crews have ended a strike that left tens of thousands of travelers and islanders stranded for more than a day after ferry operators offered them a 2-percent pay increase after an eight-year freeze because of Greece's debt crisis.
    (AP, 9/4/18)

2018        Sep 5, In India thousands of farmers and laborers paralyzed central New Delhi in a protest against what they called the anti-people policies of PM Narendra Modi's government, as opposition parties step up pressure ahead of key elections.
    (Reuters, 9/5/18)

2018        Sep 12, Irish budget carrier Ryanair was defiant as dozens of flights were disrupted in a walkout by German pilots and cabin crew, the latest flare-up in a bitter Europe-wide battle for better pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 14, In Costa Rica a labor strike that went into its fifth day with no apparent end in sight. The government was struggling with a deficit estimated at 7.1 percent of GDP this year, which has pushed up the public debt load and increased its need for revenue.
    (AP, 9/15/18)
2018        Sep 14, Turkish security forces fired tear gas at construction workers at Istanbul's new airport who were protesting dangerous working conditions at the site as it prepares to open for business next month.
    (AFP, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 15, Turkish unions said hundreds of workers on the construction site of Istanbul's third airport, one of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's mega development projects, have been arrested for protesting at the number of work-related deaths and poor conditions.
    (AFP, 9/15/18)
2018        Sep 15, Turkey freed 160 workers late today out of almost 600 who were arrested following a protest over work-related deaths and poor conditions at the construction site for Istanbul's third airport.
    (AFP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 17, Turkish activists and the opposition expressed outrage after a court jailed 24 workers ahead of a trial over their actions in protests against labor conditions at Istanbul's giant new airport.
    (AFP, 9/19/18)

2018        Sep 18, South Africa's largest trade union federation elected a woman president, a first for the 33-year-old labor movement that helped lead the fight against apartheid. Zingiswa Losi (42) was nominated unopposed at an annual meeting of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu).
    (AFP, 9/18/18)

2018        Sep 24, Staff at the United Nations agency for Palestinian refugees went on strike in the Gaza Strip to protest against job losses and US funding cuts.
    (AFP, 9/24/18)

2018        Sep 25, In India the relatives of thousands of workers who died cleaning sewers protested in New Delhi, aiming to stop the practice of workers entering underground conduits to unclog drains and remove waste with their bare hands.
    (Reuters, 9/25/18)

2018        Sep 26, Amnesty International reported that a contractor involved in building infrastructure around the marquee stadium for Qatar's hosting of the 2022 World Cup did not pay its workers, leaving them stranded thousands of miles from home.
    (AP, 9/26/18)

2018        Sep 28, Dublin-based Ryanair canceled scores of European flights, but downplayed the impact of the strike. Unions hoped the strike would be the biggest in the airline's history. A key complaint of workers based in countries other than Ireland is the fact that Ryanair has been employing them under Irish legislation.
    (AFP, 9/28/18)

2018        Oct 1, Slovenian police resumed their strike for higher wages, less then three weeks after a new minority center-left government led by PM Marjan Sarec took power following a June parliamentary election.
    (Reuters, 10/1/18)

2018        Oct 2, Amazon said it is boosting its minimum wage for all US workers to $15 per hour starting next month and said it will push for an increase in the federally mandated minimum wage, which now stands at $7.25 per hour.
    (AP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, German ministers said the government will ease immigration rules to attract foreign jobseekers, including giving well-integrated, irregular migrants who are employed a shot at staying in the country to combat a fast-ageing worker shortage.
    (AFP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, In Morocco a long-awaited law aimed at protecting thousands of young girls working as housemaids took effect, the country's first such legislation. The law sets a minimum age of 18 for household work. It allowed 16-17 year-olds to work as domestic helpers for a further five years until October 2023.
    (AFP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, Workers for the UN agency for Palestinian refugees went on strike to protest job cuts due to a funding crisis sparked by US President Donald Trump's aid cancellation.
    (AP, 10/2/18)
2018        Oct 2, In Poland more than 20,000 policemen, firemen, border and prison guards gathered in Warsaw to decry "outrageous" working conditions and demand pay rises, in what they described as the biggest protest in Polish police history.
    (Reuters, 10/2/18)

2018        Oct 4, In San Francisco almost 2,500 hotel workers began a strike that spanned seven Marriott hotels. On Dec. 3 the hotel workers finally approved a new contract.
    (SFC, 12/4/18, p.A1)

2018        Oct 9, In Britain drivers for taxi-sharing app Uber went on strike, demanding higher fares and improved workers' rights and urging users not to cross the digital picket line by ordering rides.
    (AFP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 11, Zimbabwe police arrested dozens of trade union members ahead of a planned protest in the capital over the worst economic crisis in a decade. Police arrested Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions members in Harare and the cities of Mutare and Masvingo. The government banned the protest, citing an ongoing cholera outbreak.
    (AP, 10/11/18)

2018        Oct 22, Canada Post workers went on a rotating strike, affecting mail deliveries in four cities after nearly one year of stalled contract negotiations.
    (AFP, 10/22/18)

2018        Oct 24, Poland's national airline LOT cancelled some flights as some crew members struck to protest layoffs and demand better working conditions. Almost 70 flight crew members have been fired for participating in the strike that started Oct. 18 and that the management says is illegal.
    (AP, 10/24/18)

2018        Oct 26, In Belgium hundreds of passengers were left stranded at Brussels international airport after luggage handlers went on strike over workload and pay demands.
    (AP, 10/26/18)
2018        Oct 26, In Italy travelers and commuters faced delays as several national trade unions staged a 24-hour strike, disrupting transport services as well as some public schools.
    (Reuters, 10/26/18)

2018        Oct 28, A long-awaited reform of Qatar's controversial exit visa system, which requires foreign workers to obtain their bosses' permission to leave the country, came into force.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)

2018        Oct 29, In Belgium a strike by baggage handlers disrupted flights to and from the main airport for a fifth day.
    (AP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 29, In Guinea a "dead city" strike call by the opposition largely emptied the streets of the capital Conakry, with no solution in sight to a pay dispute in the education sector.
    (AFP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 29, In Myanmar dozens of striking workers from a Chinese-owned garment factory marched to a government compound in Yangon, demanding to meet the city’s chief minister, as part of efforts to get sacked colleagues reinstated.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)

2018        Oct 31, In Belgium unions and management found agreement to end a six-day strike by baggage handlers that has disrupted flights to and from the main airport for part of the autumn holiday season.
    (AP, 10/31/18)

2018        Sep, Qatar approved legislation to scrap the "kafala", or sponsorship, system which required that foreign workers obtain permission from their employers to leave the country. In October it went into force for all but five percent of a company's workforce.
    (AFP, 4/26/19)

2018        Nov 2, The US Trade Representative's Office (USTR) said President Donald Trump intends to end trade benefits for Mauritania on Jan. 1 for not making sufficient progress on ending forced labor practices.
    (Reuters, 11/3/18)

2018        Nov 5, In Poland a North Korean worker who claims he is a victim of modern slavery in a Polish shipyard filed a criminal complaint against a Dutch shipbuilder that bought products from the Polish firm. Dutch lawyer Barbara van Straaten filed the case on the worker's behalf.
    (AP, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 8, Canadian aerospace and transportation manufacturer Bombardier announced 5,000 global job cuts over the next year to 18 months in a bid to "streamline" the struggling firm.
    (AFP, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 9, Romania's government passed an emergency ordinance that will create two different levels for the minimum national wage. The minimum monthly salary will be 2,080 lei ($507) starting Jan.1, while those with higher education qualifications or 15 years of employment are guaranteed 2,350 lei ($573).
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 13, In China students and alumni of several Chinese universities sounded the alarm over the apparent detention of more than a dozen young labor activists who have been missing since the weekend. They were involved in a coalition, led by young Marxist activists, that was founded this summer to show solidarity with factory workers at Jasic Technology, a welding equipment manufacturer in southern China.
    (AP, 11/14/18)

2018        Nov 16, A senior North Korean official on a visit to South Korea called for Japan to apologize for the wartime forced labor of thousands of Koreans.
    (AP, 11/16/18)

2018        Nov 18, Iran's state-run IRNA news agency reported that the country's authorities have detained four workers protesting not having been paid their salaries for months in the southwestern province of Khuzestan.
    (AP, 11/18/18)

2018        Nov 22, Portuguese police in riot gear broke up a picket line of striking stevedores in the port of Setubal to clear the way for strikebreakers hired to resume shipments of cars made at a nearby Volkswagen plant nearby. Thousands of cars have piled up at the port and at the Volkswagen Autoeuropa plant since the strike began on Nov. 5, forcing the manufacturer to cancel seven shipments.
    (Reuters, 11/22/18)
2018        Nov 22, Tunisian civil servants staged the largest general strike in five years after their powerful trade union failed to secure wage hikes in tense negotiations with the government.
    (AFP, 11/22/18)

2018        Nov 23, Unions in Britain said they would stage protests at five sites to complain about safety conditions. In Germany, workers walked off the job at Amazon distribution centers in Rheinberg and Bad Hersfeld as part of a years-long push for higher pay. In Spain Labor groups representing workers at Amazon said that around 90 percent of workers at a logistics depot near Madrid joined a walkout.
    (AP, 11/23/18)

2018        Nov 26, Detroit-based General Motors said it will lay off 14,700 factory and white-collar workers in North America and put five plants up for possible closure as it restructures to cut costs and focus more on autonomous and electric vehicles.
    (AP, 11/26/18)
2018        Nov 26, Trains stopped running across Austria as last-minute pay negotiations failed to avert a planned two-hour strike, disrupting travel for 100,000 travelers in Europe.
    (Reuters, 11/26/18)
2018        Nov 26, South Africa's President Cyril Ramaphosa signed into law the national minimum wage bill, part of efforts by the government to tackle wage inequality in Africa's most industrialized economy. The National Minimum Wage Act sets South Africa's minimum wage at 20 rand ($1.45) an hour, equal to 3,500 rand per month.
    (Reuters, 11/26/18)

2018        Nov 28, In Greece train and island ferry services were suspended and most Athens public transport was idle as the country's biggest labor union held a strike against persisting austerity measures.
    (AP, 11/28/18)

2018        Nov 29, Hundreds of Bulgarian coal miners and energy workers protested to demand government guarantees that their jobs will be preserved amid bids by the European Union to close mines and tackle climate change. 150,000 jobs were reportedly at risk.
    (AP, 11/29/18)
2018        Nov 29, South Korea's top court ordered Japanese company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to financially compensate 10 Koreans for forced labor during Tokyo's 1910-45 colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula, in the second such ruling in a month that again drew quick, vehement protests from Japan.
    (AP, 11/29/18)
2018        Nov 29, In Spain thousands of Catalan civil servants joined strikes and ongoing protests by students and health workers to demand more funding and better working conditions.
    (AP, 11/29/18)

2018        Nov 26, Japanese police arrested 11 Chinese nationals in northern Japan for allegedly working at a construction site without passports or proper visas. Officials looked for 46 other Chinese who disappeared from the construction site after the arrests.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 4, Doctors in Sierra Leone's public hospitals began a strike to protest against low wages and poor working conditions. Nurses said they may follow suit.
    (Reuters, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 5, Britain's High Court has ruled that Deliveroo riders do not have the right to collective bargaining, the latest in a series of rulings as U.K. courts grappled with the rise of the so-called "gig economy".
    (AP, 12/5/18)
2018        Dec 5, It was reported that Croatia is suffering a severe labor shortage, most glaringly in its booming seaside tourist resorts, that is compounding obstacles to economic growth and dimming hopes of catching up to more developed EU peers.
    (Reuters, 12/5/18)
2018        Dec 5, French trade unions and farmers pledged to join nationwide protests against President Emmanuel Macron, as concessions by the government failed to stem the momentum of the most violent demonstrations France has seen in decades.
    (AP, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 6, France's PM Edouard Philippe said he was open to new measures to benefit workers on the lowest salaries, as the government scrambled to head off another round of 'yellow vest' protests in Paris this weekend.
    (Reuters, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 7, Mexico's Supreme Court suspended a new law that cuts public sector pay, freezing it until the tribunal has made a definitive ruling on the legislation, and dealing a blow to President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador.
    (Reuters, 12/8/18)
2018        Dec 7, In Portugal a walkout by rail workers over pay disrupted train services amid a spate of strikes by government employees.
    (AP, 12/7/18)
2018        Dec 7, Qatar paid the salaries of nearly 30,000 Gazan civil servants, delighting the impoverished workers but angering some in the deeply divided Palestinian leadership who balked at the intervention of a foreign power.
    (Reuters, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 8, Hungarian trade unions protested a government plan to raise workers' allowable overtime from 250 to 400 hours a year and the relaxing of other labor rules meant to offset Hungary's growing labor shortage.
    (AP, 12/8/18)
2018        Dec 8, Japanese lawmakers approved government-proposed legislation allowing hundreds of thousands of foreign laborers to live and work in a country that has long resisted accepting outsiders.
    (AP, 12/8/18)

2018        Dec 10, In Germany a four-hour strike affected more than 1,400 trains nationwide, hitting long-distance traffic and also metro rail systems in Berlin, Munich, Hannover and Frankfurt. The EVG labor union called the so-called "warning strike" to put pressure on Deutsche Bahn after wage negotiations broke off on Dec. 8 without an agreement.
    (AP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 11, Six Cambodian union leaders each received suspended 2 1/2-year prison terms in connection with labor protests in January, 2014, in which four garment workers were killed and around 20 others hurt.
    (AP, 12/11/18)

2018        Dec 12, In Hungary rare scenes of chaos gripped the parliament as it passed a controversial judicial reform, as well as labor legislation that critics call a "slave law".
    (AFP, 12/12/18)

2018        Dec 16, Iranian authorities detained an unspecified number of steel mill workers after five weeks of protests over delays in salaries in Khuzestan province.
    (AP, 12/17/18)

2018        Dec 18, Mexico's Pres. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said his new government is increasing minimum wages across the country by 16 percent and doubling the minimum wage in a narrow stretch of territory along the border with the US. The minimum is currently equivalent to $4.40 per day, and will rise to $5.10 in January.
    (AP, 12/18/18)
2018        Dec 18, The US government said that it is reviewing reports of forced labor at a Chinese internment camp where ethnic minorities are sewing clothes that have been shipped to the US market.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2018        Dec 20, Hungary's Pres. Janos Ader said he has signed into law disputed amendments to labor rules which greatly increase overtime hours employers can request from workers.
    (AP, 12/20/18)

2018        Dec 21, In Hungary at least 5,000 demonstrators took to the streets of the Budapest late today, as rightwing nationalist PM Viktor Orban dismissed a wave of protests against a new labor reform as "hysterical shouting".
    (AFP, 12/21/18)
2018        Dec 21, Spanish PM Pedro Sanchez decreed a 22 percent rise in the minimum wage, the biggest in four decades, and a move that could strengthen his grip on power but defies warnings that it could worsen unemployment.
    (Reuters, 12/21/18)

2018        Dec 22, Britain's Beefeater guards at the Tower of London switched their traditional red uniforms for yellow vests as they went on strike with staff at other historic sites over pensions.
    (AFP, 12/22/18)

2019        Jan 3, In Spain workers at Amazon's biggest local warehouse started a two-day strike just ahead of a gift-giving feast day, as part of a long-running campaign for better pay and conditions.
    (Reuters, 1/3/19)

2019        Jan 4, Zimbabwe's government said it has begun laying off 3,365 workers from its youth ministry, as it tries to make good on its promise to cut the bloated civil service and sort out the country's finances.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)

2019        Jan 5, In Hungary thousands marched through Budapest's city center to protest against a new law that allows employers to ask staff to work up to 400 hours per year of overtime.
    (Reuters, 1/5/19)

2019        Jan 9, Bangladesh police fired tear gas and swung batons as thousands of garment workers demonstrated for better wages for a fourth day. One protester was fatally shot and three dozen others were injured in clashes with police.
    (AP, 1/9/19)
2019        Jan 9, India's upper house of Parliament approved a bill providing a 10 percent quota in government jobs for the poor members of upper castes who have been excluded from existing quotas for low-ranking castes. The bill now only needs the approval of India's president, a formality, to become law.
    (AP, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 10, Baton-wielding Bangladeshi police fired tear gas to break up thousands of garment workers demonstrating for higher wages for a fifth day, forcing dozens of factories to close.
    (Reuters, 1/10/19)
2019        Jan 10, In France ride-hailing giant Uber lost an appeal brought by a former driver who wanted his terms of employment recognized as a fully-fledged work contract.
    (AFP, 1/11/19)
2019        Jan 10, In Germany almost 640 flights were cancelled as security staff went on strike at three airports, meaning disruption for around 100,000 passengers.
    (AFP, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 11, Greek police fired teargas to disperse hundreds of teachers protesting against government plans to change hiring procedures in the public sector.
    (Reuters, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 13, Bangladesh's commerce minister said local garment manufacturers have agreed to raise workers' pay, urging people to return to work after a week of violent demonstrations. At least 20 people were hurt when police used teargas and water cannons to disperse workers blocking a major highway in the Ashulia garment manufacturing belt, on the outskirts of the capital Dhaka.
    (Reuters, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 17, In Greece striking school teachers and other civil servants shut down central Athens for hours during a protest of new hiring criteria for teachers that were under consideration in parliament.
    (AP, 1/17/19)
2019        Jan 17, Romanian coal miners ended a weeklong strike after the energy minister offered them wage hikes and other perks.
    (AP, 1/17/19)
2019        Jan 17, A public sector strike brought Tunisia to a standstill as workers heeded calls from a powerful trade union to stay home over demands for wage hikes and economic reforms.
    (AFP, 1/17/19)

2019        Jan 18, Los Angeles teachers picketed and rallied for a 5th day as contract negotiations continued.
    (SFC, 1/19/19, p.A8)

2019        Jan 22, In Spain taxi drivers striking to demand tighter regulations for companies using ride-hailing apps blocked traffic for another day in Madrid and Barcelona, while threatening to take their protest to the French border.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        Jan 23, Spanish taxi drivers demanding more regulations for app-based ride-hailing services blocked access to a trade exhibition center in Madrid where a major tourism fair began.
    (AP, 1/23/19)

2019        Jan 28, Greece announced plans to return to bond markets and increase the minimum wage, amid protests against bailout-era measures by farmers who used tractors to block the country's main highway. PM Alexis Tsipras announced an 11-percent rise in the minimum wage, the first after a decade of austerity and months ahead of legislative elections.
    (AP, 1/28/19)(AFP, 1/28/19)

2019        Jan 30, Sweden's state employment agency said it would lay off a third of its own workers, in the first sign of budget cuts and reforms under a newly-formed government propped up by two center-right parties.
    (Reuters, 1/30/19)
2019        Jan 30, Taiwan-based Foxconn Technology Group said it is shifting the focus of its planned Wisconsin campus away from blue-collar manufacturing to a research hub, while insisting it remains committed to creating 13,000 jobs as promised.
    (AP, 1/30/19)

2019        Jan 31, Bangladesh activist Kalpona Akter said more than 5,000 workers who demanded higher wages have been fired by factory owners, and hundreds faced police charges in the world's second-largest garment export industry after China.
    (AP, 1/31/19)

2019        Feb 5, Indonesian police found 193 Bangladeshis locked up in a shop house in Medan on the island of Sumatra, after human traffickers had lured them with the promise of getting them to Malaysia. Some of the group had been held by the traffickers for three months.
    (Reuters, 2/7/19)
2019        Feb 5, In Sri Lanka food importers and wholesalers shut their shops in Colombo to demand the government resolve a "work to rule" action by custom officials at the island nation's main seaport.
    (AP, 2/5/19)
2019        Feb 5, Some Zimbabwean teachers stayed at home while others went slow on the job as an indefinite strike at state schools got off to a patchy start amid fears of further intimidation by security forces who cracked down hard on protests last month.
    (Reuters, 2/5/19)

2019        Feb 6, In Congo DRC stoppages that hit transport, a key port, television, insurance and the fire service continuing as Pres. Tshisekedi visited Kenya on his first foreign tour.
    (AFP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 7, Portugal's Health Minister Marta Temido announced that the government has decided to order a so-called civil requisition, whereby workers in essential services are required by law to report for duty in "exceptionally serious" circumstances.
    (AP, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 8, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) said a nationwide experiment with basic income in Finland has not increased employment among those participating in the two-year trial, but their general well-being seems to have increased.
    (AP, 2/8/19)
2019        Feb 8, Pilots from Taiwan's China Airlines went on strike in the middle of the Lunar New Year travel rush, forcing the cancellation of at least 18 flights over coming days and stranding thousands of passengers.
    (AP, 2/8/19)

2019        Feb 10, A strike among pilots at Taiwan's flag carrier China Airlines dragged into a third day, resulting in further flight cancellations.
    (AP, 2/10/19)

2019        Feb 11, Teachers in Denver went on strike for the first time in 25 years over the district's incentive-based pay system. Teachers returned to their classrooms on Feb 14 after their union reached a tentative deal raising their pay as much as 11 percent.
    (SFC, 2/12/19, p.A5)(SFC, 2/15/19, p.A6)

2019        Feb 13, In South Africa thousands of workers staged nationwide demonstrations to protest against high unemployment and government policies they say have failed to create jobs and are deepening poverty.
    (AFP, 2/13/19)

2019        Feb 14, South African gold mining giant Sibanye-Stillwater announced plans to shed more than 6,000 jobs, or 10 percent of its workforce, from underperforming gold mines.
    (AFP, 2/14/19)

2019        Feb 20, Moroccan police fired water cannons at protesting teachers who were marching toward a royal palace and beat people with truncheons amid demonstrations around Rabat. Morocco now sees an average of 48 protests daily, according to the ministry for human rights.
    (AP, 2/20/19)
2019        Feb 20, The leader of one of Portugal's main nurses' unions started a hunger strike after prosecutors declared unlawful a crippling three-week-long walkout by surgical nurses and threatened to impose penalties on those still taking part.
    (Reuters, 2/20/19)

2019        Feb 21, China announced new measures against gender discrimination in Chinese workplaces that forbid employers from asking potential female hires questions such as if they are married or have children.
    (AP, 2/22/19)
2019        Feb 21, Hundreds of workers in Port Sudan continued a days-long strike against the transfer of its vital container terminal. Workers opposed Khartoum's decision to transfer control of the port's container terminal to a Philippine company, International Container Terminal Services Inc. (ICTSI).
    (AFP, 2/21/19)

2019        Mar 2, In Germany union and government negotiators reached a new wage agreement late today that will give more than a million public servants a nearly 8 percent pay increase over 33 months.
    (AP, 3/3/19)

2019        Mar 3, Teachers in Oakland, Ca., approved a new contract ending their 7-day strike. They won salary increases and concessions on class sizes and staff workloads.
    (SFC, 3/4/19, p.C1)

2019        Mar 5, In South Africa growing unrest at Sibanye-Stillwater's gold operations has left nine people dead since workers downed tools in November, prompting the country's mines minister to call on the police to step in and protect the local community.
    (Reuters, 3/5/19)

2019        Mar 7, Eurostar trains from Paris to London were running up to two hours late and trucks stacked up on the approaches to the Channel port of Calais as French customs officers staged the fourth day of a work-to-rule strike.
    (AFP, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 8, In Portugal thousands of nurses marched through Lisbon in a show of unity to demand better pay and working conditions and protest the government's poor handling of the long-running dispute.
    (Reuters, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 14, Greece reported that its unemployment rate, the highest in the 28-country European Union, climbed slightly to 18.7 percent in the final quarter of 2018.
    (AP, 3/14/19)

2019        Mar 30, Egypt President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi said he has raised the minimum wage to 2,000 Egyptian pounds ($115.74) per month from 1,200 ($69.27).
    (AP, 3/30/19)

2019        Apr 1, The Pacific Daily News reported that More than 350 Philippine workers have been approved by the government of Guam to work at projects on the island.
    (AP, 4/2/19)

2019        Apr 9, Bank of America CEO Brian Moynihan said that bank plans to raise its minimum wage to $20 an hour from $15 over the next two years.
    (SFC, 4/10/19, p.D1)

2019        Apr 16, Portugal declared an emergency crisis late today, ordering drivers to get back on the road immediately to ensure supplies to essential services. PM Antonio Costa's government ordered striking fuel-tanker drivers to supply essential services such as hospitals and airports, and to provide a minimum amount to fuel stations, but the decree did not seem to be fully heeded.
    (Reuters, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 17, Energy shortages in Portugal sharpened as a strike by fuel-tanker drivers entered its third day in the worst industrial unrest of the Socialist government's four-year rule.
    (Reuters, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 18, In Portugal truckers ended their walkout after their employers agreed to start new talks later this month.
    (AP, 4/18/19)

2019        Apr 26, In Brussels thousands of trade union members protested outside EU headquarters to demand better working conditions and protections for employees after next month's EU-wide elections.
    (AP, 4/26/19)
2019        Apr 26, The UN's International Labour Organization said Qatar is set to abolish its controversial exit visa system for all foreign workers by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 4/26/19)

2019        Apr 26, Scandinavian airline SAS pilots went on strike as wage talks broke down, grounding around 70 percent of the airline's flights and hitting some 170,000 people over the weekend alone. SAS is part-owned by the Swedish and Danish governments.
    (Reuters, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 27, Scandinavian airline SAS canceled hundreds of flights scheduled for April 28 as a pilot strike entered its second day, disrupting the travel plans of tens of thousands of passengers.
    (Reuters, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 28, Scandinavian Airlines (SAS), the flag carrier of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, announced further flight cancellations for the next week on the third day of a pilots strike as the parties have failed to resume talks on a new collective bargaining agreement.
    (AP, 4/28/19)

2019        May 1, Tunisia raised the minimum wage for industrial and farm workers, as well as pensions for hundreds of thousands of private-sector retirees, by 6.5 percent, a move aimed at defusing discontent about economic hardship.
    (Reuters, 5/2/19)

2019        May 2, In Tunisia fuel distribution workers began a three-day strike to demand higher wages, leading to long queues and empty pumps at petrol stations across the North African nation.
    (Reuters, 5/2/19)

2019        May 3, Tunisia ordered the army to transport fuel to petrol stations on the second day of a strike by fuel distribution workers that has caused empty pumps and long queues across the country.
    (Reuters, 5/3/19)

2019        May 5, In Lebanon hundreds of foreign domestic workers demonstrated in Beirut to demand the scrapping of a sponsorship system that they complain leaves them open to abuse from employers.
    (AFP, 5/05/19)

2019        May 7, The New York University Stern Center for Business and Human Rights reported that Ethiopian garment factory workers are now, on average, the lowest paid in any major garment-producing company worldwide. The head of Ethiopia's Investment Commission questioned the report's monthly pay figure of $26 per month: "That is a basic salary but in Ethiopia the factories also provide a workplace meal and other services".
    (AP, 5/07/19)
2019        May 7, Employees at the Central Bank of Lebanon suspended their open-ended strike for three days, saying they hope their wages and benefits will not be cut.
    (AP, 5/07/19)

2019        May 9, French unions held strikes and protests against 120,000 job cuts and other deep changes to France's huge public sector by Pres. Emmanuel Macron's government.
    (AP, 5/09/19)

2019        May 10, Portugal's parliament rejected proposed retroactive pay hikes for teachers, quelling the prospects of a political crisis following last week's threat by the government to resign if the measure was approved.
    (Reuters, 5/10/19)

2019        May 14, The US National Labor Relations Board issued a memorandum concluding that Uber drivers are contractors, not employees.
    (SFC, 5/15/19, p.D1)
2019        May 14, Officials data showed that South Africa's unemployment rate has risen by half a percentage point to 27.6 percent.
    (AFP, 5/14/19)

2019        May 22, An appeals court in Thailand upheld a 10 million baht ($313,000) judgment against British activist Andy Hall, who was sued by a fruit canning company whose workers complained of alleged labor abuses. The case was one of several stemming from a 2013 report Hall researched for Finnish consumer organization Finnwatch that included allegations by migrant workers from Myanmar at Natural Fruit's canning operation that the company abused them and broke labor regulations.
    (AP, 5/22/19)

2019        May 28, In the Netherlands around 80 flights to and from Amsterdam Schiphol were canceled as a 24-hr nationwide public transport strike made it hard for passengers and staff to get to Europe's third largest airport.
    (Reuters, 5/28/19)

2019        May 29, A nationwide strike in Argentina protesting austerity measures under President Mauricio Macri brought the country's airports to a standstill and halted work at key grains ports, the latest sign of tension in the recession-hit nation.
    (Reuters, 5/29/19)

2019        May 27, In France workers at a northern factory that makes a quarter of the world's Nutella began striking for more pay. The Villers-Ecalles factory is privately-owned Italian confectionery giant Ferrero.
    (AFP, 6/3/19)

2019        Jun 12, French PM Edouard Philippe said the government would create incentives for workers to stay on the job longer than the current minimum legal retirement age of 62.
    (Reuters, 6/12/19)

2019        Jun 13, The Slovak capital Bratislava won the right to host a new European Union agency to oversee the labor market that is due to start operating this autumn.
    (Reuters, 6/13/19)

2019        Jun 18, Chilean police fired rubber bullets and tear gas in clashes early today with miners striking at the giant Chuquicamata copper mine, as the workers tried to block access to a site operated by state-owned giant, Codelco.
    (Reuters, 6/18/19)
2019        Jun 18, Employees at Radio France turned off their microphones over plans to shed nearly 300 jobs as part of a cost-cutting effort, with many of the daily programs replaced by music.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 19, In southern Bangladesh clashes erupted between local and Chinese construction workers at a Chinese-funded power station near the port of Payra in which a Chinese worker was killed.
    (Reuters, 6/19/19)

2019        Jun 20, A strike by flight attendants at EVA Air, Taiwan's second-largest airline, left thousands of passengers scrambling for alternative transport.
    (AP, 6/21/19)

2019        Jun 21, The UN's International Labor Organization (ILO) overseeing international labor standards adopted a new treaty against violence and harassment in the workplace, fueled by the women's #MeToo movement.
    (Reuters, 6/21/19)

2019        Jun 22, In Chile striking workers employed by the world's top copper producer were set to continue their walkout after voting down a management offer of better wages and compensation.
    (AFP, 6/22/19)

2019        Jul 1, In Kentucky Blackjewel LLC, a coal mining company in Harlan County, declared bankruptcy. In July unpaid miners blocked a train carrying company coal.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y5xpj2sm)(SFC, 8/20/19, p.A5)

2019        Jul 7, Germany's struggling Deutsche Bank announced that it will cut 18,000 jobs by 2022 in a sweeping restructuring aimed at restoring consistent profitability and improving returns to its shareholders.
    (SFC, 7/8/19, p.A2)

2019        Jul 15, Walmart Chile said it would resume talks with a union of 17,000 workers who walked off the job last week amid a major push by the global retail giant to automate jobs and slash costs.
    (Reuters, 7/15/19)

2019        Jul 16, Representatives of Zimbabwe's government workers protested against what they called "slave salaries" as inflation almost doubled to 176%, a decade high that highlights the country's rapidly deteriorating economy.
    (AP, 7/16/19)

2019        Jul 19, Pres. Donald Trump selected Eugene Scalia, the son of late Supreme Court Justice Anthony Scalia, as his next secretary of labor. Scalia had a long record of representing Walmart and other companies that pushed back against unions and tougher labor laws.
    (SFC, 7/20/19, p.A8)

2019        Jul 24, A strike by Alaska's ferry workers halted traffic for the Alaska Marine Highway System, the state-operated ferry system that serves 35 coastal towns, most of them without outside road access.
    (Reuters, 7/27/19)

2019        Jul 27, Alaska ferry workers and state officials sought a federal mediator's help to end a strike that has disrupted travel during the peak summer tourist season as the labor dispute surfaced in the 2020 presidential campaign.
    (Reuters, 7/28/19)

2019        Aug 2, Alaska officials and the union for striking boat workers said they have reached a deal to end a walkout that has shut down the state's ferry system for 10 days at the peak of the summer tourist season.
    (Reuters, 8/2/19)

2019        Aug 5, In a Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Pittsburgh-based US Steel said it expects to let go fewer than 200 workers following its decision to halt production at a Michigan facility. In mid-June the company said it would idle two blast furnaces at its Great lakes and Gary Works plants, citing lower steel prices and softening demand.
    (Reuters, 8/19/19)

2019        Aug 7, US immigration authorities arrested nearly 700 people at seven agricultural processing plants across Mississippi in what federal officials said could be the largest worksite enforcement operation in a single state.
    (Reuters, 8/8/19)

2019        Aug 9, Ryanair's directly employed pilots in Ireland voted in favor of industrial action unless pay demands are met swiftly. Spanish pilots also threatened to join growing unrest at the airline.
    (Reuters, 8/9/19)

2019        Aug 12, The Portuguese government imposed fuel rationing at petrol stations as some 2,000 fuel-tanker drivers started an indefinite strike. The government promised to prevent the labor action from paralyzing the country at the height of the tourist season.
    (Reuters, 8/12/19)(SFC, 8/13/19, p.A3)

2019        Aug 16, The union of Portugal's fuel-tanker drivers said it will suspend a five-day-old strike that led to fuel rationing at filling stations and negotiate with employers in government-brokered talks.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)

2019        Aug 17, Portuguese fuel-tanker drivers said they will maintain their strike indefinitely after a 10-hour meeting of union leaders and government officials ended without an agreement.
    (Reuters, 8/17/19)

2019        Aug 21, Ireland's high court granted Ryanair an injunction to prevent its Dublin-based pilots from going on strike this week in a setback to union hopes for a wave of industrial action against Europe's biggest budget airline.
    (Reuters, 8/21/19)

2019        Aug 22, A French union representative said BNP Paribas plans to cut around 500 jobs at its securities services arm, as the bank seeks to reduce costs and retain competitiveness.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)

2019        Sep 3, Zimbabwean public sector doctors went on strike for the second time in less than a year to demand a further salary increase amid soaring living costs, as President Emmerson Mnangagwa's government struggles with a deteriorating economy.
    (Reuters, 9/3/19)

2019        Sep 5, British Airways dismissed a proposal by a pilots union to avoid strike action next week as "unrealistic," leaving it little closer to resolving a dispute over pay with its pilots that could disrupt its services.
    (Reuters, 9/5/19)

2019        Sep 9, British Airways canceled almost all its flights for 48 hours, affecting as many as 195,000 travelers, due to a strike by pilots over pay.
    (AP, 9/9/19)

2019        Sep 12, United Auto Workers (UAW) President Gary Jones and his predecessor were unnamed officials listed in a federal criminal complaint detailing alleged corruption and embezzlement by union leaders. The complaint was released just two days before the UAW's contracts with Detroit's automakers GM, Ford Motor Co and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV expire on Sept. 14, raising questions about the status of ongoing contract talks.
    (Reuters, 9/13/19)

2019        Sep 15, The United Auto Workers (UAW) said that its roughly 48,000 hourly workers at General Motors Co facilities would go on strike as of midnight today after US labor contract talks reached an impasse, the first nationwide strike at GM in 12 years.
    (Reuters, 9/15/19)

2019        Sep 16, Negotiators for General Motors Co and the United Auto Workers resumed talks to resolve a strike that shut down the automaker's highly profitable US operations. UAW members will get $250 a week from the union's strike fund.
    (Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 18, California's Gov. Gavin Newsom signed AB5, a landmark gig-worker bill that could turn thousands of independent contractors into company employees with protections and benefits.
    (SFC, 9/18/19, p.D1)

2019        Sep 20, Germany's Commerzbank AG says it's planning to cut 4,300 jobs and close 200 branches as part of a restructuring that will also see it sell its stake in Poland's mBank.
    (AP, 9/20/19)

2019        Sep 23, British travel giant Thomas Cook collapsed into liquidation overnight, a failure that consigns the most iconic name in world travel to the annals of history. The company’s 21,000 employees, around 9,000 of whom are UK-based, lost their jobs, with 600,000 people worldwide having their travel plans disrupted.
    (The Telegraph, 9/23/19)

2019        Sep 24, The US Department of Labor issued a long-awaited rule extending mandatory overtime pay for 1.3 million US workers, far fewer than an Obama administration rule that was struck down by a federal judge.
    (Reuters, 9/24/19)

2019        Sep 26, General Motors Co on reversed its decision not to pay for the healthcare coverage of its striking United Auto Workers union workers, citing confusion around the issue.
    (Reuters, 9/26/19)

2019        Sep 30, British finance minister Sajid Javid said he would increase the country's National Living Wage, a mandatory minimum wage, and expand its reach to cover all workers over the age of 21, down from 25 now.
    (Reuters, 9/30/19)

2019        Oct 1, In central Italy Fiat Chrysler worker Fabrizio Greco died overnight in an accident at the group's factory in Cassino, prompting unions to launch a strike at the plant to demand tighter safety measures.
    (Reuters, 10/1/19)

2019        Oct 7, General Motors said it is temporarily laying off another 415 workers in Mexico as a strike by 48,000 US hourly workers enters its fourth week.
    (AP, 10/7/19)
2019        Oct 7, Striking Zimbabwean doctors defied a government ultimatum to return to work, after rejecting a 60% pay rise offer they say is not enough to keep up with soaring prices of basic goods.
    (Reuters, 10/7/19)

2019        Oct 9, Zimbabwe's public sector workers demanded to be paid US dollar-indexed salaries to cushion them against soaring inflation, and will decide this week whether to strike.
    (Reuters, 10/9/19)

2019        Oct 11, A Zimbabwean court ordered doctors on a 40-day strike over pay to return to work within 48 hours, after a ruling that their boycott was illegal.
    (Reuters, 10/12/19)

2019        Oct 16, General Motors and the autoworkers' union said they have reached a tentative agreement on a labor contract that could end a monthlong strike.
    (SFC, 10/17/19, p.D1)
2019        Oct 16, The Peruvian government authorized the intervention of the armed forces and police to unblock access to one of the country's largest copper mines, after owner Chinese miner MMG Ltd said it may have to cease production at the site.
    (Reuters, 10/16/19)

2019        Oct 17, Teachers in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) system picketed outside of schools during their first day of a strike after protracted labor negotiations between the union and district leadership failed to produce a deal.
    (Reuters, 10/17/19)

2019        Oct 21, In Chicago classes for more than 300,000 students were canceled for a third straight school day, although striking teachers reported progress over the weekend over issues such as class size and staffing in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the third-largest US system.
    (Reuters, 10/21/19)
2019        Oct 21, In Greece municipal workers in Athens launched a series of strikes that caused garbage to pile up on the streets of the capital.
    (AP, 10/21/19)

2019        Oct 26, Iran's semi-official news agency reported that its judiciary has released two labor activists on bail. Sepideh Gholian, arrested in October 2018, was released on some $130,000 bail, along with Atefeh Rangriz, arrested last May. His bail terms were not provided.
    (AP, 10/27/19)   
2019        Oct 26, Portugal's PM Antonio Costa promised to raise the monthly minimum wage by 25% to 750 euros ($830) by 2023 as he started his second term in the office, while reiterating the goal to cut public debt to below 100% of GDP.
    (Reuters, 10/26/19)

2019        Oct 28, In Chicago classes were canceled for about 300,000 students for an eighth day as the teachers' union and public school district failed over the weekend to resolve a deadlock in contract talks over class sizes, support staff levels and pay.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)

2019        Oct 31, US federal prosecutors charged a 12th United Auto Workers official with alleged corruption. Union official Edward Robinson was accused of conspiring with colleagues to embezzle more than $1.5 million in union money to fuel "lavish lifestyles," and to defraud the US.
    (The Week, 11/1/19)
2019        Oct 31, Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot called on the city's teacher's union to embrace a "spirit of compromise" as a strike that has kept 300,000 public students away from school extended into an 11th day, despite a tentative contract deal.
    (Reuters, 10/31/19)

2019        Nov 1, Chicago teachers returned to work after a grueling 11-day strike as parents hoped the deal struck between the teachers' union and district would improve their children's education.
    (Reuters, 11/1/19)
2019        Nov 1, UAW senior leaders at Ford's US plants recommended approval of a tentative four-year labor agreement with the automaker, sending the deal to the 52,000 UAW members at Ford for final approval. The union previously ratified a similar deal with General Motors Co and will soon move to negotiate with Fiat Chrysler.
    (Reuters, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 2, The United Auto Workers (UAW) said its president Gary Jones, who has been linked to an ongoing corruption probe by US federal officials, has taken a leave of absence.
    (AP, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 3, Instacart's "gig" workers targeted the grocery shopping and delivery firm with a three-day work action aimed at disrupting service and forcing executives to fix inequalities in pay structures that they say are getting worse every year.
    (Reuters, 11/3/19)

2019        Nov 5, Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro said he would push for a constitutional amendment to allow the government to cut public sector employee salaries, hours and benefits to help it comply with a public spending cap.
    (Reuters, 11/5/19)

2019        Nov 13, Britain's Communication Workers Union said that postal company Royal Mail had won a high court injunction to block potential strikes by the union.
    (Reuters, 11/13/19)

2019        Nov 14, In Arkansas teachers walked out of dozens of Little Rock schools to protest the state's control of the local school system and their loss of collective bargaining rights.
    (SFC, 11/15/19, p.A5)

2019        Nov 15, Chicago teachers approved the contract deal that ended an 11-day strike and includes pay raises, $35 million to enforce limits on class sizes and a pledge to supply each school with a nurse and a social worker.
    (AP, 11/16/19)   
2019        Nov 15, South African Airways (SAA) said its future is hanging in the balance after its workers went on strike to demand higher wages and protest planned job cuts, forcing the struggling state-owned carrier to cancel all flights.
    (Reuter, 11/15/19)

2019        Nov 19, Thousands of red-clad Indiana teachers swarmed the state capitol building, chanting loudly to protest low salaries and evaluation policies and forcing half the state's school districts to cancel classes for the day.
    (Reuters, 11/19/19)
2019        Nov 19, Thousands of unionized Canadian National Railway workers held their first strike in a decade after negotiating parties failed to resolve contract issues at a time of softening demand for freight service.
    (AP, 11/19/19)
2019        Nov 19, Tata Steel, the Indian steel manufacturer, announced that it will be slashing 3,000 jobs across its operations in Europe, citing a global consumption slowdown and the uncertainty surrounding the UK general elections and Brexit that is scheduled to follow right after.
    (Benzinga, 11/19/19)

2019        Nov 20, It was reported that major hotels in Britain are failing to protect workers from debt bondage and sexual exploitation, according to a study that found 75% of hospitality businesses were flouting 2015 anti-slavery legislation.
    (Reuters, 11/20/19)

2019        Nov 21, WeWork said it is laying off around 2,400 employees globally, as the office-sharing company seeks to drastically cut costs and stabilize its business after it transformed from a Wall Street darling into a pariah in a matter of weeks.
    (Reuters, 11/21/19)

2019        Nov 22, South African Airways (SAA) signed a wage deal with trade unions to end an eight-day strike that brought the cash-strapped state airline to the brink of collapse.
    (Reuters, 11/22/19)

2019        Dec 3, President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador pushed back against US attempts to subject Mexico to oversight of its labor market, and said the Mexican Senate should be consulted before changes to a new North American trade deal are signed off.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2019        Dec 4, Former United Auto Workers vice president Joseph Ashton pleaded guilty in Detroit to conspiracy to commit money laundering and wire fraud as part of a wide-ranging federal corruption probe into the union.
    (AP, 12/5/19)
2019        Dec 4, Colombian unions and student groups held a third national strike amid fraught talks between protest leaders and the government over President Ivan Duque's social and economic policies.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)

2019        Dec 6, French unions continued to bring rail, bus and metro systems to a standstill in protest over the government's planned pension reforms. Railways company SNCF said it expected rail traffic would continue to be heavily disrupted through the weekend and Dec. 9, based on statements from transport unions.
    (AP, 12/6/19)

2019        Dec 9, In India day laborers in one of New Delhi's most congested neighborhoods demonstrated against unsafe working conditions, a day after at least 43 people were killed in a devastating fire at an illegal factory there.
    (AP, 12/9/19)

2019        Dec 11, France's PM Edouard Philippe outlined an overhaul of France's byzantine pension system that he said would be fairer and plug a gaping deficit in the pension budget. People born after 1974 would have to work until the age of 64 to get a full pension, instead of 62 previously, drawing a hostile response from trade unions who said they would step up strike action to force an about-turn.
    (Reuters, 12/11/19)(SFC, 12/12/19, p.A2)

2019        Dec 13, France's Pres. Macron said that he wants the government to push ahead with an overhaul of the nation's pension system despite more than a week of damaging strikes.
    (AP, 12/13/19)

2019        Dec 17, In France hundreds of thousands of protesters took to the streets across the country to protest Pres. Emmanuel Macron's unpopular pension reform plans.
    (AP, 12/18/19)
2019        Dec 17, Iranian media reported that two labor activists in southern Khuzestan province have been sentenced to five-year prison term each for taking part in a January protest over several months of owed back pay. A third worker from the same region was also given a five-year sentence for supporting a workers' strike last year.
    (AP, 12/17/19)

2019        Dec 19, In Michigan Michael Bowdler, mayor of River Rouge, received a voicemail that United States Steel Corp was about to send out a press release announcing layoffs for 1,545 workers and the idling of a significant portion of operations at the local Great Lakes Works facility. River Rouge is city of 7,500 that sits on the Detroit River roughly 10 miles south of Detroit.
    (Reuters, 12/20/19)

2019        Dec 21, French travelers and tourists were struggled to get to their destinations as the Christmas season ramped up amid continuing strikes against the government's plans to raise the retirement age to 64.
    (AP, 12/21/19)

2019        Dec 28, In France thousands of protesters opposed to the government's plan to revamp the retirement system marched through Paris, the 24th day of crippling strikes.
    (AP, 12/28/19)

2019        Dec 31, A federal judge temporarily blocked a California labor law meant to take effect from Jan. 1 from impacting over 70,000 independent truckers by granting a temporary restraining order.
    (Reuters, 1/1/20)

2020        Jan 2, French rail strikes against government plans to reform the country's retirement system reached 29 straight days, surpassing the lengths of strikes in the 1980s.
    (SFC, 1/3/20, p.A2)

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