Medical Timelines

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c10000BC    The 1st known outbreaks of smallpox occurred among agricultural settlements in northeastern Africa.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)
10000BC    In 2008 archeologists in northern Israel found a female skeleton in a grave containing 50 tortoise shells, a leopard pelvis, a cow tail and part of an eagle wing and believed they were the remains of a witch doctor from the Natufian culture.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2737BC    Chinese emperor Shen Neng (Shennong) prescribed marijuana tea to treat gout, rheumatism, malaria and poor memory.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shennong)

2700BC    Chinese texts from this time describe plants to treat fevers.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)

2400BC    The earliest reference to circumcision dates back to around 2400 B.C. A bas-relief in the ancient burial ground of Saqqara depicts a series of medical scenes, including a flint-knife circumcision and a surgeon explaining, "The ointment is to make it acceptable," likely referring to some form of topical anaseptic.
    (LiveScience.com, 8/28/12)

1350BC    The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1345BC    The Ebers Papyrus indicated the medical use of willow bark. It contained salicylic acid, an ingredient of modern aspirin.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)

1000BC    The Sushruta Samhita, an early text of Ayurvedic medicine, was compiled by Sushrut, the primary pupil of Dhanvantri, about this time. In 2003 India moved to assess the country’s herbs systematically in a program called the Golden Triangle Partnership.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayurveda)(www.ccras.nic.in/gtp.htm)

c480BC    Herodotus said marijuana was cultivated in Scythia and Thrace, where inhabitants intoxicated themselves by breathing the vapors given off when the plant was roasted on white-hot stones.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)

129        Sep 22, Claudius Galenus (d.~199-217), Greek physician and scholar, was born. Some sources put his birth in 131. Galen went to Rome in 162 AD and made his mark as a practicing physician. Galen developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation “De temperamentis," and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans.
    (http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/galen.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galen)

1345        Mar 20, A conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars was thought to be the "cause of plague epidemic."
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1493        May 1, Phillippus Paracelsus (d.1541), physician and alchemist, was born in Switzerland. He was christened as Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim.
    (HN, 5/1/98)(NH, 6/00, p.30,34)(MC, 5/1/02)

1519        Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed at Veracruz. Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1534        The King of Siam died of smallpox.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1543        Andreas Vesalius, Belgian physician, published his "De humani corporis fabrica" (Concerning the Fabric of the Human Body), which contained the first complete description of the human body.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)

1553        Oct 27, Michael Servetus (b.1511) was burnt for heresy in Geneva, Switzerland. His last book "Christianismi Restitutio" included a chapter on the pulmonary circulation of blood. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored "Out of the Flames." [see 1540]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)

1558        Apr 26, Jean Francois Fernel, French physician, died.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1562        Oct 9, Gabriel Fallopius, anatomist (discovered fallopian tubes), died in Modena, Italy.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1564        Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius (b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius)

1572        Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher, observed that “there are men on whom the mere sight of medicine is operative."
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.92)

1578        Apr 1, William Harvey England (d.1657), discoverer of blood circulation, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/99)(WUD, 1994, p.648)

c1610        In 2004 archeologists reported finding a skull fragment from Jamestown, Va., dating to about this time that showed evidence of skull surgery and an autopsy.
    (SFC, 12/2/04, p.A7)

1623        The 1st case of smallpox in Russia was reported.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1630        Nov 30, 16,000 inhabitants of Venice died this month of plague.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1643        Fang Yizhi, a Chinese scholar, wrote that smoking tobacco for too long would blacken the lungs and lead to death.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.44)

1665        Aug 15-22, The London weekly "Bill of Mortality" recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)

1666        Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1667        Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In 2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution." 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.95)

1683        Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1692        Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1700s        Smallpox killed some 400,000 Europeans a year.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1702        Georg Everhard Rumpf, German botanist, died. He was employed by the Dutch East India Company and compiled the “Ambonese Herbal," even after going blind in 1670. The work was published in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1755.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.94)

1709        Mar 8, William Cowper/Cooper (~62), English anatomist, died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1718        May 23, William Hunter (d.1783), obstetrician, surgeon, anatomy teacher, was born near Glasgow, Scotland. In 1768 he opened a medical school. The Glasgow Hunterian Museum opened in 1807.
    (MC, 5/23/02)(http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/index.html)

1721        Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
    (ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721        Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1722        Cotton Mather authored “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox…" This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1724        May 18, Johann K. Amman (54), Swiss-Dutch doctor for deaf-mutes, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1734        May 23, Friedrich Anton Mesmer, physician and hypnotist, was born.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1745        Apr 20, Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1751        May 11, The 1st US hospital was founded in Pennsylvania. [see Feb 11, 1752]
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1752        Feb 11, Pennsylvania Hospital, the 1st hospital in the US, opened.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1754-1767    British forces distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1772        Sep 26, New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1783        Jun 1, Charles Byrne (22), known as the Irish giant, died. Standing at seven feet seven inches tall (2.3 meters) he was a celebrity in his own lifetime. When he died the renowned surgeon and anatomist John Hunter was keen to acquire his skeleton. Byrne wanted to be buried at sea. The surgeon managed to bribe one of the Irishman's friends and took his body before it could be laid to rest in the English Channel. Hunter boiled Byrne's body down to a skeleton and it became a key feature of his anatomy collection. In 2011 Experts called for the skeleton to be buried at sea, as Byrne wanted.
    (AP, 12/21/11)(http://www.thetallestman.com/pdf/charlesbyrne.pdf)

1778        Dec 17, Humphrey Davy, English chemist who discovered the anesthetic effect of laughing gas (1799), was born.
    (HN, 12/17/98)(Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)

1787        Mar 8, Karl Ferdinand von Grafe was born. He helped create modern plastic surgery.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1789        Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1794        Jan 14, Dr. Jessee Bennet of Edom, Va., performed the 1st successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1796        May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener's son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1798        Mar 9, Dr. George Balfour became 1st naval surgeon in the US Navy.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1798        Jul 16, The Marine Hospital Service was established in the Department of the Treasury under provisions of an act (1 Stat. 605) authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. In 1902 it was redesignated the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712),
    (www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)

1800        Jul 8, Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse gave the 1st cowpox vaccination to his son to prevent smallpox. [see May 14, 1796]
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1809        Dec, In Danville, Kentucky, Dr. Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830) performed a successfully surgery on Jane Crawford (45) in which he removed an ovary and a large tumor with no anesthesia. Crawford lived to age 78 and was the world’s first known survivor of an elective exploration of the abdomen and removal of an ovary. The story was later told by David Dary in “Frontier Medicine: From the Atlantic to the Pacific 1492-1941" (2008).
    (ON, 12/99, p.11)(WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A13)

1810        Mar 6, Illinois passed the 1st state vaccination legislation in US.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1811        Fanny Burney (1752-1840), English writer, underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1813        Feb 27, The 1st federal vaccination legislation was enacted.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1813        Mar 3, Office of Surgeon General of the US army was established.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1814        Oct 23, The 1st plastic surgery was performed in England.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1815        Jan 21, Horace Wells (d.1845), dentist, was born. He pioneered the use of medical anesthesia and was the 1st to use nitrous oxide as a pain killer.
    (Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(MC, 1/21/02)

1818        Apr 14, The US Medical Corp. formed.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1818        Jul 1, Ignaz Semmelweis (d.1865), Hungarian gynecologist, was born. He later connected childbed fever to doctors who spread of germs due to their failure to wash their hands. In 2003 Sherwin B. Nuland authored "The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M3)

1818        Dr. James Blundell (1791-1878), a British obstetrician, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood, for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)

1819        Aug 9, William Thomas Green Morton (d.1868), American dentist who 1st used ether on a patient (1846), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.932)(MC, 8/9/02)

1820        May 12, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp," was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the founder of modern nursing.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale)

1820        Aug 14, The 1st US eye hospital, the NY Eye Infirmary, opened in NYC.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1822        Mar 9, The first patent for false teeth was requested by C. Graham of NY. [see Jun 9, 1882]
    (HN, 3/9/98)(MC, 3/9/02)

1822        Jun 9, Charles Graham patented false teeth. [see Mar 9, 1822]
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1824        Jan 26, Edward Jenner, discoverer of vaccination, died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1824        Mar 5, Elisha Harris, U.S. physician, founder of the American Public Health Association, was born. 
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1826        Joseph Buchner refined willow bark in crystals that he named salicin, after salix, the Latin name for willow. [see aspirin in 1899]
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)

1827        Apr 5, Joseph Lister (d.1912), English physician, was born. He founded the idea of using antiseptics during surgery.
    (WUD, 1994, p.836)(HN, 4/5/99)

1828        May 22, Albrecht von Grafe, German eye surgeon, founder of modern ophthalmology, was born.
    (HN, 5/22/01)

1829        Jan 28, In Scotland William Burke was hanged for murder following a scandal in which he was found to have provided extra-fresh corpses for anatomy schools in Edinburgh. His partner William Hare had turned king’s witness. The scandal led to the 1832 Anatomy Act.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Burke)

1832        Feb 6, There was an appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1832        The United Kingdom passed the Anatomy Act, which allowed hospitals and workhouses to hand over for dissection bodies left unclaimed for two days.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)

1833        Dec, William Beaumont (d.1853), a US Army assistant surgeon, published his new book: "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. It was based on the digestive system of Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who was accidentally shot in the abdomen at Fort Mackinac in 1822.
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1841-1912    Gerard H. Hansen, Norwegian physician. He discovered the leprosy-causing Mycobacterium leprae (aka Hansen’s disease).
    (WUD, 1994, p.644)

1842        Mar 30, Dr. Crawford W. Long of Jefferson, Ga., first used ether as an anesthetic during a minor operation.
    (AP, 3/30/97)

1843        Jul 2, Samuel Hahnemann (b.1755), German physician and founder of homeopathy, died in Paris.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hahnemann)

1844        Dec 11, The 1st dental use of nitrous oxide was at Hartford, Ct.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1845        Mar 26, Patent was awarded for adhesive medicated plaster, precursor of bandaid.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1846        Sep 30, Dentist William Morton (1819-1868) used ether as an anesthetic for the first time on a dental patient in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 9/30/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_T._G._Morton)

1846        Oct 16, Sulphurous ether was first administered in public at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by dentist Dr. William Thomas Green Morton during an operation performed by Dr. John Collins Warren. Morton was the 1st to take public credit for the use of ether in a medical procedure and applied for a patent on its use, which was later nullified. In 2001 Julie M. Fenster authored “Ether Day," an account of Dr. Morton and ether. [see Sep 30] Oliver Wendall Holmes son suggested that that the procedure be called “Anesthesia."
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(ON, 10/20/11, p.10)

1847        May 7, The American Medical Association was founded in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)

1847        The Smith brothers reportedly invented the cough drop in a restaurant in Poughkeepsie, NY. Their cough drop brand was revived in 2013, three years after it was brought out of bankruptcy.   
    (SSFC, 12/14/14, p.D2)

1848        Sep 13, Dr. John Martyn Harlow treated Phinneas Gage in Vermont for a head injury from a tamping iron that had pierced the man’s skull during a blasting accident. Gage survived until 1860, but with definite personality changes that Dr. Harlow tracked.
    (ON, 10/02, p.9)(Econ, 12/23/06, Survey p.3)

1848        Nov 23, The Female Medical Educational Society was established in Boston, Mass., the same year the all-male American Medical Association formed.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1848        Samuel Gregory, a pioneer in medical education for women, founded the Boston Female Medical School. The school opened with an enrollment of 12 students. The establishment merged 26 years later with the Boston University School of Medicine, to form one of the first coed medical schools in the world.
    (HNQ, 12/27/02)

1849        Jan 23, English-born Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), the 1st woman to receive an American medical degree, graduated at the top of her class from the medical school of Hobart College, Geneva, NY.
    (http://campus.hws.edu/his/blackwell/biography.html)(ON, 4/03, p.2)

1849        Jul 12, William Osler (d.1919), physician, author (circulatory system), was born in Canada. "The philosophies of one age have become the absurdities of the next, and the foolishness of yesterday has become the wisdom of tomorrow."
    (AP, 10/15/98)(MC, 7/12/02)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.
    (http://homeoint.org/cazalet/histo/pennsylvfem.htm)

1850        Apr 8, William Henry Welch, US pathologist (founded John Hopkins), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1850        May 16, Johannes von Mikulica-Radecki, Polish surgical pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1850        Oct 12, The 1st women's medical school, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, opened to students.
    (http://homeoint.org/cazalet/histo/pennsylvfem.htm)

1851        Sep 13, Walter Reed (d.1902), U.S. Army doctor, was born in Gloucester County, Va. In 1900 he went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 9/13/02)

1852        Sep 23, William Stewart Halsted, was born. He established the 1st US surgical school.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1853        Apr 7, Dr. John Snow administered chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of her 8th child, Prince Leopold.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)

1853        The hypodermic needle was invented for morphine injection. It was believed that addiction would be prevented if the digestive system was bypassed.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)

1853        Charles Frederic Gerhardt first synthesized acetylsalicylic acid, but he failed to understand its molecular structure and its potential importance to humanity.
    (www.chemheritage.org)

1853        A smallpox epidemic hit Hawaii and 5-6000 people died.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1855        Mar 15, Louisiana established the 1st health board to regulate quarantine.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1856        Jan 18, Daniel Nathan Hale Williams, surgeon (1st open heart operation), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1857        Paul Broca discovered that particular regions of the brain are specialized for particular functions.
    (WSJ, 10/11/02, p.AB1)

1858        Henry Gray (1827-1861), English anatomist and surgeon, authored the textbook “Gray’s Anatomy." It defined the genre and dissected the body along thematic lines. The illustrations were by Henry Vandyke (1831-1897) In 2008 Ruth Richardson authored “The Making of Mr Gray’s Anatomy: Bodies, Books, Fortune, Fame."
    (http://streetanatomy.com/blog/?p=48)(Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)(WSJ, 3/27/09, p.W6)

1859         Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) authored "Notes on Hospitals," which combined two papers presented the year before at the Social Science Congress. She addressed every aspect of hospital management, from the purchase of iron bedsteads to replace the wooden ones, to switching to glass cups instead of tin. The 108-page book went on into three editions and established Nightingale once more as an international authority.
    (HNQ, 4/29/01)

1860        May 21, Willem Einthoven, physiologist, inventor of the electrocardiogram, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1860        Jun 29, Thomas Addison (67), English physician (A-Biermer Disease), died.
    (MC, 6/29/02)’

1861        Henry Gray (b.1827), English anatomist and surgeon, died of smallpox. He had authored the textbook “Gray’s Anatomy" (1858).
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Gray)

1862        Nov, Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) published "A Memory of Solferino." His ideas about creation of a volunteer committee to care for war-wounded led to the creation in 1863 of the Permanent International Committee for Relief to Wounded Combatants, later called the International Red Cross. Dunant, a Swiss businessman, had witnessed the plight of thousands of wounded left helpless on the battlefield at Solferino, Italy, on June 24, 1859.  Organizing local volunteers to help, Dunant brought aid to as many of the victims as he could.
    (WUD, 1994, p.442)(HNQ, 9/16/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1863        Feb 9, Henri Dunant (1828-1910) addressed the Geneva Society for Public Welfare and asked the members to form a volunteer society to aid wounded soldiers. The Intl. Committee of Red Cross (Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963) was formed in Geneva, Switz. The red cross design based on the Swiss flag with the colors reversed.
    (ON, 4/08, p.11)(www.redcross.org)(SFC, 6/20/06, p.A4)

1863        Apr 13, Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled in NY became the 1st orthopedic hospital.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1863        The Mutter Museum was founded as part of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia was an educational service for practicing physicians.
    (NW, 11/18/02, p.14)

1863        Sir Francis Galton theorized that the quality of human offspring would improve if talented people married only other talented people. His ideas led to the eugenics movement.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)

1864        Jun 14, Alois Alzheimer (d.1915), German psychiatrist, pathologist (Alzheimer Disease), was born.
    (www.ibro.info/Pub_Main_Display.asp?Main_ID=34)

1865        Jul 19, Charles Horance Mayo (d.1939), American surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, was born. "I have never known a man who died from overwork, but many who died from doubt."
    (HN, 7/19/98)(AP, 12/11/00)

1865        Aug 13, Ignaz Semmelweis (b.1818), Hungarian gynecologist, died from an infection in Vienna after being beaten up by warders in an asylum.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignaz_Semmelweis)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.57)

1865        Aug 15, Sir Joseph Lister discovered the antiseptic process. [see Sep 1]
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1865        Sep 1, Joseph Lister performed his 1st antiseptic surgery.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1865        Elizabeth Garrett Anderson started practicing as Britain’s first female doctor. She qualified via the Society of Apothecaries when medical schools refused to admit her. She and 5 other women began studying for a degree course from Cambridge in 1869. Cambridge did not let women graduate with degrees until 1948, and was the last English university to do so. In 2009 Jane Robinson authored “Bluestockings: The Remarkable Story of the First Women to Fight for an Education."
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.73)

1866        Edouard Seguin (1812-1880), French physician, authored “Idiocy and Its Treatment." He had established schools in France and the US for the intellectually handicapped, which stressed the importance of developing self-reliance and independence.
    (ON, 3/07, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edouard_Seguin)

1867        There was a yellow-fever epidemic in the US.
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)

1869        Apr 8, Harvey Cushing, US neurosurgeon (blood pressure studied), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1869        Ludwig Karl Kahlbaum in Innsbruck, Austria, described for the 1st time the medical condition of catatonia. He compiled a list of almost 40 signs involving unusual movements. For decades it was thought to be a type of schizophrenia. By 2006 it was still not well understood.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.B6)

1870        Jul 30, Clara Barton departed for field with the Red Cross following the French declaration of war against Prussia. In Basle Antoinette Margot (27) joined her as an aide and interpreter.
    (ON, 8/12, p.11)

1871        Feb 9, Howard T. Ricketts, pathologist, was born.
    (HN, 2/9/01)

1874        Jan 17, Chang and Eng Bunker (62), Chinese-Thai Siamese twins, died.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1874        Jun 22, Dr. Andrew T. Sill of Macon, Missouri, founded osteopathy.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1876        A paper in the Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, a  Germany medical journal, suggested that salsalate could help diabetics control their blood sugar. Harvard researchers in the 1990s conducted studies that supported the claim.
    (WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A12)

1879        By this time a judge spread the claim that Dr. Jackson’s Eye Water had cured his crippling “red skin" disease. Dr. Alvah Jackson of Eureka Springs, Ark., had bottled water from the local Basin Spring as a elixir following claims that it had cured his son’s granulated eyelids.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.G5)

1881        May 21, Clara Barton filed papers for the American Association of the Red Cross.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12) (AP, 5/21/97)

1882        Mar 16, US Pres. Chester Arthur signed the Treaty of Geneva following the Senate’s ratification of the treaty. The US thus joined the Int’l. Red Cross.
    (ON, 8/12, p.12)

1882        Mar 24, German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1882        Oct 24, Dr. Robert Koch discovered the germ that caused tuberculosis.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1883        Feb 23, American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1883        May 17, Lydia Estes Pinkham, patent-medicine manufacturer, died.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1885        Mar, In Loganville, Pa., Dr. George E. Holtzapple (22) saved Fred Gable (16), who was suffering from pneumonia, by supplying the boy with pure oxygen. Oxygen therapy became the only effective treatment for pneumonia until antibiotics became available in the 1940s.
    (ON, 4/07, p.10)

1885        Jul 6, French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) successfully tested an anti-rabies vaccine on a boy bitten by an infected dog. Thanks to his vaccine the death rate from rabies dropped to almost zero by 1888.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(ON, 6/08, p.6)

1886        Mar 8, Edward Kendall, chemist, isolated cortisone (Nobel 1950), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1888        Sep 7, The 1st US incubator was used on a premature infant, Edith Eleanor McLean. It was built by Dr. William Champion Deming at the State Emigrant Hospital, Ward's Island, NY.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(www.medterms.com)

1888        German scientists discovered that small amounts of poison might actually do an organism good. The paradoxical effect was called hormesis.
    (WSJ, 12/19/03, p.B1)

1889        May 1, Bayer in  Germany introduced aspirin in powder form.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1889        Aug 1, John F. Mahoney, developed penicillin treatment of syphilis, was born.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1889        John Alexander MacWilliam, Scottish physiologist, discovered that he could restore heart rhythms in cats using a metronome and a needle electrode. His work went unrecognized until his paper on the subject resurfaced in 1972.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.25)

1889        There was a major flu epidemic this year. Virologists in 2002 attempted to gather viral tissue from frozen grave sites in Siberia.
    (SFCM, 2/17/02, p.27)

1890        The tuberculin skin test (TST or Mantoux) was developed.
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.B9)

1892        Aug 30, The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United States.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1893        Jul 9, Daniel Hale Williams (1858-1931), an African-American surgeon, performed successful heart surgery on a teenager in Chicago.
    (WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)(http://tinyurl.com/37gnkk)

1894        Jun 17, 1st US poliomyelitis epidemic broke out in Rutland, Vermont.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1894        Nov 1, A vaccine for diphtheria was announced by Dr. Roux of Paris.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1896        Oct 22, Charles Glenn King, biochemist, was born. He later discovered vitamin C.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1897        Aug 10, Felix Hoffmann, a German worker for Bayer, rediscovered aspirin (acetyl salicyclic acid), the active ingredient of the willow plant’s (salicin). In 1832 a French chemist named Charles Gergardt had experiments with salicin and created salicylic acid. On March 6, 1899, Bayer registered Aspirin as a trademark.
    (http://didyouknow.org/aspirin/)(Econ, 12/11/10, p.100)

1897        A French scientist at the Pasteur Institute made the crucial connection between rats and fleas as carriers of bubonic plague.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1898        Jun 2, Dr. Paul-Louis Simond discovered the connections between rats, fleas and humans in the transmittance of the Plague in Bombay, India.
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)

1898        Sep 24, Howard W Florey, pathologist, was born in Australia. He purified penicillin and won a Nobel Prize 1945.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1898-1913    Heroin was marketed as a cough medicine.
    (NG, 10/04, Geog.)

1899        Feb 27, Charles H. Best, physiologist, co-discoverer of Insulin, was born in Maine.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1899        Mar 6, Aspirin was patented following Felix Hoffman’s discoveries about the properties of acetylsalicylic acid. Duisberg’s Bayer team released a drug they named aspirin. In 2004 Diarmuid Jeffreys authored “Aspirin: The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug."
    (HN, 3/6/01)(SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)   

1899        Apr 11, Percy L. Julian, chemist (drugs for treatment of arthritis), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1899        Aug 23, Albert Claude (d.1983), biologist, was born in Belgium. He never graduated from high school and won the 1974 Nobel for his work on the sub-structure of the cell.
    (www.belgium.be)

1899        Dec, Honolulu’s chief microbiologist reported that plague had arrived in Hawaii. The steamship Nippon Maru had docked there in the summer with a corpse that carried plague.
    (SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)

1899        The vibrator was introduced as a home medical appliance. By 1904 it appeared in magazine advertisements. In 1918 a Sears Roebuck catalog described a $5.95 portable model.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.F6)
1899        Dr. Charles Wardell Stiles, a zoologist from Hartford, Connecticut, identified "progressive pernicious anemia," seen in the southern United States, as caused by A. duodenale. He also identified the other important hookworm species: Necator americanus. Stiles had studied medical zoology in Europe in the late 19th century and learned about hookworms while helping with animal autopsies and studies. From 1909 to 1914, doctors, public health officials, and northern businessmen worked to destroy what they called the "germ of laziness." They believed such a germ caused many of the South's problems, poverty, a sickly population, and economic underdevelopment. But the germ these people were attacking wasn't a germ at all. It was a worm, the hookworm.
    (www.isradiology.org/tropical_deseases/tmcr/chapter12/intro.htm)(SSFC, 9/26/10, DB p.50)

1900        Jun 26, A commission that included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease yellow fever. Walter Reed (1851-1902), U.S. Army doctor, went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 6/26/97)

1901        May 1901, Walter Reed (49) led the Yellow Fever Commission, a 4-man team, to Cuba to search for the cause of the disease. 200 American soldiers had died from the disease over the previous 18 months. Aristides Agramonte, pathologist, James Carroll, bacteriologist, and Jesse W. Lazear, entomologist, were the other team members. Cuban Dr. Carlos Finlay believed that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes.
    (ON, 10/01, p.7)

1901        Aug 25, Clara Maass (25), army nurse, sacrificed her life to prove that the mosquito carries yellow fever.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1901        Aug 27, In Havana, Cuba, U.S. Army physician James Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him in an attempt to isolate the means of transmission of yellow fever. Days later, Carroll developed a severe case of yellow fever, helping his colleague, Army Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes can transmit the sometimes deadly disease.
    (MC, 8/27/02)(ON, 10/01, p.8)

1901        Aug, Major Walter Reed, M.D., visited Dr. Carlos Finlay in Havana, who informed him that the mosquito Culex fasciatus was the most likely transmitter of yellow fever.
    (ON, 10/01, p.7)

1901        Emil von Behring (1854-1917), German physiologist, became the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for medicine for discovering how to employ antitoxins.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

1902        Feb 9, Doctor Doyen of Paris, performed a successful operation on Siamese twins from the Barnum and Bailey Circus.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1902        Feb 19, Smallpox vaccination became obligatory in France.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1902        Feb 21, Dr. Harvey Cushing, US brain surgeon, performed his 1st brain operation.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1902        Feb, Dr. Walter Reed published his results on yellow fever. He concluded that: "The spread of yellow fever can be most effectually controlled by measures directed to the destruction of mosquitoes and the protection of the sick against the bites of these insects."
    (ON, 10/01, p.8)

1902        Ronald Ross (1857-1932), an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria. His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)

1903        Mar 3, North Carolina became the 1st state requiring registration of nurses.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1903        Apr 9, Gregory Pincus, inventor of the birth control pill, was born.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1903        Apr 14, Dr. Harry Plotz in NYC discovered a vaccine against typhoid.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1903        May 24, Arthur Vineberg, Canadian heart surgeon, was born.
    (HN, 5/24/01)

1904        Jan 19, James Winston Watts, surgical developer (Frontal Lobotomy), was born.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1904        Jun 6, The National Tuberculosis Association was organized in Atlantic City, NJ.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1906        Nov, Alois Alzheimer, German psychiatrist, first described the symptoms of a progressive neurodegenerative disease that caused memory loss, dementia and ultimately death. This was based on his patient, Auguste D (56). She was the first person to have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. 
    (WSJ, 5/13/97, p.B1)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.72)

1906        The first cornea transplant was performed in Austria by Dr. Eduard Zirm.
    (www.lionseyebank.org/facts.htm)

1907        Mar 9, Indiana enacted the nation’s 1st involuntary sterilization law based on eugenics.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A3)(NH, 7/02, p.12)(MC, 3/9/02)

1908        Mar 19, Maryland banned Christian Scientists from practicing medicine unless they had a medical diploma.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1909        Mar 1, 1st US university school of nursing established, University of Minnesota.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1909        May 1, Walter Reed Hospital opened in Washington DC as an 80-bed Army medical center. It closed in 2011 and operations were moved to facilities in Maryland and Virginia.
    (SFC, 8/26/05, p.A13)(SFC, 7/28/11, p.A4)

1909        California became the 3rd state to enact eugenics-related laws.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)

1909        Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), a Brazilian doctor, described how a fatal infection, that became known as Chagas disease, was transmitted as a single cell parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, carried by insects that typically bite their sleeping victims on the face. In 1921 Chagas won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. In 2010 scientists at UC San Francisco reported the development of a protease inhibitor, K777, which appeared to kill the parasite.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Chagas)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.A20)

1910        Feb 19, Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) was released from 4 years of quarantine on New York’s North Brother Island. In 1914 she caused a typhus outbreak in the Sloane Maternity Hospital. She was again arrested and returned to North Brother Island where she died Nov 11, 1938.
    (ON, 7/01, p.12)

1910        May 31, Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (b.1821), the first American woman to become a doctor, died. She and colleagues founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children (1857).
    (http://womenshistory.about.com/od/blackwellelizabeth/a/eliz_blackwell.htm)

1910        Jun 22, German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich announced a definitive cure for syphilis.
    (AP, 6/22/01)

1910        Dec 18, The first dispensary for treating hookworm disease opened December 18, 1910, in Columbia, Mississippi.
    (http://tinyurl.com/24cckey)

1910        The Flexner Report, a book-length study of medical education in the US and Canada, led to the overhaul of medical education. It was written under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.65)
1910        John D. Rockefeller gave $1 million for the creation of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission to coordinate activity for the cure and prevention of hookworm, which infected some 40% of school-age southern children.
    (WSJ, 1/16/03, p.A2)

1911        Mar 12, Dr. Fletcher of Rockefeller Institute discovered the cause of infantile paralysis.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1911        Mar 16, Josef Mengele, MD, PhD, SS ("The Angel of Death at Auschwitz"), was born in Gunzburg, Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1912        Feb 10, Dr. Joseph Lister, founder of sterile technique in surgical practice, died at age 85. In 1917 Sir Rickman John Godlee authored "Lord Lister."
    (ON, 7/00, p.9)

1912        Jul 15, British National Health Insurance Act went into effect.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1912        Aug 14, The US Public Health Service was established under the Dept. of the Treasury by the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service Act (37 Stat. 309).
    (http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/090.html)

1913        The US Virus Serum Toxin Act gave the USDA authority to ensure that veterinary diagnostic kits are safe and accurate.
    (WSJ, 3/904, p.A8)

1913        Bela Schick devised the "Schick test," which had a dramatic effect on the incidence of diphtheria. The skin test determined a patient’s susceptibility to diphtheria. Mass surveys followed by immunization of Schick-positive children with inactive toxin resulted in a drastic decrease in the incidence of the disease.
    (HNQ, 6/8/99)

1914        Mar 27, 1st successful blood transfusion took place in Brussels.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1914        Oct 28, Jonas Salk, US physician and virologist, was born in NYC. He developed the first safe and effective vaccine against polio.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1915        Dec 19, Alvis Alzheimer (51), German neurologist (Alzheimer Disease), died.
    (www.ibro.info/Pub_Main_Display.asp?Main_ID=34)

1915        Dr. Harry Heiselden of Chicago was dubbed the "Black Stork" for withholding treatment from defective newborns. The story is told by Martin S. Pernick in his 1996 work "The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915."
    (MT, 6/96, p.13)

1915        Geisinger Health Systems was founded in Pennsylvania.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.75)

1918        Mar, A flu epidemic began at Fort Riley, Kansas, where 48 men died. It was carried by recruits to Europe where it mutated and returned with a vengeance. [see May, 1918] The Spanish flu was later found to have been caused by a genetic fusion of pig and human viruses. In 1997 Dr. Johan Hultin recovered tissue in Brevig Mission, Alaska, with frozen virus and submitted it for gene sequencing. In 2004 John M. Barry authored "The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History."
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A16)(HNPD, 7/21/98)(SFC, 2/26/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A1)(SFCM, 2/17/02, p.8)(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.M1)

1918        Dr. Paul Popenoe co-authored "Applied Eugenics."
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D1)

1918        The Bailey Radium Laboratories, Inc., of East Orange, New Jersey, began manufacturing Radithor. It was advertised as "A Cure for the Living Dead" as well as "Perpetual Sunshine." It consisted of triple distilled water containing at a minimum 1 microcurie (37 kBq) each of the radium 226 and 228 isotopes. The FTC issued a cease and desist order against the manufacture in 1931.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radithor)(AH, 10/07, p.37)

1920        Aug 22, Denton Cooley, heart surgeon (1st artificial heart implant), was born in Houston.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1920        Rural Canadian physician Dr. Frederick G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting insulin from the pancreas. It took him and 3 others 8 months to develop the process.
    (HNPD, 1/23/99)(SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5)

1920-1929 Medical studies in 2014 confirmed that the common ancestor of HIV-1 group M virus originated in Kinshasa about this time.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.88)

1920-1950    Fore people of Papua New Guinea were devastated by an epidemic of kuru, a brain-destroying disease caused by abnormal proteins called prions.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.A6)

1921        Jan 21, Barney Clark, the 1st person to receive a permanent artificial heart, was born.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1921        May 17, Toronto's Dr. Banting (1891-1941) and graduate student Charles Best (1899-1978) began research at the Univ. of Toronto that led to their discovery of insulin. [see Jul 27] In 1982 Michael Bliss authored “The Discovery of Insulin."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Banting)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1921        Mar 17, Dr Marie Stopes opened Britain's 1st birth control clinic in London.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1921        Jul 27, Canadians Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin at the University of Toronto.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1922        Jan 11, Insulin, then called isletin, was 1st used to treat diabetes on Leonard Thompson (14) of Canada. [see Jan 23]
    (www.insulinfreetimes.org/00_spring/giants.htm)

1922        Jan 23, The first successful test on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a 2nd dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson (14). Following the birth of an idea and nine months of experimentation, and through the combined efforts of four men at the University of Toronto, Canada, insulin for the treatment of diabetes was first discovered and later purified for human use. Rural Canadian physician Dr. F.G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting insulin from the pancreas in 1920. He and his assistant C.H. Best prepared pancreatic extracts to prolong the lives of diabetic dogs with advice and laboratory aid from Professor J.J.R. Macleod. The crude insulin extract was purified for human testing by Dr. J.B. Collip. Insulin, now made from cattle pancreases, lifted the death sentence for diabetes sufferers around the world.
    (HNPD, 1/23/99)(www.insulinfreetimes.org/00_spring/giants.htm)

1922        Sep 7, Dr. William Halsted (b.1852), an American surgeon, died. He had emphasized strict aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Halsted had experimented with cocaine and injected himself with the drug. Throughout his professional life, he was addicted to cocaine and later also to morphine.
    (AP, 7/17/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stewart_Halsted)

1922        Nov 15, It was announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel discovered white corpuscles.
    (HN, 11/15/00)

1923        Feb 9, Norman E. Shumway, pioneer cardiac transplant surgeon, was born in Mich.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1923        Apr 7, The 1st brain tumor operation under local anesthetic was performed at Beth Israel Hospital in NYC by Dr K. Winfield Ney.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1923        Apr 8, Death toll from plague reached 1,000 in India.
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1923        Apr 15, Insulin became generally available for diabetics.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1926        Jul 2, Emile Coue (b.1857 as Émile Coué de Châtaigneraie ), French psychologist and pharmacist, died. He introduced a method of psychotherapy and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion. Working as an apothecary at Troyes from 1882 to 1910, Coué discovered what later came to be known as the placebo effect. He became known for reassuring his clients by praising each remedy's efficiency and leaving a small positive notice with each given medication.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile_Cou%C3%A9)

1926        The American Eugenics Society was founded and supported the position that US upper classes were justified in their positions of wealth and power because of their genetic superiority.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.399)

1926        The US Rockefeller Foundation awarded $250,000 toward the creation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry in Germany.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)

1927        May, Grace Fryer (1893-1933) and 4 other former dial painters filed suit in the New Jersey Supreme Court against U.S. Radium for medical expenses and pain. They were dubbed the “Radium Girls" and their case was championed by journalist Walter Lippman. The case was settled out of court in 2008.
    (AH, 10/07, p.34)

1927        Jul 29, Bellevue Hospital in NY installed the 1st iron lung.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1929        Feb 19, A medical diathermy machine was 1st used in Schenectady, NY.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1929        Dec 21, The 1st US group hospital insurance plan was offered in Dallas, Tx.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1930        Feb 25, Doctors from around the nation arrived in SF to study the Coffey-Humber experimental treatment for cancer.
    (SFC, 2/25/05, p.F4)

1930        May 20, University of California dedicated $1,500 to research on the prevention and cure of athlete's foot.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1930        Otto Warburg (1883-1970), German physiologist and medical doctor, discovered that cancer cells often rely on glycolysis. This came to be called the Warburg effect.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Heinrich_Warburg)

1931        Feb 21, Alka Seltzer was introduced. [see Dec 31]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1931        Aug 23, Hamilton O. Smith, molecular biologist, was born in NYC. He is credited with helping ‘open the door’ on genetic engineering.
    (HN, 8/23/00)( http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/timeline/1970_Smith.shtml)

1931        Dec 3, Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer. [see Feb 21]
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/3/01)

1932        Apr 4, Vitamin C was 1st isolated by C.C. King at the Univ. of Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1932        The US government began its 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study on 623 black men in rural Macon County, Ala. It ended in 1972 after Health Service investigator Peter Buxton exposed the study's unethical procedures.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1933        Jun 10, Col. Eugene Northington (53) of the US Army Medical Corps died in SF from X-ray cancers. He had dedicated his life to pioneering work studying X-rays.
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, DB p.58)

1933        Dec 21, Dried human blood serum was 1st prepared at the Univ. of Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1934        Jun 3, Dr. Frederick Banting, co-discoverer of insulin, was knighted.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1934        Jul 1, The 1st x-ray photo of entire body was made in Rochester, NY.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1935        Feb 13, 1st US surgical operation for relief of angina pectoris took place in Cleveland.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1935        Sep 11, Charles Norris (b.1868), former NYC chief medical examiner and forensic pioneer, died. He and toxicologist Thomas A. Gonzales (1878-1956) were instrumental in developing forensics as an extension of clinical medicine in which information derived from study of the dead was applied to benefit the living. Their combined efforts between 1918 and 1954 represent the epitome of the application of scientific expertise to medicolegal investigation of deaths in America. In 2010 Deborah Blum authored “The Poisoner’s Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York."
    (http://tinyurl.com/yz82jfc)(SSFC, 3/21/10, p.F7)

1935        The US Public health Service received a study of asbestos health hazards prepared by the Metropolitan Live Insurance Co. The government began using asbestos extensively on navy ships during WW II. Workers began to file suits in the 1970s. In 2003 some 300,000 asbestos suits were pending.
    (WSJ, 11/11/03, p.A4)

1935        Scientists at Cornell Univ. reported that restricting calories had an antiaging effect in rodents.
    (WSJ, 10/30/06, p.A11)

1936        Jul 16, 1st x-ray photo of arterial circulation was made in Rochester, NY.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1936        Dec 24, The 1st radioactive isotope medicine was administered in Berkeley, Ca.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1936        Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) performed the first prefrontal brain lobotomy. It was later rejected as a valid medical technique. Moniz won the Nobel Prize in 1949 for his development of prefrontal leucotomy (lobotomy).
    (www.britannica.com/nobel/micro/186_81.html)
1936        Psychiatrist Walter Freeman and his partner Jerry Watts became the first American doctors to perform a prefrontal lobotomy. In 1960 Freeman performed a lobotomy on Howard Dully (12), after Dully’s stepmother complained of Howard’s hyperactivity. In 2007 Howard Dully and Charles Fleming authored “My Lobotomy."
    (SFC, 9/10/07, p.C5)

1937        Mar 15, The 1st state contraceptive clinic opened in Raleigh, NC.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1937        Jul 23, Isolation of pituitary hormone was announced by Yale University.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1938        Mar 18, NY 1st required serological blood tests of pregnant women.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1938        Apr 10, NY made syphilis testing mandatory for a marriage license.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1938        May 12, Sandoz Labs manufactured LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide). [see Apr 19, 1943]
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1938        G. Trolli, an Italian physician working in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), reported a condition called konzo meaning "tied legs." It was later found to occur over wide areas of Central Africa and related to cyanide poison from improper preparation of cassava root.
    (NH, 7/96, p.14)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.78)

1939        May 26, Charles H. Mayo (74), US surgeon, co-founder (Mayo Clinic), died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1940        May-1944 Dec, In Austria approximately 30,000 physically and mentally disabled were killed at Hartheim Castle by gassing and lethal injection as part of the T-4 Euthanasia Program, named after the infamous Berlin address "Tiergartenstrasse 4." The castle was regularly visited by the psychiatrists Karl Brandt, Professor of Psychiatry at Würzburg University, and Werner Heyde.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1941        Prof. William Reeves (1916-2004) and William M. Hammon isolated the 2 viruses that caused western equine and St. Louis encephalitis and proved that they were carried by a mosquito named Culex tarsalis.
    (SFC, 9/21/04, p.B7)

1942        Sep 11, Wheeler Bryson Lipes (1921-2005), a US Navy pharmacist's mate, saved the life of sailor Darrell Dean Rector (19) by operating, following a medical manual, in the officer’s mess aboard the Seadragon below the surface of the South China Sea. George Weller (d.2002), war correspondent, won the Pulitzer in 1943 for his account of the operation. The films “Destination Tokyo" (1943) and “Run Silent, Run Deep" (1958) memorialized the surgery.
    (AP, 12/20/02)(SFC, 4/19/05, p.B5)

1943        Apr 19, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman felt the first rush of LSD while riding his bicycle.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-1)

1943        US psychiatrist Leo Kanner 1st described a autism. Symptoms included a lack of interest in others.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.4)

1943        Willem Kolff invented the 1st dialysis machine in Holland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A2)

1944        Apr 27, Dr. H. Corwin Hinshaw (d.2000) first treated 4 tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the newly developed streptomycin antibiotic. The animals were cured. Hinshaw was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1952 but the prize went to Dr. Selman a. Waksman of Rutgers, who discovered streptomycin.
    (SFC, 1/11/01, p.C16)

1944        May 8, The first "eye bank" was established, in New York City.
    (AP, 5/8/97)

1944        Nov 29, Johns Hopkins hospital performed the 1st open heart surgery. A surgical fix for a fetal heart defect, tetralogy of Fallot or blue baby syndrome, was first performed at Johns Hopkins by surgeon Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas, a black assistant who perfected the procedure. Thomas authored an autobiography in 1985.
    (BS, 5/12/01, p.1A)(MC, 11/29/01)

1944        Hans Asperger, Austrian pediatrician 1st described a syndrome (Asperger’s syndrome) that related to autism, which was 1st described in 1943 by psychiatrist Leo Kanner. Symptoms included problems with social interaction.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.4)

1944-1974    Thousands of people in the US were subject to government experiments. The Defense Dept. and the Atomic Energy Commission conducted hundreds of secret experiments. During the 1940s 11 people were subjected to injections of plutonium and one to uranium. In 1996 the government agreed to pay $4.8 million for the radiation experiment. In 1999 Eileen Welsome published "The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War."
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.A3)(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.3)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A5)

1945        Kaiser established a health maintenance organization for its workers.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, Survey p.13)

1946        May 11, Robert Jarvik, physician: inventor of the Jarvik artificial heart, was born in Michigan.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1946        Jul 14, Dr. Benjamin Spock's "Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care" was published.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1946-1948    US scientific researchers infected hundreds of Guatemalan mental patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The researchers were trying to determine whether the antibiotic penicillin could prevent syphilis infection, not just cure it. The practice only came to light in 2010 thanks to the work of an academic researcher. On Oct 1, 2010, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius issued a formal apology to the Central American nation, and to Guatemalan residents of the United States.
    (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39456324/ns/health-sexual_health/)

1947        Aug 19, J. Arens and D. van Dorpen synthesized vitamin A.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1947        Psychologist Theodore Sarbin suggested to a medical conference that medicine would benefit if the doctor could be replaced by a machine programmed to make judgments about the best treatment for a patient. He suggested using a Hollerith machine, an IBM computer of this time.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.85)(www.eatg.org/news/newsitem.php?id=1308)

1947        A German neurologist coined the term prosopagnosia (face blindness), to describe the condition of a young man who, due to a bullet wound to the head, had lost his ability to recognize people.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.A1)

1948        Apr 7, The World Health Organization (WHO) was founded by the UN. In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day" to mark the founding of the World Health Organization. Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April annually.
    (AP, 4/7/97)(www.who.int/world-health-day/previous/en/index.html)

1948        Jul 5, Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care. Aneurin Bevan was its political founder. The first NHS patient was treated at Trafford hospital near Manchester.
    (AP, 7/5/98)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.62)

1948        The US government launched a heart study in Framingham, Mass., amid an epidemic of heart disease, to compile reams of health data on a group of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s, and hope that over time links would emerge between their lifestyles and heart health. Discoveries by the long term study included: Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and diabetes raise the risk of heart disease, and physical exercise lowers the risk. In 2009 researchers reported that the data showed that loneliness spreads very much like a communicable disease.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.90)

1949        Feb 1, Joseph J. Kleiner was awarded a patent for the Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Tube, a stoppered glass tube that maintained a vacuum for drawing blood. Kleiner had joined BD as a consultant in 1943.
    (Echo, 6/2009, p.3)(www.bd.com/aboutbd/history/)

1949        Apr 20, Scientists at the Mayo Clinic announced they'd succeeded in synthesizing a hormone found to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; the substance was named "cortisone."
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1949        Earl Bakken (b.1924) founded Medtronic in Minneapolis, Minn.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, SR p.17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_Bakken)

1949        Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his pioneering work in prefrontal brain lobotomy. It was later rejected as a valid medical technique.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Z1 p.6)(WUD, 1994, p.925)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)

1949        Dr. Robert Bruce (d.2004) analyzed changes in circulatory and respiratory functions of normal adults during a treadmill test. In the early 1960s he developed the "Bruce Protocol," a treadmill test to reveal problems hidden when the heart is at rest.
    (SFC, 2/16/04, p.A1)

1950        Apr 1, Charles R. Drew (45), surgeon, developer of blood bank concept, died.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1950        Jun 17, Surgeon Richard Lawler performed the first kidney transplant operation in Chicago.
    (HN, 6/17/01)

1950        Ernst Grafenberg, a German gynecologist, identified a small area behind the pubic bone of women, the G-spot, that he said became an erogenous zone when stimulated. In 2005 Dr. David Matlock of Los Angeles invented and trademarked the G-shot, a collagen injection to the G-spot, promoted to amplify sexual arousal.
    (SSFC, 6/3/07, p.F1)

1950s        A team of Stanford students including Karl L. Brown (d.2002), under the direction of Edward Ginzton and Henry S. Kaplan, created the 1st small linear accelerator dedicated to medicine.
    (SFC, 9/12/02, p.A26)

1951        Oct 4, Henrietta Lacks, a black woman, died of cancer in Baltimore. Cells from her body,  later known as HeLa cells, were cultivated for research. In 1974 Dr. Nelson-Rees (d.2009 at 80), a UC Berkeley geneticist, reported that the HeLa cells had contaminated other cell cultures in laboratories around the world. In 1986 Michael Gold authored “A Conspiracy of Cells," a chronicle of the Nelson-Rees study. In 2010 Rebecca Skloot authored “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks."
    (SFC, 1/28/09, p.B10)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.F3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Lacks)

1951        Oct 15, Dr. Carl Djerassi (27), Prof. of chemistry at Stanford Univ., developed the birth control pill in Mexico City while working for Palo Alto based Syntex Corp. He synthesized norethindrone, a steroid oral contraceptive. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951. Serle won FDA ok to market the pill May 11, 1960.
    (SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SSFC, 10/14/01, Par p.13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)

1952        Mar 18, The 1st plastic lens for cataract patients was fitted in Phila.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1952        Jul 3, Dr. Forest Dewey Dodrill (1902-1997) of Wayne State Univ. used a mechanical heart pump to operate on a patient at Detroit’s Harper Hospital. This was regarded as the world’s first successful use of a mechanical pump in open-heart surgery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodrill-GMR)

1952        Sep 2, Dr. Floyd J. Lewis 1st used a deep freeze technique in heart surgery.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1952        Oct 11, Researchers at UC Berkeley announced the discovery of a new polio vaccine that could be manufactured in large quantities. It had not yet been tested on humans.
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.E7)

1952        Dec 2, 1st human birth televised to public was on KOA-TV Denver, Colo.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1952        The first "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It defined nervous breakdowns as "psychophysiologic nervous system reactions." DSN-III was published in 1980 and DSM-IV in 1994. A complete 5th update was expected in 2013.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A1)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.88)

1952        A rare type of genetic pancreatitis was diagnosed for the first time. In 1996 it was later found to be caused by a specific gene.
    (WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)

1952        Crigler-Najjar syndrome was named for two doctors who identified it this year. Patients began living longer in the 1970s when doctors realized that the wavelength and energy of blue light changes the nature of the bilirubin, allowing it to be excreted from the body. In 2007 there were about 110 known cases of Crigler's worldwide, including about 35 in the US. About 20 are among the Amish and Mennonite in Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

1953        Feb 28, Francis Crick (d.2004) and James Watson discovered the structure of DNA-molecule. Watson and Crick managed to describe the structure of DNA as a double helix consisting of two long strings coiled around one another. About 100,000 genes, short sections of DNA, tell the cells how to build proteins, the building blocks of life. Rosalind Franklin made the 1st x-ray image that revealed the double helix structure of DNA. In 2002 Brenda Maddox authored "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA." In 2003 Watson co-authored "DNA: The Secret of Life."  [see Sep 20, Apr 25, 1953]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.330)(TL, 1988, p.114)(Wired, 1/97, p.161)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M2)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W8) (AP, 2/28/04)

1953        Mar 11, F.M. Adams became the 1st US commissioned woman army doctor.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1953        Apr 25, The magazine Nature published an article by biologists Francis Crick and James Watson, describing the "double helix" of DNA.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1953        Sep 17, The 1st successful separation of Siamese twins was performed.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1953        Nov 11, The Polio virus was identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1953        Howard Hughes launched the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) in Chevy Chase, Md. The sale of Hughes Aircraft to General Motors in 1985 added $5 billion to the coffers of the institute.
    (WSJ, 9/22/06, p.B1)

1954        Feb 23, The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh. Jonas Salk created the Salk vaccine against polio. It used a killed virus to induce immunization. Poliomyelitis is a viral attack of the central nervous system and can cause paralysis and death by asphyxiation. [see Apr 26]  In 2005 David M. Oshinsky authored “Polio: An American Story – The Crusade That Mobilized the Nation Against the 20th Century’s Most Feared Disease."
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)(HN, 2/23/98)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/18/05, p.79)

1954        Apr 26, Nationwide test of Salk anti-polio vaccine began. [see Feb 23]
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1954        Dec 23, Dr. Joseph Murray led a team of surgeons at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in the 1st successful organ transplant. Ronald Herrick donated a kidney to his twin brother, Richard. In 1990 Dr. Murray was warded a Nobel Prize for his work.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.A14)(SFC, 12/3/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 12/19/04, Par p.7)

1954        Louis Lasagna (d.2003 at 80), clinical pharmacologist, wrote his paper "A Study of the Placebo Response."
    (SFC, 8/11/03, p.A17)
1954        In the US employer-provided health insurance was made tax-free.
    (Econ, 1/26/13, p.59)
1954        The American Cancer Society and the British Medical Research Council, in independent reports, found higher death rates among smokers than nonsmokers.
    (HNQ, 11/10/98)
1954        Dr. George Moore and colleagues at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute at Buffalo, NY, published a pioneering study of male patients with cancer of the mouth showing that a majority of them had been tobacco chewers for significant periods of time.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)

1955        Mar 22, Linda Stout became the first person at Mayo Clinic, and the second person in the world, to have open-heart surgery with the aid of a heart-lung bypass machine.
    (www.mayoclinic.org/history/)

1955        Apr 12, The Salk Vaccine was declared safe and effective. Salk vaccine shots for polio began to be given out to school kids. The March of Dimes accomplished its mission within 20 years. Research led by Dr. Jonas Salk, of the Univ. of Pittsburgh, and supported by funds (those marching little dimes) raised annually by thousands of volunteers, resulted in the announcement that the Salk polio vaccine was "safe, potent and effective." The foundation also supported the research that led to the Sabin oral vaccine, another safe, effective polio preventative discovered by Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Following the victory over infantile paralysis, the March of Dimes turned its attention to conquering the largest killer and crippler of children: the mental and physical problems that are present at birth. Some 100 million people were given the vaccine during the 1950s and 1960s which was later found to be contaminated with the SV40 simian virus, a possible carcinogen.
    (AP, 4/12/97)(440 Int'l, 1/3/99)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A16,17)

1955        Apr 27, The US government suspended the use of all Salk vaccine manufactured by Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, Ca., pending the investigation of 7-14 cases among children inoculated with the company’s vaccine.
    (SFC, 4/22/05, p.F3)

1955        Nov 2, Clarton-Schwerdt and Schaffer discovered the polio virus.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1955        Nov 3, The 1st crystallized virus was announced.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1955        Frederick Sanger sequenced the 1st protein, human insulin. He later developed methods for sequencing DNA.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)

1956        Mar 26, Medic Alert Foundation formed.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1956        Oct 6, Dr. Albert Sabin discovered oral polio vaccine. Sabin developed an oral vaccine against polio. It began to be used in 1961 and by 1965 was widely used.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(SFC, 6/18/99, p.A40)(MC, 10/6/01)

1956        Dr. Arthur Guyton (d.2003 at 83) of the Univ. of Mississippi authored his "Textbook of Physiology."
    (SFC, 4/16/03, p.A20)
1956        Edwina Froehlich (1915-2008) co-founded the La Leche League in Franklin Park, a suburb of Chicago, to promote the breast-feeding of babies.
    (WSJ, 6/14/08, p.A7)
1956        Dr. John Jay Osborn (d.2014) and cardiac surgeon Frank Gerbode used their heart-lung machine to keep a man alive during surgery to repair a ventricular septal defect.
    (SFC, 5/1/14, p.D6)
1956        A Univ. of Nebraska researcher proposed that “free radicals" caused aging, indicating that antioxidants may slow the process.
    (WSJ, 10/30/06, p.A11)

1956-1961    The CIA engaged in a secret program called MK-ULTRA that included dosing hundreds of unsuspecting subjects with LSD and other hallucinogens.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A15)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A5)

1957        Feb, Basil Hirschowitz (b.1925), South Africa born gastroenterologist, introduced the first prototype “fiberscope." He had begun work using glass fibers to transmit light in 1954 while at the Univ. of Michigan. Fiber optics later revolutionized telecommunications and surgery.
    (www.case.edu/artsci/dittrick/site2/museum/artifacts/group-d/fiberscope.htm)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.92)

1957        Jul 12, The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney (d.1998 at 91), reported that there is a direct link between smoking and lung cancer. Dr. John Altshuler (1931-2004) co-researched the "Joint Report of Study Group on Smoking and Health," published by the US Public Health Service.
    (HN, 7/12/98)(SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)(SFC, 2/7/04, p.A20)

1957        The US FDA approved the drug Propoxyphene. It was marketed as the pain killer under the name Darvon and Darvocet. In 2009 an FDA advisory committee voted 14-12 against continued marketing following safety concerns which linked the drug to sometimes serious and fatal heart rhythm abnormalities. In 2010 US drug makers agreed to stop marketing the drug.
    (SFC, 11/20/10, p.A7)
1957        Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via “serial passage" that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored “The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
    (www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)

1958        Jun 23, Dr. John Jay Osborn (d.2014) and cardiac surgeon Frank Gerbode used their heart-lung machine to operate on a boy (8) at Stanford Hospital before a Bay Area televisioon audience of some 1.2 million.
    (SFC, 5/1/14, p.D6)

1958        Oct 8, Dr. Ake Senning installed the 1st fully implantable pacemaker in Stockholm. Arne Larsson (43) received the pacemaker, which was built Dr. Rune Elmqvist. Larsson died in 2001 after receiving 26 different pacemakers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_cardiac_pacemaker)(Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.25)

1958        Colombian Dr. Alberto Vejarano Laverde and engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo developed the first artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes and external electronic unit and implanted it into Gerardo Florez (70), a priest from Ecuador, who then lived another 18 years.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, TQ p.6)(http://tinyurl.com/3rgfcqq)
1958        Jean Dausset (1916-2009), French immunologist, discovered the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue system allowed doctors to verify compatibility between donor and receiver for an organ transplant.
    (AP, 6/24/09)

1959        Apr 27, Gordon Armstrong, inventor of the baby incubator, died.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1959        Gene Smith and Henry Beecher of Harvard Univ. showed that short distance swimmers who were given amphetamines swam faster than those who received a placebo. This was the first study to show that drugs had any real physiological effect.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQ p.17)
1959        Dr. Norman E. Shumway (1923-2006) and Dr. Richard Lower of Stanford Univ. made the 1st successful transplant of a dog’s heart.
    (SFC, 2/11/06, p.B5)
1959        Researchers in 1998 found the HIV virus of AIDS in a 1959 blood specimen (ZR59) from a Bantu man who died in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (later Kinshasa, Congo). This became the oldest known case and researchers believed that incidents could go back to the 1940s.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A5)(www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/165/2/)
1959        Catherine Hamlin (35) moved to Ethiopia from Australia to work as an obstetrician and gynecologist. Hamlin and her husband later founded a hospital where women can seek free treatment for obstetric fistulas, which are holes that develop between the birth canal and the bladder or rectum that can develop during long and difficult births.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1960        Mar 9, In Seattle, Wa., Clyde Shields (39), was implanted with the 1st kidney dialysis shunt developed by Dr. Belding H. Scribner (d.2003) and engineer Wayne Quinton. The process was 1st developed in the 1940s by Dr. Willem J. Kolff, but had been restricted to operating rooms. Shields lived for 11 more years.
    (SFC, 6/21/03, p.A17)

1960        May 9, The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the pill Enovid as safe for birth control use. The pill was made by G.D. Searle and Company of Chicago. It was commissioned by Margaret Sanger and funded by heiress Katharine McCormick. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)(AP, 5/9/00)

1962        May, Becton Dickinson became a public company. In Sep, 1963, its shares qualified for trading on the New York Stock Exchange at $25 per share. The capital was used to make disposable syringes. There have been four stock splits since then and the company has paid dividends to shareholders every year and the rate has been increased annually.
    (Horizon, Fall '95, p.13)(Echo, 12/09, p.4)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)

1960        Sep 21, Dr. Albert Starr performed the first successful heart valve replacement in a human. He and engineer Lowell Edwards had developed the artificial heart valve in the 1950s.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.A2)(http://icvts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/6/4/570)

1961        Jan 26, Janet G. Travell became the 1st woman personal physician to the US President (JFK).
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1961        The Hayflick limit was discovered by Leonard Hayflick at Philadelphia’s Wistar Institute. He demonstrated that a population of normal human fetal cells in a cell culture divide between 40 and 60 times then enter a senescence phase.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayflick_limit)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.95)
1961        Japan established a universal health care system called kaihoken.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.47)

1962        Jan 28, Elliot Joslin (b.1869), American pioneering diabetes researcher, died. He had argued that controlling the level of glucose in a person’s bloodstream was the key to managing type 2 diabetes.
    (www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=1848826&pageindex=1)

1962        Jun 28, Thalidomide was banned in Netherlands.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1962        Dr. Robert Good (d.2003 at 81) identified the thymus gland as a primary source for the body's defense mechanisms.
    (SFC, 6/19/03, p.A1)

1962-1973    In 2001 the Pentagon began to publicly release details on the existence of Project SHAD and its umbrella program, Project 112, which involved distribution of nonlethal bacteria and occasionally real chemical or biological weapons. In 2008 the US Defense Department said 6,440 service members took part in 50 tests under Project 112 during this period, including open-air tests above a half-dozen US states. Defense officials essentially closed the books on Project 112 in 2003.
    (AP, 6/12/08)

1963        Apr 18, Dr. James Campbell performed the 1st human nerve transplant.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1963        Drs. Vincent J. Freda (d.2003 at 75) and John G. Gorman of Columbia Univ. discovered that if an Rh-negative woman was given an injection of a vaccine called Rhogam, her body would not attack her fetus' blood cells. Up to this time the 15% of women in birth with Rh-negative blood and a Rh-positive father faced the potentially fatal hemolytic disease.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.A29)

1963        Dr. Michael DeBakey came out with his interthoracic pump, a device to pump blood in lieu of the heart. De Bakey made history this year by installing an artificial pump to assist a patient's damaged heart.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/coo0pro-1)

1963        The first liver transplant was performed by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl of Denver, Colorado.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_transplantation)

1964        Jan 11, US Surgeon General Luther Terry issued “Smoking and Health" the first major government report saying smoking may be hazardous to one's health. The US surgeon-general announced that smoking contributes substantially to mortality.
    (WSJ, 4/12/96, p.A-12)(AP, 1/11/98)(WSJ, 1/27/04, p.A1)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.25)

1964        Jan 31, A US report, "Smoking & Health," connected smoking to lung cancer.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1964        In Sri Lanka Dr. Hudson Silva and his wife Irangani de Silva, founders of the Eye Donation Society, sent their first cornea abroad, hand-carried in an ice-packed tea thermos aboard a flight to Singapore. By 2012 60,000 corneas have been donated.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

1965        Jul 27, Pres. Johnson signed a bill requiring cigarette makers to print health warnings on all cigarette packages about the effects of smoking.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1965        Doctors 1st used an argon laser to repair a detached retina.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.28)

1965        Chinese military researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
    (SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)

1965        Gertrude Hurler (b.1889), Austrian pediatrician, died. In 1919 she described the autosomal recessive disease (MPS) that results from deficiency of alpha-l-iduronidase, which leads to severe mental retardation with a typical "gargoyle" facial appearance (Hurler's Syndrome). Major Charles H. Hunter, Canadian Army Medical Corps, 1st described it in 1917.
    (WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A8)(www.medcyclopaedia)

1966        Jan 1, By law all US cigarette packs began carrying the warning: "Caution! Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health."
    (www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1992/8/1992_8_72.shtml)

1966        Dr. Harry Martin Meyer (d.2001 at 72) led a team the introduced the 1st rubella vaccine. A 2 year outbreak in 1964 affected some 20,000 American children.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.D5)

1966        Researchers showed how proteins are made from DNA instructions.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)

1966        Andreas Rett, an Austrian doctor, first describe the complex neurological disorder that came to be called Rett’s syndrome. The cause was later found to be a mutation in a gene called MeCP2.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.90)

1966        In 2007 researchers said HIV was brought to Haiti by an infected person from central Africa, and then came to the United States in about 1969. The researchers think an unknown single infected Haitian immigrant arrived in a large city like Miami or New York, and the virus circulated for years, first in the US population and then to other nations.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

1967        Jun 15, Gov. Reagan signed the Therapeutic Abortion Act, which permitted abortions in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy if a woman's life or health was threatened or the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/15/07)

1967        Dec 3, Surgeons in Cape Town, South Africa, led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard, performed the first human heart transplant at the Groote Shur Hospital. Louis Washkansky lived 18 days with the new heart. The first heart transplant operation in the U.S. was on December 6, 1967, in New York City. Hamilton Naki (d.2005), a black surgery technician, removed the heart from accident victim Denise Darvall for the transplant.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(HNQ, 1/9/99)(Econ, 6/11/05, p.84)

1967        Dec 6, Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz (1918-2008) performed the first US human heart transplant on a baby in Brooklyn, who died 6 hours later.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.B6)

1967        Dec 14, DNA was created in a test tube.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1967        Dec 21, Louis Washkansky (55) died in South Africa 18 days after undergoing the 1st heart transplant.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(HNQ, 1/9/99)

1967        The Becton Dickinson plant in Holdredge, Nebraska, began manufacturing insulin syringes.
    (BD Calendar, 7/97)

1967        The first successful heart transplant was performed in South Africa.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1967)

1967        The AMA unanimously adopted a resolution asking syringe manufacturers to market designs that would prevent reuse.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.A5)

1967        Robert Mishell (1934-2008), immunologist, discovered how to grow antibodies in a petri dish using air with 7% oxygen rather than the usual 20%. This later led to the discovery of T cells , B cells and other components of the immune system.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.B3)

1967        The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global plan to eradicate smallpox by extensive vaccination. By 1980 the virus was extinct except for some lab specimens.
    (ON, 9/01, p.2)

1968        Jan 6, Dr. Norman E. Shumway of Stanford performed the 1st US adult heart transplant. Mike Kasperak (54) lived for 2 weeks before he died of massive bleeding from other organs.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9067567)(SFC, 2/11/06, p.B5)

1968        Henry Barnett (d.2001 at 87), founder of the Int’l. Study of Kidney Disease in Children, authored "Pediatrics."
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)

1968        Dr. Robert Good (d.2003 at 81) performed the 1st successful human bone marrow transplant.
    (SFC, 6/19/03, p.A1)

1968        Milton Wexler (1909-2007), Hollywood psychoanalyst, launched the Hereditary Disease Foundation, after his wife, Leonore Wexler, got diagnosed with Huntington’s disease. Scientists in 1983 found a genetic marker for Huntington’s disease and in 1993 located the gene itself.
    (SFC, 3/23/07, p.B9)

1969        Apr 4, In Houston, Texas, Dr. Denton Cooley implanted the 1st temporary artificial heart.
    (www.nytimes.com/2007/11/27/health/27docs.html)

1969        Apr 22, The 1st human eye transplant was performed.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1969        Sep 4, The US Food and Drug Administration issued a report calling birth control pills safe, despite a slight risk of fatal blood-clotting disorders linked to the pills.
    (AP, 9/4/99)

1969        Nov 22, The Isolation of a single gene was announced by scientists at Harvard Univ.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1969        The medical volunteer organization Interplast, specializing in reconstructive surgery, was founded at Stanford by Dr. Donald Laub.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, Z1 p.1,4)(www.interplast.org/)

1969        The first hip replacement in the US was performed at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1969        Robert Byck (d.1999 at 66) identified MSG, monosodium glutamate, as the cause of headaches for some people who ate Chinese food with the additive. The psychiatrist and brain researcher at Yale Medical School in 1979 gave Congress an early warning that the United States faced an epidemic of smokable cocaine,
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/a6bdpn)

1969-1992    Valium was the most prescribed medicine in the US. Leo Sternbach of Roche Holding AG helped develop the drug.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)

1970        Jun 2, Har Gobind Khorana (1922-1993), Indian-American chemist at the Univ. of Wisconsin, announced the synthesis of the 1st artificial gene.
    (www.super70s.com/Super70s/Timeline/1970/)(www.answers.com/topic/har-gobind-khorana)

1970        Oct 27, The US Controlled Substance Act became effective. It classified marijuana, heroin and LSD as “schedule I," drugs with no accepted medical use. People arrested for drug offences then rose from an initial 416,000 per year to 1,890,000 per year in 2007.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)(www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/21usc/812.htm)(Econ, 12/15/07, p.38)

1970        Dec, The US Institute of Medicine was formed as a component of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. John Hogness (1922-2007) served as its first president.
    (http://www7.nationalacademies.org/archives/Board_on_Medicine.html)(SFC, 7/16/07, p.C6)

1970        Linus Pauling (1901-1994) authored “Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in which he declared that large doses of Vitamin C could ward off colds.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Pauling)
1970        John H. Talbott authored "A Biographical History of Medicine."
    (ON, 10/01, p.8)
1970        The US Controlled Substances Act implemented the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic drugs. Cocaine was first listed in the US Controlled Substances Act. Until that point, the use of cocaine was open and rarely prosecuted in the US due to the moral and physical debates commonly discussed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine)(Econ, 2/23/13, p.58)

1970        The first radioactive pacemaker was put into a patient in France.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.26)

1971        Dec 20, Ten French physicians created a team that later became known as "Doctors Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) to help the people in the Nigerian region of Biafra. They formed in frustration with the neutrality of the Int'l. Committee of the Red Cross. Bernard Kouchner (1939), later French foreign minister, was among the co-founders.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A17)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Kouchner)

1971        Dec 23, Pres. Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, an initiative that came to be known as the “war on cancer." Dr. David A. Wood (1905-1996) helped draft the National Cancer Act. The act added $100 million to the National Cancer Institute directed by Dr. Carl Baker (1920-2009).
    (http://dtp.nci.nih.gov/timeline/noflash/milestones/M4_Nixon.htm)(WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A1)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.13)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)(SFC, 3/13/09, p.B7)

1971        Dr. Judah Folkman (1933-2008) proposed that tumor growth might be prevented if a way could be found to keep blood vessels from forming around them to supply nutrients and oxygen. Proteins were later discovered that spurred angiogenesis and antibodies were found to block them.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.A11)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1972        Jul 25, US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40 year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala. By this time 28 participants had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, at least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had contracted the disease at birth [see 1932].
    (www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2002/jul/tuskegee/)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1972        Paola Timiras (1923-2008), Italian-born UC Berkeley professor on aging, authored “Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics." A 4th updated edition was published in 2007.
    (SFC, 9/20/08, p.B5)(http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/358/12/1312)

1972        UCSF Prof. Henry L. Lennard (1923-1982) authored “Mystification and Drug Abuse." He critiqued the medical profession for being too eager to embrace drug treatments for mental illness and for being too ready to classify interpersonal and emotional difficulties as mental disorders.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.A25)

1972        A team under surgeon Harry Buncke (1922-2008) performed the first toe-to-thumb transplant at San Francisco’s Franklin Hospital, later called Ralph K. Davies Medical Center. Buncke came to be called the father of microsurgery.
    (SFC, 5/21/08, p.B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_J._Buncke)

1972        Routine vaccination of children in the US for smallpox ceased.
    (WSJ, 10/19/01, p.A9)

1972        Three scientists from the US National Institutes of Health developed a formula to calculate a patient’s bad cholesterol using easily measured numbers. The Friedewald formula set LDL equal to total cholesterol minus HDL minus (triglycerides/5).
    (WSJ, 4/19/05, p.D4)

1972        The hospital ship S.S. Hope sailed to Brazil to train doctors and nurses for a year under Project Hope.
    (SFC, 9/28/02, p.A17)

1972        Mont Liggins (1926-2010), New Zealand medical doctor, carried out a trial in which synthetic cortisol was given to women in premature labor. It reduced by half the number of babies dying. Tests on sheep had shown him that cortisol helped lungs to mature early. His research changed medical practice and saved hundreds of thousands of lives.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.93)

1973        Jan 17, The US Public Health Service linked smoking to fetal and infant risks.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1973        Dr. Edward Ahrens Jr. was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Ahrens led work from the 1950s that identified the opposite effects of saturated and unsaturated fats on blood cholesterol.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B5)

1973        The first Magnetic Resonance Image was published and the first study performed on a human took place on July 3, 1977. Lawrence E. Crooks and Jerome Singer, professors at UC in SF and Berkeley, invented Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology along with about 20 other univ. employees.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging)

1973        Hans Gruneberg (1907-1982), British geneticist, began paying attention to a bundle of nerve cells in mammalian noses that came to be called the Gruneberg ganglion. In 2009 Swiss scientists said research had shown that the bundle in mice was used to detect alarm pheromones in other mice.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, Par p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Gr%C3%BCneberg)

1974        Victor Fuchs of Stanford authored “Who Shall Live," an examination of the American health care system.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, Survey p.9)

1974        Cesare Sirtori, a Milan heart researcher, encountered a patient with a high cholesterol level. In 1979 Sirtori found that the patient carried a mutant gene, apolipoprotein A-1, a crucial component of HDL involved in clearing LDL from the body. This led to a new drug in 2003 that seemed to shrink arterial blockages.
    (WSJ, 11/5/03, p.B3)(SFC, 11/5/03, p.A15)

1975        Feb 26, The 1st televised kidney transplant was shown on the Today Show.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1975        Sep 23, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown signed the Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA). It imposed limits on attorney fees and capped jury awards in medical malpractice suits for “noneconomic" damages to $250,000.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/13/04, p.D4)(http://tinyurl.com/m852rv)

1976        Jan, In SF Robert Swanson (28), a Silicon Valley venture capitalist, first met with Herb Boyer, a molecular biologist and co-discoverer of recombinant DNA. The 10 minute appointment extended to a few hours and the 2 men proceeded to found Genentech.
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.B1)(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/14/99, p.A22)

1976        May 28, Pres. Ford signed the Medical Device Amendments which established a product approval process overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the authority to regulate medical devices. Sales of silicone breast implants, already on the market, were allowed to continue without proof of safety.    
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.B-1)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 4/13/05, p.A3)

1976        Sep 30, The US House of Representatives passed the Hyde Amendment 207-167, with no exceptions for health or life endangerment, even though a similar but weaker measure had been voted down two years earlier. Henry Hyde (1924-2007), freshman Congressman from Illinois, had sponsored the amendment to cut federal funding for abortions by women on Medicaid.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.32)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.A6)(www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue42/Fried42.htm)

1976        Oct 5, Researcher Alan Dickinson warned the British Medical Research council that their human growth hormone program was susceptible to contamination from infected pituitary glands.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.A14)

1976        Baruch S. Blumberg (1925-2011) of NASA Ames Astrobiology Inst. won the Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology. He had discovered a virus that caused hepatitis and a vaccine to prevent it.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(Econ, 4/30/11, p.92)
1976        The deadly Ebola virus was 1st identified in western Sudan.
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1976        The US passed the Medical Device Amendments which established a product approval process overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the authority to regulate medical devices. Sales of silicone breast implants, already on the market, were allowed to continue without proof of safety.    
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.B-1)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 4/13/05, p.A3)

1976        Henry Hyde (1924-2007), freshman Congressman from Illinois, sponsored an amendment to cut federal funding for abortions by women on Medicaid.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.32)(SFC, 11/30/07, p.A6)

1976        Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a body scanning technology, first came on the market. Dr. Michel Ter-Pogossian of St. Louis led a group that built the first successful prototypes between 1972-1974. In 1998 PET technology was combined with computed tomography (CT scans). PET/CT scanners hit the market in 2001.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, Survey p.23)

1977        Jul 3, Raymond Damadian produced the 1st image of a human chest using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1970 he found that cancer cells could be distinguished from healthy tissues using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
    (Econ, 12/6/03, TQp.15)

1977        Oct 12, US Supreme Court heard arguments in the "reverse discrimination" case of Allan Bakke (35), a white student denied admission to U of California Med School.
    (www.oyez.org/cases/1970-1979/1977/1977_76_811/)

1977        Dec 12, Dr. Grethe Rask (b.1930) from Denmark died of Pneumocystis carinii. She had done research in Africa. Her symptoms had been manifesting in Dec 1976 and she was hospitalized in Africa. In November 1977 after a brief recovery, she decided it was time to go home to die. A colleague saw the wasting, and did an autopsy, where P. carinii was found. She is believed to be one of the first documented cases of probable AIDS infection.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grethe_Rask)

1977        Dr. Stephen J. Mathes (d.2007), reconstructive surgeon, authored “Clinical Atlas of Muscle and Musculocutaneous Flaps. In 2007 he produced an 8-volume text on plastic surgery.
    (SFC, 12/20/07, p.B5)
1977        Dr. Elizabeth Williams of Fort Collins classified the endemic chronic wasting disease of local deer as a spongiform disease. It was found to be infectious 2 years later and then spread across to 8 states and Canada. Research later suggested that it could infect people.
    (WSJ, 5/24/02, p.A1)
1977        German scientist Gunther von Hagens (b.1945) developed the technique of “plastination" to preserve bodies or body parts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastination)

1978        Jan 18, Center for Disease Control (CDC) isolated the cause of Legionnaire's disease.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1978        Feb 9, In Tanzania cholera broke out and killed 300 people.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1978        May 22, Italy legalized abortion. Voters upheld the law in a 1981 referendum.
    (http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/population/abortion/Italy.abo.htm)(AP, 5/13/12)

1978        Jul 25, Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through in-vitro fertilization.
    (TL, 1988, p.119)(AP, 7/25/97)

1978        Aug, Genentech produced synthetic insulin by combining a rapidly reproducing bacterium with a gene from a higher organism.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.4)

1978        David Rorvick published "In His Image: The Cloning of Man," an alleged tale of a successful cloning. It was ruled a hoax in 1981.
    (NH, 9/98, p.11)(SFC, 12/31/02, p.A2)

1979        Nov 20, The first US artificial blood transfusion occurred at Univ. of Minn. Hospital. The patient was a Jehovah's Witness, who had refused a transfusion of real blood because of his religious beliefs.
    (www.todayinsci.com/11/11_20.htm)

1979        Robert Weinberg, Ph.D., demonstrated the first biologically active oncogene in human bladder cancer.
    (WSJ, 2/27/04, p.A1)

1979        AIDS was diagnosed for the first time. When the first cases of AIDS erupted in 1979 the most important sign was the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the so-called "gay cancer" appearing on the bodies of some homosexuals dying of the disease.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.354)(www.konformist.com/1999/aids/cantwell2.htm)

1980        Feb, The first implantable cardioconverter defibrillator (ICD) was implanted at John Hopkins Hospital by Dr. Levi Watkins.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implantable_cardioverter-defibrillator)

1980        May 8, The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that smallpox had been eradicated from the wild.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html)

1980        Jun 16, US Supreme Court ruled that new forms of life created in labs could become patents.
    (https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/NatureandArtifice/week10c.html)

1980        Aug 4, Susan G. Komen (36) died of breast cancer. Her sister Nancy G. Brinker went on to found the Susan B. Komen for the Cure breast cancer charity. In 2010 she authored her memoir “Promise Me."
    (SSFC, 8/8/10, Par p.8)

1980        Dr. Robert Pollack (d.2003 at 86), pioneer surgeon in oncology, authored "Clinical Aspects of Malpractice."
    (SFC, 1/18/03, p.A17)

1980        The US Supreme Court ruled that "live human-made microorganism is patentable matter." This led to a rush by Genentech, Biogen and others to commercialize biotechnology.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1980        Smallpox was declared eradicated worldwide.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1980        Raymond Damadian and his company, FONAR, produced the first commercial Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1952, which went to Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell, was for the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the scientific principle behind MRI. In 2003 Paul Christian Lauterbur was credited for the 1970s idea of introducing gradients in the magnetic field which allows for determining the origin of the radio waves emitted from the nuclei of the object of study.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Vahan_Damadian)

1980        Dr. Robert Gallo and colleagues discovered the retrovirus HTLV-1. In 1982 they discovered the retrovirus HTLV-2 and suggested that AIDS was caused by a new human retrovirus.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.18)

1981        Jun 5, The US Federal Centers for Disease Control published the first report of a mysterious outbreak of a sometimes fatal pneumonia among gay men. Dr. Michael Gottlieb of UCLA and Dr. Joel Weisman (1943-2009) reported 5 cases of a rare pneumonia among gay men in LA. The disease was initially called gay related immune deficiency (GRID). The syndrome was named Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1982. Within 10 years the disease killed 110,000 Americans. People infected with HIV came to be defined as having AIDS when their immune system became so weak that they got one of 26 specific illnesses including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pneumonia, brain infections and some other cancers.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B2)(AP, 6/5/02)(SSFC, 6/4/06, p.A1)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.24)(SFC, 7/24/09, p.D5)

1981        Aug 28, The US national Centers for Disease Control, noting a high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis in homosexual men, announced a medical task force had been formed to find out why. It was later determined the increased number of illnesses was caused by AIDS.
    (AP, 8/28/01)

1981        Dec 28, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American test-tube baby, was born in Norfolk, Va. Dr. Mason Andrews (1919-2006) performed the delivery by cesarean section.
    (AP, 12/28/97)(SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

1981        AIDS was discovered in New York City [see 1959, 1979].
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A1)

1982        May, Dr. Robert Gallo and Max Essex first proposed that AIDS was probably caused by a new human retrovirus and suggested that it was in the HTLV family. Isolates from AIDS patients in 1983 were first named HTLV-3 and later HIV.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.18)

1982        Sep 29, Seven people in the Chicago area died after unwittingly taking Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide.
    (AP, 9/29/97)(http://judicial-inc.biz/t_tylenol_murders_supplement.htm)

1982        Oct 15, The federal Centers for Disease Control warned that a new epidemic was impacting Americans and that over 200, mostly gay young men, had died from AIDS. In 2001 Jon Cohen authored "Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine."
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, BR p.4)

1982        Dec 2, In the first operation of its kind, doctors at the University of Utah Medical Center implanted a permanent artificial heart developed by Dr. Robert K. Jarvik. Barney Clark, a retired dentist, lived 112 days with the Jarvic-7 heart.
    (AP, 12/2/97)(HN, 12/2/98)

1982        The mysterious syndrome 1st reported by the CDC in 1981 was named Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Hemophiliacs began to get infected from contaminated blood transfusions.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A20)

1983        Dr. Constance Wofsy (1943-1996) and Dr. Paul Volberding founded the AIDS program at San Francisco General Hospital.
    (SFC, 6/5/96, C5)
1983        The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study was begun by Dr. Mellors in Pittsburgh. It became the largest ongoing study with med. info and blood samples over the lifetime of AIDS patients. Dr. Mellors pioneered the viral load test that showed how increased viral load hastened the HIV disease.
    (WSJ, 9/26/96, p.B1,5)
1983        Dr. Jay Levy at UCSF was among the first to identify the AIDS virus as the cause of HIV. He developed an early test for detecting the presence of the virus and he found that heat inactivates HIV in clotting preparations.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)
1983        In Belgium Rom Houben (20) was injured in an auto accident and fell into a coma. Doctors soon diagnosed him as having fallen into a vegetative state. After 23 years a PET scan revealed that his brain was functioning and communication was established via a computer device and a touch screen. A study of his misdiagnosis was published in 2009.
    (SFC, 11/24/09, p.A3)
1983        In China some 14 million women had abortions, many of them coerced, organized by family planning committees. By 2009 this dropped to some 6 million.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.49)
1983        In France Dr. Luc Montagnier and his team, which included Dr. Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, published a paper fingering HIV as the cause of AIDS.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.110)
1983        In Japan the Green Cross Corp., a major pharmaceutical firm, was later accused of having sold unheated blood products at this time even after learning that they could infect people with the AIDS virus. In 1996 prosecutors raided their offices.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A14)

1984        Apr 10, Zoe, the 1st frozen-embryo child, was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1984        Apr 22, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said French researchers had discovered that a virus causes AIDS. Scientists identified a retrovirus named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A20)(www.avert.org/his81_86.htm)

1984        Apr 23, US Health Secretary Margaret Heckler said the AIDS-virus was identified as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. [see Apr 21]
    (http://tinyurl.com/yuvyv6)
    (AP, 3/26/07)

1984        Jun 4, DNA was successfully cloned from an extinct animal.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1984        Jul 30, Holly Roffey (11 days) received a heart transplant.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1984        Oct 26, "Baby Fae," a newborn with a severe heart defect, was given the heart of a baboon in an experimental transplant in Loma Linda, Calif. Baby Fae lived 21 days with the animal heart.
    (AP, 10/26/99)

1984        Oct 25, The genetic organization of the Hepatitis B virus was published.
    (www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=320225)

1984        Nov 15, Baby Fae died 20 days after receiving a baboon heart transplant in Loma Linda, California.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1984        Nov 25, William Schroeder of Jasper, Ind., became the 2nd man to receive a Jarvik-7 artificial heart, at Humana Hospital Audubon in Kentucky. He lived 620 days on the device.
    (AP, 11/25/04)   

1984        Nov, The US FDA formally approved the marketing of the 3M/ House cochlear implant, to provide hearing by the electrical stimulation of the auditory system.
    (http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2001_Groups/Cochlear_Implants/history.html)

1984        The American Cancer Society inaugurated October as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.D1)(http://tinyurl.com/q6teg9)
1984        Dr. Jay Katz (1922-2008), German-born American psychoanalyst and Yale law School professor, authored “The Silent world of Doctor and Patient."
    (SFC, 11/24/08, p.B6)
1984        Scientists identified a retrovirus named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A20)
1984        AIDS was reported to have been transmitted to a health care worker by an accidental needle stick.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)
1984        Dr. Daniel Peterson reported 1,700 cases of chronic fatigue syndrome in the town of Incline Village, Nev.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.A4)
1984        A landmark study on cholesterol provided the first conclusive evidence that lowering blood cholesterol can prevent heart attacks. Basil Rifkind (d.2008 at 73), Scotland-born physician, co-chaired the NIH Consensus Conference on Lowering Blood Cholesterol to Prevent Heart Disease.
    (SFC, 7/1/08, p.B5)
1984        In California cancer cases began popping up in McFarland in the Central Valley. 21 people over 20 years were struck in the town of 8,000. A state study from 1985-1991 ended inconclusively and the EPA was petitioned to study the problem. Residents suspected airborne pesticides.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A5)
1984        Kathelyn Steimer (1948-1996) assisted in the first sequencing and cloning of HIV with colleagues Dino Dina and Paul Luciv at Chiron Corp.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C7)
1984        Scientists discovered the alpha-defensin proteins, used by a class of white blood cells that kill and eat bacteria. In 2002 they were believed to play a key role in suppressing AIDS.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A14)(WSJ, 9/27/02, p.B1)

1985        Feb 19, William Schroeder was the 1st artificial heart patient to leave hospital. He spent 15 minutes outside Humana Hospital in Louisville, Ky.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1985        Feb 27, In San Francisco the Irwin Memorial Blood Bank said that 80 Bay Area residents have received blood since 1979 from donors who are know to have contracted AIDS.
    (SSFC, 2/21/10, DB p.42)

1985        Mar 2, The US government approved a screening test for AIDS that detected antibodies to the virus, allowing possibly contaminated blood to be excluded from the blood supply.
    (AP, 3/2/98)

1985        Mar 8, Thomas Creighton (33) died after having three heart transplants in a 46-hour period.
    (HN, 3/8/98)(MC, 3/8/02)

1985        Apr 6, William J. Schroeder became the first artificial heart recipient to be discharged from the hospital as he moved into an apartment in Louisville, Ky.
    (AP, 4/6/97)

1985        May 9, Laurent Fabius, head of the French Socialist government, blocked the sale of an AIDS virus detection test made by Abbott Laboratories. Fabius and others were later charged with criminal negligence and manslaughter in the deaths of hundreds who died from transfusions of tainted blood. In 1999 Fabius and Georgina Dufoix were cleared of the charges. Edmond Herve, the health minister under Dufoix, was convicted of negligence in 2 cases.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A1)

1985        May 21, Patti Frustaci of Riverside, Calif., who was expecting septuplets, gave birth to six live babies, three of whom died in the following weeks.
    (AP, 5/21/05)(http://tinyurl.com/ypm8k4)

1985        Jul 15, A gaunt-looking Rock Hudson appeared at a news conference with actress Doris Day to promote her cable television program. It was later revealed Hudson was suffering from AIDS.
    (AP, 7/15/99)

1985        Jul 25, A spokeswoman for Rock Hudson confirmed that the actor, hospitalized in Paris, was suffering from "AIDS." Hudson died the following October.
    (AP, 7/25/00)

1985        Aug 1, The French government began to require the testing of all donated blood for AIDS following the launch of a test by Diagnostic Pasteur. By this time some 1,300 hemophiliacs were contaminated with AIDS-tainted blood. By 1997 over 500 had died, most of them children. Four health officials were charged and convicted in the case.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)

1985        Rotary Int’l., a businessman’s club and global charity, following a successful pilot study in the Philippines announced a plan to eradicate polio by vaccinating every child under five at risk of catching it.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.90)

1986        Sep 19, Federal health officials announced that the experimental drug AZT would be made available to thousands of AIDS patients.
    (AP, 9/19/01)

1985        Oct 2, Rock Hudson, film star, died at his home in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 59 after a battle with AIDS. Upon his death it was publicly made known that he had been a closet homosexual.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C14)(AP, 10/2/97)

1985        Dec 13, France sued the U.S. over the discovery of an AIDS serum.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1985        Dec 19, In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mary Lund became the first woman to receive a Jarvik VII artificial heart. Lund received a human heart transplant 45 days later; she died October 14, 1986.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1985        AIDS made the cover of Time Mag.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1985)

1985        SF General opened the nation’s first full AIDS ward.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)

1985        Cleve Jones and Mike Smith formed the Names Project to remember those who died of AIDS. The project went on to develop the AIDS Memorial Quilt.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, C8)

1985        The Nurses Health Study showed that hormone use lowers heart-attack risk by 50%. In 1991 Women’s Health Initiative was launched to see if hormones protected women’s hearts. In 1998 a trial of women with heart disease showed a 50% higher heart risk among hormone users. In 2007 a WHI study showed that hormones do not raise heart risk for recently menopausal women.
    (WSJ, 4/4/07, p.A12)

1985-1987    A bug in the software of Therac-25 radiotherapy machines, produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, caused massive overdoses of radiation to several patients killing at least 5.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, TQ p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therac-25)

1986        Feb 17, Johnson and Johnson, maker of Tylenol, announced it would no longer sell over-the-counter medications in capsule form, following the death of a woman who had taken a cyanide-laced capsule.
    (AP, 2/17/06)

1986        Aug 6, William J. Schroeder died after living 620 days with the "Jarvik 7" artificial heart.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1986        Nov 20, UN's WHO announced 1st global effort to combat AIDS.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycyxmk)

1986        Pres. Reagan signed a law creating a medical malpractice data base. It began operations in 1990.
    (WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A6)

1986        Dr. Mark Bogart at UC San Diego discovered that a fetus with Down's syndrome would exhibit extremely high levels of the hormone HCG, human chorionic gonadotropin. He later tried to obtain royalties from all tests in prenatal screening that used his discovery.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.A8)
1986        Scientists isolated the protease enzyme and realized that it could be used to combat HIV due to its crucial role in virus reproduction. Its 3-d structure was announced by Merck in 1989.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A4)
1986        Dr. Jay Levy at UCSF discovered that the CD-8 lymphocytes secrete an antiviral factor that prevents HIV from replicating.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)
1986        Researchers for muscular dystrophy identified the gene that caused Duchene muscular dystrophy, the most common and fatal childhood form of the disease.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, Par p.5)
1986        Davina Thompson (d.1998) became the world's first known triple transplant patient when she received a new heart, lungs and liver.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A19)
1986        The term “non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease" was coined to described the buildup of fat and scarring in the liver. Some estimates in 2012 said the condition affected up to one-third of America’s population.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, SR p.7)

1986        Rita Levi Montalcini (b.1909), Italian scientist, shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with American Stanley Cohen for discovering mechanisms that regulate the growth of cells and organs.
    (AP, 4/19/09)

1987        Feb 6, No-smoking rules took effect in US federal buildings.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kjge6)

1987        Feb 19, An anti-smoking ad aired for the 1st time on TV and featured Yul Brynner (1920-1985), who had died of lung cancer.
    (www.terramedia.co.uk/Chronomedia/years/1987.htm)

1987        Mar 20, The Food and Drug Administration approved the sale of AZT, a drug shown to prolong the lives of some AIDS patients. Jerome Horwitz of the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University School of Medicine first synthesized AZT in 1964 under a US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant. It was developed by Burroughs-Welcome (later part of GlaxoSmithKline).
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-16)(AP, 3/20/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zidovudine)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)

1987        Mar 24, ACT-UP had its first demonstration at the New York Stock Exchange over the high prices of AZT and the long FDA process for approving drugs. Earlier this month writer Larry Kramer had urged the formation of a "political action" group to fight AIDS in New York.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A13)

1987        Apr 1, In his first major speech on the AIDS epidemic, President Reagan told doctors in Philadelphia, "We've declared AIDS public health enemy number one."
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1987        Apr 30, Education Secretary William Bennett called for mandatory AIDS testing for several groups of people, including hospital patients and prison inmates.
    (AP, 4/30/97)

1987        May 11, In a medical first, doctors in Baltimore transplanted the heart and lungs of an auto accident victim to Clinton House who gave up his own heart to a 2nd recipient. House, the nation's first living heart donor, died 14 months later.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1987        May 31, Addressing AIDS research supporters in Washington, D.C., President Reagan called "for urgency, not panic," but drew scattered boos when he announced he would seek expanded testing for the disease.
    (AP, 5/31/97)

1987        Jun 1, Vice President George Bush addressed the Third International Conference on AIDS in Washington, and, like President Reagan before him, drew scattered boos by calling for more widespread testing for possible carriers of the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 6/1/97)

1987        Aug 28, A fire damaged the Arcadia, Fla., home of Ricky, Robert and Randy Ray, three hemophiliac brothers infected with the AIDS virus whose court-ordered school attendance sparked a local uproar. The Ray family soon moved to Sarasota, Fla.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1987        Sep 6, Doctors at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore succeeded in separating 7-month-old Benjamin and Patrick Binder, twin brothers from Ulm, West Germany, who were joined at the head, after 22 hours of surgery.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1987        Sep 9, Appearing before President Reagan's special commission on AIDS, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop denounced doctors and other health workers who refused to treat AIDS patients, calling them a "fearful and irrational minority."
    (AP, 9/9/97)

1987        Oct 7, President Reagan's advisory commission on AIDS was left seemingly in disarray as its chairman, Dr. W. Eugene Mayberry, and its vice chairman, Dr. Woodrow A. Myers Jr., resigned.
    (AP, 10/7/97)

1987        Oct 11, Thousands of homosexual rights activists marched through Washington [DC] to demand protection from discrimination and more federal money for AIDS research and treatment. The AIDS Memorial Quilt had its inaugural presentation. In 2000 Cleve Jones and Jeff Dawson authored "Stitching a Revolution, The making of an AIDS Activist."
    (AP, 10/11/97)(SFEC, 6/18/00, BR p.5)

1987        Nov 12, The American Medical Association issued a policy statement saying it was unethical for a doctor to refuse to treat someone solely because that person had AIDS or was HIV-positive.
    (AP, 11/12/97)

1987        Dec 29, The antidepressant drug Prozac was allowed to go on the market. It was based on fluoxetine, which increases serotonin levels in the brain by preventing the cells that that produce serotonin from reabsorbing it too quickly. It was discovered by Dr. Ray W. Fuller (1936-1996), Dr. David Wong and Dr. Bryan Molloy of Eli Lilly.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C4)(www.prozactruth.com/fdalilly.htm)

1987        Randy Shilts authored "The Band Played On," in which he chronicled the early days of AIDS.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/And_the_Band_Played_On)
1987        Dr. Alastair Carruthers of Vancouver, BC, injected botulinum toxin into the forehead of his secretary Cathy Bickerton Swann to reduce her frown lines. The FDA approved Botox for a variety of conditions in 1989.
    (NW, 5/13/02, p.50)

1987        Russia recorded its first case of AIDS. By 1997 the number rose to 7,000. By 2008 the number reached 430,000.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.14)

1988        Jan 11, Alexandria, Danielle, Erica, Raymond and Veronica L'Esperance, the first US test tube quintuplets, were born in Royal Oak, Michigan.
    (www.threebluestars.com/multiples/quintuplets.html)

1988        Jan 23, Charles Glenn King (b.1896), biochemist, died. He and a team of students isolated vitamin C in 1932.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yn4zse)

1988        May 16, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop released a report declaring nicotine was addictive in ways similar to heroin and cocaine.
    (AP, 5/16/98)

1988        May 26, The New England Journal of Medicine reported that the 1st NYC cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever struck 4 people between May and July of 1987.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nsejy)

1988        Jun 13, A US federal jury found cigarette manufacturer Liggett Group liable in the lung-cancer death of New Jersey resident Rose Cipollone, but innocent of misrepresenting the risks of smoking. An appeals court later overturned the jury's award of $400,000 and ordered a new trial; the family dropped the lawsuit in 1992.
    (AP, 6/13/98)

1988        Oct, Sir James W. Black of Britain won the Nobel Prize in medicine for research that led to beta-blocker drugs for heart disease and drugs for peptic ulcers. Gertrude Elion (d.1999) and George H. Hitchings (d.1998 at 92) of the US were awarded for research leading to drugs for AIDS, herpes, leukemia and malaria. Elion and Hitchings were later considered as the founders of the field of chemotherapeutics. They were among the first to design drugs based on a biochemical understanding of the disease process.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.D8)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A22)

1988        The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) named "chronic fatigue syndrome" (CFS), to describe ongoing symptoms of overwhelming fatigue.
    (SFCM, 6/5/05, p.6)

1988        Michael Free of PATH, a nonprofit creator of medical technologies for developing countries, created a new syringe and needle that became disabled after a single injection. The autodestruct syringe was licensed exclusively to Becton Dickinson, which agreed to supply UNICEF and health ministries of developing nations and to pay a $50,000 patent maintenance fee.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A1)

1988        Dr. Eliane Gluckman became the first person to perform a cord blood transplant for a case of Franconi’s anemia.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A7)

1988        Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) was first detected in Europe. The vancomycin antibiotic was developed in 1958.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.C1,4)

1988        Iran began paying unrelated living donors for their kidneys. After 11 years it had eliminated its kidney transplant waiting list.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.81)

1989        Jan 13, There was a sit-in at SF General Hosp. by ACT-UP to call attention to the difficulty of obtaining foscarnet, a drug to stabilize CMV retinitis, a common AIDS illness that could lead to blindness.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A13)

1989        Jan 24, Physicians 1st reported a case of AIDS transmitted by heterosexual oral sex.
    (www.aegis.com/news/Lt/1989/LT890104.html)

1989        May 31, Charles A. Hufnagel (b.1917), artificial heart valve pioneer, died at his home in Washington, DC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/f5wdx)

1989        Sep 14, ACT-UP AIDS activists shut down the New York Stock Exchange for a short time when they chained themselves to a balcony overlooking the floor.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A13)

1989        Oct 1, The San Francisco Health Department reported the first two documented cases in which men became infected with the AIDS virus through oral sex.
    (http://ww5.aegis.org/news/ap/1990/AP901005.html)

1989        The Group O AIDS virus was identified in West Africa. It had marked genetic differences from the more common Group M strains that were responsible for a worldwide pandemic.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A5)

1989        Scientists used "positional cloning" to identify the gene that causes cystic fibrosis.
    (WSJ, 6/11/01, p.A1)

1989        The Hepatitis C virus was first isolated. It causes an infection of the liver that is usually lifelong and incurable. Scientists in 1999 found evidence of the virus in frozen blood samples from 1948.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A4)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.A3)

1989        Merck Corp. announced the discovery of the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme protease. It was seen as a promising target for attacking the virus that causes AIDS.
    (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A1)

1989        The P53 gene was found to act as a tumor suppressor gene.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A5)

1989        Dr. Ray White led a team that found the NF-1 gene. A mutation of the gene was found to be responsible for neurofibromatosis.
    (WSJ, 2/27/97, p.B1)

1989        There was an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus among 450 primates in Reston, Va.
    (FB, 9/12/96, Neighbors p.1)

1989        Bruce Chatwin, travel writer, died of AIDS. His books included "In Patagonia" (1984) "Songlines," "The Viceroy of Ouidah," and "On the Black Hill." In 1997 a collection of incidental writing was published: "Anatomy of Restlessness."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, BR p.3)

1989        In Lithuania Dr. Saulius Caplinskas started an AIDS Center in Vilnius. In 1997 there were 60 reported cases of HIV, but the actual number was estimated to be between 200-300.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A10)

1990        Mar 9, Dr. Antonia Novello was sworn in as surgeon general, becoming the first woman and the first Hispanic to hold the job.
    (AP, 3/9/98)

1990        Mar 29, President Bush, addressing the National Leadership Coalition on AIDS, declared his administration "on a wartime footing" against the disease, and called for compassion, not discrimination, toward those infected with the virus.
    (AP, 3/29/00)

1990        Apr 8, Ryan White, the teen-age AIDS patient whose battle for acceptance gained national attention, died in Indianapolis at age 18. The Ryan White Foundation was established for AIDS education programs after his death and it closed its doors due to dwindling funds in 1999.
    (AP, 4/8/97)(SFC, 10/19/99, p.A3)

1990        May 3, The federal government approved the use of the drug AZT to treat children infected with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 5/3/00)

1990        Jun 24, Health and Human Services Secretary Louis Sullivan was virtually drowned out by jeering demonstrators as he addressed the Sixth International AIDS conference in San Francisco.
    (AP, 6/24/00)

1990        Jul 26, The US Centers for Disease Control reported that a young woman, later identified as Kimberly Bergalis, had been infected with the AIDS virus, apparently by her dentist.
    (AP, 7/26/00)

1990        Sep 3, Dr. David Acer, a Florida dentist, died of AIDS after apparently infecting five of his patients with the HIV virus.
    (AP, 9/3/00)

1990        Sep 7, Kimberly Bergalis of Fort Pierce, Florida, came forward to identify herself as the young woman who had been infected with AIDS, apparently by her late dentist.  Bergalis died the following year.
    (AP, 9/7/00)

1990        Nov 11, Stormie Jones, the world’s first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13.
    (AP, 11/11/00)

1990        Sep, The 1st gene therapy experiment took place at the NIH.
    (SFC, 10/4/02, p.A7)

1990        The AIDS activist group Visual AIDS created their Red Ribbon Project to symbolize the fight against AIDS. NYC artist Frank Moore (d.2002 at 48) was instrumental in the project.
    (SFC, 4/27/02, p.A21)
1990        At the Mayo Clinic a lung transplant program was begun.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)
1990        The KE family were brought to the attention of the scientific community about this time. Over three generations of this family, about half the family members suffer from a number of problems, the most obvious of which is severe difficulty in speaking. A mutation of the FOXP2 brain gene was later related to language loss.  
    (http://www.evolutionpages.com/FOXP2_language.htm)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)
1990        GHB, gamma hydroxy butyrate, began to be reported as a cause of illnesses. The paint thinner gamma butyl lactone was being mixed with water and alcohol that when ingested metabolized to GHB, later called "liquid ecstasy" or "blue nitro."
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.A16)
1990        The Human Genome Project began and planned to sequence all human DNA by 2005. The database did not just store sequences, but linked them with citations to enable new discoveries. James Watson served as its 1st head. His opposition to gene patents helped force him from the position in 1992.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.198)(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.10)
1990        Rainaldo Arenas (b.1943), gay writer, took his own life in the US after suffering from AIDS. He left Cuba during the 1980 Mariel boatlift. His books included "Before Night Falls" (1993) and "The Color of Summer" the 4th of 5 called the "Pentagonia" a "secret history of Cuba." In 2000 the film version of Before Night Falls was directed by Julian Schnabel
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, BR p.4)(SSFC, 12/17/00, DB p.49)
1990        In Nigeria 109 children died after taking paracetamol laced with a compound similar to diethylene glycol and also used in engine coolants.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)

1991        May 20, The American Red Cross announced measures aimed at screening blood more carefully for the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 5/20/97)

1991        Apr 29, George Sperti (91), inventor of Preparation H, died.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-so.htm)

1991        Jun 16, The seventh International Conference on AIDS opened in Florence, Italy. The conference was marked by pleas from African and Asian countries for more help and criticism directed at the United States for its refusal to allow visits by foreigners infected with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 6/16/01)

1991        Nov 28, Ryan Thomas (10), hero, AIDS victim who won a federal court battle to stay in kindergarten class, died.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-te.htm)

1991        Dec 8, AIDS patient Kimberly Bergalis, who had contracted the disease from her dentist, died in Fort Pierce, Fla., at age 23.
    (AP, 12/8/97)

1991        The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center opened in lower Manhattan. Irene Diamond (d.2003 at 92) saw the project completed after the death of her husband.
    (SFC, 1/29/03, p.A18)

1991        PBS broadcast the film "Absolutely Positive," the story of Doris Butler (1953-1996) and her son Jared (1988-1992) who were both infected with AIDS.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)

1991        Composer John Corigliano composed his "Symphony No. 1," a memorial to the victims of AIDS.
    (WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)

1991        Basketball star Magic Johnson announced that he was HIV-positive. He left the Lakers Basketball team and his $3.5 mil salary and founded the Magic Johnson Foundation to help fight AIDS.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, PM, p.2)

1991        Miami urologist, Harold Reed brought to the US a procedure to lengthen the penis invented by a Chinese surgeon named Long Daochao.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A1)

1991        A method to fertilize a human egg by a single sperm was developed. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was used to help couples in where the man has a low sperm count.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, DB p.32)

1991        Stephen Fodor and colleagues at Affymetrix published a strategy for creating micro arrays for identifying DNA fragments.
    (SFC, 9/2/02, p.A8)

1992        Mar 12, This issue of Rolling Stone magazine contained an article by Tom Curtis that outlined a theory for the origin of AIDS based on the Wister vaccine developed by Hilary Koprowski and given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo between 1957-1960.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A14)

1992        Apr 8, Tennis great Arthur Ashe announced at a New York news conference that he had AIDS, saying he was forced to go public because a newspaper had inquired about his health. Ashe died the following February of AIDS-related pneumonia at age 49.
    (AP, 4/8/97)

1992        May 1, It was reported in the WSJ that a new study indicated that peptic ulcers were caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori.
    (WSJ, 10/24/05, p.A15)

1992        Jul 26, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) went into effect.
    (http://www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/misc/summada.htm)

1992        Sep 6, An unidentified 35-year-old man who was the recipient of a transplanted baboon liver died at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 10 weeks after receiving the organ.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1992        Aug 8, AIDS activist Alison Gertz died in New York at age 26.
    (AP, 8/8/97)

1992        Oct 6, President Bush appointed Mary Fisher to the National Commission on AIDS, replacing Magic Johnson.
    (AP, 10/6/97)

1992        Oct 23, A French court convicted three former health officials of charges they knowingly allowed blood tainted with the AIDS virus to be used in transfusions.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1992        The film "Lorenzo’s Oil" starred Peter Ustinov, Nick Nolte, Susan Sarandon and Laura Linney. It was based on the true story of Augusto Odone (1933-2013) and his wife Michaela, whose son Lorenzo became ill at age 6 with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD).
    (SFEC, 11/12/00, Par p.36)(WSJ, 10/8/05, p.A1)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.98)
1992        Scientists at Novartis synthesized the compound that would become Gleevec (Glivec). It had been identified as promising compound for treating leukemia. In 2001, the US FDA approved Gleevec for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
    (http://tinyurl.com/6e9nnb)
1992        Pfizer Corp. received FDA approval for the antibiotic Zithromax.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.B4)
1992        Fen-phen, a combination of fenfluramine and phentermine, began to be prescribed for weight loss by American Home Products. A wrongful death suit due to pulmonary complications was filed in 1997. A class action suit later resulted with 300,000 plaintiffs. In 2001 Alicia Mundy authored "Dispensing with the Truth," story of how the cases developed.
    (WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A16)
1992        Anthony Perkins (60), lead actor in the 1960 Hitchcock film Psycho, died of AIDS. His biography was written in 1996 by Charles Winecoff: Split Image, "The Life of Anthony Perkins."
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.B3)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.2)
1992        Ireland’s Supreme Court ruling found abortion should be legalized for situations when the woman's life is at risk from continuing the pregnancy. However five following governments since have refused to pass a law resolving the confusion. In 2010 the European Court of Human Rights called on Ireland to clarify its abortion law.
    (AP, 11/14/12)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.43)

1993        Jan 6, Ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev died of AIDS in Paris at age 54.
    (AP, 1/6/98)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A20)

1993        Feb 6, Tennis Hall-of-Famer and human rights advocate Arthur Ashe died of AIDS in New York at age 49. He was the first black man to win the Wimbledon tennis match.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A3)(AP, 2/6/97)

1993        Mar 3, Albert Sabin (86), physician, developer of the oral polio vaccine, died in Washington.
    (AP, 3/3/98)(SC, 3/3/02)

1993        Mar 23, Scientists announced they'd found the renegade gene that causes Huntington's disease.
    (AP, 3/23/98)

1993        Jun 28, The National Commission on AIDS ended its work after four years, with members expressing frustration over how little national leaders had done to combat the disease.
    (AP, 6/28/98)

1993        Jul 23, Surgeon General-designate Joycelyn Elders stuck by her firm stands on sex education and AIDS prevention in a one-day confirmation hearing on Capitol Hill.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1993        Dr. Sherwin Nuland authored “How We Die."
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.41)

1993        French Dr. Luc Montagnier created the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention under the auspices of UNESCO. He was one of the first to isolate the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)

1993        The Terra Nova Medical Reserve was established as the world’s 1st ethno-biomedical forest reserve in western Belize.
    (AM, 7/01, p.2)

1993        An E. coli outbreak made hundreds ill and several children died. It was traced to hamburgers at Jack in the Box restaurants. The bacteria was identified as E. coli 0157:H7, a renegade strain of the normally harmless group.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.A4)

1993        The hantavirus was discovered in the American Southwest and killed at least 26 people.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A6)

1994        Jan 15, A Hague motorist with .51% alcohol in blood broke the Dutch record of .47%.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1994        Apr 8, Smoking was banned in Pentagon and all US military bases.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1994        Aug 7, The 10th International Conference on AIDS opened in Yokohama, Japan.
    (AP, 8/7/99)

1994        Aug 11, The Tenth International Conference on AIDS concluded in Yokohama, Japan.
    (AP, 8/11/99)

1994        Nov 7, James Winston Watts (90), developer of the Frontal Lobotomy, died.
    (www.answers.com/topic/1936)

1994        Dec 3, Elizabeth Glaser, who became an AIDS activist after she and her two children were infected with HIV via a blood transfusion, died in Santa Monica, Calif., at age 47.
    (AP, 12/3/99)

1994        Leonard Hayflick (b.1928) authored “How and Why We Age."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Hayflick)
1994        Richard Lipton, Princeton computer scientist, published a paper on molecular computing titled: "Speeding to Computation via Molecular Biology."
    (Wired, 8/95, p.166)
1994        Marvin Minsky wrote in a Scientific American article that: "In the end we will find ways to replace every part of the body and brain and thus repair all the defects and injuries that make our lives so brief."
    (Hem., 2/96, p.95)
1994        The World Journal, a Chinese-language newspaper based in New York reported that blood products in China were contaminated with the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A14)
1994        In America 80 million prescriptions were written for drugs that act as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). They were used to treat high blood pressure, angina, cardiac arrhythmias and migraine headaches.
    (WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A12)
1994        Polly C.E. Matzinger, immunologist, began challenging the self/nonself concept of immune activation and proposed the "danger" theory where the immune system lies quietly on guard until it receives a signal that tissues somewhere in the body are dying unnatural deaths.
    (WSJ, 3/22/96, p.B-5)
1994        The breast cancer gene, BRCA1, was discovered. Its presence boosted the likelihood of developing the disease to 87%.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A7)
1994        Researcher Janet Daling and a team at Seattle’s Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center found a 50% increase in the risk of breast cancer for women who’s had abortions.
    (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A12)
1994        At the Mayo Clinic the first successful heart-lung transplant was performed.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)
1994        The stent was 1st introduced. It was a metal scaffold used to prop open arteries that were cleared with angioplasty balloons.
    (WSJ, 9/10/03, p.A1)

1995        Feb 17, Federal judge allowed a lawsuit claiming US tobacco makers knew nicotine was addictive and manipulated its levels to keep customers hooked. 
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1995        Apr 4, It was reported that Nuclear Matrix Proteins that act as a type of scaffolding for DNA were being used as markers for cancer. They were also thought to help turn genes off and on.
    (WSJ, 4/4/95, B-1)

1995        Jul, In Vancouver, Canada, at the Int’l. AIDS Conference researchers said that at least 10 genetically different sub-types of HIV-1 were identified. HIV-2 was another strain principally found in Africa.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A4)

1995        Dec 14, AIDS patient Jeff Getty received the first-ever bone-marrow transplant from a baboon. The experimental procedure at a San Francisco hospital was criticized by animal rights activists.
    (AP, 12/14/00)

1995        Genentech began Phase III clinical trials for Herceptin to fight breast cancer. Doctors Dennis Slamon and Alex Unrich worked with the HER-2/neu gene and protein that triggered breast cancer and developed an antibody against it. The drug was approved by the FDA in 1998.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.5)

1995        Dr. Paul Dowd (1936-1996) suggested that Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, can help keep cholesterol from clogging arteries.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C14)

1995        Jeffrey Friedman of Rockefeller Univ. and others announced the discovery of leptin, a protein produced by fat cells, that signal the brain to reduce dietary intake.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A3)

1995        The American Pain Society urged that pain be treated as a 5th vital sign. In 1999 American VA hospitals began a system-wide notation for pain.
    (SFC, 2/1/99, p.A2)

1995        Prof. Pamela Ronald and colleagues isolated the blight-resistance gene from a variety of wild rice cultivated in Mali. The blight was caused by the Xanthomonas orizae bacterium. She pushed for a got a percentage of the royalty rights to be used for fellowships for scientists from Mali.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A16)

1995        Protease inhibitors, a cocktail drug therapy for AIDS, were first introduced. AIDS became the leading cause of death among Americans aged 25-44. Hoffman-La Roche, a Swiss drug firm, launched the first protease inhibitor.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A21)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)

1995        The GB virus C was discovered. It was thought to be another hepatitis virus but was found to be benign. It was later found to slow damage to the immune system from AIDS.
    (SFC, 9/6/01, p.A5)

1995        Pat Brown of Stanford published a low-cost strategy for creating micro arrays for identifying DNA fragments and posted the instructions on the Web.
    (SFC, 9/2/02, p.A8)

1995        Poet James Merrill died from AIDS. In 2001 Alison Lurie authored "Familiar Spirits: A Memoir of James Merrill and David Jackson."
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, BR p.3)

1995        The FDA approved Riluzole, the 1st drug for use in treating amyotrophic lateral schlerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, Par p.5)

1996        Jan 23, Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a new heart and Lungs. The surgery was done at Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A19)

1996        Jan 30, The FDA licensed indinavir, viracept, Abbott Lab’s ritonavir (trade name Norvir) and saquinavir based on short term clinical data between 1995-1997. The new protease-blocking drugs were effective in combating AIDS especially when used in combination with current medicines. The drugs were later found to cause metabolism problems related to fats.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A7)(WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A10)

1996        Feb 10, President Clinton signed a $265 billion defense bill, but said he would battle for repeal of a section forcing the discharge of service members with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 2/10/01)

1996        Mar 1, The Food and Drug Administration approved a powerful new AIDS drug, saying ritonavir could prolong slightly the lives of severely ill patients.
    (AP, 3/1/01)

1996        Jun 20, Scientists announced the identification of the co-factor involved in human AIDS viral reproduction. Chemokin receptor-5, CKR5, is the name of the HIV co-factor.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A3)

1996        Jul 5, An LA County woman was identified as the first person in the US to carry the rare AIDS virus strain known as Group O. She was discovered by epidemiologists several months ago. Group O is only detected in 4 of 5 cases with current testing methods. Blood supply tests will need to be changed.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A5)
1996        Jul 5, A cloned lamb, named Dolly (d.2003) after Dolly Pardon, was born in Edinburgh Scotland. The event was not announced until Feb 23, 1997 when it was made public that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. In 2001 it was reported that Dolly suffered from arthritis, a sign of premature aging.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.C1)(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A2)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A2)

1996        Jul 11, A report stated that Malaria infects 300 million people each year and kills 1.5 to 2.7 million. A drug, artemether, derived from a Chinese herb was appearing to be as effective as quinine.
    (SFC, 7/11/96, p.C1)

1996        Jul 26, It was announced that researchers had devised a new small molecule that may be used in pill form to replace large molecules which up to now needed to be injected.
    (WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 26, Researchers announced the discovery of a gene, fosB, associated with infant care in mice.
    (SFC, 7/26/96, p.A10)

1996        Aug 8, Medical researchers successfully cured patients with sickle-cell anemia by using a risky bone-marrow transplant technique.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96,p.A1)

1996        Aug 29, Researchers reported that gene therapy was used to halt the growth of some cancer tumors. The therapy centered on the p53 gene, which regulates the speed of cell division.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A1,15)
1996        Aug 29, Japanese authorities arrested Dr. Takeshi Abe, a hemophilia expert, who headed a government panel on AIDS in the 1980s when some 1,800 hemophiliacs were infected with AIDS after using blood-clotting agents contaminated with the AIDS virus. He had failed to recommend a heat treatment for the products more than 2 years after such treatment was approved in the US.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A18)

1996        Oct 24, In China the Foreign Ministry acknowledged that some samples of serum albumin were contaminated with the AIDS virus. Authorities said that 4,305 people in China had HIV. They acknowledged that the number could be as high as  100,000.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A14)

1996        Nov 5, In California elections Prop. 215, an initiative to make marijuana legal for medical used, was passed. A measure to end public sector affirmative action was also passed. Prop 218, the right to vote on taxes act, also passed with a 56% approval. Prop. 204 bond funds were approved [for ecological restoration of the Bay Area and Sacramento-San Joaquin River deltas]. Prop 208, a campaign spending limit measure, was approved but later struck down by a federal judge. Arcata soon established a photo ID program to verify medical use.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A1)(SFC, 12/20/96, p.A1)(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A13)

1996        Nov 8, Cheyenne Pyle, the youngest heart transplant patient (90 mins old), was born in Miami and flown to California for surgery. The infant did not survive.
    (http://tinyurl.com/86zgh)

1996        Dec 21, Dr. David Ho, AIDS researcher, was named ‘Man of the Year" by Time Magazine.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, p.A2)(AP, 12/21/97)

1996        Dec 30, The Clinton administration said that doctors who prescribe marijuana could be excluded from Medicare and Medicaid programs and lose the right to prescribe drugs. Voters in California and Arizona had approved measures for medical use of marijuana.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A1)

1996        Dr. Stuart Meloy found that an electro-stimulator, designed by Medtronic to interrupt pain signals, induced orgasms in women when applied to a certain point in mid spine.
    (SFC, 2/8/01, p.A3)

1996        In California a 63-year-old woman, Arceli Keh, gave birth to a healthy baby girl after taking fertility drugs. She became the oldest known woman to give birth.
    (SFC, 4/24/97, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A14)

1996        In Nigeria Pfizer Inc. tested an unapproved drug on children for an often deadly strain of meningitis. In 2006 Nigerian medical experts concluded that Pfizer violated international law and was never authorized by the Nigerian government to give the unproven drug Trovan to nearly 100 children and infants at a field hospital in Kano, where they were being treated.
    (Reuters, 5/6/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trovafloxacin)
1996        The South Africa Council for Scientific and Industrial Research patented the active chemical of hoodia, called P57, and licensed development rights to a British firm. They did not acknowledge the San Bushmen who used the cactus raise energy and fight hunger. In 2003 an agreement was reached to pay the San 6% of the royalties. Some 100,000 San lived in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.D5)

1997        Jan 23, Cancer experts who were supposed to settle a furious controversy over whether women should start having mammograms at age 40 or 50 decided instead to leave the decision up to patients.
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1997        Feb 23, It was announced that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. The lamb was born in Jul, 1996, and named Dolly after Dolly Pardon. Dolly was put down Feb. 14, 2003, after a short life marred by premature aging and disease.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, p.C1)(AP, 2/23/98)

1997        Feb, Lipitor, a cholesterol reducing drug from Warner-Lambert, became available. It was developed by Bruce D. Roth. In 2003 sales of Lipitor, marketed by Pfizer, reached $9.2 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/24/00, p.B1)(WSJ, 3/904, p.A1)

1997        Mar 5, Brain researchers announced that some instinctual behavior was successfully transferred between chicken and quail embryos. The young birds did not live past 14 days.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A4)

1997        Mar 23, The American Cancer Society recommended that women begin annual mammograms at age 40.
    (AP, 3/23/98)

1997        Apr 18, Scientists reported the discovery of a fusion protein that governed the ability of the HIV virus to fuse with the protective membranes of immune system cells.
    (SFC, 4/18/97, p.A4)

1997        May 18, President Clinton announced creation of a research center at the National Institutes of Health devoted to the goal of developing an AIDS vaccine within the next decade, but offered no new federal spending.
    (WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/18/98)

1997        Jul 2, US Aid to Honduras had dropped this year to $28 million from a high of $229 million in 1985. The country had the highest AIDS rate in Central America.
    (WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 8, The Mayo Clinic and the government warned the diet-drug combination known as "fen-phen" could cause serious heart and lung damage. The drugs were withdrawn in September. In 2000 a federal judge approved a $3.75 billion national settlement of health claims due to use of the drugs.
    (AP, 7/8/98)(SFC, 8/29/00, p.A4)

1997        Jul 25, An FDA drug panel endorsed Rituximab, a drug designed to treat B-cell lymphoma. It was made by Genentech and IDEC Pharmaceuticals.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 2, In Nigeria Fela Anikulapo-Kuti (b.1938), pop superstar, died of AIDS at 58. He was a saxophone player who fused rock with African rhythms into a blend known as "Afrobeat." His albums included: "Zombie," "Army Arrangement," and "Vagabond in Power." He recorded more than 50 albums in the 1970s and 1980s and his 27 wives mourned his death.
    (SFC, 8/4/97, p.A16)

1997        Aug 8, It was reported that researchers have discovered how the defective gene in Huntington’s disease causes the disorder. A genetic "stutter" inserts from 30 to 150 copies of the amino acid glutamine into key proteins and alters their properties.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.A3)

1997        Aug 9, In Brazil Herbert Jose de Souza, sociologist, died at age 60 of AIDS that he acquired as a hemophiliac from contaminated blood. He spent his life fighting inequality, hunger and police brutality.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A15)

1997        Aug 15, Scientists at Geron corp. reported that an "immortality gene" had been cloned. The key gene carries the code for a key section of the enzyme telomerase, that rebuilds the telomere of DNA. It could lead to new cancer-prevention drugs and even be used to slow the process of aging.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A1,17)(SFC, 8/16/97, p.D1)

1997        Aug 27, It was announced that the diet drugs, Redux and Pondimin, caused brain damage in animals at doses similar to those taken by humans.
    (WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 23, AIDS researchers reported a new chemokine molecule that blocks HIV from infecting cells.
    (WSJ, 10/24/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 27, Authorities in Chautauqua County, N.Y., said Nushawn Williams (20), an HIV-positive man who allegedly traded drugs for sex with young women and teens, had infected a number of them with the AIDS virus. Later 48 partners were identified and 13 women and girls tested positive.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A5)(AP, 10/27/98)
1997        Oct 27, Researchers from the Univ. of Mich. reported that they found a hormone to stimulate the growth of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerves.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A2)

1997        Nov 21, "The Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997" was signed into law by President Clinton. The new law was designed to enhance the product development and review process; streamline the way the Agency regulates medical devices; simplify enforcement procedures; and move the Agency toward greater use of national and international standards. The law gave the FDA new powers to speed the approval of drugs to combat a host of killer diseases, including cancer and AIDS.
    (PR, NPTH, 6/4/98)(AP, 11/21/98)

1997        Virologist Jaap Goudsmit of the Univ. of Amsterdam published "Viral Sex: The Nature of AIDS."
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.9)

1997        Roy Porter (1946-2002), British historian, authored “The Greatest Benefit to Mankind," a survey of the history of medicine.
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1997        The Rezulin pill for diabetes, made by Warner-Lambert, was first found to cause fatalities due to liver failure in some patients.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A2)

1997        A British team discovered that pig viruses can infect human cells.
    (WSJ, 8/28/00, p.B1)

1997        Prionics AG of Switzerland developed the 1st efficient test for mad cow disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
    (WSJ, 1/08/00, p.A23)

1997        Researchers discovered one of the genes that cause Leber's congenital amaurosis, a retinal condition that affects about one in 50,000 Americans.
    (WSJ, 8/29/03, p.B11)

1998        Feb 2, The government released statistics showing deaths from AIDS fell by almost half during the first half of 1997, a decrease attributed to increased use of powerful combinations of medicines.
    (AP, 2/2/99)

1998        Feb 13, Dr. David Satcher was sworn in as US surgeon general during an Oval Office ceremony.
    (AP, 2/13/08)

1998        Feb 16, Mr. Jefferson, the 1st cloned calf, was born in Virginia.
    (www.revivicor.com/MrJefferson.htm)

1998        Mar 3, Dr. Hans J. Muller-Eberhard, one of the first scientists to explain the importance of the complement system, died in Houston. He showed that front line attack of the immune system was a complex of about 20 separate protein molecules that together attacked cells through a series of reactions referred to as a cascade.
    (SFC, 3/8/98, p.C5)

1998        Mar 18, A study of Finnish smokers reported in the Journal of the national Cancer Institute indicated that vitamin E reduced the risk of prostate cancer.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 27, The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Viagra, made by Pfizer, saying it helped about two-thirds of impotent men improve their sexual function. Viagra’s effects were shown to last 8-12 hours. Pfizer had originally tested the compound UK 92,480 as a drug for angina and found that male volunteers were getting frequent erections. They renamed it Viagra and sought sales approval.
    (AP, 3/27/99)(SFC, 5/28/02, p.A4)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.76)

1998        Apr 10, The anti-impotence drug Viagra appeared on the market and became one of the best-selling new medications of all time.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1998        Apr 14, A new blood test for cancer used enzyme-coated iron particles to attract cancer cells for detection.
    (WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 20, A report was published that suggested that the drug raloxifene, sold by Eli Lilly as Evista, can prevent breast cancer in addition to tamoxifen. Both synthetic drugs block the action of estrogen.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A7)

1998        May 4, The FDA approved the first commercial surgical glue, Tisseel, made by Baxter Labs.
    (USAT, 5/4/98, p.10D)

1998        Jun 8, In Russia the number of AIDS was reported to have quadrupled since 1996 to 8,313, mainly due to intravenous drug-taking.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A14)

1998        Jun 19, A study published in the British medical journal The Lancet said smoking more than doubles the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
    (AP, 6/19/03)

1998        Jun 20, On the eve of Father's Day, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to announce the release of the first wave of almost $60 million in prostate cancer research grants.
    (AP, 6/20/08)

1998        Jun 28, The 12th World AIDS Conference opened in Geneva.
    (AP, 6/28/99)

1998        Jun 29, The 12th Int’l. AIDS Conference opened in Geneva with some 12,000 participants.
    (SFC, 6/29/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 30, In Geneva AIDS specialists from SF reported a patient infected with a strain of HIV resistant to the new anti-viral drugs.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 3, The 12th World AIDS Conference ended in Geneva.
    (AP, 7/3/9)

1998        Jul 8, Dow Corning agreed to settle a suit with women claiming injury from silicone breast implants for $3.2 billion. A federal bankruptcy judge tentatively approved a settlement under which an estimated 170,000 women, who said silicone breast implants had made them sick, would get $3.2 billion dollars from Dow Corning Corp.
    (SFC, 7/9/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/8/99)

1998        Jul 17, Scientists reported in the journal Science that the syphilis genome, 1.1 million base pairs of DNA, had been mapped.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 14, A federal appeals court in Richmond, Va., ruled that the Food and Drug Administration had no authority to regulate tobacco, striking down FDA rules making it harder for minors to buy cigarettes; the Clinton administration said it would appeal. In 2000 the US Supreme Court ruled that the government lacked the authority to regulate tobacco as an addictive drug.
    (AP, 8/14/99)

1998        Sep 2, A new strain of HIV-1 was reported by French researchers from a Cameroonian woman who died if AIDS in 1995.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A4)

1998        Oct 28, In Botswana the life expectancy was reported to have dropped from 61 in 1993 to 47 to the AIDS epidemic.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 28, In Zimbabwe it was reported that 1 in 5 adults was infected with the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 29, The government cleared the powerful drug tamoxifen as a way for healthy women at very high risk of breast cancer to cut their odds of getting a tumor.
    (AP, 10/29/99)

1998        Nov 24, A UN report on AIDS said 33 million people were infected, and that two-thirds of them were in sub-Saharan Africa.
    (WSJ, 11/25/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 1, Pres. Clinton marked World Aids Day by announcing an increase in NIH funding for an AIDS vaccine to $200 million.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 16, Researchers in South Korea claimed to have cloned a human embryo, but destroyed it early in its development.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 22, In South Africa Gugu Dlamini (36), an AIDS activist, died from wounds inflicted by a mob.
    (SFC, 12/28/98, p.A7)

1998        Dec 27, A vaccine for AIDS by VaxGen Inc. of South San Francisco was reported to be in Phase III clinical trials. It was derived from g-120, a genetically engineered protein copied from a protein found in the HIV virus. Other vaccines were also under development.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A3)

1998        The US FDA approved Actiq, a potent narcotic, for cancer patients suffering from pain that other narcotics did not relieve. By 2006 its use had spread to a much wider cohort.
    (WSJ, 11/3/06, p.A1)
1998        The US began to fortify grains for bread and cereal with folic acid. By 2009 this led to a 31% decline in cases of spina bifida.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.70)

1998        Celera Genomics joined the race to map all human genes.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)
1998        Celgene was founded to sequence the human genome.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.72)
1998        The Second Sight company was founded By Dr. Robert Greenberg and Sam Williams (d.2009) to develop an implantable device to help blind people see. By 2010 the company developed a commercial retinal implant.
    (SFC, 12/22/10, TQ p.4)

1998        A brain implant let a paralyzed stroke victim move a cursor on a computer screen to point out simple phrases. [see Apr 13, 2004]
    (SFC, 4/14/04, p.C8)
1998        Cybernetics Prof. Kevin Warwick had a chip implanted into his arm for 9 days to monitor his body's electrical signals and transmit results to a computer. He followed up with a more sophisticated chip in 2000.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.E16)
1998        Dr. James Thomson, Univ. of Wisconsin research biologist, announced that he had successfully grown human embryonic stem cells in a privately funded research lab.
    (WSJ, 8/23/01, p.A18)
1998        The Roll Back Malaria Partnership was founded WHO, UNICEF, UNDP and the World Bank, in an effort to provide a coordinated global response to the disease.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)(www.rollbackmalaria.org/rbmmandate.html)
1998        Some 2 million Africans south of the Sahara died of AIDS in this year.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, p.A10)
1998        Research led by Dr Andrew Wakefield, then a reader in experimental gastroenterology at London's Royal Free Hospital, became the first to suggest that the MMR vaccine might be linked to an increased risk of autism and bowel disorders. Dr Wakefield said he has evidence that children's behavior changed drastically shortly after they received the MMR jab. He said: "This is a genuinely new syndrome and urgent further research is needed to determine whether MMR may give rise to this complication in a small number of people." Dr Wakefield theorized that the combination of the three virus strains contained in MMR may overload the body's immune system and cause the bowel disorder to develop. The British journal Lancet published a study by Dr. Andrew Wakefield that linked the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine to autism. The Lancet later issued a full retraction. The research was later widely discredited and a report in 2011 said Wakefield and colleagues had altered facts about patients.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1808956.stm)(SFC, 4/21/10, p.A12)(SFC, 1/6/11, p.A2)
1998        Researchers in India enrolled 75,360 women to be screened every two years with a simple vinegar test. Another 76,178 women were chosen for a control. In 2013 it was reported that this low-tech visual exam cut the cervical cancer death rate by 31%.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

1999        Jan 31, Scientists from the University of Alabama at Birmingham reported that the AIDS virus originated from a subspecies of chimpanzee in western Africa and that it jumped to humans in the last 50 years.
    (SFC, 2/1/99, p.A1)(AP, 1/31/00)

1999        Feb 3, In Zimbabwe officials said that 70,000 people will die of AIDS this year. 1.6 million of the nation's 12 million people were infected.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 15, Scientists announced that a new vaccine against malaria would be tested in monkeys.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.A3)

1999        Mar 3, From South Africa it was reported that 3.6 million people, one in eight adults, were carrying the AIDS virus by the end of 1998. This compared with 2.7 million in 1997.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.C5)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 17, A US science panel commissioned by the Clinton administration called for clinical trials of medical marijuana. Medical experts concluded that marijuana has medical benefits for people suffering from cancer and AIDS.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/17/00)

1999        Apr 8, An enzyme called presenilin was reported to be a critical factor in Alzheimer's disease.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.A2)

1999        Apr 18, During a speech on the 19th anniversary of independence Pres. Mugabe said that over 1200 Zimbabweans were dying each week from AIDS.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A10)

1999        May 3, Bill Gates pledged $25 million over 5 years to help develop a vaccine against AIDS.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.A3)

1999        May 6, Bristol-Myers announced a plan to spend $100 million over the next 5 years in 5 southern African nations, that included Botswana, to fund AIDS research trials.
    (WSJ, 5/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/7/00, p.A1)
1999        May 6, Scientists reported that the salmonella bacteria becomes disabled when stripped of a gene that produces the DNA adenine methylase (Dam). The research was seen as a potent new source for vaccines.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A1,17)

1999        Jun 22, Zimbabwe reported that an estimated 3,000 people were dying per week, nearly 70% of them from AIDS-related illnesses. 25% of the population was said to be infected with the AIDS causing virus.
    (SFC, 6/23/99, p.A14)

1999        Jun, Cheryl L. Johnson (1950-2007), a nurse at the Univ. of Michigan, and Susan Bianchi-Sand were among the co-founders of the United American Nurses union (UAN). During the week of June 17-20, ANA's House of Delegates (HOD) voted in Washington, DC, to create the United American Nurses (UAN), a labor entity within ANA that will further strengthen its labor activities.
    (WSJ, 11/10/07, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/2tvqo9)

1999        Jul 9, In China the number of AIDS cases was reported to have climbed past 400,000.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.C1)

1999        Jul 29, It was reported that research led by Dr. Robert Weinberg of MIT had created a cancerous human cell by genetic modification of a normal one.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.C2)

1999        Aug 5, Researchers reported the discovery of a gene that causes narcolepsy in dogs.
    (WSJ, 8/6/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 9, In NYC it was reported that 3 people had died from mosquito-borne St. Louis encephalitis in the last few weeks. The virus was later identified as the West Nile Virus, never before reported in the Western Hemisphere
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A3)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A9)

1999        Sep 13, Researchers reported that gene therapy restored vigor to aged brains in experiments with monkeys.
    (WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 13, In Zimbabwe AIDS activists gathered in Lusaka for a 4-day conference on the disease that had already killed 11 million Africans. 5 Africans were being infected every 2 minutes.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 15, It was reported that AIDS killed 2 million Africans in 1998.
    (SFC, 9/16/99, p.A13)

1999        Oct 22, US Sec. of State Albright visited Kenya and discussed efforts to curb AIDS which was claiming 500 Kenyans a day.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A11)

1999        Dec 1, On World AIDS Days, United Nations officials released a report estimating that eleven million children worldwide had been orphaned by the pandemic.
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1999        Alice M. Hodge (d.2001 at 48) authored "Taking Charge of Your Health," a self-help book for patients with life-altering diseases.
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.C6)
1999        Edward Hooper authored "The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. He suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, which was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo between 1957-1960, was produced from monkey kidney cells that contained SIV virus.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A1,14)(www.avert.org/origins.htm)
1999        Audrey Gordon’s family founded the Progeria foundation, after her nephew was diagnosed with the disease. In 2003 the Boston-based foundation was instrumental in the discovery of the progeria gene.
    (AP, 9/8/11)
1999        The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative was founded with money from the from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)(www.malariavaccine.org/about-overview.php)
1999        The UN estimated the worldwide death toll from AIDS to reach 2.6 million for this year.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.A1)

2000        Feb 18, In South Africa the telephone company, Telkom, announced that it would buy and distribute 5 million condoms to its employees in an effort to fight AIDS which had infected some 13% of the adult population.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A12)

2000        Mar 4, On the AIDS crises it was reported that 1 in every 50 black men in the US was HIV positive. It was also reported that 1 in 300 of all people in the US were HIV positive.
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, Z1 p.1)

2000        Mar 23, Researchers reported that a blood test for C-reactive protein could serve as a good indicator for heart attack risk.
    (SFC, 3/23/00, p.A4)
2000        Mar 23, Scientists reported that the genetic code of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, had been decoded. 60% of the flies 13,600 genes are identical to human genes.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.A2)

2000        Mar, The FDA forced the withdrawal of Rezulin, a diabetes pill made by Warner-Lambert. In 2002 documents showed that early indications of the drug’s danger to the liver were masked.
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A7)

2000        Apr 5, The WHO and UNAIDS recommended that the drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (or cotrimoxazole) be used to fight AIDS in Africa. The antibiotic, also known as Bactrim, would help victims live longer.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 6, A private company mapping the human genetic blueprint announced it had decoded all of the DNA pieces that make up the genetic pattern of a single human being.
    (AP, 4/6/01)

2000        Apr 17, The IMF and World Bank ministers ended their meetings and pledged to speed debt relief to poor countries and to increase support for fighting AIDS. Police blocked all protestor attempts to disrupt the meetings.
    (SFC, 4/18/00, p.A1)(AP, 4/17/01)

2000        Apr 24, It was reported that officially 5000 new AIDS cases were registered in Irkutsk, Russia, over the last year along with 8,500 heroin addicts. 40% of Russian prostitutes were reported to be HIV-positive.
    (SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 30, The Clinton administration defended their decision to classify AIDS as a threat to national security as a means to garner attention and funding to fight the disease worldwide.
    (SFC, 5/1/00, p.A7)

2000        May 2, In Rwanda health minister Ezechias Rwabuhihi reported that some 500,000 Rwandans, 6% of the population, were infected with AIDS.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A18)

2000        May 10, Pres. Clinton issued an executive order to make drugs for AIDS less expensive in Africa.
    (SFC, 5/11/00, p.A1)

2000        May 19, Scientists led by Robert Gallo announced plans for an oral AIDS vaccine to be tested in Uganda for less than $1 per dose. Trials might begin within 18 months.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 7, German drug maker Boehringer Ingelheim said it would donate nevirapine, a drug to help prevent the transmission of AIDS from mothers to infants, to every nation in the developing world that asks for it.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 9, The 13the Int’l. AIDS Conference convened in South Africa. Pres. Thabo Mbeki opened the conference and insisted that poverty was a greater enemy than the AIDS virus. Hundreds of delegates walked out.
    (SFC, 7/7/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 14, In South Africa Nelson Mandela closed the 13th Int’l. Conference on AIDS with a call for scientists to set aside differences with Pres. Thabo Mbeki and to concentrate on fighting the disease.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 19, The US announced a plan to offer sub-Saharan African nations $1 billion in loans through the Export-Import Bank to finance the purchase of American AIDS drugs and medical services.
    (SFC, 7/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 3, It was reported that scientists had developed the genetic blueprint of the cholera bacterium.
    (SFC, 8/3/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 19, Pres. Clinton signed the Global Aids and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000. It included a trust fund to care for African AIDS patients. AIDS was killing 6,000 people a day and had orphaned 15% of the children in the worst affected cities.
    (SFC, 8/19/00, p.A5)(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.A7)

2000        Aug 27, Pres. Clinton visited the village of Ushafa in Nigeria and urged Nigerians to confront the "tyranny" of AIDS.
    (SFC, 8/28/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 8, The UN Millennium Summit ended in NYC with the adoption of an 8-page plan to cure the world’s direst problems. Pledges were made to halve the proportion of people in poverty, to reverse the spread of AIDS, and to strengthen the UN’s ability to keep peace.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 11, In Barbados officials at a conference on AIDS in the Caribbean pledged $120 million to fight the disease.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A13)

2000        Sep 25, It was reported that synthetic versions of the natural enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase extended the lives of microscopic roundworms by as much as 50%.
    (SFC, 9/25/00, p.A6)

2000        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel of the US and Arvid Carlsson of Sweden for research in how memory works and for laying the foundation for the development of anti-depressants.
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A3)

2000        Oct 23, Senegal struck the 1st cut-rate deal for AIDS drugs with discounts as much as 90% from US retail prices.
    (WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 21, Research published in a British medical journal showed children who use mobile phones risk suffering memory loss, sleeping disorders and headaches. The study said that those younger than 18 are more vulnerable to cell phone radiation because their immune systems are less robust.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2000        Dec 1, Pres. Clinton on World AIDS Day urged Congress to provide more money for the prevention and treatment of AIDS. In the US 40,000 people were being infected each year and 420,000 had died since 1981. Worldwide almost 60 million people were infected and 16,000 more were being infected every day.
    (SFC, 12/2/00, p.A6)
2000        Dec 1, In South Africa the government agreed to accept a $50 million donation of the drug fluconazole from Pfizer to treat a brain inflammation associated with AIDS. Recent approval was also given for nevirapine, a drug to reduce transmission of the AIDS virus to a fetus.
    (SFC, 12/2/00, p.A12)

2000        Dec 4, It was reported that a mutated oral polio vaccine infected at least 3 people in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. That standard vaccine appeared to work against the mutated strain.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.E2)(WSJ, 4/16/02, p.A1)
2000        Dec 4, Scientists reported that the Novartis leukemia drug STI-571 brought cancer into remission in most patients in clinical trials.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A13)

2000        Dec 22, A 2nd genetic link factor for Alzheimer’s was reported on Chromosome 10. the 1st variant was known as ApoE4. the new gene was suspected in playing a role in the production of the AB42 protein that makes the plaques scattered through the brains of Alzheimer’s patients.
    (SFC, 12/22/00, p.D3)

2000        A woman gave birth to a baby that was screened to ensure a birth free of a family genetic trait for Alzheimer’s disease.
    (WSJ, 2/27/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/27/02, p.A1)

2000        Abbott Labs introduced Kaletra, an AIDS drug that included Norvir, a protease inhibitor. In 2003 Abbott quintupled the price for Norvir. Abbott pricing went under investigation in 2004.
    (WSJ, 1/3/07, p.A10)

2000        Canadian researchers began pancreatic islet transplants to patients with diabetes with 70-80% success to eliminate insulin shots.
    (WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)

2001        Jan 11, Researchers in Oregon reported the 1st genetically altered monkey produced to contain a jelly-fish gene for florescence.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Jan 27, Bill Gates pledged $100 million for an AIDS vaccine.
    (SSFC, 1/28/01, p.A18)

2001        Feb 6, Genset released early test results that showed weight loss in mice injected with famoxin.
    (WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A1)
2001        Feb 6, In India the Cipla Ltd. Corp. of Bombay offered to supply triple-therapy anti-AIDS cocktails to Doctors Without Borders in Africa for $350 per year per patient.
    (SFC, 2/7/01, p.A12)

2001        Feb 10, It was reported that Zovan, a genetically engineered version of human activated protein C, significantly cut the death rate from sepsis. It was also reported that LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor normally found in human placentas, blocked the AIDS virus in lab studies.
    (SFC, 2/10/01, p.A3)

2001        Feb 11, It was reported that scientists had found the human genome to consist of 30,000 genes and that only some 300 were unique to humans as when compared to mice.
    (SSFC, 2/11/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 12, Scientists published their first examinations of nearly all the human genetic code.
    (AP, 2/12/02)

2001        Mar 6, In Kenya the 1st experimental AIDS vaccine, specifically designed for Africa, was administered.
    (SFC, 3/7/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 8, A new AIDS vaccine was reported to be successful in monkeys.
    (WSJ, 3/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 14, Bristol-Myers proposed a $1 a day price per patient for its 2 AIDS medicines to sub-Saharan African countries.
    (SFC, 3/15/01, p.A12)

2001        Mar 20, In South Africa new AIDS statistics indicated that 25% of the adult population, one of every 9 people, was infected with HIV.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A13)

2001        Apr 4, Myriad Genetics announced a plan, with partners Oracle and Hitachi, to map out how human proteins interact.
    (WSJ, 4/5/01, p.B1)

2001        Apr 10, Doctors in San Diego implanted genetically modified cells in to the brain of a 60-year-old woman with early Alzheimer’s disease in an effort to slow her mental decline.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.A3)

2001        Apr 12, It was reported that antiseizure drugs caused higher than normal birth defects among children born to epileptic mothers.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 14, It was reported that 8 cases of childhood leukemia were recorded in 2000 in the area of Fallon, Nevada. 12 children were diagnosed with leukemia since 1997 and high levels of arsenic in the drinking water was suspected. Jet fuel at a nearby air base and a nuclear detonation in 1963, and pesticides were also cited as possible causes. In 2002 a 16th case was reported.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.A6)(SFC, 7/29/02, p.A4)

2001        Apr 28, It was reported that researchers at the Univ. of Pennsylvania had used gene therapy to reverse a form of congenital blindness in dogs.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A3)
2001        Apr 26, Kofi Annan addressed an AIDS summit in Nigeria and called for an increase of funding against AIDS to at least $7 billion.
    (SFC, 4/27/01, p.D2)
2001        Apr 26, It was reported that a meningitis outbreak had killed at least 3,500 people in Africa and that vaccine had been shipped to Ethiopia and Burkina Faso.
    (SFC, 4/26/01, p.A14)

2001        Apr 27, In Nigeria 53 African states signed a joint declaration to boost health spending to 15% to fight AIDS.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)

2001        May 10, The US FDA cleared Gleevec, a cancer drug made by Novartis. The drug disrupted enzymes that make white blood cells proliferate.
    (WSJ, 5/11/01, p.A3)(SFC, 5/11/01, p.A3)

2001        May 22, It was reported that researchers had identified a gene linked to Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder.
    (WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A1)

2001        May 24, US Sec. of State Colin Powell traveled to South Africa as part of his 4-nation African tour to promote the fight against AIDS.
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.A11)
2001        May 24, It was reported that St. Jude Medical had designed a new aortic connector to make operations easier in bypass surgery.
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 1, In South Africa Nkosi Johnson (12), a victim of AIDS, died. In 2000 he had spoken to int’l. delegates and implored South Africa to provide HIV-positive pregnant women with anti-retroviral drugs to block transmission of the virus to children at birth.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A18)(SFC, 6/2/01, p.A8)

2001        Jun 4, It was reported that the AIDS HIV-infection rate in Botswana was 38.5% of the adult population.
    (SFC, 6/4/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 6, Pfizer announced that it would distribute Diflucan, a treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, for free to AIDS patients in 50 of the world’s least developed countries.
    (SFC, 6/7/01, p.C2)

2001        Jun 25, In NYC the UN General Assembly convened for a special 3-day session on AIDS.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A12)

2001        Jul 2, In Louisville, Ky., the 1st self-contained artificial heart, AbioCor, made by Abiomed was implanted at Jewish Hospital to Robert L. Tools (59). Tools lived 151 days with the device and died Nov 30.
    (SFC, 7/4/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/22/01, p.A3)(SFC, 12/1/01, p.A3)

2001        Jul 5, Researchers reported that cloned mice have profound genetic abnormalities not apparent at birth.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 12, In Virginia a woman delivered 5 boys and 2 girls by C-section. This was only the 3rd set of septuplets known to have survived birth.
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.A3)

2001        Jul 31, The US House of Representatives voted 265-102 to criminalize all human cloning.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 21, Robert Tools, the first person to receive a self-contained artificial heart (Jul 2), was introduced to the public at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Ky., through a video link from his doctor's office. Tools survived with the device for 151 days, and died Nov. 30, 2001, of other health problems.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2001        Aug 22, Brazil moved to produce a generic version of the anti-AIDS drug nelfinavir under int’l. patent protection by Roche.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 23, It was reported that surveys had indicated that two-thirds of China’s 1.26 billion people were infected with hepatitis B.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A9)

2001        Aug 25, Univ. of Chicago doctors announced that they a kept a human kidney operating for 24 hours in a machine that simulated a warm human body.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.A10)

2001        Aug 27, It was reported that AIDS victims in Thailand were packing stadiums to receive V-1 Immunitor, a locally produced drug advertised as a clinically tested oral AIDS vaccine. Salang Bunnag sponsored the giveaway directed at Thailand’s 755,000 AIDS patients.
    (SFC, 8/27/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug, Gary Padgham (50), an elk hunter from Bozeman, Montana, died in Monterey, Ca., with symptoms similar to mad cow disease. Seattle doctors had diagnosed him with Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD).
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A13)

2001        Oct, The FDA approved tenofovir (Viread), made by Gilead Sciences, to fight HIV. It blocked a key enzyme in HIV called reverse transcriptase. Gilead acquired it from Czech chemist Antonin Holy and turned it into a once-a-day pill.
    (SFC, 7/14/04, p.A14)

2001        Nov 5, Baxter said its dialysis filters appear to have played a role in the deaths of 53 patients in Texas, Nebraska, and 6 countries in Europe, south America and Asia.
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 22, Stanford and UCSF researchers reported a long list of genes responsible for multiple schlerosis (MS).
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 28, A UN report on AIDS noted Ukraine as the 1st European nation to report 1% of its adults infected. Rapid spread was noted across Eastern Europe.
    (WSJ, 11/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov, China held its 1st national AIDS conference in Beijing.
    (WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A12)

2001        Dec 4, Edwin Huffine, US forensic scientist, launched a new DNA ID software program developed with a team of Bosnian experts at the Sarajevo-based Int’l. Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP). The program used kinship analysis.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A3)

2001        Dec 18, It was reported that malaria scientists have engineered mice that produce vaccine in their milk.
    (WSJ, 12/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 19, It was reported that 93 official cases of dengue fever had been confirmed in Hawaii, with most of them in Maui. The dengue virus had not been seen in Hawaii since 1943.
    (WSJ, 12/19/01, p.B1,4)

2001        Dec 20, It was reported that researchers had identified red wine pigments (polyphenols) as a factor in inhibiting the production of a peptide that stimulates hardening of the arteries.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 20, Bio-Rad Labs and 3 large licensees were reported to have little incentive to sell a rapid AIDS test domestically because they already dominated the slower lab-based testing market.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 21, Pfizer agreed to settle a suit over the diabetes drug Rezulin after a jury awarded $43 million to a Texas woman who said it destroyed her liver.
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A5)

2001        Dec 22, A cloned cat named CC (Carbon Copy) was born following a year of experimentation by scientists at Texas A&M scientists. The $3.7 million  research project was funded by John Sperling (81), founder of the Univ. of Phoenix. Sperling soon formed the Sausalito firm Genetic Savings to clone pets.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/16/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/6/04, p.A14)

2001        The UN said 170,000 people in Cambodia had HIV. About 2.7% of the adult population was infected with AIDS.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.41)

2002        Jan 1, It was reported that the number of AIDS cases in Vietnam, people living with HIV, had reached 40,000. 12-18k new cases were predicted for the coming years.
    (SFC, 1/1/02, p.A15)

2002        Jan 7, Scientists reported that symptoms of Parkinson’s were relieved in rats when stem cells were injected into their brains.
    (WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 9, It was reported that chlorinated water can react with organic matter to form trihalomethanes (THMs), that have been linked to cancer, miscarriages and birth defects.
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 22, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was established as a Swiss Foundation.
    (www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/publications/)

2002        Feb, The W135 strain of meningitis from the Middle East was identified for the 1st time in Africa in Burkina Faso and by Sep some 12,000 people were infected with 1,500 deaths.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A12)

2002        Mar 2, From Brazil it was reported that at least 23 people had died from dengue fever in Rio de Janeiro and that officially some 52,000 had become ill.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 6, It was reported that a 3-year study of heavy marijuana users showed that long-term pot smoking impaired brain function.
    (SFC, 3/6/02, p.A2)
2002        Mar 6, It was reported that a diet rich in tomato products can lower the risk of prostate cancer (Journal of National Cancer Institute).
    (SFC, 3/6/02, p.A2)(WSJ, 3/6/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 7, Doctors in Saudi Arabia reported that the world’s 1st uterus transplant lasted 99 days before it began to deteriorate.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Mar 8, It was reported that scientists had found a link between SV40, a simian virus, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 14, It was reported that scientists had developed a brain implant that allowed monkeys to control a computer cursor by thought alone.
    (SFC, 3/14/02, p.A2)

2002        Mar 29, It was reported that Thailand planned to market a drug combination of 3 AIDS drugs in one cheap pill.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.B1)

2002        Mar 29, France reported the successful cloning of rabbits using genetic material from adult cells.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 2, In California a SF jury awarded $33.7 million to a former Navy electrician who acquired mesothelioma from asbestos exposure. Foster Wheeler Corp. was the defendant.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A13)

2002        Apr 11, China reported that some 850,000 people were infected with AIDS at the end of 2001.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 15, The FDA approved Botox to smooth the appearance of wrinkles.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 17, French scientists reported the successful use of gene therapy to treat 4 boys with the immuno-deficiency syndrome dubbed "bubble-boy disease."
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 18, Researchers in Pittsburgh reported a strain of Group A streptococci resistant to erythromycin (the macrolide class of antibiotics).
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 24, Greece closed all schools as a mysterious virus spread with 3 deaths and 39 diagnosed cases.
    (WSJ, 4/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr, The Dr. Peter Centre in Vancouver, Canada, began running a safe-injection site for drug-addicted patients with HIV and AIDS. The city estimated 12,000 intravenous drug users among 1.3 million in the greater area.
    (WSJ, 4/1/03, p.D8)

2002        May 16, The WHO created the 1st global strategy for traditional medicine.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A16)

2002        May 30, It was reported that China was embarking on a program to inoculate its poorest people against hepatitis. Half of the population was reported to have had the disease with 120 million long term carriers.
    (WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 3, It was reported that scientists had discovered a new amino acid, dubbed pyrrolysine, in Archaea microbes. This brought the known total to 22.
    (SFC, 6/3/02, p.A4)

2002        Jun 17, The 1st oral "black fever" drug was announced. Visceral leishmaniasis reportedly killed 60,000 annually, mostly in Brazil, India and Bangladesh.
    (WSJ, 6/17/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun, The UN AIDS program reported that Russia had the highest epidemic of HIV infections in the world.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 9, The Women’s Health Initiative announced that estrogen-progestin pills, taken by millions of women as a hormone replacement therapy, do more harm than good.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 11, US scientists financed by the Pentagon announced that they had synthesized a virus from scratch for the 1st time. They built a polio virus relying only on genetic sequence information publicly available.
    (SFC, 7/12/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 13, It was reported that Dr. P.V. Rajiv in southern India saved three sick newborn babies using a cloned version of the anti-impotence drug Viagra. "We saved the babies by giving sildenafil citrate, also called Viagra," he said. Dr. Rajiv first gave the drug orally to a baby suffering pulmonary hypertension, after consulting international journals which reported its use to treat adults in a similar condition. Blue babies have a condition that contracts vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood to the lungs.
    (AP, 7/13/02)

2002        Jul 17, The National Cancer Institute published a report that linked estrogen used for hormone replacement to ovarian cancer.
    (SFC, 7/17/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 20, The number of Japanese who have died after taking diet pills imported from China has risen to four and 124 have fallen ill, Kyodo news agency reported quoting a Health Ministry report.
    (Reuters, 7/20/02)

2002        Jul, Customs inspectors in Belgium noted irregularities in medical shipments from Senegal. It was determined that some 3 million doses of Glaxo HIV drugs worth $18 million had been diverted from Africa back to Europe for sale.
    (SFC, 10/3/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 4, It was reported that low-grade inflammation is worse for human health than high cholesterol levels. Increases of C-reactive protein from the inflammation could trigger the release of lumps of plaque and cause arterial clots leading to heart attacks. Associated factors included high blood pressure, smoking and chronic gum disease.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.A9)

2002        Aug 5, Dr. Sanford L. Palay (83), neuroscientist and author of "The Cerebral Cortex" and other books, died in Concord, Mass.
    (SFC, 9/3/02, p.A20)

2002        Aug 6, Surgeons in LA completed a 22-hour operation on Guatemalan twins, Maria de Jesus Quiej Alvarez and sister Maria Teresa, joined at their heads. UCLA doctors donated their services in the $1.5 million operation. They returned to Guatemala Jan 13, 2003.
    (SFC, 8/7/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A3)(SFC, 2/7/03, p.A12)

2002        Aug 22, Researchers reported a new enzyme to treat victims of an anthrax attack and to help detect the spores.
    (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 19, Scientists urged stronger warning labels for acetaminophen, a painkiller used in numerous products including Tylenol. Overdose caused liver damage and annual deaths numbered some 100.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A3)

2002        Sep 20, Scientists urged stronger warning labels for aspirin, ibuprofen and similar painkillers due to the risk of ulcers.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A3)
2002        Sep 20, It was reported that cancer in Melanoma patients went into remission following injections of their own T-cells.
    (WSJ, 9/20/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 22, Gov. Davis signed legislation intended to make California a haven for stem cell research.
    (SFC, 9/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 30, The National Intelligence Council said China, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria and Russia will have 50-75 million HIV-infected people by 2010, more than any other 5 countries.
    (SFC, 10/1/02, p.A5)

2002        Oct 3, Int’l. teams of scientists declared that the genetic code of Plasmodium falciprum, the parasite that causes most human malaria, has been identified along with the genetic code of Anopheles gambiae, the mosquito most responsible for human malaria transmission.
    (SFC, 10/3/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 21, It was reported that Prof. Vijay Pende of Stanford successfully led a program to use shared computing power to decipher protein folding in BBA5, a man-made chain of 23 amino acids.
    (SFC, 10/21/02, p.A4)

2002        Oct 22, It was reported that a gene was identified that related to attention-deficit disorders and that it was located in a region of the human genome identified with autism.
    (WSJ, 10/22/02, p.D3)

2002        Nov 7, The US FDA approved a 20 minute easy to use AIDS test manufactured by OraSure.
    (SFC, 11/7/02, p.A4)

2002        Nov 14, The New England Journal of Medicine reported a study that found C-reactive protein (CRP) to be a major trigger of heart attacks.
    (SFC, 11/14/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 21, Merck published a study of vaccine that prevents cervical cancers caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) that could be available by 2006.
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/21/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 24, The government of Vietnam estimated AIDS at 107,000 cases and pointed to the estimated 40,000 prostitutes as the chief source. AIDS workers said 70% of the infected were drug users and claimed 200,000 cases.
    (SSFC, 11/24/02, p.A3)

2002        Nov 26, The World Health Organization confirmed an outbreak of flu in rebel-controlled northern Congo, and the country's health minister said more than 500 people have died.
    (AP, 11/26/02)
2002        Nov 26, A United Nations report said that for the first time in the 20-year history of the AIDS epidemic, about as many women as men were infected with HIV.
    (AP, 11/26/03)

2002        Dec 1, World AIDS Day marked 42 million HIV positive people around the world with 75% in sub-Saharan Africa.
    (AP, 12/2/02)

2002        Dec 5, The genetic code of the Black 6 mouse, the most common breed of laboratory mouse, was published in Nature.
    (SFC, 12/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec 19, It was reported that AIDS in Thailand infected 1 in 60 people and that by 2006 some 50,000 annual deaths would result from AIDS-related causes.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.A18)

2002        Dec 26, Brigitte Boisselier, a chemist and head of Clonaid, said the world's first human clone, a 7-pound baby girl, was born by Caesarean section. She was associated with the Raelian religion, founded by Claude Vorilhon in 1973. The claim was subsequently dismissed by scientists for lack of proof.
    (AP, 12/27/02)(Reuters, 12/27/02)(SFC, 12/28/02, p.A5)

2002        Zachary B. Friedenberg authored "Medicine Under Sail," an account of the experiences of shipboard doctors.
    (WSJ, 7/26/02, p.W10)

2003        Jan 2, It was reported that scientists had mapped chromosome 14, the 4th of 24 and longest sequenced to date.
    (AP, 1/2/03)

2003        Jan 6, US Surgeon General Dr. Richard Carmona called obesity the fastest growing cause of illness and death in the US.
    (SFC, 1/7/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 13, It was reported that Iraq has experienced a dramatic increase in child cancers in recent years. Blame was cast on the US use of depleted uranium during the 1991 Gulf War.
    (SFC, 1/13/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 26, At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Bill Gates announced that his charitable foundation will spend $200 million for medical research in poor and undeveloped countries.  In partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMFG) granted $200 million to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Challenges_In_Global_Health)(SFC, 1/27/03, p.A3)

2003        Jan 28, Pres. Bush in his State of the Union vowed to use the "full force and might of the U.S. military" if needed to disarm Saddam Hussein's Iraq. Bush pledged of $15 billion for AIDS assistance in Africa, a domestic agenda of tax cuts, medical malpractice caps and a ban on certain late abortions. Bush also announced a $1.2 billion hydrogen fuel initiative.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030206-2.html)(AP, 1/29/03)(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)
2003        Jan 28, A Chinese company began distributing generic drugs for an anti-AIDS cocktail.
    (SFC, 1/29/03, p.A5)

2003        Feb 2, Australia's first cloned sheep, Matilda (b. Apr, 2000) died unexpectedly of unknown causes.
    (AP, 2/7/03)

2003        Feb 3, New Jersey doctors joined the protest against high malpractice insurance premiums.
    (WSJ, 2/4/03, p.A1)

2003        Feb 5, It was reported that genealogical research in Utah identified a gene that causes depression.
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.A1)

2003        Feb 14, Dolly (b.1996), the world’s 1st clone sheep and mother of 6 lambs, was put to sleep by veterinarians in Scotland after they failed to cure her of a severe lung infection.
    (AP, 2/15/03)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A2)

2003        Mar 19, Doctors in Hong Kong reportedly identified the deadly pneumonia virus as belonging to the paramyxoviridae family. The severe acute respiratory illness (SARS) had killed at least 11 people and left hundreds ill. The outbreak is believed to have began in southern China in November. Later reports held that it could be a coronavirus, part of a group that cause the common cold. Many people treated with corticosteroids later developed an irreversible bone disease called avascular necrosis. By July 12, 2003, SARS killed 812 people worldwide.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/03, p.B1)(WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 29, Italian Dr. Carlo Urbani (46), a WHO expert on communicable diseases, died of SARS in Thailand, where he was being treated after becoming infected while working in Vietnam. Urbani was the 1st doctor to identify SARS.
    (AP, 3/29/03)

2003        Apr 3, It was reported that Alzheimer’s symptoms were slowed by the drug memantine.
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 4, Pres. Bush issued an executive order giving federal health officials power to quarantine anyone suspected of being infected with SARS. The disease had spread to 17 countries killing at least 90 people and infected some 2,300.
    (SFC, 4/5/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.A9)

2003        Apr 12, Canada reported 3 more deaths from the deadly SARS virus, lifting the national toll to 13. 274 probable or suspect cases have been reported across Canada, up from 266.
    (AP, 4/13/03)

2003        Apr 14, Scientists reported that the human genome map was finished with an accuracy of nearly 100% following 13 years of work.
    (WSJ, 4/15/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 16, SARS deaths totaled some 154 with at least 3,412 affected in 22 countries. A World Health Organization team disclosed that there were unreported cases of the SARS virus in Beijing's military hospitals and that investigators have been barred from releasing details.
    (SFC, 4/16/03, p.A3)(AP, 4/17/03)

2003        Apr 17, It was reported that scientists had linked a single gene mutation to the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome that makes children age prematurely.
    (SFC, 4/17/03, p.A8)
2003        Apr 17, India reported it 1st case of SARS.
    (WSJ, 4/18/03, p.A1)

2003        Apr 20, After reporting a nearly tenfold increase in SARS cases in the capital, China announced the sacking of its top health official and the capital's mayor from key Communist Party positions. The number of infections in Beijing soared from 37 to 346.
    (AP, 4/20/03)

2003        Apr 26, Health ministers from across east Asia came up with a joint plan to fight SARS during a meeting, and hundreds of medical workers in Beijing were forced to sleep in their offices because of hospital-wide quarantines.
    (AP, 4/26/03)

2003        Apr 28, Scientists reported the discovery of a type of mouse that appears to the have a genetic resistance to cancer.
    (Reuters, 4/29/03)

2003        May 2, In Taiwan 11 more cases of SARS were confirmed with 5 new deaths. Confirmed cases totaled 100 with the death toll at 8. Mutations of the virus were also reported.
    (SFC, 5/3/03, p.A7)

2003        May 4, Idaho Gem, the 1st cloned mule, was born at the Univ. of Idaho.
    (SFC, 5/30/03, p.A2)

2003        May 7, It was reported that scientists had altered a common cold virus to destroy a common brain tumor in mice.
    (WSJ, 5/7/03, p.D7)

2003        May 12, A British government doctor reported that the brains of at least 20,000 people, many of them depressed or mentally ill when they died, were removed without their families' consent from 1970-1999.
    (AP, 5/12/03)(USAT, 5/13/03, p.10A)

2003        May 16, The US Senate committed $15 billion to fight global AIDS. Congress approved the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In his Jan 28, State of the Union address Pres. George W. Bush had made a commitment to substantially increase US support for addressing HIV/AIDS worldwide.
    (AP, 5/16/04)(www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/115411.pdf)

2003        May 27, A study was released that showed women who took hormones for years ran a higher risk of Alzheimer's or other types of dementia.
    (AP, 5/27/04)

2003        May 29, Scientists reported the discovery of a "master gene" in stem cells.
    (SFC, 5/30/03, p.A5)

2003        Jun 1, Genentech reported that its drug Avastin lengthened survival time for colon cancer patients. In 2004 the FDA approved it as a colorectal cancer treatment. In 2007 researches said it could improve the treatment of kidney tumors.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.G1)
2003        Jun 1, UC Berkeley researchers revealed a new laboratory method for manufacturing the anti-malarial drug, artemisinin.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.A11)

2003        Jul 10, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Festus Mogae in Botswana. Bush said that AIDS is "the deadliest enemy Africa has ever faced" and pledged to the nation with the world's highest AIDS infection rate that it would have a strong partner in his administration in fighting the disease.
    (SFC, 7/10/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/10/08)

2003        Jun 12, EndoVascular Tech., a unit of Guidant Corp., pleaded guilty for failure to report malfunctions of their Ancure Endograft system and was ordered to pay $92.4 million in civil and criminal penalties. Some 2,628 malfunctions between 1999 and 2001 had not been reported.
    (SFC, 6/17/03, p.A1)(SFC, 10/17/03, p.A25)

2003        Jun 16, Scientists reported that they've identified a flawed gene that appears to promote manic-depression, or bipolar disorder.
    (AP, 6/16/03)

2003        Jul 19, The first Human Tongue Transplant took place in Vienna, Austria. Tongue transplants had been performed for years on animals, but this was the first attempt at transplanting a human tongue. It was carried out at Memorial University Hospital in Vienna, Austria during a 14-hour operation by Dr. Rolf Ewers and eight surgeons. It was performed on an unidentified 42-year-old patient who was suffering from a malignant tumor affecting his tongue and jaw. Doctors believed he would ultimately be able to talk, have feeling and limited movement, but probably won’t regain the sensation of taste.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5ehhps)(http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3964)

2003        Jun 24, The WHO lifted its warning against travel to Beijing due to SARS.
    (SFC, 6/25/03, p.A7)

2003        Jul 8, Ladan and Laleh Bijani (29), Iranian twin sisters, joined at the head, died within 90 minutes of each other as neurosurgeons in Singapore worked into a 3rd day to separate them.
    (AP, 7/7/03)(AP, 7/8/03)

2003        Jul 9, Canada became the 1st country in the world to start selling marijuana to several hundred seriously ill people but said the pot project could be halted at any time.
    (Reuters, 7/9/03)
2003        Jul 9, Research was released that said PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), commonly used in flame retardants, posed a health hazard.
    (SFC, 7/9/03, p.A1)

2003        Jul 18, Scientists reported the discovery of a link between a seratonin-controlling gene and depression.
    (SFC, 7/18/03, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 3, Dr. Pater Safar (79), regarded as the father of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cpr), died in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (SFC, 8/5/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 12, Some 8,000 US doctors called for a government-financed national health insurance as a single-payer system similar to an expanded version of Medicare.
    (SFC, 8/13/03, p.A3)

2003        Aug 13, Florida's legislature approved a bill that capped most medical malpractice damage awards at $500,000.
    (WSJ, 8/14/03, p.A1)
2003        Aug 13, Ontario health officials reported that a family doctor had become the 44th person to die from SARS in Toronto.
    (AP, 8/14/03)
2003        Aug 13, Chinese researchers reported that they had created hybrid embryos of human and rabbit DNA as a source for stem cells.
    (SFC, 8/14/03, p.A3)

2003        Sep 1, Marijuana went on sale Monday at Dutch pharmacies to help bring relief to thousands of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS or multiple sclerosis.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

2003        Sep 4, Researchers reported that the hormone YY3-36 appeared to curb the appetite of obese people.
    (SFC, 9/4/03, p.A3)

2003        Sep 8, Singapore health officials confirmed that a local patient tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, the 1st new case of the disease in over 5 months.
    (AP, 9/8/03)(WSJ, 9/10/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 14, The Lasker foundation presented awards for medical research to Dr. Robert Roeder for his work on gene transcription, and to Dr. Marc Feldman and Sir Ravinder Maini for their anti-TVF work that led to drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
    (SSFC, 9/14/03, p.A2)

2003        Sep 16, It was reported that scientists in Japan have transformed mouse stem cells into sperm cells.
    (SFC, 9/16/03, p.A6)

2003        Sep 27, An illness called "nodding disease" was reported among children in southern Sudan. It caused victims to convulse with sharp nods of the head while eating or exposed to unusually cold conditions.
    (SFC, 9/27/03, p.A28)

2003        Oct 11, In Italy 4-month-old twin Greek girls joined at the temple were successfully separated after a 13 hour operation at a Rome hospital.
    (AP, 10/12/03)(SFC, 10/15/03, p.A2)

2003        Nov 3, The FDA issued draft guidelines outlining when drug companies must submit information on how medicines affect people differently depending on their genetic makeup.
    (WSJ, 11/3/03, p.B1)

2003        Nov 5, President Bush signed a ban on partial birth abortion, but a federal judge in Nebraska immediately blocked its implementation in some states.
    (AP, 11/5/03)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 6, Patmos, "payment at the time of service," was reported to be a growing practice among physicians.
    (WSJ, 11/6/03, p.A1)
2003        Nov 6, Gene scientists published a map in Nature that shows how DNA controls protein interactions in the fruit fly.
    (WSJ, 11/7/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 11, It was reported that gene scientists had determined that a genetic variation helped slowed the creation of bad cholesterol and helped explain why some people lived longer. [see 1974]
    (WSJ, 11/11/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 13, The US Energy Dept reported that Dr. Craig Venter and colleagues had assembled a bacteriophage containing 5,386 DNA base pairs.
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.A7)

2003        Nov 25, The UN said AIDS will kill 3 million people this year and infect 5 million. The global HIV tally was put at 40 million.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 26, The UN Children's Fund warned that AIDS has already orphaned more than 11 million African children under the age of 15, and "the worst is yet to come."
    (AP, 11/26/03)

2003        Nov 27, Researchers in Cleveland reported on a gene that causes heart attacks.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C11)(WSJ, 11/28/03, p.B1)

2003        Nov 28, AIDS in Guatemala was reported to kill an estimated 10 people a day.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C2)

2003        Nov, Jenifer West and colleagues at Rice Univ. described a sophisticated way of cauterising cancers using precisely engineered "nanoshells."
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.79)

2003        Dec 3, It was reported that England planned to spend $17 billion to transform its health care system with information technology to make all medical records available in a secure central database.
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.B1)

2003        Dec 8, Pres. Bush signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (also called the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA). It was the biggest expansion of Medicare since its creation in 1965. The $400 billion Medicare overhaul bill included a provision to put away pre-tax money into interest bearing accounts to save for medical expenses.
    (SFC, 12/9/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/16/03, p.D1)

2003        Dec 9, Esmond Snell (89), biochemist, died in Boulder, Colo. He and Texas colleagues discovered and named folic acid, a B vitamin needed to make DNA and RNA and to enable red blood cells to carry iron.
    (SFC, 12/25/03, p.A18)

2003        Dec 11, The Italian Parliament imposed controls on medically assisted reproduction.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A17)

2003        Dec 12, It was reported that researchers had found a gene in worms that was responsible for drunkeness.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 16, Dr. Peter Valk (63), Sacramento internist and pioneer in the clinical use of P.E.T. scans, died. He had recently finished editing "Positron Emission Tomography: Basic Science and clinical Practices."
    (SFC, 1/15/04, p.A19)

2003        Dec 17, The US CDC reported that the average age of US women for their 1st child was 25.1 years, up from 21.4 in 1970.
    (WSJ, 12/18/03, p.A1)

2003        Tracy Kidder authored "Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the World."
    (SSFC, 9/21/03, p.M1)

2003        The Groningen Academic Hospital in Amsterdam, Netherlands, carried out 4 mercy killings of terminally ill newborn children in this year. In 2004 the hospital proposed guidelines for such procedures.
    (SFC, 12/1/04, p.A17)

2004        Jan 14, Former Pres. Clinton announced an agreement with 5 medical technology companies to reduce the cost of tests for HIV-AIDS treatment in Africa and the Caribbean.
    (SFC, 1/15/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 11, South Korean scientists reported that they had cloned human embryonic tissue cells.
    (SFC, 2/12/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 3, Harvard reported that it used private funds to create 17 new stem-cell lines from discarded fertility clinic embryos.
    (WSJ, 3/4/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 17, Harvard researchers reported that an enzyme in the brain appears to regulate appetite and weight.
    (WSJ, 3/18/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 23, The Bush administration reported that the Medicare Trust Fund would run out of money in 2019, 7 years earlier that projected in 2003.
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.A1)
2004        Mar 23, Chen Zhongwei (74), a Chinese surgeon credited with pioneering the process of reattaching severed limbs, died. Chen successfully reattached the severed right hand of an injured factory worker in 1963, in the first operation of its kind.
    (AP, 3/27/04)

2004        Mar 24, A group of large employers proposed "scorecards" for doctors in an effort help employees choose doctors based on quality care.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 26, The FDA approved the 1st HIV test that uses saliva rather than blood. The 20 minute test, made by OraSure, is able to detect HIV antibodies about 6 weeks after infection.
    (SFC, 3/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 10, Some 11% of South Africans, 5 million people, were reported to be infected with AIDS. An earlier government report said 100,000 civil servants were HIV positive.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.39)

2004        Apr 13, The FDA approved a clinical trial by Cyberkinetics on implants in humans for a brain-computer interface.
    (SFC, 4/14/04, p.C8)

2004        Apr 26, Scientists reported that a new gene-therapy treatment for Alzheimer's patients had produced encouraging results.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.A5)

2004        May 3, A group of British scientists announced early work on a new procedure that makes teeth grow from stem cells implanted in the gum.
    (AFP, 5/3/04)

2004        May 10, Scientists working with mice reported success in killing fat cells by cutting off their blood supply.
    (WSJ, 5/10/04, p.B1)

2004        May 19, Britain opened the world’s 1st stem cell bank.
    (WSJ, 5/20/04, p.A1)

2004        May 26, It was reported that a new study showed that aspirin might help reduce women’s chances of developing the most common form of breast cancer.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 13, It was reported that a quarter teaspoon of cinnamon a day helped to reduce glucose, fat and cholesterol levels by a s much as 30%.
    (SSFC, 6/13/04, Par p.8)

2004        Jun 25, Australia's government decided to cover most of the outside of cigarette packages with graphic images showing the physical damage caused by smoking.
    (AFP, 6/25/04)

2004        Jun, Doctors at Rhode Island Hospital implanted a pea-size sensor in the brain of Matthew Nagle, a quadriplegic, which connected to computer. Over a 9-month period he learned to use his mind to control motion on a video monitor and a robotic arm. The journal Nature reported the results of the experiment on July 13, 2006.
    (SFC, 7/13/06, p.A1)

2004        Jul 5, It was reported that India was logging nearly 1000 new AIDS cases a month and that there were an estimated 4.6 million people infected with HIV.
    (SFC, 7/5/04, p.A8)

2004        Aug 16, The FDA approved the 1st surgical device to clear clots from the brains of stroke victims.
    (WSJ, 8/17/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 3, US Medicare announced a 17.4% increase in premiums for doctor visits.
    (WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 13, Scientists reported a new type of cancer-influencing gene that can either suppress or trigger tumors.
    (SFC, 9/13/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 23, In Belgium a woman gave birth to a healthy baby after doctors had transplanted ovarian tissue, frozen since 1997, back into her abdomen.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 24, Medical experts said screening for artery disease is a good idea for people over 60. Carotid ultrasound and ankle-brachial tests were recommended.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B3)

2004        Sep 25, The Lasker Foundation awarded its prize for clinical research posthumously to Dr. Charles Kelman, who made cataract removal an outpatient procedure. The $50,000 award for basic research went to Dr. Pierre Chambon, Ronald Evans, and Elwood Jensen for opening up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors.
    (SSFC, 9/26/04, p.A10)

2004        Sep 30, Merck & Co. said the arthritis drug Vioxx, used by 2 million people around the world, was being pulled off the market after a study confirmed longstanding concerns that it raises the risk of heart attack and stroke. Global Vioxx sales in 2003 had reached $2.5 billion. In 2007 Merck agreed to a $4.85 million settlement.
    (AP, 9/30/04)(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.A1)
2004        Sep 30, A deal was announced between Samoa and UC Berkeley researchers to clone a promising anti-AIDS drug, prostratin, from the bark of the native mamala tree.
    (SFC, 10/1/04, p.B1)

2004        Oct 13, The US government approved a microchip that can be implanted under the skin to provide doctors with patient data. Two weeks after the device's approval took effect on Jan. 10, 2005, Tommy Thompson left his Cabinet post, and within five months was a board member of VeriChip Corp. and Applied Digital Solutions. He was compensated in cash and stock options. In 2007 it was reported that a series of veterinary and toxicology studies, dating to the mid-1990s, stated that chip implants had "induced" malignant tumors in some lab mice and rats.
    (SFC, 10/14/04, p.A1)(AP, 9/9/07)

2004        Oct 18, The US FDA approved the 1st partially implantable artificial heart intended to keep patients alive while they wait for a heart transplant.
    (WSJ, 10/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct, The US FDA approved the 1st artificial spinal disk, the Charite disc from Johnson & Johnson. It had been successfully implanted in patients in Europe since the 1980s.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.D1)(WSJ, 6/7/05, p.A1)

2004        Nov 3, Dr. Sidney Goldring, and early advocate of brain operation for epilepsy, died in Chesterfield, Mo. He advocated the use of electrodes to find precise areas involved in setting off seizures.
    (SFC, 11/18/04, p.B7)

2004        Nov 8, It was reported that a new polyester mesh stocking pulled over a weak heart was effective in reducing heart failure.
    (SFC, 11/8/04, p.A2)

2004        Nov 18, The US government reported a possible case of mad cow disease.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A3)
2004        Nov 18, US Army doctors said some 100 soldiers wounded in the Mideast and Afghanistan had come down with rare, treatment resistant blood infections.
    (WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A1)
2004        Nov 18, FDA officer David Graham identified 5 drugs with dangerous side effects: Crestor to lower cholesterol, Meridia for weight loss, Bextra for pain, Accutane for acne, and Serevent for asthma.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A1)
2004        Nov 18, Genentech and its partners announced FDA approval of the experimental lung cancer drug, Tarceva.
    (SFC, 11/19/04, p.A3)

2004        Nov 23, A UN AIDS report said infections had risen 7.7% to 39.4 million over the last 2 years; growth was fastest in Asia and East Europe. New infections in 2004 were estimated at 4.9 million with 3.1 million deaths.
    (WSJ, 11/24/04, p.A1)(Econ, 11/27/04, p.82)

2004        Dec 1, World AIDS Day was observed around the globe. The CDC said nearly one million Americans had the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 12/1/04)(WSJ, 12/2/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 12, Researchers said they may have discovered what causes psoriasis, a common and irritating skin ailment.
    (Reuters, 12/13/04)

2004        Dec 17, It was reported that the AIDS drug nevirapine failed to meet int’l. standards in Uganda. The drug was used to protect babies from HIV infection, but that infected women could develop resistance.
    (SFC, 12/17/04, p.A23)

2004        Dec 28, The US FDA approved a new drug for severe pain to be marketed by Elan as Prialt. It was part of a new class known as N-type calcium channel blockers.
    (SFC, 12/29/04, p.A5)

2004        Marcia Angell authored “The Truth About Drug Companies."
    (WSJ, 8/25/04, p.D10)
2004        Steven Johnson authored "Mind Wide Open: Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life." He examined how the functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) might reveal the workings of the mind's emotional toolbox and its alleged 412 distinct emotions.
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.M8)

2004        The US FDA approved maggot therapy as a prescription treatment to prevent wound infections.
    (SFC, 12/8/12, p.A10)
2004        PatientsLikeMe, a social networking health site, was founded by three Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) engineers: brothers Benjamin Heywood and Jamie Heywood and longtime family friend Jeff Cole.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQ p.22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PatientsLikeMe)
2004        Gilead Sciences of California launched Truvada, a once-a-day, one-pill combination of two drugs to treat AIDS.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)(http://www.gilead.com/pdf/truvada_pi.pdf)
2004        Vytorin, a drug for high cholesterol, came out. It combined Merck’s Zocor with Schering-Plough Corp.'s Zetia, which went on sale in 2002 and attacks cholesterol in a different way. In 2008 a study of Vytorin failed to show positive results.
    (http://money.cnn.com/2005/06/20/news/fortune500/vytorin/index.htm)(AP, 3/31/08)

2005        Jan 20, Alzheimer’s scientists said they had reversed brain-cell damage in mice by clearing plaque with antibodies.
    (WSJ, 1/21/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 4, It was reported that California’s mysterious explosion of autism cases increased by 13% in 2004. State services for autism had increased from some 5,000 in 1993 to 26,000 in 2004. The US federal Dept. of Education reported that autism in schoolchildren increased 1,700% nationally from 1992 to 2002.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 8, It was reported that a 1991 memo from Merck showed that senior executives were concerned that the vaccines of an expanded immunization program contained an elevated dose of mercury by as much as 87 times the maximum guidelines for daily consumption of mercury from fish. Thimersol, an anti-bacterial compound in the vaccine, was nearly 50% ethyl mercury, a neurotoxin. The vaccine program was later tied to elevated cases of autism.
    (SFC, 2/8/05, p.A5)

2005        Feb 18, An advisory panel said Merck & Co. Inc.'s withdrawn arthritis drug Vioxx is safe enough to rejoin Pfizer's rival pain relievers Celebrex and Bextra on the U.S. market, after concluding that all three medicines posed some level of heart risk.
    (Reuters, 2/19/05)

2005        Mar 3, A UN report on AIDS in Africa said 80 million may be dead by 2025 with over 10% of the population infected.
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 14, Health Day News reported that an experimental drug that stops cancer cell division and triggers tumor death has been developed by researchers at Temple University. The drug, called ON01910, interferes with the activity of a gene called Plk1.
    (HDN, 3/15/05)

2005        Mar 15, British and Spanish scientists reported that they have discovered how green tea helps to prevent certain types of cancer. They showed that a compound called EGCG in green tea prevents cancer cells from growing by binding to a specific enzyme.
    (AP, 3/15/05)
2005        Mar 15, It was noted that Israeli researchers had found that pomegranate juice helps lower cholesterol.
    (WSJ, 3/15/05, p.D4)

2005        Mar 24, The US FDA approved Boniva, a monthly pill to help women fight osteoporosis.
    (SFC, 3/26/05, p.A4)

2005        Apr 19, Britain's GW Pharmaceuticals announced its multiple sclerosis (MS) pain relief drug Sativex, the world's first containing cannabis, has been approved for use in Canada.
    (AP, 4/19/05)

2005        Jun 2, Researchers reported that human trust in others was related to the hormone oxytocin.
    (Econ, 6/4/05, p.76)

2005        Jun 4, It was reported that Larry Ellison, head of Oracle Corp., planned to create a database and journal to track improvements in world health through a joint venture with Harvard that would be accompanied by as much as $115 million.
    (SFC, 6/4/05, p.C1)

2005        Jun 20, Dutch scientists reported that folic acid improved the memory of older adults.
    (SFC, 6/21/05, p.A3)

2005        Jun 23, The US FDA approved the heart failure drug BiDil for use by blacks. It will be the 1st medication targeted for a specific racial group.
    (SFC, 6/24/05, p.A3)

2005        Nov 30, French doctors performed the world’s 1st partial face transplant. They operated on a woman (38) disfigured by a dog bite.
    (SFC, 12/1/05, p.A1)

2006        Mar 28, In China new regulations viewed on the Health Ministry's Web site forbade the buying and selling of organs and require that donors give written permission for their organs to be transplanted.
    (AP, 3/28/06)

2006        Jun 2, Four governments (Brazil, Chile, France, and Norway), the UN and the world's soccer federation launched a plan to use the proceeds of a new airline ticket tax to treat people in the developing world suffering from AIDS, malaria or tuberculosis. Countries that have either approved or say they expect to approve a new airline ticket tax include Britain, Cyprus, Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mauritius and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 3, Doctors reported that a new experimental drug, lapatinib, from British-based GlaxoSmithKline PLC, delayed the growth of advanced breast cancer in women who had stopped responding to the drug Herceptin and were out of treatment options. The company planned to sell the drug under the name Tykerb.
    (AP, 6/3/06)(SSFC, 6/4/06, p.A5)

2006        Jul 19, Alain Rappaport premiered the web site www.medstory.com, a consumer search product for information on health and medicine.
    (SFC, 7/19/06, p.C1)

2006        Sep 5, The US FDA granted Abiomed approval to sell AbioCor, the world’s first implantable artificial heart.
    (SFC, 9/6/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 6, Reporting in the Annals of Internal Medicine, European researchers said virgin olive oil may be particularly effective at lowering heart disease risk because of its high level of antioxidant plant compounds.
    (Reuters, 9/6/06)

2006        Sep 15, A large diabetes-prevention study found that the drug Rosiglitazone (Avandia), made by GlaxoSmithKline, can help keep “pre-diabetics" from developing Type 2 diabetes. The drug was already being used to treat the disease, which afflicted over 200 million worldwide.
    (SFC, 9/16/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 27, The US FDA approved Vectibix (panitimumab), a new colon cancer drug developed by Amgen and Abgenix.
    (SFC, 9/28/06, p.C1)

2006        Sep 28, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., the US unit of Swiss drugmaker Novartis AG, said that at least three out of four patients given an experimental multiple sclerosis treatment were free of relapses for more than two years.
    (AP, 9/28/06)

2006        Oct 9, Panamanian authorities said they suspect a medicine taken to treat high blood pressure may be among the factors leading to the deaths of 21 people since July who have succumbed to a mysterious illness that triggers kidney failure. Panama's health minister stopped sales of the medication, Lisinopril Normon, on Oct 6 and began removing it from pharmacy shelves. About 9,000 Panamanians were taking the medicine. Total deaths eventually reached at least 116 from contaminated medications [see Oct 18].
    (AP, 10/9/06)(AP, 5/10/08)

2006        Oct, The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) opened its Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Va. the new $500 million lab, designed by Rafael Vinoly, planned to engage in long-term medical research.
    (WSJ, 9/22/06, p.B1)

2006        Nov 21, The UN said an estimated 39.5 million people are now living with the AIDS virus worldwide as infection rates and deaths from the disease continue to mount.
    (AP, 11/21/06)

2006        Nov 22, China reported that the number of HIV/AIDS cases is nearly 30% higher than for all of last year, with intravenous drug use as the biggest source of infection.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

2006        Nov 23, Scientists studying mice said they have found what may be a master cardiac stem cell, able to change into the three major cell types in a mammal's heart, in a finding that could help guide heart repair in people.
    (Reuters, 11/23/06)

2006        Dec 1, World AIDS Day was marked around the globe by somber religious services, boisterous demonstrations and warnings that far more needs to be done to treat and prevent the disease.
    (AP, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 26, It was reported that a large study in Britain had found that taking such popular heartburn drugs as Nexium, Prevacid or Prilosec for a year or more can raise the risk of a broken hip markedly in people over 50.
    (AP, 12/26/06)

2006        Dec 30, Maria del Carmen Bousada (66) of Spain became the world's oldest mother after she gave birth to twins in the northern city of Barcelona. She had previously undergone in vitro fertilization in Los Angeles. Bousada (69) died of cancer on July 11, 2009, leaving behind her twin toddlers.
    (AP, 12/30/06)(AP, 7/15/09)

2006        Harriet A. Washington authored “Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present."
    (SSFC, 12/31/06, p.M1)
2006        Gilead Sciences of California launched Atripla, a once-a-day, one-pill combination of Truvada and another drug to treat AIDS.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)(http://www.atripla.com/)
2006        In Abu Dhabi a diabetes center was opened by the Imperial College of London. In 2008 almost a fifth of the UAE’s native population suffered from diabetes.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.37)

2007        Jan 29, Bayer said the US Food and Drug Administration has approved a new use of Bayer Schering Pharma AG's drug YAZ to allow it to be used to treat moderate acne in women who also want to use an oral contraceptive for birth control.
    (AP, 1/29/07)

2007        Jan, In eastern England a 16-year-old girl lost nearly all her fingers after she put her hands in a bucket of plaster of Paris during an art lesson. She was attempting to make a sculpture of her own hands. In 2009 Giles School, in Boston, was ordered to pay 19,000 pounds ($30,140) for breaching health and safety regulations and also failing to report the incident to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
    (Reuters, 10/12/09)

2007        Feb 11, Scientists reported in the journal Nature that they had successfully prevented cleft palates in embryonic mice using a technique called chemical genetics.
    (SFC, 2/12/07, p.A3)

2007        Feb 16, Francisco Castaneda, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, died of penile cancer that went undiagnosed for more than a year while he was in state and federal custody in California. In 2010 a Los Angeles jury awarded his family $1.73 million.
    (SFC, 11/12/10, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/2atfmvw)

2007        Mar 28, The health department of Philippines said HIV/AIDS is ravaging the large overseas work force, posing a long-term threat to one of Manila's key sources of foreign exchange.
    (AFP, 3/28/07)

2007        Apr 10, Diabetes scientists reported that 15 Type 1 Brazilians did not need insulin shots after therapy with stem cells from their own blood. It was also reported that such stem cells helped repair heart damage due to Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, carried by kissing bugs (barbeiros).
    (WSJ, 4/11/07, p.A1)

2007        Apr 15, Researchers reported that cells that are supposed to nourish and support other nerve cells instead secrete the poisons that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
    (Reuters, 4/15/07)

2007        Apr 20, It was reported that German researchers had discovered a natural anti-HIV factor. The 20 amino acid peptide chain blocked multiple strains of HIV.
    (SFC, 4/20/07, p.A7)

2007        Apr 24, US FDA advisers endorsed a Pfizer AIDS drug that fights HIV by blocking one of two cell receptors that are infection routes.
    (WSJ, 4/25/07, p.A1)

2007        May 15, Russia's top AIDS specialist said Russia's AIDS epidemic is worsening with as many as 1.3 million people infected with HIV as the virus spreads further into the heterosexual population.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 20, Officials said Nigeria's largest state has sued US drug firm Pfizer for allegedly using 200 children as "guinea pigs" for a drug test in 1996 that led to multiple deaths and deformities. In 2010 a leaked WikiLeaks cable said Pfizer hired investigators to unearth evidence of corruption against Nigeria’s former attorney general Michael Aondoakaa to persuade him to drop legal action over the company’s experimental antibiotic, Trovan.
    (AFP, 5/20/07)(SSFC, 12/12/10, p.A4)

2007        May 21, The US Food and Drug Administration issued a safety alert for the diabetes drug Avandia, marketed by GlaxoSmithKline, which disputed a report saying it was linked to a greater risk of heart attack. A doctor in Maryland had linked Avandia to congestive heart failure in 2000, but GlaxoSmithKline rejected her warning and tried to stop her from talking about it with other doctors and hospitals.
    (AP, 5/21/08)(WSJ, 11/19/08, p.B6)

2007        May 25, US and British researchers reported that stem cells taken from the umbilical cords of newborns can be engineered to produce insulin and may someday be used to treat diabetes.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        Jun 15, New international health regulations (IHRS) obliged governments to co-operate with Margaret Chan, director-general of WHO, and report potential pandemics at once.
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.67)

2007        Jul 9, Northwest Biotherapeutics, a US-based biotech company, said it had won approval for commercial use of the world's first vaccine against brain cancer in Switzerland.
    (AFP, 7/9/07)
2007        Jul 9, Novartis said the first skin patch to treat the dementia that can plague Alzheimer's patients has gained federal approval. The drug in the patch, called Exelon or rivastigmine, is the same as that now available in capsule form but provides a regular and continuous dose throughout the day.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

2007        Jul 24, Jolee Mohr (36) died in Chicago just weeks after beginning an experimental gene therapy treatment from Targeted Genetics to ease the pain the rheumatoid arthritis in her knee.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.A21)

2007        Jul 29, Scientists said they have identified two genes that may raise the risk of multiple sclerosis, lending insight into the causes of the debilitating disease.
    (Reuters, 7/29/07)(SFC, 7/30/07, p.A1)

2007        Aug 2, Scientists warned that bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like compound in plastic, is probably causing an array of serious reproductive disorders in people.
    (SFC, 8/3/07, p.A3)

2007        Aug 5, Scientists reported that the skin condition called rosacea is caused by an abundance of abnormal cathelicidin skin proteins.
    (SFC, 8/6/07, p.A10)

2007        Aug 7, The US FDA approved a new drug to help patients with AIDS. Pfizer’s Selzentry is the first anti-AIDS drug that blocks the CCR5 receptor, often used by the HIV virus to enter white blood cells.
    (SFC, 8/7/07, p.A4)

2007        Aug 12, Ronald Bracewell (86), retired Stanford professor, died. He co-wrote the first text on radio astronomy and helped develop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. The Australian-born engineer also led the 1961 construction of the 32-dish radio telescope at Stanford and authored a book on 350 species of trees on the Stanford campus.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.B11)

2007        Sep 6, A cocktail of artificial colors and the commonly-used preservative sodium benzoate are linked to hyperactivity in children, according to a ground-breaking study published by The Lancet.
    (AFP, 9/6/07)

2007        Sep 16, It was reported that this year’s $150,000 Lasker Prize will go to Dr. Albert Starr of Portland, Ore., and Dr. Alain Carpentier of Paris, France, for their work in heart valve replacement. The Lasker Prize for basic research prize will go to Dr. Ralph Steinman of Rockefeller Univ. for discovering dendritic cells, which trigger defenses against germs.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.A2)

2007        Sep 24, An Australian man was conscious and spoke to his medical team during life-saving brain surgery in what doctors are claiming as a world-first procedure with cutting-edge technology.
    (AP, 9/24/07)
2007        Sep 24, The Swiss drugmaker Novartis AG said that the European Commission had approved its Exelon skin patch to treat Alzheimer's disease.
    (AP, 9/24/07)

2007        Oct 4, Microsoft outlined its vision, dubbed HealthVault, in which a person can view, from one place, their complete health records.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.74)(http://tinyurl.com/2fop6p)
2007        Oct 4, Health Canada said that it has stopped the sale of Novartis Pharmaceuticals anti-inflammatory drug Prexige and will cancel its market authorization due to the risk for serious liver-related effects including hepatitis.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 16,     A study in Hong Kong reportedly found that Lupeol, a compound in fruits like mangoes, grapes and strawberries, appears to be effective in killing and curbing the spread of cancer cells in the head and neck.
    (Reuters, 10/16/07)

2007        Nov 2, A new study, issued by the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research, said drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV have merged into a double-barreled epidemic that is sweeping across sub-Saharan Africa and threatening global efforts to eradicate both diseases.
    (AFP, 11/2/07)

2007        Nov 6, In Bangalore, India, doctors began operating on Lakshmi, a 2-year-old girl born with four arms and four legs, in an extensive surgery that they hope will leave the girl with a normal body.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 9, Merck & Co. said it will pay $4.85 billion to end thousands of state and federal lawsuits over its painkiller Vioxx in one of the largest drug settlements ever.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 26, A new report said the US District of Columbia has the highest rate of AIDS of any city in the country. An estimated one in 20 residents had HIV and one in 50 had AIDS.
    (SFC, 11/27/07, p.A3)

2007        Nov 29, Cancer researchers reported a link between night-shift work and a higher incidence of cancer.
    (WSJ, 11/30/07, p.A1)
2007        Nov 29, According to a new report released by the UN and the Chinese government the number of people estimated to be living with HIV in China has risen to 700,000, with increases among intravenous drug users and sex workers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Nov, Bayer AG removed the drug Trasylol at the request of the FDA after an observational study linked the medicine to kidney failure requiring dialysis and increased death of those patients. Dr. Dennis Mangano, the study's researcher, later said that 22,000 lives could have been saved if Trasylol had been taken off the market when he first published his study in January 2006.
    (Reuters, 2/14/08)

2007        Dec 14, It was reported that German AIDS researchers have discovered a protein common in semen that boosts the infectious potential of HIV 100,000-fold.
    (SFC, 12/14/07, p.A1)

2007        Dec 19, US researchers said a highly sensitive microchip may help doctors detect rare traces of cancer circulating in the bloodstream, offering a way to better manage treatment.
    (Reuters, 12/19/07)

2007        In Arizona ImaRX began a trial using microbubbles containing a clot-buster. New technology allowed bubbles to reach intended targets where they were forced to burst using ultrasound. Companies such as Nanotrope and Targeson worked to develop customized bubbles.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.8)
2007        Mona Lori Frisbie started OutOfPocket.com as a crowd-sourcing tool for patients. Visitor posted prices are supplemented with Medicare data.
    (SFC, 5/21/12, p.D4)
2007        Dr. Lawrence Wallace of Carmel Valley began experimenting with thermoplase, a malleable thermoplastic, and developed low cost dentures that can be made in about an hour.
    (SFC, 2/15/14, p.D2)

2008        Jan 2, US researchers said a married couple who sailed to America from England around 1630 are the reason why thousands of people in the United States are at higher risk of a hereditary form of colon cancer.
    (Reuters, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 6, Dr. Pramod Karan Sethi (80), inventor of a low-cost prosthetic foot that has helped millions of people in developing and war-torn countries, died in Jaipur, India. The surgeon developed the Jaipur Foot in 1968 with India's rural poor in mind.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 11, The World Bank uncovered serious incidents of fraud and corruption in about $750 million of health projects it has funded in India dating back to 1997.
    (WSJ, 1/14/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 19, James Levoy Sorenson (b.1921), medical device inventor and Utah real estate investor, died. He amassed over 40 medical patents and introduced the disposable paper surgical mask.
    (WSJ, 1/26/08, p.A8)

2008        Jan 29, Scientists in New Zealand reported that smoking a joint is equivalent to 20 cigarettes in terms of lung cancer risk and warned of an "epidemic" of lung cancers linked to cannabis.
    (Reuters, 1/29/08)

2008        Jan 30, Police in India said they broke up an illegal organ transplant ring spanning five Indian states and involving at least four doctors, several hospitals, two dozen nurses and paramedics and a car outfitted as a laboratory (see Feb 7).
    (AP, 1/30/08)(WSJ, 1/31/08, p.A1)

2008        Feb 1, Scientists in Finland said they had replaced a 65-year-old patient's upper jaw with a bone transplant cultivated from stem cells isolated from his own fatty tissue and grown inside his abdomen.
    (Reuters, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 6, In France 7 doctors and pharmacists went on trial for the deaths of more than 100 young people who died of a brain-destroying disease after being treated with tainted human growth hormones.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 7, Nepalese authorities arrested Amit Kumar, the alleged mastermind of a shadowy organ transplant operation in India that illegally removed hundreds of kidneys, sometimes from unwilling donors, at a jungle resort in southern Nepal (see Jan 30).
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 20, The US FDA inspected a heparin production facility in China. 19 deaths and some 350 allergic reactions had taken place among patients who received heparin sold in the US by Baxter Int’l. In March officials identified oversulfated condroitin sulfate, a chemical that does not occur naturally, as a contaminant in the drug. In April the death toll linked to contaminated heparin was raised to 62.
    (WS, 2/21/08, p.A1)(SFC, 3/20/08, p.C3)(SFC, 4/9/08, p.A5)

2008        Feb 22, The US FDA granted accelerated market approval for Genentech’s drug Avastin to treat advanced breast cancer. The drug cost was bout $7,700 per month. Avastin was already approved for colorectal and lung cancer.
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.A3)

2008        Mar 11, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said 26% of US teen girls are infected with at least one sexually transmitted disease. The rate was highest among blacks.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 16, In northern India 15 poor people were freed from captivity after selling their blood to private clinics to make money. Five people were arrested and later charged with illegal confinement of people and attempt to murder.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 20, In the Netherlands a new attraction officially opened in Oegstgeest called Corpus. The $31 million project organized led by businessman Henri Remmers featured a 115-foot seated human shape on the outside and large-scale exhibits of the human anatomy inside.
    (SSFC, 4/6/08, p.E7)

2008        Mar 25, US researchers, who have identified all 1,116 unique proteins found in human saliva glands, said the discovery could usher in a wave of convenient, spit-based diagnostic tests that could be done without the need for a single drop of blood.
    (Reuters, 3/25/08)

2008        Mar 30, Leading doctors urged a return to older, tried-and-true treatments for high cholesterol after hearing full results of a failed trial of Vytorin.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 15, A draft report by the US National Toxicology Program acknowledged concerns over bisphenol-a (BPA), a chemical found in thousands of everyday plastic products, saying it may cause cancer and other serious disorders.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.A4)

2008        May 18, Surgeon Harry Buncke (b.1922), Canada-born microsurgery pioneer, died in California. In 1972 He performed the first toe-to-thumb transplant at San Francisco’s Franklin Hospital, later called Ralph K. Davies Medical Center. Buncke came to be called the father of microsurgery.
    (SFC, 5/21/08, p.B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_J._Buncke)

2008        May 19, Google made available a free service allowing customers to manage their medical records online at www.google.com/health.
    (SFC, 5/20/08, p.D1)

2008        May 21, Pres. Bush signed legislation to protect people from losing their jobs or health insurance when genetic testing reveals they are susceptible to costly diseases. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act was designed to prohibit the improper use of genetic information in health insurance and employment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_Information_Nondiscrimination_Act)(WSJ, 5/22/08, p.D6)

2008        May 25, It was reported that an estimated 5.4 million of South Africa's 48 million people have the AIDS virus, the highest total of any country. The epidemic was killing nearly 1,000 South Africans a day and infecting even more.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        Jun 1, German researchers reported that the development of a blood-based genetic test for predicting  lung cancer among smokers with 80% accuracy.
    (WSJ, 6/2/08, p.B4)

2008        Jun 6, Dr. Paul Tessier (b.1917), pioneering French surgeon, died in Paris. He introduced innovative techniques in facial surgery.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.A7)

2008        Jun 7, It was reported that the AIDS epidemic was reckoned to have infected 33 million people worldwide.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.91)

2008        Jun 10, The nation's top AIDS doctor said researchers have been undercounting new cases of HIV infection in the United States, meaning the rate is probably 25 percent higher at 50,000 people per year.
    (Reuters, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 19, Researchers reported the survival of an Oregon man with advanced skin cancer following an experimental treatment that revved up his immune system.
    (SFC, 6/19/08, p.A8)

2008        Jul 11, Dr. Michael DeBakey (b.1908), the world-famous cardiovascular surgeon, died. He pioneered such now-common procedures as bypass surgery and invented a host of devices to help heart patients. He was among the first to link lung cancer to smoking in a medical journal article in 1939.
    (AP, 7/12/08)(SSFC, 7/13/08, p.B6)

2008        Jul 30, President George W. Bush signed legislation repealing a rule that prevented HIV-infected immigrants, students and tourists from receiving US visas without special waivers.
    (AP, 8/5/08)(www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/hivaids/)

2008        Jul, Alexandra Carmichael and Daniel Reda launched CureTogether to help the people they knew and the millions they didn’t who live in daily chronic pain.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQ p.22)(http://curetogether.com/blog/about/)

2008        Sep 9, An Italian study showed a new way to test for cervical cancer is more accurate than a pap smear and identified more dangerous lesions.
    (Reuters, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 21, In western Turkey 13 newborn, premature babies died over the weekend at Izmir's Tepecik hospital. In August, investigators looking into the deaths of 27 newborns at an Ankara hospital concluded that a staff shortage had increased the risk of infection. Tainted IV treatment was later suspected.
    (AP, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/27/08)

2008        Sep 27, The AIDS virus was reported to afflict some 5.5 million of South Africa’s 49 million population.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.19)

2008        Oct 2, A new report suggested that HIV, the AIDS virus, originated in Africa between 1884 and 1924. Earlier estimates had put the date around 1930. A new estimate of how many Americans have the AIDS virus put the number at about 1.1 million.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.A3)(Reuters, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 6, It was reported that Atherton, Ca., philanthropist Lorry Lokey (81) had pledged $75 million to the Stanford Univ. School of Medicine for a major stem cell research center. In 2007 he had pledged at least $33 million.
    (SFC, 10/6/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 13, First ladies from seven west African countries gather in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, for a conference on ways to end female circumcision, a widespread practice in the region despite efforts to end it.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Barbara Hogan, South Africa’s new health minister, broke from a decade of discredited government policies declaring that AIDS is caused by HIV and must be treated by conventional medicine.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A3)

2008        Oct 16, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva arrived in Mozambique to launch a project to make anti-AIDS drugs in the southern African country.
    (AP, 10/17/08)

2008        Oct 22, British researchers said a drug, known by its lab name of alemtuzumab and licensed for use against leukemia, braked and even reversed the effects of multiple sclerosis among patients with MS.
    (http://health.yahoo.com/news/reuters/us_multiplesclerosis_drug.html)

2008        Nov 9, Health experts presented findings of a study, called Jupiter, that found  Crestor, a cholesterol drug made by AstraZeneca, reduced the risk of heart-related death, heart attacks and other serious cardiac problems by 44%.
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.B1)

2008        Nov 12, In Germany Dr. Gero Huetter said his 42-year-old patient, an American living in Berlin who was not identified, had been infected with the AIDS virus for more than a decade. But 20 months after undergoing a transplant of genetically selected bone marrow, he no longer shows signs of carrying the virus.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 13, In Chile authorities said public health services failed to tell 512 people that they tested positive for HIV. Private-sector health services also fell down, failing to inform an estimated 1,700 people that tests show them carrying the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 17, A report was released concluded that Gulf War syndrome is a legitimate illness suffered by more than 175,000 US war veterans who were exposed to chemical toxins in the 1991 Gulf War.
    (Reuters, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 19, Spanish doctors reported the successful transplant to a woman of a new windpipe with tissue grown from her own stem cells, eliminating the need for anti-rejection drugs.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 21, Vadim Pokrovsky, Russia's anti-AIDS coordinator, said the number of registered HIV cases is growing 10 percent a year despite increased government funding. He said that the actual number of people with HIV was likely higher than 1 million.
    (AP, 11/21/08)

2008        Nov 24, In Indonesia health workers and rights activists sharply criticized a plan by lawmakers in remote Papua province, who have thrown their support behind a controversial bill requiring some HIV/AIDS patients to be implanted with microchips, part of extreme efforts to monitor the disease.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 30, Chinese health authorities and the UN AIDS agency pledged to fight discrimination against people with the disease in China with the unveiling of a massive red ribbon, the symbol of AIDS awareness, at the Olympic Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 1, US researchers reported that almost 20% of young American adults have a personality disorder that interferes with everyday life, and that even more abuse alcohol or drugs.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.A10)

2008        Dec 16, An Indonesian province beleaguered by a spiraling HIV infection rate scrapped plans to implant microchips in those with full-blown AIDS, following strong opposition from government officials, health workers and rights activists.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 2, Henry Molaison (82), a native of Connecticut, died. In the 1950s he had his medial temporal lobes removed by surgery to alleviate his grand mal epileptic seizures. From that point on he was unable to form new memories. Scientists learned from Molaison that the hippocampus is crucial in forming some long term memories, but not for maintaining or retrieving them.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.146)

2008        San Francisco-based Castlight Health was founded to enable employers and health plans to lower the cost of health care and provide individuals unbiased pricing and quality information to make smart health care purchase decisions.
    (http://www.castlighthealth.com/company/)(SFC, 5/21/12, p.D1)

2009        Jan 14, A French court acquitted six doctors and pharmacists in the deaths of at least 114 people who contracted a brain-destroying disease after being treated with tainted human growth hormones.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 26, In Bellflower, California, a woman gave birth to eight babies, only the second time in history octuplets have survived more than a few hours. The woman already had six other children and never expected to have eight more when she took fertility treatment. Her mother later said the woman had conceived all 14 of her children through in vitro fertilization, is not married and has been obsessed with having children since she was a teenager.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(AP, 1/30/09)(AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 9, In Montreal, Canada, researchers said that an Indevus Pharmaceuticals gel formulated to protect women from the virus that causes AIDS appeared to protect about a third of them from infection, the first time a so-called microbicide has been shown to work.
    (AP, 2/9/09)
2009        Feb 9, Scientists in Japan reported that they have identified an enzyme which appears to suppress breast cancer and they hope the finding will spur new therapies to control the second most common cancer in the world.
    (Reuters, 2/9/09)

2009        Feb 17, British experts that they have found the first evidence of a hemophiliac contracting mad cow disease from contaminated blood products.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 18, A Chinese state news agency said AIDS was the top killer among infectious diseases in China for the first time last year, with 6,897 people dying in the nine months through September.
    (AP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 20, A Swaziland government report said about 42 percent of pregnant women in the country are infected with the virus that causes AIDS, a 3 percent jump in a single year. An estimated 185,000 of Swaziland's 1 million people are HIV positive, and about 30,000 are receiving antiretrovirals.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Mar 16, US researchers said a new test can accurately detect Alzheimer's disease in its earliest stages, before dementia symptoms surface and widespread damage occurs.
    (Reuters, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 30, Findings were presented for an experimental combo pill, to prevent heart attacks and strokes, indicating it as effective as nearly all of its components taken alone, with no greater side effects. The study tested the Polycap, an experimental combo formulated by Cadila Pharmaceuticals of Ahmedabad, India.
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 3, In Nigeria a source close to negotiations said Pfizer has agreed to pay $75 million compensation over a 1996 drug trial that caused the death of 11 children in northern Nigeria.
    (AFP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 8, Genentech, a unit of Roche, said it is voluntarily withdrawing its psoriasis drug Raptiva due to a link with a rare but often fatal brain disorder.
    (WSJ, 4/9/09, p.B3)
2009        Apr 8, The international Red Cross said a polio outbreak, that now affects 15 African countries, threatens efforts to eradicate the disease.
    (AFP, 4/8/09)
2009        Apr 8, China said that it would build a clinic in each of its nearly 700,000 villages within three years, part of a sweeping 850 billion yuan ($124 billion) investment in health care reform.
    (AP, 4/8/09)

2009        May 1, US government health officials warned dieters and body builders to immediately stop using Hydroxycut, a widely sold supplement linked to cases of serious liver damage and at least one death.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 4, An analysis of "real-world" clinical data indicated that vitamin E, and drugs that reduce generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term according to National Institutes of Health-sponsored research.
    (Reuters, 5/4/09)

2009        May 8, In Panama City, Florida, Dr. Jason Newsom resigned from the Bay County Health Department under pressure following his launch of a one-man war on obesity by posting sardonic warnings on an electronic sign outside. After the lawyers threatened to sue, his bosses  made him remove the anti-fried doughnut rants and eventually forced him to resign.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

2009        May 12, Medicare’s trustees warned that the program’s biggest fund would run out of money in 8 years.
    (SFC, 5/13/09, p.A4)

2009        May 14, Scientists reported that ginger, long used as a folk remedy for stomach aches, limits nausea caused by chemotherapy used in cancer treatments.
    (SFC, 5/15/09, p.A14)

2009        May 15, A Minnesota couple who refused chemotherapy for Daniel Hauser, their 13-year-old son, was ordered to have the boy re-evaluated to see if he would still benefit from cancer treatment for his Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or if it may already be too late. On May 18 Colleen Hauser and her son, Daniel, who has Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently left their home sometime after a doctor's appointment and court-ordered X-ray showed his tumor had grown. Hauser and her son returned on May 25.
    (AP, 5/15/09)(SFC, 5/16/09, p.A5)(AP, 5/20/09)(AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 18, The US Justice Department accused Wyeth, one of the nation's biggest drug makers, of cheating Medicaid programs out of hundreds of millions of dollars by overcharging for a stomach acid drug.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 21, South Korea’s Supreme Court said that doctors treating a comatose woman (76) must remove her from life support as her family requested, the first time it has ruled in favor of a patient's right to die.
    (AP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 31, In Kansas abortion Dr. George Tiller (67) was shot and killed while serving as an usher during morning services in the foyer of Reformation Lutheran Church in Wichita. Scott Roeder (51) fired one shot at Tiller and threatened two other people who tried to stop him. Roeder was taken into custody some 170 miles away in a Kansas City suburb about three hours after the shooting. Tiller’s clinic had been bombed in 1986, blockaded and vandalized in 1991 and in 1993 he was shot in both arms. On Jan 29, 2010, Roeder (51) was convicted of first degree murder. The sentence carried a life term in prison. 
    (AP, 6/1/09)(SFC, 6/3/09, p.A7)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.30)(SFC, 1/30/10, p.A4)

2009        Jun 16, US FDA said consumers should stop using Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel and related products because they can permanently damage the sense of smell.
    (AP, 6/17/09)
2009        Jun 16, Rhode Island became the 3rd state in the US to allow marijuana sales to chronically ill patients as the General Assembly voted to override a veto by Gov. Don Carcieri.
    (SFC, 6/17/09, p.A7)

2009        Jun 20, The US pharmaceutical industry agreed to spend $80 billion over the next decade improving drug benefits for seniors on Medicare and defraying the cost of President Barack Obama's health care legislation, capping secretive negotiations involving key lawmakers and the White House.
    (AP, 6/21/09)

2009        Jun 29, It was reported that Australian scientists have developed a "trojan horse" therapy to combat cancer, using a bacterially-derived nano cell to penetrate and disarm the cancer cell before a second nano cell kills it with chemotherapy drugs. Sydney scientists Dr Jennifer MacDiarmid and Dr Himanshu Brahmbhatt, who formed EnGenelC Pty Ltd in 2001, said they had achieved 100 percent survival in mice with human cancer cells by using the "trojan horse" therapy in the past two years.
    (Reuters, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 13, China's Health Ministry ordered a hospital to stop using electric shock therapy to cure youths of Internet addiction, saying there was no scientific evidence it worked.
    (AP, 7/14/09)
2009        Jul 13, Japan passed a law that will allow children to receive organ transplants for the first time, reversing a ban that doomed many young patients or forced them to seek medical care abroad.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul, Oswaldo Juarez (21), a Peruvian visiting Florida to study English, Juarez swallowed his last pills, packed a few small suitcases and left the A.G. Holley State Hospital following 19 months of treatment. He was the first US case of a contagious, aggressive, especially drug-resistant form of tuberculosis.
    (AP, 12/27/09)

2009        Aug 14, In Nigeria the number of polio cases caused by the vaccine was reported to have doubled so far this year with 124 children paralyzed, compared to 62 in 2008, out of about 42 million children vaccinated. For every case of paralysis, hundreds of other children don't develop symptoms, but pass on the disease.
    (AP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 26, China’s state media reported that the majority of transplanted organs in China come from executed prisoners in a rare disclosure about an industry often criticized for being opaque and unethical.
    (AP, 8/26/09)

2009        Sep 9, President Barack Obama, in a major speech before Congress, promised to overhaul the nation's health care system. Not a single Republican has endorsed any of the plans approved so far by four House and Senate committees.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Sep 16, Sen. Max Baucus brought out the much-awaited Senate Finance Committee version of an American health-system remake, a landmark $856 billion, 10-year measure that starts a rough ride through Congress without visible Republican backing. The 6 committee members received an average $74,600 from health industry lobbyists through June. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, led the group with $223,600. Baucus, D-Montana, was 2nd with $141,000.
    (AP, 9/16/09)(SSFC, 9/20/09, p.A1)

2009        Sep 24, In Thailand an experimental combination of two previously unsuccessful vaccines cut the risk of becoming infected with HIV by more than 31%, in the world's largest AIDS vaccine trial of more than 16,000 volunteers. This was the first time an experimental vaccine has prevented infection with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Oct 5, Drugmaker Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. said its new diabetes drugs, Onglyza, has been approved for sale in the European Union's 27 countries.
    (AP, 10/5/09)

2009        Oct 19, US prosecutors were told in a new policy memo issued by the Justice Department that pot-smoking patients or their sanctioned suppliers should not be targeted for federal prosecution in states that allow medical marijuana.
    (AP, 10/19/09)

2009        Oct 25, Henry P. Becton, Sr. (b.1914), former Chairman of the Board for Becton Dickinson Corp., died at his home in Maine. He was the son of BD co-founder Maxwell W. Becton and saw BD grow from 600 associates and sales of $2.5 million to 29,000 associates and over $7 billion in annual sales.
    (Echo, 12/09, p.1)

2009        Oct 27, A UN official said more than 300,000 children under the age of five die of preventable diseases each year in Sudan, almost a third of them before they reach the age of one month.
    (AFP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 29, After months of struggle US House Democrats unveiled sweeping legislation to extend health care coverage to millions who lack it and create a new option of government-run insurance.
    (AP, 10/29/09)

2009        Oct, Researchers found that a bug named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) occurred in 67% of patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The bug had already been implicated in prostate cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.80)

2009        Nov 4, Mexican authorities said 3 doctors and a nurse have been arrested for allegedly selling newborns after telling mothers their babies had died at a private hospital in Mexico City.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 17, Australian doctors successfully separated joined-at-the-head Bangladeshi twins after more than 24 hours of surgery, saying the girls were "in great shape" but faced a difficult recovery.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 18, China's health minister said his country is vaccinating 1.5 million people a day against swine flu, part of a mammoth effort to reach nearly 7 percent of inhabitants of the world's most populous country by year's end.
    (AP, 11/19/09)

2009        Nov 21, Th US Senate voted 60-39 to open debate on the health care bill. The vote was hailed a victory for Pres. Obama, but final passage of the legislation was far from certain.
    (AP, 11/22/09)

2009        Nov 29, In Argentina Solange Magnano (38), a mother of twins who won the Miss Argentina crown in 1994, died of a pulmonary embolism after three days in critical condition following a gluteoplasty in Buenos Aires.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Nov 30, An Algerian health organization (AnisS) warned that thousands of its people are unknowingly infected with the AIDS virus and called for more testing and prevention efforts.
    (AFP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 3, Nigerian AIDS and malaria activists said at least 144 women die each day in Nigeria during pregnancy or childbirth, according to the UN and World Bank statistics. Activists premiered three short but hard-hitting Nollywood films to push for an urgent change in attitude and provision of adequate healthcare services to avoid pregnancy-related problems.
    (AFP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 10, US researchers reported that they have developed a less toxic transplant procedure using bone marrow transplants to cure sickle cell disease in adults.
    (SFC, 12/10/09, p.A22)

2009        Dec 16, Pres. Obama signed a $163.5 billion appropriations bill for labor, health and education that included the repeal of a 21-year-old ban on federal funding for local programs that supply clean needles for drug users.
    (SFC, 12/18/09, p.A26)

2009        Dec 18, The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) recommended the withdrawal of all medicines containing benfluorex, a diabetes and weight-loss drug, in the European Union. In 2010 French officials said the drug, marketed as mediator, may have been linked to the deaths of 500 people over the 33 years it was on the market. Fenfluramine, a related drug, had been withdrawn from the market in 1997 after reports of heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, and development of cardiac fibrosis.
    (SFC, 11/17/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benfluorex)

2009        Dec 19, Sen. Ben Nelson of Nebraska agreed to provide the 60th and deciding vote for sweeping health care legislation in the Senate, capping a year of struggle and a final burst of deadline bargaining on President Barack Obama's top domestic priority.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 19-2009 Dec 20, In Israel parts of a 2000 interview were broadcast on Channel 2 TV over the weekend describing how forensic pathologists in the 1990s harvested organs from dead bodies, including Palestinians, without permission of their families. The Israeli military confirmed that the practice took place and said it had stopped in 2000.
    (AP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 21, Senate Democrats won a crucial test vote on President Barack Obama's health care overhaul, putting them on track for passage before Christmas of the historic legislation to remake the nation's medical system and cover 30 million uninsured.
    (AP, 12/21/09)

2009        David Ewing Duncan authored “Experimental Man: What One Man's Body Reveals about His Future, Your Health, and Our Toxic World."
    (SFC, 3/9/09, p.E1)
2009        T.R. Reid authored “The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer health Care."
    (SSFC, 8/23/09, Books p.F1)
2009        Gabriel Weston, a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, authored “Direct Red," a memoir about the medical world.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.82)

2010        Jan 15, New Jersey-based Johnson & Johnson issued a massive recall of over-the-counter drugs including Tylenol, Motrin and St. Joseph's aspirin because of a moldy smell that has made people sick.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 19, Mexico’s telecommunications mogul Carlos Slim pledged $65 million for genetic research on cancer, type 2 diabetes and kidney disease.
    (AP, 1/20/10)

2010        Jan 20, US researchers reported that shaving 3 grams off the daily salt intake of Americans could prevent up to 66,000 strokes, 99,000 heart attacks and 92,000 deaths in the United States, while saving $24 billion in health costs per year.
    (Reuters, 1/21/10)

2010        Feb 9, California lawmakers called for federal and state investigations into Anthem Blue Cross regarding new rates hikes of as much as 39% for thousands of policyholders statewide. On Feb 13 Anthem announced that it would delay the increase for two months to allow state regulators to conduct a review. On April 29 WellPoint, the parent of Anthem Blue Cross, said it was withdrawing the proposed rate increase and planned to file new rates.
    (SFC, 2/10/10, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.A1)(SFC, 4/30/10, p.C1)

2010        Feb 18, The Obama administration ratcheted up pressure on health insurers, saying some planned double-digit rate hikes while making billions in profits and paying executives multimillion-dollar salaries.
    (Reuters, 2/18/10)

2010        Feb 19, A newly released study by a major US consulting firm found that premiums for Medicare Advantage plans offering medical and prescription drug coverage jumped 14.2 percent on average in 2010, after an increase of only 5.2 percent the previous year.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 22, Pres. Barack Obama put forward a nearly $1 trillion, 10-year compromise that would allow the government to deny or roll back egregious insurance premium increases that infuriated consumers. Obama produced a health care plan of his own. It used legislation already passed by the Senate as its starting point, making changes designed to appeal to House Democrats.
    (AP, 2/22/10)(AP, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 25, President Barack Obama and his Democratic allies argued for sweeping health care overhaul in an extraordinary live-on-TV summit with Republicans who want far more modest changes.
    (AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 27, Egypt's parliament voted by an overwhelming majority to regulate organ transplants in a bid to curb illegal trafficking and tourism over the issue.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Feb 28, The US White House called for a "simple up-or-down" vote on health care legislation as Speaker Nancy Pelosi appealed to House Democrats to get behind President Barack Obama's chief domestic priority even it if threatens their political careers.
    (AP, 2/28/10)

2010        Mar 5, An Australian court ruled that the once-popular painkiller Vioxx doubled the risk of heart attack and was unfit for consumption, awarding a man leading a class action suit against the drug's maker 287,000 Australian dollars ($259,000) in compensation.
    (AP, 3/5/10)

2010        Mar 9, University of Florida researcher Nam Dang and colleagues in Japan said that papaya leaf extract and its tea have dramatic cancer-fighting properties against a broad range of tumors, backing a belief held in a number of folk traditions.
    (AFP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 12, A union representing Dutch nurses launched a national campaign against demands for sexual services by patients who claim it should be part of their standard care.
    (Reuters, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 15, British and Italian doctors carried out groundbreaking surgery to rebuild the windpipe of a 10-year-old boy using stem cells developed within his own body. Doctors at London's Great Ormond Street children's hospital implanted the boy with a donor trachea, or windpipe, that had been stripped of its cells and injected with his own.
    (AFP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 20, Spanish surgeons completed the world’s most extensive full-face transplant. It was the 11th known face transplant in the world. The 24-hour operation provided a young farmer (30) a new nose, jaw and teeth.
    (SFC, 4/24/10, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/2fqgwfm)

2010        Mar 21, President Barack Obama announced that he will reaffirm a ban on using federal funds to pay for abortions, which convinced some holdout Democrats to support the healthcare overhaul but riled Republicans who said the decision could be easily reversed. US House Democrats voted 219-212 late in the day to send legislation to Obama that would extend coverage to 32 million uninsured Americans, reduce deficits and ban insurance company practices such as denying coverage to people with pre-existing medical conditions.
    (Reuters, 3/22/10)(AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 23, President Barack Obama signed a historic $938 billion health care overhaul that guarantees coverage for 32 million uninsured Americans and will touch nearly every citizen's life, presiding over the biggest shift in US domestic policy since the 1960s and capping a divisive, yearlong debate that could define the November elections. Florida and 12 other states challenged it minutes later. Republican legislators in more than 3 dozen states sought to challenge the bill contending that it will infringe on state sovereignty and individual freedoms. The bill included a 2.3% excise tax on medical devices set to begin in 2013.
    (AP, 3/23/10)(SFC, 3/24/10, p.A12)(SSFC, 3/28/10, p.A10)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.37)

2010        Mar 29, In eastern China local residents and firefighters recovered the bodies of 21 babies, believed dumped by hospitals, which had washed ashore on the Guangfu River near the city of Jining, Shandong province. Tags on the feet of eight of the babies traced them back to a hospital in Jining.
    (AP, 3/30/10)
2010        Mar 29, In Japan more than 2,000 people who suffer from a rare neurological disorder agreed to accept a settlement proposal and abandon their lawsuits against the Japanese government and the company they say made them sick by dumping mercury. Minamata disease was first diagnosed in 1956 and later was linked to the consumption of fish from southern Kyushu island's Minamata Bay, where chemical company Chisso Corp. dumped tons of mercury compounds.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Mar 30, Pres. Obama signed into law the final changes to the sweeping medical plan approved by lawmakers last week, along with reforms in college student loan programs.
    (Reuters, 3/30/10)

2010        Apr 1, Massachusetts regulators issued their first batch of health care price controls, rejecting the vast majority of small business health premium increases sought this year by the state's major insurers. Insurers said caps on their charges are justified only if there are similar caps on the costs that health care providers, such as doctors and hospital networks, charge them. That is the subject of pending legislation.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 7, Israel’s police said 6 Israelis have been detained on suspicion of running an international organ trafficking ring and breaking promises to donors to pay for their removed kidneys.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 12, Nebraska Republican Gov. Dave Heineman signed into law a bill requiring doctors to screen women for possible mental and physical problems before performing abortions and a 2nd law that would ban abortions after 20 weeks, based on the assertion that fetuses feel pain.
    (SFC, 4/13/10, p.A4)

2010        Apr 15, A US Senate panel report was released saying some of the largest US health insurers are changing their accounting practices to book administration costs as medical costs in an attempt to circumvent new industry reforms.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 27, British researchers reported that a single sigmoidoscopy between ages 55 and 64 can reduce deaths by at least 43%.
    (SFC, 4/28/10, p.A8)
2010        Apr 27, Sierra Leone launched a program to provide free health care to mothers and children in the West African nation, which suffers from high rates of maternal and child mortality. UNICEF says it will distribute $6 million in medicines.
    (AP, 4/27/10)

2010        May 17, US researchers said eating bacon, sausage, hot dogs and other processed meats can raise the risk of heart disease and diabetes, in a study that identifies the real bad boys of the meat counter.
    (Reuters, 5/17/10)

2010        May 27, Mexico's Supreme Court upheld a law requiring hospitals to offer rape victims a morning-after birth control pill, rejecting an appeal that argued the pill's effect constitutes the equivalent of an abortion.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        Jun 23, Italian researchers reported stunning success with correcting the vision of people who had suffered eye damage from caustic chemicals by using the patient’s own transplanted stem cells.
    (SFC, 6/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 30, A South African health official said botched circumcisions performed during traditional initiation rites have killed 40 boys and put more than 100 in hospital this month.
    (AFP, 6/30/10)

2010        Jul 1, Boston researchers claimed they have hit upon genetic sequences that can predict whether you'll live to have "exceptional longevity." The scientists studied over 1,000 centenarians to develop a system of genetic analysis by which they can predict, with a 77-percent accuracy rate, whether someone has a strong chance of "exceptional longevity," according to findings published in the journal Science.
    (AFP, 7/1/10)

2010        Jul 5, US government estimates said the first stage of President Barack Obama's health care overhaul would provide coverage to about 1 million uninsured Americans by next year. Many others, more than 100 million people, are getting new benefits that improve their existing coverage.
    (AP, 7/05/10)

2010        Jul 7, The UN WHO said at least 2,000 lead-poisoning victims in northern Nigeria may require treatment to remove brain-damaging lead. The poisoning was believed to be related to the processing of lead-rich ore for the extraction of gold.
    (SFC, 7/8/10, p.A4)

2010        Jul 8, US federal researchers said that they have identified a pair of naturally occurring antibodies that are able to kill more than 90% of all strains of the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 7/9/10, p.A6)

2010        Jul 11, Avid Radiopharmaceuticals presented a study that demonstrated a new brain scan to detect the brain plaques in patients with Alzeimer’s disease.
    (SFC, 7/13/10, p.A7)

2010        Jul 16, In the US 94 people, including several doctors and nurses, were charged in scams totaling $251 million. Authorities indicted 33 suspects in the Miami area, accused of charging Medicare for about $140 million in various scams. Busts were carried out this week in Miami, New York City, Detroit, Houston and Baton Rouge, La., Federal authorities, while touting the operation, cautioned the cases represent only a fraction of the estimated $60 billion to $90 billion in Medicare fraud absorbed by taxpayers each year.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 19, Scientists reported that a vaginal gel containing Gilead Science Inc.’s AIDS drug Viread cut HIV infections by as much as 54% in a trial in South Africa. The gel was developed by Conrad, a Virginia-based nonprofit organization.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.D2)

2010        Oct 10, In China the wife of construction worker Luo Yanquan (36) was taken kicking and screaming from their home by more than a dozen people and detained in a clinic for three days by family planning officials, then taken to a hospital and injected with a drug that killed her baby. Xiao Aiying (36) delivered the dead baby on Oct 14.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 13, US authorities said a vast network of Armenian gangsters and their associates used phantom health care clinics and other means to try to cheat Medicare out of $163 million, the largest fraud by one criminal enterprise in the program's history. Federal prosecutors in New York and elsewhere charged 73 people. The reputed boss, Armen Kazarian (46), was in custody in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 20, In Kansas Dr. Stephen Schneider was sentenced to 30 years in prison for unlawfully writing prescriptions, health care fraud and money laundering. His wife was sentenced to 33 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/21/10, p.A6)

2010        Oct 21, US federal authorities charged Miami-based American Therapeutic Corp. with Medicare fraud. Prosecutors said the company preyed on patients with severe dementia and billed some $200 million for services it never rendered.
    (SFC, 10/22/10, p.A13)

2010        Oct 22, The Lancet journal published a study online reporting that low doses of aspirin, taken daily and over the long term, cut cases of colorectal cancer by a quarter and the death toll from this disease by a third. Aspirin is believed to have a preventive effect because it inhibits an enzyme called COX-2, which promotes cell proliferation in colorectal tumors.
    (AFP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 28, A Milan court convicted three doctors of performing unnecessary surgeries. Prosecutors produced evidence that unneeded operations, including amputations, were performed on 83 patients at the Santa Rita clinic in Milan with the aim of getting large reimbursements from the state health system. Pier Paolo Brega Massone, the hospital's chief surgeon, was sentenced to 15 1/2 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/29/10)

2010        Oct 29, In southern California 2 doctors were arrested along with 5 others for leading a scam in which mentally ill homeless patients were paid $100 each for unnecessary treatments that were fraudulently billed to Medicare and Medi-Cal.
    (SFC, 10/30/10, p.A6)

2010        Oct, It was made public that some $34 million in funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was misused in Mali, Mauritania, Djibouti and Zambia.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.65)

2010        Nov 2, Arizona voters by a narrow margin approved a measure to legalize medical marijuana.
    (SSFC, 11/14/10, p.A14)

2010        Nov 11, An EU indictment revealed that at least seven people, including former Kosovo senior health ministry official Ilir Rrecaj, were suspected of involvement in an international network that falsely promised poor people payment for their kidneys and then sold the organs for as much as euro100,000 ($137,000). Five Kosovo nationals, Turkish doctor Yusuf Sonmez and Moshe Harel, an Israeli citizen, were listed as wanted by Interpol.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 17, Researchers reported that the new drug anacetrapib dramatically raises good cholesterol and reduces bad cholesterol.
    (SFC, 11/18/10, p.A15)

2010        Nov 29, Uganda launched a program to circumcise over a million men every year in an effort to stem AIDS infections.
    (SFC, 11/30/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 6, British researchers said they may have found a way to reverse damage in the central nervous system caused by multiple sclerosis, in a study hailed by campaigners as a major breakthrough.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 9, A report in the medical journal Lancet criticized Canada for exporting chrysotile, or white asbestos, while it virtually bans the product at home, who fibers can lead to respiratory diseases and cancers.
    (SFC, 12/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 13, A US federal judge in Virginia ruled that Congress could not order individuals to buy health insurance.
    (SFC, 12/14/10, p.A14)

2010        Dec 16, The US FDA said it was beginning the process to rescind Avastin’s accelerated approval in breast tumors. The drug had global sales of $6 billion in 2009.
    (SFC, 12/17/10, p.C1)

2010        Siddhartha Mukherjee authored “the Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer."
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.107)

2010        General Electric developed a hand-held electrocardiogram called the Mac 400. The $800 device reduced the cost of an ECG to just $1 per patient.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, SR p.6)
2010        Brazil’s government began allowing taxpayers to deduct costs for cosmetic surgery.
    (SFC, 5/1/10, p.A3)
2010        China began introducing donation schemes for human organs as its source of organs from prisoners fell due to fewer executions.
    (Econ, 8/24/13, p.42)
2010        The AIDS epidemic in China was expected to infect over 10 million people by this time.
    (SFC, 12/2/03, p.A3)

2011        Jan 1, A new policy in US Medicare became effective and began covering doctor costs for patient end-of-life counseling.
    (SSFC, 12/26/10, p.A10)

2011        Jan 3, Boston scientists and health care giant Johnson & Johnson announced that they are joining forces to bring a blood test for cancer to market. Four big cancer centers also will start studies using the experimental test this year. The test is so sensitive that it can spot a single cancer cell lurking among a billion healthy ones.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 23, UN Development Program spokesman Stephane Dujarric said that the program's policy bars it from sharing internal audit reports with the Global Fund, but that it is reassessing that policy. Investigators for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria said donated prescription drugs wind up being sold on the black market. As much as two-thirds of some grants have been eaten up by corruption.
    (AP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 31, A federal judge in Florida struck down President Barack Obama's landmark healthcare overhaul as unconstitutional in the biggest legal challenge yet to federal authority to enact the law.
    (Reuters, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 7, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that scientists in Britain have successfully tested a vaccine which could work against all known flu strains.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 12, US researchers said that people who used two specific varieties of pesticide, paraquat and rotenone, were 2.5 times as likely to develop Parkinson's disease.
    (AFP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 17, US federal authorities charged 111 doctors, nurses and physical therapists in nine cities with Medicare fraud totaling over $225 million, part of a massive nationwide bust that snared more suspects than any other in history. The indictments were for suspects in Miami, Los Angeles, Dallas, Houston, Detroit, Chicago, Brooklyn, Tampa, Fla., and Baton Rouge, La.
    (AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 21, Tom DeBaggio, herb grower and Alzheimer’s patient, died in Virginia. His work included “Losing My Mind" and “When It Gets Dark."
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.93)

2011        Mar 6, Scientists from Cyprus, England and Greece reported their ability to diagnose Down Syndrome using a simple blood test on pregnant women.
    (SFC, 3/7/11, p.A7)

2011        Apr 8, According to a study about one in 10 cancers in men and one in 33 in women in western European countries are caused by current and past alcohol consumption.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        May 3, The US Centers for Disease Control reported that nearly one in ten US children and one in 12 Americans of all ages have asthma.
    (SFC, 5/4/11, p.A7)

2011        May 5, Vermont’s legislature passed a bill outlining steps for a single-payer health system. Gov. Peter Shumlin was expected to soon sign the bill.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, p.40)

2011        May 10, In Canada Marshall Zhang, an 11th-grade student at Richmond Hill's Bayview Secondary School, received first place in the 2011 Sanofi-Aventis BioTalent Challenge. The Toronto area student used a supercomputer system to find a new drug combination that shows potential in treating the genetic disorder cystic fibrosis.
    (www.livescience.com/14138-teen-cystic-fibrosis-drug-cocktail-contest.html)

2011        May 16, British scientists said they have found that a gene, called KLF14, linked to diabetes and cholesterol is a "master switch" that controls other genes found in fat in the body, and say it should help in the search for treatments for obesity-related diseases.
    (Reuters, 5/16/11)

2011        May 19, Doctors in Oregon announced that electrodes implanted on the spinal cord of Rob Summers (25) had reactivated nerve circuits and allowed him to consciously move body parts that had been paralyzed following a 2006 hit and run accident.
    (SFC, 5/20/11, p.A8)

2011        May 31, A World Health Organization panel reported that radiation from cell phones “is possibly carcinogenic" to humans.
    (SFC, 6/1/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 5, Cancer researchers reported that the drug vemurafenib (aka PLX4032) made melanoma tumors shrink significantly in nearly half the patients studied. In August it was approved for use in America.
    (SFC, 6/6/11, p.A9)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.65)

2011        Jun 10, In a surgical procedure that took more than twenty hours, Charla Nash (57), a Connecticut woman disfigured in a Feb 16, 2009, attack by her friend’s chimpanzee Travis, received a face transplant at Brigham & Women’s Hospital in Boston. She is only the third person in the United States to receive a full face transplant. At the same time, surgeons also attempted to give Nash a hand transplant, but this procedure was not successful.
            (Boston Globe, 6/10/11)(AP, 6/10/11)

2011        Jun 24, In Indiana a federal judge issued an injunction barring the state from cutting off funding for general health services by Planned Parenthood clinics just because the organization also provides abortions.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.A11)

2011        Jul 4, Two studies were released indicating that environmental factors may play a greater role in autism than previously thought, tipping the scale away from a strict focus on genetics.
    (Reuters, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 7, Swedish officials said a man (36) with tracheal cancer has received a new lab-made wind pipe seeded with his own stem cells in the first successful attempt of its kind.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 11, Spanish officials said a surgical team in Valencia, led by Dr. Pedro Cavada, has carried out the world’s first double leg transplant.
    (SFC, 7/12/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 19, British health bosses at Stepping Hill Hospital in Stockport, where three patients died after contaminated saline solution was found, said they were dealing with a "criminal act" as a fourth person was revealed as being critically ill. On July 20 a 26-year-old nurse at the hospital was arrested on suspicion of murder.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)(AP, 7/20/11)

2011        Jul 28, Scientists reported that they have found a single gene responsible for a disease called the Proteus syndrome, believed to been responsible for the disfigured “Elephant Man," who toured Europe in the 19th century.
    (SFC, 7/29/11, p.A8)

2011        Aug 3, Stanford Univ. researchers reported that they have found a way to kill cancer cells by turning off their ability to absorb glucose, often the primary source of energy in rapidly growing tumors.
    (SFC, 8/4/11, p.A1)

2011        Aug 10, Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania reported the first clear success with a new approach for treating leukemia, turning the patients' own blood cells into assassins that hunt and destroy their cancer cells.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 11, South Africa announced it has approved a national health insurance proposal aimed at overhauling weak public facilities that serve more than 80 percent of the population. The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will be piloted in 10 areas next year and rolled out nationally over 14 years.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 21, Northwestern University researchers reported that they found that the basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a malfunctioning protein recycling system in the neurons of the brain and spinal cord.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3zne3yv)

2011        Aug 24, One of Taiwan's best regarded hospitals mistakenly transplanted HIV-infected organs into five patients after a hospital staffer misheard the donor's test results by telephone.
    (AP, 8/29/11)

2011        Aug 29, Adult film productions in Los Angeles shut down temporarily after an adult film performer tested HIV-positive.
    (SFC, 8/30/11, p.A6)

2011        Aug 30, A US federal judge temporarily blocked key provisions of a Texas abortion law that would require women seeking the procedure to view a sonogram and listen to the heartbeat of their fetus. On Jan 10, 2012, a federal appeals court restored the law.
    (Reuters, 8/30/11)(SFC, 1/11/12, p.A7)

2011        Sep 7, The Obama administration announced charges against 91 people for bilking Medicare out of nearly $300 million and victimizing elderly and disabled people dependent on the federal insurance program.
    (SFC, 9/8/11, p.A12)

2011        Sep 12, Indian officials said at least 23 children who received blood transfusions have tested positive for HIV, as authorities launched an investigation into a government hospital.
    (AFP, 9/12/11)

2011        Oct 20, A Brazilian jury convicted three doctors of killing four patients by removing their organs, which prosecutors said were used for transplants at an expensive private clinic. The case took 25 years for a verdict to be handed down. Doctors Rui Sacramento, Pedro Torrecillas and Mariano Fiore Junior were sentenced to 17 years and six months each in prison.
    (AP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 27, Levy Izhak Rosenbaum of New York admitted in federal court in Trenton, NJ, that he had brokered 3 illegal kidney transplants for New Jersey customers in exchange for payments of $120,000 or more. Experts said this was the first US case of black-market organ trafficking in the US.
    (SFC, 10/28/11, p.A9)

2011        Nov 25, A study by Canadian scientists found that South Africa and Zimbabwe suffer the worst economic losses due to doctors emigrating, while Australia, Canada, Britain and the United States benefit the most from recruiting doctors trained abroad.
    (Reuters, 11/25/11)

2011        Dec 13, Chilean doctors successfully separated conjoined twin girls in a marathon 20-hour surgery, saying that the operation went extremely well despite challenges. Doctors at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital separated Maria Jose Paredes Navarrete from her twin sister Maria Paz at the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Maria Jose died on Dec 18.
    (AP, 12/14/11)(AP, 12/18/11)

2011        Dec 19, In northern Brazil say a woman gave birth to conjoined twin boys with one body and two heads at the Santa Casa de Misericodia Hospital in Belem.
    (AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 20, American authorities said they had asked the world’s leading scientific journals to withhold research on bird flu after researcher teams in Madison and Rotterdam engineered the virus so that it could be transmitted through the air from ferret to ferret. In January scientists agreed to suspend their research for 60 days. On April 20, 2012, the US reversed its stance.
    (www.economist.com/node/21542156)(SFC, 1/21/12, p.A4)(Econ, 4/28/12, p.14)
2011        Dec 22, Francisco Morales (52) was arrested in Brownsville, Texas, for posing as a physician and performing procedures using stem cells on patients in Mexico. Three other were later charged in the operation.
    (SFC, 12/29/11, p.A9)
2011        Dec 22, French officials prepared to decide if thousands of women should have their implants surgically removed. Silicone gel implants, made by a company called Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) which was shut down in 2010, appear to have an unusually high rupture rate and have sparked an investigation in France into possible links to cancer. Fears over the safety of  the breast implants made by PIP spread to Australia, South America and across Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 28, Two out-of-state doctors who traveled to Maryland to perform late-term abortions were arrested and charged with multiple counts of murder. Dr. Steven Brigham, of Voorhees, N.J., was taken into custody and held in the Camden County jail. Authorities also arrested Dr. Nicola Riley in Salt Lake City. Each was awaiting an extradition hearing.
    (AP, 12/31/11)

2011        Dec 29, Virginia Republican Gov. Robert McDonnell signed off on state rules to regulate abortion clinics like hospitals.
    (SFC, 12/30/11, p.A8)

2011        Dec 30, Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) Information Center reported that the use of anti-depressant drugs in England has soared by 28 percent in the past three years, coinciding with the country's fall into recession and the global economic crisis.
    (AFP, 12/30/11)

2011        Dec 31, Britain's biggest cosmetic surgery chain revealed that rupture rates on allegedly faulty French-made breast implants are seven times higher than previously thought.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        Marc Agronin authored “How We Age: A Doctor’s Journey into the Heart of Growing Old."
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.93)
2011        Annual health care expenditure in the US grew to almost 18% of GDP. In 1960 it was just over 5% of GDP.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.82)

 2012        Jan 17, Rotary Int’l. announced it had raised another $200 million to eradicate polio. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will contribute a further $504 million. One of three active strains was eliminated in 1999.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.90)
2012        Jan 17, Britain said it has signed deals with China to research stem cells and smart grids, after Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne held 2-day talks with officials in Beijing aimed at attracting investment.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 20, The US Department of Health and Human Services ruled that religiously affiliated nonprofit organizations, including hospitals and universities, will have to offer birth-control coverage to women employees but gave the organizations an extra year to comply.
    (Reuters, 1/20/12)
2012        Jan 20, The European Medicines Agency said it is investigating a multiple sclerosis drug made by Novartis after at least 11 patients taking the drug died. The drug, Gilenya, was licensed last year in the EU to treat patients with a severe type of multiple sclerosis.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 22, Indian authorities said at least 26 infants have died in the past five days in a state-run hospital in West Bengal state. Most of them were underweight and had been suffering from birth asphyxia.
    (AFP, 1/22/12)
2012        Jan 22, A Turkish doctor whose 25-member team performed the world's first triple limb transplant, two arms and a leg, said the leg has been removed due to tissue incompatibility.
    (AP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 25, A study of freakish condition called Morgellons was released. It concluded that Morgellons exists only in the patients' minds. Federal health officials began the study in 2008. The syndrome wasn't named until 2002, when "Morgellons" was chosen from a 1674 medical paper describing similar symptoms.
    (AP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 26, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a new study showing an estimated 7% of American teens and adults carry the human papillomavirus in their mouths.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A6)
2012        Jan 26, Pakistani government officials in Punjab said around 100 heart patients have died after taking faulty medicine made locally and dozens more are in a critical condition in hospitals in Lahore.
    (AFP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 30, US federal regulators approved the first drug for people with advanced forms of basal cell carcinoma. It was made by Genentech, a subsidiary of Roche.
    (SFC, 1/31/12, p.C1)

2012        Jan, Kalydeco became the first approved drug to target the mutated gene that causes cystic fibrosis. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation spent $75 million on early research for the drug, owned by Vertex.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.79)

2012        Feb 7, The US Centers for Disease Control said smokers have twice the number of problems with their teeth than nonsmokers.
    (SFC, 2/8/12, p.A6)

2012        Feb 11, It was reported that a mysterious epidemic is devastating the Pacific coast of Central America, killing more than 24,000 people in El Salvador and Nicaragua since 2000 and striking thousands of others with chronic kidney disease at rates unseen virtually anywhere else. Scientists say they have received reports of the phenomenon as far north as southern Mexico and as far south as Panama. Researchers suspected chronic dehydration. Elsy Brizuela, a doctor who works with an El Salvadoran project to treat workers and research the epidemic, discounts the dehydration theory and insists "the common factor is exposure to herbicides and poisons." In Nicaragua, the number of annual deaths from chronic kidney disease more than doubled in a decade, from 466 in 2000 to 1,047 in 2010. In El Salvador there was a similar jump, from 1,282 in 2000 to 2,181 in 2010.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 18, It was reported that more than 3,000 children in northern Uganda are suffering from a debilitating mystery ailment known as nodding disease. For several years, scientists have tried and failed to determine the cause of the illness. Scientists did not know if the disease is linked to similar outbreaks in neighboring South Sudan and Tanzania.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 24, In Turkey doctors at Hacettepe University transplanted two arms and two legs on Sevket Cavdar (27).  He had lost his arms and legs in 1998 when he was accidentally electrocuted. The world's 1st quadruple limb transplant soon failed due to tissue incompatibility.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb, Universities across America took delivery of the first brood of Raves, an open source medical robot designed for surgery.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TXp.6)

2012        Mar 22, Deaths from liver disease have risen 25 percent in England in less than a decade, mainly due to increased alcohol consumption, a study revealed. Alcohol-related liver disease accounted for over a third (37 percent) of the deaths, according to the National End of Life Care Intelligence Network report.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Apr 12, Brazil's supreme court voted 8-2 to authorize abortions in cases of fetuses with no brains.
    (AP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 13, The Texas Medical Board approved controversial new rules on the use of adult stem cells.
    (SFC, 4/14/12, p.A8)

2012        Apr 20, European regulators recommended approval of a new type 2 diabetes drug from AstraZeneca, Britain's second biggest drugmaker, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, in a decision that contrasts starkly with its failure to win approval in the United States.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)

2012        May 9, Argentina's senate overwhelmingly approved a "dignified death" law giving terminally ill patients and their families more power to make end-of-life decisions. The law passed by a vote of 55 to zero, with 17 senators declaring themselves absent. It passed the lower house last year.
    (AP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 21, US Roman Catholic leaders filed federal lawsuits against the Obama administration mandate that employers provide workers birth control coverage.
    (SFC, 5/22/12, p.A7)

2012        May, In Mexico Gabriel Granados (52), a father of two whose arms were amputated just below the elbow, received the arms of a 34-year-old shooting victim. He became the first patient in Latin America to receive a double arm transplant.
    (AP, 6/7/12)

2012        Jun 21, Doctors in Britain's state-funded health service took industrial action for the first time in 37 years in a dispute over changes to their pensions, cancelling thousands of patients' non-urgent appointments and operations. The Department of Health claimed the next day that only 8% of NHS doctors took part in the industrial action.
    (Reuters, 6/21/12)(AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 22, In Zimbabwe a handful of male lawmakers underwent voluntary circumcision in a new public drive to curb the spread of HIV, which affects about one in 10 people in the southern African country.
    (AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 27, The US FDA approved Arena Pharmaceuticals’ anti-obesity pill Belviq, the first weight loss drug approved since 1999.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A11)

2012        Jun 28, The US Supreme Court upheld Pres. Obama’s signature health care law's individual insurance mandate in a 5-4 decision. The mandate was upheld as a tax, with Chief Justice John Roberts, a Bush appointee, joining the liberal wing of the court to save the law.
    (SFC, 6/29/12, p.A1)

2012        Jul 1, A US federal judge temporarily blocked Mississippi from enforcing a new law that requires doctors who perform abortions at the state's sole abortion clinic to have admitting privileges at a local hospital. The Mississippi legislation, signed by Rep. Gov. Phil Bryant in April, was due to go into effect today. Abortion clinic doctors had applied to 7 area hospitals for admitting privileges.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.A5)(Reuters, 7/1/12)

2012        Jul 14, In Malaysia conjoined 15-month-old twins attached at the pelvis and sharing three legs were successfully separated at a hospital in a complex 24-hour operation.
    (AFP, 7/28/12)

2012        Jul 16, Indian officials suspended 12 doctors for allegedly conducting prenatal sex tests, a practice banned to stop the abortion of female fetuses that has widened India's gender gap.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 18, China’s Ministry of Health issued a new code of conduct banning medical staff from prescribing unnecessary tests and the prescription of expensive tests to boost income.
    (Econ, 7/21/12, p.38)

2012        Jul 21, Mozambique launched a Brazilian funded pharmaceutical plant that will make anti-retroviral drugs to battle the HIV/AIDS scourge in the southern African country. The plant will initially package drugs from Brazil but start producing the pills by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 22, The 19th International AIDS Conference opened in Washington, DC, with the theme: "Turning the Tide." It returned to the United States for the first time since 1990, after being kept away by laws that barred people with HIV from traveling to the country.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Aug 27, The US FDA said it has approved a request by Gilead Sciences to sell a pill for new HIV patients that combines four of the company’s drugs into one. The Stribild therapy contains two new rugs and two previously approved compounds for the Truvada HIV medicine.
    (SFC, 8/29/12, p.D2)

2012        Aug 30, Swiss authorities said a self-styled healer has been indicted by a Swiss court on charges that he intentionally infected 16 people with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in cases (2001-2005) going back more than a decade.
    (AP, 8/30/12)

2012        Sep 6, The US Institute of Medicine said in a report that the US health care system squanders $750 billion a year, roughly 30 cents of every medical dollar, through unneeded care, byzantine paperwork, fraud and other waste.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 7, In a taped interview in Colorado Republican vice presidential nominee Paul Ryan said the federal government shouldn't interfere with states that have legalized medical marijuana.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Oct 4, A US federal strike force charged 91 doctors, nurses and other licensed medical professional across the country in connection with phony bills totaling nearly $430 billion.
    (SFC, 10/5/12, p.A8)

2012        Nov 14, The debate over legalizing abortion in Ireland flared after the government confirmed Savita Halappanavar, a miscarrying Indian woman suffering from blood poisoning, was refused a quick termination of her pregnancy and died on Oct 28 in an Irish hospital.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Dec 9, It was reported that 9 leukemia patients were cancer free after being treated with genetically altered versions of their own immune cells.
    (SFC, 12/10/12, p.A6)

2012        Dec 10, PM Cameron said Britain will be the first country to introduce a database of genetic sequences into a mainstream health service, giving doctors a more advanced understanding of a patient's illness and what drugs and other treatments they need.
    (Reuters, 12/10/12)

2012        Dec 31, A Texas state judge ruled that Texas can cut off funding to Planned Parenthood’s family planning programs for poor women if they advocate for abortion rights.
    (SFC, 1/1/13, p.A4)

2012        William Baumol authored “The Cost Disease: Why Computers Get Cheaper and Health Care Doesn’t."
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.82)
2012        Ira Byock authored “The Best Care Possible: A Physician’s Quest to Transform Care Through the End of Life."
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.93)
2012        Michigan doctors used plastic particles and a 3-D laser printer to create an airway splint to save the life of Kaiba Gionfriddo, a 3-month-old Ohio baby boy who used to stop breathing nearly every day.
    (AP, 5/22/13)
2012        Prescription pain killers in America accounted for some 16,000 deaths, nearly four out of every ten fatal drug overdoses.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.25)

2013        Jan 11, In Zimbabwe Professor Gordon Chavunduka (82), the leader of the organization of tribal healers, died. The eminent academic, author, sociologist and politician, a former head of the main Zimbabwe University, was widely known for his research and writing that did much to bridge the gap between Western medical practices and Africa's traditional, tribal and herbalist healers.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Feb 6, A new British report said between 400 and 1,200 patients are estimated to have died needlessly at Stafford Hospital in central England between January 2005 and March 2009 in one of the worst scandals to hit the NHS since it was founded in 1948.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Mar 12, The US Food and Drug Administration warned that the popular antibiotic azithromycin, sold as Zithromax, can cause a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm in some patients.
    (Reuters, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 26, North Dakota Gov. Jack Dalrymple signed legislation that that would make North Dakota the nation's most restrictive state on abortion rights, banning the procedure if a fetal heartbeat can be detected — something that can happen as early as six weeks into a pregnancy.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Mar 27, Tennessee Gov. Bill Haslam said he would not expand Medicaid in his state joining 18 other Republican governors who have rejected expansion for now.
    (SFC, 3/28/13, p.A9)
2013        Mar 27, A team of int’l. scientists reported the discovery of dozens of signposts in DNA that can help reveal a person’s risk for breast, ovarian or prostate cancer.
    (SFC, 3/28/13, p.A10)

2013        Apr 1, India’s Supreme Court rejected a patent application by Novartis for Gleevec, a major cancer drug. The ruling allows Indian makers of generic drugs to continue making copycat versions of the drug.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 5, A US federal judge ordered the Food and Drug Administration to make "morning-after" emergency contraception pills available without a prescription to all girls of reproductive age and criticized the Obama administration for interfering with the process for political purposes.
    (Reuters, 4/5/13)

2013        Apr 24, In a new study scientists reported that some bacteria and other microbes from the gut turn lecithin - a nutrient in egg yolks, liver, beef, pork and wheat germ - into an artery-clogging compound called TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). They also found that blood levels of TMAO predict heart attack, stroke or death, and do so "independent of other risk factors."
    (Reuters, 4/24/13)

2013        Apr 29, A Kosovo court found two citizens guilty of human trafficking and organized crime in a trial against 7 people suspected of running an int’l. organ trafficking ring.
    (SFC, 4/30/13, p.A2)

2013        May 15, It was reported that Ranbaxy Labs, India’s biggest drugmaker, has agreed to pay $500 million to resolve fraud allegations related to adulterated drugs sold in the US and lying to US regulators. A 2007 whistle-blower’s lawsuit was unsealed on May 12. Whistelblower Dinesh Thakur had resigned from Ranbaxy in 2005 and contacted American regulators regarding invented data to win approval for drugs in American and treatment for HIV patients.
    (SFC, 5/15/13, p.C3)(Econ, 9/21/13, p.65)

2013        May 30, El Salvador's Health Minister approved the C-section for a 22-year-old woman suffering from kidney failure and lupus, a day after the Supreme Court ruled that she could not have an abortion despite her lawyers' appeal that the pregnancy was life-threatening. Ultrasound images indicated that her fetus was developing with only a brain stem and was given no chance of surviving. The C-section was performed on June 3 and her baby girl was born without a brain.
    (AP, 5/30/13)(AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Sep 9, The US Lasker Awards were announced. Richard Scheller and Thomas Sudhof won the basic medical research category for their research on how neurons communicate with one another. They will split the $250,000 prize.
    (SFC, 9/10/13, p.C1)

2013        Sep 23, A California medical laboratory agreed to pay $19.4 million to federal and state governments and two former employees who said they were fired after reporting secret discounts and kickbacks. Diagnostic Laboratories and Radiology was accused of cheating Medicare and Medi-Cal programs for years by billing them at standard rates while secretly charging cut-rate fees to nursing homes.
    (SFC, 9/24/13, p.C2)

2013        Oct 1, Pres. Obama’s health insurance exchanges were launched. The launch was plagued with glitches.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.38)

2013        Oct 8, British pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline said it would seek regulatory approval next year for RTS,S, a vaccine that has shown positive results against malaria in children.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.94)

2013        Oct 9, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown signed a law that expands the definition of who can provide abortions to include nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives and physician assistants.
    (SFC, 10/10/12, p.A1)

2013        Oct 18, Canada’s Supreme Court, in the case of a severely-brain damaged man, ruled that family, not doctors, should decide when to cut off life support.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 21, Pres. Obama urged American to buy health insurance by phone, mail and in person because the website for Obamacare was not working.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.33)

2013        Oct 31, A US federal appeals court ruled that most of Texas’ tough new abortion restrictions can take effect immediately.
    (SFC, 11/1/13, p.A7)

2013        Nov 1, Genentech won federal approval for its Gazyva drug for patients with leukemia.
    (SFC, 11/2/13, p.D2)

2013        Nov 2, China, the only country that still systematically takes organs from executed prisoners for use in transplant operations, said it plans to end the controversial practice by the middle of next year.
    (Reuters, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 14, Pres. Barack Obama admitted he deserved to be "slapped around" over the chaotic debut of his health care law, and pledged to work hard to restore confidence in his reeling presidency.
    (AFP, 11/14/13)
2013        Nov 14, A French commercial court ordered TUeV Rheinland, a German product-testing company, to pay damages to more than 1,600 women and six distributors after ruling that it failed to properly check silicone breast implants that turned out to be prone to leakage.
    (AP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 22, US regulators approved the use of Johnson & Johnson's Olysio, also known as simeprevir, as a treatment for chronic infection with the liver-destroying hepatitis C virus.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2013        Dec 2, US Pres. Obama announced a $100 million initiative in pursuit of a cure for HIV at a White House event marking World Aids Day.
    (SFC, 12/3/13, p.A7)
2013        Dec 2, In Australia a class action over birth defects linked to the morning sickness drug thalidomide was settled in a court, with the British distributor agreeing to pay victims Aus$89 million (US$81 million).
    (AFP, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 5, A study by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said water pollution at the Camp Lejeune military base in North Carolina has been linked to increased risk of birth defects and childhood cancers.
    (Reuters, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 6, US FDA said it has approved a new hepatitis C drug. The Sovaldi pills from Gilead Sciences was approved for use in combination with older drugs to treat the main forms of hepatitis C in the US. The US health industry soon complained as the US price was the drug was set at $1,000 a daily pill, or $84,000 for a 12-week treatment.
    (SFC, 12/7/13, p.D3)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.A1)

2013        Dec 9, In Oakland, Ca., Jahi McMath (13) suffered a cardiac arrest during a tonsil operation at Children’s Hospital. On Dec 12 doctors pronounced her brain dead. Her family contended she was still alive and kept her connected to breathing and feeding tubes.
    (SFC, 12/26/13, p.A10)(SFC, 12/28/13, p.C4)

2013        Dec 11, G8 health ministers met in London to tackle what experts warn is a dementia time-bomb, with cases set to soar as the world's population ages.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 27, Danish drugmaker Lundbeck said it has received marketing authorization from the European Commission for its antidepressant Brintellix following approval in the United States in September.
    (Reuters, 12/27/13)

2013        Dec 28, Croatia state prosecutors said some 300 doctors and pharmacists are among 364 suspects who have been charged with offering and taking bribes in exchange for prescribing certain drugs. The operation, code-named Hippocratus, was launched by the USKOSK anti-graft police in November 2012.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 31, President Obama’s besieged Affordable Care Act suffered another setback with a US Supreme Court justice issuing a temporary injunction late today preventing enforcement of the law’s contraception mandate against a group of Roman Catholic nuns who provide care to low-income elderly patients.
    (SFC, 1/2/14, p.2)

2013        In Sri Lanka a report published by the World Health Organization found kidney disease in 15 percent of adults across three affected districts. By 2015 the disease killed up to 20,000 people over the past 20 years and sickened another 70,000 to 400,000. Research has failed to determine the cause.
    (AP, 1/18/15)

2014        Jan 9, Health experts launched Action on Sugar, a drive to cut sugar levels in food in an effort to tackle obesity and diabetes.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 13, Swedish Dr. Mats Brannstrom said nine women have successfully received transplanted wombs donated from relatives and will soon try to become pregnant.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Feb 4, A Cuban doctor working in Brazil has sought political asylum in the office of a conservative party complaining that Cuba's government takes too big a slice of her pay. Under an agreement signed last year with Cuba through the Pan-American Health Organization, or PAHO, the Cubans get only one fifth of the 10,000 reais ($4,100) a month that Brazil pays each physician in the program. The rest goes to the Cuban state.
    (Reuters, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 19, In Pennsylvania Herbert and Catherine Schaible were sentenced to 3½ to seven years in prison in the death of a 2nd child who never saw a doctor despite being stricken with pneumonia.
    (SFC, 2/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 7, The US Centers for Disease Control issued an alert after health authorities in the United States reported that at least 19 women in five states had developed serious mycobacterial wound infections over the previous 12 months following cosmetic procedures in the Dominican Republic such as liposuction, tummy tucks and breast implants.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Mar 12, Stephen Power (29) from Cardiff in Wales was reported to be one of the first trauma patients in the world to have a procedure in which 3D printing was used at every stage.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 25, Utah’s Gov. Gary Herbert signed a law that allows parents of children with severe epilepsy to obtain marijuana extract to help with seizures.
    (SFC, 3/26/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 27, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a report saying one in 68 US children has been diagnosed with autism. The CDC report was based on data from 2010.
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.D1)

2014        Apr 1, Chin Long Chiang (b.1914), UC professor and biostatistics pioneer, died at his home in Berkeley, Ca. He had begun applying statistical methods to the world of health care and the study of diseases in the 1950s.
    (SFC, 4/25/14, p.D3)

2014        Apr 8, A US jury ordered Japanese drugmaker Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. and its US counterpart, Eli Lilly and Co., to pay $9 billion in punitive damages over Actos, a diabetes medicine linked to cancer. The drug companies said they will "vigorously challenge" the decision.
    (AP, 4/8/14)

2014        May 17, Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper signed the first state law to allow terminally ill patients to access experimental medications before federal approval.
    (SSFC, 5/18/14, p.A7)

2014        May 28, A US Veteran’s Affairs watchdog reported systemic problems at the Phoenix VA Hospital with waiting time for care for a first appointment averaging 115-days.
    (SFC, 5/29/14, p.A7)

2014        May 30, A US federal health board overturned the government’s 25-year ban on providing Medicare coverage for sex-change surgery for transgender people.
    (SFC, 5/31/14, p.C2)

2014        Jun 19, A California state auditor blasted federal and state oversight of sterilization surgeries for female prison inmates after finding more than a a quarter of 144 tubal ligations, performed from 2006 to 2013, were done without lawful consent.
    (SFC, 6/20/14, p.A1)

2014        Jun 24, France's top administrative court ordered an end to the treatment of a comatose man — a decision blocked hours later by the European Court of Human Rights.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 25, Britain's Supreme Court said an assisted-suicide ban is incompatible with human rights, but it dismissed the appeal from two severely disabled men who argued the law should be changed to allow doctors to legally kill them.
    (AP, 6/25/14)
2014        Jun 25, A French doctor was acquitted of poisoning charges after giving lethal injections to seven terminally ill patients. Relatives of Dr. Nicolas Bonnemaison's patients had testified in his favor.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Aug 15, China’s state media reported that two HIV-positive passengers and a friend are suing a Chinese airline for refusing to let them on board, in the country's first such lawsuit.
    (AFP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 21, A new study suggested that there is an oversupply of synapses in at least some parts of the brains of children with autism.
    (SFC, 8/22/14, p.A6)

2014        Sep 15, Gilead Sciences said it will begin selling its $1,000 per pill hepatitis C treatment in India and other developing countries at a fraction of the price it charges in the US. Gilead said it had struck agreements with seven Indian generic drug makers to sell lower cost versions.
    (SFC, 9/16/14, p.D2)

2014        Sep 16, In Syria at least 15 children died after receiving vaccinations for measles in the northwestern province of Idlib.
    (AP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep, A Swedish woman (36), in a medical first, gave birth after having received a womb transplant.
    (SFC, 10/4/14, p.A3)

2014        Oct 9, In Kosovo nine health officials and doctors were arrested under an investigation into private clinics suspected of offering bribes to receive heart surgery patients.
    (Reuters, 10/9/14)

2014        Nov 8, In India a doctor performed more than 80 sterilization surgeries after which 11 women died. Two days later, another camp was held in the same Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh. One woman died and more than a dozen fell ill with shock and vomiting.
    (Reuters, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 28, British scientists announced trials on a 15-minute Ebola test in Guinea as France's Francois Hollande arrived in Conakry, becoming the first Western leader to visit one of the countries devastated by the epidemic. France has pledged 100 million euros ($125 million) in the fight against the epidemic focusing its efforts on Guinea.
    (AFP, 11/28/14)

2014        Dec 18, It was reported that Colorado plans to spend over $8 million to research marijuana’s medical potential.
    (SFC, 12/18/14, p.C6)

2014        Richard Ablin and Ronald Piana authored “The Great Prostate Hoax: How Big Medicine Hijacked the PSA Test and Caused a Public Health Disaster."
    (Econ, 3/8/14, p.85)
2014        Atul Gawande authored “Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End."
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.89)
2014        Paul Marks and James Sterngold authored “On the Cancer Frontier: One Man, One Disease, and a Medical Revolution."
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.82)

2015        Jan 1, In Poland a so-called "oncology package" was introduced requiring family doctors to diagnose and fast-track cancer patients. Doctors said this will leave less time and attention for all other patients, threatening their health. Hundreds of doctors refused to sign the new plan and kept their surgeries closed.
    (AP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 13, Tanzania banned witchdoctors to try and stem a surge in murders of albinos, whose body parts are sold for witchcraft. The ban does not cover traditional healers who use herbs to help the sick.
    (AFP, 1/14/15)

2015        Jan 14, Brazil approved the medical use of a marijuana derivative to treat people suffering from severe seizures and other conditions.
    (SFC, 1/15/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 31, It was reported that a mysterious annual epidemic in northern India was likely due to a toxin found in litchi fruit.
    (SFC, 1/31/15, p.A5)

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Subject = Medical, AIDS, Cancer, Microbiology