Timeline of Microbiology

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Web site:    http://www.microbeworld.org/index.php

At least 800 types of bacteria live in the human gut. The collective genome of these organisms contains 100 times as many genes as the human genome itself.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.78)

2Bil BC    A bacterium became symbiotic with the cell from which animals and plants developed. Chromosomes from this bacterium’s mitochondria later carried 37 genes in the human body.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.79)

220Mil BC    Bacteria and single-celled animals and plants from this period became encased in tree resin on the northern edge of the Tethys Ocean. Scientists in 2006 studied the organisms in amber of this time from a town in the Italian Dolomites. Ciliates and amoeba in the amber appeared identical to modern examples.
    (Econ, 12/16/06, p.84)

10000BC    The 1st known outbreaks of smallpox occurred about this time among agricultural settlements in northeastern Africa.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

8000BC    In 1958 anthropologist Frank Livingstone proposed that Plasmodium falciprum, the deadliest of 4or 5 parasites that cause human malaria, hopped from chimps to humans about this time and human hunter-gatherers began settling on farms.
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.69)

1350BCE    The 1st recorded smallpox epidemic took place during an Egyptian-Hittite war. Hittite warriors caught the disease from Egyptian prisoners. The king and heir were fatally infected and the empire fell apart.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

430BC-410BC        A mysterious disease killed one-third of the Athenian population. Thucydides, who was stricken but recovered, described the plague in Athens (likely an outbreak of typhus fever) in Book 2 of his History of the Peloponnesian War.
    (NH, 6/97, p.11)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

180CE    A smallpox epidemic hit Rome and killed 3.5 to 7 million people including Emp. Marcus Aurelius. It was dubbed the Plague of Antonine.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

910        Rhazes, an Arab physician, wrote the 1st account of smallpox and proposed the earliest theory of immunity.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.46)

1017        In China a hermit introduced the prime minister to “variolation," an inoculation using germs from smallpox survivors.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1347        Oct, Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic (which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection in the bloodstream).
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B4)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1439        Jul 16, Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1348        The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
    (SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)

1519        Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed at Veracruz. Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1534        The King of Siam died of smallpox.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1553        Bavaria outlawed summer-made beer because wintertime brews had outstripped them in quality. In 2011 a yeast from Patagonia, Saccharomyces eubayanus, was identified as being 99.5% identical to the non-ale half of the lager yeast genome. It was believed that over time Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybridized to form Saccharomyces pastorianus, used by lager brewers today.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1576        An epidemic of plague Venice. In 2006 a well-preserved skeleton was found on the Lazzaretto Nuovo island, north of the lagoon city, amid other corpses buried in a mass grave.  Experts said the remains of a woman with a brick stuck between her jaws indicated that she was believed to be a vampire.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

1604        Agustino Salumbrino, a Jesuit monk, left Rome for Peru, where he studied native plants for their healing powers, especially the bark of the cinchona tree used by the Incas to treat shivering. By 1630 quinine entered the literature as a treatment. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)

1616-1619    An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.49)

1623        The 1st case of smallpox in Russia was reported.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1665        In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year." The novel posed as a historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase exponentially.
    (NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1720        May 25, "Le Grand St. Antoine" reached Marseille, plague killed 80,000.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1721        Apr 26, The smallpox vaccination was 1st administrated. Lady Mary Wortley Montegu had returned to England following a stay in Turkey with her ambassador husband. She had learned of a procedure to inoculate against smallpox and began a campaign to have the procedure established.
    (ON, 9/01, p.1)(MC, 4/26/02)

1721        Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Oct 6, Deaths from smallpox in Boston reached 203 with 2,757 people infected.
    (ON, 3/05, p.5)

1722        Cotton Mather authored “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox…" This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1723        Aug 26, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (b.1632), Dutch biologist, inventor (microscope), died in Delft, Netherlands. [some sources say Aug 30]
    (http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/Catalog/Files/leewnhok.html)

1730        Smallpox returned to Boston, but by this time inoculation was recognized as a viable means of preventing death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.5)

1749        May 17, Edward Jenner, physician, discoverer of vaccination, was born.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1753        Smallpox hit North America and a 38% infection rate was recorded in Boston. Benjamin Franklin lobbied for variolation.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1763        British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst, distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.50)

1775        Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1789        Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1793        There was a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia. Stephen Girard risked his life and fortune in stopping the epidemic.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)

1796        May 14, English physician Edward Jenner administered the first vaccination against smallpox to his gardener's son, James Phipps (8). A single blister rose up on the spot, but James later demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Jenner actually used vaccinia, a close viral relation to smallpox. [see July 21, 1721]
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.77)(AP, 5/14/08)

1800        Jul 8, Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse gave the 1st cowpox vaccination to his son to prevent smallpox. [see May 14, 1796]
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1806        Napoleon ordered that all French citizens be vaccinated against smallpox.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.50)

1813        Mar 15, John Snow (d.1858), obstetrician, was born in York, England. He worked on the epidemiology of cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)

1824        Jan 26, Edward Jenner, discoverer of vaccination, died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1831        A cholera epidemic broke out in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1832        Feb 6, There was an appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1832        Feb, A cholera epidemic ended in Great Britain. Some 800 people died of the disease in London. Dr. John Snow eventually traced the London epidemic to a water pump on Broad Street. [see 1849] In 2006 Steven Johnson authored “The Ghost Map," a history of London’s cholera outbreak.
    (www.mernick.co.uk/thhol/1832chol.html)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1832        Aug, In Pennsylvania 57 Irish immigrants died of cholera after traveling there to build a railroad. In 2009 their bones were found at a woodsy site known as Duffy's Cut, named after Philip Duffy, who hired the immigrants from Donegal, Tyrone and Derry to help build the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. In 2010 evidence indicated that at least some of the men’s remains showed signs of violence.
    (AP, 3/25/09)(AP, 8/16/10)

1841-1912    Gerard H. Hansen, Norwegian physician. He discovered the leprosy-causing Mycobacterium leprae (aka Hansen’s disease).
    (WUD, 1994, p.644)

1843        Dec 11, Robert Koch (d.1910), German physician, bacteriologist, and medical researcher, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905.
    (http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1905/koch-bio.html)

1848        A new cholera epidemic struck in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1849        John Snow (1813-1858), English obstetrician, authored his 39-page pamphlet “On the Mode of Communication of Cholera." He presented evidence that the disease was spread through contaminated water.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)

1853        A smallpox epidemic hit Hawaii and 5-6000 people died.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1854        Mar 14, Paul Ehrlich, German bacteriologist, was born. He later received the Nobel Prize for medicine.
    (HN, 3/14/99)

1854        Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the cholera bacillus, but did not prove that it caused cholera. His work remained obscure and was not translated to English.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1854        Cholera broke out in London again. Dr. John Snow traced it to cesspool near a public water pump on Broad Street.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)

1855        Yellow Fever broke out in Norfolk, Va., after a steamship carrying mosquitoes in its cisterns docked from the West Indies.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1855        A third pandemic of bubonic plague broke out in China. It killed 12 million people and eventually spread to every continent of the world.
    (NG, 5/88, p.682)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C1)

1857        May 13, Ronald Ross, bacteriologist, was born.
    (HN, 5/13/01)

1858        Jun 16, Dr. John Snow (b.1813), English obstetrician, died of a stroke. He is considered the father of epidemiology for his efforts in documenting the spread of cholera in London epidemics.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1860        In France the Yonne Department had almost 99,000 acres of grapevines for wine. Diseases such as oidium and phylloxera destroyed the Chablis vines in the late 19th century and the Carmenére grape was wiped out in France. In 1994 the Carmenére grape was found to be thriving in Chile.
    (SFC, 7/16/97, Z1 p.4)(WSJ, 12/28/01, p.A17)

1864        Phylloxera was 1st noted on grapevines in Roquemaure, France. It ravaged the vineyards there for nearly 20 years. In 1872 it reached Austria and Portugal. In 1875 it appeared in Australia and in 1886 in South Africa. In 1987 George Ordish authored “The Great Wine Blight." In 2004 Christy Campbell authored “Phylloxera: How Wine was Saved for the World." In 2011 George Gale authored “Dying on the Vine: How Phylloxera Transformed Wine."
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E3)(Econ, 7/23/11, p.81)

1865        Sep 1, Joseph Lister performed his 1st antiseptic surgery.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1866        Jul 21, A cholera-epidemic killed hundreds in London.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1867        There was a yellow-fever epidemic in the US.
    (SSFC, 2/25/01, BR p.5)

1870        Aug 17, Frederick Russell, developed 1st successful typhoid fever vaccine, was born.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1876        The gladiolus rust, Uromyces trasversalis, was discovered in South Africa. Some 90 years later it turned up in the Mediterranean region then spread to Europe, South America, and Australia. In 2006 it was detected in the US.
    (SSFC, 8/9/09, p.L2)

1877        Arthur Downes and Thomas P. Blunt of Shrewsbury proved the bactericidal action of light. Blunt was offered a British knighthood for his achievements in research, but humbly declined. His partner in research, Arthur Downes, accepted the title.
    (http://members.shaw.ca/TPBLUNT/)

1878        Jul 12, A Yellow Fever epidemic began in New Orleans. It killed 4,500.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1879        Aug 30, John Bell Hood (b.1831), former confederate general, died of yellow fever in a New Orleans epidemic.
    (AH, 10/02, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bell_Hood)

1880        Dec 11, Louis Pasteur (57), French scientist, began an experiment to identify the microbe that causes rabies.
    (ON, 6/08, p.4)

1881        Aug 6, Alexander Fleming (d.1955), Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1928), was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1954. Fleming first observed the antibiotic properties of the mold that makes penicillin, but it was Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey who developed it into a useful treatment.
    (AHD, 1971, p.501)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming)

1882        Mar 24, German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1884        Robert Koch, German microbiologist, rediscovered, isolated and cultured the cholera bacillus, Vibrio cholerae. Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the bacillus in 1854, but did not prove that it caused cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1885        Mar, In Loganville, Pa., Dr. George E. Holtzapple (22) saved Fred Gable (16), who was suffering from pneumonia, by supplying the boy with pure oxygen. Oxygen therapy became the only effective treatment for pneumonia until antibiotics became available in the 1940s.
    (ON, 4/07, p.10)

1885        Jul 6, French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) successfully tested an anti-rabies vaccine on a boy bitten by an infected dog. Thanks to his vaccine the death rate from rabies dropped to almost zero by 1888.
    (AP, 7/6/97)(ON, 6/08, p.6)

1887        Feb 21, The 1st US bacteriology laboratory opened in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1890        The tuberculin skin test (TST or Mantoux) was developed.
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.B9)

1891        Mar 15, Joseph Bazalgette (b.1819), English civil engineer, died. He built interceptor sewers along the banks of the Thames and ended cholera outbreaks in London.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bazalgette)

1892        Mar 3, 1st cattle tuberculosis test in US was made at Villa Nova, PA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1892        Aug 30, The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United States.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1894         The plague in China reached its port cities and began to circle the globe. In Hong Kong it killed some 10,000 people. Dr Alexander Yersin, a French bacteriologist sent to Hong Kong by the Institute Pasteur, found in the buboes of the plague victims "a swarm of microbes, all similar in appearance...short bacilli with rounded ends."
    (NG, 5/88, p.684)

1895        Sep 28, Louis Pasteur (b.1822), French chemist (Pasteurization), died at 72. In 1995 Gerald Geison (d.2001) authored “The Private Science of Louis Pasteur.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1895        Prof. Emile Pierre van Ermengem of Belgium identified the bacterium Bacillus botulinus.
    (NW, 5/13/02, p.54)

1897        A French scientist at the Pasteur Institute made the crucial connection between rats and fleas as carriers of bubonic plague.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1898        Jun 2, Dr. Paul-Louis Simond discovered the connections between rats, fleas and humans in the transmittance of the Plague in Bombay, India.
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)

1899        Mar 6, Aspirin was patented following Felix Hoffman’s discoveries about the properties of acetylsalicylic acid.
    (HN, 3/6/01)

1899        Dr. Charles Wardell Stiles, a zoologist from Hartford, Connecticut, identified "progressive pernicious anemia," seen in the southern United States, as caused by A. duodenale. He also identified the other important hookworm species: Necator americanus. Stiles had studied medical zoology in Europe in the late 19th century and learned about hookworms while helping with animal autopsies and studies. From 1909 to 1914, doctors, public health officials, and northern businessmen worked to destroy what they called the "germ of laziness." They believed such a germ caused many of the South's problems, poverty, a sickly population, and economic underdevelopment. But the germ these people were attacking wasn't a germ at all. It was a worm, the hookworm.
    (www.isradiology.org/tropical_deseases/tmcr/chapter12/intro.htm)(SSFC, 9/26/10, DB p.50)

1900        Jan 2, The cargo steamship Australia arrived in San Francisco at the end of a voyage from Hawaii. Plague was known to have already hit Honolulu and rats aboard the ship carried the disease. Wong Chut King became the city’s first victim when he was found dead at the Globe Hotel at Jackson and DuPont (later Grant Ave.). A short term rope quarantine was created around the 6-by-2 block area of Chinatown.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1900        Jan 19, In Australia Arthur Paine (33), a delivery man whose daily work brought him into contact with Sidney’s Central Wharf, died of Bubonic plague. A population of black rats had been likely introduced to Australia on the first fleet of ships carrying white settlers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3bkr6ll)

1900        May 30, It was reported that 9 deaths in San Francisco’s Chinatown were caused by Bubonic plague, the Yersinia pestis bacterium, and that 159 policemen had set up a quarantine. In 2003 Marilyn Chase authored “The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)(SSFC, 1/12/03, p.M2)(WSJ, 3/25/03, p.D10)

1900        Jun 26, A commission that included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease yellow fever. Walter Reed (1851-1902), U.S. Army doctor, went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 6/26/97)

1901        Feb 20, Rene Dubos, French-US microbiologist who developed the first commercial antibiotic, was born in France. He authored “Health & Disease."
    (HN, 2/20/01)(MC, 2/20/02)

1901        Aug 27, In Havana, Cuba, U.S. Army physician James Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him in an attempt to isolate the means of transmission of yellow fever. Days later, Carroll developed a severe case of yellow fever, helping his colleague, Army Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes can transmit the sometimes deadly disease.
    (MC, 8/27/02)(ON, 10/01, p.8)

1902        Ronald Ross (1857-1932), an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria. His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)

1903        Apr 14, Dr. Harry Plotz in NYC discovered a vaccine against typhoid.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1903        Dr. Rupert Blue reported that the bubonic plague epidemic had been confined to the 24 blocks of San Francisco’s Chinatown and that the district was now plague-free and plague-proof. Blue had replaced Joseph Kinyoun as the federal official charged with fighting the epidemic.
    (ON, 1/00, p.6)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1903        Walter Sutton, American cytologist, suggested that the Mendelian elements of heredity lay on the chromosomes.
    (NH, 6/01, p.32)

1904        May 29, Robert Knox, bacteriologist, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1905        San Francisco’s bubonic plague appeared to be eradicated following the killing of tens of thousands of rats and the fumigation of Chinatown. The death toll reached 113.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1905        Nettie Stevens, geneticist, showed that sex was associated with the X chromosome.
    (NH, 6/01, p.32)

1906        Aug 26, Albert Bruce Sabin, U.S. virologist, born in Poland. In 1955, he developed an oral vaccine against polio.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1907        May 27, Bubonic Plague broke out again in San Francisco.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1907        Sep, By this time some 55 new cases of bubonic plague were identified in San Francisco and the issue became a national concern.
    (ON, 1/00, p.6)

1908        Jan, Dr. Rupert Blue held a mass meeting and called on the citizens of SF to support his war against bubonic plague. Gov. James Norris Gillet had warned that the city faced a general quarantine. In the following rat campaign an estimated 2 million rats were killed.
    (ON, 1/00, p.6,7)

1908        San Francisco managed to eradicate its 2nd bubonic plague epidemic. By this year some 2 million rats were killed and 190 people left dead in the two epidemics that had spread over eight years.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1909        May 19, San Francisco Mayor Edward Taylor wrote a letter to Pres. Taft testifying to the valuable aid of the federal government in the city’s recent campaign against bubonic plague.
    (SSFC, 5/31/09, DB p.50)

1909        Konstantin S. Merezhovsky, biologist, argued that the chloroplasts in plant cells evolved from symbionts of foreign origin and coined the term “symbiogenesis" to describe the merger of different kinds of life forms into new species.
    (NH, 6/01, p.40)

1909        Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), a Brazilian doctor, described how a fatal infection, that became known as Chagas disease, was transmitted as a single cell parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, carried by insects that typically bite their sleeping victims on the face. In 1921 Chagas won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. In 2010 scientists at UC San Francisco reported the development of a protease inhibitor, K777, which appeared to kill the parasite.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Chagas)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.A20)

1910        Feb 19, Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) was released from 4 years of quarantine on New York’s North Brother Island. In 1914 she caused a typhus outbreak in the Sloane Maternity Hospital. She was again arrested and returned to North Brother Island where she died Nov 11, 1938.
    (ON, 7/01, p.12)

1910        May 27, Robert Koch (b.1843), German bacteriologist (TB, Cholera, Nobel), died.
    (http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1905/koch-bio.html)

1910        Jun 22, German bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich announced a definitive cure for syphilis.
    (AP, 6/22/01)

1910        Dec 18, The first dispensary for treating hookworm disease opened in Columbia, Mississippi.
    (http://tinyurl.com/24cckey)

1912        Feb 10, Dr. Joseph Lister, founder of sterile technique in surgical practice, died at age 85. In 1917 Sir Rickman John Godlee authored “Lord Lister."
    (ON, 7/00, p.9)

1913        The US Virus Serum Toxin Act gave the USDA authority to ensure that veterinary diagnostic kits are safe and accurate and to decide where cattle can be tested and for what.
    (WSJ, 3/904, p.A8)(SFC, 4/10/04, p.A3)
1913        New York state passed “the eight foot sheet law" to ensure that the upper sheet in a hotel was of sufficient length to cover the face so “that the inhalation by the occupant of bacteria &c, may be prevented."
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1913        Bela Schick devised the "Schick test," which had a dramatic effect on the incidence of diphtheria. The skin test determined a patient’s susceptibility to diphtheria. Mass surveys followed by immunization of Schick-positive children with inactive toxin resulted in a drastic decrease in the incidence of the disease.
    (HNQ, 6/8/99)

1915        Sep 19, Elizabeth Stern, Canadian pathologist, was born. She first published a case report linking a specific virus to a specific cancer.
    (HN, 9/19/00)

1916        Anton Dilger (1884-1918), an American educated as a surgeon in Germany, set up a basement laboratory in Washington DC for cultivating anthrax bacteria and Pseudomonas mallei to infect horses and cattle destined to supply Allied armies. German saboteurs disseminated the bacteria. Dilger later moved to Mexico to help goad Mexico into attacking the US. He died of the Spanish flu in Madrid. In 2007 Robert Koenig authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great War in America."
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)

1918        Mar, The flu epidemic began at Fort Riley, Kansas, where 48 men died. It was carried by recruits to Europe where it mutated and returned with a vengeance. [see May, 1918] The Spanish flu was later found to have been caused by a genetic fusion of pig and human viruses. In 1997 Dr. Johan Hultin recovered tissue in Brevig Mission, Alaska, with frozen virus and submitted it for gene sequencing.
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A16)(HNPD, 7/21/98)(SFC, 2/26/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A1)(SFCM, 2/17/02, p.8)

1918        Oct 17, Anton Dilger (B.1884), an American saboteur educated as a surgeon in Germany, died of Spanish flu in Spain. [see 1916] In 2007 Robert Koenig authored “The Fourth Horseman: One Man’s Mission to Wage the Great War in America."
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.M2)

1919        Mar 19, A typhoid epidemic raged in Petrograd, Russia, killing 200 daily.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1920-1929 Medical studies in 2014 confirmed that the common ancestor of HIV-1 group M virus originated in Kinshasa about this time.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.88)

1922        Nov 15, It was announced that Dr. Alexis Carrel discovered white corpuscles.
    (HN, 11/15/00)

1925        Dr. Albert C. Barnes (1872-1951) built a mansion to house his collection of French impressionist and post-impressionist masterpieces in Merion, Pennsylvania. The collection grew to some 2,500 objects and their setup and access was highly restricted by Dr. Barnes’ trust indenture. Barnes had made his fortune with a pediatric antibiotic called Argyrol. By 2000 his foundation was broke. In 2003 John Anderson authored ""Art Held Hostage," an account of the Barnes collection.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W18)

1925        In debates over the Geneva Protocol opponents touted poison gas as a "decisive offensive weapon." A ban on chemical and biological weapons was signed by most nations, but not the US until much later. The Geneva Convention outlawed the use of biological warfare, but did not prohibit nations from continuing the production of biological agents.
    (SFC,11/12/97, p.C2)(NH, 10/98, p.18)(AH, 6/03, p.46)

1928        Sep 3, Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovered, by accident, that the mold penicillin has an antibiotic effect.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.354)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming)

1930        A computer study in 2000 suggested that the AIDS virus was introduced to the human population from chimp and monkey variants about this time.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)

1930        Minoru Shirota, a Japanese researcher, discovered Lactobacillus casei shirota.
    (Econ Sp, 12/13/03, p.11)

1932        Apr 28, A yellow fever vaccine for humans was announced.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1932        Aug 18, Luc Montagnier, virologist, was born. He discovered the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1934        Hans Zinsser, Harvard bacteriologist, wrote "Rats, Lice and History," a biography of the virus behind typhoid fever.
    (NH, 9/98, p.9)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1935        The vollum strain of anthrax was 1st isolated from a cow in Oxfordshire, U.K. This was the strain later used on Gruinard Island tests. Hundreds of Bacillus anthracis strains exist. Other common strains named were Ames, Sterne and Michigan. The Ames strain was named after a sick cow in Ames, Iowa.
    (WSJ, 10/18/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 11/8/01, p.A1)

1937        The West Nile virus was 1st identified in the West Nile District of Uganda. It was able to cause fatal encephalitis in humans.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.D6)

1940        Japanese warplanes dropped plague-infected fleas over southwest China. In 2001 Chinese doctors testified in a Tokyo trial and said at least 109 people died as a result. In 2002 a symposium of historians reported that the Japanese killed at least 440,000 Chinese in the 1930s and 1940s by dropping disease carrying fleas and cholera-coated flies from planes.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.B12)

1941        Jul 4, Howard Florey & Norman Heatley met for 1st time, 11 days later they successfully recreated penicillin.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1941        Jul 15, Florey and Heatley presented freeze dried mold cultures (Penicillin).
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1941        George Beadle, geneticist, and Edward Tatum, chemist, identified genetic mutations that disabled specific steps in the synthesis of a complex molecule. They thus showed that a gene was a thing on a chromosome that specified an enzyme.
    (NH, 6/01, p.33)

1941        Prof. William Reeves (1916-2004) and William M. Hammon isolated the 2 viruses that caused western equine and St. Louis encephalitis and proved that they were carried by a mosquito named Culex tarsalis.
    (SFC, 9/21/04, p.B7)

1942        Jul, Dr. Paul Fildes led a British test of anthrax in a bomb on Gruinard Island in northwest Scotland. The island became contaminated from tests and Britain acquired it for £500. Cleanup was undertaken in 1986 and the island was returned to its original owners in 1990.
    (WSJ, 10/18/01, p.A23)(Econ, 5/8/04, p.78)

1942        Sep, More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China’s eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China, until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until 1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP, 8/27/02)

1942        Dec 10, George W. Merck, former president of Merck Pharmaceutical and head of the War Research Service, requested the Chemical Warfare Service to develop a biological warfare program.
    (AH, 6/03, p.46)

1942        Dec, Dr. Ira Baldwin (1896-1999), plant bacteriologist at the Univ. of Wisconsin, was selected to head US biological warfare.
    (AH, 6/03, p.46)

1943        Oct 9, Alexander Fleming reported in Lancet the 1st successful treatment of streptococcal meningitis with intramuscular and intrathecal (directly into the spinal fluid) injections of the just-purified penicillin.
    (WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A19)

1943-1965    Members of the Special Operations Division from Maryland’s Fort Detrick biological weapons program conducted over 200 tests during this period on the effectiveness of aerially dispersed pathogens. At least 4 men died during the years of the project. Some 658,039 animals were killed, including sheep, ferrets, cats, pigs, white mice and guinea pigs.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A11)(AH, 6/03, p.46)
1943-1986     Building E5625, the “Pilot Plant," at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground was built and used for experiments and production of agents in chemical and biological warfare. In 1977 public knowledge of the pathogen experiments caused citizen outrage.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A11)

1944        Apr 27, Dr. H. Corwin Hinshaw (d.2000) first treated 4 tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the newly developed streptomycin antibiotic. The animals were cured. Hinshaw was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1952 but the prize went to Dr. Selman a. Waksman of Rutgers, who discovered streptomycin.
    (SFC, 1/11/01, p.C16)

1945        Sir Alexander Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his co-discovery of penicillin along with Ernst B. Chain (b.1908), German chemist, bacteriologist, and Dr. Howard Florey, who found Fleming's paper in 1938 and began clinical trials.
    (WUD, 1994, p.542)(SFC, 1/19/04, p.B4)

1946-1948    US scientific researchers infected hundreds of Guatemalan mental patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The researchers were trying to determine whether the antibiotic penicillin could prevent syphilis infection, not just cure it. The practice only came to light in 2010 thanks to the work of an academic researcher. On Oct 1, 2010, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius issued a formal apology to Guatemala, and to Guatemalan residents of the United States. A 2011 report said 2,082 people were infected with syphilis, gonorrhea or chancroid. Previous studies had said about 1,300 people were exposed, including soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and mental patients.
    (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39456324/ns/health-sexual_health/)(AP, 12/7/11)

1947        The 1st penicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were reported.
    (NG, 11/04, p.21)

1949        There was a cholera outbreak in Philadelphia, Pa.
    (SFC, 3/8/14, p.C3)
1949        Lillian Barber died in Texas in the last reported US case of smallpox.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.51)

1950        Sep, A secret US Army and Navy experiment spread Serratia marcescens bacteria, because of its red pigment, and Bacillus globigii, because of its formed spores similar to anthrax, off the coast of San Francisco Bay from a mine laying ship for 6 days. The bacteria was thought to be harmless, but the germs sent 11 people to hospitals and killed one person. Edward J. Nevin, from a heart infection. In 1977 Senate subcommittee hearings the Army revealed that it had staged the mock biological attack.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A1)(AH, 6/03, p.49)

1950        By this time chestnut trees were little more than a memory in most parts of North America. The fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, which causes chestnut blight, had arrived in infected saplings from Asia in the late 19th century and began decimating the estimated 4 billion trees.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.78)

1950-1959    Panama disease in the 1950s obliterated the Gros Michel variety of bananas. By the 1960s it was close to extinction. It was replaced by the Cavendish variety. Most edible bananas do not have seeds and are sprouted from shoots of original trees that date back 10,000 years.
    (SFC, 4/5/04, p.D5)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.62)

1951-1969 In Austria 230 people, including some children at a state run orphanage, were subjects of an experiment in which they were injected with the parasite which causes malaria as part of research for a cure against syphilis, long after penicillin was available.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

1951        Dr. Esther Lederberg (1922-2006) of the Univ. of Wisconsin discovered the lambda phage, a virus that infects other bacteria with the ability to transfer genes among them.
    (SFC, 11/28/06, p.B7)

1953        Mar 26, Dr. Jonas Salk of the University of Pittsburgh announced that a vaccine against polio had been successfully tested in a small group of adults and children. By April 1955, the vaccine had undergone further testing and gained federal approval for public use. Salk’s polio vaccine was so successful that by 1961 the incidence of polio had decreased by 95 percent. Dr. Joseph Melnick (d.2001 at 86) was among the first to have discovered that the polio virus belonged to the larger enterovirus group and were chiefly transmitted by fecal contamination.
    (HNPD, 3/26/99)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)

1953        Nov 11, The Polio virus was identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1953        Helenor Foerster (d.1998 at 103) was named "Woman of the Year for Science" by the Women’s National Press Club. She co-authored the "Atlas and Textbook of Ophthalmic Pathology," and discovered that toxoplasma was the cause of a widely spread eye disease that led to blindness.
    (SFC, 9/23/98, p.C2)

1954        Feb 23, The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh. Jonas Salk created the Salk vaccine against polio. It used a killed virus to induce immunization. Poliomyelitis is a viral attack of the central nervous system and can cause paralysis and death by asphyxiation. [see Apr 26]  In 2005 David M. Oshinsky authored “Polio: An American Story – The Crusade That Mobilized the Nation Against the 20th Century’s Most Feared Disease."
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)(HN, 2/23/98)(AP, 2/23/98)(Econ, 6/18/05, p.79)

1954        Apr 26, Nationwide test of Salk anti-polio vaccine began. [see Feb 23]
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1954        Jun 7, The 1st microbiology laboratory was dedicated in New Brunswick, NJ.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1954        Thomas Peebles collected blood from students sick with measles and used it to isolate the measles virus. In 1963 a vaccine against measles, crafted by John Enders, became available.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.25)

1955        Mar 11, Alexander Fleming (73), English bacteriologist (penicillin), died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1955        Apr 12, The Salk Vaccine was declared safe and effective. Salk vaccine shots for polio began to be given out to school kids. The March of Dimes accomplished its mission within 20 years. Research led by Dr. Jonas Salk and supported by funds (those marching little dimes) raised annually by thousands of volunteers, resulted in the announcement that the Salk polio vaccine was "safe, potent and effective." The foundation also supported the research that led to the Sabin oral vaccine, another safe, effective polio preventative discovered by Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Following the victory over infantile paralysis, the March of Dimes turned its attention to conquering the largest killer and crippler of children: the mental and physical problems that are present at birth. Some 100 million people were given the vaccine during the 1950s and 1960s which was later found to be contaminated with the SV40 simian virus, a possible carcinogen.
    (AP, 4/12/97)(440 Int'l, 1/3/99)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A16,17)

1955        Apr 25, The 1st cases of polio in children who received a vaccine were reported. It was later found that 2 batches of vaccine made by Cutter Laboratories of Berkeley, Ca., contained live polio virus.
    (SFC, 4/25/05, p.A1)

1956        Apr 12, Henrique da Rocha-Lima (b.1879), Brazilian scientist, died. Working in Germany, he with Stanislaus von Prowazek (1875-1915) discovered Rickettsia prowazekii, the pathogen of endemic typhus, which he named after the German zoologist.
    (www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/3185.html)

1957        Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via “serial passage" that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored “The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)(www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)

1958        Dr. Samuel L. Katz of Duke Univ. co-developed the Edmonston B vaccine against measles.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)

1958        The rapid development of penicillin-resistance by staphylococci led to the compound 05865 (later known as vancomycin)  being fast-tracked for approval by the FDA.  It became the best weapon against bacteria that were no longer vulnerable to other drugs. In 1988 bacteria resistant to vancomycin began to be detected.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancomycin)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.C1,4)

1958        Monkeypox was first described in Denmark when several monkey imports developed lesions. The disease emerged in the Congo in 1970 with sporadic outbreaks over the years, primarily in Central and West Africa. Ten percent of those infected can die, and there is evidence of person-to-person transmission.
    (AP, 11/29/06)

1958        David Carr, a British printer and former sailor for the Royal Navy, was struck with mysterious symptoms and died a year later. In 1990 his cells tested positive for AIDS. He had returned to England in 1957 before Wister polio vaccine was administered in the Belgian Congo. In 1995 it was reported that his tissue samples had been contaminated.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A14,15)

1959        Researchers in 1998 found the HIV virus of AIDS in a blood specimen from a Bantu man who died in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, later Kinshasa, Congo. This became the oldest known case and researchers believed that incidents could go back to the 1940s. Blood specimen ZR59 from the Belgian Congo of this time, was found in 1998 to be positive for the AIDS HIV virus.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A5)(www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/165/2/)
1959        The Usutu virus, a life threat to birds, was 1st observed in South African mosquitoes. By 2004 it had spread to Europe and ravaged the blackbird population.
    (SFC, 8/21/04, p.B10)

1960        The new antibiotic methicillin was introduced. In 1961 strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) were first reported.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)(www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTX026108.html)
1960        In Nepal malaria was eradicated. Illiterate tribes on the Terai plains were displaced by higher-caste hordes streaming down from the hills and became serfs in their own land.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)

1961        Strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) were first reported.  The antibiotic methicillin had only become available in 1960.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.87)(www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTX026108.html)

1962-1973    In 2001 the Pentagon began to publicly release details on the existence of Project SHAD and its umbrella program, Project 112, which involved distribution of nonlethal bacteria and occasionally real chemical or biological weapons. In 2008 the US Defense Department said 6,440 service members took part in 50 tests under Project 112 during this period, including open-air tests above a half-dozen US states. Defense officials essentially closed the books on Project 112 in 2003.
    (AP, 6/12/08)

1963        A vaccine for measles became available. In the previous decade some 450,000 cases were reported in the US with about 450 deaths per year. The vaccine, based on a measles virus isolated by Thomas Peebles, was crafted by John Enders.
    (SFC, 12/22/06, p.A18)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.25)

1964-1968    The Pentagon reported on May 23, 2002, that the Defense Dept. sprayed live nerve and biological agents over Navy ships in 6 six tests between 1964-1968. The Project shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD) experiments included the use of sarin and VX nerve gases and the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB).
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A7)

1965        Paul De Kruif authored Microbe Hunters.
    (ON, 3/03, p.9)

1965        Chinese military researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
    (SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)

1966        In 2007 researchers said HIV was brought to Haiti by an infected person from central Africa, and then came to the United States in about 1969. The researchers think an unknown single infected Haitian immigrant arrived in a large city like Miami or New York, and the virus circulated for years, first in the US population and then to other nations.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

1967        Jan 14, NY Times reported that the US Army was conducting secret germ warfare experiments.
    (www.economicexpert.com/a/1967.htm)

1967        In Marburg, Germany, a disease believed to be caused from African monkeys infected 31 people in a laboratory. The virus came to be called the Marburg virus. Seven people died in Germany and Yugoslavia from the virus. It was traced to infected vervet monkeys from Uganda cut up for polio research.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.40)

1968        In Venezuela researchers, Napoleon Chagnon and James V. Neel, reportedly inoculated thousands of Yanomami Indians with a measles vaccine. Chagnon published "Yanomamö: The Fierce People," a summation of his 30 years in the Amazon forest. In 2000 the controversial book "Darkness in El Dorado" Patrick Tierney blamed the researchers for a major epidemic that killed hundreds of Indians. At least 30 Indians died from a measles epidemic that hit Yanomani villages at least one year before researchers administered the Edmonston B vaccine [see 1967].
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A4)(SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)(NH, Jul, p.28)(WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)

1969        Nov 25, Pres. Nixon announced an unconditional renunciation of biological weapons.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/9yy6bc)

1969        Benjamin Volcani (1915-1999), Palestine-born microbiologist, was the fist to show that silicon is essential for DNA synthesis in diatoms. He was also the first to find microorganisms in the Dead Sea in 1936.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.D4)(www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/kurenets/k_pages/volcani.html)

1969        In Egypt the construction on the Aswan High Dam, which expanded irrigation, had led to an increase in bilharzia infection. In this year the government began to channel its bilharzia interventions into more comprehensive and organized control programs and projects. During the 1970’s and 1980s a campaign of multiple drug injections to combat the parasitic disease led to a massive spread of hepatitis c.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.54)(http://tinyurl.com/wuwmx)

1971        The 1st vaccine against meningitis was developed.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A19)

1971        Managua, Nicaragua, was struck by a polio epidemic.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1971        A Soviet field test of weaponized smallpox caused an outbreak that killed 2 young children and a woman at the port of Aralsk in the Kazak Republic. This was not made public until 2002.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A8)

1971        The US ended routine vaccination against smallpox.
    (SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A5)

1972        Jul 25, US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40 year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala. By this time 28 participants had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, at least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had contracted the disease at birth [see 1932].
    (SC, 7/25/02)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1973        Jeff Schell (1935-2003), Belgian microbiologist, succeeded in altering the genetic structure of the Agrobacterium. He deleted the genes that governed tumor production.
    (SFC, 5/3/03, p.A20)

1974        A US moratorium on genetic research ended. It had been feared that such research would lead to dangerous breeds of microbes.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.A16)

1974        In Brazil a meningitis outbreak killed 4,000 people in a few weeks. 90 million people were soon inoculated by a new vaccine created by the French Merieux laboratory.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.A24)

1975        Smallpox was eradicated in India and Bangladesh.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1976        Feb, Swine flu broke out at a US Army base in New Jersey. Pres. Ford announced a National Swine Flu Immunization Program a month after the virus was identified. In 1982 Richard E. Neustadt and Harvey V. Fineberg authored “The Epidemic That Never Was."
    (WSJ, 11/28/05, p.B1)

1976        Jul 21, "Legionnaire's Disease" struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia. It was identified as Legionella pneumophila and found to infest water systems in general and the hotel ventilation system in this case.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-17)

1976        Jul 27, Air Force veteran Ray Brennan became the first person to die of so-called "Legionnaire’s Disease" following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1976        Sep, Scientists in Antwerp received specimens from a fatally ill nun in Yambuku, Zaire (later CongoDRC), and soon realized they were dealing with a deadly and unknown virus. The Ebola virus was named after a river there. The virus starts with flu-like symptoms but can stop blood from clotting causing patients to bleed. An outbreak of the Ebola virus killed 280 people, most of whom were infected by reused syringes and needles. It was later believed that fruit bats served as a host for the virus.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)(Econ, 7/26/14, p.36)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.11)

1976        Dec 16, The US government halted its swine flu vaccination program following reports of paralysis apparently linked to the vaccine.
    (AP, 12/16/01)

1976        William H. McNeill authored “Plagues and Peoples," a history of human society with microscopic agents of disease as the main protagonists.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1976        Whooping cough, caused by Bordatella pertussis, reached an all-time low of 1,010 in the US following universal childhood vaccination programs.
    (SFC, 12/15/05, p.B5)

1977        Mar 8, The U.S. Army announced that they had conducted 239 open-air tests of germ warfare.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1977        Dr. Elizabeth Williams of Fort Collins classified the endemic chronic wasting disease of local deer as a spongiform disease. It was found to be infectious 2 years later and then spread across to 8 states and Canada. Research later suggested that it could infect people.
    (WSJ, 5/24/02, p.A1)

1977        The viral disease smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO). The last case of smallpox, spread by variola virus, was reported in Somalia. Int’l. immunization ceased by 1978 in most countries. In 1997 the related Monkey virus broke out in Zaire.
    (SFC, 4/1/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.A9)

1978        Jan 18, Center for Disease Control (CDC) isolated the cause of Legionnaire's disease.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1978        Feb 9, In Tanzania cholera broke out and killed 300 people.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1978        Nov 7, By this date the CDC had confirmed 496 sporadic cases associated with outbreaks of Legionnaire's disease in the US.
    (http://tinyurl.com/35af6s)

1979        Mar 30, Anthrax spores leaked from a secret germ-warfare plant and spread over Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Russia. Over the course of 2 months at least 105 people died of anthrax poisoning. [see Apr 2] Reports did not emerge until October.
    (WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sverdlovsk_Anthrax_leak)

1979        Apr 2, Anthrax was found to have leaked from the secret lab of Compound 19 in Sverdlovsk (later renamed Yekaterinburg) in the Ural Mountains. It caused a local epidemic that killed at least 64/66 people. Pres. Yeltsin acknowledged the leak in 1992 and allowed a team of researchers to investigate the site. In 2000 Jeanne Guillemin authored "Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak." [see Mar 30]
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A14)(SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.7)(WSJ, 9/18/01, p.B1)

1979        Dr. J. Robert Warren first observed an apparent bacterium in the lower part of stomach biopsies. In 1982 Dr. Barry Marshall managed to grow the slow-growing Helicobacter pylori bacterium in a culture. In 2005 the Australian researchers won a Nobel Prize for their work.
    (SFC, 8/7/97, p.A11)

1979        AIDS was diagnosed for the first time. When the first cases of AIDS erupted in 1979 the most important sign was the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the so-called "gay cancer" appearing on the bodies of some homosexuals dying of the disease.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.354)(www.konformist.com/1999/aids/cantwell2.htm)

1980        May 8, The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that smallpox had been eradicated from the wild.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html)

1980        The US Supreme Court ruled that "live human-made microorganism is patentable matter." This led to a rush by Genentech, Biogen and others to commercialize biotechnology.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1980        A global campaign was begun to eradicate guinea worm, aka dracunculiasis, a disabling parasitic disease existing in only 4 African countries.
    (SFC, 10/5/11, p.A2)

1981        Jun 5, The US Federal Centers for Disease Control published the first report of a mysterious outbreak of a sometimes fatal pneumonia among gay men. Dr. Michael Gottlieb of UCLA and Dr. Joel Weisman (1943-2009) reported 5 cases of a rare pneumonia among gay men in LA. The disease was initially called gay related immune deficiency (GRID). The syndrome was named Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1982. Within 10 years the disease killed 110,000 Americans. People infected with HIV came to be defined as having AIDS when their immune system became so weak that they got one of 26 specific illnesses including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pneumonia, brain infections and some other cancers.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B2)(AP, 6/5/02)(SSFC, 6/4/06, p.A1)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.24)(SFC, 7/24/09, p.D5)

1981        Aug 28, The US national Centers for Disease Control, noting a high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis in homosexual men, announced a medical task force had been formed to find out why. It was later determined the increased number of illnesses was caused by AIDS.
    (AP, 8/28/01)

1982        Mar 24, On the one-hundredth anniversary of a presentation on TB by Dr. Robert Koch, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) proposed that March 24 be proclaimed an official World TB Day. In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) joined with the IUATLD and a wide range of other concerned organizations to increase the impact of World TB Day.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Tuberculosis_Day)

1982        Marc Lappe (1942-2004), toxics expert, authored “Germs That Won’t Die: Medical Consequences of the Misuse of Antibiotics."
    (SFC, 5/18/05, p.B7)

1982        The bacteria E. coli O157:H7, a renegade strain of the normally harmless group, was first identified. People in Michigan and Oregon were sickened by the bacteria that caused bloody diarrhea and devastating kidney failure. The organism attacks the lining of the colon, exposing blood vessels and causing them to bleed. It is believed to reside normally in the stomachs of cattle. It kills an estimated 61 American each year.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.A4)(SFC, 10/15/03, p.A25)

1982-1989    Marian Elliott Koshland (d.1997 at 76) held the UC Berkeley chair in the Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology. She had discovered variations in the amino acid composition of antibodies that explained how they recognized invading organisms or other foreign material.
    (SFC,10/29/97, p.A21)

1983        Bayer, a German drug maker, patented the active ingredient of the antibiotic Cipro.
    (SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)

1984        Feb 22, A 12-year-old Houston boy known publicly only as "David," died 15 days after being removed from the bubble for a bone-marrow transplant. He had spent most his life in a plastic bubble because he had no immunity to disease.
    (AP, 2/22/04)

1984        Apr 22, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said French researchers had discovered that a virus causes AIDS. Scientists identified a retrovirus named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A20)(www.avert.org/his81_86.htm)

1984        Apr 23, US Health Secretary Margaret Heckler said the AIDS-virus was identified as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. [see Apr 21]
    (http://tinyurl.com/yuvyv6)
    (AP, 3/26/07)

1984        Oct 25, The genetic organization of the Hepatitis B virus was published.
    (www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=320225)

1984        In Oregon members of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh cult sprinkled Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in supermarkets, salad bars and restaurant coffee creamers near Portland. Over 750 people were sickened.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A9)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.R1)

1984        Rabbit Calicivirus Disease was 1st discovered among rabbits in China. It appeared in the US for the 1st time in 2000.
    (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.A1)

1985        Nov, The US FDA approved imipenem, a penicillin-like drug.
    (SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/2px4jy)

1985        In California an outbreak of listeria was linked to soft cheese made from raw milk produced in Los Angeles. Of the 142 cases reported, 93 were in pregnant women or their children. There were 48 deaths, including 20 fetuses.
    (www.notmilk.com/forum/463.html)
1985        Listeria monocytogenes became a major health concern during a contamination of Mexican-style cheese made by Jalisco Mexican Products. It causes listeriosis, which produces flu-like symptoms that can be deadly to fetuses, and patients with compromised immune systems.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.A17)

1985        Researchers isolated SIV, the simian immunodeficiency virus.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A14)

1986        The Univ. of Baghdad purchased anthrax along with other strains of bacteria that cause botulism and brucellosis from the American Type Culture Collection of Manassas, Va.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A6)
1986        The US-based Carter Center organized a campaign to eradicate Dracunculiasis, a disease caused by an infection related to Guinea worms. In 2014 the number of infections was down to 148 people.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.67)

1987        Mar 20, The Food and Drug Administration approved the sale of AZT, a drug shown to prolong the lives of some AIDS patients. Jerome Horwitz of the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University School of Medicine first synthesized AZT in 1964 under a US National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant. It was developed by Burroughs-Welcome (later part of GlaxoSmithKline).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zidovudine)(WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-16)(AP, 3/20/97)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)

1987        Oct, The US FDA approved Cipro, marketed by Bayer, as an antibiotic.
    (www.prescriptionaccess.org/press/pressreleases?id=0014)(SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)

1987        Some 13,000 people fell ill in Carrollton, Ga., from the cryptosporidium parasite in contaminated tap water.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, Z1 p.5)

1988        May 26, The New England Journal of Medicine reported that the 1st NYC cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever struck 4 people between May and July of 1987.
    {NYC, Medical}
    (http://tinyurl.com/nsejy)

1988        Dec 1, The first World Aids Day was held. Dr. Jonathan Mann, Director of the Global Program on AIDS (later known as UNAIDS) had approved a concept put forward by James W. Bunn and Thomas Netter in 1987, and agreed with the recommendation that the first observance of World AIDS Day should be December 1, 1988.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_AIDS_Day)

1988        Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) was first detected in Europe. The vancomycin antibiotic was developed in 1958.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.C1,4)

1989        The Group O AIDS virus was identified in West Africa. It had marked genetic differences from the more common Group M strains that were responsible for a worldwide pandemic.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A5)

1989        The Hepatitis C virus was first isolated. It causes an infection of the liver that is usually lifelong and incurable. Scientists in 1999 found evidence of the virus in frozen blood samples from 1948.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A4)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.A3)

1989        Merck Corp. announced the discovery of the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme protease. It was seen as a promising target for attacking the virus that causes AIDS.
    (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A1)

1989        There was an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus among 450 primates in Reston, Va.
    (FB, 9/12/96, Neighbors p.1)

1990        Apr, The Aum Shinri Kyo cult sent three trucks into central Tokyo to spray poisonous botulin mists. The convoy then attacked US bases at Yokohama and Yokosuka. The botulin did not work and the cult turned to use anthrax.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)

1990        The amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris was first discovered in a mandrill baboon. In 2001 it was reported to have destroyed the brain of a 3-year-old girl in the SF Bay area.
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.A1)(SFC, 4/21/01, p.A1)
1990        The SARII group of bacteria was first identified. This group constituted about a third of the single-celled organisms in the ocean.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.79)

1992        May 1, It was reported in the WSJ that a new study indicated that peptic ulcers were caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori.
    (WSJ, 10/24/05, p.A15)

1993        Mar, Drinking water in Milwaukee became contaminated with the cryptosporidium bacterium and more than 100 people died and some 400,000 got sick.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/24/98, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)

1993        Jun, In Japan the Aum Shinri Kyo cult pumped a slurry of liquid anthrax into a sprayer and created a cloud that would settle on victims, but it didn’t work.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)

1993        Jul, The Aum Shinri Kyo cult again pumped a slurry of liquid anthrax into a sprayer and shot it near the Imperial Palace and around central Tokyo without success.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)

1994        Sudden oak disease was first reported in California. The specific pathogen responsible was identified in 2000 as the fungus-like Phytophthora ramorum microbe. Experts believed that it arrived in the state via the nursery trade. By 2008 it was the world’s most quarantined plant pathogen.
    (SFC, 4/17/08, p.A1)

1994        The Hendra virus was first discovered and named for the Australian suburb where it was found in an outbreak that killed a horse trainer and 13 horses. It causes flulike symptoms that can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis. It is believed to originate in fruit bats in Australia and mainly infects horses.
    (AP, 9/2/09)

1995        Mar 17, The federal government approved the nation's first chicken pox vaccine, Varivax by Merck & Co.
    (AP, 3/17/00)

1995        May 9, Kinshasa, capital of Zaire, was placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 5/9/00)

1995        Jul, The Ebola virus killed 244 people in Kikwit, Zaire.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)

1995        Protease inhibitors, a cocktail drug therapy for AIDS, were first introduced. AIDS became the leading cause of death among Americans aged 25-44. Hoffman-La Roche, a Swiss drug firm, launched the first protease inhibitor.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A21)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)

1995-2004    The amoeba called Naegleria fowleri killed 23 people in the United States during this period. In 2007 health officials noticed a spike with six cases, three in Florida, two in Texas and one in Arizona. The CDC knows of only several hundred cases worldwide since its discovery in Australia in the 1960s. the killer amoeba living in lakes enters the body through the nose and attacks the brain where it feeds until you die.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

1996        May 9, Bacterial meningitis has infected more than 100,000 people in West Africa over the last 3 months and more than 10,000 have died. The epidemic has been most intense in the region just south of the Sahara known as the Sahel. The 1996 epidemic resulted in some 20,000 deaths. The “meningitis belt" swept from Senegal to Ethiopia about every 10 years.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.C-5)(WSJ, 3/17/03, p.B4)

1996        Jun 27, A report from the World Health Organization said that South Africa has the worst tuberculosis problem in the world and that drug-resistant forms (XDR-TB) of the disease were spreading rapidly.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A12)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.58)

1996        Aug 8, Food poisoning due to E. coli bacteria in the city of Sakai, Japan, was attributed to radish sprouts.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96,p.A1)

1996        Aug 21, Today’s issue of Science reported the 1,738 gene sequence of the organism Methanococcus jannaschii that oceanographers in 1982 found in an undersea volcanic vent and later classified as Archaea, distinct from Prokarya and Eukarya.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A21)

1996        Congress tightened rules on the distribution of pathogens following a frightening record by the American Type Culture Collection of Manassas, Va., of selling dangerous germs.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A6)
1996        Scientists discovered bacteria living in a tank of nuclear waste. The bacteria, later called extremophiles, had adapted to 15 times the dose that would kill a human being.
    (WSJ, 11/16/04, p.A1)

1997        May 9, In Hong Kong a 3-year-old boy became ill with the flu. He died May 21 and the flu was identified as subtype H5N1, a bird flu.
    (SFC, 2/26/01, p.A9)

1997        May 13, In Burundi an outbreak of Typhus was reported. Some 20,000 cases in 3 northwest provinces were reported by March, mostly in Hutu regroupment camps set up by the Tutsi-led military.
    (WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 5, It was reported that a Yale Univ. research team led by Sidney Altman discovered a way to turn off genes that make bacteria resistant to antibiotic drugs. Human testing was thought to be 5 years away.
    (SFC, 8/5/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 8/5/97, p.A1)

1997        Aug 6, It was reported that scientists had created the genetic blueprint for Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium responsible for stomach ulcers.
    (SFC, 8/7/97, p.A11)

1997        Aug 21, A hamburger recall was extended to cover some 25 million pounds. The Hudson Foods Inc., of Rogers, Ark., closed its Nebraska beef-processing facility under a "non-negotiable" recommendation by Agricultural Sec. Dan Glickman due to E. coli poisonings in Colorado.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A3)(AP, 8/21/98)

1997        Nov 22, From Venezuela it was reported that 18,000 people were infected in an epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and that 34 had died this year. Heavy rains allowed Aedes aegypti, the mosquito which carries anyone of 4 dengue viruses, to breed in water containers left out in the open. In 2006 over 500,000 cases of dengue were reported in Latin America including 14,000 cases of DHF.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.A9)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.42)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.46)

1997        Dec 26, It was reported that the US Centers for Disease Control had begun work on a “Bird Flu" vaccine in response to the 9 confirmed cases and 4 deaths in Hong Kong.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.D1)

1997        Dec 29, In Hong Kong the government planned to start killing over 1.4 million chickens to combat the new strain of avian flu. Four people had already died of the illness.
    (SFC, 12/29/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/29/98)

1997        Dec, In north-eastern Kenya  large numbers of cattle, goats and sheep began dying in the Garissa district. A month later people began dying as the Rift Valley Fever infected some 90,000 people. Hundreds died in 5 countries.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.83)

1997        A British team discovered that pig viruses can infect human cells.
    (WSJ, 8/28/00, p.B1)

1997        In Malaysia a virus struck the village of Nipah and killed 105 people, most of whom were involved in the hog-farming industry. Some 1.2 million hogs were destroyed and the Nipah virus epidemic ran its course over 7 months. The epidemic was later related to burning rain forests and bats seeking new food sources that passed the virus to pigs that passed it to humans. Most animals recovered but it was lethal to 40% of humans.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.A9)(SFC, 5/29/00, p.A4)(WSJ, 6/19/03, p.A1)

1998        Feb 19, In Henderson federal officials arrested Larry Wayne Harris and William Job Leavitt for possession of suspected anthrax bacterium. Harris had earlier published the 131-page book: “Bacteriological Warfare: A Major Threat to North America." The substance turned out to be a harmless veterinary vaccine. Harris was later given an additional 6 months probation.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A1,8)(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A11)(SFC, 3/25/98, p.A3)

1998        Mar 10, U.S. Air Force and Navy personnel in the Persian Gulf received vaccinations against anthrax. In 2004 a federal judge ordered a halt to anthrax vaccinations and ruled that the FDA had violated its own rules by approving the vaccine in 2003.
    (AP, 3/10/99)(SFC, 10/28/04, p.A4)

1998        Mar 19, A new product was approved by the FDA to reduce salmonella in chickens. Preempt or CF-3 was a mixture of beneficial microbes that would be sprayed onto newly hatched chicks, and then ingested by the chicks to prevent salmonella growth.
    (SFC, 3/20/98, p.A4)

1998        Mar, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said sexual diseases such as chlamydia were epidemic in the US and launched a campaign to raise public awareness. 4 million new cases a year were being reported.
    (SFC, 8/12/98, p.C16)
 
1998        May 29, I t was reported that a salmonella strain impervious to 5 antibiotics was rampant in Britain. Chickens were reported sold in Minnesota that were contaminated with campylobacter resistant to a powerful antibiotic. The high use of antibiotics by farmers was adding to the problem of an increasing number of drug-resistant germs.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A8)

1998        May 15, Oysters from Tomales Bay, Ca., were removed from market shelves due to an unknown agent causing illness. the symptoms were similar to the Norwalk virus that caused illnesses around New Orleans during the winter of 1996-1997, that was traced to human sewage.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A7)

1998        Jun 4, In Taiwan it was reported that an airborne virus had killed 26 children in the last 6 weeks. Another 132 were hospitalized and as many as 9,000 were infected. Efforts to fight the disease were being centralized.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 10, It was reported that scientists had decoded the DNA sequence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A2)

1998        Jun 23, In Chicago some 4,500 got sick from an outbreak of E. coli possibly due to contaminated potato salad at Iwan’s Deli in Orland Park.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A9)

1998        Jun 23, In Georgia a virulent E. coli, O157:H7, sickened at least 6 children after playing in a Marietta water park.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A9)

1998        Jul 29-30, In Australia giardia and cryptosporidium were found throughout the water supply of Sydney. PM John Howard called the crises an international embarrassment.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 23, Researchers reported the complete genetic sequence of the bacteria chlamydia trachomatis.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A3)

1998        Oct 29, An Oscar Mayer meat packing plant in Michigan sliced and packaged products that later killed 9 people and caused 3 stillbirths due to listeria contamination.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A4)

1998        Dec 17, The CDC reported a food-poisoning outbreak due to the listeria bacteria that killed 4 people and sickened 35. Hot dogs and cold cuts were suspected.
    (WSJ, 12/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 22, The Bil Mar meat packing plant in Michigan recalled 35 million pounds of hot dogs and lunch meats following the deaths of 16 people due to the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. In Jan. another 30 million pounds were recalled from the Thorn Apple Valley plant in Arkansas.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.A7)

1998        The Roll Back Malaria Partnership was founded by WHO, UNICEF, UNDP and the World Bank, in an effort to provide a coordinated global response to the disease.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)(www.rollbackmalaria.org/rbmmandate.html)
1998        In Uganda plant breeder William Wagoira found stem rust on his crops. The fungal wheat rust (Puccinia graminis) had not been seen since the Green Revolution. By 2010 the fungus had spread as far as Iran and South Africa and scientists feared further spread.
    (Econ, 7/3/10, p.57)
1998        The World Health Organization (WHO) and America’s Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published “Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Centers." It became the bible on stopping transmission in poorer countries.
    (Econ., 3/7/15, TQ p.7)

1999        Feb 15, Scientists announced that a new vaccine against malaria would be tested in monkeys.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.A3)

1999        Mar 26, In Uganda it was reported that wheat stem-rust fungus had appeared on a crop. The fungus killed nearly half the world's crop before the green revolution of the 1950s. The black rust disease was named Ug99 and by 2007 had jumped to Yemen. In 2008 it was confirmed in Iran. In 2008 Cornell Univ. received a $26.8 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to help combat the new strains of rust disease.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.A16)

1999        Sep 9, In NYC it was reported that 3 people had died from mosquito-borne St. Louis encephalitis in the last few weeks. The virus was later identified as the West Nile Virus, never before reported in the Western Hemisphere. 3 years later the virus reached California.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A3)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A9)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.34)

1999        Sep 30, It was reported that the Western oak beetle, P. pubipennis, and the oak ambrosia beetle, M. scutellare, were decimating black, tan and coast live oak trees across northern California. Sudden Oak Death was later attributed to a fungus of the genus Phytophthora. The pathogen was later reported to be related to a fungus that was destroying Port Orford cedars in the Pacific Northwest.
    (SFC, 9/30/99, p.A21,26)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A17)(SFC, 8/1/00, p.A13)(SFC, 9/23/00, p.A1)

1999        Nov 27, It was reported that at least 26 people had died recently in Phrae province, Thailand, from leptospirosis, a disease transmitted by rat urine. Farmers not wearing boots and gloves in their fields were vulnerable.
    (SFC, 11/27/99, p.A17)

1999        Jared Diamond authored “Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies."
    (www.amazon.com/Guns-Germs-Steel-Fates-Societies/dp/0393317552)
1999        The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative was founded with money from the from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)(www.malariavaccine.org/about-overview.php)
1999        The Japanese bubble snail was first identified in the San Francisco Bay. It carried a parasite, a microscopic flatworm, that caused swimmer’s itch, i.e. cercarial dermatitis.
    (SFC, 9/30/10, p.A12)(www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/9/1357.htm)
1999        In NYC crows began dying in unusual numbers. The culprit was identified as West Nile Virus, its first appearance in the Western hemisphere.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.34)
1999        Hepatitis C virus was believed to have infected some 170 million people worldwide.
    (Econ, 11/1/03, p.75)
1999        Researchers began introducing phorid species in Texas in 1999. As many as 23 phorid species with pathogens attack fire ants to keep their population and movements under control. Fire ants cost the Texas economy about $1 billion annually by damaging circuit breakers and other electrical equipment.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ob57v2)
1999        The fungus Cryptococcus gattii, normally found in Australia and other tropical zones, was discovered on Vancouver Island, Canada. By 2007 at least 8 people had died from infection and another 163 sickened.
    (SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A11)

2000        Mar, Health Canada quarantined the country’s sperm banks after a woman contracted chlamydia from a donor sample.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C4)

2000        Jun 9, It was reported that some 5 dozen intravenous drug users in Scotland, Ireland and England had died since April from a mysterious illness not yet identified. The culprit was later identified as Clostridium novyi Type A.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.D3)(SFC, 6/15/00, p.A19)

2000        Jul 28, The US FDA approved Cipro for inhalational anthrax.
    (www.lewrockwell.com/orig/sardi8.html)

2000        Aug 3, It was reported that scientists had developed the genetic blueprint of the cholera bacterium.
    (SFC, 8/3/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 31, It was reported that malaria researchers had identified the mechanism by which the parasite feeds on blood cells.
    (WSJ, 8/31/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug, 78 4-man teams in the Eco-Challenge Sabah encountered flooded rivers over a 2-week race in Malaysian Borneo. A number later found themselves infected with leptospirosis.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.A12)

2000        Sep 19, Researchers reported for the 1st time that a new vaccine was effective against staph infections.
    (WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 14, In Uganda it was reported that at least 30 people had died in recent weeks of a hemorrhagic fever possibly caused by the Ebola or Marburg virus.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.A16)

2000        Oct 22, Death from the Ebola fever climbed to 54 In Uganda as health officials continued a village by village search for people with contact to the virus.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 26, The US FDA planned to ban 2 fluoroquinolone antibiotics used by poultry farmers due to fears that humans might become infected with germs that resist treatment.
    (SFC, 10/27/00, p.A3)

2000        Nov 12, Uganda confirmed a new case of Ebola in Masindi, the 3rd district to confirm the deadly virus.
    (SFC, 11/13/00, p.A14)

2000        Dec 5, Uganda Dr. Matthew Lokwiya, who diagnosed the Ebola outbreak 2 months earlier, died from the disease.
    (WSJ, 12/6/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 8, The Uganda victims with Ebola reached 400 including 160 dead.
    (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A18)

2000        Wyeth introduced Prevnar, a vaccine to protect children against 7 strains of bacteria that can cause ear infections, pneumonia and meningitis. In 2007 researchers found a strain of bacteria that can cause ear infections, serotype 19A, that was resistance to all antibiotics approved for children.
    (WSJ, 10/17/07, p.D8)

2001        Jan 20, Dr. Charles Merieux, virologist and founder of the Merieux Laboratory, died at age 94 in Lyon, France. He helped produce the Salk vaccine cultivated in minced monkey kidney tissue. He also produced a vaccine against a meningitis strain that killed 4,000 people in Brazil in 1974.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.A24)

2001        Feb 19, In Britain an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease was found in 27 pigs at a slaughterhouse in Essex. The last outbreak was in 1981. The outbreak was 1st identified in pigs at Heddon-on-the-Wall.
    (SFC, 2/21/01, p.A12)(SFC, 3/31/01, p.D8)

2001        Feb 25, In Northumberland, England, over 800 pigs were destroyed and burned due to foot-and-mouth disease. New cases appeared at a cattle and sheep ranch in the southwest.
    (SFC, 2/26/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 26, In Britain new cases of hoof-and-mouth disease brought to 12 the number of farms or slaughterhouses infected. The slaughter of pigs, cows and sheep rose to some 7,000.
    (SFC, 2/27/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 28, Officials in Northern Ireland confirmed hoof-and-mouth disease in sheep imported from England. 8 more cases were confirmed in England and Wales.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 3, The foot-and-mouth scare made its way from Britain to mainland Europe with the discovery of blisters on the snouts of three pigs in northern Belgium, sparking drastic measures.
    (AP, 3/3/02)

2001        Mar 5, France banned exports of animals at risk for hoof-and-mouth disease.
    (SFC, 3/6/01, p.A11)

2001        Mar 6, The EU ordered all livestock markets closed for 2 weeks to contain foot-and-mouth disease.
    (SFC, 3/7/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 11, In England 25 new cases of hoof-and-mouth disease were reported with outbreaks in Scotland, Wales, Devonshire and Kent.
    (SFC, 3/12/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 13, France announced its first case of foot-and-mouth disease, prompting the U.S. Department of Agriculture to suspend imports of livestock and fresh meat from the European Union.
    (SFC, 3/14/01, p.A1)(AP, 3/13/02)

2001        Mar 14, Inspectors tightened U.S. defenses against foot-and-mouth disease a day after a case was confirmed in France.
    (AP, 3/14/02)

2001        Mar 15, Britain announced plans to slaughter up to 100,000 more animals due to possible contacts with foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 17, Colombia suspended meat and livestock imports from Argentina for 60 days due to fears of foot-and-mouth disease. Only Israel and Russia still imported Argentine meat.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A9)

2001        Mar 20, Britain reported 46 new confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease, the largest daily number to date.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 22, In Ireland a case of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in County Louth, on the border with Northern Ireland. 40,000 cattle were destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/23/01, p.D5)(WSJ, 3/23/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 23, In Britain Prime Minister Blair ordered the creation of 2-square-mile killing zones around every farm infected with hoof-and-mouth disease as the number of daily cases escalated.
    (SFC, 3/24/01, p.A10)

2001        Apr 8, It was reported that foot-and-mouth disease was endemic in Asia and that 3,282 cases were confirmed in Hong Kong over the past year.
    (SSFC, 4/7/01, p.C3)

2001        May 6, It was reported that 1 in every 1000 Russians has tuberculosis.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.A15)

2001        May 21, Joerg C. Tiller of MIT said a new polymer, called hexyl-PVP, could be used as a surface coating and was able to kill common disease-causing organisms.
    (SFC, 5/22/01, p.A6)

2001        May 29, Epidural cortisone shots at the Sierra SurgiCenter in Walnut Creek, Ca., caused 2 deaths from contamination that led to meningitis. A batch of betamethasone steroid was contaminated with serratia bacteria.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 21, Zimbabwe halted beef exports as foot-and-mouth disease broke out in the latest series of farm expropriations where militants released quarantined cattle.
    (WSJ, 8/22/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 18, Letters postmarked in Trenton, N.J., and later tested positive for anthrax, were sent to the New York Post and NBC anchorman Tom Brokaw.
    (AP, 9/18/02)

2001        Sep 28, Dr. Kenneth M. Berry of Pittsburgh filed a patent application for a system responsive to bioterrorism attacks. In 2004 the FBI probed him in relation to investigations on letters containing anthrax.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.A9)

2001        Oct 5, Bob Stevens (63), photo editor for the Sun tabloid, died of anthrax. Anthrax spores were later found on his computer keyboard in Lantana. This was the 1st of a series of cases in Florida, New York, New Jersey and Washington. In 2011 his widow settled a $2.5 million lawsuit against the US government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_2001_anthrax_attacks)(SFC, 12/30/01, p.D7)(AP, 10/5/02)(SFC, 10/31/11, p.A5)(SFC, 11/30/11, p.A13)

2001        Oct 8, A 2nd case of anthrax was reported in Ernesto Blanco (73), a co-worker of the man who died Oct 5 in Florida.
    (SFC, 10/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 9, Letters postmarked in Trenton, N.J., were sent to Sens. Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy; the letters later tested positive for anthrax.
    (AP, 10/9/02)
2001        Oct 9, The 2 anthrax cases in Florida were reported to probably have been caused by an intentional release of the deadly bacteria.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.A4)

2001        Oct 10, In Florida a 3rd case of anthrax was identified in a 35-year-old woman who worked in the same office as Robert Stevens. The strain was reported to match one from Iowa in the 1950s commonly used by lab researchers.
    (SFC, 10/11/01, p.A4,5)

2001        Oct 12, NBC announced that an assistant to anchorman Tom Brokaw had contracted the skin form of anthrax after opening a "threatening" letter to her boss that contained a suspicious powder.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/12/02)

2001        Oct 13, Anthrax was confirmed in 3 US states. In Florida 5 more employees tested positive; in Nevada a letter sent to a Microsoft office tested positive; and in NYC a letter sent to NBC News tested positive.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 15, Anthrax in a letter to a Reno Microsoft office was reported to be from Malaysia. 2 anthrax-tainted letters were reported to have been mailed from Trenton, New Jersey and 2 postal employees there showed symptoms. Anthrax spores were in a letter deliver to a Senate office. Officials announced that a letter sent to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle had tested positive for anthrax, and that the infant son of an ABC News producer in New York had developed skin anthrax.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A16)(AP, 10/15/02)

2001        Oct 16, A wing of the US Senate building was closed following confirmation that a letter to Sen. Tom Daschle, D-S.D., carried anthrax. It was later found that the anthrax contained the additive bentonite to enhance suspension in air. 12 Senate offices were closed as hundreds of staffers underwent anthrax tests.
    (SFC, 10/17/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/25/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/26/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/16/02)

2001        Oct 17, Federal officials reported that the anthrax strains in New York and Florida appeared to be identical. The House and 6 congressional office buildings were closed for tests after over 30 Senate staff members tested positive for exposure to spores.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 18, CBS News announced that an employee in Dan Rather's office had tested positive for skin anthrax.
    (AP, 10/18/02)
2001        Oct 18, Two new cases of anthrax were reported in New Jersey.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 18, The FBI and Postal Service announced a $1 million reward for information leading to the arrest of anthrax mailings.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A16)

2001        Oct 19, The FBI identified the Trenton, NJ, mailbox from which the anthrax letters were sent to NYC and Washington. Two more people were reported to be infected bringing the total to 8.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 20, Traces of anthrax were found in a US House of Representatives mail room. This became the 3rd Capital Hill building infected.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.A3)(AP, 10/20/02)

2001        Oct 21, Thomas L. Morris Jr. (55), a DC postal worker diagnosed with the deadly inhalation form of anthrax, died. Officials began testing thousands of postal employees.
    (SFC, 10/23/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/22/06)

2001        Oct 22, A second Washington DC postal worker, Joseph P. Curseen (47), died of inhalation anthrax.
    (SFC, 10/23/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/22/02)

2001        Oct 23, President Bush announced he had authorized money for improved post office security following the deaths of two postal workers from inhalation anthrax.
    (AP, 10/23/02)
2001        Oct 23, Traces of anthrax were found at an off-site facility that handled mail for the White House.
    (SFC, 10/24/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 24, The US government arranged to buy 100 million Cipro tablets from Bayer for 95 cents each. The tablets were for anthrax. US Postmaster General John Potter told Americans “There are no guaranties that mail is safe." He warned people to wash their hands after handling mail.
    (SFC, 10/25/01, p.D1)(SSFC, 9/10/06, p.E4)

2001        Oct 25, A State Dept. mail worker in Virginia was diagnosed with the inhalational form of anthrax.
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 26, Anthrax was found in the offices of 3 lawmakers in the Longworth House Office building on Capital Hill. The Supreme Court was shut down to test for anthrax spores.
    (SFC, 10/27/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct 27, In Washington, the search for deadly anthrax widened to thousands of businesses and 30 mail distribution centers.
    (AP, 10/27/02)

2001        Oct 28, The CDC reported a 13th case of anthrax in a New Jersey postal worker. Spores were found at the mail center in Landover, Md.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 29, A hospital worker in NY and a woman who handled mail in New Jersey were found to have anthrax. Since Oct 4 a total of 37 people have tested positive for exposure and 15 have contracted the disease.
    (SFC, 10/30/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct 31, The US Consulate in Lahore, Pakistan, received a letter that was later confirmed to contain anthrax.
    (SFC, 11/7/01, p.A10)
2001        Oct 31, Kathy Nguyen (61), a NYC hospital worker, died of anthrax. She was the 4th person to perish in a spreading wave of bioterrorism. The source of infection remained a mystery.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 10/31/02)

2001        Nov 1, Anthrax spores were found in 4 mailrooms in Rockville, Md., a postal facility in Kansas City, 3 new locations in a Manhattan processing center and a 6th postal facility in Florida.
    (WSJ, 11/2/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 2, A 17th case of anthrax was reported in a NY Post employee.
    (SFC, 11/3/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 4, It was reported that the French weekly Le Nouvel Observateur cited bin Laden as possibly possessing an arsenal of biochemical weapons. US intelligence sources were cited that bin Laden purchased laboratories from the former Yugoslavia, Ebola virus from former Soviet stockpiles, botulism from the Czech Republic, anthrax from North Korea and the assistance of chemists and biologists from the Ukraine.
    (SSFC, 11/4/01, p.A25)

2001        Nov 5, Baxter said its dialysis filters appear to have played a role in the deaths of 53 patients in Texas, Nebraska, and 6 countries in Europe, south America and Asia.
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A3)

2001        Nov 10, Traces of anthrax were reported in offices of the Hart and Longworth government buildings in Washington DC.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.A7)

2001        Nov 11, A Pakistani newspaper (Ausaf) published the second part of an interview in which Osama bin Laden was quoted as saying he had nothing to do with the anthrax attacks in the United States, and declared he would never allow himself to be captured.
    (AP, 11/11/02)

2001        Nov 11-2001 Nov 16, In St. Cloud, Minn., three healthy men died following knee surgeries from infections of Clostridium sordellii.
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A5)

2001        Nov 13, An anthrax tainted letter was received by a pediatrician in Santiago. It was postmarked from Switzerland and marked for return to Florida. It was actually mailed from NY through a NY-based subsidiary of the Swiss Post office. The letter was later believed to have been contaminated in a lab.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A4)(SFC, 11/24/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/28/01, p.A4)(WSJ, 11/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 15, Investigators in Florida said anthrax was found throughout the 68,000-square-foot America Media building in Boca Raton, where the 1st case was identified.
    (SFC, 11/16/01, p.A17)

2001        Nov 16, An anthrax laced letter was found in quarantined congressional mail addressed to Sen. Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt.). It was found to contain billions of spores, enough to kill 100,000 people.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/21/01, p.A8)(SFC, 11/26/01, p.A5)

2001        Nov 21, Ottilie W. Lundgren (94) of Oxford, Conn., died of inhalational anthrax in a case that baffled investigators.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A10)(AP, 11/21/02)

2001        Dec 2, An outbreak of Ebola virus hit Gabon with the 1st death in Ekata, about 5 miles from the Congo border. Within weeks at least 15 people died. The virus spread to Congo and movement in the area was restricted.
    (SFC, 12/21/01, p.A5)

2001        Dec 5, The FBI arrested escaped fugitive Clayton Lee Waagner in St. Louis. Waagner was suspected of mailing as many as 550 anthrax hoax letters to abortion clinics. He was also wanted for bank robbery and other offenses. In 2002 Waagner was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/02, p.A10)

2001        Dec 6, Anthrax tainted mail turned up at a sorting site outside the Federal building in Washington DC. It had been received Dec 5.
    (WSJ, 12/7/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 16, It was reported that all the anthrax spores mailed to Capital Hill were identical to stocks from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Md. (USAMRIID), maintained since 1980.
    (SSFC, 12/16/01, p.A9)

2001        Dec 17, The Bush administration announced that the anthrax attacks most likely originated from a domestic source.
    (SFC, 12/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 18, It was reported that malaria scientists have engineered mice that produce vaccine in their milk.
    (WSJ, 12/18/01, p.A1)

2001        The metapneumovirus was discovered by researchers in Rotterdam. The calculated that every child catches the virus by age 5.
    (SFC, 9/17/03, p.A7)

2002        Jan 22, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was established as a Swiss Foundation.
    (www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/publications/)

2002        Feb 14, It was reported that scientists at NIH had developed the 1st vaccine effective against staph bacteria.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A4)

2002        Feb 23, It was reported that 5 people were confirmed with plague in Himachal Pradesh, India.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A24)

2002        Feb, Dr Wakefield and Professor O'Leary published a paper in the journal Molecular Pathology which suggested a possible link between the measles virus and bowel disease in children with developmental disorders. The study set out to investigate whether children with developmental disorders such as autism and a bowel disorder also had the measles virus in their gut. It found traces of the virus in the guts of 75 children out of 91 with bowel disease, but in only five out of 70 healthy children. The researchers theorized that the virus may act as a trigger, leading to problems with the immune system. Dr Wakefield said most of the children in the study had had MMR, though a few had had the single vaccine. He and his colleague emphasized that it would be wrong to jump to any hasty conclusions about MMR causing either bowel disease or developmental disorders such as autism. In 2010 Dr. Wakefield was banned from practicing medicine in Britain.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1808956.stm)(SFC, 5/25/10, p.A2)
 2002        Feb, A team from the Royal Free Hospital - where Dr Wakefield carried out his initial research - published a study on the British Medical Journal website saying there is no link between MMR and autism. The team looked at almost 500 children with autism born between 1979 and 1998. It found the proportion of children with developmental regression (autism) or bowel disorders did not change significantly over that time.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1808956.stm)
2002        Feb, The W135 strain of meningitis from the Middle East was identified for the 1st time in Africa in Burkina Faso and by Sep some 12,000 people were infected with 1,500 deaths.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A12)

2002        Mar 5, It was reported that Cipro resistant gonorrhea had turned up on the West Coast of the US.
    (WSJ, 3/5/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 18, Researchers in Pittsburgh reported a strain of Group A streptococci resistant to erythromycin (the macrolide class of antibiotics).
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A1)

2002        May 6, It was reported that German researchers had found a new class of ultra-tiny microbes: a nano-size hyperthermophilic archeon, tinier than mycoplasma but larger than viruses.
    (SFC, 5/6/02, p.A4)

2002        May 7, It was reported that strain of Gonorrhea resistant to antibiotics had reached the mainland US after migrating from Hawaii and Asia.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Jun 15, In the Republic of Congo it was reported that 5 people had died from an outbreak of ebola, the 2nd outbreak in the region this year.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.C10)

2002        Jul 11, US scientists financed by the Pentagon announced that they had synthesized a virus from scratch for the 1st time. They built a polio virus relying only on genetic sequence information publicly available.
    (SFC, 7/12/02, p.A1)

2002        Aug 2, In Louisiana Gov. Mike Foster declared a state of emergency after West Nile virus killed 4 residents and infected another 58.
    (SFC, 8/3/02, p.A3)

2002        Aug 11, Dr. Steven J. Hatfill, a bioweapons expert under scrutiny for anthrax-laced letters, fiercely denied any involvement and said he had cooperated with the investigation. He was eventually exonerated and given a $5.8 million settlement from the US government after years of their harassing him. Investigators on June 27, 2008, announced that the anthrax attacks had been carried out by another government scientist, Bruce Edwards Ivins, whom they concluded had acted alone.
    (AP, 8/11/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Hatfill)

2002        Aug 22, Researchers reported a new enzyme to treat victims of an anthrax attack and to help detect the spores.
    (SFC, 8/22/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 14, In Congo DRC it was reported that some 1,200 people had died from a cholera epidemic and that another 18,000 were infected.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A20)

2002        Oct 15, It was reported that duct tape is effective in removing warts when worn over the wart for a number of days.
    (SFC, 10/15/02, p.A2)
2002        Oct 15, A listeria outbreak blamed for at east 7 deaths in the northeast was traced to a Wampler Foods plant in Franconia, Pa.
    (SFC, 10/16/02, p.A5)

2002        Oct 21, Scientists reported a new immunoassay for mad cow disease that takes about a year for results.
    (SFC, 10/21/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 24, It was reported that over 8,000 backyard poultry had been killed in southern California to stop the spread of Exotic Newcastle disease. The deadly avian infection last surfaced in California the 1970s when some 12 million birds were destroyed.
    (SFC, 10/24/02, p.G2)(SFC, 10/26/02, p.A3)

2002        Nov 19, It was reported that the Holland America cruise ship Amsterdam was in its 4th week of battling the Norwalk gastrointestinal virus.
    (WSJ, 11/19/02, p.B1)

2002        Nov 21, Intensive cleaning began aboard the cruise ship Disney Magic after over 100 passengers fell sick from an unknown stomach virus.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A2)
2002        Nov 21, Merck published a study of vaccine that prevents cervical cancers caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) that could be available by 2006.
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/21/02, p.A1)

2002        Vancomycin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus emerged.
    (NG, 11/04, p.21)
2002        In Japan 9 people died from E. coli bacteria poisoning after eating a marinated chicken and vegetable dish at a hospital and its annex, a nursing home for the aged, in the provincial city of Utsunomiya, north of Tokyo.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2003        Jan 24, The Bush administration’s smallpox vaccine program was launched in Connecticut with 4 doctors getting shots.
    (SFC, 1/25/03, p.A4)(WSJ, 1/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Feb 9, In China Xinhua’s first SARS report was issued for leaders’ eyes only. By this time there were already some 300 cases and 5 deaths dating back to November 2002.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.43)

2003        Mar 19, Doctors in Hong Kong reportedly identified the deadly pneumonia virus as belonging to the paramyxoviridae family. The severe acute respiratory illness (SARS) had killed at least 11 people and left hundreds ill. The outbreak is believed to have began in southern China in November. Later reports held that it could be a coronavirus, part of a group that cause the common cold. Many people treated with corticosteroids later developed an irreversible bone disease called avascular necrosis. By July 12, 2003, SARS killed 812 people worldwide.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/03, p.B1)(WSJ, 12/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 22, Scientists believe they have found the virus responsible for the mystery SARS virus and announced a test to diagnose it.
    (AP, 3/23/03)

2003        Mar 23, A Maryland nurse died 5 days after being vaccinated for smallpox.
    (SFC, 3/26/03, p.A6)

2003        Mar 27, It was reported that the SARS disease had killed 50 people and infected some 1,300 in 13 countries.
    (WSJ, 3/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 29, Italian Dr. Carlo Urbani (46), a WHO expert on communicable diseases, died of SARS in Thailand, where he was being treated after becoming infected while working in Vietnam. Urbani was the 1st doctor to identify SARS.
    (AP, 3/29/03)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A6)

2003        Mar 31, Hong Kong authorities quarantined more than 200 other residents in an apartment block in an effort to contain the SARS virus.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

2003        Apr 4, It was reported that Oxford Univ. scientists had developed a new test for TB that looked for the activation of T-cells.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.A15)
2003        Apr 4, Chinese experts in hard-hit Guangdong province told the scientists they have found a rare form of airborne chlamydia in some of their SARS patients, raising the possibility that more than one germ may be involved. Other Chinese cases suggest the disease might be passed by touching something tainted by a sick person's mucous or saliva.
    (AP, 4/5/03)

2003        Apr 17, A Dutch veterinarian (57) died from avian influenza 2 days after working on a farm where animals were infected with the bird flu. He was believed to be the 1st victim of the current epidemic.
    (WSJ, 4/21/03, p.A10)

2003        Apr 26, It was reported that a methillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had begun infecting healthy people through skin contact.
    (SFC, 4/26/03, B8)

2003        Apr 29, California biologists reported that some 92 southern sea otters had died since the beginning of the year between Point Conception and Half Moon Bay. A cat parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was cited as one factor weakening the animals.
    (SFC, 4/30/03, A1)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A1)

2003        May 4, New lab studies reported that the SARS virus can survive outside an infected body for hours to days.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A1)

2003        May 21, Taiwan reported 35 new cases of SARS for a total of 418 with 52 deaths.
    (SFC, 5/22/03, p.A3)

2003        May 23, Researchers from China and Hong Kong identified a coronavirus in 3 wild mammals, palm civets, a raccoon dog and a ferret badger, sold in the live-animal food markets of South China.
    (SFC, 5/24/03, p.A1)

2003        Jun 13, Wisconsin state officials reported that probable 18 cases of monkeypox all came from one prairie dog.
    (SFC, 6/14/03, p.A6)

2003        Jun 20, In China Guangdong health officials reported 211 encephalitis cases with 18 children killed. 100,000 children were vaccinated as a precaution.
    (SFC, 6/21/03, p.A5)

2003        Jul 5, The WHO removed Taiwan from its list of SARS-infected areas and declared a provisional victory over the epidemic, which had killed 812 people over 5 continents. The economic losses from SARS was later estimated at about $200 billion. SARS was later classified as one of a number of zoonoses, i.e. diseases that come from animals.
    (SSFC, 7/6/03, p.A3)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.84)

2003        Jul 7, The CDC confirmed the year's 1st case of West Nile Virus, which killed 284 in the US in 2002.
    (SFC, 7/8/03, p.A6)

2003        Aug 7, Scientists reported a new vaccine that was successful against the Ebola virus in monkeys.
    (WSJ, 8/7/03, p.D6)

2003        Sep 8, Singapore health officials confirmed that a local patient has tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, the 1st new case of the disease in over 5 months.
    (AP, 9/8/03)

2003        Sep 29,  In Japan a 23-month-old bull tested positive for new strain of mad cow disease. A quarantine of 604 cows followed to prevent the spread of  the disease.
    (AP, 10/8/03)

2003        Oct 24, Nigerian health workers began an emergency drive to immunize some 15 million children against polio. Some 192 cases were currently active.
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 3, Spanish authorities closed the border with the British colony of Gibraltar before the arrival of a virus-stricken cruise ship carrying some 2,000 passengers. More than 400 passengers on the ship fell ill with a norovirus after the ship left Southampton, England, for a Mediterranean voyage on Oct. 20.
    (AP, 11/3/03)

2003        Nov 14, In Pittsburgh, Pa., a 3rd person died from an outbreak of hepatitis A that infected over 500 people. They all had recently eaten at a Chi-Chi's Mexican mall restaurant.
    (SFC, 11/15/03, p.A3)(AP, 11/16/03)

2003        Dec 4, In Kisumu, Kenya, Tommy Thompson, US Sec. of Health and Human Services, dedicated a new $6.4 million field laboratory to be operated by the CDC. It was the largest of its kind in Africa. The local TB and malaria rates were among the highest in the world.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.A5)

2003        Dec 27, China announced its first suspected SARS case since July.
    (AP, 12/27/03)

2003        The ViroChip, invented by Dr. Joseph DeRisi (33) of UC San Francisco, gained attention when it spotted the virus that causes the epidemic form of pneumonia called SARS.
    (SFC, 9/10/08, p.B4)

2003        Myanmar reported 42% of the world’s official malaria deaths. WHO statistics were not very accurate as half of Africa’s countries did not submit any data.
    (Econ, 12/9/06, p.86)

2003        In Sudan a study indicated that AIDS had infected about 1.6% of the population. By 2009 the number was estimated to be approaching 3%.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.42)

2004        Jan 5, China confirmed its first SARS case since an outbreak of the disease was contained in July and authorities ordered the emergency slaughter of some 10,000 civet cats and related species after tests linked a virus found in the animals to the patient.
    (AP, 1/5/04)

2004        Jan 5, Norman Heatley (92), a scientist whose pioneering work on penicillin production helped save countless lives, died in Oxford, England. It was Heatley and his Oxford University colleagues who produced enough for the first clinical tests on humans.
    (AP, 1/17/04)(SFC, 1/19/04, p.B4)

2004        Jan 21, Hong Kong officials reported that Avian influenza was detected near 2 chicken farms. 5 people in Vietnam had already died from the recent outbreak.
    (SFC, 1/22/04, p.A3)

2004        Jan 26, Pakistan joined the list of countries affected by the bird flu disease that has sparked mass chicken culls across the region.
    (AP, 1/26/04)
2004        Jan 26, A 6-year-old Thai boy became Asia's seventh confirmed bird flu fatality.
    (AP, 1/26/04)

2004        Jan 27, Global health officials listed 6 countries with confirmed cases of H5N1 avian flu. These included Cambodia, China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 1/28/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 1, China reported 5 more cases of the avian influenza virus.
    (SFC, 2/2/04, p.A4)

2004        Feb 10, NYC said nearly 4% of men age 40-49 in the city have AIDS or are infected with HIV.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 14, It was reported that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation had donated $82.9 million to the Areas Global TB Vaccine Foundation for the development of a tuberculosis vaccine.
    (SFC, 2/13/04, p.A3)

2004        Feb 20, In Texas a strain of avian flu was reported in Gonzales County. Further checks revealed that it was highly pathogenic, but posed little risk to humans.
    (SFC, 2/24/04, p.A3)

2004        Feb 26, It was reported that scientists had identified a protein, TRIM5-alpha, that shields rhesus monkeys from the AIDS virus.
    (WSJ, 2/26/04, p.D4)

2004        Mar 24, World TB Day. TB killed and estimated 2-3 million people per year.
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.B9)

2004        May 24, The WHO confirmed an outbreak of the deadly ebola virus has killed four people in south Sudan.
    (AFP, 5/24/04)

2004        Jul 8, It was reported that a strain of syphilis has proved resistant to azithromycin.
    (WSJ, 7/8/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 21, In Ohio health officials said cases of gastrointestinal illness had risen to 510 from people in the Put-in-Bay resort area.
    (SSFC, 8/22/04, p.A3)

2004        Sep 8, In Thailand a young man died from bird flu and increased fears of an avian influenza pandemic. Asian deaths from bird flu for the year totaled 28.
    (WSJ, 9/10/04, p.A2)

2004        Sep 17, Officials in Singapore reported that a soil-borne bacterial infection called melioidosis has killed 24 people there this year, making it more deadly than SARS or bird flu. The illness, also known as Whitmore's Disease, is listed by the U.S. government as a potential biological weapon but Singapore government officials said there was no sign it had been spread intentionally.
    (Reuters, 9/17/04)

2004        Sep 27, In Thailand officials announced that a case of avian-flu was possibly caused by human-to-human transmission.
    (SFC, 9/28/04, p.A3)

2004        Oct 5, Britain pulled the license of a Liverpool factory responsible for manufacturing half of Chiron Corp.’s US flu vaccine supply due to contamination by the bacteria serratia.
    (SFC, 10/6/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/7/04, p.B6)

2004        Oct 19, A Thailand tiger zoo housing hundreds of the big cats was shut down as bird flu tests confirmed 23 tigers had died of the virus since Oct 14, and another 30 had fallen ill. They caught the flu from feeding on chicken carcasses.
    (AFP, 10/20/04)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.36)

2004        Oct 27, Nigeria's state-owned news agency reported that an outbreak of measles in a remote Nigerian village had killed a dozen people. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 500,000 deaths from measles every year.
    (AP, 10/27/04)

2004        Nov 9, It was reported that repeated injections of paromomycin, a low cost antibiotic, could cure the parasitic disease black fever, also known as visceral leishmaniasis.
    (SFC, 11/9/04, p.A6)

2004        Nov 18, US Army doctors said some 100 soldiers wounded in the Mideast and Afghanistan had come down with rare, treatment resistant blood infections.
    (WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 20, SF officials warned that the sexually transmitted disease lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) had begun to turn up locally. The disease was a form of chlamydia and required a 3-week course of antibiotics for cure.
    (SFC, 12/21/04, p.B4)

2004        Black band coral disease was first identified. It rose to outbreak levels in 2012 and in 2015 was found in reefs off the coast of Hawaii.
    (SFC, 5/1/15, p.A9)
2004        Gilead Sciences of California launched Truvada, a once-a-day, one-pill combination of two drugs to treat AIDS.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)(http://www.gilead.com/pdf/truvada_pi.pdf)

2005        Jan 5, It was reported that PolyMedix, a research firm in Philadelphia, was targeting bacteria with synthetic molecules that prevented the development of resistance.
    (WSJ, 1/5/05, p.B2A)

2005        Jan 25, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation pledged $750 million over 10 years to support the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization.
    (WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D6)

2005        Feb 10, Saudi Arabia confirmed a 2nd case of polio from 2004 and feared pilgrims to Mecca might spread the disease.
    (SFC, 2/11/05, p.A13)

2005        Feb 11, Health officials in NYC issued a nationwide alert over a new AIDS HIV strain that is immune to just about all antiretroviral drugs.
    (SFC, 2/12/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 21, It was reported that measles in Nigeria had killed 529 people this year.
    (WSJ, 3/21/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 22, Officials from the ministry of health and the World Health Organization (WHO) said a deadly haemorrhagic fever that has claimed the lives of 96 people, mainly children, in Angola's northern Uige province has been identified as the rare Marburg virus.
    (www.meritcare.com/news/world/viewarticle.asp?id=18843)

2005        Apr 8, Angola’s death toll from the Marburg virus, which has no effective treatment, rose to 181 with no signs of abating. Doctors without Borders urged the government to close the regional hospital at Uige to help contain the spread. Suspected cases have been identified in 7 provinces.
    (SFC, 4/9/05, p.A8)(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.A5)

2005        Apr 11, Maurice Hilleman (85), US pioneer vaccine research scientist, died of cancer in New Jersey. He helped develop vaccines for mumps, measles, chicken pox and other childhood scourges.
    (SFC, 4/12/05, p.B5)

2005        Apr 14, It was reported that the bird flu virus was found in some 70% of a random sample of ducks and geese in Vietnam’s southern Mekong Delta, and in 21% of sampled chickens.
    (WSJ, 4/14/05, p.A14)

2005        Apr 16, It was reported that Laszlo Kish and Maria King of Texas A&M had devised a new technique for identifying small quantities of bacteria in minutes using a combination of virology ad microelectronics.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.70)

2005        May 4, In China 178 birds were found dead at Bird Island in Qinghai province in a lake that served as a major area for research on migratory water fowl. They were killed by the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu virus. The number of dead birds was later raised to 1,500 with bar-headed geese among the most dead.
    (WSJ, 5/23/05, p.A11)(SFC, 7/7/05, p.A5)
2005        May 4, Chinese authorities confined residents in Yanqing, 50 miles north of Beijing, to their homes following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle. Numerous farms were put under quarantine.
    (WSJ, 5/24/05, p.A10)

2005        May 13, Indonesia reported that researchers had found a strain of bird flu in pigs on Java, and feared the virus could spread to humans.
    (SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A14)

2005        May 21, China ordered emergency measures to prevent an outbreak of avian flu after investigators said migratory birds found dead in a western province this month were killed by the virus.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        May 26, China’s Xinhua news agency reported that China has developed vaccines that block the spread of the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu among birds and mammals.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        May 30, Indonesia's first polio outbreak in a decade widened with two new cases reported, as the government kicked off a massive eradication campaign that aims to vaccinate 6.4 million children in one day.
    (AP, 5/30/05)

2005        Jun 6, Scientists reported success with monkeys in using vaccines to fend off the Ebola and Marburg viruses.
    (SFC, 6/6/05, p.A2)

2005        Jun 11, US officials said a cow had tested positive for mad cow disease in November, opening the door to possible changes in testing procedures in the US beef industry. The cow was later identified as being calved in Texas in 1993.
    (AP, 6/11/05)(WSJ, 6/30/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 15, Indonesia reported its 1st human case of bird flu.
    (SFC, 6/16/05, p.A3)
2005        Jun 15, Vietnam reported 6 new cases of bird flu in the past week.
    (WSJ, 6/15/05, p.A15)

2005        Jun 20, In Vietnam officials said 2 more people from northern Vietnam have been sickened with bird flu, and thousands of chickens have dropped dead in the south.
    (AP, 6/20/05)

2005        Jun 21, US researchers said a common virus that is harmless to people can destroy cancerous cells in the body and might be developed into a new cancer therapy. The adeno-associated virus type 2, or AAV-2, infects an estimated 80 percent of the population.
    (Reuters, 6/22/05)
2005        Jun 21, Austria’s Health Minister Maria Rauch-Kallat announced a cow in an alpine farm Austria has been found to be infected with mad cow disease.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Jun 25, Taiwan reimposed a ban on imports of American beef after the US confirmed its second case of mad cow disease.
    (AP, 6/25/05)

2005        Jun 30, A Cambodia doctor reported that 2 infants have died in Cambodia from influenza, part of an outbreak that has hospitalized more than 1,000 children. He said the illness appears to be a form of human flu, not the avian influenza.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jun, NYC doctors reported outbreaks of imipenem resistant Klebsiella.
    (SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)

2005        Jul 5, It was reported that French and South African researchers had found that circumcision reduces the risk of AIDS by 70%.
    (WSJ, 7/5/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 26, Chinese health officials reported that over the last 4 weeks an unidentified illness has killed 19 farmers and sickened 80 in southwestern China after they butchered sick pigs or sheep. The pigs in question were infected with streptococcus bacteria, a common pathogen in humans and domestic animals.
    (AP, 7/26/05)

2005        Jul 30, The death toll in China from a mysterious pig-borne disease continued to rise, with several more cities affected. Sichuan province in southwestern China has launched a campaign to educate poor, illiterate farmers not to slaughter sick pigs or eat their meat after an outbreak of swine flu hit about 100 villages and killed at least 34 people.
    (Reuters, AFP, 7/30/05)
2005        Jul 30, A Russia newspaper reported that a strain of bird flu harmful to humans has been found in an outbreak of the disease in Siberia.
    (AP, 7/30/05)

2005        Nov 15, Data was published indicating that Mosquitrix by GlaxoSmithKline of Belgium, an experimental vaccine against malaria given to children in Mozambique in 2003, cut clinical cases by 35%.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.85)

2005        Nov 19, It was reported that the Nipah virus, naturally found in bats, had moved to Malaysian pigs. It killed about 40% of the 265 people it had infected.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.85)

2005        The President’s Malaria Initiative was founded under George Bush as a five-year, $1.2 billion expansion of US Government resources to reduce the intolerable burden of malaria and help relieve poverty on the African continent.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.42)(http://www.pmi.gov/about/index.html)
2005        The vaccine Menactra, to prevent meningococcal meningitis, was licensed in the US. It was manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, a unit of Sanofi-Aventis.
    (WSJ, 8/4/08, p.D1)
2005        There was a measles outbreak among school children in Indiana. In 2006 the CDC attributed it to home-schooled children whose parents avoided vaccinations out of safety concern. The outbreak was later traced to a 17-year-old girl who had traveled to Romania without getting vaccinated.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.A1)(SFC, 12/22/06, p.A18)

2006        May 12, US Federal authorities said the number of confirmed cases of a rare fungal eye infection that can cause blindness has climbed to 122, most of them contact-lens wearers who reported using Bausch & Lomb Inc.'s newest lens cleaner. In Oct, 2007, Bausch & Lomb was acquired by private equity firm Warburg Pincus for $3.67 billion. Chief Executive Ronald Zarrella said the deal would allow the company "to pursue the growth path we were on ... without a lot of outside distraction." Zarrella retired in 2008. As of 2009 away from the glare of public scrutiny, the optical products company quietly settled nearly 600 fungal-infection lawsuits with dozens more individual claims yet to be resolved. The cost so far: Upward of $250 million.
    (AP, 5/12/06)(AP, 6/1/09)

2006        May 25, Researchers confirmed that the human AIDS virus originated in a corner of Cameroon in wild chimpanzees. The first known human to be infected with HIV was a man from Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1959.
    (SFC, 5/26/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.A1)

2006        Sep 7, Medical experts said a killer strain of drug-resistant tuberculosis has been found in at least 28 hospitals across South Africa and that it jeopardized efforts to deal with AIDS.
    (SFC, 9/8/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 14, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation awarded $68.2 million to fight parasitic diseases that included leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and hookworm. The new money will support efficacy trials in India and Africa.
    (WSJ, 9/14/06, p.A11)
2006        Sep 14, US federal health officials said an outbreak a deadly strain of E. coli (0157:H7) had left at least one person dead in Wisconsin over 100 others sick and warned consumers not to eat bagged fresh spinach. The outbreak in 8 states soon extended to 25. 2 more deaths were suspected and the number sickened rose to 173. Most of the spinach crop at this time of the year comes from California. A special effort was under way in the Salinas Valley of California, a major leafy-vegetable growing region, to look for any possible source of contamination there. The outbreak was traced to California’s Natural Selection Foods, which recalled all suspect products. This was the same deadly strain that in 1982 had sickened at least 47 people in Oregon and Michigan who ate McDonald’s burgers. A surveillance system setup after a 1993 outbreak at the Jack-in-the-Box fast food chain helped single out spinach as the likely source of this outbreak.
    (AP, 9/14/06)(WSJ, 9/18/06, p.A1)(SFC, 9/23/06, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/25/06, p.A4)

2006        Sep 28, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned that travelers to parts of Africa and Asia are returning with a new mosquito-borne virus. Some people returning to Europe, the US, Canada, Martinique and French Guyana reported cases of Chikungunya fever (CHIKV). The virus first emerged in Tanzania in 1953.
    (Reuters 9/28/06)

2006        Oct 31, Scientists reported that the Fujian-strain of H5N1 avian influenza has become dominant in southern China.
    (SFC, 10/31/06, p.A2)

2006        Nov 21, The UN said an estimated 4.3 million people were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in the last 12 months. The UNAIDS report estimated that the total number of people infected with HIV stood between 34-47 million.
    (http://tinyurl.com/tajka)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.84)

2006        Dec 7, Researchers said the Ebola virus may have killed more than 5,000 gorillas in West Africa (Congo-Gabon), enough to send them into extinction if people continue to hunt them.
    (Reuters, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 16, Indian health officials said nearly 30 children have died this month of mosquito-borne encephalitis in northern India, taking the toll since July to 401.
    (AP, 12/16/06)

2006        Dec 27, A 26-year-old Egyptian man died of bird flu, the third member of his extended family to die of the virus.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2006        In California an epidemic of valley fever, clinically known as coccidioidomycosis, resulted in over 5,500 cases and 33 deaths. The cases included 514 among inmates at Pleasant Valley State Prison. The disease was endemic in the southwest US and was triggered by spores rising from disturbed soil.
    (SFC, 12/29/07, p.A3)
2006        Gilead Sciences of California launched Atripla, a once-a-day, one-pill combination of Truvada and another drug to treat AIDS.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.80)(http://www.atripla.com/)
2006        The WHO estimated that malaria infected up to 500 million people per year. Malaria killed nearly one million people worldwide this year with children under five and African countries bearing the brunt, according to a 2008 WHO report. Later in 2008 WHO halved its estimate of world-wide malaria cases to 247 million.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.71)(AFP, 9/18/08)(WSJ, 9/19/08, p.A1)
2006        Dr. Jiao Nianzhi of China’s Xiamen Univ. developed a technique called time series observation based infra red epifluorescence microscopy (TIREM). He used it accurately measure creatures in the ocean called aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria (AAPB). Results showed that these organisms constitute 7% of the oceans’ microbes.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.96)

2007        Jan 7, A senior Kenyan health official said about 75 people have died of Rift Valley fever (hemorrhagic fever) during the past three weeks and another 183 are infected with it. The last outbreak of the disease in East Africa was between 1997-1998, when 478 people died in Somalia and Kenya. Currently there was no human vaccine.
    (AP, 1/8/07)(WSJ, 1/9/06, p.A1)

2007        Feb 15, Government scientists struggled to pinpoint the source of the first US salmonella outbreak linked to peanut butter. Nearly 300 people in 39 states have fallen ill since August, and federal health investigators said they strongly suspect Peter Pan peanut butter and certain batches of Wal-Mart's Great Value house brand, both manufactured by ConAgra Foods.
    (AP, 2/16/07)
2007        Feb 15, Nadia Abdel Hafez, an Egyptian woman (37), died of bird flu in a Cairo hospital and a boy, 5, became the 22nd Egyptian to test positive for the deadly disease.
    (Reuters, 2/16/07)

2007        Apr 7, It was reported that injections of Mycobacterium vaccae into mice caused their immune systems to produce serotonin. This neurotransmitter, when low in humans, was known to be related to depression.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.79)

2007        Apr 25, UCSF biochemist Joe DeRisi said he found genes of the single-celled, spore producing parasite Nosema ceranae in dead bees. Researchers in Spain had recently shown that the parasite is capable of wiping out a beehive.
    (SFC, 4/26/07, p.A1)

2007        May 7, Hong Kong newspapers reported that an unidentified animal illness has spread in two southern Chinese cities, infecting at least 1,300 pigs and killing more than 300. The diseased pigs began dying in Gaoyao and Yunfu in Guangdong province following Chinese New Year celebrations in February. The illness was soon identified as a strain of blue ear disease. Blue ear disease, also called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, was first identified in the United States in 1987. The disease this year killed an estimated 45 million pigs in China.
    (AP, 5/8/07)(SFC, 5/8/07, p.A17)(AP, 5/10/07)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.68)

2007        May 29, Andrew Speaker (31), a lawyer from Atlanta with a rare and dangerous form of tuberculosis, ignored doctors' advice and took two trans-Atlantic flights, leading to the first US government-ordered quarantine since 1963. Italian officials said they were tracing the movements of Speaker, who honeymooned in Rome for two days despite being told to turn himself in to health authorities.
    (AP, 5/29/07)(AP, 5/30/07)(Reuters, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 7, It was reported that UCSF researchers had identified a new species of bacteria, Bartonella rochalimae, in an American tourist who was sickened after spending 3 weeks trekking in Peru. It was named after Henrique da Rocha-Lima, a Brazilian scientist who decades ago identified the bacterium that causes typhus.
    (SFC, 6/7/07, p.B1)

2007        Jul 14, A miner (29) died in western Uganda from the deadly Marburg virus, first discovered in 1967.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.40)

2007        Jul 24, Jolee Mohr (36) died in Chicago just weeks after beginning an experimental gene therapy treatment from Targeted Genetics to ease the pain the rheumatoid arthritis in her knee. Doctors later suspected an infection of Histoplasma capsulatum.
    (SSFC, 9/16/07, p.A21)(SFC, 9/18/07, p.A4)

2007        Aug 7, Scientists reported that a widespread die-off of frogs, toads and salamanders is primarily due to the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Global climate change was believed to encourage the spread of the fungus.
    (SFC, 8/7/07, p.A4)
2007        Aug 7, The US FDA approved a new drug to help patients with AIDS. Pfizer’s Selzentry is the first anti-AIDS drug that blocks the CCR5 receptor, often used by the HIV virus to enter white blood cells.
    (SFC, 8/7/07, p.A4)

2007        Aug 16, It was reported that a highly infectious swine virus, blue pork disease, had spread to 25 of China’s 33 provinces, prompting pork shortages and an 85% increase in pork prices over the last year.
    (SFC, 8/16/07, p.A15)

2007        Aug 20, In China Jia Youling, chief veterinary officer, said that the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), aka as blue-ear pig disease, head been brought under control. He said 257,000 pigs in 26 provinces had been infected. 68,000 had died from the disease and 175,000 were destroyed.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.41)

2007        Aug, In Italy over a hundred people became ill in Castiglione di Cervia, near Ravenna, with a disease that was later identified as chikungunya, a tropical disease spread by the tiger mosquito. This was the first such outbreak in modern Europe.
    (SSFC, 12/23/07, p.A22)

2007        Sep 1, The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed five human bird flu cases in Vietnam, four of them fatal. The four, including two women, died between June 21 and August 3 while a fifth person, a 29-year-old man, had recovered.
    (Reuters, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 6, Scientists reported that the Israeli acute paralysis virus, first identified in the Middle East in 2004, is associated with the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which was wreaking havoc on commercial bees in the US.
    (SFC, 9/7/07, p.A8)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.83)

2007        Sep 14, In Martinique health officials declared a dengue epidemic following the report of over 1,000 suspected cases in the last month.
    (SFC, 9/17/07, p.A3)

2007        Sep 18, It was reported that cranberry juice combats a wide range of bacteria, including those that cause stomach ulcers, gum disease and food-borne illnesses as well as urinary tract infections. Recent research suggested that astringent compounds, called proanthocyanidins, in the berry may work to prevent infection-causing bacteria from adhering to cells in the urinary tract.
    (WSJ, 9/18/07, p.D6)

2007        Sep 25, The World Health Organization said 8 more cases of Ebola have been identified in Congo, raising to 17 the number of people confirmed to have contracted the deadly illness.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 28, Britain’s deputy chief veterinarian said bluetongue disease is circulating in Britain after being reported in a cow at the weekend in southern England.
    (AP, 9/28/07)
2007        Sep 28, Japan suspended poultry imports from Canada after the H7N3 strain of avian influenza was found on a Saskatchewan chicken farm.
    (Reuters, 9/28/07)

2007        Sep 29, The Topps Meat Co. expanded its recall of frozen hamburger patties to include 21.7 million pounds of ground beef that may be contaminated with E. coli bacteria that sickened more than a dozen people in eight US states.
    (AP, 9/30/07)

2007        Sep 30, So far this year, according to the Pan American Health Organization, 630,356 dengue cases have been reported in the Americas, most in Brazil, Venezuela, or Colombia, with 12,147 cases of hemorrhagic fever and 183 deaths. The Dominican Republic has reported 25 deaths, while Puerto Rico claimed 5,592 suspected cases and three deaths.
    (AP, 9/30/07)\

2007        Oct 11, A World Health Organization official said 69 children in northern Nigeria contracted polio following vaccination against the disease. Peter Eriki indicated that around 10 percent of the Nigerian population has dodged the vaccination campaign.
    (AFP, 10/12/07)

2007        Nov 13, Britain’s government said an outbreak of bird flu in eastern England is the deadly H5N1 strain of the disease. A two-mile protection zone and a six-mile surveillance zone were created around the infected farm in Suffolk.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 20, Researchers said they have decoded the gene map of a strain of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and that their work has identified mutations that may help develop better treatments.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 29, In Uganda a senior Ministry of Health official said an Ebola outbreak has killed at least 16 people out of 51 confirmed cases. The first case was reported Nov. 10 in Bundibugyo district, 210 miles west of the capital, Kampala. Uganda last had an outbreak of Ebola in October 2000, when 173 people died. A new form of the Ebola virus was detected in the outbreak. The death toll soon climbed to 21, including 8 doctors and health workers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)(AP, 11/30/07)(Reuters, 12/1/07)(SFC, 12/8/07, p.B6)

2007        Dec 7, The World Health Organization confirmed that the father of a Chinese man who died of bird flu has been infected with the virus that causes the disease, saying it could not rule out the possibility of human-to-human infection.
    (AP, 12/7/07)

2007        Dec 15, Pakistan's Health Ministry issuing a statement saying six people had initially tested positive for the virus last month, while the WHO said eight had been reported. International health experts were dispatched to Pakistan to help investigate the cause of South Asia's first outbreak of bird flu in people and determine if the virus could have been transmitted through human contact.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 12-2007 Dec 14, In South Africa 49 patients, all with multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB, escaped through holes they had cut through the perimeter fences of Jose Pearson Hospital in Port Elizabeth.
    (www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,317354,00.html)

2007        Malaysia’s Prince Naquiyuddin Jaafar founded the EntoGenex biotech company. It took a pre-existing protein called the Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) and by 2012 developed it into what he called a fatal "diet pill" for mosquitoes. The firm combined the TMOF with bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) bacteria, which eats holes in the guts of larvae but is non-toxic to people. He hoped it could potentially become a weapon in the even larger fight against malaria, which kills an estimated 650,000 people per year.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2008        Jan 2, Becton, Dickinson and Co said it received clearance from the Food and Drug Administration for a test to identify the presence of two deadly healthcare-associated infections: Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
    (Reuters, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 24, Researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute of Rockville, Md., reported that they have built from scratch a synthetic chromosome containing all the genetic material needed to produce the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium, the tiniest bacteria ever found.
    (SFC, 1/25/08, p.A1)(Econ, 1/26/08, p.76)

2008        Jan 26, It was reported that some 15,000 birds had died over the last month around Utah’s Great Salt Lake due to avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. The disease was introduced into the wild during the 1940s from US domestic poultry.
    (SFC, 1/26/08, p.B6)

2008        Feb 14, Brazil flew 50,000 doses of yellow fever vaccine to Paraguay following an outbreak there, the first in 34 years.
    (SFC, 2/15/08, p.A4)

2008        Feb 23, It was reported that Dr. Nathan Wolfe, a virologist at UCLA, was pushing for the creation of the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative, a planet-wide network to forecast epidemics before they happen.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.97)

2008        Feb 27, The WHO confirmed the first urban cases of yellow fever in Latin America in 60 years.
    (WSJ, 2/28/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 11, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said 26% of US teen girls are infected with at least one sexually transmitted disease. The rate was highest among blacks.
    (AP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/12/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 20, Brazilian officials said an outbreak of dengue in Rio de Janeiro state has killed at least 47 people this year.
    (SFC, 3/21/08, p.A4)

2008        Mar 24, The WHO said polio transmission has been stopped in Somalia.
    (WSJ, 3/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 28, South Africa launched a four million dollar program to track down tuberculosis patients who have defaulted treatment, leading to resistant strains of the illness.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Apr 4, A South Korean official said quarantine workers have destroyed more than 100,000 chickens following the first outbreak of a deadly strain of bird flu in the country in more than a year.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        May 4, China's Health Ministry issued a nationwide alert after the enterovirus 71 virus, or EV-71, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease, infected more than 4,500 children in central Anhui province. The outbreak was centered around Fuyang city, where 22 deaths have occurred.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

2008        May 5, In China, state media said a deadly viral outbreak that preys on children has appeared in Beijing, and the number of infections in China has grown to more than 8,000. Enterovirus 71 was blamed and went on to kill at least 43 people with over 24,000 sickened.
    (AP, 5/5/08)(SFC, 5/24/08, p.A8)

2008        May 7, China’s state media said the number of infections of hand, foot and mouth disease has grown to more than 15,000 with 28 deaths.
    (AP, 5/5/08)

2008        May 22, Bangladesh reported its first confirmed case of human bird flu, but said the 16-month-old victim had now recovered from the virus.
    (AFP, 5/22/08)

2008        Jun 3, The Good Friends, a Seoul-based humanitarian group, said that a highly contagious disease has sparked a health alert with an estimated five or six children dying every day since April 27 in North Korea’s city of Hoeryong. A doctor said hand-foot-mouth disease could be spreading from China, where it has killed several dozen children.
    (AFP, 6/3/08)

2008        Jun 7, In Hong Kong a routine inspection found chickens infected with H5N1 bird flu in a poultry market. Authorities slaughtered 2,700 birds and banned live poultry imports from China.
    (WSJ, 6/9/08, p.A12)

2008        Jun 11, Hong Kong officials found bird-flu virus  at three more food markets and ordered the slaughter of some 3,500 birds at retail outlets.
    (WSJ, 6/12/08, p.A13)

2008        Jun 12, US health officials said there were some 228 reported cases in 23 states of people falling ill from salmonella-tainted tomatoes. The 1st patient had become sick on April 10.
    (WSJ, 6/12/08, p.A1)(SFC, 6/13/08, p.A2)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 18, US food safety officials said 383 people in 30 states have fallen ill in a Salmonella outbreak linked to certain types of tomatoes.
    (Reuters, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 20, The widening Salmonella outbreak sickened more than 550 people. US food safety inspectors planned trips to Florida and Mexico this weekend to examine tomato farms and distribution chains, hoping to pinpoint the source of the outbreak.
    (Reuters, 6/20/08)

2008        Jun 26, US government officials confirmed 756 illnesses from salmonella tainted tomatoes.
    (SFC, 6/27/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 27, The US CDC said at least 810 Americans have been sickened by the strain Salmonella Saintpaul in tomatoes. The source of the tomatoes was made difficult due to the process of repacking tomatoes at distribution centers. As the number sickened reached nearly 1000 CDC officials began to look at other possibilities for the outbreak, including cilantro and jalapeno and Serrano peppers.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.B1)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.A1)
2008        Jun 27, Settlement documents were filed for Steven Hatfill, a former Fort Detrick, Md., Army scientist. He had been named in 2002 as a person of interest in the 2001 anthrax attacks. He will receive $5.8 million to settle his lawsuit against the Justice Department. Hatfill claimed the Justice Department violated his privacy rights by speaking with reporters about the case.
    (AP, 6/28/08)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 29, US researchers reported that a drug called lodamin, developed using nanotechnology and a fungus that contaminated a lab experiment, may be broadly effective against a range of cancers.
    (Reuters, 6/30/08)

2008        Jul 11, In the Netherlands health authorities announced a Dutch woman, infected during a holiday to Uganda by the contagious Marburg virus, had died overnight. The Marburg virus is similar to Ebola and causes heavy bleeding. About 100 people who may have had contact with the woman were under surveillance.
    (AFP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 17, The US government lifted a salmonella warning on tomatoes, but still warned caution on fresh jalapeno and serrano peppers.
    (SFC, 7/18/08, p.A6)

2008        Jul 29, US Army scientist Bruce E. Ivins died of an apparent overdoes of Tylenol at Frederick Memorial Hospital in Maryland. Federal prosecutors investigating the 2001 anthrax attacks were planning to indict and seek the death penalty against Ivins in connection with anthrax mailings that killed five people. Ivins, who was developing a vaccine against the deadly toxin, committed suicide. On Feb 19, 2010, the FBI formally closed his case concluding that Ivins acted alone in the 2001 anthrax mailings.
    (AP, 8/1/08)(AP, 2/20/10)(SFC, 2/16/11, p.A6)

2008        Aug 2, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said that due to new tracking methods 40% more people are infected by the HIV virus than was previously believed.
    (SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A1)

2008        Sep 9, Morocco said it would start vaccinating all livestock after the outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants, a deadly viral disease, ahead of the Eid festival when millions of animals are sacrificed.
    (AFP, 9/9/08)
2008        Sep 9, Togo’s Health Ministry said an outbreak of bird flu has been confirmed for the first time since last year.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 11, Zimbabwe's health minister said a cholera outbreak in a Harare suburb has killed at least 11 people.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 13, The Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation announced Stanley Falkow (74), Stanford microbiologist, was the winner of a $300,000 Lasker award for Special Achievement in medical Science. His work helped to explain how pathogens cause human diseases.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.B2)

2008        Sep 25, Iraq's Health Ministry reported that a total of 327 cholera cases had been confirmed in central and southern Iraq since an outbreak of the disease last month.
    (AP, 9/25/08)

2008        Sep, In China hepatitis C infections were discovered after a patient who had received a transfusion during an operation in Pingtang tested positive for the disease. In 2009 police detained the director of the hospital, where at least 64 people were infected with the potentially deadly liver disease after receiving transfusions from blood collected illegally.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2008        Oct 1, Berhe Gebreegziabher, the head of Ethiopia’s animal health in the agriculture ministry, said an outbreak of African horse sickness has killed more than 2,000 horses, mules and donkeys in Ethiopia since March.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 7, Zambia's ambassador said Zambia and the World Health Organization (WHO) have joined the hunt for a mystery illness that has killed four people in South Africa. A South Africa, health official said the mystery disease may be Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
    (AFP, 10/7/08)(Reuters, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 14, Chinese state media reported that a ginseng injection contaminated by bacteria caused the deaths of three people using the medicine to treat thrombosis and heart disease.
    (AP, 10/15/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Mozambique a medical officer said at least 50 people have died of cholera and more than 100 have been taken to hospital since the disease broke out last week in northern Manica province.
    (AFP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 9, Doctors struggled to contain an outbreak of cholera in a sprawling refugee camp near Congo's eastern provincial capital of Goma, as new fighting ignited fears that infected patients could scatter and launch an epidemic.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 12, Indonesian health officials said test results from two laboratories in the capital came back positive confirming that a girl (15) died of bird flu last week.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 19, Philippine health officials said at least two people have died and more than 1,500 are in hospital following a suspected outbreak of cholera in the southern Philippines.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 20, The US ambassador to Harare, James McGee, said that a total of 294 people have been confirmed dead from cholera in Zimbabwe, amid some 1,200 cases of the water-borne disease.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition said it has agreed on a draft constitutional amendment to allow the formation of a power-sharing government, but obstacles still remain to setting it up. The UN warned that cholera has killed 389 people in Zimbabwe to date and that the disease is also spreading into neighbouring Botswana and South Africa.
    (AFP, 11/28/08)(Reuters, 11/28/08)

2008        Nov 30, Zimbabwe's health minister insisted that the country's crumbling medical system was taking all necessary measures to combat a cholera epidemic, even as more than 1,000 new cases were reported.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Dec 2, Zimbabwe slipped deeper into crisis as the death toll from a cholera epidemic neared 500 and members of President Robert Mugabe's armed forces were accused of taking part in a looting spree.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 9, Hong Kong health authorities said more than 80,000 chickens will be slaughtered after bird flu was found on a poultry farm, the first outbreak at a farm here in nearly six years.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 11, Hong Kong's government confirmed that the deadly H5N1 virus was found at a poultry farm, the first outbreak on a farm here in nearly six years.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, President Robert Mugabe declared that Zimbabwe's cholera crisis was over, even as the UN raised the death toll from the epidemic to 783.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 16, Chinese agricultural officials ordered the slaughter of some 377,000 chickens after finding the H5N1 bird flu virus in two areas of Jiangsu province.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A14)

2008        Dec 23, Bangladeshi authorities said a new outbreak of bird flu had been detected at a village in the north of the country as they struggled to contain the disease.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 30, Congo’s health minister said An Ebola virus outbreak has killed 11 people in western Congo. Caritas, a Catholic charity, reported that over 400 people have been killed in northeaster Congo since Christmas day.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)

2009        Jan 5, A Chinese woman (19) died from bird flu in a Beijing hospital, but the World Health Organization said the case did not appear to signal a new public health threat.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 6, The WHO said at least 1,732 people have died in Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic and the number of cases diagnosed has risen to 34,306.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, US health officials said an outbreak of salmonella food poisoning has made 388 people sick across 42 states, sending 18 percent of them to the hospital.
    (Reuters, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 12, Minnesota officials said lab tests had confirmed salmonella bacteria in a five pound container of King Nut brand peanut butter. King Nut of Solon, Ohio, had recalled the product on January 10. At least 6 people had been killed and over 470 sickened nationwide in 43 states.
    (WSJ, 1/13/09, p.A2)(SFC, 1/20/09, p.A12)

2009        Jan 13, The WHO said Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic has killed more than 2,000 people and almost 40,000 have contracted the normally preventable disease in Africa's worst outbreak in nearly a decade.
    (Reuters, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 14, South Africa’s health ministry said the death toll from a cholera outbreak has risen to 15, with more than 2,100 cases registered in a spillover from Zimbabwe's epidemic. The UN said the death toll from Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak has risen to 2,106.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 16, Kellogg Co. of Battle Creek, Mich., recalled 16 products containing peanut butter due to possible salmonella contamination as federal officials confirmed contamination at a Georgia facility that ships peanut products to 85 food companies. On Jan 21 federal health authorities confirmed that peanut butter and paste made by a Virginia company were the sole sources of the outbreak. The Blakely, Ga., facility was owned by Peanut Corp. of America, based in Lynchburg, Va. In 2013 four former executives of Peanut Corp. were indicted for the outbreak that left 9 people dead and hundreds sickened.
    (SFC, 1/17/09, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/22/09, p.A4)(SFC, 2/22/13, p.A11)

2009        Jan 20, In central China a 16-year-old boy infected with the H5N1 bird flu virus died, the country's third fatality from the disease this month.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 21, Indonesia’s Health Ministry said 2 people have died of bird flu, apparently after contact with sick chickens, raising the country's death toll to 115.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 24, Mariana Bridi (20), Brazilian model, died from complications related to a generalized infection caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria is known to be resistant to multiple kinds of antibiotics. The infection reduced the flow of oxygen to her limbs, causing her feet to be amputated last week and her hands this week.
    (AP, 1/24/09)
2009        Jan 24, China announced the death of a 31-year-old woman from bird flu, its fourth human victim this year, sparking fears of an outbreak during the country's main festive season.
    (AFP, 1/24/09)

2009        Jan 26, China’s state media reported that an 18-year-old man has died from bird flu in southern China, the fifth human death from the virus in the country this year.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 28, Peanut Corp. expanded its recall to all peanut products produced at its Blakely, Ga., plant since Jan 1, 2007, due to a salmonella outbreak.
    (SFC, 1/29/09, p.A3)

2009        Feb 25, Kenya announced its first polio infection in 20 years, after a 4-year-old girl was diagnosed with the disease along the country's remote border with Sudan.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Feb 27, The UN Children's Fund said 53 million children are being targeted by a mass immunization drive against polio in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo. Some 844 polio cases were reported in the 8 countries in 2008, 95% of them in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 3, An official said 4 Indonesians have died of bird flu over the last 2 months, bringing the death toll in the country over the past several years to 119.
    (AP, 3/3/09)

2009        Mar 5, In Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai said more than 4,000 people have died in the cholera epidemic that has hit at least 85,000 people, warning the figures were likely an underestimate.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 24, Cepheid, a Sunnyvale, Ca., gene-based test developer, said it has devised a rapid, sensitive diagnostic test for tuberculosis and will make it available at reduced cost in developing countries. The new automated test gives results in 2 hours.
    (SFC, 3/25/09, p.C1)
2009        Mar 24, The WHO's annual report on TB, presented in Rio, indicated that there were 1.37 million cases of people with both TB and HIV in 2007, the latest year for which statistics are available. About 700,000 people were infected with both in 2006.
    (AP, 3/24/09)
2009        Mar 24, Indonesia's controversial Health Minister Siti Fadillah Supari said she wants to end vaccinating children against meningitis, mumps and some other diseases because she fears foreign drug companies are using the country as a testing ground.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Mar 26, Chinese health officials said that hand, foot and mouth disease has sickened 41,000 people across the country and killed 18 children so far this year.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 12, In Germany a scientist accidentally pricked her finger with a needle used to inject the deadly Ebola virus into lab mice. Within 48 hours of the accident, the at-risk scientist, a woman (45) whose identity has not been revealed, was injected with an experimental  vaccine from Canada. After 2 weeks the woman appeared to be healthy. At the time of the accident, she was wearing three layers of protective gloves, and though the needle stuck her, the plunger of the syringe was not pushed so it's not certain the virus entered her bloodstream.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 28, An Egyptian health ministry spokesman said a two-year-old girl has contracted bird flu, the 60th reported case since the first outbreak of the disease in the country in 2006.
    (AP, 3/28/09)

2009        Mar 30, Argentina’s health minister acknowledged that the country was in the middle of a dengue fever epidemic with nearly 8,000 people infected. Neighboring Bolivia had about 51,000 cases reported, while Brazil counted some 40,000 cases.
    (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=46371)(SSFC, 4/19/09, p.G3)

2009        Apr 7, In Texas Jon Dale Jones (46), a former Army hospital nurse, pleaded guilty to assault and theft. He was accused of infecting 15 patients with hepatitis C. Jones was arrested on federal charges in March of 2008 for using dirty needles to administer anesthesia, and accused of stealing painkillers for himself.
    (SFC, 4/8/09, p.A5)(www.mahalo.com/Jon_Dale_Jones)

2009        Apr 8, The international Red Cross said a polio outbreak, that now affects 15 African countries, threatens efforts to eradicate the disease.
    (AFP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 17, In Norway a $225 million fund to provide low-price anti-malaria medicine around the world was launched in Oslo to fight a disease that kills 2,000 children a day.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 18, In Egypt the state-run newspaper Al-Ahram reported that an Egyptian woman has contracted bird flu in the second case in the country in as many days.
    (AFP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 23, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 7 people have been diagnosed with a new kind of swine flu in California and Texas.
    (Reuters, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 24, Mexico’s Health Secretary Jose Cordova said private and public schools in Mexico city have been ordered to remain closed due to a flue epidemic. At least 20 people have died nationwide from the flu in the last three weeks.
    (AP, 4/24/09)
2009        Apr 24, In Egypt a woman (33) died from the H5N1 strain of bird flu, the third death from the disease in Egypt this week.
    (AFP, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 25, Mexico City suspended all public events for 10 days as officials tried to contain an outbreak of a deadly new swine flu. Tests showed 20 people have died of the swine flu, and 48 other deaths were probably due to the same strain.
    (AP, 4/25/09)
2009        Apr 25, The World Health Organization called an emergency meeting of experts to consider declaring an international public health emergency over the swine flu outbreak believed to have killed dozens of people in Mexico and sickened at least seven in the US.
    (AP, 4/25/09)

2009        Apr 26, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that students at a city high school were infected with swine flu. About 100 students complained of flu-like symptoms at the school. Some students went to Cancun on a spring break trip two weeks ago. The flu has spread beyond Mexico's borders with confirmed cases in the US and suspected cases as far away as New Zealand.
    (AP, 4/26/09)
2009        Apr 26, Canada reported its first confirmed cases of swine flu at opposite ends of the country, with two cases in the western province of British Columbia and four in the Atlantic province of Nova Scotia.
    (Reuters, 4/26/09)

2009        Apr 27, US cases of the deadly new flu strain rose to 40. Governments around the world acted to stem a possible flu pandemic, as a virus that has killed 149 people in Mexico and spread to North America was confirmed to have reached Europe. Spain's Health Ministry confirmed the country's first case of swine flu and said another 20 people are suspected of having the disease.
    (Reuters, 4/27/09)(AP, 4/27/09)(WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A1)

2009        Apr 28, World health officials raised a global alert to an unprecedented level as swine flu was blamed for more deaths in Mexico and the epidemic crossed new borders, with the first cases confirmed in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific regions.
    (AP, 4/28/09)

2009        Apr 29, The WHO raised its alert for swine flu from level 4 to level 5, its 2nd highest alert level. Austria and Germany confirmed cases of swine flu, becoming the third and fourth European countries hit by the disease. US health officials reported that a 23-month-old child in Texas has died from the disease. The World Health Organization called an emergency meeting to consider its pandemic alert level.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(SFC, 4/30/09, p.A8)

2009        Apr 30, The Iraqi government decided to kill three wild boars at the Baghdad Zoo amid worldwide fears of swine flu. No date was set for their killing. Two US Marines and a sailor were killed during combat operations in Anbar province.
    (AP, 5/1/09)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 30, Mexican health authorities said they confirmed 300 swine flu cases and 12 deaths due to the virus among a total of 679 people tested so far.
    (AP, 5/1/09)

2009        May 1, US cases of the H1N1 flu rose to 155, based on federal and state tallies. State laboratory operators believe the number is higher because they are not testing all suspected cases. Mexico raised its confirmed swine flu death toll from 15 to 16, adding that the total number of confirmed cases of the virus had risen to 397. Worldwide, the total confirmed cases were 653, with the real number also believed to be much larger.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 2, Canadian health officials said a traveler has carried the new H1N1 virus from Mexico to Canada, infecting his family and a herd of swine.
    (Reuters, 5/2/09)
2009        May 2, India's biggest drug maker Ranbaxy announced the recall of an antibiotic, on sale in the US, because of manufacturing problems, marking a new setback for the company. The Japanese-controlled company said it was voluntarily recalling all lots of nitrofurantoin capsules, an antibiotic used in the treatment of urinary tract infections.
    (AFP, 5/2/09)
2009        May 2, Mexico said it had no confirmed deaths from HINI swine flu overnight, even as its confirmed caseload grew to 443.
    (AP, 5/2/09)

2009        May 3, Swine flu extended its reach through Europe and Latin America, with at least five countries reporting new cases. Health experts were investigating a case of the virus jumping from a person to pigs, trying to determine if the disease was reaching a new stage.
    (AP, 5/3/09)
2009        May 3, Egyptian police fired tear gas and clashed with irate pig farmers, leaving 12 people injured as owners resisted the government's attempt to slaughter all the nation's pigs to guard against swine flu.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 4, Mexico's health secretary said most businesses will reopen May 6 nationwide, citing ebb in the swine flu outbreak. The World Health Organization chief warned that swine flu could return with a vengeance despite Pres. Felipe Calderon insisting his country has contained the epidemic.
    (AP, 5/4/09)(AFP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 6, New H1N1 flu cases across Europe and a second US death kept health officials on alert despite signs Mexico's epidemic had passed its peak. Mexican health officials said that testing of backlogged cases has increased the confirmed swine flu death toll from 31 to 42, including three new deaths in the past two days.
    (Reuters, 5/6/09)(AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 7, Argentina and Brazil confirmed five swine flu cases within their borders as the virus affects more nations in South America.
    (AP, 5/8/09)
2009        May 7, In Mexico high schools and universities closed by the swine flu epidemic reopened as teachers and parents carefully checked returning students for flu symptoms. The death toll due to the HINI flu was raised to 44. Mexico City says all businesses can reopen including sports arenas, museums, bars.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 8, In Canada a provincial medical official said a woman from Alberta has died from the H1N1 flu virus, making her the first Canadian to die from the virus.
    (Reuters, 5/8/09)

2009        May 9, Australia and Japan joined the ranks of affected countries with confirmed H1N1 swine flu. New Zealand, the first country in the Asia-Pacific region to confirm cases, reported two more for a total of seven.
    (AP, 5/9/09)

2009        May 9, Costa Rica reported the first swine flu death outside North America and the US announced its third death from the virus, while Mexico delayed the reopening of primary schools in some states.
    (AP, 5/9/09)

2009        May 14, The World Health Organization (WHO) said the number of confirmed cases of the new Influenza A (H1N1) flu has climbed to 6,497, including 65 deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, In Egypt a three-year-old boy from north Egypt tested positive for the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu in the second such case in two days. This brought to 71 the number of bird flu infections in Egypt.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 16, Japan said 8 high school students had tested positive for swine flu amid fears the virus was spreading in at least two cities where scores of students said they felt ill.
    (AP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 17, In NYC Mitchell Wiener, an assistant principal at a middle school, became the first death linked to the H1N1 flu virus.
    (SFC, 5/18/09, p.A3)
2009        May 17, Chile confirmed its first two cases of swine flu in two women who arrived from the Dominican Republic.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        May 18, In Japan health officials said a wave of new confirmations sent the number of H1N1 flu cases soaring to more than 120, prompting the government to order the closure of schools and the cancellation of community events.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        May 18, In Egypt a 4-year-old girl died of bird flu, making her the country's 27th death from the virus since 2006.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 19, Inmates at a Mexico City prison rioted over restrictions on visits due to swine flu, as the country reported two more confirmed deaths, raising the toll to 74 nationwide.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 21, Japan’s PM Taro Aso again urged the public to stay calm as a total of 292 swine flu cases were reported, including the third in greater Tokyo, the world's largest urban area.
    (AFP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 23, It was reported that millions of bats in at least 7 US states (Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia) have died from white-nose syndrome, a fungal diseases. In 2011 the fungus Geomyces destructans was identified as the cause.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.36)(SFC, 10/28/11, p.A18)

2009        May 26, The Red Cross said the number of cholera cases in Zimbabwe is expected to cross the 100,000 mark in the coming days, warning that the epidemic was Africa's worst in 15 years.
    (AFP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, It was reported that scientists have identified a lethal new virus in Africa that causes bleeding like the dreaded Ebola virus. The so-called "Lujo" virus infected five people in Zambia and South Africa last fall. Four of them died, but a fifth survived, perhaps helped by a medicine recommended by the scientists.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2009        May 23, Chikungunya, a mosquito-born virus endemic to tropical Africa and Asia, was reported to have arrived in Albania and Italy.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.83)

2009        Jun 1, Chilean plumber, Fernando Vera, died of swine flu, making him South America's first swine-flu death.
    (AP, 6/2/09)

2009        Jun 6, It was reported that in South Africa HIV-AIDS continued to claim some 3,000 lives a week.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.48)

2009        Jun 9, South African health activist Thembi Ngubane (24) died of tuberculosis leaving behind a daughter (4). Her radio diaries of her struggle against the AIDS virus won her audiences and admiration around the world. Ngubane was 19 when she was given a tape recorder to make an audio diary about living with HIV in a country where nearly one third of young women are infected with the virus.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 11, The World Health Organization held an emergency swine flu meeting and declared the first flu pandemic in 41 years as infections climbed in the United States, Europe, Australia, South America and elsewhere.
    (AP, 6/11/09)

2009        Jun 12, Swiss pharmaceuticals company Novartis AG said it has successfully produced a first batch of swine flu vaccine weeks ahead of expectations.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 14, Thai PM Abhisit Vejjajiva urged the country not to panic about swine flu, after the number of cases grew nine-fold in four days and a cluster emerged in a key tourist hub. Health authorities reported that confirmed cases of the H1N1 virus soared to 150, compared with just 16 on June 10, including a number of foreigners.
    (AFP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 17, The number of Nebraska cattle herds quarantined because of bovine tuberculosis concerns jumped to 42 and Colorado and South Dakota were warned the disease may have already spread there.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 20, It was reported that that the H1N1 swine flu virus has spread to at least 76 countries and caused over 160 deaths, and that Brazilian researchers have identified a new strain of the virus.
    (SFC, 6/20/09, p.D12)

2009        Jun 28, The US Agriculture Department said a Colorado meat company is expanding a recall of beef due to possible contamination by E.coli O157:H7 bacteria after an investigation found 18 illnesses may be linked to the meat.
    (Reuters, 6/28/09)

2009        Jun 30, Authorities in Argentina's capital and Buenos Aires province declared health emergencies and extended school vacations as the nation's swine flu death toll surged to 35.
    (AP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jul 5, It was reported that Libya suffering an outbreak of  bubonic plague and that neighboring countries, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, were acting to prevent its spread across the borders.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.M3)

2009        Jul 7, Canadian officials said they had identified yet another new flu virus, this one a mixture of human and swine influenzas, in two farm workers in Western Canada.
    (Reuters, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 10, A US plant scientists said late blight, which caused the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s and 1850s, is killing potato and tomato plants in home gardens from Maine to Ohio and threatening commercial and organic farms.
    (Reuters, 7/10/09)
2009        Jul 10, Millions of Argentines stayed home from work, churches in Bolivia canceled Mass and Ecuador announced its first fatalities from swine flu, as the virus continued its spread during the South American winter season.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2009        Jul 12, Thailand's swine flu death toll rose to 18 as the government confirmed three more fatalities and opened a vaccine plant to prevent tens of thousands of infections across the country.
    (AFP, 7/12/09)

2009        Jul 20, In Australia Adelaide-based Vaxine began swine flu vaccine trials with 300 subjects. Melbourne's CSL had 240 people in its seven-month trial, which started Jul 22. The companies said their trials are the first tests of a swine flu vaccine on humans.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 21, The WHO said that  deaths from the H1N1 swine flu virus have double in the past 3 weeks to over 700.
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.A2)

2009        Jul 23, Arab health ministers decided to ban children, the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions from attending the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia this year in effort to slow the spread of swine flu.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

2009        Jul 30, Zimbabwe's health minister said a cholera epidemic has ended, after more than 4,200 deaths and 100,000 cases since last August, but warned new outbreaks remain a threat.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Aug 1, China’s Ziketan town in Qinghai province was put under collective quarantine when laboratory tests showed it had been struck by the highly virulent disease. 2 of its residents had recently died from pneumonic plague, which spreads through the air, making it easier to contract than bubonic plague, which requires that a person is bitten by an infected flea. Its fatality rate was up to 100% if left untreated, compared with 60% for bubonic plague.
    (AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 11, In Indonesia UNAIDS regional director Prasada Rao cited a new report saying more than 1.5 million women living with HIV in Asia were infected by their partners and 50 million more are at risk of infection. Rao spoke on the sidelines of the ninth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (ICAAP), which is being held on the Indonesian resort island of Bali.
    (AFP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 21, Chile's health ministry said it ordered a quarantine for two turkey farms outside the port city of Valparaiso after genetic tests confirmed sick birds were afflicted with the same swine flu virus circulating in humans.
    (AP, 8/21/09)

2009        Sep 6, In Ecuador Lt. Col. John Merino, President Rafael Correa's chief of security, died of swine flu. Ecuador has reported 36 confirmed deaths from swine flu as of last week, along with 1,382 infected.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 13, The Afghan health ministry said it has so far recorded 673 cases of cholera countrywide in almost a third of the country's 34 provinces, including Kabul. No deaths have been reported. A British soldier was killed in an attack on a foot patrol in Helmand province. A 2nd NATO service member died in a bomb blast in the south.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)(AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 18, It was reported that some 20-50 thousands birds have died along the shore of Utah’s Great Salt Lake so far this year from avian botulism.
    (SFC, 9/18/09, p.A21)
2009        Sep 18, Australia approved a vaccine against swine flu and said it would start administering the medicine this month to its most at-risk citizens, including medical staff, pregnant women and the chronically ill. Regulators approved CSL Ltd.'s vaccine for people above age 10, but the Therapeutic Drug Administration was awaiting the results of more clinical trials before approving it for younger children.
    (AP, 9/18/09)

2009        Sep 23, The 20-member African Leaders Malaria alliance began a campaign to stop malaria from killing an estimated 1 million people in Africa each year.
    (SFC, 9/24/09, p.A2)

2009        Oct 1, A Nigerian official said 9 people died and several others were hospitalized this week following a cholera outbreak in northern Taraba State, bringing the death toll in the region to 97 over the last few weeks.
    (AFP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 8, Leaders of the Dominican Republic and Haiti agreed to cooperate in a campaign aimed at eradicating the last vestiges of malaria from the islands of the Caribbean by 2020.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

2009        Oct 16, In northern Nigeria the toll in a cholera outbreak rose to 149 with 52 more deaths recorded. The disease was first reported on September 10 in Gwoza local government on the border with Cameroon from where it spread to six other districts.
    (AFP, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 22, In the Philippines outbreaks of leptospirosis, spread by water contaminated with the urine of rats, dogs and other animals, have compounded the problems faced after back-to-back storms since late last month killed more than 900 people. The WHO said it will send an emergency team to help fight a bacterial disease outbreak that has killed at least 148 people and sickened nearly 2,000 in and around the flood-hit capital.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 23, The World Health Organization said nearly 5,000 people have reportedly died from swine flu since it emerged this year and developed into a global epidemic.
    (AP, 10/23/09)

2009        Oct 23, President Barack Obama signed a declaration making the swine flu outbreak a national emergency, giving his health chief the power to let hospitals move emergency rooms offsite to speed treatment and protect noninfected patients.
    (AP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct, Researchers found that a bug named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) occurred in 67% of patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The bug had already been implicated in prostate cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.80)

2009        Nov 4, The US Dept. of Agriculture said pigs in a commercial herd in Indiana have tested positive for swine flu, making it the first time the virus has been found in such hogs.
    (SFC, 11/5/09, p.A9)
2009        Nov 4, A Nigerian senior health official said a fresh cholera outbreak has killed 20 people and left 200 others infected in northern Adamawa State in the past week.
    (AFP, 11/4/09)
2009        Nov 4, The London-based indigenous rights group Survival International said Swine flu has appeared among the Yanomami Indians of Venezuela, one of the largest isolated indigenous groups in the Amazon. A local doctor and that the virus is suspected in seven deaths, including six infants.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 6, The aid agency Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) warned that Southern Sudan is facing a "serious outbreak" of the deadly kala azar tropical disease. Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a neglected tropical disease contracted by the bite of a sand fly, endemic in some parts of southern Sudan. Without treatment, almost all victims die within one to four months. If treatment is received on time, some 95% can recover.
    (AFP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 9, The Afghan Ministry of Public Health said that 710 of the 779 cases of H1N1 reported since early July have been among Afghan, US and Italian troops. The 11 people who have died from the virus were all Afghans, including one soldier.
    (AP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 21, Saudi health officials announced the first deaths from swine flu of this year's annual pilgrimage to Mecca, as four pilgrims succumbed to the disease soon after arriving in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 25, A Chinese health official said eight cases of swine flu mutation have been detected amid longstanding concerns among scientists that the virus could change into a more dangerous form.
    (AP, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 29, Saudi officials said 5 people died from swine flu during the hajj, a relatively small number considering the event is the largest annual gathering in the world and was seen as an ideal incubator for the virus.
    (AP, 11/29/09)

2009        Nov 30, An Algerian health organization (AnisS) warned that thousands of its people are unknowingly infected with the AIDS virus and called for more testing and prevention efforts.
    (AFP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 1, In South Africa Pres. Zuma said on World AIDS Day that all HIV-positive babies will be treated and testing expanded, a dramatic and eagerly awaited shift in a country that has more people living with HIV than any other.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 4, Kenyan health officials said a cholera epidemic was sweeping across the country with 4,700 cases reported in the past month along with 119 deaths.
    (SFC, 12/5/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 10, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that nearly 10,000 people have died from H1N1 influenza through Nov 14. Over 200,000 people were reported to have been hospitalized since the beginning of the pandemic 7 months earlier. 50 million America were estimated to have contacted the disease.
    (SFC, 12/11/09, p.A21)

2009        Dec 14, The World Health Organization (WHO) said polio has re-emerged in several African countries where it had been eradicated, at the start of a conference on child immunization in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 18, South Korean trucks crossed into North Korea delivering enough doses of antiviral drugs for 500,000 North Koreans. An estimated 50 people in North Korea have died of swine flu since November. Han Su Chol, a North Korean health minister, expressed thanks.
    (SFC, 12/19/09, p.A4)

2009        Dec 14, Dr. Walter Stamm (b.1945), a pioneer in the treatment of urinary tract infections, died in Seattle. He demonstrated that many cases of PID are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and developed a test for the organism.
    (SSFC, 12/27/09, p.C8)

2009        Chinese researchers announced that they had reduced schistosomiasis infection rates in 2 villages near Poyang lake by replacing water buffaloes, a parasite host, with tractors and improved sanitation. The parasitic worm Schistosoma japonicum, carried by tiny snails, caused schistosomiasis, which stood as the world’s 2nd most prevalent disease.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.43)
2009        In the Netherlands 6 people died this year from Q-fever. Some 2,300 had become infected by Coxiella burnetti, the infectious bug responsible for the disease. The bug is released into the air during birthing or miscarriages by infected goats. 40,000 pregnant goats were slated to be destroyed in early 2010.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.52)

2010        Jan 18, US officials said on some 390 tons of ground beef produced by a California meat packer, some of it nearly two years ago, is being recalled for fear of potentially deadly E. coli bacterium tainting.
    (Reuters, 1/18/10)

2010        Jan 28, US researchers reported the development of a prototype vaccine that protects monkeys and mice against the emerging chikungunya virus. The mosquito-borne virus first appeared on Reunion Island in 2005 and has spread to more than 18 countries. (SFC, 1/29/10, p.A13)

2010        Jan 30, In the Marshall Islands the government considered invoking special powers of quarantine as an outbreak of drug-resistant tuberculosis has been declared a public health emergency.
    (AP, 1/30/10)

2010        Feb 12, The WHO said a cholera outbreak on Papua New Guinea has killed at least 40 people over the last several months.
    (SFC, 2/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 25, Mozambique's health minister, Leonardo Chavane, said 36 people have died this year from a cholera outbreak in the northern and central parts of the southern African country. he said the situation is worrying because new cases are being reported daily and are complicated by rumors that health staff are spreading cholera rather than fighting it.
    (AP, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 26, Health officials in Puerto Rico declared an epidemic of dengue fever. Health Secretary Lorenzo Gonzalez says 210 cases have been confirmed for January, more than triple the number in the same month of 2007.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 4, Brazil’s National Health Surveillance Agency, Anvisa, ordered all 1,987 passengers and 765 crew to remain aboard the "Vision of the Seas" anchored at Buzios, while teams of doctors treat the 195 passengers suffering vomiting and diarrhea and determine the cause of their illness.
    (AFP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 13, Mozambique's health ministry spokesman said the country's cholera outbreak has now killed 42 people in the northern and central parts of the southern African country.
    (AP, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 19, Polish authorities said a herd of some 300 bison in southeastern Poland is at risk from tuberculosis after one recently died of the disease.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 22, US scientist Rita Colwell (76) won the $150,000 Stockholm Water Prize for her research on the prevention of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
    (AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Apr 22, In Burkina Faso Health Minister Seydou Bouda said a strain of meningitis, called X, has killed 718 people out of 5,118 cases in the West African country since January.
    (AP, 4/23/10)
2010        Apr 22, The UN World Health Organization and UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) asked for funds for vaccinations saying almost 200 children have died of measles in 16 African countries in the first three months of this year.
    (AFP, 4/22/10)

2010        Jun 3, In Geneva WHO Director-General Margaret Chan said swine flu is still a pandemic, even though the most activity appears to have passed. Last week WHO confirmed 18,114 deaths from swine flu worldwide since that start of the outbreak in April, 2009.
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 18, The UN said a recent measles outbreak in eastern and southern Africa has killed more than 700 people, threatening to reverse gains made over several years to stem the disease.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 29, The government of Mexico lifted the alert for swine flu, officially ending the health emergency in the country where the illness first appeared 14 months ago.
    (AP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 8, US federal researchers said that they have identified a pair of naturally occurring antibodies that are able to kill more than 90% of all strains of the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 7/8/10, p.A6)
2010        Jul 8, Dr. Thomas Peebles (b.1921), measles researcher, died at his home in Port Charlotte, Fla. His work in the 1950s enabled researchers to develop a vaccine against measles.
    (SFC, 8/6/10, p.C5)

2010        Jul 29, Ugandan officials said an anthrax outbreak has killed 82 hippos in the last month and a half.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 11, Researchers reported that plastic surgery patients have carried a new class of superbugs resistant to almost all antibiotics from South Asia to Britain and they could spread worldwide. This so-called NDM-1 gene was first identified last year by Cardiff University's Timothy Walsh in two types of bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in a Swedish patient admitted to hospital in India.
    (AFP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, In Nigeria a senior official said a cholera outbreak has killed 40 people while 115 others have been infected in northern Nigeria's Borno State in the past week.
    (AFP, 8/13/10)

2010        Aug 13, A Belgian man died from a drug-resistant "superbug" originating in South Asia, the first reported death from the bacteria. The superbug -- a bacterial gene called New Delhi metallo-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) -- was first identified last year in a Swedish patient admitted to hospital in India.
    (AFP, 8/13/10)

2010        Aug 16, Nigerian officials said a cholera outbreak has killed 87 people during the past month while 1,315 others have been infected.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 19, Nigeria’s Health Minister Onyebuchi Chukwu said the death toll from a cholera outbreak in northern Nigerian has risen to 231 while 4,600 others have been infected.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 25, Nigerian health officials warned that the whole country is at risk in a cholera epidemic that has killed 352 people in only three-months time.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Aug 28, Indian officials said at least 215 people, mostly children, have died in an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in an impoverished region of northern Indian and that the death toll is likely to soar.
    (AFP, 8/28/10)

2010        Sep 3, Chad health officials said an outbreak of cholera in the Central African nation has killed at least 41 people.
    (AP, 9/4/10)

2010        Sep 5, Bangladesh issued a red alert over an outbreak of anthrax which has infected nearly 300 people and killed about 150 cattle in the north of the country in the past two weeks.
    (Reuters, 9/5/10)

2010        Sep 6, UNICEF said that over 300 people have died in Cameroon from the country’s worst outbreak of cholera in 20 years.
    (SFC, 9/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 7, A Health Ministry official said Japan has confirmed the nation's first case of a new gene in bacteria that allows the microorganisms to become drug-resistant superbugs, detected in a man who had medical treatment in India.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 13, US health officials reported that an infectious-disease nightmare is unfolding: Bacteria that have been made resistant to nearly all antibiotics by an alarming new gene have sickened people in three states and are popping up all over the world.
    (AP, 9/13/10)

2010        Sep 23, Zimbabwe state media said a measles outbreak has claimed the lives of 70 children over the past two weeks, mostly among families from apostolic sects that shun vaccinations.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 26, Chinese authorities said five people have been sickened with pneumonic plague in Tibet and that the deadly disease has killed one of them.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Oct 1, Medicago, a Canadian company, broke ground at Durham, NC, on its first American facility. The company genetically manipulates tobacco plants to produce proteins used in making flu vaccines.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.36)

2010        Oct 6, Researchers reported in the journal PLoS ONE that samples collected from hives affected by the colony collapse disorder (CCD) indicated the presence of a virus as well as a fungus. The two pathogens were not found in bee colonies not affected by the syndrome.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, China says at least 38 people in the southern part of the country have been infected with a mosquito-borne virus that causes an illness similar to dengue fever. This was thought to be China's largest-ever outbreak of the chikungunya virus, which can cause fevers, joint pain, headaches and rashes.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 13, Malaysia criticized the WHO for failing to tackle the spread of dengue in the region, which saw 242,000 cases of the mosquito-borne disease in 2009 and 831 deaths so far this year.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 15, In Indonesia a rabies outbreak on the resort island of Bali has to date killed 100 people. Bali, an island of 3 million people and one of Asia's top tourist destinations, has been grappling with the outbreak for nearly two years.
    (AP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 19, Nicaragua health officials reported 17 deaths and 600 suspected cases of leptospirosis in the past month. Most of the cases were in Leon and Chinandega.
    (www.osac.gov/Reports/report.cfm?contentID=123022)

2010        Oct 22, In Haiti aid groups rushed in medicine and other supplies to combat a suspected cholera outbreak. At least 135 people had already died in the rural Artibonite region, host to thousands of quake refugees.
    (AP, 10/22/10)
2010        Oct 22, The UN Children's Fund said about 1,555 people have died of cholera in Nigeria this year, marking a likely peak in a three-year-old surge in the disease in the country.
    (AFP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 23, In Haiti 194 dead were confirmed dead in the poor Caribbean nation's worst health crisis since the Jan 12 quake. Authorities said more than 2,000 people were sick. Experts were investigating possible cases in Croix-des-Bouquet, a suburb of the capital, and radio reports said there were two dozen cases of diarrhea on Gonave island.
    (AP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 24, In Haiti a cholera outbreak, that already left 250 people dead and more than 3,000 sickened, was at the doorstep of an enormous potential breeding ground: the squalid camps in Port-au-Prince where 1.3 million earthquake survivors live.
    (AP, 10/25/10)

2010        Oct 26, UN officials counted 3,769 cases of cholera in Haiti and raised the death toll to 284.
    (SFC, 10/27/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 29, In Haiti the death toll from the cholera epidemic rose to 330, as medical teams desperately sought to contain the outbreak.
    (AFP, 10/30/10)
2010        Oct 29, Venezuelan health workers said an epidemic that may be malaria has killed dozens of people, decimating three villages of the Yanomami Indians, whose struggle for survival in a remote part of the Amazon rain forest has attracted worldwide support.
    (AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Nov 8, Haiti health officials said the cholera epidemic has spread into the capital, imperiling nearly 3 million people living in Port-au-Prince, nearly half of them in unsanitary tent camps for the homeless from the Jan. 12 earthquake. The outbreak had already killed at least 544 people.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 9, The WHO said a polio outbreak in the Congo Republic affected 201 people and caused 104 deaths in the last two weeks. The government in Brazzaville has declared an emergency and announced plans to vaccinate the entire population.
    (SFC, 11/10/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 11, The WHO said a rare parasitic disease has killed 260 people in southern Sudan in the past year, a figure that is threatening to double in the coming months. Kala azar, or visceral leishmaniasis, is a rare tropical disease contracted by the bite of a sand fly.
    (AFP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 12, The UN asked for $164 million to fight the cholera outbreak in Haiti, as the death toll reached 724 with 10 of the deaths and 278 cases in the capital Port-au-Prince.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 15, Haiti's cholera toll rose above 900, including dozens of deaths in the teeming capital, as the epidemic showed no sign of abating just two weeks ahead of presidential elections. Anti-UN riots spread to several cities and towns, as protesters blaming a contingent of Nepalese peacekeepers for a deadly outbreak of cholera barricaded roads and exchanged gunfire with UN soldiers in clashes that lasted late into the night. Protests in Cap Haitien left at least 2 people dead.
    (AFP, 11/15/10)(AP, 11/16/10)(AFP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 17, Haiti's health ministry said that 1,100 people have now died from cholera. In Cap-Haitien anti-UN riots disrupted international efforts to tackle a spreading cholera epidemic, increasing the risk of infection and death for tens of thousands of poor Haitians in the north.
    (AFP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 27, The British government said it is paying for more than 1,000 medical staff to work in Haiti as part of an aid package worth more than 5.6 million pounds to help combat a deadly cholera outbreak there.
    (AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Dec 2, NASA researcher Felisa Wolfe-Simon (33) reported that a strange bacterium, Halomonadaceae, found in California's Mono Lake, thrives on arsenic and redefines life as we know it. She said the bacterium does not merely eat arsenic, but incorporates the toxic element directly into its DNA. Her finding stirred much controversy. In 2012 scientists reported that the bacteria is just resistant to arsenic and actually dependent for life on phosphorous.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)(SFC, 5/28/11, p.C1)(SFC, 7/10/12, p.C3)

2010        Dec 3, The death toll in Haiti’s cholera epidemic reached nearly 1,900 people since erupting less than two months ago. The Health Ministry said there have been more than 80,000 cases since it was first detected in late October. The Pan-American Health Organization projected it could sicken 400,000 people within a year.
    (AP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 6, Haitian medical sources said fully 140 people have died of cholera in recent days in the southwest, a region that had been largely spared the epidemic. Officials raised the death toll to over 2,000 since the outbreak began in October.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)(SFC, 12/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 7, An expert report submitted to the French foreign ministry said respected French epidemiologist Professor Renaud Piarroux conducted a study in Haiti last month and concluded the epidemic began with an imported strain of the disease that could be traced back to the Nepalese base.
    (AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 10, UNICEF said a polio outbreak in CongoDRC has caused over 200 deaths. Most of those affected were young men between the ages of 15 and 24.
    (SFC, 12/11/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 16, China’s General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine said in a statement that it has banned poultry and poultry product imports from Manitoba, Canada, after an outbreak of low-pathogenic H5N2 bird flu there.
    (Reuters, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 27, An Egyptian Ministry of Health official said a resurgent H1N1 swine flu virus has infected 1,172 people in Egypt and killed 56 since October 8.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)

2011        Jan 1, In South Korea one of five wild ducks found dead this week was confirmed to have been infected with a lethal strain of the bird flu virus, its first outbreak in over two years.
    (AFP, 1/1/10)

2011        Feb 5, In India doctors in Gujarat reported two more cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, a tick-borne virus endemic to parts of Africa. 4 people in Gujarat had already died of the disease this year.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.68)

2011        Feb 7, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that scientists in Britain have successfully tested a vaccine which could work against all known flu strains.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 12, A Cambodian mother died from bird flu after preparing and eating meat contaminated by the deadly H5N1 virus. Her 11-month-old son died on Feb 17. A 5-year-old girl died earlier this month in Phnom Penh, a case also linked to contact with sick poultry.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 17, Hong Kong’s health authority said at least 12 people have died from swine flu in less than a month, after the latest death from the disease.
    (AFP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 20, It was reported that researchers have found a 225-percent increase in oral cancer cases in the United States from 1974 to 2007, mainly among white men. US scientists have said there is strong evidence linking oral sex to cancer, and urged more study of how human papillomaviruses may be to blame for a rise in oral cancer among white men.
    (AFP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 28, Indian police said they have arrested Sanjay Shah, the manager of a company that made intravenous fluids suspected of killing 13 pregnant women at Umaid Hospital in Jodhpur. The deaths occurred over a 13-day period from February 13.
    (AFP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 3, Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, said he has found conclusive evidence of alien life, fossils of bacteria found in an extremely rare class of meteorite called CI1 carbonaceous chondrites. (There are only nine such meteorites on planet Earth.) His findings were published today in the Journal of Cosmology, a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Scientists inside and outside NASA distanced themselves from Hoover saying he does not have expertise in astrobiology.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4t485yy)(SFC, 3/8/11, p.A4)
2011        Mar 3, Mexican agricultural officials say they have euthanized 114 peacocks, ostriches and other birds at a zoo due to an avian virus.
    (AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 4, The UN said its Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)  has sent a team of animal health experts to North Korea to help manage an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease that could worsen a food crisis.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 7, Japan's health ministry halted the use of vaccines made by Pfizer Inc and Sanofi-Aventis SA that prevent meningitis and pneumonia following the recent deaths of four children. The deaths happened between March 2 and March 4.
    (Reuters, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 17, A Venezuelan government official said one person has died of swine flu and six others have been diagnosed with the virus.
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        May 11, Canadian researchers reported an alarming combination: bedbugs carrying a staph "superbug." Scientists detected drug-resistant staph bacteria in bedbugs from three hospital patients from St. Paul's Hospital located in a downtrodden Vancouver neighborhood.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 21, It was reported that a mutated form of equine herpes virus-1  has killed at least 7 horses and sickened another 37 in 8 states including 14 in California.
    (SFC, 5/21/11, p.D1)

2011        May 23, Dominican Rep. Deputy Health Minister Jose Rodriguez said there have been 1,143 cases of cholera and 14 deaths since the outbreak began in November. The number of new cases reported today is up about 50 percent since the middle of May.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 27, Australian anesthesiologist, Dr. James Latham Peters (61), was charged with endangering his patients' lives after police alleged he infected nearly 50 women with hepatitis C at an abortion clinic.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, German government officials said two more people have died of a bacterial outbreak allegedly caused by contaminated Spanish cucumbers, bringing the number of deaths to nine. Almost 300 people were sick with haemolytic uremic syndrome, or HUS, in recent days. HUS is a rare complication arising from an infection most commonly associated with E. coli, a bacterium found in undercooked beef or contaminated food. Almost a dozen people with HUS have been hospitalized in Sweden in the past two weeks after travel to Germany. In Denmark, eight people are hospitalized with E.coli infection that could be linked to the outbreak. The E. coli was later identified as type O104:H4.
    (AP, 5/28/11)(AP, 5/29/11)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.63)

2011        May 30, Russia banned the import of all vegetables from Germany and Spain and warned the sanction could soon be applied to the rest of Europe because of the deadly E. coli bacteria scare. German officials suspect the deadly strain, which has already killed 12 people, may have come from organic cucumbers imported from Spain.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, The death from a food-borne bacterial outbreak in Germany rose to 16 with nearly 400 people suffering severe symptoms. Scientists were unsure of which produce and which country was responsible for the unusual E. coli germ.
    (SFC, 6/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 2, Spain's prime minister hit out at the European Commission and Germany for singling out the country's produce as a possible source of a deadly bacterial outbreak in Europe, and said the government would demand explanations and reparations. The World Health Organization said the E. coli bacteria responsible for a mysterious outbreak that has left 18 people dead and sickened hundreds is a new strain that has never been seen before. The illness had now spread to at least 10 European countries and fanned uncertainty about eating tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce.
    (AP, 6/2/11)
2011        Jun 2, In Haiti relief organization Oxfam said clinics in the Carrefour area west of downtown Port-au-Prince are seeing a sharp rise in cholera, with over 300 new cases per day.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011       Jun 6, German officials retracted their assertion that the E.coli epidemic was caused by bean sprouts from an organic farm. They said there was not enough data to determine if the farm was in fact the source of the deadly outbreak, which sickened people all over Europe and resulted in twenty-two deaths.
             (AP, 6/6/11)

2011        Jun 9, German authorities reported that 3 more people have died from E. coli raising the toll to 29 in less than 6 weeks.
    (SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 10, The death toll from the tornado in Joplin, Missouri, has risen to 151. A number of survivors were now returning to the hospital suffering from severe fungal infections, called zygomycosis, in their wounds.
            (AP, 6/10/11)
2011        Jun 10, Laboratory tests have determined that the E. coli epidemic in Germany and parts of Europe was in fact caused by contaminated bean sprouts from an organic farm. German authorities had been forced to retract their assertion that the sprouts were to blame, but now, high-tech laboratory testing proved that the sprouts were the culprit in the outbreak that has killed 31 people and sickened nearly 3,000 Germans.
            (AP, 6/10/11)(SFC, 6/11/11, p.A3)

2011        Jun 16, In France a 7th child was hospitalized with an E. coli infection after eating meat that manufacturers said could come from Germany, where an outbreak of the bacteria has killed 37 people.
    (AFP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 23, Germany's national disease control center said the death toll from Europe's E. coli outbreak has risen to 43, up from 39 a day earlier. One person has died in Sweden.
    (AP, 6/23/11)

2011        Jun 27, Germany's national disease control center said the death toll from the E. coli outbreak has risen to 47 including one person in Sweden.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, The UN officially declared that the rinderpest disease has been wiped off the face of the Earth. The UN program to eradicate the animal disease began in 1945 and cost some $5 billion.
    (SFC, 6/28/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 30, India’s media reported that at least 17 infants have died in the last 48 hours at the government-run B.C. Roy Hospital for Children in Kolkata, West Bengal. In 2006, 22 infants died in three days at the same hospital because of prematurity or acute forms of either meningitis, encephalitis or septicemia.
    (AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jun, In Haiti the number of cholera cases each day spiked to 1,700 in Mid-June.
    (SSFC, 7/10/11, p.A6)

2011        Jul 1, Doctors without Borders (MSF) said cholera has claimed 153 lives out of 2,787 cases in the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the provinces. MSF said that the outbreak began in March in the northeastern city of Kisangani, and soon spread westwards, with the first cases reported in Kinshasa on June 20.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)
2011        Jul 1, In India scientists warned that water off the famed beaches of the Indian holiday state of Goa was unfit for bathing and fishing due to high levels of bacteria from untreated sewage.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 2, Australian officials worked to isolate potential victims after uncovering two more cases of the deadly horse-borne Hendra virus, which has erupted in New south Wales and Queensland. Hendra can lead to fatal respiratory illness and has killed four of the seven people who have contracted it in Australia since it was first documented in 1994.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 5, The EU announced action against Egyptian bean and seed imports, after tests indicated that a 15-ton batch of Egyptian fenugreek seeds imported in 2009 to Germany and then distributed elsewhere was at the root of an E.coli outbreak that killed 50 people.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 5, Jamaica said it has shuttered all citrus nurseries in an attempt to check the spread of bacteria causing the incurable “citrus greening" disease. The bacteria has hobbled citrus production in parts of China and infested millions of trees in Florida and Brazil.
    (SFC, 7/6/11, p.A2)

2011        Jul 8, US health officials confirmed the death of an Arizona man from the same E. coli bacteria blamed for an outbreak in Germany. He had visited Germany and died last month.
    (SFC, 7/9/11, p.A5)

2011        Jul 11, Japanese scientists were reported to have found a "superbug" strain of gonorrhea that is resistant to all recommended antibiotics. They said it could transform a once easily treatable infection into a global public health threat.
    (Reuters, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 14, Switzerland suspended imports of some seeds, beans and sprouts from Egypt, after the EU blamed Egyptian fenugreek seeds for E.coli outbreaks in Germany and France. The temporary ban would expire in October 31, 2011, in line with the EU's suspension.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, UNICEF said at least 17,584 measles cases, including 114 deaths, have been reported by Ethiopian health officials in the first half of the year. The WHO said says at least 462 cases of measles, including 11 deaths, have been confirmed in recent months among Somali refugee children in the Kenyan refugee complex known as Dadaab.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 21, About 100 Swazi AIDS activists marched to the finance ministry to demand that the kingdom not allow a crippling financial crisis to interrupt the supply of life-saving drugs. Swaziland has the world's highest HIV infection rate, with one in four adults carrying the virus.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)

2011        Jul 26, Australia authorities said a lethal bat-borne horse virus has been detected in a dog for the first time, prompting fears it has jumped species.
    (AP, 7/26/11)

2011        Aug 3, US meat giant Cargill said it is recalling 36 million pounds of ground turkey linked to a nationwide salmonella outbreak that has killed one person in California and sickened at least 76 others. The fresh and frozen ground turkey products were produced at the company's Springdale, Ark., plant from Feb. 20 through Aug. 2.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 14, In Cambodia a 6-year-old girl died from bird flu. She was the eighth person to die from the H5N1 flu virus this year in Cambodia.
    (AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Aug 17, US health officials said two children and a young man have died this summer from the brain-eating Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba that lives in water. About 120 US cases, almost all of them deaths, have been reported since the amoeba was identified in the early 1960s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 17, Doctors in Trinidad said PM Kamla Persad-Bissessar is among the nearly 1,700 people who have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic dengue, a mosquito-born virus. He was expected to recover.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 19, Vietnamese officials said hand, foot and mouth disease has killed 81 children and continues to surge. PM Nguyen Tan Dung called for stepped up efforts for prevention.
    (SFC, 8/20/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 29, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) warned about a new mutant strain of the deadly bird flu H5N1 virus (H5N1 - 2.3.2.1.) in China and Vietnam, saying there could be a "major resurgence" of the disease.
    (AFP, 8/29/11)

2011        Aug 30, Nigerian officials said cholera has killed 35 people in northern Sokoto and Yobe states in recent days.
    (AFP, 8/30/11)

2011        Sep 13, An online 200-page paper by Project CLAMER, a collaboration of 17 European marine institutes, said the rising temperature of ocean water is causing a proliferation of the Vibrio genus of bacteria, which can cause food poisoning, serious gastroenteritis, septicemia and cholera.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 14, The World Health Organization issued a report saying cases of tuberculosis resistant to a multitude of drug treatments are rising at an alarming rate across Europe.
    (SFC, 9/15/11, p.A5)

2011        Sep 20, The World Health Organization warned countries that a dangerous strain of polio, WPV1, has spread to China from Pakistan.
    (SFC, 9/21/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 23, Nigerian officials said a fresh cholera outbreak in the north has killed at least six people, raising the overall toll in the country to more than over 200 in recent months.
    (AFP, 9/23/11)

2011        Sep 27, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that 72 illnesses were linked to tainted Colorado cantaloupe. Colorado state and local officials said they are investigating three additional deaths that may be connected. Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms were recalled on Sep 10. The listeria outbreak left 33 people dead. On Sep 26, 2013, Eric and Ryan Jensen were arested on charges of introducing adulterated food into interstate commerce. On Oct 22, 2013, Eric and Ryan pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges.
    (AP, 9/28/11)(SFC, 10/1/11, p.A6)(SFC, 9/27/13, p.A7)(SFC, 10/22/12, p.A5)

2011        Sep 30, Central African Republic health minister Jean-Michel Mandaba said a new cholera epidemic has hit the country and has already claimed at least 10 victims in the south.
    (AFP, 9/31/11)

2011        Oct 10, In Haiti an official with Doctors Without Borders said the number of cholera cases seen in Port-au-Prince has jumped about threefold in recent weeks.
    (AP, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 15, Indian officials said at least 430 people, mainly children, have died from an outbreak of encephalitis in a deeply neglected region of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 17, Canadian scientists announced that a contagious and lethal fish virus has been detected for the first time in wild Pacific salmon. The European strain of the virus had only been identified before in farm-raised Atlantic salmon.
    (Reuters, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 18, The search for the world's first malaria vaccine received a boost with the release of early results from a major clinical trial showing it cut risk by about half in African children. The vaccine, known as RTS,S, is made by the British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline's lab in Belgium. It is the first of its kind to attempt to block a parasite, rather than bacteria or viruses.
    (AFP, 10/19/11)
2011        Oct 18, In Haiti Dr. Paul Farmer said the local cholera outbreak is now the worst in the world with over 6,000 people killed and over 450,000 people sickened.
    (SFC, 10/19/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct, Pakistan reported its 115th case of polio. The current annual global number was down to about 1000.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.48)

2011        Nov 21, The World Health Organization said 5,000 cases of Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD) have already been reported this year in Djibouti compared to 2,000 in 2010. Djibouti reported two deaths since October and 127 new cases this month.
    (AFP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 29, Three-quarters of British-grown oysters contain norovirus, a bug which causes diarrhea and vomiting, according to new research published by the Food Standards Agency (FSA).
    (AFP, 11/29/11)

2011        Dec 1, Pres. Obama marked World Aids Day with plans to boost spending on HIV treatment by $50 million.
    (SFC, 12/2/11, p.A3)
2011        Dec 1, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma unveiled a 5-year plan to halve the number of HIV infections, cementing South Africa's turnaround from years of deadly denial.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 20, American authorities said they had asked the world’s leading scientific journals to withhold research on bird flu after researcher teams in Madison and Rotterdam engineered the virus so that it could be transmitted through the air from ferret to ferret. In January scientists agreed to suspend their research for 60 days. On April 20, 2012, the US reversed its stance. On April 27 the Dutch government gave Ron Fouchier permission to publish his paper. A 2nd paper by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison was published in May.
    (www.economist.com/node/21542156)(SFC, 1/21/12, p.A4)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.78)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.81)

2011        Dec 21, Hong Kong health workers began slaughtering 17,000 chickens after a carcass was found infected with bird flu at a poultry market.
    (SFC, 12/22/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 23, It was reported that a herpes virus has decimated oysters along its coast for a 4th straight season. 70-80% of France’s young stock have died this year.
    (SFC, 12/23/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 26, China's biggest milk producer, Mengniu Dairy Group, said it has destroyed a batch found to have excessive levels of a cancer-causing toxin, in another safety scare for the country's dairy industry. The problem was reportedly discovered before the milk containing high levels of aflatoxin was sold to the public.
    (AP, 12/26/11)

2011        Dec 30, China’s food safety regulator in Shenzhen said it had found excessive levels of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in three stores, and in cooking oil in four restaurants.
    (AFP, 12/31/11)

2011        Dec 31, In China a bus driver who contracted the bird flu virus died Shenzhen. This was the nation's first reported human case of the deadly disease in 18 months.
    (AFP, 12/31/11)

2011        A toxic “red tide" killed tens of thousands of abalone as well as sea urchins, starfish and other mollusks along the northern coast of California. In 2014 scientists identified a poison producing micro-organism known as Gonyaulax spinifera as the culprit.
    (SFC, 5/10/14, p.A1)
2011        West Virginia began field trails on a vaccine to stop the spread of rabies. Marshmallow-flavored packets of ONRAB, designed to be eaten by raccoons, skunks and other furry creatures, were dropped from aircraft.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.32)
2011        Some 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis were reported this year. Multidrug-resistant TB accounted for as many as 400,000 cases.
    (SFC, 1/2/13, p.D4)
2011        Schmallenberg virus - named after the German town where it was first detected - infected sheep and cows on at least 2,600 farms in eight EU countries in 2011. In 2013 British farmers became the first in Europe to get a new vaccine, made by Merck, against the virus.
    (Reuters, 5/20/13)
2011        In Madagascar 26,700 people contracted TB this year, a jump of more than 16 percent compared with 2009.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)
2011        Dr. Matthew Chang of Nanyang Technological Univ. in Singapore worked out a way to program E. coli to release destructive antimicrobial peptides when  they came into contact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. He then armed the modified E. coli with the enzyme DNase1 which then acted to bacteial sheets know as biofilms.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.95)

2012        Jan 8, Wildlife officials said white-tailed deer populations in parts of eastern Montana and elsewhere in the Northern Plains could take years to recover from a devastating disease that killed thousands of the animals in recent months. The deaths were attributed to an outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), transmitted by biting midges.
    (AP, 1/8/12)

 2012        Jan 17, Rotary Int’l. announced it had raised another $200 million to eradicate polio. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will contribute a further $504 million. One of three active strains was eliminated in 1999.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.90)
2012        Jan 17, Afghan President Hamid Karzai urged the Taliban to allow teams conducting a polio vaccination campaign to reach areas under the insurgents' control. Afghanistan,  Pakistan and Nigeria are the last three nations where polio remains endemic.
    (AP, 1/17/12)
2012        Jan 17, The Indian government dispatched a team of medical experts to the financial capital, Mumbai, to assess reports of a handful of cases of apparently untreatable tuberculosis.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 19, Vietnam confirmed its first case death from bird flu in nearly 2 years, a day after Cambodia also logged its first fatality this year from the H5N1 virus.
    (SFC, 1/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 20, In Northern Ireland officials confirmed that 3 babies have died in the last week to 10 days after an infectious outbreak linked to the pseudomonas bacteria in a Belfast hospital.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 22, In southwest China a man who contracted the bird flu virus died, the second human death from the virulent disease in the country in just under a month.
    (AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 26, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a new study showing an estimated 7% of American teens and adults carry the human papillomavirus in their mouths.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A6)

2012        Jan 31, Zimbabwe’s health minister said up to 50 cases of typhoid were being reported per day. More than 1,500 people have been treated in an outbreak blamed on poor water and sanitation facilities.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, Some 24,000 Australian ducks were being destroyed after testing positive for a low pathogenic strain of the bird flu virus, an outbreak which has prompted poultry export bans in parts of Asia.
    (AFP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 3, A Minnesota food company said it is recalling more than a million hard-cooked eggs distributed to 34 states after testing revealed some may be contaminated with listeria.
    (AP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 5, Nepal officials said health workers are to cull some 4,000 chickens following the discovery of the H5N1 strain of bird flu in the southeastern part of the Himalayan country.
    (AFP, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 13, An Indonesian woman died of H5N1 bird flu a day after being admitted to a hospital in Tangerang district on the outskirts of the capital Jakarta. This was Indonesia's third human death from the deadly disease this year.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Feb 18, It was reported that more than 3,000 children in northern Uganda are suffering from a debilitating mystery ailment known as nodding disease. For several years, scientists have tried and failed to determine the cause of the illness. Scientists did not know if the disease is linked to similar outbreaks in neighboring South Sudan and Tanzania.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 25, India was taken off a list of polio endemic countries by the World Health Organization, marking a massive victory for health workers battling the crippling disease.
    (AFP, 2/25/12)

2012        Feb, In northern California and southern Oregon migrating waterfowl began dropping dead from avian cholera as they gathered in Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. An estimated 10-20,000 birds died from the disease.
    (SFC, 4/21/12, p.A1)

2012        Mar 3, Taiwan confirmed that nearly 58,000 chickens had been culled at two farms on the island following the latest outbreak of bird flu, most of them at a farm in central Changhua county. The next day Hsu Tien-lai, the chief of the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine tendered his resignation. He had been accused in a documentary of covering up outbreaks of H5N2 bird flu, a less virulent strain of the virus.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 4, Zimbabwe state media reported that some 3,000 cases of typhoid have been reported in Harare since the first case was detected in a working-class suburb in January.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 24, South Africa launched a plan to diagnose tuberculosis in the country's gold mines, where the disease's incidence is the highest in the world.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)

2012        Apr 16, Haiti, the United States and international partners launched a nationwide vaccination campaign seeking to curb or prevent infectious diseases.
    (AP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 24, The US Department of Agriculture reported the country's fourth-ever case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a California dairy cow, but stressed the outbreak was contained and no contaminated meat had entered the food chain.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        May 27, A 10-year-old Cambodian girl died from H5N1 bird flu, the country's third fatality from the virulent disease this year.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        Jun 2, Hong Kong health authorities urged the public not to panic after the southern Chinese city reported its first human case of bird flu in 18 months in a two-year-old boy.
    (AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Scotland the number of confirmed and suspected cases of Legionnaires' disease in Edinburgh rose to 51, as officials continued to search for the source of the deadly outbreak. One man, who had existing health problems, died a day earlier while being treated for the lung infection. A 2nd death was reported on June 15. A probe so far focused on industrial cooling towers in the southwest of the city.
    (AFP, 6/7/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 24, In Saudi Arabia a man (60) died from severe pneumonia complicated by renal failure. He had arrived at a Jihad hospital 11 days earlier with symptoms similar to severe case of influenza or SARS. In September an Egyptian virologist said it was caused by a new coronavirus. Months later the illness was named MERS (Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome).
    (SFC, 8/14/13, p.E1)

2012        Jul 3, Mexico’s Agriculture Dept. said an outbreak of H7N3 bird flu virus has infected about 2.5 million chickens and led authorities to destroy or dispose almost a million birds in Jalisco state.
    (SFC, 7/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 4, Cambodian officials reported that 61 of 62 children, admitted to hospitals with a mysterious respiratory disease, have died. Lab tests soon confirmed that a virulent strain of hand, hoof and mouth disease, known as EV-71, was to blame for some of the cases.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A5)(SFC, 7/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 11, Cuban public health officials said confirmed cholera cases have risen from 85 to 110, with the worst hit area in the province of Granma. Cholera had been eradicated in Cuba over 100 years ago. Haiti was suspected as the source of the new outbreak.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A2)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.32)

2012        Jul 12, In Brazil scientists released millions of genetically modified mosquitoes in the northern city of Juazeiro in an effort to end dengue fever.
    (SSFC, 7/15/12, p.A4)

2012        Jul 15, The Chinese province of Hunan urged parents to seek immediate treatment for children showing symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease after official figures showed 112 people died from the illness last month.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 16, Pakistan began a widely publicized 3-day polio vaccination campaign.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 20, Sierra Leone's health ministry said an outbreak of cholera in the west African country has killed 66 people and sickened more than 3,800 since January.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 25, Britain’s the Department of Health said it is to extend its seasonal flu vaccination program to all British children, free of charge, becoming the first country in the world to do so.
    (Reuters, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 28, Uganda government officials said an outbreak of Ebola virus in the western part of the country has killed 14 people, many in the past week.
    (SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A10)

2012        Jul 30, In Indonesia a man died of bird flu, the country's ninth fatal case this year.
    (AFP, 8/11/12)

2012        Aug 1, Doctors Without Borders said the first victim of the latest Ebola outbreak in Uganda was a 3-month-old girl and that of the 65 people who attended her funeral, 15 later contracted the deadly disease and at least 11 of those have since died.
    (AP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 9, Guinea’s health ministry said an outbreak of cholera has killed 60 people since February and is showing no signs of letting up.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 15, Texas authorities said the state is battling an outbreak of the West Nile virus, with 17 deaths blamed on the mosquito-borne disease.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 19, In California the Asian citrus psylid was reported to be threatening the state’s $1.6 billion citrus industry.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.A12)
2012        Aug 19, Japanese officials said 7 people, most of them elderly women, died after eating pickles contaminated with E. coli in Sapporo. This was the country's deadliest mass food poisoning in 10 years.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 23, A cholera epidemic in Guinea and Sierra Leone has left 250-300 people dead. 846 deaths were reported this year in the 14 countries of West and Central Africa. Sierra Leone's health ministry said that deaths from a cholera outbreak had reached 220.
    (SFC, 8/23/12, p.A5)(AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 26, Canadian health officials said eight people have died in a rare outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the province of Quebec, having identified more than 100 cases of the dangerous strain of pneumonia since July.
    (Reuters, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 30, In California Yosemite park officials closed 91 Curry Village tent cabins following 3 more cases of hantavirus, bringing the total number of cases to 6 cases, including 2 deaths. The cabins were apparently infested with deer mice, carriers of the disease. A 3rd death from the incurable disease was reported on Sep 6.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A1)(SFC, 9/7/12, p.A18)

2012        Aug 31, The Ohio state Dept. of Health said a woman’s death this week was related to H3N2v, a new strain of swine flu. 12 new cases were reported in the US during the week.
    (SFC, 9/1/12, p.A4)

2012        Sep 4, The World Health Organization said the number of people with Ebola, a rare haemorrhagic disease, in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has tripled since mid-August, after 14 patients died in two weeks.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 5, Texas health officials said at least 43 people have died this year in Texas of West Nile virus. Nationwide 87 deaths have been reported to the CDC.
    (SFC, 9/6/12, p.A10)

2012        Sep 12, UC Berkeley chemical engineer Jay Keasling, founder of Amyris Biotechnology, won the prestigious Heinz Award of $250,000 for developing an inexpensive way to mass-produce artemisinin, a plant based drug to treat malaria. The Heinz Awards were established by Teresa Heinz in 1993 to honor the memory of her late husband, US Senator John Heinz.
    (http://chemistry.berkeley.edu/publications/news/2012/keasling-wins-heinz-award.php)

2012        Sep 14, The UN said that an outbreak of the Ebola virus has killed 31 people in northeastern Congo, more than doubling the death toll from a week ago.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 16, It was reported that a 19th person has died at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., from an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC). The outbreak stemmed from a single patient carrying the superbug into the hospital last summer.
    (SSFC, 9/16/12, p.A7)

2012        Oct 2, The US National Institute for Public Health and the Environment said a salmonella outbreak traced to smoked salmon has sickened hundreds of people in the Netherlands and the United States. It has been traced to Dutch company Foppen, which sells fish to many major Dutch supermarkets and to stores around the world.
    (AP, 10/2/12)( http://tinyurl.com/m3wv4tr)

2012        Oct 3, Mexico launched an extensive program to vaccinate fifth-grade girls against human papillomavirus.
    (SFC, 10/4/12, p.A5)

2012        Oct 4, US health officials warned the hundreds of people who got steroid back injections in 23 states could be at risk for meningitis from contaminated vials of a steroid produced by the new England Compounding Center of Framingham, Mass. At least 5 deaths were already reported. The fungus causing the meningitis was later identified as Exserohilum rostratum.
    (SFC, 10/5/12, p.A10)(SFC, 10/19/12, p.A9)

2012        Oct 7, US health officials reported an additional 27 cases in a fungal meningitis outbreak linked to steroid injections that has killed seven people and now infected 91 in nine states.
    (Reuters, 10/7/12)

2012        Oct 14, The US CDC said 15 people have died and 205 people in 14 states have now been infected meningitis traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/15/12, p.A4)

2012        Oct 16, The US CDC said the number of people linked to the meningitis outbreak has climbed to 233 in 15 states. It has been traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/17/12, p.A6)

2012        Oct 26, The US CDC said the number of people linked to the meningitis outbreak has climbed to 338 in 18 states and included 25 deaths. It has been traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/27/12, p.A6)

2012        Nov 6, The number of people linked to a meningitis outbreak has climbed to 419 cases and included 30 deaths. It has been traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 11/6/12, p.A5)

2012        Nov 13, The World Health Organization reported that a yellow fever outbreak in Sudan's Darfur region has killed 107 people in the last six weeks, warning that the disease could spread all over the country.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 2, Australia’s Foreign Minister Bob Carr announced that Australia will spend over $104 million over the next four years to help reduce deaths from malaria in the Asia-Pacific region.
    (SFC, 11/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 14, Uganda confirmed a new Ebola outbreak in a district 40 miles from Kampala. Scores of Ugandans were isolated the next day to prevent its spread.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 15, World animal health body OIE said that Australia had reported a case of a highly pathogenic bird flu virus at an egg farm in the New South Wales region.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 16, Haitian officials confirmed 3,593 cases of cholera and 837 more suspected cases since Hurricane Sandy’s passage.
    (SFC, 11/17/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 19, The UN said Sudan has begun a massive vaccination campaign to immunize3 2.4 million people against an outbreak of yellow fever in the Darfur region.
    (SFC, 11/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 27, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a report saying young people ages 13 to 24 account for 26 percent of all new HIV infections.
    (Reuters, 11/27/12)

2012        Nov 28, In New Hampshire David Kwiatkowski, a traveling medical technician, was indicted on 14 new charges. He is believed to have infected at least 39 people with hepatitis C through his use of stolen hospital drugs and syringes.
    (SFC, 11/30/12, p.A8)

2012        Dec 18, An Indonesian health official said a boy (4) has died of H5N1 bird flu bringing the total to 160. At least 360 people have died worldwide from this virus since 2003.
    (SFC, 12/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 29, Carl Woese (84), biophysicist and evolutionary microbiologist, died at his home in Urbana, Ill. His 1977 discovery of a “third domain" of life in the vast realm of micro-organisms altered scientific understanding of evolution.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bjkhfhw)

2012        Mark Harrison authored “Contagion: How Commerce Has Spread Disease."
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.99)
2012        Monica Murphy and Bill Wasik authored “Rabid: A Cultural History of the World’s Most Diabolical Virus."
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.F1)
2012        David Quammen authored “Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic."
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.99)
2012        In Pakistan 306 children died of measles in 2012, compared to 64 the year before.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 2, Britain's Health Protection Agency (HPA) said more than 1.1 million people in Britain have succumbed to the norovirus winter vomiting disease so far this season.
    (AP, 1/2/13)

2013        Jan 9, British health officials said a new strain of the winter vomiting disease norovirus has spread to France, New Zealand and Japan from Australia and is overtaking all others to become the dominant local strain.
    (Reuters, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 12, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo declared a public health emergency, giving pharmacists permission to administer flu vaccinations to more people as officials seek to stem the worst flu outbreak in that state in several years.
    (Reuters, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 15, Cuba's Public Health Ministry acknowledged 51 new cases of cholera in Havana amid growing concerns about the illness' spread and disappointment in the diplomatic community over the government's lack of transparency.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 24, US health officials said the new Sydney strain of norovirus, a stomach bug, has been sweeping the globe is taking over in the US. Since September more than 140 outbreaks in the US have been caused by the new strain.
    (AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Jan, California researchers published findings of a brain tumor in raccoons associated with a newly discovered virus called RacPyV, or raccoon polyomavirus.
    (SFC, 1/15/13, p.C2)

2013        Feb 11, British health officials said a new virus from the same family as SARS, that sparked a global alert last September, has been found in a patient in Manchester who had traveled to the Middle East and Pakistan.
    (AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 15, British health officials said a fourth person in Britain has contracted a potentially fatal SARS-like virus which was unknown in humans until a few months ago, but said the risk to the population remained very low.
    (AP, 2/15/13)
2013        Feb 15, The UN said an outbreak of hepatitis E has killed 111 refugees in camps in South Sudan since July, and has become endemic in the region.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 23, China reported a 2nd fatality from the H5N1 bird flu in the city of Guiyang.
    (SSFC, 2/24/13, p.A5)

2013        Feb 27, British health officials said gonorrhea cases have soared by 25 percent in the past year in England as superbug or drug-resistant strains of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) take hold worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 11, Sally Davies, Britain's top health official, said antibiotic resistance poses a catastrophic threat to medicine and could mean patients having minor surgery risk dying from infections that can no longer be treated.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Russian scientists said a new form of microbial life has been found in water samples taken from Lake Vostok, a giant freshwater lake hidden under kilometers of Antarctic ice.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 17, It was reported that Lake Erie is sick and that a dead zone covers a large portion of the lake bottom due to a poisonous blue-green algae called Microcystis enhanced by high levels of phosphorous from fertilizer runoff. The problem was compounded by the zebra mussel, a foreign invader discovered in 1988, which excretes phosphorous providing Microcystis a ready-made meal.
    (SSFC, 2/17/13, p.A15)

2013        Mar 29, A top UNICEF official said as many as 240,000 children have missed UN-backed vaccinations against polio because of security concerns in Pakistan's tribal regions bordering Afghanistan.
    (AP, 3/29/13)

2013        Mar 31, Chinese officials confirmed that three recent cases of influenza were due to a new strain called H7N9.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.83)

2013        Mar, Deaths from cholera epidemic in Haiti reached 8,205.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.38)

2013        Apr 1, In Egypt an outbreak of food poisoning at al-Azhar University forced the hospitalization of 479 students. It occurred after a meal served at the university dormitories in Cairo's Nasr City district. The outbreak led to student protests.
    (AP, 4/2/13)

2013        Apr 6, Chinese officials in Shanghai reported two more cases of H7N9 bird flu, raising the number of cases in eastern China to 18, including 6 deaths. It was later reported that 27 days elapsed between the first death from H7N9 and its public announcement.
    (SSFC, 4/7/13, p.A3)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.47)

2013        Apr 9, South African officials said they have detected bird flu on an ostrich farm near Oudtshoorn, but that it is unrelated to the strain that has killed 8 people in China. The EU imposed a ban on imports of South African ostrich meat after a 2011 outbreak of the H5N2 strain.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 11, China reported its 10th death from H7N9 bird flu.
    (SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 24, In a new study scientists reported that some bacteria and other microbes from the gut turn lecithin - a nutrient in egg yolks, liver, beef, pork and wheat germ - into an artery-clogging compound called TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). They also found that blood levels of TMAO predict heart attack, stroke or death, and do so "independent of other risk factors."
    (Reuters, 4/24/13)

2013        Apr 29, It was reported that 62 prisoners have died in California from 2006 through 2013 after coming down with a fungal infection called valley fever. The highes rates were reported at Pleasant Valley and Avenal prisons. The federal manager of health care in the state’s prisons ordered officials to transfer 3,300 inmates out of Pleasant Valley and Avenal.
    (SFC, 4/29/13, p.C4)(SFC, 4/30/13, p.C1)

2013        Apr 30, Guinean health officials said a meningitis outbreak has killed at least 40 people.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        Apr, Colorado and 14 other US states began reporting cases of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus. Up till now the virus was thought to exist only in Europe and China.
    (SFC, 7/11/13, p.A4)

2013        May 2, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said that five people have died and two other patients were in critical condition with confirmed cases of a new respiratory coronavirus related to SARS. The new virus was first identified last year in the Middle East and several of the people infected had all traveled to Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan or Pakistan.
    (AP, 5/2/13)

2013        May 7, Scientists said Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) is destroying entire crops of cassava and has spread out of East Africa into the heart of the continent. It is attacking plants as far south as Angola and now threatens to move west into Nigeria, the world's biggest producer of the potato-like root that helps feed 500 million Africans.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 14, Saudi Arabia confirmed four new cases of the deadly new coronavirus virus related to SARS that appears centered in the Arabian Peninsula but that has also been reported in Europe.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 20, Saudi Arabia recorded another death from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths in the kingdom to 16. More than 20 people have died from the virus worldwide.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 30, Saudi Arabia reported that 3 more people have died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths globally to 30.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Jun 1, Italy’s health minister confirmed that 3 people were being treated in Tuscany for a new respiratory virus related to SARS. The patients included a man recently back from a visit to Jordan, a related child and a work colleague.
    (SSFC, 6/2/13, p.A6)

2013        Jun 2, Saudi Arabia reported that 3 more people have died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths in the kingdom to 24.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 3, It was reported that coffee leaf rust has devastated coffee plantations across Central America and knocked half a million people out of work. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras were all severely impacted.
    (SFC, 6/4/13, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/alqvfoc)

2013        Jun 17, Saudi Arabia said four more people have died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing the total number of deaths to 32 in the kingdom at the center of the growing crisis.
    (AP, 6/17/13)

2013        Jun 19, Doctors investigating a new respiratory virus related to SARS, said it spreads easily between people and appears to be more deadly than SARS. The biggest outbreak of the virus, now called MERS,  was in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 6/20/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 23, The WHO said the new H7N9 strain of bird flu in China has killed 37 people with more than 130 sickened.
    (SFC, 6/24/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 28, It was reported that a pneumonia outbreak has killed at least 20 bighorn sheep on Old Dad Mountain in California’s Mohave National Preserve. Nevada numbered some 10,000 adult animals in at least 60 mountain ranges.
    (SFC, 6/28/13, p.D5)

2013        Jul 6, In Saudi Arabia two more people died from the new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 38 the number of deadly cases in the kingdom at the center of the growing outbreak.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 19, Health authorities in the United Arab Emirates said they have identified four new cases of a respiratory virus related to SARS whose main concentration has been in neighboring Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 27, In Saudi Arabia one more man died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 39 the number of deadly cases in the kingdom at the center of the growing outbreak.
    (AP, 7/27/13)

2013        Aug 9, European scientists reported their finding of traces of antibodies against the MERS virus in dromedary, or one-humped, camels, but not the virus itself. Some experts think bats might be infecting other animals like camels with MERS before passing it to humans. Since the virus was first identified last September, there have been 94 illnesses, including 46 deaths, from MERS, or Middle East respiratory syndrome.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 14, In New Hampshire David Kwiatkowski, a traveling hospital technician, pleaded guilty to 14 charges of drug theft and tampering, along with two similar counts in Kansas. He was accused of infecting patients in multiple states with hepatitis C through tainted syringes.
    (SFC, 8/15/13, p.A6)

2013        Aug 16, A WHO official said Somalia is suffering an "explosive" outbreak of polio and now has more cases — 105 — than all other countries in the world combined. The outbreak is complicated by the fact health workers have limited access to south-central Somalia, controlled by al-Qaida-linked militants.
    (AP, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia said a Saudi man (51) has died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 41, while two new cases were registered.
    (AFP, 8/25/13)

2013        Aug 26, Qatar health authorities announced the 2nd confirmed case in a week of the MERS coronavirus in the Gulf state, with a 29-year-old man infected and in intensive care.
    (AFP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 27, Kyrgyzstan officials scrambled to control the spread of bubonic plague that killed a rural boy last week as three more people showed possible symptoms of the disease.
    (AFP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 28, Saudi health authorities said another Saudi man has died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 42, adding a new case was registered.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 30, In Saudi Arabia another Saudi man died of the coronavirus MERS, bringing the kingdom's death toll from the SARS-like virus to 43.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 4, Qatar reported that a woman has died after contracting the MERS coronavirus, becoming the first recorded fatality from the SARS-like virus in the Gulf state.
    (AFP, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 6, Saudi Arabia’s health ministry said 2 women have died of MERS, bringing the total number of fatalities in the kingdom to 44.
    (AFP, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 8, In Saudi Arabia another three people were reported dead after contracting the MERS coronavirus, bringing the kingdom's total fatalities of the SARS-like virus to 47.
    (AFP, 9/8/13)

2013        Oct 4, The World Health Organization said the global number of infections with the deadly MERS virus has risen to 136, after hard-hit Saudi Arabia confirmed six new cases.
    (AFP, 10/4/13)

2013        Oct 21, Nigerian officials said cholera has killed 50 people in the northwest in the past week.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 52 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, The UN's health agency said it has confirmed 10 polio cases in northeast Syria, the first confirmed outbreak of the highly contagious disease in the country in 14 years, and a top UN official urged warring sides to grant health workers access to 500,000 children who have never received immunization.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, Oman said it has discovered the first case of the MERS coronavirus in the Gulf sultanate, a 68-year-old Omani man.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 4, It was reported that scientists are struggling to find the trigger for a disease that appears to be ravaging starfish in record numbers along the US West Coast. The deadly syndrome, known as "star wasting disease," caused the sea creatures to lose their limbs and turn to slime in a matter of days. The disease was first detected in tide pools this summer along the coast of Monterey, Ca.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)(SFC, 12/9/13, p.A13)

2013        Nov 8, Uganda's Pres. Yoweri Museveni tested for HIV in public to encourage millions of untested people to check their status, a critical step to stemming the spread of the virus in the East African country.
    (AP, 11/8/13)
2013        Nov 8, The UN said emergency plans are under way to vaccinate more than 20 million children in the Middle East after polio resurfaced in war-torn Syria.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 10, Saudi Arabia announced another fatality from the MERS virus, taking its toll to 53, as neighbouring Oman recorded its first death from the respiratory disease.
    (AFP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 13, Kuwait said it has discovered its first case of the MERS coronavirus for a citizen who is in "critical condition." Later in the day Kuwait reported its 2nd case for a man who just returned from abroad.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)(AFP, 11/14/13)
2013        Nov 13, The WHO said some 21 nations in the Middle East and nearby regions have jointly made the eradication of polio an emergency priority and recognized that Pakistan is a key part of the problem.
    (AP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 20, Saudi health authorities announced a new MERS death, raising to 54 the number of people killed by the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 22, US regulators approved the use of Johnson & Johnson's Olysio, also known as simeprevir, as a treatment for chronic infection with the liver-destroying hepatitis C virus.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 22, Qatar health authorities said an expatriate (48) has died of MERS, bringing to four the number of deaths in the Gulf state from the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 24, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 55 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 11/24/13)

2013        Nov 26, The World Health Organization said it has discovered two additional cases of the highly contagious polio virus in Syria, bringing the total number of cases in the country to 17.
    (AP, 11/26/13)

2013        Nov 29, Abu Dhabi authorities said two new cases of the potentially deadly MERS respiratory virus, including a heavily pregnant woman, have been reported in the United Arab Emirates.
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 3, Hong Kong officials said they will quarantine 17 people after the city confirmed its first human case of the deadly H7N9 bird flu.
    (AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 6, In China a woman died of the H10N8 strain of bird flu, the first ever reported human case of the virus.
    (Reuters, 12/18/13)
2013        Dec 6, Hong Kong reported its second human case of H7N9 bird flu just days after the first, raising fears that the virus is spreading beyond mainland China.
    (AP, 12/7/13)

2013        Dec 9, The World Health Organisation and UNICEF announced the launch of a polio vaccination campaign for 23 million children in the Middle East after 17 cases were discovered in Syria.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 21, In northwestern Pakistan gunmen attacked an anti-polio vaccination center in the Khyber tribal region, killing a medic on duty.
    (AP, 12/21/13)
2013        Dec 21, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 56 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 26, In Guinea a 2-year-old boy in the remote village of Meliandou fell ill with a mysterious illness characterized by fever, black stools, and vomiting. He died 2 days later.  He was later identified as patient zero in the current outbreak of Ebola, which was not recognized until March.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meliandou)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.49)
2013        Dec 26, In Saudi Arabia a 73-year-old man died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 57 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 28, In northwest Pakistan gunmen attacked an anti-polio vaccination center on the outskirts of Peshawar and killed a medic on duty, then fled the scene.
    (AP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 31, Utah officials said an unprecedented wintertime outbreak of West Nile virus has killed more than two dozen bald eagles in the state and thousands of water birds around the Great Salt Lake.
    (Reuters, 12/31/13)

2013        Dec, Chikungunya fever, a mosquito-born virus common in Africa and Asia, was first detected in the Caribbean region on St. Martin and soon spread across across the region and onto South and Central America.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.35)

2013        Mexico this year registered over 62,000 cases of Dengue fever, a mosquito-born tropical disease.
    (SSFC, 5/4/14, p.A4)

2014        Jan 3, The health minister of Alberta, Canada, said an H1N1 flu outbreak in Alberta has sickened nearly 1,000 people and killed five over the past few weeks. He urged everyone to get vaccinated.
    (AFP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 8, Canada announced the first H5N1 avian flu death in North America, of a patient who had just returned from China.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 14, It was reported that canine distemper virus has killed four tigers and several other animals across northern and eastern India.
    (SFC, 1/14/14, p.A5)

2014        Jan 17, China announced 4 more cases of H7N9 bird flu.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.A2)

2014        Jan 18, South Korea confirmed the outbreak of highly pathogenic bird flu and said it would expand the culling of birds to a radius of 3-km (1.9 mile) around a duck farm.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 21, Gunmen in Karachi, Pakistan, attacked two teams of polio workers, killing 3 members of the teams and wounding a 4th before fleeing.
    (AP, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 22, In northwest Pakistan a bomb rigged to a bicycle exploded next to a police patrol on its way to guard a polio vaccination team outside Peshawar. 6 officers were killed as well as a boy who was nearby.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 26, The Royal Caribbean cruise line ended a 10-day trip in the Caribbean early after hundreds of passengers and crew members on the Explorer of the Seas were sickened with a gastrointestinal illness consistent with norovirus. Health officials boarded the ship at St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands.
    (AP, 1/27/14)(SFC, 1/27/14, p.A2)

    (AFP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, Hong Kong culled around 20,000 chickens after finding the deadly H7N9 bird flu virus in poultry imported from mainland China. Fears over avian flu have grown following the deaths of two men from the H7N9 strain in Hong Kong since December.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan 29, Saudi health authorities announced a new MERS death, bringing to 59 the number of people who have died from the coronavirus in the country with the most fatalities.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)

2014        Jan 30, Uganda's government said it is planning to double expenditure on anti-retroviral drugs in an effort to reverse a worsening trend in HIV infections.
    (AFP, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 4, Egypt's Health Ministry said swine flu has killed 24 people across the country over the past two months.
    (AP, 2/4/14)

2014        Feb 5, It was reported that a new strain of avian influenza, H10N8, has been confirmed in two people in China. Cases of H7N9 were reported to be surging with some 300 cases and more appearing every day.
    (SFC, 2/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 7, In Cambodia a boy (8) died of H5N1 bird flu, the country’s first case this year. His sister (2) also died the same day.
    (AP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 9, Egypt's Health Ministry said the number of people killed by swine flu in the country since December has reached 38.
    (AP, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 11, The Afghan public health ministry said it has launched an emergency polio vaccination campaign in Kabul after a girl contracted the disease, the city's first case since the Taliban were ousted in 2001.
    (AFP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 16, In Saudi Arabia another man died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 60 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 22, The World Health Organization began a campaign to prevent outbreaks of cholera in temporary camps in South Sudan housing thousands of people who have fled the country's two-month-old conflict.
    (AFP, 2/22/14)

2014        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia a woman (81) died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 61 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 2/23/14)

2014        Mar 13, The Toronto National Post reported that a new generation of mutant lice have become immune to poisons of decades past and constituted 97.1% of all Canadian head lice cases.
    (SSFC, 3/16/14, p.A4)

2014        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said a man (19) has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 63 the deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 19, Guinea health authorities said an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever has killed at least 23 people in the southeastern forest region since February when the first case was reported.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 21, Guinea's ministry of health says that 49 people have been registered with viral hemorrhagic fever in the country's south since February, and 29 of those people have since died.
    (AP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 23, Guinea government officials said samples from victims of a viral hemorrhagic fever that has killed more than 50 people have tested positive for the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 24, Guinea announced that samples taken from three suspected cases of Ebola, which led to two deaths in Conakry, had tested negative for the virus. Health workers said the outbreak from the Ebola virus, which has killed at least 59 people in Guinea, may have spread to Liberia.
    (AFP, 3/24/14)(SFC, 3/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 26, Guinea health officials said the death toll from the rare Ebola virus has risen to 63. The outbreak is the first in West Africa in 20 years.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 27, The World Health Organization declared India polio-free after three years with no new cases.
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 28, The Guinean health ministry confirmed eight cases of Ebola in Conakry, including one fatality. The total number of suspected cases recorded from January to March 28 was 111 cases of haemorrhagic fever, including 70 deaths.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)

2014        Mar 29, Guinea kept up its efforts to contain an Ebola epidemic which has killed dozens spreading from its southern forests to the capital Conakry, as neighboring Senegal closed its border.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)

2014        Mar 31, Doctors Without Borders warned that health authorities in Guinea faced an "unprecedented epidemic" of Ebola, as the death toll from the disease that causes severe bleeding reached 78.
    (AP, 3/31/14)

2014        Apr 3, Liberia said it was dealing with its first suspected Ebola case thought to be unconnected to the epidemic raging in Guinea and to have originated separately within its borders. The fruit bat, thought to be the host of the highly contagious Ebola virus, is a delicacy in the region straddling Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and experts suspect huntsmen may be the source of the outbreak.
    (AFP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, Mali, Liberia and Sierra Leone geared up to tackle killer haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola, which has claimed 86 lives in Guinea. Mali claimed 3 suspect cases; Liberia claimed 14; Sierra Leone claimed several more.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)

2014        Apr 8, WHO officials said more than 100 people have died in an outbreak of Ebola in West Africa, with as many as 175 people infected. This included 151 suspected and confirmed cases of the disease in guinea, where 98 people have died, and 10 deaths in Liberia.
    (AP, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, It was reported that a virus, never before seen in the US, has killed millions of baby pigs since porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) first showed up in May, 2013.
    (SFC, 4/9/14, p.A5)
2014        Apr 9, Saudi health authorities said that 11 people in the western city of Jiddah have contracted the Middle East respiratory syndrome, resulting in two recent deaths, bringing to at least 66 the number of people who have died of MERS in the kingdom.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 11, The United Arab Emirates announced that one of six Filipino paramedics in Abu Dhabi, who have been infected by the MERS coronavirus, has died from the respiratory disease. The WHO said that it had been told of 212 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS infection worldwide, of which 88 have proved fatal.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 12, In Saudi Arabia the death of a foreign man (45) due to MERS brought the nationwide toll in the world's most-affected country to 68.
    (AFP, 4/13/14)

2014        Apr 13, Japan’s Agricultural Ministry said two chickens have tested positive for avian influenza at a farm where more than 1,000 chickens have died, marking the country's first case of bird flu in three years.
    (Reuters, 4/13/14)
2014        Apr 13, A Malaysian man (54), who went on a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia, became the first death in Asia from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
    (AP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 17, The World Health Organization said the death toll from an Ebola outbreak in Guinea has risen to 122, a sharp increase from a previous figure of 108.
    (Reuters, 4/17/14)

  2014    Apr 18, The US federal government said farms stricken with a deadly pig virus must report outbreaks as part of a new program to help monitor and possibly control the disease. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), believed to have come from China, has killed millions of pigs in 27 states since it began showing up in the US last May.
    (SFC, 4/19/14, p.A6)

2014        Apr 20, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said three more patients who contracted a potentially fatal Middle East virus related to SARS have died amid a recent increase in infections.
    (AP, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 21, Saudi media reported that a court has sentenced to death five people over deadly 2003 attacks that marked the start of a wave of Al-Qaeda violence.
    (AFP, 4/21/14)
2014        Apr 21, Saudi Arabia announced 17 new cases of MERS, bring the total number of Saudi infections to 261, of whom 81 have died. King Abdullah fired health minister Abdullah al-Rabiah.
    (SFC, 4/22/14, p.A2)(Reuters, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 23, Saudi Arabia announced 11 new cases of MERS, including a 13-year-old child. Acting health minister Adel Fakieh vowed to keep the public better informed on the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 24, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said two more patients who became infected with a Middle East virus related to SARS have died, and that 13 others have contracted the MERS virus. The deaths bring to 83 the number of people who have died in the kingdom since contracting the virus in September 2012.
    (AP, 4/24/14)
2014        Apr 23, The WHO said 147 people have died from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, including 136 in Guinea and 11 in Liberia.
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 25, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said that five more people in the kingdom have died from MERS. The ministry says 92 people have died and 313 have contracted the virus in Saudi since September 2012.
    (AP, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 26, In Egypt a 27-year-old civil engineer was diagnosed with MERS after returning from Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/26/14)
2014        Apr 26, Two Saudi nationals died from MERS, taking the death toll from the coronavirus in the worst-hit country to 94.
    (AFP, 4/27/14)

2014        May 2, US Health officials confirmed the first case of an American infected with MERS, a mysterious virus that has sickened hundreds in the Middle East. The man fell ill after flying to the US late last week from Saudi Arabia where he was a health care worker.
    (AP, 5/3/14)

2014        May 4, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said one more patient who contracted the potentially fatal Middle East virus related to SARS has died and that 14 new cases have been detected. The new 14 cases raised the number of those infected in Saudi Arabia to 411.
    (AP, 5/514)

2014        May 7, Saudi health authorities said four more people have died after contracting MERS, a Middle East respiratory virus. Saudi Arabia has reported 449 cases and 121 deaths from MERS.
    (AP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 8, Lebanon recorded its first case of the often-fatal Middle East respiratory virus (MERS). The patient had recently returned from a visit to several Gulf countries, including Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 9, Saudi Arabia's health ministry said the death toll from MERS has risen by five to 126 fatalities since the mystery respiratory virus first appeared in the kingdom in 2012.
    (AFP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 11, In Jordan a man died after being infected with the MERS virus.
    (AFP, 5/12/14)
2014        May 11, Saudi Arabia reported that three new deaths from MERS had taken its death toll from the disease to 142.
    (AFP, 5/12/14)
2014        May 11, A 2nd US case of MERS was diagnosed in Florida in a man visiting from Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 5/13/14, p.A10)

2014        May 13, Saudi health authorities reported another five deaths from MERS. The potentially fatal Middle Eastern respiratory virus has sickened hundreds in the kingdom. A total of 152 people have now died and 495 have been confirmed to have contracted the virus in Saudi Arabia since it was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 5/13/14)

2014        May 17, US health officials reported what appears to be the first time that a mysterious Middle East virus (MERS) has spread from one person to another in the United States. An Illinois man probably picked up an infection from an Indiana man who earlier this month became the first US case of Middle East respiratory syndrome.
    (AP, 5/18/14)

2014        May 22, The Pan American Health Organization reported more than 55,000 suspected and confirmed cases of the chikungunya virus since December throughout the Caribbean islands. The virus, spread rapidly by mosquitoes, was first identified in Africa in 1953. It has also reached French Guiana, the first confirmed transmission on the South American mainland.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

2014        May 23, A Haitian government official said health authorities will distribute pain medication to clinics around the country amid a surge in suspected cases of a mosquito-borne virus that is new to the region. More than 5,500 suspected cases of the chikungunya virus have been reported in Haiti, up from 1,500 cases a week earlier.
    (AP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 26, In Florida laurel wilt disease, caused by a beetle the size of a rice grain, was reported to be killing off swamp bay trees. It has been detected across more than 500 square miles of the Everglades and has also infected avocado and red bay trees in southern Miami-Dade County and elsewhere in the southeast.
    (SFC, 5/26/14, p.A9)(SFC, 7/26/14, p.A8)

2014        May 27, In Sierra Leone a woman died from the Ebola virus, the second person in the country to succumb to the haemorrhagic fever.
    (AFP, 5/28/14)

2014        May 28, Iranian media said the country has recorded its first two cases of the MERS virus.
    (SFC, 5/29/14, p.A2)
2014        May 28, In Jordan a man (69) died after being infected with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. This brought to 6 the number of fatalities in Jordan from MERS since it first emerged in 2012.
    (AFP, 6/1/14)

2014        May 29, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said 13 people have died over the last two weeks from the Middle Eastern respiratory virus and that 186 people in total have died from the MERS virus since it was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        May, Venezuela saw its first cases of chikungunya, a disease that causes high fevers and severe joint pain. It took authorities five months to declare it a notifiable disease.
    (Econ., 4/4/15, p.32)

2014        Jun 3, In Sierra Leone the death toll from an Ebola outbreak rose to at least five victims. The Ebola disease has had a 70 percent fatality rate during the first crisis of its kind in West Africa.
    (AP, 6/3/14)

2014        Jun 4, The UAE said the MERS coronavirus has killed 10 people and infected 68 in the United Arab Emirates since March 2013.
    (AFP, 6/4/14)

2014        Jun 11, The Sierra Leone government announced a state of emergency in the Kailahun district from the outbreak of the Ebola virus which has claimed 17 lives in this West African nation, banning public gatherings and closing schools. Local parliamentarian Momoh Moiwai said the death toll was actually 28.
    (AP, 6/12/14)
2014        Jun 11, Authorities in the US Virgin Islands said chikungunya, a nasty mosquito-borne virus that has been spreading rapidly in the Caribbean, has made its way to the 3-island territory.
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 11, UNICEF reported that Somalia is suffering an outbrteak of measles with 1,350 suspected cases reported in March and April.
    (SFC, 6/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun 16, Britain's food safety watchdog said you should not wash a chicken before cooking it, because washing raw chicken spreads the campylobacter bacteria.
    (AFP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, A Liberian a health official said 7 people believed to have the Ebola virus have died in recent days in the first deaths reported in Monrovia since the outbreak began. 16 people were now believed to have died from the virus in the West African country.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 18, Cuban health authorities confirmed the country's first six cases of chikungunya fever, a debilitating, mosquito-borne virus that is suspected of afflicting tens of thousands across the Caribbean since its arrival in the region last year.
    (AP, 6/18/14)
2014        Jun 18, The World Health Organization said an Ebola outbreak continues to spread in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and the death toll in the outbreak has risen to more than 330.
    (AP, 6/18/14)

2014        Jun 23, The World Health Organization (WHO) said that the latest figures show 567 cases of Ebola with 350 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The virus has no cure and causes internal bleeding and organ failure, spreading through contact with infected people.
    (AP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jul 8, The World Health Organization (WHO) said fifty new cases of Ebola and 25 deaths have been reported in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea since July 3.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)
2014        Jul 8, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) announced that health researchers in Maryland had discovered vials of smallpox, declared eradicated in 1977, sitting in a forgotten fridge in an FDA storehouse.
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.73)

2014        Jul 11, Save the Children said a cholera outbreak in South Sudan has infected over 2,600 people and left at least 60 people dead since the first cases were reported in Juba in May.
    (SFC, 7/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Jul 11, The World Health Organization (WHO) reported 44 new cases of Ebola including 21 deaths. 539 deaths in Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone have been attributed to the outbreak.
    (AP, 7/14/14)

2014        Jul 17, Florida health officials reported the first domestically-acquired infections in the United States of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus that has spread rapidly through the Caribbean. More than 230 chikungunya cases have been reported in Americans this year, but all the others were travelers believed to have been infected elsewhere.
    (AP, 7/18/14)
2014        Jul 17, Puerto Rican health officials declared an epidemic of the mosquito-borne virus known as chikungunya, which was introduced into the Caribbean region late last year.
    (AP, 7/18/14)

2014        Jul 18, Colorado state health officials said three more people have been diagnosed with the plague after coming in contact with an infected dog whose owner contracted a life-threatening form of the disease.
    (AP, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 22, In Sierra Leone Sheik Umar Khan (39), the head doctor fighting the deadly tropical virus Ebola, was reported to have caught the disease. Across Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, 632 people have died from the illness according to the latest WHO report.
    (Reuters, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 25, The World Health Organization the death toll in West Africa's Ebola outbreak has risen to 660, with the number of cases surpassing 1,000. In Guinea fatalities reached 314, with 127 in Liberia and 219 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Nigeria said that Ebola caused the death of a Liberian national who died in quarantine in Lagos, confirmation that the worst-ever outbreak of the virus has reached Africa's most populous country. Patrick Sawyer, a Liberian national who moved from Minnesota to Liberia to work for the country's ministry of finance, died in what health officials determined to be the first probable case of the Ebola virus in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(Yahoo News, 7/29/14)

2014        Jul 26, Dr. Samuel Brisbane, a top Liberian health official, died. He had fallen ill while treating Ebola patients at the country's largest hospital, the John F. Kennedy Memorial Medical Center in Monrovia.
    (AP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 27, Liberia’s Pres. Ellen Sirleaf Johnson closed all but three border crossings, restricted public gatherings and quarantined communities heavily affected by the Ebola outbreak.
    (SFC, 7/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 29, In Sierra Leone Dr. Sheik Humarr Khan, who was praised as a national hero for treating Ebola, died from the disease. ASKY regional airline announced it was suspending flights to the cities hardest hit by an outbreak that has killed more than 670 people.
    (AP, 7/30/14)

2014        Jul 31, The US CDC said a US aid worker, infected with the deadly Ebola virus while working in West Africa, will be flown to the US to be treated in a high-security ward at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)
2014        Jul 31, Sierra Leone leader Ernest Bai Koroma declared a state of emergency and as the country struggled to contain the deadly Ebola epidemic.
    (Yahoo News, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, The World Health Organization said the deaths of 57 more people from Ebola in west Africa have pushed the overall fatality toll from the epidemic to 729, including 339 in Guinea, 156 in Liberia and 233 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/31/14)

2014        Aug 1, The leaders of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone agreed to a $100 million emergency action plan to beef the response to Ebola.
    (AFP, 8/2/14)

2014        Aug 2, Toledo, Ohio, issued the warning just after midnight after tests at a treatment plant showed two sample readings for microsystin above the standard for consumption. The city said not to boil the water because that would only increase the toxin's concentration. The mayor also warned that children should not shower or bathe in the water and that it shouldn't be given to pets. The water supply was fouled by toxins possibly from algae on Lake Erie. On Aug 4 city officials declared the water safe.
    (AP, 8/3/14)(SFC, 8/5/14, p.A12)
2014        Aug 2, Health experts said a cholera epidemic in northern Cameroon has killed at least 65 people and probably infected about 1,300 people over the last two months.
    (Reuters, 8/3/14)

2014        Aug 4, Nigerian authorities said that a doctor in Lagos who treated a Liberian victim of Ebola has contracted the virus, the second confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa's largest city.
    (AFP, 8/4/14)
2014        Aug 4, The World Bank said that it would provide up to $200 million to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to help the west African nations contain the deadly outbreak.
    (AP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 5, Liberian officials said relatives of Ebola victims have defied government orders and dumped infected bodies in the streets as West African governments struggled to enforce tough measures to curb an outbreak of the virus that has killed 887 people.
    (Reuters, 8/5/14)

2014        Aug 6, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued its highest alert for an all-hands on deck response to the Ebola crisis in West Africa.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)
2014        Aug 6, Liberian Pres. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf announced emergency measures that will, for 90 days, allow her government to curtail civil rights by imposing quarantines on badly affected communities to contain the Ebola epidemic.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)
2014        Aug 6, Nigeria confirmed five new cases of Ebola in Lagos and a second death from the virus. Authorities said a nurse who treated Ebola victim Patrick Sawyer is now dead and five others are sick with one of the world's most virulent diseases, as the death toll rose to at least 932 people in four West African countries.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)(AP, 8/6/14)
2014        Aug 6, A Saudi Arabian who had travelled to Sierra Leone and had symptoms similar to those found in Ebola sufferers died of a heart attack. Samples submitted to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention came back negative for the Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 8/6/14)(AP, 8/10/14)

2014        Aug 7, In Sierra Leone police and soldiers blockaded rural areas hit by the deadly Ebola virus, after neighbouring Liberia declared a state of emergency to tackle the worst-ever outbreak of the disease, which has killed 932 people.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 8, In Canada a patient back from Nigeria who showed symptoms of fever and flu -- possible signs of Ebola -- was put in isolation in a Toronto-area hospital.
    (AFP, 8/8/14)
2014        Aug 8, Nigeria's president declared the containment of the Ebola virus a national emergency as officials confirmed two new cases of Ebola, bringing the total number of infections in Africa's most populous country to nine, including 2 deaths.
    (AP, 8/8/14)
2014        Aug 8, The World Health Organization declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa to be an international public health emergency that requires an extraordinary response to stop its spread.
    (AP, 8/8/14)

2014        Aug 9, Guinea announced the closure of its borders with Sierra Leone and Liberia in a bid to halt the spread of Ebola.
    (Reuters, 8/9/14)

2014        Aug 11, The Ivory Coast announced that it has banned all flights from countries hit by Ebola as part of steps to prevent the deadly virus from reaching the west African nation.
    (AFP, 8/11/14)
2014        Aug 11, Nigeria confirmed a new case of Ebola in Lagos, bringing the total number of people in the country with the virus to 10.
    (AFP, 8/11/14)

2014        Aug 12, Canada said it will donate a small quantity of an experimental Ebola vaccine developed in its government lab to the World Health Organization for use in Africa.
    (Reuters, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, Danish officials said a listeria outbreak caused by contaminated sausages may have killed 10 people during the past few months. A small meat producer in Copenhagen was closed down Aug 11.
    (AP, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, In Liberia Fatu Sherrif (12) died overnight of Ebola in the village of Ballajah. She had been shunned and locked away with her mother's body for a week after most residents fled to the forest to escape an outbreak of the virus. In Liberia alone, some 599 cases have been diagnosed with 323 deaths.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, A Spanish missionary priest being treated for Ebola died in a Madrid hospital amid a worldwide debate over who should get experimental Ebola treatments. Miguel Parajes (75) had worked for the San Juan de Dios hospital order, a Catholic aid group, and had been helping to treat people with Ebola in Liberia when he became ill and was evacuated.
    (AP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 13, Guinea declared a public health emergency over an Ebola epidemic that has killed more than 1,000 people in three West African states and is sending health workers to all affected border points.
    (Reuters, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 14, South Korea’s Korean Air Lines Co. said will suspend flights to Kenya in a measure to prevent the spread of Ebola.
    (AP, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 14, The UN health agency said the death toll from the worst outbreak of Ebola in four decades had now climbed to 1,069 in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. The WHO said the scale of the Ebola epidemic has been vastly underestimated and that "extraordinary measures" were needed to contain the killer disease.
    (AFP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 16, In Liberia residents in Monrovia’s in the West Point slum raided a quarantine center for suspected Ebola patients and took items including bloody sheets and mattresses. Up to 30 patients were staying at the center and many of them fled at the time of the raid.
    (AP, 8/17/14)

2014        Aug 18, The UN said it is undertaking a massive polio vaccination program in Iraq following two cases discovered earlier this year in Baghdad.
    (SFC, 8/19/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 19, Liberia’s health ministry said all the patients who fled a medical center on Aug 16 are now being screened at a hospital in Monrovia and those who tested positive are being treated. Officials also said three health workers being treated with the last known doses of ZMapp were showing signs of recovery.
    (AP, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 20, Liberian security forces sealed off the West Point area, a seaside slum in Monrovia, in the latest effort to stop the spread of Ebola, setting off protests by angry residents.
    (AP, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Democratic Republic of Congo said it has sent its health minister and a team of experts to the remote northern Equateur province after several people died there from a disease with Ebola-like symptoms.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)
2014        Aug 20, Nigeria’s health ministry said a senior doctor who treated the country’s first Ebola patient has died, taking the death toll in Africa's most populous country to five.
    (AFP, 8/20/14)

2014        Aug 21, The WHO said at least 70 people have died in northern Democratic Republic of Congo from an outbreak of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, denying that the illness was Ebola.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 21, Senegal closed its land border with Guinea as part of intensifying efforts to contain the Ebola outbreak that has killed 1,350 people since March in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 22, It was reported that scientists have discovered a living ecosystem of microbes under 2,500 feet of ice in Antarctica’s subglacial Lake Whillans.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.D3)
2014        Aug 22, Ivory Coast closed its land borders with Ebola-affected West African neighbors Guinea and Liberia in an attempt to prevent the world's deadliest outbreak of the virus from spreading onto its territory.
    (Reuters, 8/23/14)
2014        Aug 22, Nigeria confirmed two new cases of Ebola bringing the total number of confirmed infections in Nigeria to 12. Five have died from the illness and 213 people were under surveillance.
    (AP, 8/22/14)(AP, 8/26/14)
2014        Aug 22, Sierra Leone passed a new law imposing possible jail sentences for anyone caught hiding an Ebola patient.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 24, Congo DRC confirmed its first two cases this year of Ebola but claimed they were unrelated to the epidemic ravaging West Africa. The confirmation marked the 7th outbreak of Ebola in Congo DRC, where the virus was first identified in 1976 near the Ebola River.
    (AFP, 8/24/14)
2014        Aug 24, In Liberia Dr. Abraham Borbo, one of three Africans to receive the experimental Ebola drug ZMapp, died. Only six people in the world are known to have received ZMapp. The small supply is now said to be exhausted and it is expected to be months before more can be produced by its US maker.
    (AP, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 24, Nigeria’s striking public sector doctors said they would suspend a nearly two-month strike to help combat the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 8/24/14)

2014        Aug 25, Japan said it is ready to provide a Japanese-developed anti-influenza drug as a possible treatment for the rapidly expanding Ebola outbreak.
    (AP, 8/25/14)

2014        Aug 27, Sierra Leone said a third top doctor has died from Ebola, as health workers tried to determine how a fourth scientist also contracted the disease before being evacuated to Europe.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 28, In Ghana Ebola-hit nations met for crisis talks in Accra as the death toll topped 1,500 and the WHO warned that the number of cases could exceed 20,000 before the outbreak is stemmed.
    (AFP, 8/28/14)
2014        Aug 28, In Guinea riots broke out in the remote southeastern city of Nzerekore over rumors that health workers had infected people with Ebola.
    (Reuters, 8/29/14)

2014        Aug 29, Senegal’s Ministry of Health said a man infected with Ebola has traveled to Senegal, becoming the first recorded in this country of an outbreak that has hit four other West African countries and has killed more than 1,500 people.
    (AP, 8/29/14)

2014        Aug 30, In Guinea a curfew was imposed in N'Zerekore after two days of protests by market stall holders against a team of health workers sent, without notice, to spray their market with disinfectant. Clashes left at least 55 people wounded.
    (AFP, 8/30/14)
2014        Aug 30, Liberia’s government lifted quarantine measures in the seaside district of West Point in Monrovia, which had been designed to contain the spread of the Ebola virus. Officials announced plans to build five new Ebola treatment centers each with capacity for 100 beds.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Sep 1, Japan urged local authorities to be on the lookout for further outbreaks of dengue fever, after confirming another 19 cases contracted at a popular local park in downtown Tokyo. The health ministry earlier reported three local cases, the first in nearly 70 years.
    (AP, 9/1/14)
2014        Sep 1, Liberia's president ordered most civil servants to stay home another month in an effort to stop the spread of the deadly Ebola virus. Scores of healthcare workers at the country’s main hospital in Monrovia went on strike over unpaid wages.
    (AP, 9/1/14)(AFP, 9/1/14)
2014        Sep 1, Nigeria confirmed a third case of Ebola disease in the oil hub of Port Harcourt, bringing the country's total confirmed infections to 16 with some 200 under surveillance.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)

2014        Sep 2, CongoDRC government said the death toll from an outbreak of the Ebola virus in the northern Djera region has risen to 31. The WHO confirmed there was no link with an epidemic in West Africa.
    (Reuters, 9/2/14)
2014        Sep 2, Doctors Without Borders warned that the world is losing the battle against Ebola and that the organization is completely overwhelmed by the outbreak in four West African countries.
    (SFC, 9/3/14, p.A2)
2014        Sep 2, Japanese researchers said they have developed a new method to detect the presence of the Ebola virus in 30 minutes, with technology that could allow doctors to quickly diagnose infection.
    (AFP, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 3, Nigeria announced that a seventh person had died from Ebola and another person was confirmed as having the virus.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)
2014        Sep 3, The Philippine Health Secretary said a nurse who flew home from Saudi Arabia last week has been confirmed as the Philippines' second case of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 4, In Switzerland some 200 experts huddled in Geneva to debate experimental treatments for the Ebola virus as the world's worst-ever outbreak raged in west Africa.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 5, Sierra Leone said it will impose a four-day, countrywide "lockdown" starting Sept. 18, an escalation of efforts to halt the spread of Ebola across the West African country.
    (Reuters, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 6, The Democratic Republic of Congo upped its death toll from Ebola to 32 but insisted the outbreak, separate from an epidemic raging in west Africa, could be contained in its remote forest hotspot.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 8, US federal and state health officials said hundreds of children across the Midwest have been stricken by a potentially serious respiratory illness, and many states were asking for federal help testing and tracking cases. Many of the cases were positive for the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68).
    (Reuters, 9/8/14)
2014        Sep 8, In Ethiopia African Union chiefs held an emergency meeting to hammer out a continent-wide strategy to deal with the Ebola epidemic, which has killed over 2,000 people in west Africa.
    (AFP, 9/8/14)

2014        Sep 9, The World Health Organization (WHO) said the death toll from the worst Ebola outbreak in history has jumped by almost 200 in a single day to at least 2,296 and is already likely to be higher than that.
    (Reuters, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 14, A fourth Sierra Leonean doctor, a woman, died after contracting the dreaded Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 16, The United States announced it will send 3,000 troops to help tackle the Ebola outbreak as part of a ramped-up plan, including a major deployment in Liberia, the country where the epidemic is spiraling fastest out of control.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Sep 16, In Guinea a team of health officials accompanied by journalists came to Womey village to educate people about how to avoid contracting Ebola. A group of local residents turned on their would-be benefactors, attacking them with knives and rocks and killing 8 of them.
    (AP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 19, The Dominican Rep. said chikungunya, a mosquito-borne virus,  has sickened nearly 500,000 people, including 109 newborn babies.
    (AP, 9/19/14)
2014        Sep 19, In Sierra Leone thousands of health workers began knocking on doors across the country in search of hidden Ebola cases as the entire West African nation was locked down in their homes in an unprecedented effort to combat the deadly disease.
    (AP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 21, West Africa intensified its response to the deadly Ebola epidemic, with Sierra Leone uncovering scores of dead bodies during a 72-hour shutdown and Liberia announcing 1,000 hospital beds.
    (AFP, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 22, Sierra Leone ended a 3-day unprecedented nationwide shutdown during which officials said about 75 percent of 1.5 million households were checked for Ebola patients and given information on the deadly disease. At least 130 cases of Ebola were identified and scores of bodies were buried during the shutdown.
    (AP, 9/22/14)(SFC, 9/23/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 25, Sierra Leone began a quarantine of more than one million people in the largest open-ended lockdown in the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 26, The International Monetary Fund fast-tracked $130 million (102.5 million euros) in aid to fight the Ebola epidemic after the governments of the worst-hit countries in west Africa said they were desperately counting on promises of global aid to be backed up with cash.
    (AFP, 9/27/14)

2014        Sep 27, Liberia's chief medical officer, Bernice Dahn, placed herself under quarantine for 21 days after her office assistant died of Ebola.
    (AP, 9/27/14)

2014        Sep 30, The first case of the deadly Ebola virus was diagnosed in the United States after Thomas Eric Duncan, who flew from Liberia to Texas, tested positive for the disease. Duncan died on Oct 8.
    (Reuters, 10/1/14)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.34)

2014        Oct 1, The Democratic Republic of Congo raised its death toll from the Ebola virus to 42 as it struggled to contain the second outbreak of the disease in Africa this year.
    (AFP, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 2, The Save the Children charity warned that five people are being infected with Ebola every hour in Sierra Leone and demand for treatment beds is far outstripping supply.
    (AFP, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 4, Pakistan officials said a record number polio case have already been detected this year. Doctors discovered 202 cases from January to October 3. The previous modern record was 199 cases in 2001.
    (AP, 10/4/14)

2014        Oct 6, In Spain nursing assistant Teresa Romero was diagnosed with Ebola. She had cared for a Spanish priest who died of the disease last month. 4 other people were quarantined and her dog was ordered killed.
    (SFC, 10/8/14, p.A3)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.62)

2014        Oct 7, Chinese officials said the dengue virus has killed six people and infected more than 23,000 in southern China's worst outbreak of the mosquito-transmitted disease in about two decades.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 8, The US said it will begin screening travelers from West Africa after Thomas Eric Duncan (42) of Liberia, the first Ebola patient diagnosed in the US, died in Dallas.
    (SFC, 10/9/14, p.A8)

2014        Oct 16, Saudi Arabia’s health ministry said it is seeing "sporadic" cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has killed 324 people in the country since 2012.
    (AFP, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 20, In Sierra Leone 49 confirmed cases of Ebola emerged just today in two Ebola zones in and around the capital. So many people were dying that removing bodies was a problem.
    (AP, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 24, The World Health Organization said that three more polio cases have surfaced in Pakistan, bringing the number of new cases to 220, a record figure that authorities blame on attacks by insurgents targeting vaccination teams. This was announced as many nations observed World Polio Day.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 29, The US FDA said it has cleared Pfizer’s Trumenba to prevent a subtype of Meningococcal disease to people ages 10-25.
    (SFC, 10/30/14, p.A6)
2014        Oct 29, Australian scientists said they have successfully tested a vaccine against chlamydia in wild koalas, in what they believe is a breakthrough in combating the sexually-transmitted disease ravaging the native marsupial.
    (AFP, 10/29/14)

2014        Nov 10, Portuguese health authorities said an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease has caused five deaths and sickened about 38 people over the past week in a cluster of small towns about 35 km (20 miles) north of Lisbon.
    (AP, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 16, In southern California the Crown Princess cruise ship arrived in San Pedro, Los Angeles County, with 172 people ill with the highly contagious norovirus. The ship had over 4,100 people on board.
    (SFC, 11/17/14, p.A8)
2014        Nov 16, Authorities in the Netherlands said they have identified a "highly pathogenic" strain of bird flu at a farm in the central area of the Netherlands and announced a temporary ban on all transport to and from poultry farms across the country. They said it was the highly contagious H5N8 strain first detected in Europe less than two weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 17, US researchers said they have identified a virus that has been wiping out starfish along the US Pacific coast. It was identified as a densovirus, a type of parvovirus, and was said to have also been found in museum specimans dating back to 1942.
    (SFC, 11/18/14, p.A1)
2014        Nov 17, In Egypt a woman (19) diagnosed with bird flu died, the second fatality from the H5N1 virus this year in the country.
    (AP, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 20, Dutch authorities said a case of bird flu has been confirmed at a chicken farm, the second infection identified in the country this week.
    (AP, 11/20/14)

2014        Nov 21, Dutch authorities said they will slaughter poultry at a cluster of three farms after new cases of bird flu were found in Kamperveen, in the 3rd outbreak this week.
    (SFC, 11/22/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 22, The WHO said a plague outbreak has killed 40 people on the island nation of Madagascar, with 119 people diagnosed with the bacterial disease since August. WHO said only two percent of the cases have been from the highly infectious pneumonic form of the disease.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Nov 25, Benin’s country's health minister said 9 people have died from Lassa fever, a viral disease common in West Africa with symptoms similar to Ebola. Lassa fever is in the same virus family as Ebola.
    (AP, 11/26/14)

2014        Nov 27, Britain’s Food Standards Agency (FSA) said some 70 percent of fresh chickens on sale in Britain are contaminated with a food poisoning bug.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 30, The Netherlands Economic Affairs Ministry said in a statement that poultry at the farm in the town of Zoeterwoude were suffering from an H5 strain of bird flu and that all 28,000 birds there were being slaughtered.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 19, US health officials warned consumers to avoid prepackaged caramel apples after they were linked to 4 deaths in which people were sickened with listeria. At least 28 more were known sickened in ten states.
    (SFC, 12/20/14, p.A5)

2014        Dec 31, Hong Kong authorities began destroying 15,000 chickens at a poultry market and suspended imports from mainland China after some birds were found to be infected with bird flu.
    (AP, 12/31/14)

2015        Jan 21, Nigeria confirmed that five states have been hit with the H5N1 strain of bird flu, resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of poultry but no human cases.
    (AFP, 1/21/15)

2015        Jan, In Madagascar at least 57 people died of plague in the wake of cyclones Chedza and Bansi.
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.D18)

2015        Feb 2, In Liberia large-scale human testing of two potential Ebola vaccines got under way in Monrovia, part of a global effort to prevent a repeat of the epidemic that has now claimed nearly 9,000 lives in West Africa.
    (AP, 2/2/15)

2015        Feb 13, Canada, a major exporter of beef, said it has found a case of mad cow disease in a beef cow in the province of Alberta, the first in the country since 2011.
    (Reuters, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 20, Health authorities in India  said a flu outbreak has killed over 700 people in the last ten weeks.
    (SFC, 1/21/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 21, Saudi Arabia's Health Ministry said two more people have died after contracting Middle East Respiratory Syndrome or MERS, pushing the total number of deaths from the virus in the kingdom to 385.
    (AP, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 27, New research indicated that that annual deaths from the bacterium Clostridium difficile have risen to 29,000, more than double the number since 2007. Most of some half million infected patients fell ill following prescriptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
    (SFC, 2/27/15, p.A5)
2015        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia said ten more people have died from MERS over the past week, after an international mission urged extra measures to combat the virus.
    (AFP, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 12, Indian biologists at MIT said the swine flu outbreak in India, which has claimed over 1,500 lives, may have mutated into a more dangerous strain.
    (SSFC, 3/15/15, p.A6)

2015        Mar 20, Bulgaria's authorities said they had discovered the highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus in two dead pelicans in a nature reserve in northeastern part of the Balkan country, close to neighboring Romania.
    (Reuters, 3/26/15)

2015        Mar 27, The White House announced a five-year plan to fight the threat of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    (SFC, 3/28/15, p.A5)

2015        Apr 6, Canadian health authorities said two turkey farms in Ontario have been placed under quarantine after H5 bird flu was detected in one of them.
    (AFP, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 9, Australia reported that second case of the so-called Tropical Race 4 strain of Panama disease affecting banana plants has been confirmed, dashing hopes that a recently confirmed outbreak would be isolated and threatening the country's A$550 million ($423 million) sector.
    (Reuters, 4/9/15)
2015        Apr 9, A Japanese research team said it has developed a field test for Ebola that gives results in just over 11 minutes -- down from the 90-minute test used now.
    (AFP, 4/9/15)

2015        Apr 15, In Nigeria a mysterious disease broke out in Ode-Irele town and soon left 18 people dead. The disease, whose symptoms include headache, weight loss, blurred vision and loss of consciousness, killed the victims within 24 hours of their falling ill. On April 20 Nigerian health authorities said that ethanol poisoning from a local gin may have been responsible for the sudden deaths.
    (AFP, 4/18/15)(AFP, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 20, The USDA said bird flu has been found at a farm in Iowa holding nearly 10% of the state’s egg laying chickens. Up to 5.3 million hens in Osceola County would have to be destroyed.
    (SFC, 4/21/15, p.A5)

2015        Apr 21, The US Center for Disease Control (CDC) said they are now aware of ten cases of listeria linked to ice cream and other products produced by Blue Bell Creameries of Texas since 2010. Blue Bell has recalled all of its products.
    (SFC, 4/22/15, p.A9)

2015        Apr 24, Niger said the death toll in a meningitis epidemic that broke out in January has reached 129.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 23, Ohio-based Jeni’s Splendid Ice Creams said that it has recalled its frozen products due to listeria found in a Whole Foods store in Lincoln, Nebraska.
    (SFC, 4/24/15, p.A9)

2015        Apr 29, US health officials said German measles, aka rubella, is officially gone from North and South America. It has been over five years that the last case originated in the Americas. Vaccines against the disease were first licensed in 1969.
    (SFC, 4/30/15, p.A6)

2015        May 20, Kenya health officials said at least 65 people are confirmed to have died in a nearly five-month-old cholera outbreak, with infections also continuing to rise in the capital Nairobi.
    (AFP, 5/20/15)

2015        May 21, South Korea a third case of MERS, a respiratory virus that has killed hundreds of people in the Middle East.
    (Reuters, 5/21/15)
2015        May 21, The WHO said a cholera outbreak has killed at least 30 people in a Tanzanian refugee camp for Burundians.
    (AP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 22, The UN refugee agency said an outbreak of cholera has infected 3,000 people in a Tanzanian border region where refugees from Burundi have massed. UNHCR said 300 to 400 new cases are being reported daily.
    (AP, 5/22/15)

2015        May 27, In Kazakhstan international experts investigated the sudden deaths of some 134,000 endangered saiga antelope, raising fears that a species that has been around since the Ice Age may be at risk of dying out. Around 40 percent of the nation's population of the endangered saiga antelope have died in the past two weeks. The deaths were later believed to have been caused by two naturally occurring bacteria.
    (Reuters, 5/27/15)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.C14)

2015        May 29, China confirmed its first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in a South Korean businessman who ignored instructions to stay home after his father was diagnosed with the disease.
    (AP, 5/29/15)
2015        May 29, South Korea confirmed five MERS cases, bringing the total number of patients infected with the potentially deadly virus to 12, including a man who defied a quarantine protocol and travelled to China.
    (AFP, 5/29/15)

2015        Jun 1, South Korean health officials said more than 680 people are being isolated after having contact with patients infected with the MERS virus that has killed hundreds of people in the Middle East.
    (AP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 2, Polish authorities said they will cull about 5,800 pigs to prevent the spread of African swine fever.
    (AP, 6/2/15)
2015        Jun 2, South Korea confirmed the country's first two deaths from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome as it fights to contain the spread of the virus.
    (AP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 4, North Korea accused the United States of targeting it with anthrax and asked the UN Security Council to investigate Washington's "biological warfare schemes. The US Pentagon recently said live anthrax samples, which can be used as a biological weapon, have been inadvertently sent to Australia, Canada, Britain, South Korea and laboratories in 19 US states and Washington, D.C.
    (Reuters, 6/12/15)
2015        Jun 4, South Korea confirmed a third death from MERS. 1,164 schools and kindergartens were reported to be temporarily shut down.
    (SFC, 6/5/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 6, A German man (65) died after contracting MERS during a trip to Abu Dhabi, in the first death linked to the virus in Europe this year.
    (AFP, 6/16/15)
2015        Jun 6, South Korea confirmed nine more cases of the MERS virus, which has killed four people, but said it did not represent a spread of the outbreak as the infected were already in quarantine.
    (AFP, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 7, South Korea bowed to public pressure and identified 24 health facilities where infections took place or MERS patients visited. It reported 14 confirmed new cases of MERS and a 5th death.
    (Reuters, 6/7/15)

2015        Jun 9, South Korea reported its seventh death from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) as the government said it hoped to end the crisis this week. Eight new infections brought the total number of cases to 95.
    (AFP, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 11, South Korea reported a 10th death from the MERS virus. Officials said they believe the disease has peaked.
    (AP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 12, Sierra Leone Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma imposed new restrictions preventing people from entering or leaving two northern districts that were experiencing a resurgence of Ebola. Sierra Leone reported 15 new cases in the week ending June 7.
    (SFC, 6/13/15, p.A2)
2015        Jun 12, In South Korea 3 MERS patients in their 70s died, raising the country's number of MERS-related deaths to 13. Authorities temporarily closed two hospitals amid persistent fears over the MERS virus outbreak. Rescue teams digging through the debris pulled the bodies of 6 civilians from under the rubble.
    (AP, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 13, South Korea recorded its 14th death from the MERS virus and a dozen new infections.
    (AP, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 14, South Korea's Ministry of Health reported seven new MERS cases, taking the total to 145, as a 15th person died. The Samsung Medical Center in Seoul said it was suspending all non-emergency surgery and would take no new patients to focus on stopping MERS after more than 70 cases were traced to it.
    (Reuters, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 16, In South Korea the death toll in the MERS outbreak increased to 19 even as schools reopened and people recovered from the virus.
    (AP, 6/16/15)

2015        Jun 18, In South Korea the death toll from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) increased to 23.
    (AP, 6/18/15)
2015        Jun 18, Thailand confirmed its first case of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus in a businessman from Oman.
    (Reuters, 6/18/15)
2015        Jun 18, Southern Yemen health officials said thousands of people have been diagnosed with dengue fever. Around 30 fighters were killed in clashes between Houthi militiamen and tribesmen in the central province of Mareb.
    (AP, 6/18/15)(Reuters, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 21, South Korea reported three new cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), bringing the total to 169 in the largest outbreak outside Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 6/21/15)

2015        Jun 23, Sierra Leone’s National Ebola Response Center (NERC) said three cases of Ebola had emerged in the east-end slum of Magazine Wharf -- three weeks after the last known infections in the capital.
    (AFP, 6/24/15)

2015        Jun 25, Sierra Leone said it has quarantined three doctors and 28 nurses in the capital Freetown when a mother tested positive for Ebola after giving birth.
    (AFP, 6/25/15)

2015        Jun 27, In Spain a six-year-old boy, the first child to contract diphtheria in Spain in 29 years, died from the disease in a Barcelona hospital. He had not been vaccinated against the disease because his parents had opted against inoculation.
    (AP, 6/27/15)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Microbiology
End of file

Working list of organisms:

Bordatella pertussis causes whooping cough.
    (SFC, 12/15/05, p.B5)

Campylobacteriosis is caused by campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium common to poultry that causes acute intestinal disorders in people.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A1)

Clostridium difficile causes virulent diarrhea in the elderly. In 2004 2 Canadian hospitals reported over 100 deaths due to this bacterium over the last 18 months. C. difficile makes poison-forming spores that become reservoirs of infection. The rod-shaped bacteria tends to become active in the human colon when antibiotics knock out beneficial organisms.
    (SFC, 8/9/04, p.A5)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.75)

Clostridium sordellii produces a potentially fatal toxin when swallowed or introduced to a wound.
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A5)

Cryptococcus gattii, a fungus normally found in Australia and other tropical zones, was discovered on Vancouver Island, Canada, in 1999. By 2007 at least 8 people had died from infection and another 163 sickened.
    (SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A11)

Enterobacter sakazakii infected a Portagen powdered infant formula in 2001.
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A6)

Halobacterium, archaea kingdom, thrives in the saltiest bodies of water.
    (NH, 6/01, p.56)

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection, often fatal, that is transmitted by sand flies. In 2005 the antibiotic paromomycin was shown to be effective against visceral leishmaniasis.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.C2)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.69)(SFC, 11/9/04, p.A6)

Leprosy now known as Hansen’s disease is caused by the mycobacterium m. leprae bacillus.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.A11)

Mycobacterium fortuitum, a single-celled bacterium, rarely caused infection in humans but can invade open wounds. Some 80 women in Santa Cruz county came down with purple boils and lesions following pedicures at a local nail salon in Watsonville.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.D10)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the world’s #1 infectious killer. It hides out in white blood cells and may enter a state of latency for years. It seems to slow or stop replicating when nitric oxide levels are high.
    (NH, 6/01, p.54)

Necrotizing fasciitis results from a tissue-dissolving bacterial infection common to junkies.
    (SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A1)

Prochlorococcus marinus, a cyanobacterium. The most abundant photosynthetic microbe on Earth.
    (NH, 6/01, p.52)

Rickettsia prowazekii, the typhus causing pathogen. It can survive only within other cells.
    (NH, 6/01, p.57)

Salmonella typhi, the cause of typhoid fever.
    (ON, 7/01, p.11)

Serratia, a common bacteria found in soil, water, plants and animals.
    (WSJ, 10/7/04, p.B6)

Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan carried by kissing bugs (barbeiros), caused Chagas disease.
    (WSJ, 4/11/07, p.A1)

Vibrio cholerae, a bacillus responsible for cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria is carried by shellfish and can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache and fever especially in people with weakened immune systems.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A20)
Vibrio vulnificus, a saltwater bacteria, is common in the Gulf and most prevalent in coastal and bay waters in warmer months. The bacteria can be ingested in contaminated seafood or absorbed through skin wounds.
    (AP, 8/14/04)

Yersinia pestis bacteria causes plague and is spread by fleas carried by rodents.

End of file