Timeline Nobel Prizes

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Nobel Prize site: http://www.almaz.com/nobel/nobel.html

1895        Nov 27, Alfred Nobel, explosives magnate, signed his last will and testament at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death (see Dec 10, 1896).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1895)

1896        Dec 10, Alfred Nobel (63), Swedish Nobel Prize ceremony on this date, died. By the time of his death Nobel had acquired a massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was established  [see Nov 27, 1895]. The Nobel Peace Prize is therefore awarded on December 10. The first of the Nobel Prizes was presented in 1901 according to instructions in his will. At his death he was one of the richest men in the world, he also felt it would be wrong to leave his fortune to relatives. "Inherited wealth is a misfortune which merely serves to dull man's faculties." Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Peace_Prize)(HNPD, 10/21/98)(AP, 12/10/06)

1901        Henry Dunant (1828-1910), Swiss businessman, won the 1st Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in establishing the Int’l. Red Cross and the First Geneva Convention covering treatment of those wounded in war. The prize was shared with Frederic Passy (1822-1912), French economist, for his efforts toward international peace.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1901/passy-bio.html)(ON, 4/08, p.12)
1901        Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff won the first Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the relationship of volume, pressure and temperature in gases which became known as van't Hoff's Law. The 1st Nobel Banquet was held at the Grand Hotel in Stockholm for 118 male guests.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)
1901        Sully Prudhomme won the 1st Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1901        Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (1845-1923) won the Nobel in Physics.
    (HN, 3/27/99)(MC, 2/10/02)(MC, 3/27/02)
1901        Emil von Behring (b.1854) was the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for medicine.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

1902        Pieter Zeeman (b.1865), Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect), won the Nobel Prize. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1902        Ronald Ross (1857-1932), an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria. His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)
1902        Emil Fischer won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is considered as the founder of the science of carbohydrate chemistry.
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.E4)

1903        Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish scientist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lxu4w)
1903        Bjornstjerne Martinus Bjornson won the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1903        Randal Cremer (b.1838), British trade unionist, pacifist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1903        Pierre and Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of radioactivity.
    (SSFC, 11/28/04, p.4)

1904        Frederic Mistral, French poet (d. 1914), won the Noble Prize.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1904        Ivan P. Pavlov (d.1936), Russian physiologist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1904         John William Strutt (1842-1919), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
    (www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1904/)

1905        J.F.W. Adolf Ritter von Baeyer (b.1835), German chemist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1905        Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish author, won the Nobel Prize and wrote the third work of his trilogy "With Fire and Sword." It was preceded by "Pan Michael" and "The Deluge." The first 2 books were made into films during the 1960s and 1970s. Filming of the 3rd work began in 1997.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E2)(SFC, 7/8/99, p.E3)
1905        Robert Koch (b.1843), German physician, bacteriologist, and medical researcher, won a Nobel Prize in Medicine.
    (HN, 12/11/00)(MC, 12/11/01)
1905        Bertha Kinsky von Sutner became the first woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize. She had founded European pacifist organizations with her husband, Artur,
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.28)

1906        Dec 10, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War. This was the first Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/97)(SFC, 9/29/99, p.C3)
1906        Joseph John Thomson (b.1856), English physicist, won a Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1908        Paul Ehrlich (d.1915), German genealogist, won the Nobel Prize for his work in Chemotherapy.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1909        Selma Lagerdorf (1858-1940), Swedish novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_Lagerl%C3%B6f)
1909        Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), Italian engineer, won the Nobel Prize for physics for his invention of wireless telegraphy.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1910        Otto Wallach (d.1931), German chemist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1911        Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Belgian poet, dramatist, and essayist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.861)
1911        Wilhelm K.W. Wien (b.1864), German physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 1/13/02)
1911        Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the isolation of the elements polonium and radium.
    (SSFC, 11/28/04, p.4)

1912        Alexis Carrel (b.1873), French surgeon and biologist, won a Nobel Prize for the development of blood vessel suture technique.
    (HN, 6/28/99)(MC, 6/28/02)
1912        Gerhart Hauptmann (b.1862), German author (Before Dawn) won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1912        US Sec. of State Elihu Root won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)

1913        Charles Richet (b.1850), French physiologist, won the Noble Prize for his work on anaphylaxis.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1914        No Nobel Prizes were given.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1914        Theodore William Richards (1868-1928), chemist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1231)(MC, 1/31/02)

1917        Dec 10, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Red Cross.
    (HN, 12/10/98)
1917        Karl Gjellerup (b.1857), Danish poet, novelist won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1918        Fritz Haber (1868-1934), German chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for extracting ammonia from nitrogen in 1909. The Haber-Bosch process was beneficial for food production and explosives. Haber also helped develop poison gas during WW I.
    (WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)(SSFC, 8/7/05, p.C6)

1919        US Pres. Woodrow Wilson won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/9/09)

1920        Nov 20, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to US president W. Wilson.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1920        Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), Norwegian writer, won the Nobel Prize in literature for his work "The Growth of the Soil."
    (Econ, 11/7/09, p.79)
1920        Leon Bourgeois (b.1851), French premier (1895-96) won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1921        Frederick Soddy (b.1877), English radiochemist, received the Nobel prize for chemistry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Soddy)
1921        Anatole France (d.1924), French satiric master, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His books included “Thais" (1890), “Penguin Island" (1908) and “Revolt of the Angels" (1914). 
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatole_France)
   
1921        Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), a Brazilian doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his 1909 discovery of how a single cell parasite carried by insects transmitted a disease (Chagas disease) to sleeping victims.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Chagas)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)

1922        Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (b.1866), Spanish dramatist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1922        Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951), German doctor, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.
    (http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1922/meyerhof-bio.html)
1922        Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer (1893-1896), was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)


1923        John J.R. Macleod (d.1935), Scottish-Canadian physiologist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/16/02)
1923        Robert A. Millikan (b.1868), US physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1924        Oct 24, Nobel prize for physiology and medicine was awarded to W. Einthoven.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1925        American vice president Charles Gates Dawes (d.1951) was awarded the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize along with Sir Austen Chamberlin. Dawes, vice president to Calvin Coolidge from 1925-1929, was the chief author of the 1923 Dawes Plan for German financial reconstruction after the First World War. Dawes, who was born in 1885 in Marietta, Ohio, was named the first director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget in 1921 and was ambassador to Great Britain from 1929-32.
    (HNQ, 6/25/98)
1925        George Bernard Shaw (1856-1850), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social reformer,  won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(AP, 3/15/00)(MC, 7/26/02)

1926        Aristide Briand (d.1932), 11-time premier of France, won a Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1926        Johannes Fibiger won a Nobel Prize for supposedly finding the cause of cancer.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)

1929        Frank Kellogg (b.1856), Secretary of State (1925-29), won the Nobel Peace Prize. He tried to outlaw war with the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
    (HN, 12/22/98)(AP, 10/9/09)

1930        Nov 5, Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in Literature for his 1922 novel "Babbit."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1930)(HNQ, 5/18/98)

1931        Dec 10, Jane Addams became a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, for her efforts as the president of the Women’s International league for Peace and Freedom. She was the first American woman so honored. She was also known for her work as a social reformer and pacifist, and founded the Hull House in Chicago. The co-recipient was Nicholas Murray Butler.
    (HN, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A16)(AP, 12/10/06)
1931        Dec 10, Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), presidential advisor and president of Columbia Univ. (1902-1945), was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the Briand Kellogg Pact (1929), a treaty that denounced war as an instrument of national policy. In 2006 Michael Rosenthal authored “Nicholas Miraculous," a biography Butler.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)(WSJ, 1/25/06, p.D10)
1931        Karl Bosch (b.1874), German chemist (BASF), received the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 8/27/02)
1931        Friedrich C.R. Bergius (d.1949 at 64), chemist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1932        Nov 2, Melvin Schwartz, physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for work on neutrinos.
    (HN, 11/2/00)
1932        John Galsworthy (1867-1933), English novelist and dramatist, won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.581)
1932        Werner C. Heisenberg (1901-1976), Germany physicist, won the Nobel Prize in physics.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg)

1933        Sir Norman Angell (1872-1967), English journalist, won the Nobel Peace Prize. He was knighted in 1931. From 1928-1931 he had served on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, was an executive for the World Committee against War and Fascism, a member of the executive committee of the League of Nations Union, and the president of the Abyssinia Association.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Angell)

1934        Dec 10, Harold C. Urey (1893-1981), US chemist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work with deuterium.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1934/urey-bio.html)

1934         Luigi Pirandello (b.1867), Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author), won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (HN, 6/28/01)(MC, 6/28/02)
1934        The Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology was awarded to Drs. George R. Minot (1885-1950), William P. Murphy and George H. Whipple for curing pernicious anemia with liver extract in 1926.
    (Smith., May. 1995, p.14)(WUD, 1994 p.913)
1934        Britain’s former foreign secretary Arthur Henderson (1863-1935) won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on international disarmament.
    (AP, 4/3/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Henderson)00

1935        James Chadwick (1891-1974), British physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates)
1935        Frederic Joliot-Curie and Irene Joliot-Curie, French physicists, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates)
1935        Carl Von Ossietzky (1889-1938), German pacifist and anti-fascist writer, won the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_von_Ossietzky)

1936        Oct 16, Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) of the US won the Nobel Prize in Literature "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy." His work includes "A Long Day's Journey Into Night" and "The Iceman Cometh."
    (HN, 10/16/00)(www.nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/index.html)
1936        Oct, Dutch-born Peter Debye (1884-1966), won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his studies on the structure of molecules. In 1938, as Chairman of the German Physical Society, he had a letter sent out under his name requesting that the domestic Jewish members voluntarily resign. In 1940 he moved to the US. In 2006 he emerged in a book, "Albert Einstein in the Netherlands." which contained evidence of pro-Nazi actions. In 2008 the Terlouw Committee, appointed by the Dutch Ministry of Education, reviewed the allegations and issued its report clearly stating that Debye was neither a Nazi collaborator nor a  Nazi sympathizer.
    (AP, 3/3/06)(http://piurl.com/5F)

1936        Carlos Saavedra Lamas, foreign minister of Argentina, won the 1936 Nobel peace Prize for his role in negotiating the end of the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay. The award was later discovered at a South American pawn shop and in 2014 was put up for auction.
    (SFC, 3/13/14, p.A9)

1937        Roger Martin du Guard (b.1881), French novelist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1938            Nov 10, Pearl Buck (1892-1973), pen-name of Pearl Walsh, née Sydenstricker, received the Nobel for literature for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China (“The Good Earth"), and for her biographical masterpieces.
    (http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1938/index.html)
1938        Gertrude Stein led a campaign to award the Nobel Peace Prize to Adolf Hitler. Stein was also a close friend of Bernard Fey, who collaborated with the Nazis and was named by Hitler as head of the French national library in Paris. Fey was convicted of war crimes after WW II.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)   

1939        Nov 9, Nobel for physics was awarded to Ernest O. Lawrence for his work on the cyclotron.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1939        Adolf Butenandt (b.1903), biochemist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (HN, 3/24/01)(MC, 3/24/02)

1940-1943    No Nobel Prizes were given.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)

1944        Nov 9, Red Cross won the Nobel peace prize.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1944        Isidore Isaac Rabi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.
    (http://almaz.com/nobel/physics/1944a.html)   
1944        Otto Hahn 1944 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on nuclear fission. During WW II physicist Lisa Meitner (1878-1968), while in hiding from Hitler in Sweden, analyzed and understood for its significance the work of Hahn.
    (MT, 10/94, letters, p.10)
1944        Dr. Joseph Erlanger (b.1874) won the Nobel Prize for his work in shock therapy.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1945        Nov 12, Cordell Hull (d.1955) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in founding the United Nations. Hull served as secretary of state in the Franklin Roosevelt Administration (1933-1944) longer than any other individual. Hull, born in Tennessee in 1871, had been a U.S. senator prior to his appointment by Roosevelt.
    (HNQ, 7/6/98)(MC, 11/12/01)
1945        Sir Alexander Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his codiscovery of penicillin along with Ernst B. Chain (b.1908), German chemist, bacteriologist, and Dr. Howard Florey, who found Fleming's paper in 1938 and began clinical trials.
    (WUD, 1994, p.542)(SFC, 1/19/04, p.B4)
1945        Wolfgang Pauli (b.1900), Austrian-born physicist, received the Nobel prize.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1946        Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961), American lawyer, share the Nobel Peace Prize with John Raleigh Mott. Balch helped in one way or another with many projects of the League of Nations - among them, disarmament, the internationalization of aviation, drug control, the participation of the United States in the affairs of the League.
    (AP, 10/9/09)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1946/balch-bio.html)
1946        John Raleigh Mott (1865-1955), organizer (YMCA), shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Emily Greene Balch.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1946/mott-bio.html)
1946        Wendell M. Stanley and John H. Northrup of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Northrop (b.1891), US biochemist, won for his work on crystallized enzymes.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1946        Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Swiss-born German philosopher poet and author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature "for his inspired writings which, growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1946/)

1947        Gerty Cori (1896-1957), Prague-born American biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
    (AP, 10/5/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerty_Cori)

1948        Nov 4, T.S. Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1948        Paul Hermann Muller (d.1965), a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, won the Noble Prize in medicine for his 1939 synthesis of DDT.
    (ON, 11/01, p.6)

1949        W.F. Giague of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in chemical thermodynamics.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1949        William Faulkner (1897-1962), American novelist, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1955.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(HNQ, 10/29/01)
1949        Portuguese neurologist Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his pioneering work in prefrontal brain lobotomy (1936). It was later rejected as a valid medical technique.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Z1 p.6)(WUD, 1994, p.925)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1949        Hediki Yukawa (b.1907), Japanese physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1950        Dec 10, Dr. Ralph J. Bunche (b.1904) became the first African-American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)
1950        Two doctors at the Mayo Clinic were awarded the Nobel Prize for isolating cortisone to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Edward Kendall, chemist, won a Nobel Prize for isolating cortisone.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)(MC, 3/8/02)
1950        Bertrand Russell, mathematician and philosopher, won the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1255)

1951        Nov 16, Glenn T. Seaborg (1912-1999) and Edwin McMillan (1907-1991) of UC shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements beginning with plutonium, the first element ever known to be heavier than uranium. In 1974 Seaborg co-discovered element 106, named seaborgium.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A22)(SFC, 2/27/99, p.A17)(SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)

1952        Nov 7, Felix Bloch (47) of Stanford Univ. and E.M. Purcell (40) of Harvard won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on measuring the magnetic properties of atomic particles.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1952        Francois Mauriac (b.1885), novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (HN, 10/11/00)
1952        Oct 30, Dr. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize but only received it in 1953. Schweitzer and his wife Hélène had moved to Gabon (French Equatorial Africa) in 1913 and opened a hospital in Lambaréné, which he later expanded with money from the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/30/97)(HNPD, 9/4/98)

1953        Oct 30, Gen. George C. Marshall was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Dr. Albert Schweitzer received his 1952 Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/30/97)
1953        Hermann Staudinger (b.1881), German chemist, plastics researcher, won the Nobel prize.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1954        Oct 30, Linus Pauling won the Nobel prize in chemistry.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(MC, 10/30/01)
1954        Oct 28, Ernest Hemingway received news that he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Poor health prevented him from going to Stockholm to receive it.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1954)(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1954        Max Born won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to quantum theory.
    (WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)
1954        Walter Bothe (b.1891), subatomic particle physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 1/8/02)
1954        Thomas Weller (1915-2008), John Enders (1897-1985) and Frederick Robbins (1916-2003) won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/)(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.56)

1955        Nov 2, Dr. Willis E. Lamb (1913-2008) of Stanford Univ. and Dr. Polykarp Kusch of Columbia Univ. were named co-winners of the Nobel Prize in physics. They came up with complementary discoveries in nuclear physics in 1947.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.F3)(SFC, 5/23/08, p.B10)
1955        Halldor Laxness (1902-1998), Icelandic author, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His 1946 novel "Independent People" helped him win the prize.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halld%C3%B3r_Laxness)

1956        Nov 1, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen and William Shockley were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for the invention of the transistor. The trio invented the transistor in 1948 at the Bell Laboratories. William Schockley, co-developer of the transistor, founded Schockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Palo Alto this year. Two of his hires, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, later went on to start Intel Corp. Tim Jackson in 1998 published "Inside Intel."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 12/23/99)
1956        Werner Forssman (1904-1979), German urologist, won the Nobel Prize. He was the first to catheterize his own heart.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1957        Oct 14, Lester Bowles Pearson (1897-1972, former president of the UN General Assembly (1952-1953) and later Canadian PM (1963-1968) won the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in defusing the Suez crisis.
    (www.un.org/depts/dhl/deplib/un_milestones.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/ojxcz)
1957        Oct 17, French author Albert Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)(AP, 10/17/97)

1958        Oct 23, Boris Pasternak won the Nobel Prize in literature. However, Soviet authorities pressured Pasternak into relinquishing the award.
    (SFC,11/27/97, p.B3)(AP, 10/23/99)
1958        Oct 29, Boris Pasternak refused the Nobel prize for literature. Pasternak's novel "Dr. Zhivago" was on the best seller list in the west.
    (WSJ, 10/10/95, p.A-14)(MC, 10/29/01)
1958        Pavel Cerenkov, Russian physicist, was awarded the Nobel prize for his work in the 1930s showing when a charged particle travels through any medium at a speed exceeding the speed of light in the medium (but not the speed of light in a vacuum), it emits light in a cone. This is called Cerenkov radiation.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.99)
1958        Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008), molecular biologist, won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for discovering that bacteria reproduced sexually in a process called recombination. Lederberg shared the prize with Prof. George Tatum of Yale and George Beadle.
    (SFC, 2/8/08, p.B9)

1959        Owen Chamberlain (1920-2006) and Emilio Segre of UC Berkeley received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their 1955 discovery of the anti-proton. Oreste Piccioni (d.2002 at 86) did many of the landmark experiments that led to the discoveries.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/1/02, p.A22)(SFC, 3/2/06, p.B7)
1959        Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007) of Stanford Univ. won the Nobel Prize for physiology of medicine. He shared the prize with Severo Ochoa for their research on how genetic information is transferred from one DNA molecule to another.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 10/27/07, p.A2)

1960        Alexis Saint-Leger (1887-1975), Guadeloupe-born French poet and diplomat, won the Nobel Prize for literature. He wrote under the pseudonym Saint John Perse.
    (http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Leger,+Alexis+Saint-Leger)
1960        Donald A. Glaser (1926-2013) of UC Berkeley, inventor of the bubble chamber, won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 3/19/13, p.C6)
1960        Albert John Lutuli (c1898-1967), tribal chief and president-general of the African National Congress, won the Nobel Peace prize.
    (http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1960/lutuli-bio.html)

1961        Melvin Calvin (b.1911), US chemist, won the Nobel Prize for his work on photosynthesis.
    (MC, 4/8/02)
1961        Robert Hofstadter of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)
1961        Ivo Andric of Yugoslavia won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

1962        Oct 25, American author John Steinbeck (62) was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1392)(AP, 10/25/97)
1962        Oct 18, Dr. James D. Watson of the United States and Dr. Francis Crick and Dr. Maurice Wilkins (d.2004) of Britain, were named winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for their work in determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA.
    (AP, 10/18/02)(SFC, 3/19/98, p.C4)
1962        Oct, Linus Pauling won the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1954 he won a Nobel in Chemistry.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.E1)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1962        Oct, Max Perutz (1914-2002), Austrian-born molecular biologist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work in England on the structure of hemoglobin.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Perutz)

1963        Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-1995), Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)
1963        Giorgos Seferis (1900-1971), Turkish-born Greek poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Seferis was the pen name of Georgios Seferiades
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgos_Seferis)
1963        Sir Andrew Huxley (1917-2012), British neurophysiologist shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alan Hodgkin and John Eccles.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Huxley)


1964        Oct 22, Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980), philosopher and novelist, declined the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1269)(HN, 10/22/00)
1964        Oct 14, Civil rights leader Rev. Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for advocating a policy of non-violence.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)
1964        Dec 10, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize during ceremonies in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/97)
1964        Konrad Bloch (d.2000 at 88) and Feodor Lynen shared the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for their work on cholesterol and fatty acids.
    (SFC, 10/17/00, p.A28)
1964        Charles H. Townes of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He shared the prize for work in quantum electronics with Nikolai Basov (d.2001 at 78) and Alexander Prokhorov, Soviets who did parallel work.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 7/5/01, p.D2)


1965          Oct 21, Robert B. Woodward was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry, "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis."
    (http://nobelprize.org/chemistry/laureates/1965/index.html)
1965        Mikhail Sholokhov (b.1905), Russian novelist (And Quiet Flows the Don),  won a Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (HN, 5/24/01)(MC, 5/24/02)
1965        Richard Feynman (1918-1988), theoretical physicist won a Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1966        The Nobel prize in medicine was awarded to Dr. Charles B. Huggins (1902-1997) for research on the relationship between hormones and cancers of the prostrate and breast.
    (SFC, 1/16/97, p.C4)
1966        Robert Mulliken (b.1896), US chemist, physicist won the Nobel Prize.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1966        S.Y. Agnon (1888-1970), Jewish writer, shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with Nelly Sachs, a German-born Swede.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/agnon.htm)(AP, 10/8/09)

1967        Miguel A. Asturias (1899-1974) of Guatemala won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09))(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_%C3%81ngel_Asturias)
1967        Hans Bethe (1906-2005), German-born peace worker and physicist, won the Nobel Prize for explaining how the sun and stars generate energy.
    (SFC, 3/8/05, p.B5)
1967        George Wald (d.1997 at 90), won a Nobel Prize for his work on the biochemistry of vision. He helped discover Vitamin A in the retina and retinol as a component of the visual cycle as a National Research Council fellow in Germany in 1932.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1968        Oct 19, Yasonari Kawabata (1899-1972), Japanese novelist (Thousand Cranes) won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1968/kawabata-docu.html)
1968        Oct 30, Luis W. Alvarez (1911-1988) of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the bubble chamber.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Walter_Alvarez)
1968        The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was first endowed by Sweden’s central bank. It is the only Nobel Prize that was not created by Alfred Nobel in 1901.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-16)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A22)
1968        Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011), India-born biochemist, shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for helping unravel how genetic information in a cell is used to make proteins vital for human life.
    (SFC, 11/12/11, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._Gobind_Khorana)

1969        Oct, Economists Jan Timbergen (1903-1994) of the Netherlands and Ragnar Frisch of Norway were awarded the first Nobel Prize in Economics for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. Tinbergen was a founding trustee of Economists for Peace and Security.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Tinbergen)
1969        Oct, The Nobel prize in Literature was awarded to Irish writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989). He learned of the award while on holiday in Tunisia and avoided the ceremony.
    (WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Beckett)

1970        Oct 8, Soviet author Alexander Solzhenitsyn was named winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (AP, 10/8/97)
1970        Oct, David Baltimore (37) of MIT won a Nobel Prize for discovering the reverse transcriptase enzyme. In 2001 Shane Crotty authored "Ahead of the Curve," an account of Baltimore’s work and ten year defense over a 1986 controversy over scientific data and the work of junior colleague Thereza Imanishi-Kari.
    (WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A12)
1970        Oct, Sir Bernard Katz (d.2003 at 92) shared the Nobel Prize (medicine or physiology) for his discovery of how nerve cells communicate with each other and with the muscles they control. Ulf von Euler of Sweden and Julius Axelrod (d.2005) of the US shared the prize for their work on neuro-transmitters.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A21)
1970        Oct, The Nobel Peace Prize was won by Norman Borlaug (1914-2009) for his development of high-yield wheat varieties for which he was dubbed father of the "Green Revolution." In 2006 Leon Hesser authored "The Man Who Fed the World," a biography of Borlaug.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug)(WSJ, 9/5/06, p.D8)(SFC, 9/14/09, p.A7)
1970        Oct, The Nobel Prize for Physics was won by Louis Neel (d.2000 at 95) of France for discoveries about magnetic fields and Hanes Alfven of Sweden for work on interactions between plasmas and magnetic fields.
    (SFC, 11/25/00, p.A23)
1970        Oct, Paul Samuelson (1915-2009), American economist and MIT professor, won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his effort to bring mathematical analysis into economics.
    (SFC, 12/14/09, p.D1)

1971        Oct 20, Willy Brandt, West German Chancellor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for beginning the German reunification.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(MC, 10/20/01)
1971        Oct 21, Nobel prize for literature was awarded to Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973).
    (MC, 10/21/01)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)
1971        Oct, Earl W. Sutherland Jr. (1915-1974), US pharmacologist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1971/press.html)

1972        Dec 10, Kenneth Arrow (b.1921) of Stanford Univ. shared the Nobel Prize in economics with John R. Hicks (1904-1989) of Oxford, England.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(http://economics.about.com/cs/nobelwinners/l/blnobel.htm)
1972        Heinrich Boll (1917-1985) of West Germany won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_B%C3%B6ll)

1973        Oct 16, Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State (1973-77), and Le Duc Tho were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize; however, the Vietnamese official declined the award.
    (AP, 10/16/98)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1973/press.html)
1973        Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), Austrian zoologist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Lorenz)
1973        Leo Esaki (b.1925), [Esaki Reona], Japanese-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Esaki)
1973        Patrick White (1912-1990), British-born Australian, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_White)

1974        Oct 15, Nobel prize for chemistry was awarded to Paul J. Flory of Stanford Univ. for his work on macro molecules.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1974/press.html)
1974        Albert Claude (1899-1983), Belgium-born biologist, won the Nobel for his work on the sub-structure of the cell. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Christian de Duve (1917-2013) and George E. Palade, for describing the structure and function of organelles (lysosomes and peroxisomes) in biological cells.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_de_Duve)
1974        Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992) of the UK and Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987) of Sweden shared the Nobel Prize for Economics Science. Hayek was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Pres. George Bush.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1974/)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)
1974        Eisaku Sato (b.1901), premier of Japan, and Ireland’s Sean MacBride, president of the Int’l. Peace Bureau, won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (www.almaz.com/nobel/nobel.html)
1974        Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson of Sweden shared the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

1975        Oct 9, Soviet scientist Andrei Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/9/97)
1975        Oct, Vladimir Prelog (d.1998 at age 91), a Swiss chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in stereochemistry and the architecture of molecules like cholesterol and antibiotics. John Cornforth, Australia-born chemist, also shared the prize.
    {Nobel Prize, Chemistry, Switzerland, Australia}
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates)
1975        Oct, Aage Nills Bohr (b.1922), Denmark-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his study of the atomic nucleus. Ben Mottelson (b.1926), Danish-American physicist and James Rainwater (1917-1986), American physicist, also shared the prize.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates)
1975        Oct, Eugenio Montale (1896-1981), Italian poet, won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1999 two collections of his poetry were translated and published in English: Collected Poems 1920-1954" and "Satura 1962-1970."
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, BR p.8)
1975        Dec 10, Elena Bonner Sacharova (b.1923) read Andrei Sacharov’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech in Oslo.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1975/sakharov-acceptance.html)

1976        Milton Friedman won the 1976 Nobel Prize in economics and retired to the Hoover Inst. at Stanford.
    (WSJ, 7/9/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A20)
1976        Oct 21, Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize for literature, the first American honored since John Steinbeck in 1962.
    (AP, 10/21/01)
1976        Baruch S. Blumberg (1925-2011) of NASA Ames Astrobiology Inst. won the Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology. He had discovered a virus that caused hepatitis and a vaccine to prevent it.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(Econ, 4/30/11, p.92)
1976        Oct, Dr. Carleton Gajdusek shared the Nobel Prize in medicine for proving the existence of a certain kind of virus. In 1996 he was arrested for on charges of molesting a teenage boy whom he brought from Micronesia to live with him in Maryland.
    (SFC, 4/4/96, p.A-3)
1976        Oct, Mairead Corrigan Maguire was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace for her efforts to stop bloodshed in Northern Ireland.
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.A12)
1976        Oct, Burton Richter of Stanford and Samuel Ting of MIT won the Nobel Prize in Physics. Their work with the SPEAR machine revealed the Psi-particle, a subatomic object that lasts for a tiny fraction of a second. It confirmed that protons and neutrons were composed of smaller quarks.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/1/97, p.A7)(SFC, 11/24/98, p.A20)

1977        Amnesty International (b.1961), a human rights organization founded by Peter Benenson (1921-2005), won a Nobel Prize.
    (HN, 5/28/98)(Econ, 3/5/05, p.85)
1977        Sir Neville Mott (1906-1996) shared the Nobel Prize with Philip Anderson and John van Vleck for research on the behavior of electricity in non-crystalline or so-called "disordered" materials.
    (SFC, 8/11/96, p.D5)
1977        Ilya Prigogine (d.2003 at 86), Russian-born Belgian chemist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (SFC, 5/31/03, p.A20)
1977        Rosalyn Yalow (b.1921), American medical physicist, together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
    (AP, 10/5/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalyn_Sussman_Yalow)
1977        Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984), Spanish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

1978        Oct 5, Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-1991), Polish-born American author, was named winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (AP, 10/5/98)
1978        Oct 27, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1918-1981) and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their progress toward achieving a Middle East accord. Sadat: "There can be hope only for a society which acts as one big family, and not as many separate ones."
    (AP, 10/27/97)(AP, 5/9/98)(HN, 12/25/98)

1979        Oct 11, Allan McLeod Cormack and Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield won Nobel Prize for medicine for developing CAT scan.
    (AP, 10/11/04)
1979        Oct 17, Mother Teresa of India, head of the Missionaries of Charity, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her years of work on behalf of the destitute in Calcutta.
    (SFC, 3/14/97, p.A13)(AP, 10/17/97)
1979        Sir Arthur Lewis (1915-1991), an economist from St. Lucia, won the Nobel Prize in Economics.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.90)
1979        Abdus Salam (1926-1990), Pakistan-born physicist, shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for work on unifying the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A28)(www.nobelprizes.com/nobel/physics/1979b.html)
1979        Odysseus Elytis (1911-1996), Greek poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odysseas_Elytis)

1980        Oct 14, Paul Berg of Stanford Univ. won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Walter Gilbert of Harvard and Frederick Sanger of Cambridge for their roles in genetics research.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 10/14/05, p.F2)
1980        Dec 10, Czeslaw Milosz of UC Berkeley, a Polish-born American, received the Nobel Prize in literature from King Carl Gustaf in Sweden.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F2)(AP, 10/8/09)
1980        Jean Dausset (1916-2009), French immunologist, shared the Nobel Prize for medicine with Americans George D. Snell and Baruj Benacerraf for their work on genetically determined structures on cell surfaces that regulate immunological reactions. Dausset's discovery in 1958 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue system allowed doctors to verify compatibility between donor and receiver for an organ transplant.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
1980        Lawrence R. Klein of the United States won the Nobel Prize in Economics for the creation of certain econometric models.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

1980        Swedish-German philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull founded the Right Livelihood Awards  to recognize work he felt was being ignored by the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1981        James Tobin (d.2002), key Kennedy advisor, won the Nobel Prize in economics for his portfolio theory.
    (WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A1)(http://www.almaz.com/nobel/economics/1981a.html)
1981        Arthur Schawlow (d.1999 at 77) of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He with his brother-in-law and Charles Townes of UC Berkeley shared credit for inventing the laser. They developed the laser in the 1950s and made a working model in 1960 while working for Bell Laboratories.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D6)
1981        Elias Canetti (1905-1994), Bulgarian-born British novelist and essayist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His ancestors were Sephardic Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_Canetti)

1982        Swedish scientists Dr. Sune Karl Bergstrom (d.2004), Bengt Samuelsson and John R. Vane of Britain shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or medicine for their work on natural chemicals involved in birth, blood clotting and pain control. Samuelson received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1979 when he identified a natural chemical produced in the body that helps spawn the severe, breath shortening attacks that are the hallmark of asthma.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-1)(SFC, 8/19/04, p.B7)
1982        George Stigler (1911-1991) of the Univ. of Chicago won the Nobel Prize in Economics for studies of industrial structures and the causes and effects of public regulation. Stigler had studied the process by which people acquired information.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.80)(AP, 10/11/09)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.92)
1982        Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1928-2014), Columbian-born novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Garc%C3%ADa_M%C3%A1rquez)

1983        Oct 5, Lech Walesa, Polish Solidarity founder, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/5/08)
1983        Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his insight into black holes. Chandrasekhar was the nephew of Nobel-prize winning physicist C. V. Raman.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subramanyan_Chandrasekhar)
1983        Gerard Debreu (1921-2004) of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Economics for offering proof of how prices affect the supplies of goods bought and sold.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)(SFC, 1/6/05, p.B1)
1983        William Golding (1911-1993), English author, received the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (WSJ, 10/5/95, p.A-12)
1983        Barbara McClintock (1902-1992), American geneticist, won the Nobel prize.
    {Nobel Prize, USA, DNA}
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbara_McClintock)
1983        Henry Taube won a Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.D4)

1984        Oct 16, Desmond Tutu, black Anglican Archbishop in South Africa, won the Nobel Peace Prize for his decades of non-violent struggle for racial equality.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.32)(AP, 10/16/04)
1984        Oct, Jaroslav Seifert of Czechoslovakia won the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A19)
1984        Oct, Richard Stone of Great Britain, won the Nobel Prize in Economics for contributions to the development of systems of national accounts.
    (AP, 10/11/09)
1984        Oct, Simon van der Meer (1925-2011), Dutch physicist, and Carlo Rubbia (b.1934), Italian physicist, shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.96)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_van_der_Meer)

1985        Franco Modigliani (d.2003 at 85), Italian economist at MIT, won the Nobel Prize in economics for his research on savings habits of people and the market value of businesses.
    (WSJ, 9/26/03, p.A1)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.88)
1985        The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Physicians for the prevention of Nuclear War. Dr. Bernard Lown, a Harvard cardiologist, accepted the prize on behalf of the physicians.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFEC, 12/8/96, zone 1 p.3)(SFC, 12/3/97, p.D3)
1985        Claude Simon (1913-2005, French novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Simon)

1986        Oct 14, Holocaust survivor and human rights advocate Elie Wiesel in the US was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/97)
1986        Dec 10, Human rights advocate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel accepted the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

1986        The Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Wole Soyinka of Nigeria.
    (WSJ, 10/15/96, p.A16)
1986        Rita Levi Montalcini (1909-2012), Italian scientist, shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with American Stanley Cohen for discovering mechanisms that regulate the growth of cells and organs.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 1/5/13, p.74)
1986        James M. Buchanan Jr. (1919-2013) of the United States won the Nobel Prize in Economics for research in the theory of economic and political decision-making.
    (WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-18)(AP, 10/11/09)(Econ, 1/19/12, p.76)
1986        Swiss physicists Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer (1933-2013) at IBM's Almaden Research Center won the Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing the scanning-tunneling microscope used to see and manipulate atoms. They shared the prize with Ernst Ruska.
    (SJBJ, Jan., '96, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Rohrer)

1987        Oct 13, Costa Rican President Oscar Arias was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts on behalf of a Central American peace plan to end the war in Nicaragua.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A19)
1987        Oct 22, Nobel prize for literature was awarded to Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996). At an interview in the Stockholm airport, to a question: "You are an American citizen who is receiving the Prize for Russian-language poetry. Who are you, an American or a Russian?", he responded: "I am Jewish".
    (http://tinyurl.com/zx2yz)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Brodsky)
1987        Donald J. Cram (d.2001 at 82) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for synthesizing molecules that mimicked some chemistry reactions of life. He later created "prison: molecules that enclosed smaller molecules.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.D6)
1987        Susumu Tonegawa of Japan won the Nobel Prize in medicine for the discovery of the process that enables the body to produce thousands of different antibodies to fight disease.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1987        Robert M. Solow of the United States won the Nobel Prize in Economics for contributions to the theory of economic growth.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

1988        Oct 13, Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was named recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    (AP, 10/13/98)
1988        Oct 18, Maurice Allais of France won the Nobel Prize in economics for contributions to the theory of markets and the efficient use of resources.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AP, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/11/09)
1988        Oct 19, Three West Germans were named winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry; three Americans received the Nobel Prize in physics. Melvin Schwartz (1933-2006), Leon Lederman and Jack Steinberger won the Nobel in Physics for their research into the innermost structure and dynamics of matter. Their work focused on the nature of neutrinos.
    (AP, 10/19/98)(SFC, 8/29/06, p.B5)
1988        Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999), American biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
    (AP, 10/5/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_B._Elion)
1988        The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the UN Peacekeeping Operations.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)

1989        Oct 5, The Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A22)(AP, 10/5/99)
1989        Oct 19, Camilo Jose Cela (d.2002 at 85)) of Spain received the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (AP, 10/19/99)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.A1)
1989        Oct, The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to Trygve Haavelmo of Norway, for clarification of the probability theory foundation of econometrics.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AP, 10/11/09)
1989        J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the UC San Francisco won the Nobel Prize in medicine for their 1976 discovery of a family of genes, oncogenes in chickens, that helped scientists understand how cancer develops.  In 1998 Robert A. Weinberg published "One Renegade Cell," a primer on the discovery of oncogenes.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)(SFC, 2/6/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/25/98, p.A16)

1990        Oct 11, Octavio Paz was named the winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, the first Mexican writer so honored.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A17)(AP, 10/11/00)
1990        Oct 8,  American doctors Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas were named recipients of the Nobel Prize in medicine for their discoveries about organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease. In 1954 a Boston a team led by Dr. Joseph Murray at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital performed the 1st successful  transplant of a kidney between identical twins.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.A14)(AP, 10/8/00)(SFC, 12/3/01, p.A17)
1990        The Nobel Prize for economics was awarded to Merton M. Miller (d.2000) of the Univ. of Chicago for his work in the theory of financial economics. William F. Sharpe of Stanford Univ. and Harry Markowitz were also winners. Harry Markowitz won the Nobel Prize for his 1952 theory behind portfolio diversification.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-18)(WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A17)
1990        Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 6/5/01)
1990        Richard Taylor of Stanford won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He shared the prize with Prof. Henry W. Kendall (d.1999 at 72) for experimental work that led to proof of the existence of quarks.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 2/17/99, p.C3)

1991        Jun 5, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered his delayed Nobel Peace lecture in Oslo, Norway, warning that Western failure to heed his call for economic aid could dash hopes for a peaceful new world order.
    (AP, 6/5/01)
1991        Oct 3, South African author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.3)(AP, 10/3/01)
1991        Oct 14, Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for her non-violent promotion of democracy. Her award was accepted by her husband, Michael Aris (d.1999 at 53) and their sons. A collection of her writings is titled "Freedom From Fear."
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.C-1)(SFEC, 3/28/99, p.D6)(AP, 10/14/01)

1991        Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann of Germany won the Nobel Prize in medicine for their discoveries concerning single ion channels that shed light on mechanisms underlying several diseases, including diabetes and cystic fibrosis.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1991        The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Ronald H. Coase of Britain for "the discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy." Coase noted that the cost of gathering information determines the size of organizations.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.D1)
1991        The satirical Ig Nobel prize was established by the American magazine Annals of Improbable Research.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.85)

1992        Oct 8, Derek Walcott (1930-2013), West Indies born poet (Saint Lucia), was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature. In 2014 an anthology of his poetry was published.
    (AP, 10/8/97)(Econ, 3/20/10, p.94)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.81)
1992        Oct 14, The Nobel Prize for chemistry went to American Rudolph A. Marcus; the prize for physics went to George Charpak of France.
    (AP, 10/14/97)
1992        The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Gary S. Becker of Stanford’s Hoover Inst. for "having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behavior and interaction, including non-market behavior." A collection of his essays from Business Week was published in 1996 as: "The Economics of Life." Also published was his new book "Accounting for Tastes."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Becker)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1992        The Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Derek Walcott. In 1997 his collection of poems "The Bounty" was published.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.1)
1992        The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to Edwin G. Krebs of the US and Edmund H. Fischer (US & Switz.) for discoveries concerning the process of reversible protein phosphorylation that helped explain how imbalances in cells caused diseases.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)

1993        Oct 15, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid.
    (AP, 10/15/98)
1993        Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the first binary pulsar and for subsequent studies leading to a verification of the theory of general relativity for a system outside our solar system. In 1974 they recorded an indirect sighting of gravitational waves when they showed a pair of stars spiraling towards each other was radiating energy in the form of gravitational waves at exactly the same rate predicted by Einstein.
    (Econ, 6/24/06, p.94)(www.aip.org/pnu/1993/split/pnu147-1.htm)
1993        The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Kary B. Mullis for developing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identifying fragments of DNA.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A8)
1993        The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to Robert W. Fogel for "having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change." Douglas C. North of Stanford’s Hoover Inst. also shared in the prize.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)
1993        The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to Richard J. Roberts of Britain and Philip A. Sharp of the US for discovery of split genes that changed how scientists look at evolution and advanced research on hereditary diseases, including some cancers.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1993        Toni Morrison (b.1931, American novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are “The Bluest Eye," “Song of Solomon," and “Beloved," which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toni_Morrison)

1994        Oct 13, Kenzabuto Oe, Japanese novelist, won the Noble prize for literature. His work included "An Echo of Heaven."
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.9)(AP, 10/13/99)(SSFC, 3/3/02, p.M3)
1994        Oct 10, Americans Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell won the Nobel Prize in medicine.
    (AP, 10/10/99)
1994        Oct 12,     American Clifford G. Shull and Canadian Bertram N. Brockhouse won the Nobel physics prize; American George A. Olah won the Nobel chemistry prize.
    (AP, 10/12/04)
1994        Oct 14, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(AP, 10/14/99)
1994        Oct, John Forbes Nash Jr. (66) won the Nobel Prize for Economic Science based on his work in game theory which proved that there is always one set of strategies in which no player can improve his situation by switching to a different strategy. Nash spent many years debilitated by paranoid schizophrenia. In 1998 Sylvia Nasar published Nash’s biography: "A Beautiful Mind." In 2001 a film opened based on the book.
    {Economics, Nobel Prize}
    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W9)(NW, 1/14/02, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash)
1994        Dec 10, Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin received the Nobel Peace Prize, pledging to pursue their mission of healing the anguished Middle East.
    (AP, 12/10/99)

1995        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in chemistry was won by Mario Molina of MIT, Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012) of UC Irvine, & Dutch scientist Paul Crutzen for the study of Earth's ozone layer and their controversial work warning that gases once used in spray cans and other items were eating away Earth’s ozone layer.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(AP, 10/11/00)(SFC, 3/13/12, p.A6)
1995        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in Economic Science was awarded to Robert E. Lucas of the Univ. of Chicago for his theory of "rational expectations." He demonstrated how people’s fears and expectations can frustrate policymakers’ efforts to shape the economy.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(AP, 10/10/00)
1995        Oct 5, Seamus Heaney won the Nobel Prize in literature. His poetic works portray the pain of sectarian strife and growing up in a Roman Catholic farming family. His works include: "Death of a Naturalist" (1966), "Door into the Dark" (1969), "North" (1975), "Field Work" (1979), "The Spirit Level" (1996) and the Nobel lecture "Crediting Poetry."
    (WSJ, 10/6/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 8/25/96, BR p.8)
1995        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to Edward Lewis of Caltech, Eric Wieschaus of Princeton, and Christiane Nuesslein-Volhard of Germany's Max Planck Inst. They all studied genes in relation to embryonic development. They unraveled the developmental genetics of the fruit fly Drosophila and discovered homologs of the same genes in vertebrates.
    (WSJ, 10/10/95, p.A-1)(NH, 2/97, p.70)
1995        Oct 10, The physics prize went to Martin Perl of Stanford and Frederick Reines (d.1998 at 80) of UC Irvine for discovering the subatomic neutrino particle. Perl helped discover the tau lepton in 1975, a particle that resembles an electron but is 30,000 times heavier.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 5/1/97, p.A7)(SFC, 8/28/98, p.D7)
1995        Oct 13, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Polish-born British physicist Joseph Rotblat (1908-2005) and the Pugwash Conferences (begun in Canada in 1957) for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Rotblat)(AP, 10/13/00)(SFC, 9/2/05, p.B5)(WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A1)

1996        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to two Americans and a Briton: Robert F. Curl, Richard E. Smalley (b.1943) and Harold W. Kroto for their discovery of hollow molecules of carbon called fullerenes or buckyballs first proposed in 1985. The 60 carbon atom is called a buckminsterfullerene.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A15)(AP, 10/9/97)
1996        Oct 8, The Nobel Prize in economics was won by British professor James Mirlees of Cambridge and American economist William Vickrey (1914-1996) at Columbia Univ. for their studies on asymmetric information which helps to explain decision making based on varying kinds and amounts of data. The 82-year-old Vickrey died just three days later.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, p.A8)(AP, 10/8/97)
1996        Oct 3, Wislawa Szymborska, Polish poet, won the Nobel Prize for poetry. Her work included the transl. collection: "View With a Grain of Sand," her debut collection "That’s Why We Are Alive" (1952), Salt (1962), "The People on the Bridge" (1986), and "The End and the Beginning" (1993).
    (AP, 10/3/97)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A7)
1996        Oct 7, The Nobel Prize in Medicine was won by Australian Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel from Switzerland for their work on how the immune system recognizes infected cells.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)
1996        Oct 11, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of East Timor and Jose Ramos-Horta, in exile in Australia, for their work to end oppression and violence in East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A1) (AP, 10/11/97)
1996        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in Physics went to three Americans: David Lee, Douglas Osheroff and Robert Richardson for their work on liquid helium-3, which they found forms a superfluid at very cold temperatures.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A15)(AP, 10/9/97)
1996        Dec 10, Roman Catholic Bishop Filipe Ximenes Belo and exiled activist Jose Ramos Horta, opponents of Indonesia's occupation of East Timor, accepted the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/97)

1997        Oct 14, Myron Scholes of Stanford, and Robert Merton of Harvard won the Nobel Prize in Economics for their work on valuing stock options and other investments.
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.A1)(AP, 10/14/98)
1997        Oct 9, Dario Fo (71), an Italian playwright and performer, received the Nobel Prize in literature. The leftist playwright had been prosecuted by Italy, denounced by Roman Catholic Church leaders and barred from the United States. His work included: "Archangels Don’t Play Pinball" (1960), "Mistero Biffo," (Comic Mystery) written in 1969, and "Accidental Death of an Anarchist" (1970), "We Can’t Pay, We Don’t Pay" (1974) and "Orgasmo Adulto Escapes From the Zoo."
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 8/23/98, DB p.13)(AP, 10/9/98)
1997        Oct 6, Dr. Stanley B. Prusiner, a neurologist from UC, won the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the new class of proteins called prions described as "an entirely new genre of disease-causing agents." [see 1982] In 1998 researchers at UCSF developed a sensitive technique for rapid detection of the infectious proteins.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A7)(AP, 10/6/98)
1997        Oct 10, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Jody Williams and the Int’l. Campaign to Ban Land Mines (ICBL). There were an estimated 100 million anti-personnel mines buried around the world that killed or wounded some 26,000 people each year.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A9)(AP, 10/10/98)

1998        Oct 8, The Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Jose Saramago (75) of Portugal. His work included "The History of the Siege of Lisbon" (1989), "Blindness," "Memorial do Convento" (Baltasar and Blimunda, 1982), "The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis" (1984) "The Gospel According to Jesus Christ" (1991) and "The Stone Raft."
    (USAT, 10/9/98, p.16A)(SFC, 10/9/98, p.A2)
1998        Oct 12, The Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded to 3 Americans, Robert F. Furchgott (82), Louis Ignarro (57) and Ferid Murad (62), for their work on nitric oxide gas in biochemical functions in the human body.
    (SFC, 10/13/98, p.A1,13)
1998        Oct 13, The Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Robert B. Laughlin of Stanford, Horst L. Stormer of Columbia Univ. and Daniel C. Tsui of Princeton for their work on the fractional quantum Hall effect where groups of electrons act as if they are quarks.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.A1,6)
1998        Oct 13, The Nobel Prize in chemistry went to Walter Kohn of UC Santa Barbara and John Pople (d.2004) of Northwestern Univ. for their work in computational chemistry.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 3/19/04, p.B7)
1998        Oct 14, Amartya K. Sen (64), a philosophy and economics researcher from India, won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work in exploring the causes of poverty and famine. He had just left Harvard Univ. to take over Trinity College in Cambridge, England.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B1)
1998        Oct 16, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to John Hume, head of the Irish Catholic Social Democratic and Labor Party, and to David Trimble, leader of the Protestant Ulster Unionist Party.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.D1)(AP, 10/16/99)

1999        Sep 30, Gunter Grass, German novelist, won the Nobel Prize for Literature and cited his 1959 novel "Tin Drum" for restoring honor to German literature.
    (SFC, 10/1/99, p.A2)
1999        Oct 12, Ahmed H. Zewail, an Egyptian chemist at the California Inst. of Tech., won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for finding a way to freeze-frame the private matings of molecules using ultra fast laser probes.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A2)
1999        Oct 13, Robert A. Mundell (66), a Canadian born professor at Columbia Univ., won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his study of cross-border capital flows, flexible foreign exchange rates, and supply side economics. A 1961 paper by Mundell had pioneered the theory of an “optimal currency area," which later helped shape the euro zone.
    (WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A2)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.10)
1999        Oct 11, Dr. Guenter Blobel, a German American researcher of Rockefeller Univ., was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology for his work on how the body puts addresses on individual proteins so that they arrive at a correct location.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 12, Professors Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman of the Netherlands won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of mathematical tools to calculate properties of fundamental particles. From 1981 to his retirement in 1997, Veltman was an active member of the Univ. of Michigan physics department.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A2)(MT, Fall/99, p.7)

2000        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Alan Heeger (64) of UC Santa Barbara, Alan MacDiarmed (73) of Univ. of Pennsylvania, and Hideki Shirakawa (64) of the Univ. of Tsukuba for their work in modifying plastics to conduct electricity.
    (SFC, 10/11/00, p.A6)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.89)
2000        Oct 11, The Nobel Prize in economics went to Daniel McFadden (63) of UC Berkeley for developing ways of analyzing consumer decisions and to James Heckman of Univ. of Chicago for developing techniques to strip out hidden biases in studies of the labor force.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 12, The Nobel Prize in literature was won by Gao Xingjian (60), an exiled Chinese writer living in Paris. His novels include "Soul Mountain," based on a 1986 walking tour along the Yangtze River.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A16)
2000        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel of the US and Arvid Carlsson of Sweden for research in how memory works and for laying the foundation for the development of anti-depressants. In 2006 Kandel authored “In search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind."
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A3)(Econ, 3/4/06, p.78)
2000        Oct 13, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Pres. Kim Dae Jung (74) of South Korea for his efforts to make peace with North Korea.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, co-inventor of the computer chip, Herbert Kroemer (72) of UC Santa Barbara and Zhores Alferov (70) of Russia for work in high-speed transistors and tiny lasers.
    (SFC, 10/11/00, p.A1,6)
2000        Dec 10, Jack S. Kilby (1923-2005) received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the microchip (1958). Zhores Alferov of Russia and Herbert Kroemer of UC Santa Barbara shared the prize for their work on heterostructure semiconductors.
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A2)(SFC, 6/22/05, p.A5)

2001        Oct 8, Leland Hartwell of the Seattle Hutchinson Cancer Research Center won the Nobel Prize in Medicine along with Paul Nurse and Timothy Hunt of London’s Imperial Cancer Research Fund for their work in the mechanics of cell division.
    (SFC, 10/8/01, p.B3)
2001        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Eric Cornell, Carl Wiemann and Wolfgang Ketterlie of the US for their discovery of the Bose-Einstein condensate, a new state of matter. The condensate, which they created in 1995, had been predicted by Einstein in 1924.
    (WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/10/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 8/21/05, p.A3)
2001        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to George Akerlof of UC Berkeley, Michael Spence of Stanford, and Joseph Stiglitz of Columbia Univ. Akerlof won in part for his classic paper explaining how, if sellers know more than buyers, markets may fail.
    (SFC, 10/11/01, p.D1)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.88)
2001        Oct 11, Vidiadhar S, Naipaul (b.1932), Trinidad-born English novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. His books included: "A House for Mr. Biswas," "Guerrillas" (1975), "Among the Believers" (1981), and "The Enigma of Arrival" (1987).
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1,W17)
2001        Oct 12, Kofi Annan, Sec. Gen. of the UN, and the UN itself won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.A13)

2002        Oct 7, The Nobel Prize for Medicine went to Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston of Britain and H. Robert Horvitz of the US for their work on how genes regulate organ development and cell death.
    (ADN, 10/8/02, p.A4)(SFC, 10/8/02, p.A2)
2002        Oct 8, Masatoshi Koshiba (76) was named one of this year's Nobel Prize winners for Physics, marking Japan's third science Nobel in as many years. Riccardo Giacconi (71) of Assoc. Univ. in Washington DC and Raymond Davis Jr. (87) of Univ. of Pennsylvania shared the prize awarded for their work on neutrinos that revised thinking about the nature of the universe.
    (AP, 10/8/02)(SFC, 10/9/02, p.A2)(WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Oct 9, Daniel Kahneman, 68, a U.S. and Israeli citizen based at Princeton University in New Jersey and Vernon L. Smith, 75, of George Mason University in Fairfax, Va., won the Nobel prize for economics for pioneering the use of psychological and experimental economics in decision-making. Kahneman, an economic behaviouralist, believed people tend to judge their well-being relative to others rather than in absolute terms.
    (AP, 10/9/02)(Econ, 8/30/03, p.56)
2002        Oct 9, Koichi Tanaka (43), research scientist for precision equipment maker Shimadzu Corporation, won Japan's second Nobel prize. His development of methods of analysing proteins, along with work by John Fenn of the United States and Kurt Wuethrich of Switzerland, paved the way for new drugs to tackle diseases
    (AP, 10/9/02)
2002        Oct 10, Imre Kertesz (72), a Hungarian novelist and secular Jew, won the Nobel Prize for literature. His books included "Fiasco" (1988) and "Kaddish for a Child Not Born" (1990).
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/5/02, p.E5)
2002        Oct 11, Former US Pres. Carter won the Nobel Peace prize.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)

2003        Oct 2, South Africa's J.M. Coetzee, whose stories tell of innocents and outcasts oppressed by the cruel weight of history, won the 2003 Nobel Prize for literature. His books included "Dusklands" (1974), "In the heart of the Country" (1977), "Waiting for the Barbarians" (1980), "Life and Times of Michael K" (1983) and "Disgrace" (1999).
    (AP, 10/2/03)(WSJ, 10/14/03, p.D10)
2003        Oct 6, The annual Nobel Prize in Medicine went to Paul C. Lauterbur (74) of the Univ. of Illinois and Sir Peter Mansfield (69) of the Univ. of Nottingham, for their work that led to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    (SFC, 10/7/03, p.A2)
2003        Oct 7, Three scientists who worked separately to explain the nature of matter at extremely low temperatures won the 2003 Nobel Prize for Physics. Russians Vitaly Ginzburg (87), Alexei Abrikosov (75) and British-born Anthony Leggett (65), worked on theories that led to the development of magnetic imaging scanners.
    (Reuters, 10/7/03)(SFC, 10/8/03, p.A2)
2003        Oct 8, Americans Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnon won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for studies of tiny transportation tunnels in cell walls, work that illuminates diseases of the heart, kidneys and nervous system.
    (AP, 10/8/03)
2003        Oct 8, The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded to American Robert F. Engle (60) of NY Univ. and Briton Clive W.G. Granger (1934-2009) of visiting scholar at Canterbury Univ. in New Zealand for their work in statistical techniques to measure investment risk and track economic trends.
    (WSJ, 10/9/03, p.A2)(USAT, 10/9/03, p.8B)(SFC, 6/3/09, p.B5)

2004        Oct 4, Americans Dr. Richard Axel (58) of Columbia Univ. and Linda Buck (57) of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their 1991 discovery of how people recognize odors. In 2008 Linda Buck and her co-authors retracted their 2001 paper on smell due to inconsistencies on data.
    (SFC, 10/5/04, p.A5)(SFC, 3/7/08, p.A6)
2004        Oct 5, Americans David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek won the 2004 Nobel Prize in physics for their explanation of the force that binds particles inside the atomic nucleus. Tehir theory of quantum chromodynamics explained who quarks behave.
    (AP, 10/5/04)(SFC, 10/6/04, p.A2)
2004        Oct 6, American Irwin Rose and Israelis Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko won the 2004 Nobel Prize in chemistry for discovering a key way cells destroy unwanted proteins, the ubiquitin proteasome system, in the late 1970s and early 1980s.  
    (AP, 10/6/04)(SFC, 10/7/04, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteasome)
2004        Oct 7, Austria's Elfriede Jelinek won the Nobel Prize for Literature for novels and plays that depict violence against women, explore sexuality and condemn far-right politics in Europe. Her books included “The Piano Teacher" (1988), which was adopted for a 2001 film.
    (AP, 10/7/04)(SFC, 10/8/04, p.A4)
2004        Oct 8, Wangari Maathai (64) of Kenya won the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize. During the 1980s and 1990s, she also campaigned against government oppression and founded Kenya's Green Party in 1987. She was repeatedly arrested and beaten for protesting former President Daniel arap Moi's environmental policies and human rights record. In 1991 Maathai won the Goldman Environmental Prize.
    (AP, 10/8/04)(SFC, 10/9/04, p.A14)
2004        Oct 11, Edward C. Prescott (63), an American, and Finn E. Kydland (60), a Norwegian, won the 2004 Nobel Memorial Prize in economics for shedding light on how government policies and actions affect economies around the world. In a 1977 paper they demonstrated the importance of credibility in economic policy.
    (AP, 10/11/04)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.74)

2005        Oct 3, Australians Barry J. Marshall and Robin Warren won the 2005 Nobel Prize in medicine for showing that bacterial infection, not stress, was to blame for painful ulcers in the stomach and intestine.
    (AP, 10/3/05)
2005        Oct 4, Americans John L. Hall and Roy J. Glauber and German Theodor W. Haensch won the 2005 Nobel Prize in physics for work that could lead to better long-distance communication and more precise navigation worldwide and in space.
    (AP, 10/4/05)
2005        Oct 5, Americans Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock and Yves Chauvin of France won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work in metathesis, a technique for moving groups of atoms from one molecule to another. Their discoveries let industry create drugs and advanced plastics in a more efficient and environmentally friendly way.
    (AP, 10/5/05)(Econ, 10/8/05, p.87)
2005        Oct 6, Gregg Miller won the Ig Nobel Prize for medicine for his prosthetic testicles for neutered dogs. Miller has sold more than 150,000 of his Neuticles, more than doubling his $500,000 investment. The silicone implants come in different sizes, shapes, weights and degrees of firmness. Other winners included Nigerian Internet scammers and a team that calculated the pressures created when penguins poop.
    (AP, 10/7/05)
2005        Oct 7, Mohamed ElBaradei and the International Atomic Energy Agency won the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize for their drive to curb the spread of atomic weapons by using diplomacy to resolve standoffs with Iran and North Korea over their nuclear programs.
    (AP, 10/7/05)
2005        Oct 10, Robert J. Aumann of Israel and Thomas C. Schelling of the Univ. of Maryland won the 2005 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their work in game theory that explains political and economic conflicts, arms races and even preventing warfare.
    (AP, 10/10/05)
2005        Oct 13, British playwright Harold Pinter, who juxtaposed the brutal and the banal in such works as "The Caretaker" and "The Birthday Party" and made an art form out of spare language and unbearable silence, won the 2005 Nobel Prize in literature.
    (AP, 10/13/05)
2005        Dec 10, In Norway Chief UN nuclear inspector Mohamed ElBaradei accepted the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, sharing the award with his International Atomic Energy Agency for efforts to control the spread of nuclear weapons. The other Nobel Prizes were awarded in Sweden.
    (AP, 12/10/05)

2006        Oct 2, Americans Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for discovering a powerful way to turn off the effect of specific genes, opening a new avenue for disease treatment.
    (AP, 10/2/06)
2006        Oct 3, Americans John C. Mather and George F. Smoot won the 2006 Nobel Prize in physics for work that helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe and deepen understanding of the origin of galaxies and stars.
    (AP, 10/3/06)
2006        Oct 4, American Roger D. Kornberg, whose father won a Nobel Prize a half-century ago, was awarded the prize in chemistry for his studies of how cells take information from genes to produce proteins.
    (AP, 10/4/06)
2006        Oct 9, American Edmund S. Phelps won the 2006 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for explaining the relationship between inflation and unemployment, work that has had a profound impact on macroeconomic policy.
    (AP, 10/9/06)
2006        Oct 12, Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk won the Nobel literature prize for his works dealing with the symbols of clashing cultures. His uncommon lyrical gifts and uncompromising politics have brought him acclaim worldwide and prosecution at home.
    (AP, 10/12/06)

2007        Oct 8, Two American scientists and a Briton won the 2007 Nobel Prize in medicine on for groundbreaking discoveries that led to a powerful technique for manipulating mouse genes. Mario R. Capecchi (70) of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City; Oliver Smithies (82) a native of Britain now at University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, and Sir Martin J. Evans (66) of Cardiff University in Wales shared the prize.
    (AP, 10/8/07)
2007        Oct 9, Two European scientists won the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics for a discovery that lets computers, iPods and other digital devices store reams of data on ever-shrinking hard disks. France's Albert Fert and German Peter Gruenberg independently described giant magnetoresistance in 1988, then saw the electronics industry apply it in disks with incredible amounts of storage.
    (AP, 10/9/07)
2007        Oct 10, Gerhard Ertl of Germany won the 2007 Nobel Prize in chemistry for studies of chemical reactions on solid surfaces, which are key to understanding questions like how pollution eats away at the ozone layer.
    (AP, 10/10/07)
2007        Oct 11, Doris Lessing, British author of dozens of works from short stories to science fiction, including the classic "The Golden Notebook," won the Nobel Prize for literature. She was praised by the judges for her "skepticism, fire and visionary power."
    (AP, 10/11/07)
2007        Oct 12, Former Vice President Al Gore and the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change won the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for spreading awareness of man-made climate change and laying the foundations for counteracting it.
    (AP, 10/12/07)(SFC, 10/13/07, p.A8)
2007        Oct 15,     Americans Leonid Hurwicz (d.2008 at 90), Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson won the Nobel economics prize for developing a theory that helps explain how sellers and buyers can maximize their gains from a transaction.
    (AP, 10/15/07)(SFC, 6/26/08, p.B5)

2008        Oct 6, Three European scientists shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in medicine for separate discoveries of viruses that cause AIDS and cervical cancer, breakthroughs that helped doctors fight the deadly diseases. French researchers Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were cited for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV; while Germany's Harald zur Hausen was honored for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 7, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that two Japanese citizens and a Japanese-born American won the 2008 Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries in the world of subatomic physics.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 8, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said two Americans and a US-based Japanese scientist won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for discovering and developing a glowing jellyfish protein that revolutionized the ability to study disease and normal development in living organisms. Japan's Osamu Shimomura and Americans Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien shared the prize for their work on green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Shimomura discovered the jellyfish protein in 1961. In the early 1990s Douglas Prasher conducted research on the jellyfish gene that made Chalfie’s and Tsien’s work possible.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 9, The Swedish Academy announced French novelist Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (b.1940) as the 2008 Nobel Prize in literature for his poetic adventure and "sensual ecstasy." Le Clezio made his breakthrough as a novelist with "Desert," in 1980.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 10, Finland's ex-president Martti Ahtisaari won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build a lasting peace from Africa and Asia to Europe and the Middle East. The Norwegian Nobel Committee said it honored Ahtisaari for important efforts over more than three decades to resolve international conflicts.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 13, Paul Krugman, the Princeton University scholar and New York Times columnist, won the Nobel prize in economics for his analysis of how economies of scale can affect trade patterns and the location of economic activity. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences praised Krugman for formulating a new theory to answer questions about free trade and said his theory has inspired an enormous field of research.
    (AP, 10/13/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.90)
2008        Dec 10, The Nobel Prizes were awarded in twin ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo.
    (AP, 12/10/08)

2009        Oct 1, The 19th annual Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded at Harvard. The physics prize went to a study of why pregnant women don’t tip over. The chemistry prize was awarded to scientists who turned tequila into diamonds. The veterinary medicine prize was given for finding that cows that have names make more milk than those who remain anonymous. The medicine prize went to a physician who, for fifty years, cracked the knuckles on only his left hand to test his mother’s contention that knuckle-cracking causes arthritis.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc5pndy)
2009        Oct 5, Americans Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak won the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.
    (AP, 10/5/09)
2009        Oct 6, Three Americans whose research in the 1960s laid the foundation for digital images and lightning-fast communication shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in physics for their work developing fiber-optic cable and the sensor at the heart of digital cameras. Charles K. Kao (75) was cited for discovering how to transmit light signals over long distances through glass fibers as thin as a human hair. His 1966 breakthrough led to the creation of modern fiber-optic communication networks. Willard S. Boyle (85) and George E. Smith (79) were honored for inventing the eye of the digital camera.
    (AP, 10/6/09)
2009        Oct 7, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (57), Indian-born American, Yale Prof. Thomas Steitz (69) and Israeli Ada Yonath (70)won the 2009 Nobel Prize in chemistry for atom-by-atom mapping of the protein-making factories within cells, a feat that has spurred the development of antibiotics. Their work on ribosomes has been fundamental to the scientific understanding of life. They will split the 10 million (US$1.4 million award).
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Oct 8, Herta Mueller (56) won the Nobel Prize in literature in an award seen as a nod to the 20th anniversary of communism's collapse. She was member of Romania's ethnic German minority persecuted for her critical depictions of life behind the Iron Curtain. She made her debut in 1982 with a collection of short stories titled "Niederungen," or "Nadirs," depicting the harshness of life in a small, German-speaking village in Romania. It was promptly censored by the communist government. Some of her works have been translated into English, French and Spanish, including "The Passport," "The Land of Green Plums," "Traveling on One Leg" and "The Appointment."
    (AP, 10/8/09)
2009        Oct 9, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to President Barack Obama.
    (AP, 10/9/09)
2009        Oct 12, Americans Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012) and Oliver Williamson (b.1932) won the Nobel economics prize for their work in economic governance. Ostrom, the first woman to win the Nobel prize for economics, specialized in the study of common resource pools.
    (AP, 10/12/09)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.92)(Econ, 6/30/12, p.94)

2009        Nov 26, Shirin Ebadi, 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, said that Iranian authorities took her medal about three weeks ago from a safe-deposit box, claiming she owed taxes on the $1.3 million she was awarded. Ebadi said that such prizes are exempt from tax under Iranian law. In Norway, where the peace prize is awarded, the government said the confiscation of the gold medal was a shocking first in the history of the 108-year-old prize.
    (AP, 11/27/09)
2009        Dec 10, In Oslo, Norway, President Barack Obama accepted the Nobel Peace Prize, acknowledging his own few accomplishments while delivering a robust defense of war and promising to use the prestigious award to "reach for the world that ought to be."
    (AP, 12/10/09)

2010        Feb 24, A Nobel official said Israeli nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu has asked the Nobel Peace Prize committee to disregard his nomination for the prestigious award.
    (AP, 2/24/10)
2010        Jun 18, Jose Saramago (b.1922), 1998 Nobel-winning Portuguese writer, died at his home in the Canary Islands. He had moved there following a 1992 spat with the government, which he accused of censorship.
    (SFC, 6/19/10, p.C6)
2010        Oct 4, British biologist Robert G. Edwards, whose contributions to the technology of in vitro fertilization have made more than 4 million couples parents, was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born Jul 25, 1978.
    (www.latimes.com/health/la-sci-nobel-medicine-20101005,0,7666490.story)
2010        Oct 5, Two Russian-born scientists shared the Nobel Prize in physics for groundbreaking experiments with ultrathin carbon. University of Manchester professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov used Scotch tape to isolate graphene, a form of carbon only one atom thick but more than 100 times stronger than steel, and showed it has exceptional properties, the strongest and thinnest material known to mankind.
    (AP, 10/5/10)
2010        Oct 6, An American and two Japanese scientists won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for finding new ways to bond carbon atoms together, methods now widely used to make medicines and in agriculture and electronics. Richard Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki were honored for their development in the 1960s and '70s of one of the most sophisticated tools available to chemists today, called palladium-catalyzed cross coupling.
    (AP, 10/6/10)
2010        Oct 7, The 2010 Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa (b.1936) "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt and defeat."
    (AP, 10/7/10)
2010        Oct 8, The Nobel Committee named imprisoned Chinese scholar Liu Xiaobo the 2010 Peace Prize winner for "his long and nonviolent struggle for fundamental human rights in China." The decision by the five-member committee appointed by the Norwegian Parliament came over the objection of the Chinese government, which considers Liu a criminal.
    (AP, 10/8/10)
2010        Oct 11, Two Americans and a British-Cypriot economist won the 2010 Nobel economics prize for developing a theory that helps explain why many people can remain unemployed despite a large number of job vacancies. Federal Reserve board nominee Peter Diamond was honored along with Dale Mortensen and Christopher Pissarides for their analysis of the obstacles that prevent buyers and sellers from efficiently pairing up in markets.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Nov 18, The Norwegian Nobel Committee Russia, Kazakhstan, Cuba, Morocco, Iraq and China have declined to attend the December 10 Nobel Peace Prize ceremony for jailed Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo. 16 more countries had not replied by the committee's extended deadline. An award spokesman said the Nobel Peace Prize may not be handed out this year because no one from imprisoned Liu Xiaobo's family is likely to attend the ceremony.
    (AP, 11/18/10)
2010        Dec 7, In Norway Nobel officials said China and 18 other countries have declined to attend this year's Nobel Peace Prize ceremony honoring imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, as China unleashed a new barrage deriding the decision.
    (AP, 12/7/10)
2010        Dec 8, Serbia's decision to boycott the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony honoring imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo triggered criticism from human rights activists and the EU, which expressed shock that the candidate for EU entry would meet China's demands. Serbia feared its attendance could anger China, which has supported Belgrade in opposing the 2008 independence declaration of its former province of Kosovo.
    (AP, 12/8/10)
2010        Dec 10, Dignitaries in Norway celebrated this year's Nobel Peace Prize winner, imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo, with an empty chair.  Xiaobo, derided by Beijing as a political farce, dedicated it from his prison cell to the "lost souls" of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown.
    (AP, 12/10/10)(Reuters, 12/10/10)
2010        Dec 10, Serbia reversed its boycott of the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony honoring imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo after facing sharp criticism from the EU and human rights activists at home.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2011        Sep 30, Ralph Steinman of Rockefeller University in New York, co-winner of this year's Nobel Prize in medicine, died. His prize was announced Oct 3.
    (AP, 10/3/11)
2011        Oct 3, Sweden’s Nobel committee at Stockholm's Karolinska institute said three scientists won the Nobel Prize in medicine for discoveries about the immune system that opened new avenues for the treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses and cancer. American Bruce Beutler and French scientist Jules Hoffmann shared the 10 million-kronor ($1.5 million) award with Canadian-born Ralph Steinman.
    (AP, 10/3/11)
2011        Oct 4, Three US-born scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics for overturning a fundamental assumption in their field by showing that the expansion of the universe is constantly accelerating. During the 1990s, Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess found that the light from more than 50 distant exploding stars was far weaker than they expected, meaning that galaxies had to be racing away from each other at increasing speed.
    (AP, 10/4/11)
2011        Oct 5, Israeli scientist Dan Shechtman was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for a discovery that faced skepticism and mockery. While doing research in the US in 1982, Shechtman discovered a new chemical structure, quasicrystals, that researchers previously thought was impossible.
    (AP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 6, The Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Sweden’s top poet Tomas Transtromer (80).
    (AP, 10/7/11)
2011        Oct 7, The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Tawakkul Karman (32) of Yemen. She shared the prize with Liberian President Ellen Sirleaf Johnson and Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee, as the Nobel committee gave a nod to the Arab Spring.
    (AP, 10/7/11)
2011        Oct 10, The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded Americans Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won for their research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.
    (AP, 10/10/11)

2012        Jun 16, Myanmar’s Suu Kyi presented her Nobel Prize acceptance speech in Oslo 31 years after winning the world's highest diplomatic honor in 1991.
    (AP, 6/16/12)

2012        Oct 8, Scientists from Britain and Japan shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine. John Gurdon (79) of the Gurdon Institute in Cambridge, Britain and Shinya Yamanaka (50) of Kyoto University in Japan, discovered ways to create tissue that would act like embryonic cells, without the need to harvest embryos.
    (AP, 10/8/12)
2012        Oct 9, The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Serge Haroche (68) of France and American David Wineland (68) for experiments on quantum particles.
    (SFC, 10/10/12, p.A4)
2012        Oct 10, The Nobel Prize in chemistry went to Brian K. Kobilka (57) of Stanford Medical Center and Robert J. Lefkowitz (69) of Duke Univ. for discovering how receptor proteins carry signals from outside the human body into cells.
    (SFC, 10/11/12, p.A1)
2012        Oct 11, Guan Moye (b.1955), aka Mo Yan, became the first Chinese writer to win the literature Nobel Prize. He is best known in the West for "Red Sorghum", which portrays the hardships endured by farmers in the early years of communist rule and was made in a film directed by Zhang Yimou.
    (AP, 10/12/12)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.42)
2012        Oct 12, The European Union was named as winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for fostering peace on a continent ravaged by war.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 15, American scholars Alvin Roth (60) of Harvard and Lloyd Shapley (89) of UCLA were awarded the Nobel economics prize for studies on the match-making that takes place when doctors are coupled up with hospitals, students with schools and human organs with transplant recipients.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2013        Apr 10, Robert Edwards (87), a British Nobel prize-winning scientist (2010), died after a long illness. He was known as the father of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) for pioneering the development of "test tube babies."
    (Reuters, 4/10/13)

2013        Sep 3, Ronald Coase, British-born US economist, died in Chicago. He was awarded the Nobel prize in 1991. His 1960 article, "The Problem of Social Cost," was the basis for the famous Coase Theorem. It suggests that well-defined property rights could overcome non-market forces.
    (AFP, 9/3/13)

2013        Oct 7, Two Americans and a German-American won the Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering how key substances are transported within cells, a process involved in such important activities as brain cell communication and the release of insulin. James Rothman (62) of Yale University, Randy Schekman (64) of the University of California, Berkeley, and Dr. Thomas Sudhof (57) of Stanford University shared the $1.2 million prize for their research on how tiny bubbles called vesicles act as cargo carriers inside cells.
    (AP, 10/7/13)
2013        Oct 8, Francois Englert of Belgium and Peter Higgs of Britain won the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics for their theory on how the most basic building blocks of the universe acquire mass.
    (AP, 10/8/13)
2013        Oct 9, Three US-based scientists won this year's Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing powerful computer models that researchers use to understand complex chemical interactions and create new drugs. Research in the 1970s by Martin Karplus (83), Michael Levitt (66) and Arieh Warshel (72) has led to programs that unveil chemical processes such as how exhaust fumes are purified or how photosynthesis takes place in green leaves.
    (AP, 10/9/13)
2013        Oct 10, Short story master Alice Munro (82), who captures the everyday lives and epiphanies of men and women in rural Canada with elegant and precise prose, won the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (AP, 10/10/13)(SFC, 10/11/12, p.A3)
2013        Oct 11, The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons as  the global watchdog worked to destroy Syria's stockpiles of nerve gas and other poisonous agents.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Nov 19, British biochemist Frederick Sanger (b.1918) died. He twice won the Nobel Prize in chemistry (1958 & 1980) and was a pioneer of genome sequencing.
    (AP, 11/20/13)
2013        Dec 10, Nobel Prize winners collected their awards in Sweden amd Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/13)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Nobel Prize

Here's a list of especially noteworthy recipients of Nobel:

Prizes on this day in history:  (PEACE Prizes unless otherwise noted)

Jean Henri Dunant and Frederic Passy (1901)
President Theodore Roosevelt (1906)
Ruyard Kipling (Literature, 1907)
JD Van de Waals (Physics, 1910)
Tobias Asser (1911)
Kamerlingh Onnes (Physics, 1913)
President Woodrow Wilson (1919)
Fridtjof Nansen, Niels Bohr & Albert Einstein (Physics, 1922)
Willem Einthoven (Medicine, 1924)
George Bernard Shaw (Literature, 1925)
Jane Addams (PEACE, First American Woman, 1931)
PBJ Debije (Chemistry, 1936)
Ralph J Bunche (PEACE, First African American, 1950)
Albert Schweitzer (1954)
Dr Martin Luther King Jr (1964)
1973 — Henry Kissinger, United States; Le Duc Tho, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, who declined the prize.
1974 — Sean MacBride, Ireland; Eisaku Sato, Japan.
1975 — Andrei Sakharov, Soviet Union. (accepted by wife Yelena Bonner)
1976 — Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan, Northern Ireland.
1977 — Amnesty International, Britain.
1978 — Anwar Sadat, Egypt; Menachem Begin, Israel.
1979 — Mother Teresa, India.
1980 — Adolfo Perez Esquivel, Argentina.
1981 — Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees.
1982 — Alva Myrdal, Sweden; Alfonso Garcia Robles, Mexico.
1983 — Lech Walesa, Poland.
1984 — Desmond Mpilo Tutu, South Africa.
1985 — International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, United States.
1986 — Elie Wiesel, United States.
1987 — Oscar Arias Sanchez, Costa Rica.
1989 — The Dalai Lama, Tibet.
1990 — Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet Union.
1991 — Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar.
1992 — Rigoberta Menchu, Guatemala.
1993 — Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk, South Africa.
1994 — Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat; Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, Israel.
1995 — Joseph Rotblat, Britain, and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.
1996 — Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and Jose Ramos-Horta, East Timor.
David Trimble and John Hume (1998)
1997 — Jody Williams and the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, United States.
1998 — David Trimble and John Hume, Northern Ireland.
1999 — Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders).
2000 — Kim Dae-jung, South Korea.
2001 — United Nations and Secretary-General Kofi Annan.
2002 — Former President Jimmy Carter.
2003 — Shirin Ebadi, Iran.

End of file